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1

Rhodanese Functions as Sulfur Supplier for Key Enzymes in Sulfur Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

How microorganisms obtain energy is a challenging topic, and there have been numerous studies on the mechanisms involved. Here, we focus on the energy substrate traffic in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This bacterium can use insoluble sulfur as an energy substrate and has an intricate sulfur energy metabolism involving several sulfur-reducing and -oxidizing supercomplexes and enzymes. We demonstrate that the cytoplasmic rhodanese SbdP participates in this sulfur energy metabolism. Rhodaneses are a widespread family of proteins known to transfer sulfur atoms. We show that SbdP has also some unusual characteristics compared with other rhodaneses; it can load a long sulfur chain, and it can interact with more than one partner. Its partners (sulfur reductase and sulfur oxygenase reductase) are key enzymes of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus and share the capacity to use long sulfur chains as substrate. We demonstrate a positive effect of SbdP, once loaded with sulfur chains, on sulfur reductase activity, most likely by optimizing substrate uptake. Taken together, these results lead us to propose a physiological role for SbdP as a carrier and sulfur chain donor to these key enzymes, therefore enabling channeling of sulfur substrate in the cell as well as greater efficiency of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus.

Aussignargues, Clement; Giuliani, Marie-Cecile; Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Guiral, Marianne; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Therese; Ilbert, Marianne

2012-01-01

2

Inactivation of Key Metabolic Enzymes by Mixed-Function Oxidation Reactions: Possible Implication in Protein Turnover and Ageing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several mixed-function oxidation systems catalyze the inactivation of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase. Inactivation involves modification of a single histidine residue in each enzyme subunit and makes the enzyme susceptible to proteolytic degradation. We show here that 10 key enzymes in metabolism are inactivated by a bacterial NADH oxidase and by an oxidase system comprised of NADPH, cytochrome P-450 reductase, and

Laura Fucci; Cynthia N. Oliver; Minor J. Coon; Earl R. Stadtman

1983-01-01

3

Structure and function of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase, a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL), a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism, catalyzes the irreversible degradation of sphingoid base phosphates. Its main substrate sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) acts both extracellularly, by binding G protein-coupled receptors of the lysophospholipid receptor family, and inside the cell, as a second messenger. There, S1P takes part in regulating various cellular processes and its levels are tightly regulated. SPL is a pivotal enzyme regulating S1P intracellular concentrations and a promising drug target for the design of immunosuppressants. We structurally and functionally characterized yeast SPL (Dpl1p) and its first prokaryotic homolog, from Symbiobacterium thermophilum. The Dpl1p structure served as a basis for a very reliable model of Homo sapiens SPL. The above results, together with in vitro and in vivo studies of SPL mutants, reveal which residues are involved in activity and substrate binding and pave the way to studies aimed at controlling the activity of this pivotal enzyme. PMID:20696404

Bourquin, Florence; Riezman, Howard; Capitani, Guido; Grütter, Markus G

2010-08-11

4

Levels of key enzymes of methionine-homocysteine metabolism in preeclampsia.  

PubMed

Objective. To evaluate the role of key enzymes in the methionine-homocysteine metabolism (MHM) in the physiopathology of preeclampsia (PE). Methods. Plasma and placenta from pregnant women (32 controls and 16 PE patients) were analyzed after informed consent. Protein was quantified by western blot. RNA was obtained with RNA purification kit and was quantified by reverse transcritase followed by real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Identification of the C677T and A1298C methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and A2756G methionine synthase (MTR) SNP was performed using PCR followed by a high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. S-adenosyl methionine (SAM) and S-adenosyl homocysteine (SAH) were measured in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). The SNP association analysis was carried out using Fisher's exact test. Statistical analysis was performed using a Mann-Whitney test. Results. RNA expression of MTHFR and MTR was significantly higher in patients with PE as compared with controls. Protein, SAM, and SAH levels showed no significant difference between preeclamptic patients and controls. No statistical differences between controls and PE patients were observed with the different SNPs studied. Conclusion. The RNA expression of MTHFR and MTR is elevated in placentas of PE patients, highlighting a potential compensation mechanism of the methionine-homocysteine metabolism in the physiopathology of this disease. PMID:24024209

Pérez-Sepúlveda, Alejandra; Espańa-Perrot, Pedro P; Fernández B, Ximena; Ahumada, Verónica; Bustos, Vicente; Arraztoa, José Antonio; Dobierzewska, Aneta; Figueroa-Diesel, Horacio; Rice, Gregory E; Illanes, Sebastián E

2013-08-20

5

Key metabolic enzymes and muscle structure in triplefin fishes (Tripterygiidae): a phylogenetic comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic potential and muscle development were investigated relative to habitat and phylogeny in seven species of New Zealand triplefin fishes. Activity was measured in three principal glycolytic enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase) and two oxidative enzymes (citrate synthase and L3-hydroxyacyl CoA:NAD+ oxidoreductase). The non-bicarbonate buffering capacity of caudal muscle was also estimated. Phylogenetic independent contrast analyses were used

A. J. R. Hickey; K. D. Clements

2003-01-01

6

Effect of hypolipidemic drugs on key enzyme activities related to lipid metabolism in normolipidemic rabbits.  

PubMed

The effect of atorvastatin (3 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), simvastatin (3 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) and bezafibrate (100 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) administered for 4 weeks to male New Zealand white rabbits on enzyme activities related to lipid metabolism has been studied. Only the statins reduced plasma cholesterol values, while none of the drugs modified plasma triglyceride or high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations, nor the activity of enzymes such as hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase, lipoprotein lipase or hepatic lipase, directly involved in triglyceride metabolism. Both statins elicited similar increases in the hepatic microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl Coenzyme A (CoA) reductase activity (147 and 109% induction for simvastatin and atorvastatin, respectively), and none of the drugs assayed modified hepatic acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity significantly. Only bezafibrate induced a significant 57% reduction in the activity of hepatic microsomal cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. Regarding the rate limiting enzyme of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis, CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyl transferase, atorvastatin and bezafibrate behaved similarly, decreasing the enzyme activity in the liver by 45% and 54%, respectively; simvastatin induced no modification of this activity. The reduction of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyl transferase activity is not caused by a direct inhibition of the enzyme by bezafibrate and atorvastatin. Further, the inhibitory effect of atorvastatin appears to be unrelated to the inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase elicited in vivo. PMID:9653895

Alegret, M; Verd, J C; Díaz, C; Hernández, G; Adzet, T; Sánchez, R M; Laguna, J C

1998-04-24

7

Antihyperglycaemic effect of Cassia auriculata in experimental diabetes and its effects on key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

1. In experimental diabetes, enzymes of glucose and fatty acid metabolism are markedly altered. Persistent hyperglycaemia is a major contributor to such metabolic alterations, which lead to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. To our knowledge, there are no available reports on the enzymes of hepatic glucose metabolism of Cassia auriculata flower against diabetes. The present study was designed to study the effect of Cassia auriculata flower extract (CFEt) on hepatic glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes. 2. Streptozotocin diabetic rats were given CFEt (0.15, 0.30 and 0.45 g/kg) or 600 microg/kg glibenclamide for 30 days. At the end of 30 days, blood glucose, plasma insulin, haemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin, glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes were assessed. 3. Administration of CFEt at 0.45 g/kg significantly decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and gluconeogenic enzymes and increased plasma insulin, haemoglobin and hexokinase activity. Similarly, administration of glibenclamide showed a significant effect; however, CFEt at 0.15 and 0.30 g/kg did not show any significant effect. 4. In conclusion, the observations show that the aqueous extract of CFEt possesses an antihyperglycaemic effect and suggest that enhanced gluconeogenesis during diabetes is shifted towards normal and that the extract enhances the utilization of glucose through increased glycolysis. The effect of CFEt was more prominent than that of glibenclamide. PMID:12542451

Latha, Muniappan; Pari, Leelavinothan

8

Characterisation of genes encoding key enzymes involved in sugar metabolism of apple fruit in controlled atmosphere storage.  

PubMed

Sugars are essential contributors to fruit flavour. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage has been proved to be beneficial for maintaining harvested fruit quality. To explore regulatory mechanism of sugar metabolism in fruit stored in CA condition, we cloned several genes, encoding key enzymes, involved in sugar metabolism in apple fruit, and analyzed sugar contents, along with gene expression and enzyme activities in fruits stored in air and CA. The results indicated that CA could maintain higher contents of sugars, including sucrose, fructose and glucose. Expression levels of key genes, such as sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), fructokinase (FK) and hexokinase (HK), were shown to be correlated with the corresponding enzyme activities. We found that activities of neutral invertase (NI), vacuolar invertase (VI), FK and HK were inhibited, but SPS activity was promoted in apple fruit stored in CA, suggesting that CA storage could enhance sucrose synthesis and delay hydrolysis of sucrose and hexose. These findings provided molecular evidence to explain why higher sugar levels in harvested fruit are maintained under CA storage. PMID:23993488

Zhu, Zhu; Liu, Ruiling; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

2013-06-14

9

Effect of furfural on carbon metabolism key enzymes of lactose-assimilating yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolic response of lactose-assimilating yeasts to changes of cultivation conditions after addition of furfural into the medium was explored. Two yeast strains were studied—Candida blankii 35 with an oxidative metabolism, and C. pseudotropicalis 11 with a fermentative metabolism. Strains were cultivated in a chemostat under carbon limitation and dilution rates D=0.1 and 0.25h?1.During the transition period after a shock

Ts. Hristozova; A. Angelov; B. Tzvetkova; D. Paskaleva; V. Gotcheva; S. Gargova; K. Pavlova

2006-01-01

10

Cancer metabolism: key players in metabolic reprogramming.  

PubMed

Over 80 years ago, Warburg discovered that cancer cells generate ATP through the glycolytic pathway, even in the presence of oxygen. The finding of this phenomenon, termed the "Warburg effect," stimulated much research on tumorigenesis, but few explanations were forthcoming to explain the observation. Recently, advanced developments in molecular biology and high-throughput molecular analyses have revealed that many of the signaling pathways altered by gene mutations regulate cell metabolism in cancer. Furthermore, mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 were shown to elevate 2-hydroxyglutarate, which led to changes in ?-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase enzyme activity, resulting in an increased risk of malignant tumors. Although these findings led to a renewed interest in cancer metabolism, our knowledge on the specifics of tumor metabolism is still fragmented. This paper reviews recent findings related to key transcription factors and enzymes that play an important role in the regulation of cancer metabolism. PMID:23279446

Soga, Tomoyoshi

2013-01-31

11

[Effects of applying biogas liquid manure on the key source-sink metabolism enzymes and grain yield of summer maize].  

PubMed

15000, 22500, and 30000 kg x hm(-2) of biogas liquid manure were applied to maize hybrid Zhengdan 958 to study their effects on the key source-sink metabolism enzymes and yield components of the summer maize. Compared with CK and applying nitrogen fertilizer, the application of biogas liquid manure not only increased the aboveground biomass, leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content, but also enhanced the activities of nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), and sucrose phosphate synthetase (SPS) in leaves and the sucrose synthetase (SS) in grains. The yield parameters such as ear diameter, ear length, grain rows per ear, grains per row, kernels per ear, 1000-kernel mass, and grain yield per unit area were also increased significantly. Of the three test application rates, 22500 kg x hm(-2) (7500 kg x hm(-2) applied at jointing, big trumpet, and tasseling stages, respectively) had the best effects on enhancing the above mentioned enzyme activities and grain yield, with the yield reached 14006.7 kg x hm(-2) and being 40.7% higher than the control. PMID:20462003

Lü, Shu-Min; Qu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Lin-Hua; Liang, Shu-Rong; Wang, Jun-Zhong; Zhao, Hui-Jie

2010-02-01

12

Comparative Studies of Vertebrate Lipoprotein Lipase: A Key Enzyme of Very Low Density Lipoprotein Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Lipoprotein lipase (LIPL or LPL; E.C.3.1.1.34) serves a dual function as a triglyceride lipase of circulating chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and facilitates receptor-mediated lipoprotein uptake into heart, muscle and adipose tissue. Comparative LPL amino acid sequences and protein structures and LPL gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Mammalian LPL genes usually contained 9 coding exons on the positive strand. Vertebrate LPL sequences shared 58–99% identity as compared with 33–49% sequence identities with other vascular triglyceride lipases, hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL). Two human LPL N-glycosylation sites were conserved among seven predicted sites for the vertebrate LPL sequences examined. Sequence alignments, key amino acid residues and conserved predicted secondary and tertiary structures were also studied. A CpG island was identified within the 5'-untranslated region of the human LPL gene which may contribute to the higher than average (x4.5 times) level of expression reported. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of vertebrate lipase genes, LPL, LIPG (encoding EL) and LIPC (encoding HL) which suggested that these have been derived from gene duplication events of an ancestral neutral lipase gene, prior to the appearance of fish during vertebrate evolution. Comparative divergence rates for these vertebrate sequences indicated that LPL is evolving more slowly (2–3 times) than for LIPC and LIPG genes and proteins.

Holmes, Roger S; Vandeberg, John L; Cox, Laura A

2011-01-01

13

Modulatory effect of green tea extract on hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of green tea extract on carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes in control and streptozotocin high fat diet -induced diabetic rats. The daily oral treatment of green tea extract (300 mg/kg body weight) to diabetic rats for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and increase in the levels of insulin and hemoglobin. The altered activities of the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in liver of diabetic rats were significantly reverted to near normal levels by the administration of green tea extract. Further, green tea extract administration to diabetic rats improved muscle and hepatic glycogen content suggesting the antihyperglycemic potential of green tea extract in diabetic rats. The obtained results were compared with metformin, a standard oral hypoglycemic drug. Thus, this study indicates that the administration of green tea extract to diabetic rats resulted in alterations in the metabolism of glucose with subsequent reduction in plasma glucose levels. PMID:23453307

Sundaram, Ramalingam; Naresh, Rajendran; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

2013-02-28

14

Characterization of a NADH-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase Mutant of Arabidopsis Demonstrates the Key Role of this Enzyme in Root Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism[W  

PubMed Central

The role of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was investigated by studying the physiological impact of a complete lack of enzyme activity in an Arabidopsis thaliana plant deficient in three genes encoding the enzyme. This study was conducted following the discovery that a third GDH gene is expressed in the mitochondria of the root companion cells, where all three active GDH enzyme proteins were shown to be present. A gdh1-2-3 triple mutant was constructed and exhibited major differences from the wild type in gene transcription and metabolite concentrations, and these differences appeared to originate in the roots. By placing the gdh triple mutant under continuous darkness for several days and comparing it to the wild type, the evidence strongly suggested that the main physiological function of NADH-GDH is to provide 2-oxoglutarate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The differences in key metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the triple mutant versus the wild type indicated that, through metabolic processes operating mainly in roots, there was a strong impact on amino acid accumulation, in particular alanine, ?-aminobutyrate, and aspartate in both roots and leaves. These results are discussed in relation to the possible signaling and physiological functions of the enzyme at the interface of carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Terce-Laforgue, Therese; Armengaud, Patrick; Clement, Gilles; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Sandra; Catterou, Manuella; Azzopardi, Marianne; Gibon, Yves; Lea, Peter J.; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frederic

2012-01-01

15

Efficacy of asiatic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene on attenuating the key enzymes activities of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Asiatic acid (AA), a triterpenoid derivative of Centella asiatica, has shown significant biological effects of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Aim of this investigation was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of AA on the activities of hepatic enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. Diabetic rats showed significant (p<0.05) increased in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and significant (p<0.05) decreased in circulating insulin and hemoglobin. The altered activities of key enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase of carbohydrate metabolism significantly (p<0.05) increased whereas hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen content significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the liver of diabetic rats and also increased activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Oral administration of AA (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w.) and glibenclamide (600 ?g/kg b.w.) to diabetic rats for 45 days prevented the above alteration and reverted to near normalcy. Protection of body weight loss of diabetic rats by AA was also observed. No significant effect was observed in normal rats treated with AA (20 mg/kg b.w.). In this search, AA found to be potential bioactive compound to regulate the carbohydrate metabolism by modulating the key regulatory enzymes in diabetic rats. These findings merit further research in this field. PMID:23102509

Ramachandran, Vinayagam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

2012-10-25

16

Effects of myogenin on muscle fiber types and key metabolic enzymes in gene transfer mice and C2C12 myoblasts.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle fiber type composition is one of the important factors influencing muscle growth and meat quality. As a member of the myogenic transcription factors, myogenin (MyoG) is required for embryonic myoblast differentiation, but the expression of MyoG continues in mature muscle tissue of adult animals, especially in oxidative metabolic muscle, which suggests that MyoG may play a more extended role. Therefore, using MyoG gene transfer mice and C2C12 myoblasts as in vivo and in vitro models, respectively, we elected to study the role of MyoG in muscle fiber types and oxidative metabolism by using overexpression and siRNA suppression strategies. The overexpression of MyoG by DNA electroporation in mouse gastrocnemius muscle had no significant effect on fiber type composition but upregulated the mRNA expression (P<0.01) and enzyme activity (P<0.05) of oxidative succinic dehydrogenase (SDH). In addition, downregulation of the activity of the glycolytic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (PK, P<0.05) was observed in MyoG gene transfer mice. In vitro experiments verified the results obtained in mice. Stable MyoG-transfected differentiating C2C12 cells showed higher mRNA expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform IIX (P<0.01) and SDH (P<0.05), while the LDH mRNA was attenuated. The enzyme activities of SDH (P<0.01) and LDH (P<0.05) were similarly altered at the mRNA level. When MyoG was knocked down in C2C12 cells, MyHC IIX expression (P<0.05) was decreased, but the mRNA level (P<0.05) and the enzyme activity (P<0.05) of SDH were increased. Downregulating MyoG also increased the activity of the glycolytic enzymes PK (P<0.05) and hexokinase (HK, P<0.05). Based on those results, we concluded that MyoG barely changes the MyHC isoforms, except MyHC IIX, in differentiating myoblasts but probably influences the shift from glycolytic metabolism towards oxidative metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. These results contribute to further understand the role of MyoG in skeletal muscle energy metabolism and also help to explore the key genes that regulate meat quality. PMID:24055422

Zhu, Lin-Na; Ren, Yang; Chen, Jing-Qing; Wang, Yi-Zhen

2013-09-17

17

Dithioerythritol (DTE) prevents inhibitory effects of triphenyltin (TPT) on the key enzymes of the human sex steroid hormone metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organotins are known to induce imposex (pseudohermaphroditism) in marine neogastropods and are suggested to act as specific endocrine disruptors, inhibiting the enzyme-mediated conversion of steroid hormones. Therefore, we investigated the in vitro effects of triphenyltin (TPT) on human 5?-reductase type 2 (5?-Re 2), cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom), 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17?-HSD 3), 3?-HSD type 2 and 17?-HSD type 1

Susan Lo; Axel Alléra; Peter Albers; Jörg Heimbrecht; Eckard Jantzen; Dietrich Klingmüller; Stephan Steckelbroeck

2003-01-01

18

Pancreatic phospholipase A2 via its receptor regulates the expression of key enzymes of phospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the pancreatic secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA2IB) is considered a digestive enzyme, it has several important, nonenzymatic, receptor-mediated functions. In this study, we demonstrate that via its receptor, sPLA 2IB stimulates the expression of cytosolic PLA 2 (cPLA2)-, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-, Mg++-dependent neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase)- and acid ceramidase (AC)-mRNAs in NIH 3T3 cells. Moreover, through its receptor, sPLA2IB also mediates

Asim K. Mandal; Zhongjian Zhang; Janice Y. Chou; Anil B. Mukherjee

2001-01-01

19

Effect of feeding aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Pterocarpus marsupium (PM). In the present study, aqueous extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of PM led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 38 and 60% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body-weight was significantly increased in diabetics (p < 0.0005) vs. normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (p < 0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of PM extract. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10-fold while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls vs. controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by PM. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35,50 and 60% of the controls and PM completely corrected this alteration in PFK and only partly in HK and GK. PMID:12482025

Grover, Jagdish Kumari; Vats, Vikrant; Yadav, Satyapal

2002-12-01

20

Glycogen metabolizing enzymes in brain.  

PubMed

Three enzymes, glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen synthase, and phosphoglucomutase were evaluated in subcellular fractions and in brain regions. Also the development of each of these enzymes was evaluated in whole brain homogenates. Each enzyme increased during the first three weeks of post partum in a manner that is similar to the development of glycolytic enzymes during this period. The specific activity of each enzyme in various subcellular fractions indicated that the enzymes were primarily soluble. Also unlike the glycolytic enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase, the glycogen metabolizing enzymes had a lower specific activity in synaptosomes than in particle free supernatant fractions of homogenates. Regarding regional distribution small (less than twofold) but significant differences were seen between different brain areas. An inverse relationship between the glycogen metabolizing enzymes and hexokinase was observed, that is, regions highest in glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase were lowest in hexokinase and regions highest in hexokinase were lowest in the glycogen metabolizing enzymes. PMID:6218421

Knull, H R; Khandelwal, R L

1982-10-01

21

Effect of a compost and its water-soluble fractions on key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in maize seedlings.  

PubMed

The growing concern on long-term productivity of agroecosystems has emphasized the need to develop management strategies to maintain and protect soil resources, particularly soil organic matter (SOM). Among these, the composting process allows both recycling of the increasing amount of organic waste materials and restoration of the content of organic matter in soil. A sequential chemical fractionation into structurally unbound (SU), weakly bound (WB) and strongly bound (SB) compounds was applied to a bulk compost, and its soluble fractions were extracted in water, either after oxidation of compost suspension with an oxygen flux (TEA), or without oxidation but separated into hydrophilic (HiDOM) and hydrophobic (HoDOM) components. The ratio of hydrophilic over hydrophobic compounds decreased in the order HiDOM > TEA > compost > HoDOM, while TEA and compost showed the largest content of SU and WB components, respectively. Such chemically characterized bulk compost and fractions were tested on maize seedlings grown in sand and in hydroponic conditions, and the effects on plant growth and nitrogen metabolism were measured. The structurally complex bulk compost and the hydrophobic HoDOM fraction negatively affected plant growth, whereas the hydrophilic and less-structured fractions (HiDOM and TEA) showed large positive effects on both growth and enzymatic activities of plants. These results suggest that composted organic matter can become useful to stimulate plant growth if the content of potentially bioavailable hydrophilic and poorly structured components is large. These components may be progressively separated from the compost matrix and contribute to the dynamics of natural organic matter in soil. PMID:19891475

Vaccaro, Silvia; Muscolo, Adele; Pizzeghello, Diego; Spaccini, Riccado; Piccolo, Alessandro; Nardi, Serenella

2009-12-01

22

Orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. They have important roles as membrane components of e.g. lens, brain and testis, and as mediators such as platelet-activating factor. The metabolic enzymes for biosynthesis and degradation have been investigated to some extent. As most involved enzymes are integral membrane proteins they are tricky to handle in biochemical protocols. The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. Defined enzymes without assigned sequence are known as orphan enzymes. One of these enzymes with uncharacterised sequence is plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of one of the most abundant phospholipids in our body, the plasmalogens. This review aims to briefly summarise known functions of ether lipids, give an overview on their metabolism including the most prominent members, platelet-activating factor and the plasmalogens. A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. Only one of these four was characterised by classical protein purification and sequencing, whereas the other three required alternative strategies such as bioinformatic candidate gene selection and recombinant expression or development of an inhibitor and multidimensional metabolic profiling. PMID:22771767

Watschinger, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R

2012-07-04

23

Orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. They have important roles as membrane components of e.g. lens, brain and testis, and as mediators such as platelet-activating factor. The metabolic enzymes for biosynthesis and degradation have been investigated to some extent. As most involved enzymes are integral membrane proteins they are tricky to handle in biochemical protocols. The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. Defined enzymes without assigned sequence are known as orphan enzymes. One of these enzymes with uncharacterised sequence is plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of one of the most abundant phospholipids in our body, the plasmalogens. This review aims to briefly summarise known functions of ether lipids, give an overview on their metabolism including the most prominent members, platelet-activating factor and the plasmalogens. A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. Only one of these four was characterised by classical protein purification and sequencing, whereas the other three required alternative strategies such as bioinformatic candidate gene selection and recombinant expression or development of an inhibitor and multidimensional metabolic profiling.

Watschinger, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R.

2013-01-01

24

Cystathionine  -synthase, a key enzyme for homocysteine metabolism, is preferentially expressed in the radial glia\\/astrocyte lineage of developing mouse CNS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS; EC 4.2.1.22) is a key enzyme in the generation of cysteine from methionine. A deficiency of CBS leads to homocystinuria, an inherited human disease characterized by mental retardation, seizures, psychiatric disturbances, skeletal abnormalities, and vascular disorders; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we show the regional and cellular distribution of CBS in the adult and

Yasushi Enokido; Eri Suzuki; Kazu Iwasawa; Kazuhiko Namekata; Hitoshi Okazawa; Hideo Kimura

2005-01-01

25

[Human drug metabolizing enzymes. II. Conjugation enzymes].  

PubMed

In this review we focus on human conjugation enzymes (UDP-glucuronyltransferases, methyl-trasferases, N-acetyl-transferases, O-acetyl-transferases, Amidases/carboxyesterases, sulfotransferases, Glutation-S-transferases and the enzymes involved in the conjugation with amino acids) that participate in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Although conjugation reactions in most of the cases result in detoxication, more and more publications prove that the reactions catalysed by these enzymes very often lead to activated molecules that may attack macromolecules (proteins, RNAs, DNAs), resulting in toxicity (liver, neuro-, embryotoxicity, allergy, carcinogenecity). We have summarised the data available on these enzymes concerning their catalytic profile and specificity, inhibition, induction properties, their possible role in the generation of toxic compounds, their importance in clinical practice and drug development. PMID:9805814

Vereczkey, L; Jemnitz, K; Gregus, Z

1998-09-01

26

Chicken Cytochrome P450 1A5 Is the Key Enzyme for Metabolizing T-2 Toxin to 3?OH-T-2  

PubMed Central

The transmission of T-2 toxin and its metabolites into the edible tissues of poultry has potential effects on human health. We report that T-2 toxin significantly induces CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 expression in chicken embryonic hepatocyte cells. The enzyme activity assays of CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 heterologously expressed in HeLa cells indicate that only CYP1A5 metabolizes T-2 to 3?OH-T-2 by the 3?-hydroxylation of isovaleryl groups. In vitro enzyme assays of recombinant CYP1A5 expressed in DH5? further confirm that CYP1A5 can convert T-2 into TC-1 (3?OH-T-2). Therefore, CYP1A5 is critical for the metabolism of trichothecene mycotoxin in chickens.

Shang, Shufeng; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Yiqun

2013-01-01

27

The key enzyme of the sialic Acid metabolism is involved in embryoid body formation and expression of marker genes of germ layer formation.  

PubMed

The bi-functional enzyme UDP-N-acetyl-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) is the key enzyme of the sialic acid biosynthesis. Sialic acids are negatively charged nine carbon amino sugars and are found on most glycoproteins and many glycolipids in terminal positions, where they are involved in a variety of biological important molecular interactions. Inactivation of the GNE by homologous recombination results in early embryonic lethality in mice. Here, we report that GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells express less differentiation markers compared to wild-type embryonic stem cells. As a result, GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells fail to form proper embryoid bodies (EB) within the first day of culture. However, when culturing these cells in the presence of sialic acids for three days, also GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells form normal EBs. In contrast, when culturing these cells in sialic acid reduced medium, GNE-deficient embryonic stem cells proliferate faster and form larger EBs without any change in the expression of markers of the germ layers. PMID:24129184

Weidemann, Wenke; Hering, Jessica; Bennmann, Dorit; Thate, Annett; Horstkorte, Rüdiger

2013-10-14

28

Enzyme Relational Network Reveals Target Enzymes within Metabolic Submodules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of enzyme targets for metabolic engineering requires a global view of the functional relationship among enzymes within metabolic network. In this paper, we propose a method to construct an enzyme relational network based on the significant effect of the rate change of one reaction on the rate of another reaction. We illustrate the method by using a kinetic model

Chalothorn Liamwirat; Supapon Cheevadthanarak; Asawin Meechai; Sakarindr Bhumiratana

2009-01-01

29

Metabolic networks: enzyme function and metabolite structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolism is one of the most complex cellular processes. Connections between biochemical reactions via substrate and product metabolites create complex metabolic networks that may be analyzed using network theory, stoichiometric analysis, and information on protein structure\\/function and metabolite properties. These frameworks take into consideration different aspects of enzyme chemistry, enzyme structure and metabolite structure, and demonstrate the impact of metabolic

Vassily Hatzimanikatis; Chunhui Li; Justin A Ionita; Linda J Broadbelt

2004-01-01

30

Cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase: A key enzyme in the sucrose biosynthetic pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a ubiquitous enzyme controlling a key reaction. In non-photosynthetic tissues, it regulates the rate of gluconeogenesis. In photosynthetic tissues, two FBPase isozymes (chloroplastic and cytosolic) play key roles in carbon assimilation and metabolism. The cytosolic FBPase is one of the regulatory enzymes in the sucrose biosynthetic pathway — its activity is regulated by both fine and

Jaleh Daie

1993-01-01

31

Mouse cytosolic acetylCoA hydrolase, a novel candidate for a key enzyme involved in fat metabolism: cDNA cloning, sequenc- ing and functional expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cytosolic acetyl-CoA hydrolase (CACH) cDNA has been isolated from mouse liver cDNA library and sequenced. Recombinant expression of the cDNA in insect cells re- sulted in overproduction of active acetyl-CoA hydrolyzing enzyme protein. The mouse CACH cDNA encoded a 556-amino-acid sequence that was 93.5% identical to rat CACH, suggesting a conserved role for this enzyme in the mammalian liver.

Naoya Suematsu; Kazuki Okamoto; Fumihide Isohashi

32

Structure-Based in Vitro Engineering of the Anthranilate Synthase, a Metabolic Key Enzyme in the Plant Tryptophan Pathway1[w  

PubMed Central

Rice (Oryza sativa) anthranilate synthase ?-subunit, OASA2, was modified by in vitro mutagenesis based on structural information from bacterial homologs. Twenty-four amino acid residues, predicted as putative tryptophan binding sites or their proximal regions in the OASA2 sequence, were selected and 36 mutant OASA2 genes were constructed by PCR-based site-directed mutagenesis. Corresponding mutant proteins were synthesized in a combination of two in vitro systems, transcription with a bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase and translation with a wheat-embryo cell-free system. Enzymatic functions of the mutant proteins were simultaneously examined, and we found six mutants with elevated catalytic activity and five mutants with enhanced tolerance to feedback inhibition by tryptophan. Moreover, we observed that some sets of specific combinations of the novel mutations additively conferred both characteristics to the mutant enzymes. The functions of the mutant enzymes were confirmed in vivo. The free tryptophan content of mutant rice calli expressing OASA2 enzyme with a double mutation was 30-fold of that of untransformed calli. Thus, our in vitro approach utilizing structural information of bacterial homologs is a potent technique to generate designer enzymes with predefined functions.

Kanno, Takuya; Komatsu, Akira; Kasai, Koji; Dubouzet, Joseph G.; Sakurai, Minako; Ikejiri-Kanno, Yasuko; Wakasa, Kyo; Tozawa, Yuzuru

2005-01-01

33

Glycogen metabolizing enzymes in brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three enzymes, glycogen phosphorylase, glycogen synthase, and phosphoglucomutase were evaluated in subcellular fractions and in brain regions. Also the development of each of these enzymes was evaluated in whole brain homogenates. Each enzyme increased during the first three weeks of post partum in a manner that is similar to the development of glycolytic enzymes during this period. The specific activity

Harvey R. Knull; Ramji L. Khandelwal

1982-01-01

34

Metabolic profiling reveals key metabolic features of renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that metabolic changes play a pivotal role in the biology of cancer and in particular renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, a global metabolite profiling approach was applied to characterize the metabolite pool of RCC and normal renal tissue. Advanced decision tree models were applied to characterize the metabolic signature of RCC and to explore features of metastasized tumours. The findings were validated in a second independent dataset. Vitamin E derivates and metabolites of glucose, fatty acid, and inositol phosphate metabolism determined the metabolic profile of RCC. ?-tocopherol, hippuric acid, myoinositol, fructose-1-phosphate and glucose-1-phosphate contributed most to the tumour/normal discrimination and all showed pronounced concentration changes in RCC. The identified metabolic profile was characterized by a low recognition error of only 5% for tumour versus normal samples. Data on metastasized tumours suggested a key role for metabolic pathways involving arachidonic acid, free fatty acids, proline, uracil and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results illustrate the potential of mass spectroscopy based metabolomics in conjunction with sophisticated data analysis methods to uncover the metabolic phenotype of cancer. Differentially regulated metabolites, such as vitamin E compounds, hippuric acid and myoinositol, provide leads for the characterization of novel pathways in RCC. PMID:19845817

Catchpole, Gareth; Platzer, Alexander; Weikert, Cornelia; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Johannsen, Manfred; Krause, Hans; Jung, Klaus; Miller, Kurt; Willmitzer, Lothar; Selbig, Joachim; Weikert, Steffen

2011-01-01

35

21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862.3360 Section...Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification . A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device...

2013-04-01

36

Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment.

Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

2012-01-01

37

Key enzymes of the retinoid (visual) cycle in vertebrate retina.  

PubMed

A major goal in vision research over the past few decades has been to understand the molecular details of retinoid processing within the retinoid (visual) cycle. This includes the consequences of side reactions that result from delayed all-trans-retinal clearance and condensation with phospholipids that characterize a variety of serious retinal diseases. Knowledge of the basic retinoid biochemistry involved in these diseases is essential for development of effective therapeutics. Photoisomerization of the 11-cis-retinal chromophore of rhodopsin triggers a complex set of metabolic transformations collectively termed phototransduction that ultimately lead to light perception. Continuity of vision depends on continuous conversion of all-trans-retinal back to the 11-cis-retinal isomer. This process takes place in a series of reactions known as the retinoid cycle, which occur in photoreceptor and RPE cells. All-trans-retinal, the initial substrate of this cycle, is a chemically reactive aldehyde that can form toxic conjugates with proteins and lipids. Therefore, much experimental effort has been devoted to elucidate molecular mechanisms of the retinoid cycle and all-trans-retinal-mediated retinal degeneration, resulting in delineation of many key steps involved in regenerating 11-cis-retinal. Three particularly important reactions are catalyzed by enzymes broadly classified as acyltransferases, short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases and carotenoid/retinoid isomerases/oxygenases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Retinoid and Lipid Metabolism. PMID:21447403

Kiser, Philip D; Golczak, Marcin; Maeda, Akiko; Palczewski, Krzysztof

2011-04-05

38

Enzymes of glucose metabolism in Frankia sp.  

PubMed Central

Enzymes of glucose metabolism were assayed in crude cell extracts of Frankia strains HFPArI3 and HFPCcI2 as well as in isolated vesicle clusters from Alnus rubra root nodules. Activities of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway enzymes glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase were found in Frankia strain HFPArI3 and glucokinase and pyruvate kinase were found in Frankia strain HFPCcI2 and in the vesicle clusters. An NADP+-linked glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and an NAD-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were found in all of the extracts, although the role of these enzymes is unclear. No NADP+-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase was found. Both dehydrogenases were inhibited by adenosine 5-triphosphate, and the apparent Km's for glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate were 6.86 X 10(-4) and 7.0 X 10(-5) M, respectively. In addition to the enzymes mentioned above, an NADP+-linked malic enzyme was detected in the pure cultures but not in the vesicle clusters. In contrast, however, the vesicle clusters had activity of an NAD-linked malic enzyme. The possibility that this enzyme resulted from contamination from plant mitochondria trapped in the vesicle clusters could not be discounted. None of the extracts showed activities of the Entner-Doudoroff enzymes or the gluconate metabolism enzymes gluconate dehydrogenase or gluconokinase. Propionate- versus trehalose-grown cultures of strain HFPArI3 showed similar activities of most enzymes except malic enzyme, which was higher in the cultures grown on the organic acid. Nitrogen-fixing cultures of strain HFPArI3 showed higher specific activities of glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases and phosphofructokinase than ammonia-grown cultures. Images

Lopez, M F; Torrey, J G

1985-01-01

39

Enzymes of glucose metabolism in Frankia sp.  

PubMed

Enzymes of glucose metabolism were assayed in crude cell extracts of Frankia strains HFPArI3 and HFPCcI2 as well as in isolated vesicle clusters from Alnus rubra root nodules. Activities of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway enzymes glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase were found in Frankia strain HFPArI3 and glucokinase and pyruvate kinase were found in Frankia strain HFPCcI2 and in the vesicle clusters. An NADP+-linked glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and an NAD-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were found in all of the extracts, although the role of these enzymes is unclear. No NADP+-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase was found. Both dehydrogenases were inhibited by adenosine 5-triphosphate, and the apparent Km's for glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate were 6.86 X 10(-4) and 7.0 X 10(-5) M, respectively. In addition to the enzymes mentioned above, an NADP+-linked malic enzyme was detected in the pure cultures but not in the vesicle clusters. In contrast, however, the vesicle clusters had activity of an NAD-linked malic enzyme. The possibility that this enzyme resulted from contamination from plant mitochondria trapped in the vesicle clusters could not be discounted. None of the extracts showed activities of the Entner-Doudoroff enzymes or the gluconate metabolism enzymes gluconate dehydrogenase or gluconokinase. Propionate- versus trehalose-grown cultures of strain HFPArI3 showed similar activities of most enzymes except malic enzyme, which was higher in the cultures grown on the organic acid. Nitrogen-fixing cultures of strain HFPArI3 showed higher specific activities of glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases and phosphofructokinase than ammonia-grown cultures. PMID:3980434

Lopez, M F; Torrey, J G

1985-04-01

40

Enzymes of drug metabolism during delirium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: delirium is common in ill medical patients. Several drugs and polypharmacy are recognised risk factors, yet little is known about drug metabolism in people with delirium. Objective: the aim of this study was to investigate the activities of plasma esterases (drug metabolising enzymes) in delirium. Design: this was a prospective study of delirium present at time of hospital admission

SUSAN WHITE; B. L. CALVER; VICKY NEWSWAY; R. WADE; S. PATEL; A. BAYER; M. SINEAD

2005-01-01

41

Assigning Enzyme Function from the Metabolic Milieu  

PubMed Central

Summary In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Rhee and co-workers develop a metabolic profiling technique using a mycobacterial small molecule extract and use it to correctly assign enzyme function to a previously mis-annotated gene product of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (de Carvalho et al., 2010).

Duckworth, Benjamin P.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

2010-01-01

42

Subtleties in control by metabolic channelling and enzyme organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its importance to cell function, the free-energy metabolism of the living cell is subtly and homeostatically controlled. Metabolic control analysis enables a quantitative determination of what controls the relevant fluxes. However, the original metabolic control analysis was developed for idealized metabolic systems, which were assumed to lack enzyme-enzyme association and direct metabolite transfer between enzymes (channelling). We here

Boris N. Kholodenko; Johann M. Rohwer; Marta Cascante; Hans V. Westerhoff

1998-01-01

43

Feedback inhibition of key glycolytic enzymes in liver: action of free fatty acids.  

PubMed

Increasing concentrations of sodium octanoate were progressively inhibitory to the activities of glucokinase, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase. Glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases were also markedly inhibited. Other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as lactate dehydrogenase, phosphohexose isomerase, and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase were not decreased. Among the key glycolytic enzymes, the inhibition of pyruvate kinase by the fatty acid was most marked. The biological significance of the inhibition of the key glycolytic enzymes is interpreted as a feedback inhibitory mechanism in regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis. The mechanism may function for rapid adaptation by which the organism can use the fatty acid level as a metabolic directional switch in decreasing glycolysis and turning on gluconeogenesis. PMID:4288679

Weber, G; Convery, H J; Lea, M A; Stamm, N B

1966-12-01

44

Substrate specificity and diastereoselectivity of strictosidine glucosidase, a key enzyme in monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Strictosidine glucosidase (SGD) from Catharanthus roseus catalyzes the deglycosylation of strictosidine, an intermediate from which thousands of monoterpene indole alkaloids are derived. The steady-state kinetics of SGD with a variety of strictosidine analogs revealed the substrate preferences of this enzyme at two key positions of the strictosidine substrate. Additionally, SGD from C. roseus turns over both strictosidine and its stereoisomer vincoside, indicating that although this enzyme prefers the naturally occurring diastereomer, the enzyme is not completely diastereoselective. The implications of the substrate specificity of SGD in metabolic engineering efforts of C. roseus are highlighted. PMID:18061449

Yerkes, Nancy; Wu, Jia Xin; McCoy, Elizabeth; Galan, M Carmen; Chen, Shi; O'Connor, Sarah E

2007-11-22

45

Sirtuins regulate key aspects of lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Members of the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases are important regulators of longevity in yeast, worms, and flies. Mammals have seven sirtuins (SIRT1-7), each characterized by differences in subcellular localization, substrate preference, and biological function. While it is unclear whether sirtuins regulate aging in mammals, it is clear that sirtuins influence diverse aspects of their metabolism. Indeed, SIRT1 promotes oxidation of fatty acids in liver and skeletal muscle, cholesterol metabolism in liver, and lipid mobilization in white adipose tissue. Moreover, small-molecule activators of SIRT1 have recently been shown to protect mice from the negative effects of a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that sirtuins might provide important new targets for the treatment of obesity and related diseases. In this review, we discuss the major findings linking sirtuins with the regulation of lipid metabolism. PMID:19962456

Lomb, David J; Laurent, Gaëlle; Haigis, Marcia C

2009-12-02

46

A core metabolic enzyme mediates resistance to phosphine gas.  

PubMed

Phosphine is a small redox-active gas that is used to protect global grain reserves, which are threatened by the emergence of phosphine resistance in pest insects. We find that polymorphisms responsible for genetic resistance cluster around the redox-active catalytic disulfide or the dimerization interface of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in insects (Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum) and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). DLD is a core metabolic enzyme representing a new class of resistance factor for a redox-active metabolic toxin. It participates in four key steps of core metabolism, and metabolite profiles indicate that phosphine exposure in mutant and wild-type animals affects these steps differently. Mutation of DLD in C. elegans increases arsenite sensitivity. This specific vulnerability may be exploited to control phosphine-resistant insects and safeguard food security. PMID:23139334

Schlipalius, David I; Valmas, Nicholas; Tuck, Andrew G; Jagadeesan, Rajeswaran; Ma, Li; Kaur, Ramandeep; Goldinger, Anita; Anderson, Cameron; Kuang, Jujiao; Zuryn, Steven; Mau, Yosep S; Cheng, Qiang; Collins, Patrick J; Nayak, Manoj K; Schirra, Horst Joachim; Hilliard, Massimo A; Ebert, Paul R

2012-11-01

47

Enzymes and Inhibitors in Neonicotinoid Insecticide Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism involves considerable substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the relevant CYP450, aldehyde oxidase, and phase II enzymes. Human CYP450 recombinant enzymes carry out the following conversions: CYP3A4, 2C19 and 2B6 for thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO); 3A4, 2C19 and 2A6 for CLO to desmethyl-CLO; 2C19 for TMX to desmethyl-TMX. Human liver aldehyde oxidase reduces the nitro substituent of CLO to nitroso much more rapidly than that of TMX. Imidacloprid (IMI), CLO and several of their metabolites do not give detectable N-glucuronides but 5-hydroxy-IMI, 4,5-diol-IMI and 4-hydroxy-thiacloprid are converted to O-glucuronides in vitro with mouse liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid or in vivo in mice. Mouse liver cytosol with S-adenosylmethionine converts desmethyl-CLO to CLO but not desmethyl-TMX to TMX. Two organophosphorus CYP450 inhibitors partially block IMI, thiacloprid and CLO metabolism in vivo in mice, elevating the brain and liver levels of the parent compounds while reducing amounts of the hydroxylated metabolites.

Shi, Xueyan; Dick, Ryan A.; Ford, Kevin A.; Casida, John E.

2009-01-01

48

Enzymes and inhibitors in neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism.  

PubMed

Neonicotinoid insecticide metabolism involves considerable substrate specificity and regioselectivity of the relevant CYP450, aldehyde oxidase, and phase II enzymes. Human CYP450 recombinant enzymes carry out the following conversions: CYP3A4, 2C19, and 2B6 for thiamethoxam (TMX) to clothianidin (CLO); 3A4, 2C19, and 2A6 for CLO to desmethyl-CLO; 2C19 for TMX to desmethyl-TMX. Human liver aldehyde oxidase reduces the nitro substituent of CLO to nitroso much more rapidly than it does that of TMX. Imidacloprid (IMI), CLO, and several of their metabolites do not give detectable N-glucuronides but 5-hydroxy-IMI, 4,5-diol-IMI, and 4-hydroxythiacloprid are converted to O-glucuronides in vitro with mouse liver microsomes and UDP-glucuronic acid or in vivo in mice. Mouse liver cytosol with S-adenosylmethionine converts desmethyl-CLO to CLO but not desmethyl-TMX to TMX. Two organophosphorus CYP450 inhibitors partially block IMI, thiacloprid, and CLO metabolism in vivo in mice, elevating brain and liver levels of the parent compounds while reducing amounts of the hydroxylated metabolites. PMID:19391582

Shi, Xueyan; Dick, Ryan A; Ford, Kevin A; Casida, John E

2009-06-10

49

Network analysis of metabolic enzyme evolution in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The two most common models for the evolution of metabolism are the patchwork evolution model, where enzymes are thought to diverge from broad to narrow substrate specificity, and the retrograde evolution model, according to which enzymes evolve in response to substrate depletion. Analysis of the distribution of homologous enzyme pairs in the metabolic network can shed light on the

Sara Light; Per Kraulis

2004-01-01

50

Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation  

PubMed Central

The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates.

2012-01-01

51

Effects of dietary broccoli on rat testicular xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effects of vegetables on the activities of various metabolizing enzymes in liver and intestine have been studied intensively,\\u000a whereas studies on effects on testicular metabolizing enzymes are lacking. The present report is the first describing the\\u000a effects of dietary broccoli on the activities of a number of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes from rat testes. Groups of male\\u000a Wistar rats were

O. Vang; K. Mehrota; A. Georgellis; O. Andersen

1999-01-01

52

Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Thiobacillus species  

PubMed Central

A study was made of enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in representative thiobacilli grown with and without glucose. The data show that Thiobacillus perometabolis possesses an inducible Entner-Doudoroff pathway and is thus similar to T. intermedius and T. ferrooxidans. T. novellus lacks this pathway. Instead, a non-cyclic pentose phosphate pathway along with the Krebs cycle is apparently the major route of glucose dissimilation in this organism. Glucose does not support or stimulate the growth of strains of T. neapolitanus, T. thioparus, and T. thiooxidans examined, nor does its presence in the growth medium greatly influence their enzymatic constitution. These obligately chemolithotrophic thiobacilli do not possess the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. Their nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase activity predominates over their nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)-linked activity; the converse is true for the other thiobacilli. The data suggest that NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase activity in thiobacilli is involved in biosynthetic reactions.

Matin, Abdul; Rittenberg, Sydney C.

1971-01-01

53

The activity of the carbon metabolism enzymes in chromatium minutissimum after long-term storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glyoxylate shunt, as well as of some enzymes involved in carbohydrate\\u000a metabolism, were determined in the purple sulfur bacteriumChromatium minutissimum either maintained by subculturing in liquid medium or stored in the lyophilized state for 36 years. In cultures stored in\\u000a the lyophilized state, the activities of the key enzymes

E. N. KrasH’nikova; L. M. Zakharchuk

2000-01-01

54

Metabolic dysregulation in the SHROB rat reflects abnormal expression of transcription factors and enzymes that regulate carbohydrate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Koletsky (SHROB) strain of rats is spontaneously hypertensive and displays insulin resistance, hyperglucagonemia and hypertriglyceridemia but is normoglycemic under fasting conditions. The aim of this study was to unravel the pattern of expression of genes encoding key regulatory enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and kidney that may be impacted in this strain. We found that SHROB

Chuan Xu; Ifeanyi J. Arinze; Janean Johnson; Tertius T. Tuy; Frederic Bone; Paul Ernsberger; Duna Massillon

2008-01-01

55

Metabolic regulation in mammalian hibernation: Enzyme and protein adaptations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian hibernation requires specific regulatory controls on metabolism to coordinate entry, maintenance, and arousal stages, as well as adjustments to many metabolic functions to support long-term dormancy. Several mechanisms of metabolic regulation are involved in potentiating survival. One of these is the reversible phosphorylation of regulatory enzymes, including glycogen phosphorylase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate dehydrogenase. In particular, the sharp

Kenneth B. Storey

1997-01-01

56

Enzymes of lysine metabolism from Coix lacryma-jobi seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lysine, threonine, methionine and isoleucine are synthesized through the aspartate metabolic pathway. The concentrations of soluble lysine and threonine in cereal seeds are very low. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) is a maize-related grass and the enzymological aspects of the aspartate metabolic pathway are completely unknown. In order to obtain information on lysine metabolism in this plant species, two enzymes involved in

Juverlande Lugli; Adriano Campbell; Salete A Gaziola; Richard J Smith; Peter J Lea; Ricardo A Azevedo

2002-01-01

57

Evolution of Enzymes in Metabolism: A Network Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several models have been proposed to explain the origin and evolution of enzymes in metabolic pathways. Initially, the retro-evolution model proposed that, as enzymes at the end of pathways depleted their substrates in the primordial soup, there was a pressure for earlier enzymes in pathways to be created, using the later ones as initial template, in order to replenish the

Rui Alves; Raphael A. G. Chaleil; Michael J. E. Sternberg

2002-01-01

58

The influence of diet and gastrointestinal fermentation on key enzymes of substrate utilization in marine teleost fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three closely related marine teleosts with similar size, swimming mode, and habitat preference were compared to test the hypothesis that energy metabolism is linked to diet choice in the wild. Key substrate-utilization enzyme activities were assayed from white locomotory muscle and liver in a carnivore (Scorpis violaceus), an omnivore (Girella tricuspidata), and a herbivore (Kyphosus sydneyanus) collected from their natural

Megan E. Willmott; Kendall D. Clements; Rufus M. G. Wells

2005-01-01

59

Obesity as the key player in the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic syndrome is a common cardiovascular risk factor in urbanized areas in China. In Hong Kong, it affects 17.1% of the population, increasing to 21.9% if the lower IOTF Asian cut-off values for central obesity were used. This is probably related to the increasing prevalence of excess adiposity. Epidemiological studies, cross-sectional and prospective, suggest that obesity plays a key role

Karen S. L. Lam; Aimin Xu; Nelson M. S. Wat; Annette W. K. Tso; Mary S. M. Ip

2004-01-01

60

Method of controlling acetylation of metabolic enzymes  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for modulating the activity of an AMP-forming enzyme (AFE) is disclosed. The method is based upon the novel observation that the activity of these enzymes is controlled by acetylation of the enzymes to inactivate them and de-acetylation of the enzymes to re-activate them. The acetylation of the enzyme occurs at a characteristic lysine residue. Various polypeptides, nucleic acids and other molecules that are related to modulating the AFE activity are also disclosed. Further disclosed are methods of modulating cellular acetyl-CoA or propionyl-CoA levels in bacterial hosts, methods of identifying agents that can modulate the activity of AFE acetylases, and methods of identifying AFE mutants that are insensitive to acetylation regulation.

Escalante-Semerena; Jorge C. (Madison, WI); Starai; Vincent J. (Madison, WI)

2009-05-12

61

Ontogeny of steroid metabolizing enzymes in rat oligodendrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rat oligodendroglial cells were isolated from newborn and developing brains and used immediately after, for quantification of steroid metabolizing activities. Oligodendrocytes (Ol) and their progenitor cells were incubated with [14C] testosterone, [14C] progesterone, [14C] pregnenolone or [14C] dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Oligodendrocytes and their progenitor cells expressed different steroid metabolizing enzymes. The main activities were 5? reduction of testosterone and progesterone and

J. L Carre; J. H Abalain; L. L Sarlieve; H. H Floch

2001-01-01

62

Treatment of multifunctional enzymes in metabolic pathway analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In metabolic pathway analysis, it should be considered that many enzymes operate with low specificity (e.g. nucleoside diphosphokinase, uridine kinase, transketolase, aldolase), so that various substrates and products can be converted. Here, we analyze the effect of enzymes with low substrate specificity on the elementary flux modes (pathways). We also study the benefits of two different approaches to describing multifunctional

Stefan Schuster; Ionela Zevedei-Oancea

2002-01-01

63

Metabolic network structure determines key aspects of functionality and regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relationship between structure, function and regulation in complex cellular networks is a still largely open question. Systems biology aims to explain this relationship by combining experimental and theoretical approaches. Current theories have various strengths and shortcomings in providing an integrated, predictive description of cellular networks. Specifically, dynamic mathematical modelling of large-scale networks meets difficulties because the necessary mechanistic detail and kinetic parameters are rarely available. In contrast, structure-oriented analyses only require network topology, which is well known in many cases. Previous approaches of this type focus on network robustness or metabolic phenotype, but do not give predictions on cellular regulation. Here, we devise a theoretical method for simultaneously predicting key aspects of network functionality, robustness and gene regulation from network structure alone. This is achieved by determining and analysing the non-decomposable pathways able to operate coherently at steady state (elementary flux modes). We use the example of Escherichia coli central metabolism to illustrate the method.

Stelling, Jörg; Klamt, Steffen; Bettenbrock, Katja; Schuster, Stefan; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

2002-11-01

64

[The activity of the carbon metabolism enzymes in Chromatium minutissimum after long-term preservation].  

PubMed

The activity of the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glyoxylate shunt, as well as of some enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, were determined in the purple sulfur bacterium Chromatium minutissimum, either maintained by subculturing in liquid medium or stored in the lyophilized state for 36 years. In cultures stored in the lyophilized state, the activities of the key enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glyoxylate shunt, and Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway were higher, whereas the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase, and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase were somewhat lower than in cultures maintained by regular transfers. PMID:10920800

Krasil'nikova, E N; Zakharchuk, L M

65

Characterizing Metabolic Inhibition Using Electrochemical Enzyme-DNA Biosensors  

PubMed Central

Studies of metabolic enzyme inhibition are necessary in drug development and toxicity investigations as potential tools to limit or prevent appearance of deleterious metabolites formed, for example by cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes. In this paper, we evaluate the use of enzyme/DNA toxicity biosensors as tools to investigate enzyme inhibition. We have examined DNA damage due to cyt P450cam metabolism of styrene using DNA/enzyme films on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electro*des monitored via Ru(bpy)32+–mediated DNA oxidation. Styrene metabolism initiated by hydrogen peroxide was evaluated with and without the inhibitors, imidazole, imidazole-4-acetic acid and sulconazole (in micromolar range) to monitor DNA damage inhibition. The initial rates of DNA damage decreased with increased inhibitor concentrations. Linear and nonlinear fits of Michaelis-Menten inhibition models were used to determine apparent inhibition constants (KI*) for the inhibitors. Elucidation of the best fitting inhibition model was achieved by comparing correlation coefficients and the sum of the square of the errors (SSE) from each inhibition model. Results confirmed the utility of the enzyme/DNA biosensor for metabolic inhibition studies. A simple competitive inhibition model best approximated the data for imidazole, imidazole-4-acetic acid and sulconazole with KI* of 268.2, 142.3 and 204.2 µM, respectively.

Hull, Dominic O.; Bajrami, Besnik; Jansson, Ingela; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

2009-01-01

66

Adenine Phosphoribosyl Transferase 1 is a Key Enzyme Catalyzing Cytokinin Conversion from Nucleobases to Nucleotides in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

In plants, the cytokinin metabolic processes, including cytokinin biosynthesis, interconversion, inactivation, and degradation, play critical roles in the regulation of cytokinin homeostasis and plant development. Purine metabolic enzymes have been implied to catalyze the cytokinin interconversion in previous works. In this study, we report that Adenine Phosphoribosyl Transferase 1 (APT1) is the causal gene of the high-dose cytokinin-resistant mutants. APT1 catalyzes the cytokinin conversion from free bases to nucleotides, and is functionally predominant among the five members of the Arabidopsis Adenine Phosphoribosyl Transferase family. Loss of APT1 activity in plants leads to excess accumulation of cytokinin bases, thus evoking myriad cytokinin-regulated responses, such as delayed leaf senescence, anthocyanin accumulation, and downstream gene expression. Thus, our study defines APT1 as a key metabolic enzyme participating in the cytokinin inactivation by phosphoribosylation. PMID:23658065

Zhang, Xinyan; Chen, Yutao; Lin, Xin; Hong, Xinyu; Zhu, Ying; Li, Wenyang; He, Wenrong; An, Fengying; Guo, Hongwei

2013-05-08

67

Enzyme heterozygosity, metabolism, and developmental stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental homeostasis, measured as either fluctuating asymmetry or variance of morphological characters, increases with\\u000a enzyme heterozygosity in many, but not all, natural populations. These results have been reported forDrosophila, monarch butterflies, honeybees, blue mussels, side-blotched lizards, killifish, salmonid fishes, guppies, Sonoran topminnows,\\u000a herring, rufous-collared sparrows, house sparrows, brown hares, white-tailed deer, and humans. Because heterozygosity at a\\u000a few loci can

Jeffry B. Mitton

1993-01-01

68

Effect of n?3 fatty acids on the key enzymes involved in cholesterol and triglyceride turnover in rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of long-chain n?3 fatty acids on hepatic key enzymes of cholesterol metabolism and triglyceride biosynthesis was\\u000a investigated in two rat models. In the first model, rats were intravenously infused for two weeks with a fat emulsion containing\\u000a 20% of triglycerides in which either n?6 or n?3 fatty acids predominated. The treatment with n?3 fatty acids led to a

Ayman Al-Shurbaji; Carin Larsson-Backström; Lars Berglund; Gösta Eggertsen; Ingemar Bjökhem

1991-01-01

69

Enzymes of gluconate metabolism and glycolysis in Penicillium notatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the ability of Penicillium notatum to grow on sucrose, glucose, fructose and gluconate, substantial growth occurred on 2-ketogluconate and 5-ketogluconate thereby indicating a diverse sugar metabolism. Cell-free extracts contained all the enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and for both oxidative and non-oxidative pentose phosphate metabolism. Despite inconsistencies in results between different assay methods for the conventional Entner-Doudoroff

D. Pitt; M. J. Mosley

1985-01-01

70

Regulation of yeast central metabolism by enzyme phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

As a frequent post-translational modification, protein phosphorylation regulates many cellular processes. Although several hundred phosphorylation sites have been mapped to metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, functionality was demonstrated for few of them. Here, we describe a novel approach to identify in vivo functionality of enzyme phosphorylation by combining flux analysis with proteomics and phosphoproteomics. Focusing on the network of 204 enzymes that constitute the yeast central carbon and amino-acid metabolism, we combined protein and phosphoprotein levels to identify 35 enzymes that change their degree of phosphorylation during growth under five conditions. Correlations between previously determined intracellular fluxes and phosphoprotein abundances provided first functional evidence for five novel phosphoregulated enzymes in this network, adding to nine known phosphoenzymes. For the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 ? subunit Pda1 and the newly identified phosphoregulated glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Gpd1 and phosphofructose-1-kinase complex ? subunit Pfk2, we then validated functionality of specific phosphosites through absolute peptide quantification by targeted mass spectrometry, metabolomics and physiological flux analysis in mutants with genetically removed phosphosites. These results demonstrate the role of phosphorylation in controlling the metabolic flux realised by these three enzymes.

Oliveira, Ana Paula; Ludwig, Christina; Picotti, Paola; Kogadeeva, Maria; Aebersold, Ruedi; Sauer, Uwe

2012-01-01

71

The metabolic pathway collection from EMP: the enzymes and metabolic pathways database  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways database (EMP) is an encoding of the contents of over 10 000 original publications on the topics of enzymology and metab- olism. This large body of information has been transformed into a queryable database. An extraction of over 1800 pictorial representations of metabolic pathways from this collection is freely available on the World Wide Web.

Evgeni Selkov; Svetlana Basmanova; Terry Gaasterland; Igor Goryanin; Yuri Grechkin; Natalia Maltsev; Valeri Nenashev; Ross A. Overbeek; Elena Panyushkina; Lyudmila Pronevitch; Ilya Yunus

1996-01-01

72

HEALTH-RELATED EFFECTS OF GENETIC VARIATIONS OF ALCOHOL-METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN AFRICAN AMERICANS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol metabolism involves two key enzymes—alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). There are several types of ADH and ALDH, each of which may exist in several variants (i.e., isoforms) that differ in their ability to break down alcohol and its toxic metabolite acetaldehyde. The isoforms are encoded by different gene variants (i.e., alleles) whose distribution among ethnic groups differs.

Denise M. Scott; Robert E. Taylor

73

Monitoring the Metabolic Status of Geobacter Species in Contaminated Groundwater by Quantifying Key Metabolic Proteins with Geobacter-Specific Antibodies?  

PubMed Central

Simple and inexpensive methods for assessing the metabolic status and bioremediation activities of subsurface microorganisms are required before bioremediation practitioners will adopt molecular diagnosis of the bioremediation community as a routine practice for guiding the development of bioremediation strategies. Quantifying gene transcripts can diagnose important aspects of microbial physiology during bioremediation but is technically challenging and does not account for the impact of translational modifications on protein abundance. An alternative strategy is to directly quantify the abundance of key proteins that might be diagnostic of physiological state. To evaluate this strategy, an antibody-based quantification approach was developed to investigate subsurface Geobacter communities. The abundance of citrate synthase corresponded with rates of metabolism of Geobacter bemidjiensis in chemostat cultures. During in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater the quantity of Geobacter citrate synthase increased with the addition of acetate to the groundwater and decreased when acetate amendments stopped. The abundance of the nitrogen-fixation protein, NifD, increased as ammonium became less available in the groundwater and then declined when ammonium concentrations increased. In a petroleum-contaminated aquifer, the abundance of BamB, an enzyme subunit involved in the anaerobic degradation of mono-aromatic compounds by Geobacter species, increased in zones in which Geobacter were expected to play an important role in aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. These results suggest that antibody-based detection of key metabolic proteins, which should be readily adaptable to standardized kits, may be a feasible method for diagnosing the metabolic state of microbial communities responsible for bioremediation, aiding in the rational design of bioremediation strategies.

Yun, Jiae; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Miletto, Marzia; Lovley, Derek R.

2011-01-01

74

Metabolically healthy but obese individuals: relationship with hepatic enzymes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of plasma hepatic enzymes in obese women displaying the metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) phenotype. We studied 104 obese, sedentary, postmenopausal women. Subjects were classified as MHO or at risk based on insulin sensitivity as assessed with the oral glucose tolerance test-derived Matsuda index. Subjects were divided into quartiles according to insulin sensitivity values. Subjects in the upper quartile were categorized as MHO, whereas subjects in the lower 3 quartiles represented at-risk subjects. Outcome measures were hepatic enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase [GGT

Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony D; Robillard, Marie-Eve; Bellefeuille, Philippe; Brochu, Martin; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

2009-08-25

75

Engineering isoflavone metabolism with an artificial bifunctional enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant secondary metabolism has been a focus of research in recent years due to its significant roles in plant defense and\\u000a in human medicine and nutrition. A protein engineering strategy was designed to more effectively manipulate plant secondary\\u000a metabolite (isoflavonoid) biosynthesis. A bifunctional isoflavone synthase\\/chalcone isomerase (IFS\\/CHI) enzyme was constructed\\u000a by in-frame gene fusion, and expressed in yeast and tobacco.

L. Tian; R. A. Dixon

2006-01-01

76

The transferome of metabolic genes explored: analysis of the horizontal transfer of enzyme encoding genes in unicellular eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic networks are responsible for many essential cellular processes, and exhibit a high level of evolutionary conservation from bacteria to eukaryotes. If genes encoding metabolic enzymes are horizontally transferred and are advantageous, they are likely to become fixed. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a key role in prokaryotic evolution and its importance in eukaryotes is increasingly evident. High levels of endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) accompanied the establishment of plastids and mitochondria, and more recent events have allowed further acquisition of bacterial genes. Here, we present the first comprehensive multi-species analysis of E/HGT of genes encoding metabolic enzymes from bacteria to unicellular eukaryotes. Results The phylogenetic trees of 2,257 metabolic enzymes were used to make E/HGT assertions in ten groups of unicellular eukaryotes, revealing the sources and metabolic processes of the transferred genes. Analyses revealed a preference for enzymes encoded by genes gained through horizontal and endosymbiotic transfers to be connected in the metabolic network. Enrichment in particular functional classes was particularly revealing: alongside plastid related processes and carbohydrate metabolism, this highlighted a number of pathways in eukaryotic parasites that are rich in enzymes encoded by transferred genes, and potentially key to pathogenicity. The plant parasites Phytophthora were discovered to have a potential pathway for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis of E/HGT origin not seen before in eukaryotes outside the Plantae. Conclusions The number of enzymes encoded by genes gained through E/HGT has been established, providing insight into functional gain during the evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. In eukaryotic parasites, genes encoding enzymes that have been gained through horizontal transfer may be attractive drug targets if they are part of processes not present in the host, or are significantly diverged from equivalent host enzymes.

Whitaker, John W; McConkey, Glenn A; Westhead, David R

2009-01-01

77

Clinically relevant genetic variations in drug metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

In the field of pharmacogenetics, we currently have a few markers to guide physicians as to the best course of therapy for patients. For the most part, these genetic variants are within a drug metabolizing enzyme that has a large effect on the degree or rate at which a drug is converted to its metabolites. For many drugs, response and toxicity are multi-genic traits and understanding relationships between a patient's genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes and the efficacy and/or toxicity of a medication offers the potential to optimize therapies. This review will focus on variants in drug metabolizing enzymes with predictable and relatively large impacts on drug efficacy and/or toxicity; some of these drug/gene variant pairs have impacted drug labels by the United States Food and Drug Administration. The challenges in identifying genetic markers and implementing clinical changes based on known markers will be discussed. In addition, the impact of next generation sequencing in identifying rare variants will be addressed. PMID:21453273

Pinto, Navin; Dolan, M Eileen

2011-06-01

78

Clinically Relevant Genetic Variations in Drug Metabolizing Enzymes  

PubMed Central

In the field of pharmacogenetics, we currently have a few markers to guide physicians as to the best course of therapy for patients. For the most part, these genetic variants are within a drug metabolizing enzyme that has a large effect on the degree or rate at which a drug is converted to its metabolites. For many drugs, response and toxicity are multi-genic traits and understanding relationships between a patient's genetic variation in drug metabolizing enzymes and the efficacy and/or toxicity of a medication offers the potential to optimize therapies. This review will focus on variants in drug metabolizing enzymes with predictable and relatively large impacts on drug efficacy and/or toxicity; some of these drug/gene variant pairs have impacted drug labels by the United States Food and Drug Administration. The challenges in identifying genetic markers and implementing clinical changes based on known markers will be discussed. In addition, the impact of next generation sequencing in identifying rare variants will be addressed.

Pinto, Navin; Dolan, M. Eileen

2011-01-01

79

Global probabilistic annotation of metabolic networks enables enzyme discovery  

PubMed Central

Annotation of organism-specific metabolic networks is one of the main challenges of systems biology. Importantly, due to inherent uncertainty of computational annotations, predictions of biochemical function need to be treated probabilistically. We present a global probabilistic approach to annotate genome-scale metabolic networks that integrates sequence homology and context-based correlations under a single principled framework. The developed method for Global Biochemical reconstruction Using Sampling (GLOBUS) not only provides annotation probabilities for each functional assignment, but also suggests likely alternative functions. GLOBUS is based on statistical Gibbs sampling of probable metabolic annotations and is able to make accurate functional assignments even in cases of remote sequence identity to known enzymes. We apply GLOBUS to genomes of Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, and validate the method predictions by experimentally demonstrating the 6-phosphogluconolactonase activity of ykgB and the role of the sps pathway for rhamnose biosynthesis in B. subtilis.

Plata, German; Fuhrer, Tobias; Hsiao, Tzu-Lin; Sauer, Uwe; Vitkup, Dennis

2013-01-01

80

Carbon Metabolism Enzymes of Rhizobium tropici Cultures and Bacteroids  

PubMed Central

We determined the activities of selected enzymes involved in carbon metabolism in free-living cells of Rhizobium tropici CFN299 grown in minimal medium with different carbon sources and in bacteroids of the same strain. The set of enzymatic activities in sucrose-grown cells suggests that the pentose phosphate pathway, with the participation of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, is probably the primary route for sugar catabolism. In glutamate- and malate-grown cells, high activities of the gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose-6-phosphate aldolase, and fructose bisphosphatase) were detected. In bacteroids, isolated in Percoll gradients, the levels of activity for many of the enzymes measured were similar to those of malate-grown cells, except that higher activities of glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were detected. Phosphoglucomutase and UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase showed high and constant levels under all growth conditions and in bacteroids.

Romanov, Vassily I.; Hernandez-Lucas, Ismael; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza

1994-01-01

81

Endoribonucleases--enzymes gaining spotlight in mRNA metabolism.  

PubMed

The efficient turnover of messenger RNA represents an important mechanism that allows the cell to control gene expression. Until recently, the mechanism of mRNA decay was mainly attributed to exonucleases, comprising enzymes that degrade RNAs from the ends of the molecules. This article summarizes the endoribonucleases, comprising enzymes that cleave RNA molecules internally, which were identified in more recent years in eukaryotic mRNA metabolism. Endoribonucleases have received little attention in the past, based on the difficulty in their identification and a lack of understanding of their physiological significance. This review aims to compare the similarities and differences among this group of enzymes, as well as their known cellular functions. Despite the many differences in protein structure, and thus difficulties in identifying them based on amino acid sequence, most endoribonucleases possess essential cellular functions and have been shown to play an important role in mRNA turnover. PMID:19968858

Li, Wai Ming; Barnes, Tavish; Lee, Chow H

2009-12-04

82

Systems Biology Framework for Modeling Metabolic Enzyme Inhibition of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background: Because metabolism is fundamental in sustaining microbial life, drugs that target pathogen-specific metabolic enzymes and pathways can be very effective. In particular, the metabolic challenges faced by intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobac...

A. Wallqvist J. Reifman X. Fang

2009-01-01

83

Crystallization of three key glycolytic enzymes of the opportunistic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the major causes of waterborne diseases worldwide. This protozoan parasite depends mainly on the anaerobic oxidation of glucose for energy production. In order to identify the differences in the three-dimensional structure of key glycolytic enzymes of C. parvum and its human host, we have expressed, purified and crystallized recombinant versions of three important glycolytic enzymes

Olga Senkovich; Haley Speed; Alexei Grigorian; Kelley Bradley; Chodavarapu S. Ramarao; Guan Zhu; Debasish Chattopadhyay

2005-01-01

84

Impact of expression of EMP enzymes on glucose metabolism in Zymomonas mobilis.  

PubMed

Zymomonas mobilis is the only known microorganism that utilizes the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway anaerobically. In this work, we investigated whether the overexpression of a phosphofructokinase (PFK), the only missing Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway enzyme, could establish the pathway in this organism. Introduction of a pyrophosphate-dependent PFK, along with co-expression of homologous fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and triosephosphate isomerase, did not result in an EMP flux to any appreciable level. However, the metabolism of glucose was impacted significantly. Eight percent of glucose was metabolized to form a new metabolite, dihydroxyacetone. Reducing flux through the ED pathway by as much as 40 % through antisense of a key enzyme, ED aldolase, did not result in a fully functional EMP pathway, suggesting that the ED pathway, especially the lower arm, downstream from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, is very rigid, possibly due to redox balance. PMID:23613118

Chen, Rachel Ruizhen; Agrawal, Manoj; Mao, Zichao

2013-04-24

85

The tangled past of eukaryotic enzymes involved in anaerobic metabolism  

PubMed Central

There is little doubt that genes can spread across unrelated prokaryotes, eukaryotes and even between these domains. It is expected that organisms inhabiting a common niche may exchange their genes even more often due to their physical proximity and similar demands. One such niche is anaerobic or microaerophilic environments in some sediments and intestines of animals. Indeed, enzymes advantageous for metabolism in these environments often exhibit an evolutionary history incoherent with the history of their hosts indicating potential transfers. The evolutionary paths of some very basic enzymes for energy metabolism of anaerobic eukaryotes (pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, [FeFe]hydrogenase and arginine deiminase) seems to be particularly intriguing and although their histories are not identical they share several unexpected features in common. Every enzyme mentioned above is present in groups of eukaryotes that are unrelated to each other. Although the enzyme phylogenies are not always robustly supported, they always suggest that the eukaryotic homologues form one or two clades, in which the relationships are not congruent with the eukaryotic phylogeny. Finally, these eukaryotic enzymes are never specifically related to homologues from ?-proteobacteria, ancestors of mitochondria. The most plausible explanation for evolution of this pattern expects one or two interdomain transfers to one or two eukaryotes from prokaryotes, who were not the mitochondrial endosymbiont. Once the genes were introduced into the eukaryotic domain they have spread to other eukaryotic groups exclusively via eukaryote-to-eukaryote transfers. Currently, eukaryote-to-eukaryote gene transfers have been regarded as less common than prokaryote-to-eukaryote transfers. The fact that eukaryotes accepted genes for these enzymes solely from other eukaryotes and not prokaryotes present in the same environment is surprising.

Stairs, Courtney W; Roger, Andrew J

2011-01-01

86

Innate immune receptors: key regulators of metabolic disease progression.  

PubMed

The study of the intersection of immunology and metabolism is a growing field fueled by the increased prevalence of obesity-associated pathologies. Importantly, the capacity of the innate immune system to sense metabolic stress induced by nutritional surplus has been linked with the progression of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and atherosclerosis. Moreover, it is clear that the innate immune system regulates the composition of the intestinal microbiota, which impacts multiple host metabolic processes. Here we review recent studies in this emerging field with an emphasis on how innate immune receptors determine metabolic disease progression. PMID:23747246

Jin, Chengcheng; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Flavell, Richard A

2013-06-01

87

Up-regulation of photosynthesis and sucrose metabolism enzymes in young expanding leaves of sugarcane under elevated growth CO2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf photosynthesis (CER), levels of soluble protein and chlorophyll (Chl), and activities of key enzymes involved in C4 photosynthesis and sucrose metabolism were determined during leaf ontogeny for sugarcane grown at 360 and 720 ppm CO2. After leaf emergence, although leaf CER of both CO2 treatmen...

88

Enzymes To Die For: Exploiting Nucleotide Metabolizing Enzymes for Cancer Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Suicide gene therapy is an attractive strategy to selectively destroy cancer cells while minimizing unnecessary toxicity to normal cells. Since this idea was first introduced more than two decades ago, numerous studies have been conducted and significant developments have been made to further its application for mainstream cancer therapy. Major limitations of the suicide gene therapy strategy that have hindered its clinical application include inefficient directed delivery to cancer cells and the poor prodrug activation capacity of suicide enzymes. This review is focused on efforts that have been and are currently being pursued to improve the activity of individual suicide enzymes towards their respective prodrugs with particular attention to the application of nucleotide metabolizing enzymes in suicide cancer gene therapy. A number of protein engineering strategies have been employed and our discussion here will center on the use of mutagenesis approaches to create and evaluate nucleotide metabolizing enzymes with enhanced prodrug activation capacity and increased thermostability. Several of these studies have yielded clinically important enzyme variants that are relevant for cancer gene therapy applications because their utilization can serve to maximize cancer cell killing while minimizing the prodrug dose, thereby limiting undesirable side effects.

Ardiani, Andressa; Johnson, Adam J.; Ruan, Hongmei; Sanchez-Bonilla, Marilyn; Serve, Kinta; Black, Margaret E.

2012-01-01

89

Alteration of drug metabolizing enzymes in sulphite oxidase deficiency  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of sulphite oxidase (SOX, E.C. 1.8.3.1) deficiency on xenobiotic metabolism. For this purpose, SOX deficiency was produced in rats by the administration of a low molybdenum diet with concurrent addition of 200 ppm tungsten to their drinking water. First, hepatic SOX activity in deficient groups was measured to confirm SOX deficiency. Then, aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase, aromatase, caffeine N-demethylase, cytochrome b5 reductase, erythromycin N-demethylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathione S-transferase, N-nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylase and penthoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were determined to follow changes in the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes in SOX-deficient rats. Our results clearly demonstrated that SOX deficiency significantly elevated A4H, caffeine N-demethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase and N-nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylase activities while decreasing ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aromatase activities. These alterations in drug metabolizing enzymes can contribute to the varying susceptibility and response of sulphite-sensitive individuals to different drugs and/or therapeutics used for treatments.

Tutuncu, Begum; Kucukatay, Vural; Arslan, Sevki; Sahin, Barbaros; Semiz, Asli; Sen, Alaattin

2012-01-01

90

Carbohydrate-active enzymes exemplify entropic principles in metabolism  

PubMed Central

Glycans comprise ubiquitous and essential biopolymers, which usually occur as highly diverse mixtures. The myriad different structures are generated by a limited number of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), which are unusual in that they catalyze multiple reactions by being relatively unspecific with respect to substrate size. Existing experimental and theoretical descriptions of CAZyme-mediated reaction systems neither comprehensively explain observed action patterns nor suggest biological functions of polydisperse pools in metabolism. Here, we overcome these limitations with a novel theoretical description of this important class of biological systems in which the mixing entropy of polydisperse pools emerges as an important system variable. In vitro assays of three CAZymes essential for central carbon metabolism confirm the power of our approach to predict equilibrium distributions and non-equilibrium dynamics. A computational study of the turnover of the soluble heteroglycan pool exemplifies how entropy-driven reactions establish a metabolic buffer in vivo that attenuates fluctuations in carbohydrate availability. We argue that this interplay between energy- and entropy-driven processes represents an important regulatory design principle of metabolic systems.

Kartal, Onder; Mahlow, Sebastian; Skupin, Alexander; Ebenhoh, Oliver

2011-01-01

91

Ontogenesis of phase I hepatic drug metabolic enzymes in sheep.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are important for the metabolism of many drugs. While there is information on their identity and ontogeny in humans and rodents, similar data in sheep are lacking. In the present study, cDNA sequences of several CYP enzymes (CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6) were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. In adult, newborn and fetal sheep the mRNA and protein levels of these CYPs and the regulatory factor, hepatic nuclear factor 4? (HNF4?) were determined in liver samples using real-time PCR and western blotting. The effect of antenatal glucocorticoid on these enzymes was also studied by i.v. infusion of cortisol (0.45 mgh(-1); 80 h) to another group of fetuses. The mRNA and protein levels of the CYPs and HNF4? were low or absent in the fetus, followed by increasing levels in the newborn and adult. Fetal cortisol administration significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of CYP2D6. Moreover, the correlation observed between the CYP and HNF4? mRNA levels suggests a possible regulatory role for this transcription factor. The findings suggest that fetal and newborn lambs have a low ability to metabolise drugs that are substrates of these enzymes, and that this ability increases with advancing postnatal age, similar to the situation in humans. PMID:22401274

Pretheeban, Manoja; Hammond, Geoff; Bandiera, Stelvio; Riggs, Wayne; Rurak, Dan

2012-01-01

92

Drug metabolizing enzyme systems in the houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata).  

PubMed

This study compared catalytic and immunochemical properties of drug metabolizing phase I and II enzyme systems in houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) liver and kidney and rat liver. P450 content in bustard liver (0.34 +/- 0.03 nmol mg-1 protein) was 50% lower than that of rat liver (0.70 +/- 0.02 nmol mg-1 protein). With the exception of aniline hydroxylase activity, monooxygenase activities using aminopyrine, ethoxyresorufin and ethoxycoumarin as substrates were all significantly lower than corresponding rat liver enzymes. As found in mammalian systems the P450 activities in the bird liver were higher than in the kidney. Immunohistochemical analysis of microsomes using antibodies to rat hepatic P450 demonstrated that bustard liver and kidney express P4502C11 homologous protein; no appreciable cross-reactivity was observed in bustards using antibodies to P4502E1, 1A1 or 1A2 isoenzymes. Glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in bustard liver were comparable with those of rat liver. GST activity in the kidney was 65% lower than the liver. Western blotting of liver and kidney cytosol with human GST isoenzyme-specific antibodies revealed that the expression of alpha-class of antibodies exceeds mu in the bustard. In contrast, the pi-class of GST was not detected in the bustard liver. This data demonstrates that hepatic and renal microsomes from the bustard have multiple forms of phase I and phase II enzymes. The multiplicity and tissue specific expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in bustards may play a significant role in determining the pharmacokinetics of drugs and susceptibility of the birds to various environmental pollutants and toxic insults. PMID:9827052

Bailey, T A; John, A; Mensah-Brown, E P; Garner, A; Samour, J; Raza, H

1998-10-01

93

Carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c): two key regulators of glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis in liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, the regulation of hepatic metabolism plays a key role in whole body energy balance, since the liver is the major site of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and glycogen synthesis) and triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis). Lipogenesis is regulated through the acute control of key enzyme activities by means of allosteric and covalent modifications. Moreover, the synthesis of most glycolytic and lipogenic

Renaud Dentin; Jean Girard; Catherine Postic

2005-01-01

94

2D SMARTCyp Reactivity-Based Site of Metabolism Prediction for Major Drug-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzymes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2 are the most important drug-metabolizing enzymes in the human liver. Knowledge of which parts of a drug molecule are subject to metabolic reactions catalyzed by these enzymes is crucial for rational drug ...

A. Wallqvist G. Tawa J. Liu R. Liu

2012-01-01

95

Substrate specificity and diastereoselectivity of strictosidine glucosidase, a key enzyme in monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strictosidine glucosidase (SGD) from Catharanthus roseus catalyzes the deglycosylation of strictosidine, an intermediate from which thousands of monoterpene indole alkaloids are derived. The steady-state kinetics of SGD with a variety of strictosidine analogs revealed the substrate preferences of this enzyme at two key positions of the strictosidine substrate. Additionally, SGD from C. roseus turns over both strictosidine and its stereoisomer

Nancy Yerkes; Jia Xin Wu; Elizabeth McCoy; M. Carmen Galan; Shi Chen; Sarah E. O’Connor

2008-01-01

96

Skeletal muscles express the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme arylamine N-acetyltransferase.  

PubMed

The human arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) NAT1 and NAT2 are enzymes responsible for the acetylation of many arylamines and hydrazines, thereby playing an important role in both detoxification and activation of many drugs and carcinogens. Both enzymes show polymorphisms but exhibit key differences in substrate selectivity and tissue expression. In the present study, reverse transcriptase-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the expression of the NATs in human skeletal muscle. Despite the presence of its mRNA, NAT2 enzyme level was below the limit of detection. In contrast, both NAT1 mRNA and enzyme were readily detected in fetal, newborn, and adult muscles. In addition, punctate cytoplasmic and perinuclear NAT1 immunostaining was observed in all tissue sections, the staining being more intense in the fetal tissue. High expression of NAT1 enzyme in fetal muscle was also suggested by Western blotting. Because skeletal muscle accounts for a large proportion of body mass, muscle NAT1 expression may contribute significantly to the total activity in the body. These results further support the involvement of skeletal muscle in the metabolism of xenobiotics. PMID:12754290

Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Cooper, Racquel N; Goudeau, Bertrand; Atmane, Noureddine; Chamagne, Anne-Marie; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Sim, Edith; Vicart, Patrick; Dupret, Jean-Marie

2003-06-01

97

Reactive Phosphate Esters as Affinity Labels for Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism have an affinity for small organic anions. An attempt was made to exploit the common binding specificities of enzymes, whose substrates are phosphate esters, in the design and use of affinity labels. The basic premi...

F. C. Hartman I. L. Norton C. D. Stringer J. V. Schloss

1978-01-01

98

Metabolic dysregulation in the SHROB rat reflects abnormal expression of transcription factors and enzymes that regulate carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

The Koletsky (SHROB) strain of rats is spontaneously hypertensive and displays insulin resistance, hyperglucagonemia and hypertriglyceridemia but is normoglycemic under fasting conditions. The aim of this study was to unravel the pattern of expression of genes encoding key regulatory enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and kidney that may be impacted in this strain. We found that SHROB animals have decreased beta-adrenergic receptor density and, consequently, blunted increases in cAMP levels in response to beta-adrenergic agonists. They also have lower levels of hepatic as well as renal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) mRNA and protein than their lean littermates. Expression of the genes for glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase was also decreased. Hepatocytes from the SHROB animals exhibited glycogen depletion of only 50% compared to 86% by hepatocytes from lean littermates when challenged with either glucagon or forskolin to stimulate adenylyl cyclase. The expression of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta, two key transcription factors that are essential for the coordinated expression of genes involved in glucose homeostasis, was depressed in livers of the SHROB rats, as were levels of HNF-4alpha, PPARalpha and PGC-1alpha. We conclude that overproduction of glucose is prevented in the SHROB rats by decreased expression of the genes for glycogen phosphorylase and the gluconeogenic enzymes PEPCK and G6Pase, which may prevent progression to diabetes in this model. PMID:17683927

Xu, Chuan; Arinze, Ifeanyi J; Johnson, Janean; Tuy, Tertius T; Bone, Frederic; Ernsberger, Paul; Massillon, Duna

2007-08-01

99

Clotrimazole potentiates the inhibitory effects of ATP on the key glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clotrimazole (CTZ) has been proposed as a potential anti-neoplastic agent, which inhibits glucose metabolism. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of CTZ on the kinetic mechanism of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK). We show that CTZ promotes a dose-dependent inhibition of PFK, presenting a Ki of 28±2?M. Inhibition occurs through the dissociation of the enzyme tetramers, as demonstrated through fluorescence spectroscopy

Mariah Celestino Marcondes; Mauro Sola-Penna; Patricia Zancan

2010-01-01

100

Development of enzymes of energy metabolism in the neonatal mammalian brain.  

PubMed

The metabolic capability for the complete oxidation of glucose, i.e. aerobic glycolysis, is highly developed in the brains of neurologically mature (precocial) species at birth, whereas this activity is severely limited in the brains of neurologically immature (non-precocial) species such as the rat and human. The latter utilize a mixture of glucose and ketone bodies for synthetic and energetic activities and the advent of neurological competence associated with the capability for complete dependence on and oxidation of glucose must await the development of key enzymes such as the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC). A similar relationship appears to exist with respect to the development of neurological maturity of different brain regions in a single species, the rat. The development of the enzymes of energy metabolism of neonatal rat brain will be discussed with respect to the energy fuels available to the neonatal brain. In particular mechanisms by which the PDHC develops in neonatal brain will be evaluated. Evidence suggests that this is due to a specific increase in enzyme protein in contrast to a general increase in mitochondrial activity. PMID:7805569

Clark, J B; Bates, T E; Cullingford, T; Land, J M

1993-01-01

101

ATP-citrate lyase: a key player in cancer metabolism.  

PubMed

ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) is a cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the generation of acetyl CoA from citrate. Acetyl CoA is a vital building block for the endogenous biosynthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol and is involved in isoprenoid-based protein modifications. Acetyl CoA is also required for acetylation reactions that modify proteins, such as histone acetylation. ACLY is upregulated or activated in several types of cancers, and its inhibition is known to induce proliferation arrest in cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The present review highlights current knowledge about the role of ACLY in cancer cells, with special reference to the different pathways that are linked by ACLY. PMID:22787121

Zaidi, Nousheen; Swinnen, Johannes V; Smans, Karine

2012-07-10

102

Unique sugar metabolism and novel enzymes of hyperthermophilic archaea.  

PubMed

Hyperthermophiles are a group of microorganisms that have their optimum growth temperature above 80 degrees C. More than 60 species of the hyperthermophiles have been isolated from marine and continental volcanic environments. Most hyperthermophiles belong to Archaea, the third domain of life, and are considered to be the most ancient of all extant life forms. Recent studies have revealed the presence of unusual sugar metabolic processes in hyperthermophilic archaea, for example, a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway, that has so far not been observed in bacteria and eucarya. Several novel enzymes, such as ADP-dependent glucokinase, ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, phosphoenolpyruvate synthase, pyruvate : ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and ADP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase, have been found to be involved in a modified Embden-Meyerhof pathway of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. In addition, a unique mode of ATP regeneration has been postulated to exist in the pathway of P. furiosus. The metabolic design observed in this microorganism might reflect the situation at an early stage of evolution. PMID:14762828

Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Goda, Shuichiro; Ohshima, Toshihisa

2004-01-01

103

Metaproteomic Analysis of a Chemosynthetic Hydrothermal Vent Community Reveals Insights into Key-Metabolic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005 researchers at the Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, Norway, discovered two active vent fields at the southwestern Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The fields harbours both low-temperature iron deposits and high-temperature white smoker vents. Distinct microbial mats were abundantly present and located in close vicinity to the hydrothermal vent sites. Characteristics of the mat environment were steep physical and chemical gradients with temperatures ranging from 10°C in the top layer to 90°C at 10 cm bsf and high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methane. The work presented here focus on the In situ community activities, and is part of an integrated strategy combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics to in-depth characterise these newly discovered hydrothermal vent communities. Extracted proteins were separated via SDS-PAGE. Peptides extracted after In-gel tryptic digest was injected into an Ultimate 3000 nanoLC system connected to a linear quadropole ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) mass spectrometer equipped with a nanoelectrospray ion source. A custom database of open reading frames (ORFs) from the combined metatranscriptome and metagenome datasets was implemented and searched against using Mascot 2.2; the IRMa tool box [1] was used in peptide validation. Validated ORFs were subjected to a Blastp search against Refseq with an E-value cut-off of 0.001. A total of 1097 proteins with ? 2 peptides were identified of which 921 gave a hit against Refseq, containing 519 unique proteins. Key enzymes of the sulfur oxidation pathway (sox) were found, which were taxonomically affiliated to Epsilonproteobacteria. In addition, this group actively expressed hydrogenases and membrane proteins involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains. Enzymes of dissimilatory sulfate-reduction (APS-reductase, AprAB and DsrA2) were found with closest hit to members of the Deltaproteobacteria. These findings indicate an internal sulfur cycle within the community. The community contained expressed enzymes of a variety of carbon metabolism pathways. Key enzymes of the reverse TCA cycle for fixation of CO2 and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for oxidation of acetyl-CoA and / or the fixation of CO2 were found. Key enzymes of aerobic and anaerobic methane-oxidation pathways were identified as well, namely particulate methane monooxygenase and methyl-Coenzyme M reductase. Various house-keeping gene-products, like cold- and heat shock proteins as well as ribosomal proteins and ATP synthases were identified. This approach has a future potential of broadening our understanding of environmental complexity and regulation in response to geochemical constraints. [1] Dupierris, V., Masselon, C., Court, M., Kieffer-Jaquinod, S., and Bruley, C. (2009) A toolbox for validation of mass spectrometry peptides identification and generation of database: IRMa. Bioinformatics 25, 1980-1981.

Steen, I.; Stokke, R.; Lanzen, A.; Pedersen, R.; Řvreĺs, L.; Urich, T.

2010-12-01

104

Lack of evidence for metabolism of p-phenylenediamine by human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes.  

PubMed

p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a widely used ingredient in permanent hair dyes; however, little has been published on its metabolism, especially with respect to hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidation. This is regarded as a key step in the activation of carcinogenic arylamines that ultimately leads to the development of bladder cancer. Most epidemiology studies show no significant association between personal use of hair dyes and bladder cancer, but one recent study reported an increased risk of bladder cancer in women who were frequent users of permanent hair dyes. The aim of the present study was to use intact human hepatocytes, human liver microsomes, and heterologously expressed human CYPs to determine whether PPD is metabolised by hepatic CYPs to form an N-hydroxylamine. p-Phenylenediamine was N-acetylated by human hepatocytes to form N-acetylated metabolites, but there was no evidence for the formation of mono-oxygenated metabolites or for enzyme-mediated covalent binding of 14C-PPD to microsomal protein. In contrast, 2-aminofluorene underwent CYP-mediated metabolism to > or = 4 different hydroxylated metabolites. The lack of evidence for hepatic CYP-mediated metabolism of PPD is inconsistent with the hypothesis that this compound plays a causal role in the development of bladder cancer via a mode of action involving hepatic metabolism to an N-hydroxyarylamine. PMID:15840428

Stanley, Lesley A; Skare, Julie A; Doyle, Edward; Powrie, Robert; D'Angelo, Diane; Elcombe, Clifford R

2005-06-01

105

Short and long-term effects of refeeding on key enzyme activities in glycolysis–gluconeogenesis in the liver of gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand metabolic adaptations during the starved-to-fed transition, the modulation of key enzyme activities in glycolysis–gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway was studied in liver of gilthead seabream. Starvation resulted in barely detectable levels of glycogen, a low liver-somatic index (LSI), a decrease in 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6P-DH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PG-DH), and an

I. Metón; F. Fernández; I. V. Baanante

2003-01-01

106

Heterologous expression and maturation of an NADP-dependent [NiFe]-hydrogenase: a key enzyme in biofuel production.  

PubMed

Hydrogen gas is a major biofuel and is metabolized by a wide range of microorganisms. Microbial hydrogen production is catalyzed by hydrogenase, an extremely complex, air-sensitive enzyme that utilizes a binuclear nickel-iron [NiFe] catalytic site. Production and engineering of recombinant [NiFe]-hydrogenases in a genetically-tractable organism, as with metalloprotein complexes in general, has met with limited success due to the elaborate maturation process that is required, primarily in the absence of oxygen, to assemble the catalytic center and functional enzyme. We report here the successful production in Escherichia coli of the recombinant form of a cytoplasmic, NADP-dependent hydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus, an anaerobic hyperthermophile. This was achieved using novel expression vectors for the co-expression of thirteen P. furiosus genes (four structural genes encoding the hydrogenase and nine encoding maturation proteins). Remarkably, the native E. coli maturation machinery will also generate a functional hydrogenase when provided with only the genes encoding the hydrogenase subunits and a single protease from P. furiosus. Another novel feature is that their expression was induced by anaerobic conditions, whereby E. coli was grown aerobically and production of recombinant hydrogenase was achieved by simply changing the gas feed from air to an inert gas (N2). The recombinant enzyme was purified and shown to be functionally similar to the native enzyme purified from P. furiosus. The methodology to generate this key hydrogen-producing enzyme has dramatic implications for the production of hydrogen and NADPH as vehicles for energy storage and transport, for engineering hydrogenase to optimize production and catalysis, as well as for the general production of complex, oxygen-sensitive metalloproteins. PMID:20463892

Sun, Junsong; Hopkins, Robert C; Jenney, Francis E; McTernan, Patrick M; Adams, Michael W W

2010-05-06

107

Heterologous Expression and Maturation of an NADP-Dependent [NiFe]-Hydrogenase: A Key Enzyme in Biofuel Production  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen gas is a major biofuel and is metabolized by a wide range of microorganisms. Microbial hydrogen production is catalyzed by hydrogenase, an extremely complex, air-sensitive enzyme that utilizes a binuclear nickel-iron [NiFe] catalytic site. Production and engineering of recombinant [NiFe]-hydrogenases in a genetically-tractable organism, as with metalloprotein complexes in general, has met with limited success due to the elaborate maturation process that is required, primarily in the absence of oxygen, to assemble the catalytic center and functional enzyme. We report here the successful production in Escherichia coli of the recombinant form of a cytoplasmic, NADP-dependent hydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus, an anaerobic hyperthermophile. This was achieved using novel expression vectors for the co-expression of thirteen P. furiosus genes (four structural genes encoding the hydrogenase and nine encoding maturation proteins). Remarkably, the native E. coli maturation machinery will also generate a functional hydrogenase when provided with only the genes encoding the hydrogenase subunits and a single protease from P. furiosus. Another novel feature is that their expression was induced by anaerobic conditions, whereby E. coli was grown aerobically and production of recombinant hydrogenase was achieved by simply changing the gas feed from air to an inert gas (N2). The recombinant enzyme was purified and shown to be functionally similar to the native enzyme purified from P. furiosus. The methodology to generate this key hydrogen-producing enzyme has dramatic implications for the production of hydrogen and NADPH as vehicles for energy storage and transport, for engineering hydrogenase to optimize production and catalysis, as well as for the general production of complex, oxygen-sensitive metalloproteins.

Jenney, Francis E.; McTernan, Patrick M.; Adams, Michael W. W.

2010-01-01

108

Induction and Regulation of the Carcinogen-Metabolizing Enzyme CYP1A1 by Marijuana Smoke and D 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a key step in the development of to- bacco-related cancers. To determine if marijuana smoke acti- vates CYP1A1, a murine hepatoma cell line expressing an in- ducible CYP1A1 gene (Hepa-1) was exposed in vitro to tar extracts prepared from either tobacco, marijuana, or placebo marijuana cigarettes. Marijuana tar induced higher levels

Michael D. Roth; Jose A. Marques-Magallanes; Michael Yuan; Weimin Sun; Donald P. Tashkin; Oliver Hankinson

109

The plasma membrane redox enzyme NQO1 sustains cellular energetics and protects human neuroblastoma cells against metabolic and proteotoxic stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-related enzymes plays a key role in the\\u000a maintenance of cellular energetics. During the aging process, neural cells are particularly sensitive to impaired energy metabolism\\u000a and oxidative damage, but the involvement of the PMRS in these processes is unknown. Here, we used human neuroblastoma cells\\u000a with either elevated or reduced

Dong-Hoon Hyun; Jiyeong Kim; Chanil Moon; Chang-Jin Lim; Rafael de Cabo; Mark P. Mattson

110

Methylated analogs of spermine and spermidine as tools to investigate cellular functions of polyamines and enzymes of their metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic amines spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd) are essential for cell growth. Polyamine analogs are widely used to investigate\\u000a the enzymes of polyamine metabolism and the functions of spermine and spermidine in vitro and in vivo. It was demonstrated\\u000a recently that ?-methylated derivatives of Spm and Spd are able to fulfill the key cellular functions of polyamines, moreover,\\u000a in some

A. R. Khomutov; T. A. Keinanen; N. A. Grigorenko; M. T. Hyvonen; A. Uimari; M. Pietila; M. Cerrada-Gimenez; A. R. Simonian; M. A. Khomutov; J. Vepsalainen; L. Alhonen; J. Janne

2009-01-01

111

Mammary steroid metabolizing enzymes in relation to hyperplasia and tumorigenesis in the dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progesterone and estradiol play a crucial role in the control of mammary gland proliferation and tumour formation in the dog. However, little is known whether steroid metabolizing enzymes are present within the canine mammary gland that may play a modulating role in the bioavailability of progesterone and estrogen.In this study we investigated the expression of the steroid metabolizing enzymes 5?-reductase

Lieta Marinelli; Gianfranco Gabai; Jeannette Wolfswinkel; Jan A. Mol

2004-01-01

112

Genetic Polymorphism of Folate and Methionine Metabolizing Enzymes and their Susceptibility to Malignant Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Folate and methionine metabolism is involved in DNA synthesis and methylation. Polymor- phisms in the genes of folate metabolism enzymes have been associated with some forms of cancer. In the present study, 2 polymorphisms were evaluated for a folate met- abolic enzyme, methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and one was evaluated for methionine synthase (MS). The 2 polymorphisms MTHFR 677 C?T

EMMAD EZZAT HABIB; MONA AZIZ; MAGD KOTB

2005-01-01

113

Nanoparticle-protein interactions: from crucial plasma proteins to key enzymes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the effects of NPs on proteins may help understanding potential biological injuries such as changes in protein fibrillation, exposure of new antigenic epitopes, and loss of function such as enzymatic activity impairment. In this mini-review we present recent data which help understand the basis of NP-protein interactions and their subsequent potential effects on key mediators of biological functions such as enzymes.

Sanfins, Elodie; Dairou, Julien; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie

2011-07-01

114

Quality protein maize: a biochemical study of enzymes involved in lysine metabolism.  

PubMed

Quality protein maize (QPM) varieties have been produced by the introduction of opaque-2 modifier genes. Two QPM varieties, BR451 and BR473, a wild type and an opaque-2 variety, have been used to study key enzymes controlling lysine metabolism in the endosperm during development. Aspartate kinase and homoserine dehydrogenase enzymes, which are involved in lysine and threonine biosynthesis, respectively, exhibited identical activity patterns during endosperm development, with a maximum specific activity at 16 days after pollination. The QPM varieties exhibited higher levels of aspartate kinase activity in the endosperm, suggesting an increased rate of lysine biosynthesis when compared to the opaque-2 and wild-type genotypes. Similar results were observed for the lysine ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase enzymes, which form a single bifunctional polypetide involved in endosperm lysine degradation. Both enzyme activities were strongly reduced in the opaque-2 maize variety when compared to the wild-type maize, whereas the QPM varieties exhibited even lower levels of lysine ketoglutarate reductase-saccharopine dehydrogenase activities when compared to the opaque-2 variety. The developmental pattern of enzyme activity showed a different profile when compared to the enzymes involved in lysine biosynthesis, with activity being detected only 12-16 days after pollination (DAP) and maximum activities approximately 24 DAP. These results also suggest that the modifier genes have intensified the effect of the opaque-2 mutation on lysine ketoglutarate reductase-saccharopine dehydrogenase. These alterations lead to an increase in soluble lysine in the endosperm of the QPM varieties when compared to the opaque-2 and wild type. PMID:10552448

Gaziola, S A; Alessi, E S; Guimaraes, P E; Damerval, C; Azevedo, R A

1999-03-01

115

Structure and function of human xylulokinase, an enzyme with important roles in carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

D-Xylulokinase (XK; EC 2.7.1.17) catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of d-xylulose (Xu) to produce xylulose 5-phosphate (Xu5P). In mammals, XK is the last enzyme in the glucuronate-xylulose pathway, active in the liver and kidneys, and is linked through its product Xu5P to the pentose-phosphate pathway. XK may play an important role in metabolic disease, given that Xu5P is a key regulator of glucose metabolism and lipogenesis. We have expressed the product of a putative human XK gene and identified it as the authentic human d-xylulokinase (hXK). NMR studies with a variety of sugars showed that hXK acts only on d-xylulose, and a coupled photometric assay established its key kinetic parameters as K(m)(Xu) = 24 ± 3 ?m and k(cat) = 35 ± 5 s(-1). Crystal structures were determined for hXK, on its own and in complexes with Xu, ADP, and a fluorinated inhibitor. These reveal that hXK has a two-domain fold characteristic of the sugar kinase/hsp70/actin superfamily, with glycerol kinase as its closest relative. Xu binds to domain-I and ADP to domain-II, but in this open form of hXK they are 10 ? apart, implying that a large scale conformational change is required for catalysis. Xu binds in its linear keto-form, sandwiched between a Trp side chain and polar side chains that provide exquisite hydrogen bonding recognition. The hXK structure provides a basis for the design of specific inhibitors with which to probe its roles in sugar metabolism and metabolic disease. PMID:23179721

Bunker, Richard D; Bulloch, Esther M M; Dickson, James M J; Loomes, Kerry M; Baker, Edward N

2012-11-23

116

Efficient algorithms for querying enzymes to manipulate the steady state of metabolic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic pathways show the complex interactions among enzymes that transform chemical compounds. The state of a metabolic pathway can be expressed as a vector, which denotes the yield of the compounds or the flux in that pathway at a given time. The steady state is a state that remains unchanged over time. Altering the state of the metabolism is very

Bin Song; Tamer Kahveci; Sanjay Ranka

117

Clotrimazole potentiates the inhibitory effects of ATP on the key glycolytic enzyme 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase.  

PubMed

Clotrimazole (CTZ) has been proposed as a potential anti-neoplastic agent, which inhibits glucose metabolism. The present work aimed to evaluate the effects of CTZ on the kinetic mechanism of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK). We show that CTZ promotes a dose-dependent inhibition of PFK, presenting a K(i) of 28 +/- 2 microM. Inhibition occurs through the dissociation of the enzyme tetramers, as demonstrated through fluorescence spectroscopy and gel filtration chromatography. Moreover, the affinities of the enzyme for ATP and fructose-6-phosphate are reduced 50% and 30%, respectively. Furthermore, the affinity of PFK for ATP at the inhibitory site becomes 2-fold higher. Altogether, the results presented here suggest that PFK inhibition by CTZ involves a decrease in the affinity of PFK for its substrates at the catalytic site with the concomitant potentiation of the inhibitory properties of ATP. PMID:20346906

Marcondes, Mariah Celestino; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Zancan, Patricia

2010-03-25

118

A key problem and challenge for hepatology: Obesity-related metabolic liver diseases  

PubMed Central

With the arrival of the new millennium, gastroenterologists have been faced with the problem of metabolic liver diseases associated with obesity. The active role of the liver in metabolism and inflammation make it a key organ in the war against the rapidly-spreading world-wide epidemic of obesity. Many lives and much money could be saved if the work of hepatologists led to the development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against this growing leader of cirrhosis.

Balaban, Yasemin Hatice

2011-01-01

119

A key problem and challenge for hepatology: Obesity-related metabolic liver diseases.  

PubMed

With the arrival of the new millennium, gastroenterologists have been faced with the problem of metabolic liver diseases associated with obesity. The active role of the liver in metabolism and inflammation make it a key organ in the war against the rapidly-spreading world-wide epidemic of obesity. Many lives and much money could be saved if the work of hepatologists led to the development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against this growing leader of cirrhosis. PMID:21860673

Balaban, Yasemin Hatice

2011-06-27

120

Methanol metabolism in yeasts: Regulation of the synthesis of catabolic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of the synthesis of four dissimilatory enzymes involved in methanol metabolism, namely alcohol oxidase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase and catalase was investigated in the yeasts Hansenula polymorpha and Kloeckera sp. 2201. Enzyme profiles in cell-free extracts of the two organisms grown under glucose limitation at various dilution rates, suggested that the synthesis of these enzymes is controlled by

Th. Egli; J. P. van Dijken; M. Veenhuis; W. Harder; A. Fiechter

1980-01-01

121

High doses of atorvastatin and simvastatin induce key enzymes involved in VLDL production.  

PubMed

Treatments with high doses of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors may induce the expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-target genes, causing different effects from those attributed to the reduction of hepatic cholesterol content. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of high doses of statins on the key enzymes involved in VLDL production in normolipidemic rats. To examine whether the effects caused by statin treatment are a consequence of HMG-CoA reductase inhibition, we tested the effect of atorvastatin on these enzymes in mevalonate-fed rats. Atorvastatin and simvastatin enhanced not only HMG-CoA reductase but also the expression of the SREBP-2 gene itself. As a result of the overexpression of SREBP-2 caused by the statin treatment, genes regulated basically by SREBP-1, as FA synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, were also induced and their mRNA levels increased. DAG acyltransferase and microsomal TG transfer protein mRNA levels as well as phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity were increased by both statins. Simvastatin raised liver cholesterol content, ACAT mRNA levels, and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase activity, whereas it reduced liver DAG and phospholipid content. Mevalonate feeding reversed all changes induced by the atorvastatin treatment. These results show that treatment with high doses of statins induces key enzymes controlling rat liver lipid synthesis and VLDL assembly, probably as a result of SREBP-2 overexpression. Despite the induction of the key enzymes involved in VLDL production, both statins markedly reduced plasma TG levels, suggesting that different mechanisms may be involved in the hypotriglyceridemic effect of statins at high or low doses. PMID:12056585

Roglans, Núria; Verd, Joan C; Peris, Cristina; Alegret, Marta; Vázquez, Manuel; Adzet, Tomás; Díaz, Cristina; Hernández, Gonzalo; Laguna, Juan C; Sánchez, Rosa M

2002-05-01

122

Metabolic flux analysis: A key methodology for systems biology of metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome-wide analyses of mRNA, protein, or metabolite complements of biological systems produce unprecedented data sets. In\\u000a contrast to such cellular composition data, in vivo quantification of molecular fluxes through metabolic networks links genes\\u000a and proteins to higher-level functions that result from biochemical and regulatory interactions between network components.\\u000a By unraveling novel or unexpected pathways in microbes, metabolic flux analyses begin

Uwe Sauer

123

Drug metabolizing enzyme systems and their relationship to toxic mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The metabolism and toxicity of 3-methylfuran (3-MF) are described. The major product of metabolic activation of 3-MF appears to be disemicarbazones. Cursory description of toxic effects of 3-MF on lung and kidneys are provided. 18 refs.

Boyd, M.R.; Ravindranath, V.; Burka, L.T.; Dutcher, J.S.; Franklin, R.B.; Statham, C.N.; Haschek, W.M.; Hakkinen, P.J.; Morse, C.C.; Witschi, H.P.

1983-01-01

124

Enzyme and metabolic engineering for the production of novel biopolymers: crossover of biological and chemical processes.  

PubMed

The development of synthetic biology has transformed microbes into useful factories for producing valuable polymers and/or their precursors from renewable biomass. Recent progress at the interface of chemistry and biology has enabled the production of a variety of new biopolymers with properties that substantially differ from their petroleum-derived counterparts. This review touches on recent trials and achievements in the field of biopolymer synthesis, including chemo-enzymatically synthesized aliphatic polyesters, wholly biosynthesized lactate-based polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates and other unusual bacterially synthesized polyesters. The expanding diversities in structure and the material properties of biopolymers are key for exploring practical applications. The enzyme and metabolic engineering approaches toward this goal are discussed by shedding light on the successful case studies. PMID:23545442

Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

2013-03-29

125

Deep sequencing of Lotus corniculatus L. reveals key enzymes and potential transcription factors related to the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway.  

PubMed

Lotus corniculatus L. is used worldwide as a forage crop due to its abundance of secondary metabolites and its ability to grow in severe environments. Although the entire genome of L. corniculatus var. japonicus R. is being sequenced, the differences in morphology and production of secondary metabolites between these two related species have led us to investigate this variability at the genetic level, in particular the differences in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our goal is to use the resulting information to develop more valuable forage crops and medicinal materials. Here, we conducted Illumina/Solexa sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. corniculatus. We produced 26,492,952 short reads that corresponded to 2.38 gigabytes of total nucleotides. These reads were then assembled into 45,698 unigenes, of which a large number associated with secondary metabolism were annotated. In addition, we identified 2,998 unigenes based on homology with L. japonicus transcription factors (TFs) and grouped them into 55 families. Meanwhile, a comparison of four tag-based digital gene expression libraries, built from the flowers, pods, leaves, and roots, revealed distinct patterns of spatial expression of candidate unigenes in flavonoid biosynthesis. Based on these results, we identified many key enzymes from L. corniculatus which were different from reference genes of L. japonicus, and five TFs that are potential enhancers in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results provide initial genetics resources that will be valuable in efforts to manipulate the flavonoid metabolic pathway in plants. PMID:23463169

Wang, Ying; Hua, Wenping; Wang, Jian; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Xu, Ziqin; Wang, Zhezhi

2013-03-06

126

Crystallization of three key glycolytic enzymes of the opportunistic pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the major causes of waterborne diseases worldwide. This protozoan parasite depends mainly on the anaerobic oxidation of glucose for energy production. In order to identify the differences in the three-dimensional structure of key glycolytic enzymes of C. parvum and its human host, we have expressed, purified and crystallized recombinant versions of three important glycolytic enzymes of the parasite, namely, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Lactate dehydrogenase has been crystallized in the absence and in the presence of its substrates and cofactors, while pyruvate kinase and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase were crystallized only in the apo-form. X-ray diffraction data have been collected for all crystals. PMID:15953771

Senkovich, Olga; Speed, Haley; Grigorian, Alexei; Bradley, Kelley; Ramarao, Chodavarapu S; Lane, Bessie; Zhu, Guan; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

2005-06-30

127

Developmental expression of key steroidogenic enzymes in the brain of protandrous black porgy fish, Acanthopagrus schlegeli.  

PubMed

In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the brain of the black porgy fish, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, has the capacity for de novo steroidogenesis and that these neurosteroids may impact sex differentiation. Gonadal histology and Dmrt1 gene expression revealed that the fish were not sex differentiated until 155 dah (days after hatching). We further demonstrated the developmental expressions of the mRNAs encoding for four key neurosteroidogenic enzymes, namely, the cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4) isomerase (3betaHSD), cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17) and aromatase (CYP19b) in the brain at different post-hatching developmental ages. The results indicated that steroidogenic genes are expressed in brain from the earliest sampling time, 60 dah. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated significantly higher expression levels of these enzymes at 120 dah compared to 60 dah in all the brain regions. However, the increase for 3betaHSD was significant only in hypothalamus and midbrain, whereas it was significant only in forebrain and hypothalamus for CYP19b. A decline in mRNA levels were observed for all the genes at 155 dah except in midbrain for CYP11A1 and in hindbrain for CYP19b. Analysis of aromatase enzyme activity showed a significant increase in aromatase activity in the forebrain at 120 dah. Thus, the present study demonstrated for the first time an age- and/or region dependent expression of the mRNAs encoding the steroidogenic enzyme genes in the brain of black porgy. The presence of key steroidogenic enzymes as early as 60 dah, before gonadal sex differentiation, demonstrates that steroid biosynthetic capacity in brain precedes histological gonad differentiation. The mRNA transcripts of these genes showed a synchronous peak at 120 dah, suggesting that oestradiol may be locally formed in most parts of the brain. The study suggests an important role for brain aromatase in male black porgy brain sex differentiation, and considers the possibility of a role for this enzyme in neurogenesis. PMID:17620106

Tomy, S; Wu, G-C; Huang, H-R; Dufour, S; Chang, C-F

2007-08-01

128

Multi-objective optimization of enzyme manipulations in metabolic networks considering resilience effects  

PubMed Central

Background Improving the synthesis rate of desired metabolites in metabolic systems is one of the main tasks in metabolic engineering. In the last decade, metabolic engineering approaches based on the mathematical optimization have been used extensively for the analysis and manipulation of metabolic networks. Experimental evidence shows that mutants reflect resilience phenomena against gene alterations. Although researchers have published many studies on the design of metabolic systems based on kinetic models and optimization strategies, almost no studies discuss the multi-objective optimization problem for enzyme manipulations in metabolic networks considering resilience phenomenon. Results This study proposes a generalized fuzzy multi-objective optimization approach to formulate the enzyme intervention problem for metabolic networks considering resilience phenomena and cell viability. This approach is a general framework that can be applied to any metabolic networks to investigate the influence of resilience phenomena on gene intervention strategies and maximum target synthesis rates. This study evaluates the performance of the proposed approach by applying it to two metabolic systems: S. cerevisiae and E. coli. Results show that the maximum synthesis rates of target products by genetic interventions are always over-estimated in metabolic networks that do not consider the resilience effects. Conclusions Considering the resilience phenomena in metabolic networks can improve the predictions of gene intervention and maximum synthesis rates in metabolic engineering. The proposed generalized fuzzy multi-objective optimization approach has the potential to be a good and practical framework in the design of metabolic networks.

2011-01-01

129

Utilization of quinate and p-hydroxybenzoate by actinomycetes: key enzymes and taxonomic relevance.  

PubMed

474 strains of the actinomycete genera Streptomyces (including species of the former genera Chainia and Streptoverticillium), Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora were examined for their ability to degrade quinate (Q) and p-hydroxybenzoate (pHB); selected strains were also tested for their capacity to catabolize benzoate (B). Whereas in the case of Q (5-10 g/l of a mineral salts agar medium) the growth response signalizes assimilation, pHB has to be supplied in lower concentration (routinely 0.3 g/l together with small amounts of peptone and yeast extract in liquid broth), and its degradation has to be determined spectrophotometrically. 27% of the streptomycete strains were able to grow with Q, and 57% with pHB. The three strains of "Chainia" that were tested metabolized Q and pHB, but none of the fourty species of "Streptoverticillium" showed this ability. 80% of the 30 strains of Psn. autotrophica grew with Q, and 100% degraded pHB and B. Two of the five Micromonospora strains gave a positive response with pHB, but not with Q.-Toluene treated cells (preincubated with Q, pHB or B, respectively) gave a positive Rothera reaction with protocatechuate or catechol respectively, thus demonstrating that these organisms employed the beta-ketoadipate pathway (orthofission) for the degradation of Q, pHB and B. The assay of five relevant enzymes in cell-free extracts of nine selected organisms showed that in nocardioform actinomycetes (Pseudonocardia, Rhodococcus) all enzymes of the protocatechuate branch of the ketoadipate pathway seem to be induced by beta-ketoadipate as demonstrated here for protocatechuate-3,4-dioxygenase. In contrast, in Streptomyces this enzyme appears to be induced by its substrate, protocatechuate, whereas the regulation of the other enzymes of this pathway remains to be elucidated. PMID:9791947

Grund, E; Kutzner, H J

1998-01-01

130

Fructose: A Key Factor in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome are becoming leading causes of death in the world. Identifying the etiology of diabetes is key to prevention. Despite the similarity in their structures, fructose and glucose are metabolized in different ways. Uric acid, a byproduct of uncontrolled fructose metabolism is known risk factor for hypertension. In the liver, fructose bypasses the two highly regulated steps in glycolysis, glucokinase and phosphofructokinase, both of which are inhibited by increasing concentrations of their byproducts. Fructose is metabolized by fructokinase (KHK). KHK has no negative feedback system, and ATP is used for phosphorylation. This results in intracellular phosphate depletion and the rapid generation of uric acid due to activation of AMP deaminase. Uric acid, a byproduct of this reaction, has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and hypertension. We present possible mechanisms by which fructose causes insulin resistance and suggest actions based on this association that have therapeutic implications.

Kim, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

131

Biochemical strategies of overwintering in the gall gly larva, Eurosta solidaginis : Effect of low temperature acclimation on the activities of enzymes of intermediary metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The activities of some enzymes of intermediary metabolism, including those involved in glycerol and sorbitol synthesis, were measured in the third instar larvae of the gall fly,Eurosta solidaginis sampled during a controlled (1°C per day decrease) low temperature acclimation of the larvae from 15 to 30°C.2.Low temperature acclimation resulted in increased activities of three key enzymes of carbohydrate catabolism: phosphorylase,

Kenneth B. Storey; Janet M. Storey

1981-01-01

132

Carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the seagrass, Zostera marina L.: Environmental control of enzymes involved in carbon allocation and nitrogen assimilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study experimentally examined influences of environmental variables on the activities of key enzymes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism of the submersed marine angiosperm, Zostera marina L. Nitrate reductase activity in leaf tissue was correlated with both water-column nitrate concentrations and leaf sucrose levels. Under elevated nitrate, shoot nitrate reductase activity increased in both light and dark periods if

Brant W. Touchette; JoAnn M. Burkholder

2007-01-01

133

Sensor potency of the moonlighting enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton: the cytoskeleton as a metabolic sensor  

PubMed Central

Background There is extensive evidence for the interaction of metabolic enzymes with the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The significance of these interactions is far from clear. Presentation of the hypothesis In the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis presented here, the cytoskeleton senses and integrates the general metabolic activity of the cell. This activity depends on the binding to the cytoskeleton of enzymes and, depending on the nature of the enzyme, this binding may occur if the enzyme is either active or inactive but not both. This enzyme-binding is further proposed to stabilize microtubules and microfilaments and to alter rates of GTP and ATP hydrolysis and their levels. Testing the hypothesis Evidence consistent with the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis is presented in the case of glycolysis. Several testable predictions are made. There should be a relationship between post-translational modifications of tubulin and of actin and their interaction with metabolic enzymes. Different conditions of cytoskeletal dynamics and enzyme-cytoskeleton binding should reveal significant differences in local and perhaps global levels and ratios of ATP and GTP. The different functions of moonlighting enzymes should depend on cytoskeletal binding. Implications of the hypothesis The physical and chemical effects arising from metabolic sensing by the cytoskeleton would have major consequences on cell shape, dynamics and cell cycle progression. The hypothesis provides a framework that helps the significance of the enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton be determined.

2013-01-01

134

In vitro identification of cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for drug metabolism.  

PubMed

Metabolism catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) represents the most important pathway for drug metabolism and elimination in humans. Identification of the CYPs responsible for metabolism of existing and novel drugs is critical for the prediction of adverse reactions caused by drug-drug interactions or individual genetic polymorphism. An integrated approach is described for CYP-mediated metabolic reaction phenotyping using both recombinant enzymes and human liver microsomes in combination of selective inhibitors or inhibitory antibodies. The in vitro method described includes screening of recombinant CYPs for metabolic activity, chemical inhibition or antibody neutralization, and correlation analysis with isoform-selective marker activities. The primary focus is on identification of the most common enzymes including CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4, although the same strategy could potentially be used for identification of other isoforms. PMID:23824861

Yan, Zhengyin; Caldwell, Gary W

2013-01-01

135

Brain Drug-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzymes are Active In Vivo, Demonstrated by Mechanism-Based Enzyme Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals vary in their response to centrally acting drugs, and this is not always predicted by drug plasma levels. Central metabolism by brain cytochromes P450 (CYPs) may contribute to interindividual variation in response to drugs. Brain CYPs have unique regional and cell-type expression and induction patterns, and they are regulated independently of their hepatic isoforms. In vitro, these enzymes can

Sharon Miksys; Rachel F Tyndale

2009-01-01

136

Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: crucial metabolic enzyme and attractive target for drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism in most living organisms. Mice deficient in ACC2 have continuous fatty acid oxidation and reduced body fat and body weight, validating this enzyme as a target for drug development against obesity, diabetes and other symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. ACC is a biotin-dependent enzyme and catalyzes the carboxylation of

L. Tong

2005-01-01

137

The Effects of Harvest Maturity on Storage Quality and Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes During Banana Ripening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature green “Baxi” banana (Musa spp. AAA Group, Cavendish) fruits were harvested at 60% and 80% maturity stages. In order to evaluate the effects of harvesting\\u000a at different maturity stages on storage quality and changes in sucrose-metabolizing enzymes, fruit firmness, disease index,\\u000a contents of starch, and total soluble sugars were determined, and enzyme activities associated with sucrose metabolism was\\u000a investigated

Wen Li; Yuanzhi Shao; Weixin Chen; Wenjun Jia

138

Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression in aging humans.  

EPA Science Inventory

In the presence of foreign compounds, metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liverâ??s ability to detoxify and eliminate these xenobiotics. This is accomplished, in part, by the expression of XMEs, which metabolize xenobiotics and determine whether exposure will...

139

Metabolism of organonitriles to cyanide by rat nasal tissue enzymes.  

PubMed

1. A method for determination of cyanide release during microsomal metabolism of organonitriles was developed. 2. Vmax values for cyanide release from acetonitrile, propionitrile, butyronitrile, isobutyronitrile, acrylonitrile, benzyl cyanide and succinonitrile were determined for rat nasal and liver microsomal metabolism. 3. Km and Vmax values were determined for nasal and liver microsomal metabolism of benzyl cyanide to cyanide. 4. Vmax values were all greater in nasal microsomes than in liver microsomes. Except for acrylonitrile, butyronitrile and isobutyronitrile metabolism, the ethmoturbinate microsomes had higher activities than the maxilloturbinate microsomes. 5. Two methods for determining Vmax values indicate that rat liver, but not the nose, contains at least two cytochrome P-450 isozymes involved in metabolism of benzyl cyanide to cyanide. 6. These results, and previously reported nasal rhodanese activity data, indicate that inhaled organonitriles are substantially detoxicated in the nasal cavity. PMID:2618074

Dahl, A R; Waruszewski, B A

1989-11-01

140

Incorporation of enzyme concentrations into FBA and identification of optimal metabolic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the present article, we propose a method for determining optimal metabolic pathways in terms of the level of concentration of the enzymes catalyzing various reactions in the entire metabolic network. The method, first of all, generates data on reaction fluxes in a pathway based on steady state condition. A set of constraints is formulated incorporating weighting coefficients corresponding

Rajat K De; Mouli Das; Subhasis Mukhopadhyay

2008-01-01

141

Seasonal changes in thermal environment and metabolic enzyme activity in the diamondback terrapin ( Malaclemys terrapin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diamondback terrapins experience broad fluctuations in temperature on both a daily and seasonal basis in their estuarine environment. We measured metabolic enzyme activity in terrapin muscle tissue to assess thermal dependence and the role of temperature in seasonal metabolic downregulation in this species. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PK), citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) was

Amanda Southwood Williard; Leigh Anne Harden

2011-01-01

142

Controls on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Enzymes: A Key Driver of In Situ Enzyme Activity Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Enzyme activities are commonly measured in lab assays at a single standard temperature, which does not provide any information\\u000a on their temperature sensitivity. Temperature is one of the primary controls on enzyme activities, yet few studies have explored\\u000a how temperature drives enzyme activities in the environment. The temperature sensitivity of enzyme activity is controlled\\u000a by the structure and conformation of

Matthew Wallenstein; Steven D. Allison; Jessica Ernakovich; J. Megan Steinweg; Robert Sinsabaugh

143

MetaCyc: a multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

MetaCyc is a database of metabolic pathways and enzymes located at http:\\/\\/MetaCyc.org\\/. Its goal is to serve as a metabolic encyclopedia, containing a collection of non-redundant pathways central to 15 small molecule metabolism, which have been reported in the experimental literature. Most of the pathways in MetaCyc occur in microorganisms and plants, although animal pathways are also repre- sented. MetaCyc

Ron Caspi; Hartmut Foerster; Carol A. Fulcher; Rebecca Hopkinson; John Ingraham; Pallavi Kaipa; Markus Krummenacker; Suzanne M. Paley; John Pick; Seung Yon Rhee; Christophe Tissier; Peifen Zhang; Peter D. Karp

2006-01-01

144

The many consequences of chemical- and genetic-based modulation of drug metabolizing enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction or inhibition of the metabolizing enzyme activities by a great deal of substances (including drugs) influence their toxicological or pharmacological outcomes as well as that of other xenobiotics or drugs to which human is simultaneously exposed. The dual bioactivating\\/detoxificating nature of both phase I and phase II enzymes poses such modulation as an unavoidable unhealthy phenomenon. Therefore, the

Moreno Paolini; Gian Luigi Biagi; Giorgio Cantelli-Forti

1999-01-01

145

A Multiple Alignment Algorithm for Metabolic Pathway Analysis Using Enzyme Hierarchy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many of the chemical reactions in living cells, enzymes act as catalysts in the conversion of certain compounds (substrates) into other com- pounds (products). Comparative analyses the metabolic pathways formed by such reac- tions give important information on their evolu- tion and on pharmacological targets (Dandekar et al. 1999). Each of the enzymes that consti- tute a pathway is

Yukako Tohsato; Hideo Matsuda; Akihiro Hashimoto

2000-01-01

146

Carbon Metabolism Enzymes of Rhizobium meliloti Cultures and Bacteroids and Their Distribution within Alfalfa Nodules.  

PubMed

Several carbon metabolism enzymes were measured in cultured cells and bacteroids of Rhizobium meliloti 102F51 and in alfalfa root nodule cytosol. The enzyme activity levels of the pentose phosphate pathway were much higher than those of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas or Entner-Doudoroff pathways in extracts of cultured cells. The pattern of enzyme activities in the bacteroids was different from that of cultured cells. PMID:16348268

Irigoyen, Juan Jose; Sanchez-Diaz, Manuel; Emerich, David W

1990-08-01

147

Changes in enzyme activities involved in malate metabolism in oak leaves during rhythmic growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amide content, ATP level and activities of enzymes linked to malate metabolism were determined in leaves of three successive flushes of common oak during the development of the third flush. In the expanding leaves, all studied enzymes showed a maximum activity around the 7th day after budbreak. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc), NAD-malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and NADP-malic enzyme (ME) maintained high activity

Aline Marchetti; Cécile Parmentier; Michel Chemardin; Pierre Dizengremel

1995-01-01

148

Effect of sodium molybdate on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of sodium molybdate on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial enzymes in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats showed a significant reduction in the activities of glucose metabolising enzymes like hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and in the level of glycogen. An elevation in the activities of aldolase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose 1,6- bisphosphatase, glycogen phosphorylase and in the level of

R. Saraswathi Panneerselvam; Swaminathan Govindaswamy

2002-01-01

149

Identification of human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes that metabolize the nonsedating antihistamine loratadine  

Microsoft Academic Search

[3H]Loratadine was incubated with human liver microsomes to determine which cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are responsible for its oxidative metabolism. Specific enzymes were identified by correlation analysis, by inhibition studies (chemical and immunoinhibition), and by incubation with various cDNA-expressed human P450 enzymes. Descarboethoxyloratadine (DCL) was the major metabolite of loratadine detected following incubation with pooled human liver microsomes. Although DCL

Nathan Yumibe; Keith Huie; Kwang-Jong Chen; Mark Snow; Robert P. Clement; Mitchell N. Cayen

1996-01-01

150

Redox balance is key to explaining full vs. partial switching to low-yield metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Low-yield metabolism is a puzzling phenomenon in many unicellular and multicellular organisms. In abundance of glucose, many cells use a highly wasteful fermentation pathway despite the availability of a high-yield pathway, producing many ATP molecules per glucose, e.g., oxidative phosphorylation. Some of these organisms, including the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis, downregulate their high-yield pathway in favor of the low-yield pathway. Other organisms, including Escherichia coli do not reduce the flux through the high-yield pathway, employing the low-yield pathway in parallel with a fully active high-yield pathway. For what reasons do some species use the high-yield and low-yield pathways concurrently and what makes others downregulate the high-yield pathway? A classic rationale for metabolic fermentation is overflow metabolism. Because the throughput of metabolic pathways is limited, influx of glucose exceeding the pathway's throughput capacity is thought to be redirected into an alternative, low-yield pathway. This overflow metabolism rationale suggests that cells would only use fermentation once the high-yield pathway runs at maximum rate, but it cannot explain why cells would decrease the flux through the high-yield pathway. Results Using flux balance analysis with molecular crowding (FBAwMC), a recent extension to flux balance analysis (FBA) that assumes that the total flux through the metabolic network is limited, we investigate the differences between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and L. lactis that downregulate the high-yield pathway at increasing glucose concentrations, and E. coli, which keeps the high-yield pathway functioning at maximal rate. FBAwMC correctly predicts the metabolic switching mode in these three organisms, suggesting that metabolic network architecture is responsible for differences in metabolic switching mode. Based on our analysis, we expect gradual, "overflow-like" switching behavior in organisms that have an additional energy-yielding pathway that does not consume NADH (e.g., acetate production in E. coli). Flux decrease through the high-yield pathway is expected in organisms in which the high-yield and low-yield pathways compete for NADH. In support of this analysis, a simplified model of metabolic switching suggests that the extra energy generated during acetate production produces an additional optimal growth mode that smoothens the metabolic switch in E. coli. Conclusions Maintaining redox balance is key to explaining why some microbes decrease the flux through the high-yield pathway, while other microbes use "overflow-like" low-yield metabolism.

2012-01-01

151

Identification of P450 enzymes involved in metabolism of verapamil in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calcium channel blocker verapamil[2,8-bis-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-isopropyl-6-azaoctanitrile] is widely used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris and cardiac arrythmias. The drug undergoes extensive and variable hepatic metabolism in man with the major metabolic steps comprising formation of D-617 [2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-methylamino-2-isopropylvaleronitrile] and norverapamil [2,8-bis-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-isopropyl-6-azaoxtanitrile]. The enzymes involved in metabolism of verapamil have not been characterized so far. Identification of these enzymes would enable

Heyo K. Kroemer; Jean-Charles Gautier; Philipe Beaune; Colin Henderson; C. Roland Wolf; Michel Eichelbaum

1993-01-01

152

Reciprocal regulation of p53 and malic enzymes modulates metabolism and senescence.  

PubMed

Cellular senescence both protects multicellular organisms from cancer and contributes to their ageing. The pre-eminent tumour suppressor p53 has an important role in the induction and maintenance of senescence, but how it carries out this function remains poorly understood. In addition, although increasing evidence supports the idea that metabolic changes underlie many cell-fate decisions and p53-mediated tumour suppression, few connections between metabolic enzymes and senescence have been established. Here we describe a new mechanism by which p53 links these functions. We show that p53 represses the expression of the tricarboxylic-acid-cycle-associated malic enzymes ME1 and ME2 in human and mouse cells. Both malic enzymes are important for NADPH production, lipogenesis and glutamine metabolism, but ME2 has a more profound effect. Through the inhibition of malic enzymes, p53 regulates cell metabolism and proliferation. Downregulation of ME1 and ME2 reciprocally activates p53 through distinct MDM2- and AMP-activated protein kinase-mediated mechanisms in a feed-forward manner, bolstering this pathway and enhancing p53 activation. Downregulation of ME1 and ME2 also modulates the outcome of p53 activation, leading to strong induction of senescence, but not apoptosis, whereas enforced expression of either malic enzyme suppresses senescence. Our findings define physiological functions of malic enzymes, demonstrate a positive-feedback mechanism that sustains p53 activation, and reveal a connection between metabolism and senescence mediated by p53. PMID:23334421

Jiang, Peng; Du, Wenjing; Mancuso, Anthony; Wellen, Kathryn E; Yang, Xiaolu

2013-01-13

153

Expression profiling reveals Spot 42 small RNA as a key regulator in the central metabolism of Aliivibrio salmonicida  

PubMed Central

Background Spot 42 was discovered in Escherichia coli nearly 40 years ago as an abundant, small and unstable RNA. Its biological role has remained obscure until recently, and is today implicated in having broader roles in the central and secondary metabolism. Spot 42 is encoded by the spf gene. The gene is ubiquitous in the Vibrionaceae family of gamma-proteobacteria. One member of this family, Aliivibrio salmonicida, causes cold-water vibriosis in farmed Atlantic salmon. Its genome encodes Spot 42 with 84% identity to E. coli Spot 42. Results We generated a A. salmonicida spf deletion mutant. We then used microarray and Northern blot analyses to monitor global effects on the transcriptome in order to provide insights into the biological roles of Spot 42 in this bacterium. In the presence of glucose, we found a surprisingly large number of ? 2X differentially expressed genes, and several major cellular processes were affected. A gene encoding a pirin-like protein showed an on/off expression pattern in the presence/absence of Spot 42, which suggests that Spot 42 plays a key regulatory role in the central metabolism by regulating the switch between fermentation and respiration. Interestingly, we discovered an sRNA named VSsrna24, which is encoded immediately downstream of spf. This new sRNA has an expression pattern opposite to that of Spot 42, and its expression is repressed by glucose. Conclusions We hypothesize that Spot 42 plays a key role in the central metabolism, in part by regulating the pyruvat dehydrogenase enzyme complex via pirin.

2012-01-01

154

CYP18A1, a key enzyme of Drosophila steroid hormone inactivation, is essential for metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Ecdysteroids are steroid hormones, which coordinate major developmental transitions in insects. Both the rises and falls in circulating levels of active hormones are important for coordinating molting and metamorphosis, making both ecdysteroid biosynthesis and inactivation of physiological relevance. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster Cyp18a1 encodes a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) with 26-hydroxylase activity, a prominent step in ecdysteroid catabolism. A clear ortholog of Cyp18a1 exists in most insects and crustaceans. When Cyp18a1 is transfected in Drosophila S2 cells, extensive conversion of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) into 20-hydroxyecdysonoic acid is observed. This is a multi-step process, which involves the formation of 20,26-dihydroxyecdysone as an intermediate. In Drosophila larvae, Cyp18a1 is expressed in many target tissues of 20E. We examined the consequences of Cyp18a1 inactivation on Drosophila development. Null alleles generated by excision of a P element and RNAi knockdown of Cyp18a1 both result in pupal lethality, possibly as a consequence of impaired ecdysteroid degradation. Our data suggest that the inactivation of 20E is essential for proper development and that CYP18A1 is a key enzyme in this process. PMID:20932968

Guittard, Emilie; Blais, Catherine; Maria, Annick; Parvy, Jean-Philippe; Pasricha, Shivani; Lumb, Christopher; Lafont, René; Daborn, Phillip J; Dauphin-Villemant, Chantal

2010-10-07

155

The key steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps (WFU).  

PubMed

Larval and adult stages of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps WFU strain were analyzed by histochemical and biochemical methods to determine the existence of steroid pathways. The presence of the key enzyme 3beta-hydroxisteroid-dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) was examined in frozen sections of cysticerci obtained from mice and segments of tapeworms obtained from the intestine of hamsters. 3beta-HSD activity was detected by nitroblue-tetrazolium products after incubation with dehydroepiandrosterone, androstendiol, or pregnenolone. Tapeworm tissues exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary areas of the neck and immature proglottids following incubation with androstendiol, as well as surrounding the testes in mature proglottids. T. solium cysticerci exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary tissues. The synthesis of steroid hormones involving the activity of 3beta-HSD was studied in cysticerci or tapeworms incubated in the presence of tritiated steroid precursors. The culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and showed synthesis of androstendiol, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol by cysticerci, androstendiol, and 17beta-estradiol by tapeworms. The results strongly suggest the activity of 3beta-HSD in taeniid parasites that have at least a part of the enzymatic chain required for androgen and estrogen synthesis and that the enzymes are present in the larval stage and from the early strobilar stages to the mature proglottids. PMID:18626663

Fernández Presas, Ana María; Valdez, Ricardo A; Willms, Kaethe; Romano, Marta C

2008-07-15

156

Fumarate-mediated inhibition of erythrose reductase, a key enzyme for erythritol production by Torula corallina.  

PubMed

Torula corallina, a strain presently being used for the industrial production of erythritol, has the highest erythritol yield ever reported for an erythritol-producing microorganism. The increased production of erythritol by Torula corallina with trace elements such as Cu(2+) has been thoroughly reported, but the mechanism by which Cu(2+) increases the production of erythritol has not been studied. This study demonstrated that supplemental Cu(2+) enhanced the production of erythritol, while it significantly decreased the production of a major by-product that accumulates during erythritol fermentation, which was identified as fumarate by instrumental analyses. Erythrose reductase, a key enzyme that converts erythrose to erythritol in T. corallina, was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic methods, including ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. In vitro, purified erythrose reductase was significantly inhibited noncompetitively by increasing the fumarate concentration. In contrast, the enzyme activity remained almost constant regardless of Cu(2+) concentration. This suggests that supplemental Cu(2+) reduced the production of fumarate, a strong inhibitor of erythrose reductase, which led to less inhibition of erythrose reductase and a high yield of erythritol. This is the first report that suggests catabolite repression by a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate in T. corallina. PMID:12200310

Lee, Jung-Kul; Koo, Bong-Seong; Kim, Sang-Yong

2002-09-01

157

Phthalate Esters Enhance Quinolinate Production by Inhibiting  Amino Carboxymuconate Semialdehyde Decarboxylase (ACMSD), a Key Enzyme of the Tryptophan Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tryptophan is metabolized to a-amino-b-carboxymuconate-«- semialdehyde (ACMS) via 3-hydroxyanthranilate (3-HA). ACMS decarboxylase (ACMSD) directs ACMS to acetyl CoA; otherwise ACMS is non-enzymatically converted to quinolinate (QA), leading to the formation of NAD and its degradation products. Thus, ACMSD is a critical enzyme for tryptophan metabolism. Phthalate esters have been suspected of being environmental endocrine dis- rupters. Because of the structural

Tsutomu Fukuwatari; Seiko Ohsaki; Shin-ichi Fukuoka; Ryuzo Sasaki; Katsumi Shibata

2004-01-01

158

Identification and Functional Analysis of Delta-9 Desaturase, a Key Enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, Isolated from the Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera.  

PubMed

Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of ?9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 ?(9) desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative ?(9) acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical ?(9) desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these ?(9) desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (?ole1). All the putative ?(9) acyl-CoA desaturases showed ?(9) desaturation activity for C16?0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18?0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of ?(9) desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain. PMID:24039966

Muto, Masaki; Kubota, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Satoh, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

2013-09-05

159

Effect of n-3 fatty acids on the key enzymes involved in cholesterol and triglyceride turnover in rat liver.  

PubMed

The effect of long-chain n-3 fatty acids on hepatic key enzymes of cholesterol metabolism and triglyceride biosynthesis was investigated in two rat models. In the first model, rats were intravenously infused for two weeks with a fat emulsion containing 20% of triglycerides in which either n-6 or n-3 fatty acids predominated. The treatment with n-3 fatty acids led to a reduction primarily of serum cholesterol (45%), but also of serum triglycerides (18%). HMG-CoA reductase activity and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity were reduced by 45% and 36%, respectively. There were no significant effects on diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) or phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PAP) activities. In the second model, rats were fed a diet enriched with sucrose, coconut oil and either sunflower oil (n-6 fatty acids) or fish oil (long-chain n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters). The treatment with n-3 fatty acids decreased serum triglycerides (41%) and, to a lesser extent, serum cholesterol (17%). Neither glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) or DGAT were affected by n-3 fatty acids. In contrast, PAP activity was reduced by 26%. HMG-CoA reductase was not significantly affected, whereas cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was reduced by 36%. The results indicate that part of the TG-lowering effect of long-chain n-3 fatty acids may be mediated by inhibition of the soluble phosphatidate phosphohydrolase. The effect on serum cholesterol may be partly due to inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:1895886

al-Shurbaji, A; Larsson-Backström, C; Berglund, L; Eggertsen, G; Björkhem, I

1991-05-01

160

Drug metabolizing enzyme activities versus genetic variances for drug of clinical pharmacogenomic relevance  

PubMed Central

Enzymes are critically important in the transportation, metabolism, and clearance of most therapeutic drugs used in clinical practice today. Many of these enzymes have significant genetic polymorphisms that affect the enzyme's rate kinetics. Regarding drug metabolism, specific polymorphisms to the cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzyme family are linked to phenotypes that describe reaction rates as "ultra", "intermediate", and "poor," as referenced to "extensive" metabolizers that are assigned to wildtype individuals. Activity scores is an alternate designation that provides more genotype-to-phenotype resolution. Understanding the relative change in enzyme activities or rate of clearance of specific drugs relative to an individual's genotypes is an important component in the interpretation of pharmacogenomic data for personalized medicine. Currently, the most relevant drug metabolizing enzymes are CYP 2D6, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Each of these enzymes is reactive to a host of different drug substrates. Pharmacogenomic tests that are in routine clinical practice include CYP 2C19 for clopidogrel, TPMT for thiopurine drugs, and UDP-1A1 for irinotecan. Other tests where there is considerable data but have not been widely implemented includes CYP 2C9 for warfarin, CYP 2D6 for tamoxifen and codeine, and CYP 2C19 for the proton pump inhibitors.

2011-01-01

161

Activity of enzymes of carbon metabolism during the induction of Crassulacean acid metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum extractable activities of twenty-one photosynthetic and glycolytic enzymes were measured in mature leaves of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants, grown under a 12 h light 12 h dark photoperiod, exhibiting photosynthetic characteristics of either a C3 or a Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. Following the change from C3 photosynthesis to CAM in response to an increase in the salinity of

Joseph A. M. Holtum; Klaus Winter

1982-01-01

162

Fructose metabolizing enzymes in the rat liver and metabolic parameters: Interactions between dietary copper, type of carbohydrates, and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effects of nutrient interactions between dietary carbohydrates and copper levels on fructose-metabolizing hepatic enzymes in male and female rats. Male and female rats were fed diets for 5 weeks that were either adequate or deficient in copper that contained either starch or fructose. Rats of both sexes fed fructose as compared with those

Moshe J. Werman; Sam J. Bhathena

1995-01-01

163

Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase from Schistosoma mansoni: An Essential Parasite Enzyme and a Key Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis—infection with helminth parasites in the genus Schistosoma, including S. mansoni—is a widespread, devastating tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people. No vaccine is available, and praziquantel, the only drug extensively utilized, is currently administered more than 100 million people yearly. Because praziquantel resistance may develop it is essential to identify novel drug targets. Our goal was to investigate the potential of a unique, selenium-containing parasite enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) as a drug target. Methods and Findings Using RNA interference we found that TGR is essential for parasite survival; after silencing of TGR expression, in vitro parasites died within 4 d. We also found that auranofin is an efficient inhibitor of pure TGR (Ki = 10 nM), able to kill parasites rapidly in culture at physiological concentrations (5 ?M), and able to partially cure infected mice (worm burden reductions of ~60%). Furthermore, two previously used antischistosomal compounds inhibited TGR activity, suggesting that TGR is a key target during therapy with those compounds. Conclusions Collectively, our results indicate that parasite TGR meets all the major criteria to be a key target for antischistosomal chemotherapy. To our knowledge this is the first validation of a Schistosoma drug target using a convergence of both genetic and biochemical approaches.

Kuntz, Angela N; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth; Sayed, Ahmed A; Califf, Lindsay L; Dessolin, Jean; Arner, Elias S. J; Williams, David L

2007-01-01

164

GlpR Represses Fructose and Glucose Metabolic Enzymes at the Level of Transcription in the Haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii? †  

PubMed Central

In this study, a DeoR/GlpR-type transcription factor was investigated for its potential role as a global regulator of sugar metabolism in haloarchaea, using Haloferax volcanii as a model organism. Common to a number of haloarchaea and Gram-positive bacterial species, the encoding glpR gene was chromosomally linked with genes of sugar metabolism. In H. volcanii, glpR was cotranscribed with the downstream phosphofructokinase (PFK; pfkB) gene, and the transcript levels of this glpR-pfkB operon were 10- to 20-fold higher when cells were grown on fructose or glucose than when they were grown on glycerol alone. GlpR was required for repression on glycerol based on significant increases in the levels of PFK (pfkB) transcript and enzyme activity detected upon deletion of glpR from the genome. Deletion of glpR also resulted in significant increases in both the activity and the transcript (kdgK1) levels of 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate kinase (KDGK), a key enzyme of haloarchaeal glucose metabolism, when cells were grown on glycerol, compared to the levels obtained for media with glucose. Promoter fusions to a ?-galactosidase bgaH reporter revealed that transcription of glpR-pfkB and kdgK1 was modulated by carbon source and GlpR, consistent with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme activity assays. The results presented here provide genetic and biochemical evidence that GlpR controls both fructose and glucose metabolic enzymes through transcriptional repression of the glpR-pfkB operon and kdgK1 during growth on glycerol.

Rawls, Katherine S.; Yacovone, Shalane K.; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

2010-01-01

165

GlpR represses fructose and glucose metabolic enzymes at the level of transcription in the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii.  

PubMed

In this study, a DeoR/GlpR-type transcription factor was investigated for its potential role as a global regulator of sugar metabolism in haloarchaea, using Haloferax volcanii as a model organism. Common to a number of haloarchaea and Gram-positive bacterial species, the encoding glpR gene was chromosomally linked with genes of sugar metabolism. In H. volcanii, glpR was cotranscribed with the downstream phosphofructokinase (PFK; pfkB) gene, and the transcript levels of this glpR-pfkB operon were 10- to 20-fold higher when cells were grown on fructose or glucose than when they were grown on glycerol alone. GlpR was required for repression on glycerol based on significant increases in the levels of PFK (pfkB) transcript and enzyme activity detected upon deletion of glpR from the genome. Deletion of glpR also resulted in significant increases in both the activity and the transcript (kdgK1) levels of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate kinase (KDGK), a key enzyme of haloarchaeal glucose metabolism, when cells were grown on glycerol, compared to the levels obtained for media with glucose. Promoter fusions to a ?-galactosidase bgaH reporter revealed that transcription of glpR-pfkB and kdgK1 was modulated by carbon source and GlpR, consistent with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and enzyme activity assays. The results presented here provide genetic and biochemical evidence that GlpR controls both fructose and glucose metabolic enzymes through transcriptional repression of the glpR-pfkB operon and kdgK1 during growth on glycerol. PMID:20935102

Rawls, Katherine S; Yacovone, Shalane K; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A

2010-10-08

166

Influence of metabolic network structure and function on enzyme evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Most studies of molecular evolution are focused on individual genes and proteins. However, understanding the design principles and evolutionary properties of molecular networks requires a system-wide perspective. In the present work we connect molecular evolution on the gene level with system properties of a cellular metabolic network. In contrast to protein interaction networks, where several previous studies investigated

Dennis Vitkup; Peter Kharchenko; Andreas Wagner

2006-01-01

167

Thyroid regulation of resting metabolic rate and intermediary metabolic enzymes in a lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).  

PubMed

This study investigates the effects of physiological increments in plasma thyroxine (T4) at three levels of biological organization in thyroid-intact and thyroidectomized captive western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis. Two doses of T4-loaded pellets elevated plasma T4 in thyroid-intact lizards from 4.8 +/- 0.47 to 10.7 +/- 2.25 and 20.4 +/- 5.77 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Surgical thyroidectomy reduced T4 to 1.8 +/- 0.23 ng/ml, and subsequent T4 pellet implantation raised T4 to 14.8 +/- 4.30 ng/ml. Minimal resting metabolic rate (= standard metabolic rate; SMR), a common organismal metric of thyroid perturbation, was reduced 31% (P less than 0.0001) by thyroidectomy and was restored by T4 replacement but was not stimulated by T4 supplementation in thyroid-intact lizards. In T4-replaced, thyroidectomized lizards, SMR was significantly correlated with plasma T4 (r2 = 0.626, P = 0.003, n = 11). At the organ level, liver mass was not changed by any treatment; heart mass was decreased by thyroid deficiency and restored by T4 replacement. At the molecular level, citrate synthase activity was significantly reduced by thyroidectomy and was returned to control levels by T4 replacement in liver and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) but was not changed in cardiac muscle. Citrate synthase was not affected in any tissue by T4 supplementation in thyroid-intact lizards. Pyruvate kinase activity was not affected by any of the treatments in any of the tissues. Cytosolic alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase was significantly reduced in liver by all treatments and in skeletal muscle by T4 replacement after thyroidectomy. These results indicate that SMR and cardiac muscle mass in lizards are dependent on normal thyroid function and are expressed maximally in euthyroid animals. The stimulatory effect of T4 on SMR in thyroid-intact lizards, which has been reported previously by several investigators, is a nonphysiological response to pharmacological T4 levels, at least in these captive lizards. Molecular responses are tissue and enzyme dependent and cannot be generalized. Pellet implantation is an effective means of inducing physiological increments in plasma T4 and should replace previously used injection protocols. This new method can be used in capture-recapture experiments involving field-active lizards. PMID:2295423

John-Alder, H B

1990-01-01

168

Nicotine Dependence Pharmacogenetics: Role of Genetic Variation in Nicotine-Metabolizing Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Nicotine-dependence pharmacogenetics research is an emerging field, and a number of studies have begun to characterize the clinical relevance and predictive power of genetic variation in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug target genes for response to medication. The present paper focuses on evidence for the role of nicotine-metabolizing enzymes in smoking behavior and response to treatment. Nicotine metabolism is mediated primarily by cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). Genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene has been linked with several smoking behavior phenotypes. Individuals who carry null or reduced activity alleles for CYP2A6 smoke fewer cigarettes per day, are less dependent on nicotine, and may have an easier time quitting smoking. A phenotypic measure of CYP2A6 enzyme activity, defined as the ratio of the nicotine metabolites 3?hydroxycotinine/cotinine, also predicts successful quitting with the transdermal nicotine patch, and counseling alone. Faster metabolizers of nicotine respond more poorly to these treatments; however, they may be excellent candidates for non-nicotine therapies, such as bupropion. Inherited variation in the CYP2B6 enzyme is also associated with response to bupropion treatment and counseling alone for smoking cessation. Inhibition of the CYP2A6 enzyme to slow nicotine metabolism is a promising approach to increase nicotine availability and potentially reduce harm from tobacco smoking.

Ray, Riju; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Lerman, Caryn

2013-01-01

169

Chronic suppression of insulin by diazoxide alters the activities of key enzymes regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis in Zucker rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Chronic attenuation of hyperinsulinemia by diazoxide (DZ), an inhibitor of glucose- mediated insulin secretion, improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance and caused down- regulation of lipid metabolizing enzymes in adipose tissue and decreased the rate of weight gain in mildly hyperglycemic obese Zucker rats. Since the liver plays a central role in glucose homeostasis, we studied the effect of

Ramin Alemzadeh; Sidney Holshouser; Pam Massey; John Koontz

2002-01-01

170

In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-dose continuous infusions of (2H5)phenylalanine, (1-13C)propionate, and (1-13C)leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess

G. N. Thompson; J. H. Walter; J. V. Leonard; D. Halliday

1990-01-01

171

High-throughput structural biology of metabolic enzymes and its impact on human diseases.  

PubMed

The Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) is a public-private partnership that aims to determine the three-dimensional structures of human proteins of medical relevance and place them into the public domain without restriction. To date, the Oxford Metabolic Enzyme Group at SGC has deposited the structures of more than 140 human metabolic enzymes from diverse protein families such as oxidoreductases, hydrolases, oxygenases and fatty acid transferases. A subset of our target proteins are involved in the inherited disorders of carbohydrate, fatty acid, amino acid and vitamin metabolism. This article will provide an overview of the structural data gathered from our high-throughput efforts and the lessons learnt in the structure-function relationship of these enzymes, small molecule development and the molecular basis of disease mutations. PMID:21340633

Yue, Wyatt W; Oppermann, Udo

2011-02-22

172

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a key cell factory platform for future biorefineries.  

PubMed

Metabolic engineering is the enabling science of development of efficient cell factories for the production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients through microbial fermentations. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key cell factory already used for the production of a wide range of industrial products, and here we review ongoing work, particularly in industry, on using this organism for the production of butanol, which can be used as biofuel, and isoprenoids, which can find a wide range of applications including as pharmaceuticals and as biodiesel. We also look into how engineering of yeast can lead to improved uptake of sugars that are present in biomass hydrolyzates, and hereby allow for utilization of biomass as feedstock in the production of fuels and chemicals employing S. cerevisiae. Finally, we discuss the perspectives of how technologies from systems biology and synthetic biology can be used to advance metabolic engineering of yeast. PMID:22388689

Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

2012-03-03

173

Postnatal regulation of myosin heavy chain isoform expression and metabolic enzyme activity by nutrition.  

PubMed

Development of muscle is critically dependent on several hormones which in turn are regulated by nutritional status. We therefore determined the impact of mild postnatal undernutrition on key markers of myofibre function: type I slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform, myosin ATPase, succinate dehydrogenase and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. In situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry and enzyme histochemistry were used to assess functionally distinct muscles from 6-week-old pigs which had been fed an optimal (6% (60 g food/kg body weight per d)) or low (2% (20 g food/kg per d)) intake for 3 weeks, and kept at 26 degrees C. Nutritional status had striking muscle-specific influences on contractile and metabolic properties of myofibres, and especially on myosin isoform expression. A low food intake upregulated slow MyHC mRNA and protein levels in rhomboideus by 53% (P < 0.01) and 18% (P < 0.05) respectively; effects in longissimus dorsi, soleus and diaphragm were not significant. The oxidative capacity of all muscles increased on the low intake, albeit to varying extents: longissimus dorsi (55%), rhomboideus (30%), soleus (21%), diaphragm (7%). Proportions of slow oxidative fibres increased at the expense of fast glycolytic fibres. These novel findings suggest a critical role for postnatal nutrition in regulating myosin gene expression and muscle phenotype. They have important implications for optimal development of human infants: on a low intake, energetic efficiency will increase and the integrated response to many metabolic and growth hormones will alter, since both are dependent on myofibre type. Mechanisms underlying these changes probably involve complex interactions between hormones acting as nutritional signals and differential effects on their cell membrane receptors or nuclear receptors. PMID:11029969

White, P; Cattaneo, D; Dauncey, M J

2000-08-01

174

Effects of cerium on key enzymes of carbon assimilation of spinach under magnesium deficiency.  

PubMed

The mechanism of the fact that cerium improves the photosynthesis of plants under magnesium deficiency is poorly understood. The main aim of the study was to determine the role of cerium in the amelioration of magnesium deficiency effects in CO(2) assimilation of spinach. Spinach plants were cultivated in Hoagland's solution. They were subjected to magnesium deficiency and to cerium chloride administered in the magnesium-present Hoagland's media and magnesium-deficient Hoagland's media. The results showed that the chlorophyll synthesis and oxygen evolution was destroyed, and the activities of Rubisco carboxylasae and Rubisco activase and the expression of Rubisco large subunit (rbcL), Rubisco small subunit (rbcS), and Rubisco activase subunit (rca) were significantly inhibited, then plant growth was inhibited by magnesium deficiency. However, cerium promotes the chlorophyll synthesis, the activities of two key enzymes in CO(2) assimilation, and the expression of rbcL, rbcS, and rca, thus leading to the enhancement of spinach growth under magnesium-deficient conditions. PMID:19274447

Yuguan, Ze; Min, Zhou; Luyang, Luo; Zhe, Ji; Chao, Liu; Sitao, Yin; Yanmei, Duan; Na, Li; Fashui, Hong

2009-03-10

175

Metabolism of the Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline by cDNA-Expressed Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of amitriptyline was studied in vitro using cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes 1A2, 3A4, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1. CYP 2C19 was the most important enzyme with regard to the demethylation of amitriptyline, the quantitatively most important metabolic pathway. CYP 1A2, 3A4, 2C9 and CYP 2D6 also participated in the demethylation of amitriptyline. CYP 2D6 was the

Ole V. Olesen; Kristian Linnet

1997-01-01

176

Drug metabolizing enzyme induction pathways in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a disease that compromises hepatic function and the capacity to metabolize numerous\\u000a drugs. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated\\u000a receptor alpha (PPAR?), and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) are xenobiotic activated transcription factors that\\u000a regulate induction of a number of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs). The purpose of

Craig D. Fisher; Jonathan P. Jackson; Andrew J. Lickteig; Lisa M. Augustine; Nathan J. Cherrington

2008-01-01

177

Transcriptional co-regulation of secondary metabolism enzymes in Arabidopsis : functional and evolutionary implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combined knowledge of the Arabidopsis genome and transcriptome now allows to get an integrated view of the dynamics and evolution of metabolic pathways in plants.\\u000a We used publicly available sets of microarray data obtained in a wide range of different stress and developmental conditions\\u000a to investigate the co-expression of genes encoding enzymes of secondary metabolism pathways, in particular indoles,

Claire M. M. Gachon; Mathilde Langlois-Meurinne; Yves Henry; Patrick Saindrenan

2005-01-01

178

Dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation downregulates arachidonate but upregulates docosahexaenoate metabolizing enzymes in rat brain  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deprivation increases expression of arachidonic acid (AA 20:4n-6)-selective cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) IVA and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in rat brain, while decreasing expression of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3)-selective calcium-independent iPLA2 VIA. Assuming that these enzyme changes represented brain homeostatic responses to deprivation, we hypothesized that dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation would produce changes in the opposite directions. Methods Brain expression of PUFA-metabolizing enzymes and their transcription factors was quantified in male rats fed an n-6 PUFA adequate or deficient diet for 15 weeks post-weaning. Results The deficient compared with adequate diet increased brain mRNA, protein and activity of iPLA2 VIA and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX), but decreased cPLA2 IVA and COX-2 expression. The brain protein level of the iPLA2 transcription factor SREBP-1 was elevated, while protein levels were decreased for AP-2? and NF-?B p65, cPLA2 and COX-2 transcription factors, respectively. Conclusions With dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation, rat brain PUFA metabolizing enzymes and some of their transcription factors change in a way that would homeostatically dampen reductions in brain n-6 PUFA concentrations and metabolism, while n-3 PUFA metabolizing enzyme expression is increased. The changes correspond to reported in vitro enzyme selectivities for AA compared with DHA. (198 words)

Kim, Hyung-Wook; Rao, Jagadeesh S; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Igarashi, Miki

2010-01-01

179

Expression in human prostate of drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes: association with prostate cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of two common polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs and carcinogens was studied in relation to prostate cancer. The gene encoding one of these enzymes (NAT2) is located in an area where frequent allelic loss occurs in prostate cancer. Mutations at the genes CYP2D6 and NAT2 were analysed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction

JA Agúndez; C Martínez; M Olivera; L Gallardo; JM Ladero; C Rosado; J Prados; J Rodriguez-Molina; L Resel; J Benítez

1998-01-01

180

Plausible novel ribose metabolism catalyzed by enzymes of the methionine salvage pathway in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

The methionine salvage pathway (MSP) recycles reduced sulfur from 5-methylthioribose. Here we propose a novel ribose metabolic pathway performed by MSP enzymes of Bacilli. MtnK, an initial catalyst of MSP, had significant ribose kinase activity, with Vmax and Km values of 2.9 µmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1) and 4.8 mM. Downstream enzymes catalyzed the isomerization of ribose-1-phosphate and subsequent dehydration, enolization, dephosphorylation, and dioxygenation. PMID:23649237

Nakano, Toshihiro; Saito, Yohtaro; Yokota, Akiho; Ashida, Hiroki

2013-05-07

181

Alterations of selected metabolic enzymes in fish following long-term exposure to contaminated streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to assess the suitability ofalterations in activities of selected metabolicenzymes as biomarkers of chemicalcontamination, juvenile brown trout (Salmotrutta f. fario) and adult loach (Barbatula barbatula) were exposed to nativesurface waters from Krähenbach andKörsch, two differently polluted smallstreams in Southern Germany. As biomarkers ofexposure, a set of metabolic enzymes comprisinghexokinase, phosphofructokinase,glucose-6-P-dehydrogenase, malic enzyme,cytochrome c oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase,citrate synthase, alanine

Jens Konradt; Thomas Braunbeck

2001-01-01

182

Glutamate Metabolizing Enzymes in Prefrontal Cortex of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amounts of glutamate metabolizing enzymes such as glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS), GS-like protein (GSLP), and phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) were compared in prefrontal cortex of control subjects and patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). The target proteins were quantified by ECL-Western immunoblotting in extracts from brain tissue prepared by two different techniques separating enzymes preferentially associated with cytoplasm (GDH I

Gulnur Sh. Burbaeva; Irina S. Boksha; Elena B. Tereshkina; Olga K. Savushkina; Lubov’ I. Starodubtseva; Marina S. Turishcheva

2005-01-01

183

Key Residues Controlling Binding of Diverse Ligands to Human Cytochrome P450 2A Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Although the human lung cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) and its liver counterpart cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) are 94% identical in amino acid sequence, they metabolize a number of substrates with substantially different efficiencies. To determine differences in binding for a diverse set of cytochrome P450 2A ligands, we have measured the spectral binding affinities (KD) for nicotine, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), coumarin, 2?-methoxyacetophenone (MAP), and 8-methoxypsoralen. The differences in the KD values for CYP2A6 versus CYP2A13 ranged from 74-fold for 2?-methoxyacetophenone to 1.1-fold for coumarin, with CYP2A13 demonstrating the higher affinity. To identify active site amino acids responsible for the differences in binding of MAP, PEITC, and coumarin, 10 CYP2A13 mutant proteins were generated in which individual amino acids from the CYP2A6 active site were substituted into CYP2A13 at the corresponding position. Titrations revealed that substitutions at positions 208, 300, and 301 individually had the largest effects on ligand binding. The collective relevance of these amino acids to differential ligand selectivity was verified by evaluating binding to CYP2A6 mutant enzymes that incorporate several of the CYP2A13 amino acids at these positions. Inclusion of four CYP2A13 amino acids resulted in a CYP2A6 mutant protein (I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G) with binding affinities for MAP and PEITC much more similar to those observed for CYP2A13 than to those for CYP2A6 without altering coumarin binding. The structure-based quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis using COMBINE successfully modeled the observed mutant-ligand trends and emphasized steric roles for active site residues including four substituted amino acids and an adjacent conserved Leu370.

DeVore, N. M.; Smith, B. D.; Wang, J. L.; Lushington, G. H.; Scott, E. E.

2009-01-01

184

NADP-malic enzyme from plants: a ubiquitous enzyme involved in different metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) is a widely distributed enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate. Photosynthetic NADP-MEs are found in C4 bundle sheath chloroplasts and in the cytosol of CAM plants, while non-photosynthetic NADP-MEs are either plastidic or cytosolic in various plants. We propose a classification of plant NADP-MEs based on their physiological function and localization and we describe recent advances in the characterization of each isoform. Based on the alignment of amino acid sequences of plant NADP-MEs, we identify putative binding sites for the substrates and analyze the phylogenetic origin of each isoform, revealing several features of the molecular evolution of this ubiquitous enzyme. PMID:11172800

Drincovich, M F; Casati, P; Andreo, C S

2001-02-01

185

[Immune insufficiency in enzyme defects of purine metabolism].  

PubMed

Adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4. - ADA) deaminates adenosine and deoxyadenosine to inosine and deoxyinosine. The distribution of ADA isoenzymes depends on a binding protein. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (EC 2.4.2.1. - PNP) catabolizes inosine and guanosine to hypoxanthine and guanine. Patients with severe combined immuno-insufficiency often suffer from a congenital ADA deficiency. The PNP deficiency is associated with severely defective T-cell immunity and normal B-cell immunity. Deficiency of ADA leads to an accumulation of adenosine, deoxyadenosine, adenine nucleotides (cAMP, dATP). In PNP deficiency an increased production of inosine, guanosine, deoxyinosine and deoxyguanosine was found. The pathogenesis of the immuno-insufficiency is to be traced back to disturbances in the purine metabolism interfering with the mitogenically induced lymphocyte transformation and other lymphocyte functions, as determined by in vitro tests. Deoxyadenine inhibits the ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and synthesis of DNA. The overproduction of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine inhibits methyltransferase reactions and 2'-deoxyadenosine the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase. A decrease of ADA activities was found in T-lymphocytes of patients with Hodgkin's disease. Measurements of ADA activity in patients with leukemias do not explain the impairment of the cellular immune response in leukemias and may be regarded as indicator of increased purine metabolism. The ADA activities are increased in patients with acute immature and chronic myeloic leukemias depending on the activity of the disease. The ADA activity is low in chronic lymphatic leukemia. ADA inhibitors were used for the treatment of T-cell leukemias. PMID:6303005

Müller, G

1983-02-01

186

Metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate by cytochrome P450 3A enzymes.  

PubMed

Inhaled glucocorticoids, such as beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), are the mainstay treatment of asthma. However, ? 30% of patients exhibit little to no benefit from treatment. It has been postulated that glucocorticoid resistance, or insensitivity, is attributable to individual differences in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated processes. It is possible that variations in cytochrome P450 3A enzyme-mediated metabolism of BDP may contribute to this phenomenon. This hypothesis was explored by evaluating the contributions of CYP3A4, 3A5, 3A7, and esterase enzymes in the metabolism of BDP in vitro and relating metabolism to changes in CYP3A enzyme mRNA expression via the glucocorticoid receptor in lung and liver cells. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolized BDP via hydroxylation ([M4] and [M6]) and dehydrogenation ([M5]) at similar rates; CYP3A7 did not metabolize BDP. A new metabolite [M6], formed by the combined action of esterases and CYP3A4 hydroxylation, was also characterized. To validate the results observed using microsomes and recombinant enzymes, studies were also conducted using A549 lung and DPX2 liver cells. Both liver and lung cells produced esterase-dependent metabolites [M1-M3], with [M1] correlating with CYP3A5 mRNA induction in A549 cells. Liver cells produced both hydroxylated and dehydrogenated metabolites [M4, M5, and M6], but lung cells produced only the dehydrogenated metabolite [M5]. These studies show that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolize BDP to inactive metabolites and suggest that differences in the expression or function of these enzymes in the lung and/or liver could influence BDP disposition in humans. PMID:23512537

Roberts, Jessica K; Moore, Chad D; Ward, Robert M; Yost, Garold S; Reilly, Christopher A

2013-03-19

187

Functional genomics and SNP analysis of human genes encoding proline metabolic enzymes  

PubMed Central

Proline metabolism in mammals involves two other amino acids, glutamate and ornithine, and five enzymatic activities, ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (P5CR), proline oxidase, P5C dehydrogenase, P5C synthase and ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT). With the exception of OAT, which catalyzes a reversible reaction, the other 4 enzymes are unidirectional, suggesting that proline metabolism is purpose-driven, tightly regulated, and compartmentalized. In addition, this tri-amino-acid system also links with three other pivotal metabolic systems, namely the TCA cycle, urea cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway. Abnormalities in proline metabolism are relevant in several diseases: six monogenic inborn errors involving metabolism and/or transport of proline and its immediate metabolites have been described. Recent advances in the Human Genome Project, in silico database mining techniques, and research in dissecting the molecular basis of proline metabolism prompted us to utilize functional genomic approaches to analyze human genes which encode proline metabolic enzymes in the context of gene structure, regulation of gene expression, mRNA variants, protein isoforms, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.

Williams, D. Bart; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Khalil, Shadi; Wan, Guanghua; Valle, David

2009-01-01

188

Effect of urethane, dimethylnitrosamine, paraquat, and butylated hydroxytoluene on the activities of glycolytic key enzymes in mouse lung  

SciTech Connect

Effects of carcinogens and noncarcinogenic pulmonary toxicants on the activities of glycolytic key enzymes in the mouse lung were investigated. The carcinogens urethane (URTH) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) permanently enhanced, and the noncarcinogenic pulmonary toxicants paraquat (PAR) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) temporarily, enhanced the activities of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the lungs of mice.

Arany, I.; Rady, P.; Bojan, I.; Kertai, P.

1981-12-01

189

Nerve agent hydrolysis activity designed into a human drug metabolism enzyme.  

PubMed

Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents are potent suicide inhibitors of the essential neurotransmitter-regulating enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Due to their acute toxicity, there is significant interest in developing effective countermeasures to OP poisoning. Here we impart nerve agent hydrolysis activity into the human drug metabolism enzyme carboxylesterase 1. Using crystal structures of the target enzyme in complex with nerve agent as a guide, a pair of histidine and glutamic acid residues were designed proximal to the enzyme's native catalytic triad. The resultant variant protein demonstrated significantly increased rates of reactivation following exposure to sarin, soman, and cyclosarin. Importantly, the addition of these residues did not alter the high affinity binding of nerve agents to this protein. Thus, using two amino acid substitutions, a novel enzyme was created that efficiently converted a group of hemisubstrates, compounds that can start but not complete a reaction cycle, into bona fide substrates. Such approaches may lead to novel countermeasures for nerve agent poisoning. PMID:21445272

Hemmert, Andrew C; Otto, Tamara C; Chica, Roberto A; Wierdl, Monika; Edwards, Jonathan S; Lewis, Steven M; Lewis, Steven L; Edwards, Carol C; Tsurkan, Lyudmila; Cadieux, C Linn; Kasten, Shane A; Cashman, John R; Mayo, Stephen L; Potter, Philip M; Cerasoli, Douglas M; Redinbo, Matthew R

2011-03-18

190

Gene Expression Changes of Phases I and II Metabolizing Enzymes Induced by PAH Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, and generate various types of PAH derivatives, such as nitrated PAHs, hydroxylated PAHs, and PAH quinones through chemical reactions in the atmosphere. PAHs are well known to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), followed by the induction of metabolizing enzymes mainly in the liver, while biological responses to PAH derivatives are not

KANAE BEKKI; HIDETAKA TAKIGAMI; GO SUZUKI; AKIRA TORIBA; NING TANG; TAKAYUKI KAMEDA; KAZUICHI HAYAKAWA

2012-01-01

191

Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activity During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are known to change throughout the course of physical and sexual maturation, with the greatest variability noted during infancy and adolescence. The mechanisms responsible for developmental regulation of DME are currently unknown. However, the hormonal changes associated with puberty\\/adolescence provide a theoretical framework for understanding the biochemical regulation of DME activity during growth and maturation.

MJ Kennedy

2008-01-01

192

Nucleic acid-binding metabolic enzymes: Living fossils of stereochemical interactions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a series of intriguing observations expanded the list of a number of metabolic enzymes known to be associated with various forms of nucleic acids, including single- and double-stranded DNA, cognate and noncognate RNAs, and specific tRNAs. There is no clear reason why such a phenomenon should take place in contemporary cell physiology, or, further, why such a property has

Nikos C. Kyrpides; Christos A. Ouzounis

1995-01-01

193

PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION AS A POSSIBLE TRIGGER FOR DEGRADATION OF METABOLIC ENZYMES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The phosphorylation of a protein can affect its enzymatic activity, localization or interaction with other proteins. In addition, recent results suggest that phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes at certain sites might be a trigger for degradation via the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Recent result...

194

Phylogenetic and biological investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 (FDB2) gene of Fusarium verticillioides was the first NAT cloned and character...

195

Metabolic enzyme induction in the rat by organic river sediment pollutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among various organic pollutants in environments~ the lipophilic substances which possess the property of resistance to microbial attack, e.g., insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), are the most important and hazardous substances because of the toxicity and the accumulative property. Such substances are also known to induce drug metabolizing enzymes such as microsomal mixed-function oxidases in liver of animals. Payne and

Masako Tabata; Junzo Suzuki; Shizuo Suzuki

1986-01-01

196

Dual Targeting of Antioxidant and Metabolic Enzymes to the Mitochondrion and the Apicoplast of Toxoplasma gondii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxoplasma gondii is an aerobic protozoan parasite that possesses mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes to safely dispose of oxygen radicals generated by cellular respiration and metabolism. As with most Apicomplexans, it also harbors a chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast, which hosts various biosynthetic pathways and requires antioxidant protection. Most apicoplast-resident proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome and are targeted to the organelle

Paco Pino; Bernardo Javier Foth; Lai-Yu Kwok; Lilach Sheiner; Rebecca Schepers; Thierry Soldati; Dominique Soldati-Favre

2007-01-01

197

Ethanol Increases Hepatic Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum and Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rats were fed ethanol for 2 weeks along with diets either adequate or deficient in protein and choline, the latter intake being similar to that of many alcoholics. Hepatic lipids, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes (aniline hydroxylase and nitroreductase) were increased with the adequate diet but more so with the deficient one. These results may explain

Emanuel Rubin; Ferenc Hutterer; Charles S. Lieber

1968-01-01

198

The clinical role of genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), the functional consequences of genetic polymorphisms have been examined. Variants leading to reduced or increased enzymatic activity as compared to the wild-type alleles have been identified. This review tries to define potential fields in the therapy of major medical conditions where genotyping (or phenotyping) of genetically polymorphic DMEs might be beneficial for drug safety or

D Tomalik-Scharte; A Lazar; U Fuhr; J Kirchheiner

2008-01-01

199

Coordinated Changes in Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression in Aging Male Rats  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to gain better insight on aging and susceptibility, we characterized the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) from the livers of rats to evaluate the change in capacity to respond to xenobiotics across the adult lifespan. Gene expression profiles for XMEs...

200

IDENTIFICATION OF CHANGES IN XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM ENZYME EXPRESSION DURING AGING USING COMPREHENSIVE TRANSCRIPT PROFILING  

EPA Science Inventory

Aging leads to changes in the expression of enzymes and transporters important in the metabolism and fate of xenobiotics in liver, kidney and intestine. Most notable are the changes in a number of CYP and xenobiotic transporter genes regulated by the nuclear receptors PXR, CAR an...

201

Enzymes involved in crotonate metabolism in Syntrophomonas wolfei  

SciTech Connect

Cell-free extracts of Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei grown with crotonate in pure culture or in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei contained crotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase activity. This activity was not detected in cell-free extracts from the butyrate-grown coculture which suggests that the long lag times observed before S. wolfei grew with crotonate were initially due to the inability to activate crotonate. Cell-free extracts of S. wolfei grown in pure culture contained high specific activities of hydrogenase and very low levels of formate dehydrogenase. The low levels suggest a biosynthetic rather than a catabolic role for the latter enzyme when S. wolfei is grown in pure culture. CO dehydrogenase activity was not detected. S. wolfei can form butyrate using a CoA transferase activity, but not by a phosphotransbutyrylase or enoate reductase activity. A c-type cytochrome was detected in S. wolfei grown in pure culture or in coculture indicating the presence of an electron transport system. This is a characteristic which separates S. wolfei from other known crotonate-using bacteria.

McInerney, M.J.; Wofford, N.Q. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology

1992-12-31

202

Drug-metabolizing enzyme, transporter, and nuclear receptor genetically modified mouse models.  

PubMed

Determining the in vivo significance of a specific enzyme, transporter, or xenobiotic receptor in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics may be hampered by gene multiplicity and complexity, levels of expression, and interaction between various components involved. The development of knockout (loss-of-function) and transgenic (gain-of-function) mouse models opens the door to the improved understanding of gene function in a whole-body system. There is also growing interest in the development of humanized mice to overcome species differences in drug metabolism and disposition. This review, therefore, aims to summarize and discuss some successful examples of drug-metabolizing enzyme, transporter, and nuclear-receptor genetically modified mouse models. These genetically modified mouse models have been proven as invaluable models for understanding in vivo function of drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and xenobiotic receptors in drug metabolism and transport, as well as predicting potential drug-drug interaction and toxicity in humans. Nevertheless, concerns remain about interpretation of data obtained from such genetically modified mouse models, in which the expression of related genes is altered significantly. PMID:20854191

Jiang, Xi-Ling; Gonzalez, Frank J; Yu, Ai-Ming

2010-09-21

203

Hereditary branching enzyme dysfunction in adult polyglucosan body disease: a possible metabolic cause in two patients.  

PubMed

We describe 2 unrelated patients with adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) diagnosed by sural nerve biopsy. Both patients were offspring of consanguineous marriages. They presented clinically with late onset pyramidal tetraparesis, micturition difficulties, peripheral neuropathy, and mild cognitive impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed extensive white matter abnormalities in both. In search of a possible metabolic defect, we evaluated glycogen metabolism in these patients and their clinically unaffected children. Branching enzyme activity in the patients' polymorphonuclear leukocytes was about 15% of control values, whereas their children displayed values of 50 to 60%, suggesting a possible autosomal recessive mode of transmission. This is the first report of an inherited metabolic defect in patients with adult polyglucosan body disease. We suggest that branching enzyme dysfunction may be implicated in the pathogenesis of some patients with adult polyglucosan body disease. PMID:1763891

Lossos, A; Barash, V; Soffer, D; Argov, Z; Gomori, M; Ben-Nariah, Z; Abramsky, O; Steiner, I

1991-11-01

204

Chasing the Key Enzymes of Secondary Metabolite—Biosy nthesis from Thai Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites have been discovered in our laboratory from both differentiated plants and in vitro cultures of Thai medicinal plants. The discovered enzymes included (1) geranylgeraniol-18-hydroxylase from Croton sublyratus containing plaunotol, an anti-peptic ulcer diterpenoid, (2) dopamine-secologanin condensing enzymes from Alangium lamarckii containing emetine, an amoebicidal tetrahydroisoquinoline monoterpene alkaloid, (3) lawsone-forming multienzyme

Wanchai De-Eknamkul

205

Skeletal muscle enzymes as predictors of 24-h energy metabolism in reduced-obese persons1-4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little is known about the effects of weight loss on the relation between skeletal muscle enzymes and energy metabolism. Objective: This study was performed retrospectively to investi- gate the relation between skeletal muscle enzymes and 24-h energy metabolism in obese persons before and after weight loss. Design: Ten women and 9 men (with body mass indexes (in kg\\/m2) >

Eric Doucet; Angelo Tremblay; Jean-Aimé Simoneau; Denis R Joanisse

206

Mouflon ( Ovis musimon) dicrocoeliosis: Effects of parasitosis on the activities of biotransformation enzymes and albendazole metabolism in liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasitic infections can modify the host's ability to metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics by altering the biotransformation enzymes; these changes may have various pharmacological, toxicological or physiological consequences. In our study, several activities of liver biotransformation enzymes and in vitro metabolism of albendazole (ABZ) were tested and compared in non-infected mouflons (Ovis musimon) and in mouflons infected by lancet fluke

L. Skálová; V. K?ížová; V. Cvilink; B. Szotáková; L. Štorkánová; J. Velík; J. Lamka

2007-01-01

207

Relationship of Arachidonic Acid Metabolizing Enzyme Expression in Epithelial Cancer Cell Lines to the Growth Effect of Selective Biochemical Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are emerging as signifi- cant mediators of growth stimulation for epithelial cells. The relative contribution of the various family members of AA metabolizing enzymes to epithelial cancer cell growth is not known. To study this question, we first analyzed a series of epithelial cancer cells to establish the relative frequency of expression for the various

Sung H. Hong; Ingalill Avis; Michele D. Vos; Alfredo Martinez; Anthony M. Treston; James L. Mulshine

1999-01-01

208

In vitro metabolism of magnolin and characterization of cytochrome P450 enzymes responsible for its metabolism in human liver microsomes.  

PubMed

Magnolin is a major bioactive component found in Shin-i, the dried flower buds of Magnolia fargesii; it has anti-inflammatory and anti-histaminic activities. Incubation of magnolin in human liver microsomes with an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-generating system resulted in the formation of five metabolites, namely, O-desmethyl magnolin (M1 and M2), didesmethylmagnolin (M3), and hydroxymagnolin (M4 and M5). In this study, we characterized the human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes responsible for the biotransformation of three major metabolites--M1, M2, and M4--of magnolin. CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 were identified as the major enzymes responsible for the formation of the two O-desmethyl magnolins (M1 and M2), on the basis of a combination of correlation analysis and experiments, including immunoinhibition of magnolin in human liver microsomes and metabolism of magnolin by human cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes. CYP2C8 played a predominant role in the formation of hydroxymagnolin (M4). These results suggest that the pharmacokinetics of magnolin may not be affected by CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 responsible for the metabolism of magnolin or by the co-administration of appropriate CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 inhibitors or inducers due to the involvement of multiple CYP enzymes in the metabolism of magnolin. PMID:21294626

Kim, Dong Kyun; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Jeong, Ji Hyun; Ji, Hye Young; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Hye Suk

2011-02-04

209

Skeletal Muscles Express the Xenobiotic-metabolizing Enzyme Arylamine N-acetyltransferase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) NAT1 and NAT2 are enzymes responsible for the acetylation of many arylamines and hydrazines, thereby playing an important role in both detoxification and activation of many drugs and carcinogens. Both enzymes show polymorphisms but exhibit key differences in substrate selectivity and tissue expression. In the present study, reverse transcriptase-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used

Fernando Rodrigues-Lima; Racquel N. Cooper; Bertrand Goudeau; Noureddine Atmane; Anne-Marie Chamagne; Gillian Butler-Browne; Edith Sim; Patrick Vicart; Jean-Marie Dupret

2003-01-01

210

The Stabilisation of Enzymes — a Key Factor in the Practical Application of Biocatalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state of the problem of the practical application of biocatalysis is examined and physicochemical approaches whereby the denaturation of enzymes under the influence of elevated temperatures, extreme pH values, and organic solvents can be suppressed are analysed. The general principles of the stabilisation of enzymes are formulated. The bibliography includes 225 references.

Martinek, K.; Berezin, I. B.

1980-05-01

211

[Research progress of effect of anti-diabetic traditional Chinese medicines based on regulation of glucose metabolic enzyme].  

PubMed

Diabetes is a global threat threatening human health in the world, with an increasing incidence rate in recent years. The disorder of glucose metabolism is one of the major factors. As relevant glucose metabolic enzymes such as alpha-glucosidase, glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) get involved in and control the process of glucose metabolism, the regulation of the activity of glucose metabolic enzymes is of significance to the treatment of diabetes. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been widely researched because of their low toxicology and high efficiency, and many extracts and components from TCMs have been proven to be regulators of glucose metabolic enzymes. Compared with anti-diabetic western medicines, anti-diabetic TCMs feature safety, reliability and low price. This essay summarizes the anti-diabetic effect of TCMs on regulating glucose metabolic enzymes. PMID:23477131

Ji, Liu; Tang, Xin-Qiang; Peng, Jin-Yong

2012-12-01

212

Cyclophosphamide metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms and survival outcomes after adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Cyclophosphamide-based adjuvant chemotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for women with node-positive breast cancer, but is not universally effective in preventing recurrence. Pharmacogenetic variability in drug metabolism is one possible mechanism of treatment failure. We hypothesize that functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) that activate (CYPs) or metabolize (GSTs) cyclophosphamide account for some of the

Priya P Gor; H Irene Su; Robert J Gray; Phyllis A Gimotty; Michelle Horn; Richard Aplenc; William P Vaughan; Martin S Tallman; Timothy R Rebbeck; Angela DeMichele

2010-01-01

213

Modulation of key enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and TCA cycle of the tropical freshwater fish Labeo rohita fed gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch diet.  

PubMed

A 60-day experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) starch on the key metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase), protein metabolism (aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase), and TCA cycle (malate dehydrogenase) in Labeo rohita juveniles. In the analysis, 234 juveniles (2.53 +/- 0.04 g) were randomly distributed into six treatment groups each with three replicates. Six semi-purified diets containing NG and G cornstarch, each at six levels of inclusion (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100) were prepared viz., T1 (100% NG, 0% G starch), T2 (80% NG, 20% G starch), T3 (60% NG, 40% G starch), T4 (40% NG, 60% G starch), T5 (20% NG, 80% G starch), and T6 (0% NG, 100% G starch). Dietary G:NG starch ratio had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on the glycolytic enzymes, the highest activities were observed in the T6 group and lowest in the T1 group. On the contrary, the gluconeogenic enzymes, the glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase activities in the organs, liver and kidney were recorded highest in the T1 group and lowest in the T6 group. The liver aspartate amino transferase activity showed an increasing trend with the decrease in the dietary G level. However, the muscle aspartate amino transferase activity was not significantly (P > 0.05) influenced by the type of dietary starch. The alanine amino transferase activity in both liver and muscle showed an increasing trend with the decrease in the dietary G level. The liver and muscle malate dehydrogenase activities were lowest in the T6 group and highest in the T1 group. Results suggest that NG (100%) starch diet significantly induced more the enzyme activities of amino acid metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and TCA cycle, whereas partial or total replacement of raw starch by gelatinized starch increased the glycolytic enzyme activity. PMID:19340598

Kumar, Vikas; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Kumar, Shivendra; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Ranjan, Jayant; Baruah, Kartik

2009-04-02

214

S-nitroso proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Enzymes of intermediary metabolism and antioxidant defense  

PubMed Central

The immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) includes expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS)2, whose products can kill Mtb in vitro with a molar potency greater than that of many conventional antitubercular agents. However, the targets of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) in Mtb are unknown. One major action of RNIs is protein S-nitrosylation. Here, we describe, to our knowledge, the first proteomic analysis of S-nitrosylation in a whole organism after treating Mtb with bactericidal concentrations of RNIs. The 29 S-nitroso proteins identified are all enzymes, mostly serving intermediary metabolism, lipid metabolism, and/or antioxidant defense. Many are essential or implicated in virulence, including defense against RNIs. For each of two target enzymes tested, lipoamide dehydrogenase and mycobacterial proteasome ATPase, S-nitrosylation caused enzyme inhibition. Moreover, endogenously biotinylated proteins were driven into mixed disulfide complexes. Targeting of metabolic enzymes and antioxidant defenses by means of protein S-nitrosylation and mixed disulfide bonding may contribute to the antimycobacterial actions of RNIs.

Rhee, Kyu Y.; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Nathan, Carl F.

2005-01-01

215

Ontogeny of mammalian metabolizing enzymes in humans and animals used in toxicological studies.  

PubMed

It is well recognized that expression of enzymes varies during development and growth. However, an in-depth review of this acquired knowledge is needed to translate the understanding of enzyme expression and activity into the prediction of change in effects (e.g. kinetics and toxicity) of xenobiotics with age. Age-related changes in metabolic capacity are critical for understanding and predicting the potential differences resulting from exposure. Such information may be especially useful in the evaluation of the risk of exposure to very low (µg/kg/day or ng/kg/day) levels of environmental chemicals. This review is to better understand the ontogeny of metabolizing enzymes in converting chemicals to either less-toxic metabolite(s) or more toxic products (e.g. reactive intermediate[s]) during stages before birth and during early development (neonate/infant/child). In this review, we evaluated the ontogeny of major "phase I" and "phase II" metabolizing enzymes in humans and commonly used experimental animals (e.g. mouse, rat, and others) in order to fill the information gap. PMID:22512665

Saghir, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Sarosh Ahmed; McCoy, Alene Theresa

2012-05-01

216

Soybean phenolic-rich extracts inhibit key-enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (?-amylase and ?-glucosidase) and hypertension (angiotensin I converting enzyme) in vitro.  

PubMed

This study sought to assess the inhibitory activities of phenolic-rich extracts from soybean on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase and angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activities in vitro. The free phenolic extract of the soybean was obtained by extraction with 80% acetone, while that of the bound phenolic extract was done by extracting the alkaline and acid hydrolyzed residue with ethyl acetate. The inhibitory action of these extracts on the enzymes activity as well as their antioxidant properties was assessed. Both phenolic-rich extracts inhibited ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase and ACE enzyme activities in a dose dependent pattern. However, the bound phenolic extract exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) higher ?-amylase and ACE inhibition while the free phenolic extract had significantly (P < 0.05) higher ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Nevertheless, the free phenolic extract had higher ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity when compared to that of ?-amylase; this property confer an advantage on soybean phenolic-rich extracts over commercial antidiabetic drugs with little or no side effect. And inhibition of ACE suggests the antihypertension potential of soybean phenolic-rich extracts. Furthermore, the enzyme inhibitory activities of the phenolic-rich extracts were not associated with their phenolic content. Therefore, phenolic-rich extracts of soybean could inhibit key-enzyme linked to type 2 diabetes (?-amylase and ?-glucosidase) and hypertension (ACE) and thus could explain in part the mechanism by which soybean renders these health promoting effect. PMID:22005499

Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Oboh, Ganiyu

2011-10-17

217

Key Bacterial Multi-Centered Metal Enzymes Involved in Nitrate and Sulfate Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many essential life processes, such as photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen fixation, depend on transition metal ions and their ability to catalyze multi-electron redox and hydrolytic transformations. Here we review some recent structural studies on three multi-site metal enzymes involved in respiratory processes which represent important branches within the global cycles of nitrogen and sulfur: (i) the multi-heme enzyme cytochrome c nitrite

G. Fritz; O. Einsle; M. Rudolf; A. Schiffer; P. M. H. Kroneck

2005-01-01

218

A profile of Drosophila species' enzymes assayed by electrophoresis. I. Number of alleles, heterozygosities, and linkage disequilibrium in glucose-metabolizing systems and some other enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven isolated large populations of Drosophila belonging to five different species were examined by starch gel electrophoresis for allozyme variation. Six to eleven enzyme loci in the glucose-metabolizing system (group I) and six to eight enzyme loci (group II) which were not directly involved in the above-mentioned system were assayed. The parameters estimated were the average number of alleles per

Ken-ichi Kojima; John Gillespie; Yoshiko N. Tobari

1970-01-01

219

Variability of enzyme system of Nocardioform bacteria as a basis of their metabolic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review describes some aspects of organization of biodegradative pathways of Nocardioform microorganisms, first of all, with respect to their ability to degrade aromatic compounds, mostly methylbenzoate, chlorosubstituted phenols, and chlorinated biphenyls and the intermediates of their transformation: 4-chlorobenzoate and para-hydroxybenzoate. Various enzyme systems induced during degradation processes are defined. The ability of microorganisms to induce a few key

Inna P. Solyanikova; Vasilii M. Travkin; Darja O. Rybkina; Elena G. Plotnikova; Ludmila A. Golovleva

2008-01-01

220

Metabolic enzyme induction in the rat by organic river sediment pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Among various organic pollutants in environments, the lipophilic substances which possess the property of resistance to microbial attack, e.g., insecticides and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), are the most important and hazardous substances because of the toxicity and the accumulative property. Such substances are also known to induce drug metabolizing enzymes such as microsomal mixed-function oxidases in liver of animals. Fish and other aquatic animals, however, are migratory and difficult to sample uniformly. Therefore, the authors attempted to evaluate the enzyme inducing ability of sedimentary organic matters in river using conventional rat which is uniformly available.

Tabata, M.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, S.

1986-08-01

221

Increased oxygen radical-dependent inactivation of metabolic enzymes by liver microsomes after chronic ethanol consumption  

SciTech Connect

Enzymatic and nonenzymatic mixed-function oxidase systems have been shown to generate an oxidant that catalyzes the inactivation of glutamine synthetase and other metabolic enzymes. Recent studies have shown that microsomes isolated from rats chronically fed ethanol generate reactive oxygen intermediates at elevated rates compared with controls. Microsomes from rats fed ethanol were found to be more effective than control microsomes in catalyzing the inactivation of enzymes added to the incubation system. The enzymes studied were alcohol dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase. The inactivation process by both types of microsomal preparations was sensitive to catalase and glutathione plus glutathione peroxidase, but was not affected by superoxide dismutase or hydroxyl radical scavengers. Iron was required for the inactivation of added enzymes; microsomes from the rats fed ethanol remained more effective than control microsomes in catalyzing the inactivation of enzymes in the absence or presence of several ferric complexes. The inactivation of enzymes was enhanced by the addition of menadione or paraquat to the microsomes, and rates of inactivation were higher with the microsomes from the ethanol-fed rats. The enhanced generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and increased inactivation of enzymes by microsomes may contribute toward the hepatotoxic effects associated with ethanol consumption.

Dicker, E.; Cederbaum, A.I. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1988-10-01

222

Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles  

PubMed Central

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E2) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35–39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1–10 ?g/mL) for 96 hours. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E2 (DMSO: 3009.72 ± 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66 ± 461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72 ± 532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89 ± 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 ± 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 17.17 ± 4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64 ± 3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29 ± 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 ± 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49 ± 0.43 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64 ± 0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12 ± 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 ± 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 26.77 ± 4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90 ± 3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44 ± 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

Craig, Zelieann R.; Leslie, Traci C.; Hatfield, Kimberly P.; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

2010-01-01

223

Dietary chemoprevention strategies for induction of phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in lung carcinogenesis: A review  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women in the United States and is a growing worldwide problem. Protection against lung cancer is associated with higher dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, according to recent large epidemiologic studies. One strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention focuses on the use of agents to modulate the metabolism and disposition of tobacco, environmental and endogenous carcinogens through upregulation of detoxifying phase II enzymes. We summarize the substantial evidence that suggests that induction of phase II enzymes, particularly the glutathione S-transferases, plays a direct role in chemoprotection against lung carcinogenesis. The engagement of the Keap1–Nrf2 complex regulating the antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway has been identified as a key molecular target of chemopreventive phase II inducers in several systems. Monitoring of phase II enzyme induction has led to identification of novel chemopreventive agents such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, and the 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones. However, no agents have yet demonstrated clear benefit in human cell systems, or in clinical trials. Alternative strategies include: (a) using intermediate cancer biomarkers for the endpoint in human trials; (b) high-throughput small molecule discovery approaches for induced expression of human phase II genes; and (c) integrative approaches that consider pharmacogenetics, along with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in target lung tissue. These approaches may lead to a more effective strategy of tailored chemoprevention efforts using compounds with proven human activity.

Tan, Xiang-Lin; Spivack, Simon D.

2013-01-01

224

Disaccharide-Mediated Regulation of Sucrose:Fructan6- Fructosyltransferase, a Key Enzyme of Fructan Synthesis in Barley Leaves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has indicated that sugar sensing may be important in the regulation of fructan biosynthesis in grasses. We used primary leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Baraka) to study the mechanisms involved. Excised leaf blades were supplied in the dark with various carbohydrates. Fructan pool sizes and two key enzymes of fructan biosynthesis, sucrose (Suc):Suc-1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; EC 2.4.1.99) and

Joachim Muller; Roger A. Aeschbacher; Norbert Sprenger; Thomas Boller; Andres Wiemken

2000-01-01

225

Azospirillum brasilense Produces the Auxin-Like Phenylacetic Acid by Using the Key Enzyme for Indole3Acetic Acid Biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 23 August 2004\\/Accepted 28 October 2004 An antimicrobial compound was isolated from Azospirillum brasilense culture extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the auxin-like molecule, phenylacetic acid (PAA). PAA synthesis was found to be mediated by the indole-3-pyruvate decar- boxylase, previously identified as a key enzyme in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in A.

E. Somers; D. Ptacek; P. Gysegom; M. Srinivasan; J. Vanderleyden

2005-01-01

226

Key Aromatic-Ring-Cleaving Enzyme, Protocatechuate 3,4Dioxygenase, in the Ecologically Important Marine Roseobacter Lineage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aromatic compound degradation in six bacteria representing an ecologically important marine taxon of the a-proteobacteria was investigated. Initial screens suggested that isolates in the Roseobacter lineage can degrade aromatic compounds via the b-ketoadipate pathway, a catabolic route that has been well characterized in soil microbes. Six Roseobacter isolates were screened for the presence of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, a key enzyme in

ALISON BUCHAN; LAUREN S. COLLIER; ELLEN L. NEIDLE; MARY ANN MORAN

2000-01-01

227

Dual function of MIPS1 as a metabolic enzyme and transcriptional regulator.  

PubMed

Because regulation of its activity is instrumental either to support cell proliferation and growth or to promote cell death, the universal myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS), responsible for myo-inositol biosynthesis, is a critical enzyme of primary metabolism. Surprisingly, we found this enzyme to be imported in the nucleus and to interact with the histone methyltransferases ATXR5 and ATXR6, raising the question of whether MIPS1 has a function in transcriptional regulation. Here, we demonstrate that MIPS1 binds directly to its promoter to stimulate its own expression by locally inhibiting the spreading of ATXR5/6-dependent heterochromatin marks coming from a transposable element. Furthermore, on activation of pathogen response, MIPS1 expression is reduced epigenetically, providing evidence for a complex regulatory mechanism acting at the transcriptional level. Thus, in plants, MIPS1 appears to have evolved as a protein that connects cellular metabolism, pathogen response and chromatin remodeling. PMID:23341037

Latrasse, David; Jégu, Teddy; Meng, Pin-Hong; Mazubert, Christelle; Hudik, Elodie; Delarue, Marianne; Charon, Céline; Crespi, Martin; Hirt, Heribert; Raynaud, Cécile; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa

2013-01-21

228

Dual function of MIPS1 as a metabolic enzyme and transcriptional regulator  

PubMed Central

Because regulation of its activity is instrumental either to support cell proliferation and growth or to promote cell death, the universal myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS), responsible for myo-inositol biosynthesis, is a critical enzyme of primary metabolism. Surprisingly, we found this enzyme to be imported in the nucleus and to interact with the histone methyltransferases ATXR5 and ATXR6, raising the question of whether MIPS1 has a function in transcriptional regulation. Here, we demonstrate that MIPS1 binds directly to its promoter to stimulate its own expression by locally inhibiting the spreading of ATXR5/6-dependent heterochromatin marks coming from a transposable element. Furthermore, on activation of pathogen response, MIPS1 expression is reduced epigenetically, providing evidence for a complex regulatory mechanism acting at the transcriptional level. Thus, in plants, MIPS1 appears to have evolved as a protein that connects cellular metabolism, pathogen response and chromatin remodeling.

Latrasse, David; Jegu, Teddy; Meng, Pin-Hong; Mazubert, Christelle; Hudik, Elodie; Delarue, Marianne; Charon, Celine; Crespi, Martin; Hirt, Heribert; Raynaud, Cecile; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa

2013-01-01

229

[Antioxidant enzymes, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, and respiration in rat heart during experimental hyperammonemia].  

PubMed

The effects of toxic ammonia doses on H2O2 metabolism, energy metabolism, and antioxidant enzyme activities in rat heart were studied. Ammonium acetate administration to animals proved to increase total superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in the heart cytoplasmic fraction as well as Mn-SOD, catalase, and glutathione reductase in heart mitochondria. Conversely, ammonia inhibited the same activities in the brain, liver, and erythrocytes. Hyperammonemia had no effect on the levels of ATP, ADP and total adenine nucleotides in the heart but decreased them in the brain. Ammonia impaired oxidative phosphorylation and increased the rate of H202 production in heart and brain mitochondria. The ammonia concentration inhibiting antioxidant enzymes in the liver and brain can be insufficient for such effect in the heart. PMID:16771149

Venediktova, N I; Kosenko, E A; Kaminski?, Iu G

230

Reactions and enzymes in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics.  

PubMed

In this article, we offer an overview of the compared quantitative importance of biotransformation reactions in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics, based on a meta-analysis of current research interests. Also, we assess the relative significance the enzyme (super)families or categories catalysing these reactions. We put the facts unveiled by the analysis into a drug discovery context and draw some implications. The results confirm the primary role of cytochrome P450-catalysed oxidations and UDP-glucuronosyl-catalysed glucuronidations, but they also document the marked significance of several other reactions. Thus, there is a need for several drug discovery scientists to better grasp the variety of drug metabolism reactions and enzymes and their consequences. PMID:22305937

Testa, Bernard; Pedretti, Alessandro; Vistoli, Giulio

2012-01-28

231

Zinc mediates normalization of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the protective effects of zinc in attenuating the altered activities of drug metabolizing enzymes in the livers of rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos. Male Sprague–Dawley rats received oral chlorpyrifos treatment (at a dose level of 13.5mg\\/kg body weight in corn oil every alternate day), zinc supplementation alone (at a dose level of 227mg\\/l in drinking water), or

Ajay Goel; Vijayta Dani; D. K. Dhawan

2007-01-01

232

Effects of prolonged recombinant human erythropoietin administration on muscle membrane transport systems and metabolic marker enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptations to chronic hypoxia involve changes in membrane transport proteins. The underlying mechanism of this response may\\u000a be related to concomitant occurring changes in erythropoietin (Epo) levels. We therefore tested the direct effects of recombinant\\u000a human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) treatment on the expression of muscle membrane transport proteins. Likewise, improvements in\\u000a performance may involve upregulation of metabolic enzymes. Since Epo is

C. Juel; J. J. Thomsen; R. L. Rentsch; C. Lundby

2007-01-01

233

Nigrostriatal catecholamine metabolism in guinea pigs is altered by purine enzyme inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of purine enzyme inhibition on catecholamine metabolism was investigated in guinea pigs. Catecholamine levels were\\u000a measured in the nigrostriatal brain structures of male guinea pigs following treat- ment with allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase\\u000a inhibitor; 250 mg\\/kg i.p.) or allantoxanimide (a uricase inhibitor; 200 mg\\/kg i.p.) once a day for 4 days. Tissue was analyzed\\u000a from the striatum and

William H. Church; Gabrielle Rappolt

1999-01-01

234

Capsaicin alleviates the imbalance in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and tumor markers during experimental lung tumorigenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung cancer is currently a leading cause of death all over the world. Environmental risk factors, particularly genotoxic chemicals\\u000a such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), are likely to account for a much higher mortality. Xenobiotic metabolizing\\u000a enzymes are potentially chief determinants in both the susceptibility to the mutagenic effects of chemical carcinogens and\\u000a in the response of tumors to chemotherapy.

P. Anandakumar; S. Kamaraj; S. Jagan; G. Ramakrishnan; C. Naveenkumar; S. Asokkumar; T. Devaki

2009-01-01

235

Target organ-specific inactivation of drug metabolizing enzymes in kidney of hamsters treated with estradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic treatment of hamsters with estradiol for several months has previously been shown to decrease the specific content\\u000a of cytochrome P450 in the kidney, a target of hormonal carcinogenesis, but not in liver. The reason for this decrease in metabolic\\u000a enzyme activity is unknown and has been examined in this investigation. We now report that the decrease in specific content

Deodutta Roy; Joachim G. Liehr

1992-01-01

236

Fructose metabolizing enzymes from mouse liver: influence of age and caloric restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of caloric restriction (CR) on the activities of liver fructose metabolizing enzymes and metabolite levels were studied in young (3 months) and old (30 months) mice. Fructokinase activity was increased (P<0.05) in both young and old CR mice when compared to controls while triokinase activity was increased (P<0.05) only in old CR versus control mice. Aldolase was not

Kevork Hagopian; Jon J. Ramsey; Richard Weindruch

2005-01-01

237

A Bayesian method for identifying missing enzymes in predicted metabolic pathway databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The PathoLogic program constructs Pathway\\/Genome databases by using a genome's annotation to predict the set of metabolic pathways present in an organism. PathoLogic determines the set of reactions composing those pathways from the enzymes annotated in the organism's genome. Most annotation efforts fail to assign function to 40–60% of sequences. In addition, large numbers of sequences may have non-specific

Michelle L. Green; Peter D. Karp

2004-01-01

238

Genotype of metabolic enzymes and the benefit of tamoxifen in postmenopausal breast cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen is widely used as endocrine therapy for oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer. However, many of these patients experience recurrence despite tamoxifen therapy by incompletely understood mechanisms. In the present report we propose that tamoxifen resistance may be due to differences in activity of metabolic enzymes as a result of genetic polymorphism. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) are

Pia Wegman; Linda Vainikka; Olle Stĺl; Bo Nordenskjöld; Lambert Skoog; Lars-Erik Rutqvist; Sten Wingren

2005-01-01

239

Differential detection of key enzymes of polyaromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria using PCR and gene probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria with ability to degrade polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), isolated from wastewater and soil samples, were investigated for their taxonomic, physiological and genetic diversity. Eighteen isolates able to metabolize naphthalene or phenanthrene as sole carbon source were taxonomically affiliated to different subclasses of the Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas spp., Acidovorax spp., Comamonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and to phyla of Gram-positive bacteria with

Svenja Meyer; Ralf Moser; Alexander Neef; U. Stahl; Peter Kampfer

1999-01-01

240

Digestive enzymes and metabolic profile of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Teleostei: Siluriformes) in response to diet composition.  

PubMed

Digestive enzyme responsiveness to feeding and associated adjustments of metabolism can be used to derive nutritionally effective diet formulations. Juvenile pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans) were fed different diets. After feeding, fish were killed and blood, liver and white muscle were collected to evaluate metabolites. Stomach along with anterior, middle and posterior intestine were sampled for enzyme analysis. Non-specific protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase were assayed. Crude protein (CP) did not induce proteolytic activity; highest protease activities were observed in the stomach. Amylase was higher in the stomach in fish feeding on diets containing 13-25% starch. Lipase activity was observed along the gastrointestinal tract, with the highest activities observed in the middle section. The metabolic profile of white muscle was not affected by CP. In contrast, some plasma and liver metabolites were altered concomitant with changes in the digestive enzymes. Amino acid catabolism was increased. Digestion in pintado was responsive to cornstarch, reflected in intermediary metabolism; proteolytic activities of the digestive tract seem to be sufficient to deal with large amounts of dietary protein. As a result, we are able to recommend a balance between protein and energetic compounds, such as lipids and carbohydrates, in the diet to optimize fish growth. PMID:15050520

Lundstedt, L M; Melo, José Fernando Bibiano; Moraes, Gilberto

2004-03-01

241

An overview of on-line systems using drug metabolizing enzymes integrated into capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Enzymatic assays using CE are now among the most noteworthy applications of this analytical technique in pharmacology-related investigations. Studies of metabolic pathways of new chemical entities mediated by drug metabolizing enzymes are attracting particular attention. Conventional CE-based enzymatic in vitro assays are generally restricted to the separation of reagents after incubation performed off-line. EMMA represents an alternative and fully prospective approach, allowing injection, reaction, separation, and detection to be conducted in a single capillary. Such an on-line system-in contrast to the standard approach-enables automation, miniaturization, and a significant reduction in reagent volumes, resulting in a very robust and cost-efficient method. Hence, EMMA could be a method of choice for the screening of new drugs, enzymatic inhibitors, and putative drug-drug interactions. This review provides a summary of reports covering the area of EMMA-based and related methods implemented into in vitro studies of drug metabolizing enzymes. A general description of the EMMA framework, enzyme families, and a concise discussion of the prognosis for the development of this methodology are given as well. PMID:23775897

Nowak, Pawe?; Wo?niakiewicz, Micha?; Ko?cielniak, Pawe?

2013-08-09

242

Androgenic/estrogenic balance in the male rat cerebral circulation: metabolic enzymes and sex steroid receptors  

PubMed Central

Tissues from males can be regulated by a balance of androgenic and estrogenic effects because of local metabolism of testosterone and expression of relevant steroid hormone receptors. As a critical first step to understanding sex hormone influences in the cerebral circulation of males, we investigated the presence of enzymes that metabolize testosterone to active products and their respective receptors. We found that cerebral blood vessels from male rats express 5?-reductase type 2 and aromatase, enzymes responsible for conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17?-estradiol, respectively. Protein levels of these enzymes, however, were not modulated by long-term in vivo hormone treatment. We also showed the presence of receptors for both androgens (AR) and estrogens (ER) from male cerebral vessels. Western blot analysis showed bands corresponding to the full-length AR (110 kDa) and ER? (66 kDa). Long-term in vivo treatment of orchiectomized rats with testosterone or DHT, but not estrogen, increased AR levels in cerebral vessels. In contrast, ER? protein levels were increased after in vivo treatment with estrogen but not testosterone. Fluorescent immunostaining revealed ER?, AR, and 5?-reductase type 2 in both the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of cerebral arteries, whereas aromatase staining was solely localized to the endothelium. Thus, cerebral vessels from males are target tissues for both androgens and estrogen. Furthermore, local metabolism of testosterone might balance opposing androgenic and estrogenic influences on cerebrovascular as well as brain function in males.

Gonzales, Rayna J; Ansar, Saema; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N

2008-01-01

243

Genes, enzymes, and regulation of para-cresol metabolism in Geobacter metallireducens.  

PubMed

In aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the degradation of para-cresol (p-cresol) involves the initial hydroxylation to p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol by water catalyzed by the soluble, periplasmatic flavocytochrome p-cresol methylhydroxylase (PCMH; alpha(2)beta(2) composition). In denitrifying bacteria the further metabolism proceeds via oxidation to p-hydroxybenzoate, the formation of p-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), and the subsequent dehydroxylation of the latter to benzoyl-CoA by reduction. In contrast, the strictly anaerobic Desulfobacterium cetonicum degrades p-cresol by addition to fumarate, yielding p-hydroxybenzylsuccinate. In this work, in vitro enzyme activity measurements revealed that the obligately anaerobic Geobacter metallireducens uses the p-cresol degradation pathway of denitrifying bacteria. Surprisingly, PCMH, which is supposed to catalyze both p-cresol hydroxylation and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation to the corresponding aldehyde, was located in the membrane fraction. The alpha subunit of the enzyme was present in two isoforms, suggesting an alphaalpha'beta(2) composition. We propose that the unusual asymmetric architecture and the membrane association of PCMH might be important for alternative electron transfer routes to either cytochrome c (in the case of p-cresol oxidation) or to menaquinone (in the case of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation). Unusual properties of further enzymes of p-cresol metabolism, p-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase, and p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase were identified and are discussed. A proteomic approach identified a gene cluster comprising most of the putative structural genes for enzymes involved in p-cresol metabolism (pcm genes). Reverse transcription-PCR studies revealed a different regulation of transcription of pcm genes and the corresponding enzyme activities, suggesting the presence of posttranscriptional regulatory elements. PMID:17449613

Peters, Franziska; Heintz, Dimitri; Johannes, Jörg; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Boll, Matthias

2007-04-20

244

Dynamic expression of retinoic acid synthesizing and metabolizing enzymes in the developing mouse inner ear  

PubMed Central

Retinoic acid signaling plays essential roles in morphogenesis and neural development through transcriptional regulation of downstream target genes. It is believed that the balance between the activities of synthesizing and metabolizing enzymes determines the amount of active retinoic acid to which a developing tissue is exposed. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal expression patterns of four synthesizing enzymes, the retinaldehyde dehydrogenases 1, 2, 3 and 4 (Raldh1, Raldh2, Raldh3 and Raldh4) and two metabolizing enzymes (Cyp26A1 and Cyp26B1) in the embryonic and postnatal mouse inner ear using quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and Western blot analysis. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis and Western blot data revealed that the expression of CYP26s was much higher than that of Raldhs at early embryonic ages, but that Cyp26 expression was down-regulated during embryonic development. Conversely, the expression levels of Raldh2 and -3 increased during development and were significantly higher than the Cyp26 levels at postnatal day 20. At this age, Raldh3 was expressed predominantly in the cochlea, while Raldh2 was present in the vestibular end organ. At early embryonic stages as observed by in situ hybridization, the synthesizing enzymes were expressed only in the dorsoventral epithelium of the otocyst, while the metabolizing enzymes were present mainly in mesenchymal cells surrounding the otic epithelium. At later stages, Raldh2, Raldh3 and Cyp26B1 were confined to the stria vascularis, spiral ganglion and supporting cells in the cochlear and vestibular epithelia, respectively. The downregulation of Cyp26s and the upregulation of Raldhs after birth during inner ear maturation suggests tissue changes in the sensitivity to retinoic acid concentrations.

Romand, Raymond; Kondo, Takako; Fraulob, Valerie; Petkovich, Martin; Dolle, Pascal; Hashino, Eri

2008-01-01

245

Concordance of metabolic enzyme genotypes assayed from paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed breast tumors and normal lymphatic tissue  

PubMed Central

Objectives Translational epidemiology studies often use archived tumor specimens to evaluate genetic hypotheses involving cancer outcomes. When the exposure of interest is a germline polymorphism, a key concern is whether the genotype assayed from tumor-derived DNA is representative of the germline. We evaluated the concordance between breast tumor-derived and normal lymph node-derived genotypes for three polymorphic tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes. Methods We assayed paired DNA samples extracted from archived tumor and normal lymph node tissues from 106 breast cancer patients. We used TaqMan assays to determine the genotypes of three enzyme variants hypothesized to modify tamoxifen effectiveness, ie, CYP2D6*4, UGT2B15*2, and UGT1A8*2. We assessed genotype agreement between the two DNA sources by calculating the percent agreement and the weighted kappa statistic. Results We successfully obtained genotypes for CYP2D6*4, UGT2B15*2, and UGT1A8*2 in 99%, 100%, and 84% of the paired samples, respectively. Genotype concordance was perfect for the CYP2D6*4 and UGT1A8*2 variants (weighted kappa for both = 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00, 1.00). For UGT2B15*2, one pair out of 106 gave a discordant result that persisted over several assay repeats. Conclusions We observed strong agreement between DNA from breast tumors and normal lymphatic tissue in the genotyping of polymorphisms in three tamoxifen-metabolizing enzymes. Genotyping DNA extracted from tumor tissue avoids the time-consuming practice of microdissecting adjacent normal tissue when other normal tissue sources are not available. Therefore, the demonstrated reliability of tumor-derived DNA allows resources to be spent instead on increasing sample size or the number of polymorphisms examined.

Ahern, Thomas P; Christensen, Mariann; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Rosenberg, Carol L; S?rensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

2010-01-01

246

Deletion Strains Reveal Metabolic Roles for Key Elemental Sulfur-Responsive Proteins in Pyrococcus furiosus?†  

PubMed Central

Transcriptional and enzymatic analyses of Pyrococcus furiosus previously indicated that three proteins play key roles in the metabolism of elemental sulfur (S0): a membrane-bound oxidoreductase complex (MBX), a cytoplasmic coenzyme A-dependent NADPH sulfur oxidoreductase (NSR), and sulfur-induced protein A (SipA). Deletion strains, referred to as MBX1, NSR1, and SIP1, respectively, have now been constructed by homologous recombination utilizing the uracil auxotrophic COM1 parent strain (?pyrF). The growth of all three mutants on maltose was comparable without S0, but in its presence, the growth of MBX1 was greatly impaired while the growth of NSR1 and SIP1 was largely unaffected. In the presence of S0, MBX1 produced little, if any, sulfide but much more acetate (per unit of protein) than the parent strain, demonstrating that MBX plays a critical role in S0 reduction and energy conservation. In contrast, comparable amounts of sulfide and acetate were produced by NSR1 and the parent strain, indicating that NSR is not essential for energy conservation during S0 reduction. Differences in transcriptional responses to S0 in NSR1 suggest that two sulfide dehydrogenase isoenzymes provide a compensatory NADPH-dependent S0 reduction system. Genes controlled by the S0-responsive regulator SurR were not as highly regulated in MBX1 and NSR1. SIP1 produced the same amount of acetate but more sulfide than the parent strain. That SipA is not essential for growth on S0 indicates that it is not required for detoxification of metal sulfides, as previously suggested. A model is proposed for S0 reduction by P. furiosus with roles for MBX and NSR in bioenergetics and for SipA in iron-sulfur metabolism.

Bridger, Stephanie L.; Clarkson, Sonya M.; Stirrett, Karen; DeBarry, Megan B.; Lipscomb, Gina L.; Schut, Gerrit J.; Westpheling, Janet; Scott, Robert A.; Adams, Michael W. W.

2011-01-01

247

Differences in activities of the enzymes of nucleotide metabolism and its implications for cardiac xenotransplantation.  

PubMed

Xenotransplantation is one be possible solution for a severe shortage of human organs available for transplantation. However, only a few studies addressed metabolic compatibility of transplanted animal organs. Our aim was to compare activities of adenosine metabolizing enzymes in the heart of different species that are relevant to clinical or experimental xenotransplantation. We noted fundamental differences: ecto-5' nucleotidease (E5' N) activity was 4-fold lower in pig and baboon hearts compared to the human hearts while mouse activity was compatible with human and rat activity was three times higher than human. There also were significant differences in AMP-deaminase (AMPD), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) activities. We conclude that differences in nucleotide metabolism may contribute to organ dysfunction after xenotransplantation. PMID:17065095

Yuen, A H Y; Khalpey, Z; Lavitrano, M; McGregor, C G A; Kalsi, K K; Yacoub, M H; Smolenski, R T

2006-01-01

248

[Characteristics of microsomal phase II metabolic enzymes in mouse embryonic stem cell-derived liver tissue].  

PubMed

Objective: To investigate the characteristics of phase II metabolic enzymes in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived liver tissue. Methods: Mature hepatocytes were differentiated from embryonic stem cells in cultured mouse embryoid bodies (EB) at d18. Western blot was used to detect the expression of uridine 5'-diphosphate glucronosyl transferase (UGT1a1,UGT1a6) and microsomal glutathione S-transferases 1(mGST1) during the differentiation course.The derived liver tissue was incubated with UDPGA and 7-HFC,the formation of 7-HFC glucuronide was detected by HPLC to examine the total activities of UGT1a1and UGT1a6. Furthermore, the microsomes were incubated with CDNB and GSH,and the mGST1 activity was measured by spectrometry. Results: An increase tendency of UGT1a1 expression was noticed during the differentiation course. UGT1a6 and mGST1 were not detected in the earlier stage until d18 of differentiation. The metabolic activity of mGST1 in the derived hepatocytes was 7.65 nmol/min/mg on d18. Conclusion: The ES cell-derived liver tissue possesses partial metabolic function of phase II enzymes on d18 of differentiation,which might be used as a model for in vitro research on hepatic pathophysiology and phase II drug metabolism. PMID:24167134

Li, Tong; Guo, Mei-Yuan; Ma, Kui-Fen; Du, Yue; He, Liang-Yan; Zhu, Dan-Yan; Lou, Yi-Jia

2013-09-01

249

Intermediary metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum: levels of enzymes involved in the formation of acetate and butyrate  

SciTech Connect

The levels of seven intermediary enzymes involved in acetate and butyrate formation from acetyl coenzyme A in the saccharolytic anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum were investigated as a function of time in solvent-producing batch fermentations. Phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, which are known to form acetate from acetyl coenzyme A, both showed a decrease in specific activity when the organism reached the solvent formation stage. The three consecutive enzymes thiolase, beta-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and crotonase exhibited a coordinate expression and a maximal activity after growth had ceased. Only low levels of butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity were found. Phosphate butyryltransferase activity rapidly decreased after 20 h from 5 to 11 U/mg of protein to below the detection limit (1 mU/mg). Butyrate no longer can be formed, and the metabolic flux may be diverted to butanol. Butyrate kinase showed a 2.5- to 10-fold increase in specific activity after phosphate butyryltransferase activity no longer could be detected. These results suggest that the uptake of acetate and butyrate during solvent formation can not proceed via a complete reversal of the phosphate transferase and kinase reactions. The activities of all enzymes investigated as a function of time in vitro are much higher than the metabolic fluxes through them in vivo. This indicates that none of the maximal activities of the enzymes assayed is rate limiting in C. acetobutylicum. (Refs. 46).

Hartmanis, M.G.N.; Gatenbeck, S.

1984-06-01

250

Intermediary Metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum: Levels of Enzymes Involved in the Formation of Acetate and Butyrate  

PubMed Central

The levels of seven intermediary enzymes involved in acetate and butyrate formation from acetyl coenzyme A in the saccharolytic anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum were investigated as a function of time in solvent-producing batch fermentations. Phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, which are known to form acetate from acetyl coenzyme A, both showed a decrease in specific activity when the organism reached the solvent formation stage. The three consecutive enzymes thiolase, ?-hydroxybutyrylcoenzyme A dehydrogenase, and crotonase exhibited a coordinate expression and a maximal activity after growth had ceased. Only low levels of butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity were found. Phosphate butyryltransferase activity rapidly decreased after 20 h from 5 to 11 U/mg of protein to below the detection limit (1 mU/mg). Butyrate no longer can be formed, and the metabolic flux may be diverted to butanol. Butyrate kinase showed a 2.5- to 10-fold increase in specific activity after phosphate butyryltransferase activity no longer could be detected. These results suggest that the uptake of acetate and butyrate during solvent formation can not proceed via a complete reversal of the phosphate transferase and kinase reactions. The activities of all enzymes investigated as a function of time in vitro are much higher than the metabolic fluxes through them in vivo. This indicates that none of the maximal activities of the enzymes assayed is rate limiting in C. acetobutylicum.

Hartmanis, Maris G. N.; Gatenbeck, Sten

1984-01-01

251

Structural and Functional Insights into (S)-Ureidoglycine Aminohydrolase, Key Enzyme of Purine Catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana*  

PubMed Central

The ureide pathway has recently been identified as the metabolic route of purine catabolism in plants and some bacteria. In this pathway, uric acid, which is a major product of the early stage of purine catabolism, is degraded into glyoxylate and ammonia via stepwise reactions of seven different enzymes. Therefore, the pathway has a possible physiological role in mobilization of purine ring nitrogen for further assimilation. (S)-Ureidoglycine aminohydrolase enzyme converts (S)-ureidoglycine into (S)-ureidoglycolate and ammonia, providing the final substrate to the pathway. Here, we report a structural and functional analysis of this enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtUGlyAH). The crystal structure of AtUGlyAH in the ligand-free form shows a monomer structure in the bicupin fold of the ?-barrel and an octameric functional unit as well as a Mn2+ ion binding site. The structure of AtUGlyAH in complex with (S)-ureidoglycine revealed that the Mn2+ ion acts as a molecular anchor to bind (S)-ureidoglycine, and its binding mode dictates the enantioselectivity of the reaction. Further kinetic analysis characterized the functional roles of the active site residues, including the Mn2+ ion binding site and residues in the vicinity of (S)-ureidoglycine. These analyses provide molecular insights into the structure of the enzyme and its possible catalytic mechanism.

Shin, Inchul; Percudani, Riccardo; Rhee, Sangkee

2012-01-01

252

Cytochrome P450 enzymes in drug metabolism: regulation of gene expression, enzyme activities, and impact of genetic variation.  

PubMed

Cytochromes P450 (CYP) are a major source of variability in drug pharmacokinetics and response. Of 57 putatively functional human CYPs only about a dozen enzymes, belonging to the CYP1, 2, and 3 families, are responsible for the biotransformation of most foreign substances including 70-80% of all drugs in clinical use. The highest expressed forms in liver are CYPs 3A4, 2C9, 2C8, 2E1, and 1A2, while 2A6, 2D6, 2B6, 2C19 and 3A5 are less abundant and CYPs 2J2, 1A1, and 1B1 are mainly expressed extrahepatically. Expression of each CYP is influenced by a unique combination of mechanisms and factors including genetic polymorphisms, induction by xenobiotics, regulation by cytokines, hormones and during disease states, as well as sex, age, and others. Multiallelic genetic polymorphisms, which strongly depend on ethnicity, play a major role for the function of CYPs 2D6, 2C19, 2C9, 2B6, 3A5 and 2A6, and lead to distinct pharmacogenetic phenotypes termed as poor, intermediate, extensive, and ultrarapid metabolizers. For these CYPs, the evidence for clinical significance regarding adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug efficacy and dose requirement is rapidly growing. Polymorphisms in CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 2C8, 2E1, 2J2, and 3A4 are generally less predictive, but new data on CYP3A4 show that predictive variants exist and that additional variants in regulatory genes or in NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) can have an influence. Here we review the recent progress on drug metabolism activity profiles, interindividual variability and regulation of expression, and the functional and clinical impact of genetic variation in drug metabolizing P450s. PMID:23333322

Zanger, Ulrich M; Schwab, Matthias

2013-01-16

253

Alteration of the expression of pesticide-metabolizing enzymes in pregnant mice: potential role in the increased vulnerability of the developing brain.  

PubMed

Studies on therapeutic drug disposition in humans have shown significant alterations as the result of pregnancy. However, it is not known whether pesticide metabolic capacity changes throughout pregnancy, which could affect exposure of the developing brain. We sought to determine the effect of pregnancy on the expression of hepatic enzymes involved in the metabolism of pesticides. Livers were collected from virgin and pregnant C57BL/6 mice at gestational days (GD)7, GD11, GD14, GD17, and postpartum days (PD)1, PD15, and PD30. Relative mRNA expression of several enzymes involved in the metabolism of pesticides, including hepatic cytochromes (Cyp) P450s, carboxylesterases (Ces), and paraoxonase 1 (Pon1), were assessed in mice during gestation and the postpartum period. Compared with virgin mice, alterations in the expression occurred at multiple time points, with the largest changes observed on GD14. At this time point, the expression of most of the Cyps involved in pesticide metabolism in the liver (Cyp1a2, Cyp2d22, Cyp2c37, Cyp2c50, Cyp2c54, and Cyp3a11) were downregulated by 30% or more. Expression of various Ces isoforms and Pon1 were also decreased along with Pon1 activity. These data demonstrate significant alterations in the expression of key enzymes that detoxify pesticides during pregnancy, which could alter exposure of developing animals to these chemicals. PMID:23223497

Fortin, Marie C; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Richardson, Jason R

2012-12-04

254

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Glucosyl-3-Phosphoglycerate Synthase: Structure of a Key Enzyme in Methylglucose Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis constitutes today a serious threat to human health worldwide, aggravated by the increasing number of identified multi-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its causative agent, as well as by the lack of development of novel mycobactericidal compounds for the last few decades. The increased resilience of this pathogen is due, to a great extent, to its complex, polysaccharide-rich, and unusually impermeable cell wall. The synthesis of this essential structure is still poorly understood despite the fact that enzymes involved in glycosidic bond synthesis represent more than 1% of all M. tuberculosis ORFs identified to date. One of them is GpgS, a retaining glycosyltransferase (GT) with low sequence homology to any other GTs of known structure, which has been identified in two species of mycobacteria and shown to be essential for the survival of M. tuberculosis. To further understand the biochemical properties of M. tuberculosis GpgS, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the apo enzyme, as well as of its ternary complex with UDP and 3-phosphoglycerate, by X-ray crystallography, to a resolution of 2.5 and 2.7 Ĺ, respectively. GpgS, the first enzyme from the newly established GT-81 family to be structurally characterized, displays a dimeric architecture with an overall fold similar to that of other GT-A-type glycosyltransferases. These three-dimensional structures provide a molecular explanation for the enzyme's preference for UDP-containing donor substrates, as well as for its glucose versus mannose discrimination, and uncover the structural determinants for acceptor substrate selectivity. Glycosyltransferases constitute a growing family of enzymes for which structural and mechanistic data urges. The three-dimensional structures of M. tuberculosis GpgS now determined provide such data for a novel enzyme family, clearly establishing the molecular determinants for substrate recognition and catalysis, while providing an experimental scaffold for the structure-based rational design of specific inhibitors, which lay the foundation for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis therapies.

Pereira, Pedro Jose Barbosa; Empadinhas, Nuno; Albuquerque, Luciana; Sa-Moura, Bebiana; da Costa, Milton S.; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra

2008-01-01

255

Key Role of Bacterial NH4+ Metabolism in Rhizobium-Plant Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is carried out in specialized organs, the nodules, whose formation is induced on leguminous host plants by bacteria belonging to the family Rhizobiaceae. Nodule development is a complex multistep process, which requires continued interaction between the two partners and thus the exchange of different signals and metabolites. NH4+ is not only the primary product but also the main regulator of the symbiosis: either as ammonium and after conversion into organic compounds, it regulates most stages of the interaction, from the production of nodule inducers to the growth, function, and maintenance of nodules. This review examines the adaptation of bacterial NH4+ metabolism to the variable environment generated by the plant, which actively controls and restricts bacterial growth by affecting oxygen and nutrient availability, thereby allowing a proficient interaction and at the same time preventing parasitic invasion. We describe the regulatory circuitry responsible for the downregulation of bacterial genes involved in NH4+ assimilation occurring early during nodule invasion. This is a key and necessary step for the differentiation of N2-fixing bacteroids (the endocellular symbiotic form of rhizobia) and for the development of efficient nodules.

Patriarca, Eduardo J.; Tate, Rosarita; Iaccarino, Maurizio

2002-01-01

256

Metabolic syndrome in a sub-Saharan African setting: central obesity may be the key determinant  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine, in a rural and urban population in Cameroon, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) using three definitions and to assess the association between components of the MS and central obesity and HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Methods A representative sample of 1573 adults (638 rural, 935 urban) were interviewed on their personal medical history. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures used standardised methods. After an overnight fast, blood samples were collected before and 2 hours after an OGTT and plasma glucose, plasma insulin and blood lipids determined. Modified WHO, NCEP-ATP III, and IDF definitions of the MS were used. Results Central obesity was the most prevalent component of the syndrome, but prevalence varied widely according to the definition used. Hypertriglyceridemia was almost non-existent. The highest prevalences of the MS were with the WHO definition and the lowest with the NCEP-ATP III definition. Central obesity was more tightly associated with components of the MS than was HOMA-IR. Conclusions The prevalence of the MS varied greatly by rural/urban residence with the various definitions used. Central obesity appears to be the key determinant of the prevalence of the MS in sub Saharan Africa. Many MS definitions may not be appropriate for African population.

Fezeu, Leopold; Balkau, Beverley; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Sobngwi, Eugene; Mbanya, Jean-Claude

2007-01-01

257

Crystal structures of nitric oxide reductases provide key insights into functional conversion of respiratory enzymes.  

PubMed

Respiration is an essential biological process to get bioenergy, ATP, for all kingdoms of life. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) plays central role in aerobic respiration, catalyzing the reduction of O(2) coupled with pumping proton across the biological membrane. Nitric oxide reductase (NOR) involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration is suggested to be evolutionary related to COX and share the same progenitor with COX, on the basis of the amino acid sequence homology. Contrary to COX, NOR catalyzes the reduction of nitric oxide and shows no proton pumping ability. Thus, the respiratory enzyme acquires (or loses) proton pumping ability in addition to the conversion of the catalytic property along with the environmental change on earth. Recently, we solved the structures of two types of NORs, which provides novel insights into the functional conversion of the respiratory enzymes. In this review, we focus on the structural similarities and differences between COXs and NORs and discuss possible mechanism for the functional conversion of these enzymes during molecular evolution. PMID:23378174

Tosha, Takehiko; Shiro, Yoshitsugu

2013-02-03

258

Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase: a key enzyme in the assimilation of starch by the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei.  

PubMed

A cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) was successfully isolated and characterized from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei. The enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 77 kDa and optimum activity at 55°C, pH 7.5 and 1.5 M NaCl. The enzyme displayed many activities related to the degradation and transformation of starch. Cyclization was found to be the predominant activity, yielding a mixture of cyclodextrins, mainly ?-CD, followed by hydrolysis and to a lesser extent coupling and disproportionation activities. Gene encoding H. mediterranei CGTase was cloned and heterologously overexpressed. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 2142 bp that encodes a protein of 713 amino acids. The amino acid sequence displayed high homology with those belonging to the ?-amylase family. The CGTase is secreted to the extracellular medium by the Tat pathway. Upstream of the CGTase gene, four maltose ABC transporter genes have been sequenced (malE, malF, malG, malK). The expression of the CGTase gene yielded a fully active CGTase with similar kinetic behavior to the wild-type enzyme. The H. mediterranei CGTase is the first halophilic archaeal CGTase characterized, sequenced and expressed. PMID:22134680

Bautista, Vanesa; Esclapez, Julia; Pérez-Pomares, Francisco; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María; Camacho, Mónica; Bonete, María José

2011-12-02

259

Gestational age-dependent changes in gene expression of metabolic enzymes and transporters in pregnant mice.  

PubMed

Pregnancy-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics can be explained by changes in expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and/or normal physiology. In this study, we determined gestational age-dependent expression profiles for all metabolic enzyme and transporter genes in the maternal liver, kidney, small intestine, and placenta of pregnant mice by microarray analysis. We specifically examined the expression of genes important for xenobiotic, bile acid, and steroid hormone metabolism and disposition, namely, cytochrome P450s (Cyp), UDP-glucuronosyltranserases (Ugt), sulfotransferases (Sult), and ATP-binding cassette (Abc), solute carrier (Slc), and solute carrier organic anion (Slco) transporters. Few Ugt and Sult genes were affected by pregnancy. Cyp17a1 expression in the maternal liver increased 3- to 10-fold during pregnancy, which was the largest observed change in the maternal tissues. Cyp1a2, most Cyp2 isoforms, Cyp3a11, and Cyp3a13 expression in the liver decreased on gestation days (gd) 15 and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls (gd 0). In contrast, Cyp2d40, Cyp3a16, Cyp3a41a, Cyp3a41b, and Cyp3a44 in the liver were induced throughout pregnancy. In the placenta, Cyp expression on gd 10 and 15 was upregulated compared with gd 19. Notable changes were also observed in Abc and Slc transporters. Abcc3 expression in the liver and Abcb1a, Abcc4, and Slco4c1 expression in the kidney were downregulated on gd 15 and 19. In the placenta, Slc22a3 (Oct3) expression on gd 10 was 90% lower than that on gd 15 and 19. This study demonstrates important gestational age-dependent expression of metabolic enzyme and transporter genes, which may have mechanistic relevance to drug disposition in human pregnancy. PMID:23175668

Shuster, Diana L; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Macdonald, James W; Tsai, Jesse M; Farin, Frederico M; Hebert, Mary F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Mao, Qingcheng

2012-11-21

260

Evolution of domain architectures and catalytic functions of enzymes in metabolic systems.  

PubMed

Domain architectures and catalytic functions of enzymes constitute the centerpieces of a metabolic network. These types of information are formulated as a two-layered network consisting of domains, proteins, and reactions-a domain-protein-reaction (DPR) network. We propose an algorithm to reconstruct the evolutionary history of DPR networks across multiple species and categorize the mechanisms of metabolic systems evolution in terms of network changes. The reconstructed history reveals distinct patterns of evolutionary mechanisms between prokaryotic and eukaryotic networks. Although the evolutionary mechanisms in early ancestors of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are quite similar, more novel and duplicated domain compositions with identical catalytic functions arise along the eukaryotic lineage. In contrast, prokaryotic enzymes become more versatile by catalyzing multiple reactions with similar chemical operations. Moreover, different metabolic pathways are enriched with distinct network evolution mechanisms. For instance, although the pathways of steroid biosynthesis, protein kinases, and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis all constitute prominent features of animal-specific physiology, their evolution of domain architectures and catalytic functions follows distinct patterns. Steroid biosynthesis is enriched with reaction creations but retains a relatively conserved repertoire of domain compositions and proteins. Protein kinases retain conserved reactions but possess many novel domains and proteins. In contrast, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis has high rates of reaction/protein creations and domain recruitments. Finally, we elicit and validate two general principles underlying the evolution of DPR networks: 1) duplicated enzyme proteins possess similar catalytic functions and 2) the majority of novel domains arise to catalyze novel reactions. These results shed new lights on the evolution of metabolic systems. PMID:22936075

Suen, Summit; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

2012-08-30

261

Gene expression of regulatory enzymes involved in the intermediate metabolism of sheep subjected to feed restriction.  

PubMed

The effect of feed restriction on gene expression of regulatory enzymes of intermediary metabolism was studied in two sheep breeds (Australian Merino and Dorper) subjected to two nutritional treatments: feed restriction (85% of daily maintenance requirements) and control (ad libitum feeding), during 42 days. The experimental animals (ram lambs) were divided into four groups, n = 5 (Australian Merino control (MC), Australian Merino Restriction (MR), Dorper control (DC) and Dorper Restriction (DR)). After the trial, animals were sacrificed and samples were taken from liver tissue to quantify glucose levels and gene expression of relevant intermediary metabolism enzymes (phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen synthase (GS), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS)) through real-time PCR. During the experimental period, the MR animals lost 12.6% in BW compared with 5.3% lost by the Dorper lambs. MC and DC rams gained, respectively, 8.8% and 14% during the same period. Within the Dorper breed, restricted feed animals revealed a significant decrease over controls in the transcription of PFK (1.95-fold) and PK (2.26-fold), both glycolytic enzymes. The gluconeogenesis showed no change in the feed restricted animals of both breeds. DR feed group presented a significant decrease over the homologous Merino sheep group on GS. In both experimental breeds, FAS mRNA expression was decreased in restricted feed groups. GDH expression was decreased only in the DR animals (1.84-fold) indicating a reduced catabolism of amino acids in these animals. Finally, CPS was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the Dorper sheep, indicating a facilitated urea synthesis in this breed. These results indicate a better adaptation of metabolic intermediate regulatory enzymes and hepatic glucose production of Dorper sheep to feed restriction concurring with the BW results in the experimental groups. PMID:23031388

van Harten, S; Brito, R; Almeida, A M; Scanlon, T; Kilminster, T; Milton, J; Greeff, J; Oldham, C; Cardoso, L A

2012-08-09

262

Lack of evidence for metabolism of p-phenylenediamine by human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a widely used ingredient in permanent hair dyes; however, little has been published on its metabolism, especially with respect to hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidation. This is regarded as a key step in the activation of carcinogenic arylamines that ultimately leads to the development of bladder cancer. Most epidemiology studies show no significant association between personal use

Lesley A. Stanley; Julie A. Skare; Edward Doyle; Robert Powrie; Diane D’Angelo; Clifford R. Elcombe

2005-01-01

263

Key Feature of the Catalytic Cycle of TNF-alpha Converting Enzyme Involves Communication Between Distal Protein Sites and the Enzyme Catalytic Core  

SciTech Connect

Despite their key roles in many normal and pathological processes, the molecular details by which zinc-dependent proteases hydrolyze their physiological substrates remain elusive. Advanced theoretical analyses have suggested reaction models for which there is limited and controversial experimental evidence. Here we report the structure, chemistry and lifetime of transient metal-protein reaction intermediates evolving during the substrate turnover reaction of a metalloproteinase, the tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} converting enzyme (TACE). TACE controls multiple signal transduction pathways through the proteolytic release of the extracellular domain of a host of membrane-bound factors and receptors. Using stopped-flow x-ray spectroscopy methods together with transient kinetic analyses, we demonstrate that TACE's catalytic zinc ion undergoes dynamic charge transitions before substrate binding to the metal ion. This indicates previously undescribed communication pathways taking place between distal protein sites and the enzyme catalytic core. The observed charge transitions are synchronized with distinct phases in the reaction kinetics and changes in metal coordination chemistry mediated by the binding of the peptide substrate to the catalytic metal ion and product release. Here we report key local charge transitions critical for proteolysis as well as long sought evidence for the proposed reaction model of peptide hydrolysis. This study provides a general approach for gaining critical insights into the molecular basis of substrate recognition and turnover by zinc metalloproteinases that may be used for drug design.

Solomon,A.; Akabayov, B.; Frenkel, A.; Millas, M.; Sagi, I.

2007-01-01

264

Impact of androgenic\\/antiandrogenic compounds (AAC) on human sex steroid metabolizing key enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various pesticides, industrial pollutants and synthetic compounds, to which human populations are exposed, are known or suspected to interfere with endogenous sex hormone functions. Such interference potentially affect the development and expression of the male and female reproductive system or both. Chemicals in this class are thus referred to as endocrine disruptors (ED). This emphazises on the relevance of screening

A. Alléra; S. Lo; I. King; F. Steglich; D. Klingmüller

2004-01-01

265

Enzymatic analysis of Tet proteins: key enzymes in the metabolism of DNA methylation.  

PubMed

One of the most exciting recent advances in the epigenetic field is the discovery that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA can be iteratively oxidized by a family of proteins known as Tet proteins to generate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). These 5mC derivatives can be further processed by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) followed by base excision repair or by replication-dependent dilution leading to DNA demethylation. Given the similarity between 5mC and its oxidation derivatives, many of the conventional techniques used for 5mC analysis cannot distinguish between 5mC and 5hmC/5fC/5caC. Here, we describe 2D-TLC and mass spectrometry methods that we have successfully used in differentiating 5mC from its oxidative derivatives as well as in characterizing the enzymatic activity of Tet proteins both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22910204

Shen, Li; Zhang, Yi

2012-01-01

266

Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) volatile oil inhibits key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Anti-diabetic capacity of Curcuma longa volatile oil in terms of its ability to inhibit glucosidase activities was evaluated. Turmeric volatile oils inhibited glucosidase enzymes more effectively than the reference standard drug acarbose. Drying of rhizomes was found to enhance ?-glucosidase (IC?? = 1.32-0.38 ?g/ml) and ?-amylase (IC?? = 64.7-34.3 ?g/ml) inhibitory capacities of volatile oils. Ar-Turmerone, the major volatile component in the rhizome also showed potent ?-glucosidase (IC?? = 0.28 ?g) and ?-amylase (IC?? = 24.5 ?g) inhibition. PMID:22385048

Lekshmi, P C; Arimboor, Ranjith; Indulekha, P S; Menon, A Nirmala

2012-03-05

267

Mutually exclusive acetylation and ubiquitylation among enzymes involved in glucose metabolism  

PubMed Central

The posttranslational modification (PTM) in protein occurs in a regiospecific manner. In addition, the most commonly occurring PTMs involve similar residues in proteins such as acetylation, ubiquitylation, methylation and sumoylation at the lysine residue and phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc modification at serine/threonine residues. Thus, the possibility of modification sites where two such PTMs may occur in a mutually exclusive manner (ME-PTM) is much higher than known. A recent surge in the identification and the mapping of the commonly occurring PTMs in proteins has revealed that this is indeed the case. However, in what way such ME-PTM sites are regulated and what could be their relevance in the coordinated network of protein function remains to be known. To gain such potential insights in a biological context, we analyzed two most prevalent PTMs on the lysine residue by acetylation and ubiquitylation along with the most abundant PTM in proteins by phosphorylation among enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, a fundamental process in biology. The analysis of the PTM data sets has revealed two important clues that may be intrinsically associated with their regulation and function. First, the most commonly occurring PTMs by phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitylation are widespread and clustered in most of the enzymes involved in glucose metabolism; and the prevalence of phosphorylation sites correlates with the number of acetylation and ubiquitylation sites including the ME-modification sites. Second, the prevalence of ME-acetylation/ubiquitylation sites is exceptionally high among enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and have distinct pattern among the subset of enzymes of glucose metabolism such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glycogen synthesis, and the irreversible steps of gluconeogenesis. We hypothesize that phosphorylation including tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of ME-acetylation/ubiquitylation sites and their similar pattern among the subset of functionally related proteins allows their coordinated regulation in the normal physiology. Similarly their coordinated dysregulation may underlie the disease processes such as reprogrammed metabolism in cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Our hypothesis provides an opportunity to understand the regulation of ME-PTMs in proteins and their relevance at the network level and is open for experimental validation.

Ande, Sudharsana Rao; Padilla-Meier, G Pauline; Mishra, Suresh

2013-01-01

268

Xylitol formation and key enzyme activities in Candida boidinii under different oxygen transfer rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under oxygen transfer rates (OTR), from 10 to 30 mmol·l?1h?1, Candida boidinii NRRL Y-17213 exhibited both NADH and NADPH linked d-xylose reductase activities with the former being higher. Xylitol dehydrogenase was mainly NAD dependent. Maximum xylitol production was attained at OTR of 14 mmol·l?1h?1. Ethanol, glycerol and ribitol were also produced. A correlation between xylitol accumulation, oxygen availability and key

Eleonora Vandeska; Slobodanka Kuzmanova; Thomas W. Jeffries

1995-01-01

269

Expression and activities of several drug-metabolizing enzymes in LLC-PK1 cells.  

PubMed

LLC-PK1 cells are frequently used in toxicology research, but little information is available concerning the capacity of these cells to metabolize xenobiotics. We examined the expression and activities of cytochromes P450 (P450) 1A1/1A2 (CYP 1A1/1A2), 2E1 (CYP 2E1), flavin monooxygenase (FMO), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and prostaglandin H synthase (PHS)-associated cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). We prepared S9 fractions from LLC-PK1 cells, rat liver, and rat kidney, and measured enzyme activities using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) for CYP 1A1/1A2 and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation (ECOD) for CYP 2E1, benzydamine N-oxidation (BNO) for FMO, leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) formation for 5-LO, and thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) formation for COX-1 activities. To assure that product formation was due to enzymatic activity, we used the following inhibitors: 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) for P450, methimazole for FMO, caffeic acid for 5-LO and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for COX-1. We also performed Western blot analysis to confirm our observations. All five enzyme activities were demonstrable in rat liver at much greater levels than in rat kidney S9 fractions. Activities in LLC-PK1 cells were significantly lower than activities in rat liver S9 fraction and generally less than activities in rat kidney S9 fraction. Enzyme inhibitors decreased product formation in all three tissues and Western blot analysis supported our observations of low enzyme activity in LLC-PK1 cells. These results indicate that LLC-PK1 cells have very low content of relevant drug-metabolizing enzyme activities. PMID:15465656

Gonzalez, Raymond J; Tarloff, Joan B

2004-12-01

270

Structural Insights into Maize Viviparous14, a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a hormone central to the regulation of several important processes in plants, is the oxidative cleavage of the 11,12 double bond of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The enzyme viviparous14 (VP14) performs this cleavage in maize (Zea mays), making it a target for the rational design of novel chemical agents and genetic modifications that improve plant behavior through the modulation of ABA levels. The structure of VP14, determined to 3.2-{angstrom} resolution, provides both insight into the determinants of regio- and stereospecificity of this enzyme and suggests a possible mechanism for oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the distantly related CCD1 of maize shows how the VP14 structure represents a template for all plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). In addition, the structure suggests how VP14 associates with the membrane as a way of gaining access to its membrane soluble substrate.

Messing, Simon A.J.; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Echeverria, Ignacia; Vogel, Jonathan T.; Guan, Jiahn Chou; Tan, Bao Cai; Klee, Harry J.; McCarty, Donald R.; Amzel, L. Mario (JHU); (Florida)

2011-09-06

271

Expression pattern of enzymes related to juvenile hormone metabolism in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological balance of juvenile hormone (JH) in insects depends on its biosynthesis and degradation pathway. Three key\\u000a enzymes namely, juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) and juvenile hormone diol kinase\\u000a (JHDK) are required for degradation in insects. Our present results showed that JHE and JHEH exhibited expression in almost\\u000a all the tissues. This indicated that JHE

Yang Hua-jun; Zhou Fang; Sabhat Awquib; Firdose Ahmad Malik; Bhaskar Roy; Li Xing-hua; Hu Jia-biao; Sun Chun-guang; Yan-shan Niu; Miao Yun-gen

272

Multiple roles for lipins\\/phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes in lipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphatidate phosphatase-1 (PAP1) enzymes have a key role in glycerolipid synthesis through the con- version of phosphatidate to diacylglycerol, the immediate precursor of triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and phos- phatidylethanolamine. PAP1 activity in mammals is deter- mined by the lipin family of proteins, lipin-1, lipin-2, and lipin-3, which each have distinct tissue expression patterns and appear to have unique physiological functions. In

Karen Reue; David N. Brindley

273

Hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin modulates xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

The balance between phase-I carcinogen-activating and phase-II detoxifying xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes is critical to determining an individual's risk for cancer. We evaluated the effect of Hydrogen sulfide-releasing aspirin (HS-ASA) on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in HT-29 human colon and Hepa 1c1c7 mouse liver adenocarcinoma cells and in Wistar rats. HS-ASA inhibited the growth of HT-29 and Hepa 1c1c7 cells, with an IC(50) of 3.2 ± 0.3 ?M and 4.2 ± 0.4 ?M, respectively. The IC(50) for ASA in both cell lines was greater than 5000 ?M at 24h. In these cell lines, HS-ASA caused a dose-dependent increase in activity and expression of the phase-II enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H:quinoneoxireductase (NQO1). It also caused an increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) expression. The levels of CYP 1A1 a phase-I enzyme was increased by HS-ASA in both cell lines. Pretreatment of cells with NaF, an esterase inhibitor, abrogated the HS-ASA-mediated increases in NQO1 enzyme activity. HS-ASA increased the protein levels of the transcription factor Nrf2, which is a regulator of the phase-II enzymes. In vivo, HS-ASA at 100mg/kg/day had no effect on rat's weights; it induced a 3.4-fold and 1.4-fold increase in hepatic GST and NQO1 enzyme activities, respectively. GST and NQO1 protein levels were also increased. In contrast to that in cultured cells, CYP 1A1 protein levels were not altered in vivo. Therefore, HS-ASA induces phase-II enzymes, at least in part, through the action of H(2)S and by modulating Nrf2; these effects may be part of its mechanism of action against carcinogenesis. PMID:22209714

Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Nath, Niharika; Street, Cherease R; Velázquez-Martínez, Carlos A; Boring, Daniel; Kashfi, Khosrow

2011-12-24

274

Androgen and androgen-metabolizing enzymes in metastasized lymph nodes of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Androgen receptor and androgen metabolizing enzymes, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17?HSD5) and 5?-reductase1 (5?1), are frequently detected in primary tumor of breast cancer, but their status in metastatic lymph nodes has not been examined. The biological role of androgen in breast cancer and its metastatic process also remain unknown. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to localize the expression of androgen receptor, 17?HSD5, and 5?1 in primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes and correlated the findings with clinicopathologic factors of individual patients. Approximately 70% of primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes expressed androgen receptor, with significant correlation between both lesions. However, 17?HSD5 and 5?1 immunoreactivity was decreased in metastatic lymph nodes. Alone or in tandem with androgen receptor, 5?1 was associated with significantly lower Ki-67 index, lower pathologic grade, and higher estrogen receptor positivity, but androgen receptor/5?1 double positivity in lymph nodes was associated with larger lymph node metastasis and higher TNM stage. In conclusion, androgen receptor immunoreactivity remained stable during the process of metastasis, whereas androgen-metabolizing enzymes decreased. Although results of our study and previous reports imply additional roles of androgen metabolism in the metastasis process, especially conversion by 5?1, there may be divergence between its effects on primary tumor and those in metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:23953348

Shibahara, Yukiko; Miki, Yasuhiro; Sakurada, Chikako; Uchida, Keiko; Hata, Shuko; McNamara, Keely; Yoda, Tomomi; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Ishida, Takanori; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

2013-08-13

275

Seasonal changes in thermal environment and metabolic enzyme activity in the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin).  

PubMed

Diamondback terrapins experience broad fluctuations in temperature on both a daily and seasonal basis in their estuarine environment. We measured metabolic enzyme activity in terrapin muscle tissue to assess thermal dependence and the role of temperature in seasonal metabolic downregulation in this species. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PK), citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) was assayed at 10, 20, 30, and 40 °C for tissue collected during summer and winter. The Q(10) for enzyme activity varied between 1.31 and 2.11 within the temperature range at which terrapins were active (20-40 °C). The Q(10) for LDH, CS, and CCO varied between 1.39 and 1.76 and between 10 and 20 °C, but PK exhibited heightened thermal sensitivity within this lower temperature range, with a Q(10) of 2.90 for summer-collected tissue and 5.55 for winter-collected tissue. There was no significant effect of season on activity of LDH or PK, but activity of CS and CCO was significantly lower in winter-collected tissue compared with summer-collected tissue. Results indicate that temperature effects contribute to seasonal metabolic downregulation and dormancy in terrapins, but other environmental factors (i.e. oxygen availability), as well as seasonal shifts in blood biochemistry and circulating hormones may also play an important role. PMID:21147242

Williard, Amanda Southwood; Harden, Leigh Anne

2010-12-13

276

Crystal structure of protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase: a key enzyme in haem and chlorophyll biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO), the last common enzyme of haem and chlorophyll biosynthesis, catalyses the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. The membrane-embedded flavoprotein is the target of a large class of herbicides. In humans, a defect in PPO is responsible for the dominantly inherited disease variegate porphyria. Here we present the crystal structure of mitochondrial PPO from tobacco complexed with a phenyl-pyrazol inhibitor. PPO forms a loosely associated dimer and folds into an FAD-binding domain of the p-hydroxybenzoate-hydrolase fold and a substrate-binding domain that enclose a narrow active site cavity beneath the FAD and an alpha-helical membrane-binding domain. The active site architecture suggests a specific substrate-binding mode compatible with the unusual six-electron oxidation. The membrane-binding domains can be docked onto the dimeric structure of human ferrochelatase, the next enzyme in haem biosynthesis, embedded in the opposite side of the membrane. This modelled transmembrane complex provides a structural explanation for the uncoupling of haem biosynthesis observed in variegate porphyria patients and in plants after inhibiting PPO. PMID:15057273

Koch, Michael; Breithaupt, Constanze; Kiefersauer, Reiner; Freigang, Jörg; Huber, Robert; Messerschmidt, Albrecht

2004-04-01

277

Crystal structure of protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase: a key enzyme in haem and chlorophyll biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (PPO), the last common enzyme of haem and chlorophyll biosynthesis, catalyses the oxidation of protoporphyrinogen IX to protoporphyrin IX. The membrane-embedded flavoprotein is the target of a large class of herbicides. In humans, a defect in PPO is responsible for the dominantly inherited disease variegate porphyria. Here we present the crystal structure of mitochondrial PPO from tobacco complexed with a phenyl-pyrazol inhibitor. PPO forms a loosely associated dimer and folds into an FAD-binding domain of the p-hydroxybenzoate-hydrolase fold and a substrate-binding domain that enclose a narrow active site cavity beneath the FAD and an ?-helical membrane-binding domain. The active site architecture suggests a specific substrate-binding mode compatible with the unusual six-electron oxidation. The membrane-binding domains can be docked onto the dimeric structure of human ferrochelatase, the next enzyme in haem biosynthesis, embedded in the opposite side of the membrane. This modelled transmembrane complex provides a structural explanation for the uncoupling of haem biosynthesis observed in variegate porphyria patients and in plants after inhibiting PPO.

Koch, Michael; Breithaupt, Constanze; Kiefersauer, Reiner; Freigang, Jorg; Huber, Robert; Messerschmidt, Albrecht

2004-01-01

278

Cellulase a key enzyme in fermentation: Annual report, 1985--1986  

SciTech Connect

Many microbial cellulase systems are comprised of multiple components namely, endoglucanase (EG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), and betaglucosidabe. These three types of enzyme of the cellulase complex act synergistically but their mechanism of interaction in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose is poorly understood. As monoclonal antibodies (McAb) can be used as both snesitive and specific protein probes, we proposed the preparation of McAb specific for cellulases components, which should allow direct analysis of these enzymes. We have been generating murine McAb that react specifically with cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases. To date a McAb specific for a fungal (Trichoderma reesei) cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) that does not show cross reactivity toward endoglucanases, has been obtained (Riskeet et al; 1986a). This McAb preparation has been used for purification of CBH I via affinity chromatography. Thus the purified McAb to CBH I was immobilized on CnBr-Sepharose-4b to yield an immunomatrix which was analogous studies are also being developed with the cellulase form Microbispora bispora. 5 refs.

Eveleigh, D.E.; Macmillan, J.D.

1986-05-04

279

Difference in the distribution pattern of substrate enzymes in the metabolic network of Escherichia coli, according to chaperonin requirement  

PubMed Central

Background Chaperonins are important in living systems because they play a role in the folding of proteins. Earlier comprehensive analyses identified substrate proteins for which folding requires the chaperonin GroEL/GroES (GroE) in Escherichia coli, and they revealed that many chaperonin substrates are metabolic enzymes. This result implies the importance of chaperonins in metabolism. However, the relationship between chaperonins and metabolism is still unclear. Results We investigated the distribution of chaperonin substrate enzymes in the metabolic network using network analysis techniques as a first step towards revealing this relationship, and found that as chaperonin requirement increases, substrate enzymes are more laterally distributed in the metabolic. In addition, comparative genome analysis showed that the chaperonin-dependent substrates were less conserved, suggesting that these substrates were acquired later on in evolutionary history. Conclusions This result implies the expansion of metabolic networks due to this chaperonin, and it supports the existing hypothesis of acceleration of evolution by chaperonins. The distribution of chaperonin substrate enzymes in the metabolic network is inexplicable because it does not seem to be associated with individual protein features such as protein abundance, which has been observed characteristically in chaperonin substrates in previous works. However, it becomes clear by considering this expansion process due to chaperonin. This finding provides new insights into metabolic evolution and the roles of chaperonins in living systems.

2011-01-01

280

Impact of Limited Solvent Capacity on Metabolic Rate, Enzyme Activities, and Metabolite Concentrations of S. cerevisiae Glycolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell's cytoplasm is crowded by its various molecular components, resulting in a limited solvent capacity for the allocation of new proteins, thus constraining various cellular processes such as metabolism. Here we study the impact of the limited solvent capacity constraint on the metabolic rate, enzyme activities, and metabolite concentrations using a computational model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycolysis as a

Alexei Vazquez; Marcio A. de Menezes; Albert-László Barabási; Zoltan N. Oltvai

2008-01-01

281

The human colonic microflora influences the alterations of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by catechins in male F344 rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

As other xenobiotics, polyphenols are metabolized both by the endogenous detoxication system and the gut microflora. We hypothesized that the presence of a gut microflora may account for the effect of catechins on phase I and II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and that the human bacterial metabolites may be different from those of a rodent gut microflora. Therefore, the effects of 2%

E. F Lhoste; V Ouriet; S Bruel; J.-P Flinois; C Brézillon; J Magdalou; C Chčze; L Nugon-Baudon

2003-01-01

282

Anaerobic Metabolism of Catechol by the Denitrifying Bacterium Thauera aromatica--a Result of Promiscuous Enzymes and Regulators?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anaerobic metabolism of catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) was studied in the betaproteobacterium Thauera aromatica that was grown with CO2 as a cosubstrate and nitrate as an electron acceptor. Based on different lines of evidence and on our knowledge of enzymes and genes involved in the anaerobic metabolism of other aromatic substrates, the following pathway is proposed. Catechol is converted to catechylphosphate

Bin Ding; Sirko Schmeling; Georg Fuchs

2008-01-01

283

MODULATING EFFECT OF SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM LINN. NUT EXTRACT ON GLUCOSE METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN AFLATOXIN B 1INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The herbal remedy extended bySemecarpus anacardiumnut extract agains t Aflatoxin B1mediated hepatocellular carcinoma was established by studies on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. Since some definite correlation exists between tumour progression and the activities of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes, assessment of alterations in their activity can be used as successful markers of diagnosis and prognosis. The present work compares the activities of

B PREMALATHA; V SUJATHA; P SACHDANANDAM

1997-01-01

284

Effects of Quantity and Quality of Dietary Protein and Variation in Certain Enzyme Activities on Glucose Metabolism in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempted to determine whether the quantity and the quality of protein intake could influence the activity of some enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Thus, adult rats were fed for 23 days a diet containing dif ferent levels (10 to 70%) and qualities (casein, wheat gluten, and egg yolk) of protein. Variations in liver enzyme activities of pyruvate kinase

JEAN PERET; MARC CHANEZ

285

Cloning of ?-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1  

PubMed Central

A ?-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of ?-primeverosides (6-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The ?-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The ?-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The ?-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to ?-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the ?-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze ?-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl ?-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the ?-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the ?-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the ?-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl ?-primeveroside by the ?-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the ?-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the ?-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed.

Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

2002-01-01

286

Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles  

SciTech Connect

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 {mu}g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 {mu}g/mL) decreased E{sub 2} (DMSO: 3009.72 {+-} 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1679.66 {+-} 461.99 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 1752.72 {+-} 532.41 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 45.89 {+-} 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 {+-} 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 17.17 {+-} 4.71 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 13.64 {+-} 3.53 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 1.29 {+-} 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 {+-} 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1.49 {+-} 0.43 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 0.64 {+-} 0.31 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 0.12 {+-} 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 {+-} 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 26.77 {+-} 4.41 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 20.90 {+-} 3.75 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 9.44 {+-} 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@gmail.co [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Leslie, Traci C., E-mail: traci.leslie@gmail.co [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Hatfield, Kimberly P., E-mail: kpm9786@yahoo.co [Program in Toxicology and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@illinois.ed [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.ed [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

2010-12-01

287

HuR is a post-transcriptional regulator of core metabolic enzymes in pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer cell metabolism differs from normal cells, yet the regulatory mechanisms responsible for these differences are incompletely understood, particularly in response to acute changes in the tumor microenvironment. HuR, an RNA-binding protein, acts under acute stress to regulate core signaling pathways in cancer through post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA targets. We demonstrate that HuR regulates the metabolic phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells and is critical for survival under acute glucose deprivation. Using three pancreatic cancer cell line models, HuR-proficient cells demonstrated superior survival under glucose deprivation when compared with isogenic cells with siRNA-silencing of HuR expression (HuR-deficient cells). We found that HuR-proficient cells utilized less glucose, but produced greater lactate, as compared with HuR-deficient cells. Acute glucose deprivation was found to act as a potent stimulus for HuR translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where HuR stabilizes its mRNA targets. We performed a gene expression array on ribonucleoprotein-immunoprecipitated mRNAs bound to HuR and identified 11 novel HuR target transcripts that encode enzymes central to glucose metabolism. Three (GPI, PRPS2 and IDH1) were selected for validation studies, and confirmed as bona fide HuR targets. These findings establish HuR as a critical regulator of pancreatic cancer cell metabolism and survival under acute glucose deprivation. Further explorations into HuR's role in cancer cell metabolism should uncover novel therapeutic targets that are critical for cancer cell survival in a metabolically compromised tumor microenvironment. PMID:23807417

Burkhart, Richard A; Pineda, Danielle M; Chand, Saswati N; Romeo, Carmella; Londin, Eric R; Karoly, Edward D; Cozzitorto, Joseph A; Rigoutsos, Isidore; Yeo, Charles J; Brody, Jonathan R; Winter, Jordan M

2013-06-13

288

The Subcellular Compartmentalization of Arginine Metabolizing Enzymes and Their Role in Endothelial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) mediates endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and restrains vascular inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and platelet aggregation. Impaired production of NO is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and promotes the development of cardiovascular disease. In endothelial cells, NO is generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through the conversion of its substrate, l-arginine to l-citrulline. Reduced access to l-arginine has been proposed as a major mechanism underlying reduced eNOS activity and NO production in cardiovascular disease. The arginases (Arg1 and Arg2) metabolize l-arginine to generate l-ornithine and urea and increased expression of arginase has been proposed as a mechanism of reduced eNOS activity secondary to the depletion of l-arginine. Indeed, supplemental l-arginine and suppression of arginase activity has been shown to improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and ameliorate cardiovascular disease. However, this simple relationship is complicated by observations that l-arginine concentrations in endothelial cells remain sufficiently high to support NO synthesis. Accordingly, the subcellular compartmentalization of intracellular l-arginine into poorly interchangeable pools has been proposed to allow for the local depletion of pools or pockets of l-arginine. In agreement with this, there is considerable evidence supporting the importance of the subcellular localization of l-arginine metabolizing enzymes. In endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, eNOS is found in discrete intracellular locations and the capacity to generate NO is heavily influenced by its localization inside the cell. Arg1 and Arg2 also reside in different subcellular environments and are thought to differentially influence endothelial function. The plasma membrane solute transporter, CAT-1 and the arginine recycling enzyme, arginosuccinate lyase, co-localize with eNOS and facilitate NO release. Herein, we highlight the importance of the subcellular location of eNOS and arginine transporting and metabolizing enzymes to NO release and cardiovascular disease.

Chen, Feng; Lucas, Rudolf; Fulton, David

2013-01-01

289

Cytogenetic markers of susceptibility: influence of polymorphic carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed Central

Polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, responsible for individual differences in metabolic activation and detoxification reactions, may profoundly modulate the effects of chemical carcinogens. In the case of genotoxic carcinogens, differences in biological effects due to genetic polymorphisms can be evaluated by cytogenetic methods such as the analysis of chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), micronuclei (MN), and changes in chromosome number. These techniques can be applied to any exposure known to induce such alterations, without additional method development for each exposing agent. The influence of polymorphic genes on the cytogenetic effects of a carcinogen can quickly be tested in vitro using metabolically competent cells collected from donors representing different genotypes or phenotypes. For instance, erythrocytes from individuals positive for glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) express GSTT1, whereas GSTT1-null donors, having a homozygous deletion of the GSTT1 gene, completely lack this detoxification enzyme. This deficiency results in highly increased sensitivity to SCE induction in whole-blood lymphocyte cultures by 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, a reactive metabolite of 1,3-butadiene. The same cytogenetic techniques can also be applied as effect biomarkers in studies of human populations exposed to genotoxic carcinogens. For example, elevated rates of chromosome damage have been detected among smokers lacking glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1-null genotype), and the baseline level of SCEs seems to be increased in GSTT1-null individuals. Information obtained from cytogenetic studies of genetic polymorphisms can be used, for example, to recognize the genotoxically relevant substrates of the polymorphic enzymes, to identify genotypes that are susceptible to these genotoxins, to improve in vitro genotoxicity tests utilizing human cells, to increase the sensitivity of cytogenetic endpoints as biomarkers of genotoxic effects in humans, and to direct mechanistic studies and cancer epidemiology.

Norppa, H

1997-01-01

290

Carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP): a key regulator of glucose metabolism and fat storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding a high carbohydrate diet induces transcription of more than 15 genes involved in the metabolic conversion of glucose to fat. A new transcription factor binding to a glucose response element of the pyruvate kinase and lipogenesis enzyme genes was discovered recently. This factor, termed carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP), is activated in response to high glucose and up-regulates these

Kosaku Uyeda; Hiromi Yamashita; Takumi Kawaguchi

2002-01-01

291

[The enzyme of carbon metabolism in the thermotolerant sulfobacillus strain K1].  

PubMed

To determine enzymatic activities in the thermotolerant strain K1 (formerly "Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans subsp. thermotolerans"), it was grown in a mineral medium with (1) thiosulfate and Fe2+ or pyrite (autotrophic conditions), (2) Fe2+, thiosulfate, and yeast extract or glucose (mixotrophic conditions), and (3) yeast extract (heterotrophic conditions). Cells grown mixo-, hetero-, and autotrophically were found to contain enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, as well as malate synthase, an enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle. Cells grown organotrophically in a medium with yeast extract exhibited the activity of the key enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas and Entner-Doudoroff pathways. An increased content of carbon dioxide (up to 5 vol%) in the auto- and mixotrophic media enhanced the activity of the enzymes involved in the terminal reactions of the TCA cycle and the enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway. Carbon dioxide was fixed in the Calvin cycle. The highest activity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase was detected in cells grown autotrophically at the atmospheric content of CO2 in the air used for aeration of the growth medium. The activities of pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxytransphosphorylase decreased with the increasing content of CO2 in the medium. PMID:12526195

Karava?ko, G I; Zakharchuk, L M; Bogdanova, T I; Egorova, M A; Tsaplina, I A; Krasil'nikova, E N

292

Calcium-regulated nuclear enzymes: potential mediators of phytochrome-induced changes in nuclear metabolism?  

PubMed

Calcium ions have been proposed to serve as important regulatory elements in stimulus-response coupling for phytochrome responses. An important test of this hypothesis will be to identify specific targets of calcium action that are required for some growth or development process induced by the photoactivated form of phytochrome (Pfr). Initial studies have revealed that there are at least two enzymes in pea nuclei that are stimulated by Pfr in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, a calmodulin-regulated nucleoside triphosphatase and a calmodulin-independent but Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. The nucleoside triphosphatase appears to be associated with the nuclear envelope, while the protein kinase co-purifies with a nuclear fraction highly enriched for chromatin. This short review summarizes the latest findings on these enzymes and relates them to what is known about Pfr-regulated nuclear metabolism. PMID:1475326

Roux, S J

1992-11-01

293

Erythrocyte metabolism in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency after enzyme replacement therapy by infusion of erythrocytes.  

PubMed Central

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency is associated with a severely defective T-cell immunity. A patient with purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency was treated with transfusions of irradiated erythrocytes and plasma. This resulted in a remarkable correction of the metabolic disturbances in the patient. The urinary excretion of inosine, deoxyinosine, guanosine, and deoxyguanosine decreased, whereas uric acid excretion as well as serum uric acid concentration increased. It could be shown that the enzyme activity of the circulating erythrocytes correlated inversely with the urinary excretion of nucleosides and directly with the excretion of uric acid. As a consequence of the therapy, several glycolytic intermediates of the erythrocytes were increased, especially 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. The high 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level caused a shift to the right of the oxygen dissociation curve (P50 = 32.9 mm Hg). The immunological status of the patient showed definite improvement after the enzyme replacement therapy.

Staal, G E; Stoop, J W; Zegers, B J; Siegenbeek van Heukelom, L H; van der Vlist, M J; Wadman, S K; Martin, D W

1980-01-01

294

Cytochrome P450 enzymes from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

SciTech Connect

Four (CYP195A2, CYP199A2, CYP203A1, and CYP153A5) of the seven P450 enzymes, and palustrisredoxin A, a ferredoxin associated with CYP199A2, from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been expressed and purified. A range of substituted benzenes, phenols, benzaldehydes, and benzoic acids was shown to bind to the four P450 enzymes. Monooxygenase activity of CYP199A2 was reconstituted with palustrisredoxin A and putidaredoxin reductase of the P450cam system from Pseudomonas putida. We found that 4-ethylbenzoate and 4-methoxybenzoate were oxidized to single products, and 4-methoxybenzoate was demethylated to form 4-hydroxybenzoate. Crystals of substrate-free CYP199A2 which diffracted to {approx}2.0 A have been obtained.

Bell, Stephen G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: stephen.bell@chem.ox.ac.uk; Hoskins, Nicola [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Xu Feng [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Department of Biological Science and Technology and MOE Laboratory of Protein Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Caprotti, Domenico [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Rao Zihe [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Department of Biological Science and Technology and MOE Laboratory of Protein Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wong, L.-L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: luet.wong@chem.ox.ac.uk

2006-03-31

295

Effect of enzyme inducer flumecinolum (Zixoryn) on aminophylline metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of the enzyme inducer flumecinolum, m-trifluoromethyl-alpha-ethylbenzhydrol (Zixoryn), on aminophylline metabolism was examined in rats. Aminophylline plasma levels were determined by HPLC. Aminophylline T1/2 was 2.85 hours (r = 0.9353) in the pretreated group and 3.75 hours (r = 0.9471) in the untreated control group. Flumecinolum was found to accelerate the elimination of aminophylline and the effect became significant 3.92 hours after the administration of aminophylline. PMID:3434310

Szeitz, A; Huszár, E; Herjavecz, I; Vértes, K; Debreczeni, L A

1987-01-01

296

Characterization of benidipine and its enantiomers' metabolism by human liver cytochrome P450 enzymes.  

PubMed

Benidipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist that has been used clinically as an antihypertensive and antianginal agent. It is used clinically as a racemate, containing the (-)-alpha and (+)-alpha isomers of benidipine. This study was performed to elucidate the metabolism of benidipine and its enantiomers in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and to characterize the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of benidipine. Human liver microsomal incubation of benidipine in the presence of NADPH resulted in the formation of two metabolites, N-desbenzylbenidipine and dehydrobenidipine. The intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) of the formation of N-desbenzylbenidipine and dehydrobenidipine metabolites from (-)-alpha isomer was similar to those from the (+)-alpha isomer (1.9 +/- 0.1 versus 2.3 +/- 2.3 microl/min/pmol P450 and 0.5 +/- 0.2 versus 0.6 +/- 0.6 microl/min/pmol P450, respectively). Correlation analysis between the known P450 enzyme activities and the rate of the formation of benidipine metabolites in the 15 HLMs showed that benidipine metabolism is correlated with CYP3A activity. The P450 isoform-selective inhibition study in liver microsomes and the incubation study of cDNA-expressed enzymes also showed that theN-debenzylation and dehydrogenation of benidipine are mainly mediated by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. The total CL(int) values of CYP3A4-mediated metabolite formation from (-)-alpha isomer were similar to those from (+)-alpha isomer (17.7 versus 14.4 microl/min/pmol P450, respectively). The total CL(int) values of CYP3A5-mediated metabolite formation from (-)-alpha isomer were also similar to those from (+)-alpha isomer (8.3 versus 11.0 microl/min/pmol P450, respectively). These findings suggest that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 isoforms are major enzymes contributing to the disposition of benidipine, but stereoselective disposition of benidipine in vivo may be influenced not by stereoselective metabolism but by other factors. PMID:17537876

Yoon, Yune-Jung; Kim, Kwon-Bok; Kim, Hyunmi; Seo, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Ho-Sook; Cha, In-June; Kim, Eun-Young; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

2007-05-30

297

Structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an essential monotopic membrane enzyme involved in respiration and metabolism.  

PubMed

Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Its critical role is indicated by the multitiered regulatory mechanisms that stringently controls its expression and function. Once expressed, GlpD activity is regulated through lipid-enzyme interactions in Escherichia coli. Here, we report seven previously undescribed structures of the fully active E. coli GlpD, up to 1.75 A resolution. In addition to elucidating the structure of the native enzyme, we have determined the structures of GlpD complexed with substrate analogues phosphoenolpyruvate, glyceric acid 2-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and product, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. These structural results reveal conformational states of the enzyme, delineating the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the glycerol-3-phosphate site. Two probable mechanisms for catalyzing the dehydrogenation of glycerol-3-phosphate are envisioned, based on the conformational states of the complexes. To further correlate catalytic dehydrogenation to respiration, we have additionally determined the structures of GlpD bound with ubiquinone analogues menadione and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, identifying a hydrophobic plateau that is likely the ubiquinone-binding site. These structures illuminate probable mechanisms of catalysis and suggest how GlpD shuttles electrons into the respiratory pathway. Glycerol metabolism has been implicated in insulin signaling and perturbations in glycerol uptake and catabolism are linked to obesity in humans. Homologs of GlpD are found in practically all organisms, from prokaryotes to humans, with >45% consensus protein sequences, signifying that these structural results on the prokaryotic enzyme may be readily applied to the eukaryotic GlpD enzymes. PMID:18296637

Yeh, Joanne I; Chinte, Unmesh; Du, Shoucheng

2008-02-22

298

Testing biochemistry revisited: how in vivo metabolism can be understood from in vitro enzyme kinetics.  

PubMed

A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation.Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i) including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii) measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i) implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii) implementation of V(max) values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii) redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions.Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation), or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry. PMID:22570597

van Eunen, Karen; Kiewiet, José A L; Westerhoff, Hans V; Bakker, Barbara M

2012-04-26

299

Effects of detraining on enzymes of energy metabolism in individual human muscle fibers.  

PubMed

Muscle biopsies were obtained from three cyclists and four runners at the end of 10-24 mo of intensive training and after intervals of detraining up to 12 wk. Control samples came from four untrained persons and four former athletes. Macro mixed fiber samples were assayed for lactate dehydrogenase, adenylate kinase, glycogen phosphorylase, citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, hexokinase, 1-phosphofructokinase, fructosebisphosphatase, protein, and total creatine. In the case of three trained persons and two controls, the first six of the enzymes were also measured in individual fibers. Before detraining, enzymes of oxidative metabolism were substantially higher than in controls, and differences in levels between type I and type II fibers were smaller. During detraining, oxidative enzymes were decreased in both fiber types but the type II fibers did not fall to control levels even after 12 wk. Phosphorylase increased with detraining in both fiber types. The same is true for lactate dehydrogenase and adenylate kinase, except in the case of the type I fibers of one individual. Among the other six enzymes (measured in mixed fiber samples), only hexokinase was consistently affected (decreased) by detraining. PMID:6829750

Chi, M M; Hintz, C S; Coyle, E F; Martin, W H; Ivy, J L; Nemeth, P M; Holloszy, J O; Lowry, O H

1983-03-01

300

The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have examined, in the livers of rats carried aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite, the activities of about 30 enzymes concerned with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition to the enzyme studies, the levels of glycogen and of the individual fatty acids in hepatic lipids were determined. Livers from flight and ground control rats at recovery (R0) and 25 days after recovery (R25) were used for these analyses. For all parameters measured, the most meaningful comparisons are those made between flight stationary (FS) and flight centrifuged (FC) animals at R0. When these two groups of flight rats were compared at R0, statistically significant decreases in the activity levels of glycogen phosphorylase, ?-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in the palmitoyl CoA desaturase were noted in the weightless group (FS). The significance of these findings was strengthened by the fact that all enzyme activities showing alterations at R0 returned to normal 25 days postflight. When liver glycogen and total fatty acids of the two sets of flight animals were determined, significant differences that could be attributed to reduced gravity were observed. The weightless group (FS) at R0 contained, on the average, more than twice the amount of glycogen than did the centrifuged controls (FC) and a remarkable shift in the ratio of palmitate to palmitoleate was noted. These metabolic alterations, both in enzyme levels and in hepatic constituents, appear to be characteristic of the weightless condition. Our data seem to justify the conclusion that centrifugation during flight is equivalent to terrestrial gravity.

Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

301

Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

We have investigated the effect of herbal teas (peppermint, chamomile and dandelion) on the activity of hepatic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes using rat liver microsomes. Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 5 each). Three groups had free access to a tea solution (2%) while the control group had water. Two groups received either green tea extract (0.1%) or aqueous caffeine solution (0.0625%). After four weeks of pretreatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of liver microsomes or cytosol with appropriate substrates. Activity of CYP1A2 in the liver microsomes of rats receiving dandelion, peppermint or chamomile tea was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) to 15%, 24% and 39% of the control value, respectively. CYP1A2 activity was significantly increased by pretreatment with caffeine solution. No alterations were observed in the activities of CYP2D and CYP3A in any group of the pretreated rats. Activity of CYP2E in rats receiving dandelion or peppermint tea was significantly lower than in the control group, 48% and 60% of the control, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (244% of control) in the activity of phase II detoxifying enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the dandelion tea-pretreated group. There was no change in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase. The results suggested that, like green and black teas, certain herbal teas can cause modulation of phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. PMID:11697539

Maliakal, P P; Wanwimolruk, S

2001-10-01

302

Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice  

SciTech Connect

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have diverse activities in terms of inducing various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes based on their chemical structure.

Kleiner, Heather E. [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)], E-mail: hklein@lsuhsc.edu; Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Zhang, Jun [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Evans, Ronald M. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Moore, David D. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); DiGiovanni, John [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2008-10-15

303

Variability in drug metabolizing enzyme activity in HIV-infected patients  

PubMed Central

Aims To evaluate variability in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in HIV-infected patients and compare this with data from uninfected, healthy volunteers. Methods Ten HIV-infected men and seven women on medication affecting CYP enzyme activity were phenotyped four times over 2 months using caffeine, dextromethorphan, and midazolam. Urinary caffeine and dextromethorphan metabolite ratios were used to phenotype CYP1A2, NAT2, XO, and CYP2D6 activity and midazolam plasma clearance was used to phenotype CYP3A activity. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed by validated LC/UV or LC/MS methods for midazolam, caffeine, and dextromethorphan. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetics and nonparametric statistical analyses were performed, and the data compared with those of healthy volunteer historic controls. Results Compared with age and sex-matched healthy volunteers, HIV-infected subjects had 18% lower hepatic CYP3A4 activity, 90% lower CYP2D6 activity, 53% lower NAT2 activity, and 22% higher XO activity. No significant difference was found in CYP1A2 activity. Additionally, 25% genotype–phenotype discordance in CYP2D6 activity was noted in HIV-infected subjects. Intraindividual variability in enzyme activity increased by 42–62% in HIV-infected patients for CYP1A2, NAT2, and XO, and decreased by 33% for CYP2D6. Interindividual variability in enzyme activity increased by 27–63% in HIV-infected subjects for CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and XO, and decreased by 38% for NAT2. Higher plasma TNF? concentrations correlated with lower CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Conclusions Infection with HIV or stage of HIV infection may alter Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzyme activity. HIV infection was related to an increase in variability of these drug-metabolizing enzymes. Altered metabolism may be a consequence of immune activation and cytokine exposure.

Brown, Kevin C.; Werner, Rebecca E.; Gotzkowsky, Karl; Gaedigk, Andrea; Blake, Mike; Hein, David W.; van der Horst, Charles; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

2010-01-01

304

The Structure of the Human RNase H2 Complex Defines Key Interaction Interfaces Relevant to Enzyme Function and Human Disease*  

PubMed Central

Ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2) is the major nuclear enzyme involved in the degradation of RNA/DNA hybrids and removal of ribonucleotides misincorporated in genomic DNA. Mutations in each of the three RNase H2 subunits have been implicated in a human auto-inflammatory disorder, Aicardi-Goutičres Syndrome (AGS). To understand how mutations impact on RNase H2 function we determined the crystal structure of the human heterotrimer. In doing so, we correct several key regions of the previously reported murine RNase H2 atomic model and provide biochemical validation for our structural model. Our results provide new insights into how the subunits are arranged to form an enzymatically active complex. In particular, we establish that the RNASEH2A C terminus is a eukaryotic adaptation for binding the two accessory subunits, with residues within it required for enzymatic activity. This C-terminal extension interacts with the RNASEH2C C terminus and both are necessary to form a stable, enzymatically active heterotrimer. Disease mutations cluster at this interface between all three subunits, destabilizing the complex and/or impairing enzyme activity. Altogether, we locate 25 out of 29 residues mutated in AGS patients, establishing a firm basis for future investigations into disease pathogenesis and function of the RNase H2 enzyme.

Reijns, Martin A. M.; Bubeck, Doryen; Gibson, Lucien C. D.; Graham, Stephen C.; Baillie, George S.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Jackson, Andrew P.

2011-01-01

305

Good Codons, Bad Transcript: Large Reductions in Gene Expression and Fitness Arising from Synonymous Mutations in a Key Enzyme  

PubMed Central

Biased codon usage in protein-coding genes is pervasive, whereby amino acids are largely encoded by a specific subset of possible codons. Within individual genes, codon bias is stronger at evolutionarily conserved residues, favoring codons recognized by abundant tRNAs. Although this observation suggests an overall pattern of selection for translation speed and/or accuracy, other work indicates that transcript structure or binding motifs drive codon usage. However, our understanding of codon bias evolution is constrained by limited experimental data on the fitness effects of altering codons in functional genes. To bridge this gap, we generated synonymous variants of a key enzyme-coding gene in Methylobacterium extorquens. We found that mutant gene expression, enzyme production, enzyme activity, and fitness were all significantly lower than wild-type. Surprisingly, encoding the gene using only rare codons decreased fitness by 40%, whereas an allele coded entirely by frequent codons decreased fitness by more than 90%. Increasing gene expression restored mutant fitness to varying degrees, demonstrating that the fitness disadvantage of synonymous mutants arose from a lack of beneficial protein rather than costs of protein production. Protein production was negatively correlated with the frequency of motifs with high affinity for the anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequence, suggesting ribosome pausing as the dominant cause of low mutant fitness. Together, our data support the idea that, although a particular set of codons are favored on average across a genome, in an individual gene selection can either act for or against codons depending on their local context.

Agashe, Deepa; Martinez-Gomez, N. Cecilia; Drummond, D. Allan; Marx, Christopher J.

2013-01-01

306

Energy expenditure in Crocidurinae shrews (Insectivora): Is metabolism a key component of the insular syndrome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cascade of morphological, ecological, demographical and behavioural changes operates within island communities compared to mainland. We tested whether metabolic rates change on islands. Using a closed circuit respirometer, we investigated resting metabolic rate (RMR) of three species of Crocidurinae shrews: Suncus etruscus, Crocidura russula, and C. suaveolens. For the latter, we compared energy expenditure of mainland and island populations.

Elodie Magnanou; Roger Fons; Jacques Blondel; Serge Morand

2005-01-01

307

Pyruvate kinase type M2: A key regulator of the metabolic budget system in tumor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell proliferation only proceeds when metabolism is capable of providing a budget of metabolic intermediates that is adequate to ensure both energy regeneration and the synthesis of cell building blocks in sufficient amounts. In tumor cells, the glycolytic pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2, M2-PK) determines whether glucose is converted to lactate for regeneration of energy (active tetrameric form, Warburg effect)

Sybille Mazurek

2011-01-01

308

Deficiency of the intestinal enzyme acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 protects mice from metabolic disorders induced by high-fat feeding  

PubMed Central

Animals are remarkably efficient in absorbing dietary fat and assimilating this energy-dense nutrient into the white adipose tissue (WAT) for storage. Although this metabolic efficiency may confer an advantage in times of calorie deprivation, it contributes to obesity and associated metabolic disorders when dietary fat is abundant1,2. Here we show that the intestinal lipid synthesis enzyme acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 (MGAT2) has a crucial role in the assimilation of dietary fat and the accretion of body fat in mice. Mice lacking MGAT2 have a normal phenotype on a low-fat diet. However, on a high-fat diet, MGAT2-deficient mice are protected against developing obesity, glucose intolerance, hypercholesterolemia and fatty livers. Caloric intake is normal in MGAT2-deficient mice, and dietary fat is absorbed fully. However, entry of dietary fat into the circulation occurs at a reduced rate. This altered kinetics of fat absorption apparently results in more partitioning of dietary fat toward energy dissipation rather than toward storage in the WAT. Thus, our studies identify MGAT2 as a key determinant of energy metabolism in response to dietary fat and suggest that the inhibition of this enzyme may prove to be a useful strategy for treating obesity and other metabolic diseases associated with excessive fat intake.

Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Cheong, Mei-Leng; Grueter, Carrie; Zhou, Ping; Moriwaki, Junya; Wong, Jinny S; Hubbard, Brian; Marmor, Stephen; Farese, Robert V

2009-01-01

309

Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase: A key regulatory enzyme for insect metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone (JH) acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) is an enzyme that converts JH acids or inactive precursors of JHs to active JHs at the final step of JH biosynthesis pathway in insects. By fluorescent mRNA differential display, we have cloned a cDNA encoding JHAMT from the corpora allata (CA) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (BmJHAMT). The BmJHAMT cDNA encodes an ORF of 278 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 32,544 Da. The predicted amino acid sequence contains a conserved S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding motif found in the family of SAM-dependent methyltransferases. Purified N-terminal 6×His-tagged recombinant BmJHAMT protein expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed conversion of farnesoic acid and JH acids I, II, and III to their cognate methyl esters in the presence of SAM, confirming that this cDNA encodes a functional JHAMT. Putative orthologs, DmJHAMT and AgJHAMT, were identified from the genome sequence of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and a malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, respectively. Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that the BmJHAMT gene was expressed specifically in the CA throughout the third and fourth instar. At the beginning of the last (fifth) instar, the expression level of BmJHAMT declined rapidly and became undetectable by day 4 and remained so until pupation. Correlation of the BmJHAMT gene expression and the JH biosynthetic activity in the CA suggests that the transcriptional suppression of the BmJHAMT gene is crucial for the termination of JH biosynthesis in the CA, which is a prerequisite for the initiation of metamorphosis.

Shinoda, Tetsuro; Itoyama, Kyo

2003-01-01

310

Metabolic syndrome and mean platelet volume variation in patients with chest pain and negative cardiac enzymes  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The mean platelet volume (MPV) is an easily measurable parameter directly correlated with platelet aggregation function, proven to be increased in acute coronary syndromes, but also in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors such as the metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension. Objective. This study intended to assess the role of the metabolic syndrome in MPV variation in patients presenting with chest pain. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed data from 122 patients with chest pain and negative cardiac enzymes admitted consecutively to our clinic from September 1st 2011 to January 30th 2012. Our group included 27 (22.13%) patients with stable angina (SA), 74 (60.65%) patients with unstable angina (UA) and 21 (17.22%) patients with non-coronary chest pain. Results. Patients with UA had a higher mean value of the MPV 9.31 ± 1.19 fL compared to patients with SA 8.72 ± 1.14 fL (p=0.0279) and patients with non-coronary chest pain 8.85 ± 0.90 L (p=0.0908). All the patients with metabolic syndrome had increased MPVs, regardless of the etiology of chest pain. Patients with non-coronary chest pain presented significantly higher MPVs if associated with metabolic syndrome or arterial hypertension. Conclusions. Patients with cardiovascular risk factors, especially complex ones like the metabolic syndrome had an increased MPV, as did the patients with UA whether or not associated with the risk factors. In patients without such comorbidities, the MPV could be useful in distinguishing unstable angina from non-coronary chest pain.

Nechita, AC; Delcea, C; Enache, V; Ploesteanu, RL; Cazacu, C; Andronescu, AM; Stroi, AM; Stamate, CS

2013-01-01

311

High muscle lipid content in obesity is not due to enhanced activation of key triglyceride esterification enzymes or the suppression of lipolytic proteins  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying alterations in muscle lipid metabolism in obesity are poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to compare the abundance and/or activities of key proteins that regulate intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) concentration in the skeletal muscle obtained from obese (OB; n = 8, BMI 38 ± 1 kg/m2) and nonobese (NOB; n = 9, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2) women. IMTG concentration was nearly twofold greater in OB vs. NOB subjects (75 ± 15 vs. 40 ± 8 ?mol/g dry wt, P < 0.05). In contrast, the activity and protein abundance of key enzymes that regulate the esterification of IMTG (i.e., glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase) were not elevated. We also found no differences between groups in muscle adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein abundance and no differences in phosphorylation of specific sites known to affect HSL activity. However, we did find the elevated IMTG in obesity to be accompanied by a greater abundance of the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36 in the membrane fraction of muscle from OB vs. NOB subjects (P < 0.05), suggestive of an elevated fatty acid transport capacity. Additionally, protein abundance of the lipid-trafficking protein perilipin 3 was lower (P < 0.05) in muscle from OB vs. NOB when expressed relative to IMTG content. Our findings indicate that the elevated IMTG content found in obese women was not due to an upregulation of key lipogenic proteins or to the suppression of lipolytic proteins. The impact of a low perilipin protein abundance relative to the amount of IMTG in obesity remains to be clarified.

Li, Minghua; Paran, Christopher; Wolins, Nathan E.

2011-01-01

312

Dual Targeting of Antioxidant and Metabolic Enzymes to the Mitochondrion and the Apicoplast of Toxoplasma gondii  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is an aerobic protozoan parasite that possesses mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes to safely dispose of oxygen radicals generated by cellular respiration and metabolism. As with most Apicomplexans, it also harbors a chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast, which hosts various biosynthetic pathways and requires antioxidant protection. Most apicoplast-resident proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome and are targeted to the organelle via a bipartite N-terminal targeting sequence. We show here that two antioxidant enzymes—a superoxide dismutase (TgSOD2) and a thioredoxin-dependent peroxidase (TgTPX1/2)—and an aconitase are dually targeted to both the apicoplast and the mitochondrion of T. gondii. In the case of TgSOD2, our results indicate that a single gene product is bimodally targeted due to an inconspicuous variation within the putative signal peptide of the organellar protein, which significantly alters its subcellular localization. Dual organellar targeting of proteins might occur frequently in Apicomplexans to serve important biological functions such as antioxidant protection and carbon metabolism.

Kwok, Lai-Yu; Sheiner, Lilach; Schepers, Rebecca; Soldati, Thierry; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

2007-01-01

313

Labeling and Enzyme Studies of the Central Carbon Metabolism in Metallosphaera sedula ?  

PubMed Central

Metallosphaera sedula (Sulfolobales, Crenarchaeota) uses the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle for autotrophic carbon fixation. In this pathway, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and succinyl-CoA are the only intermediates that can be considered common to the central carbon metabolism. We addressed the question of which intermediate of the cycle most biosynthetic routes branch off. We labeled autotrophically growing cells by using 4-hydroxy[1-14C]butyrate and [1,4-13C1]succinate, respectively, as precursors for biosynthesis. The labeling patterns of protein-derived amino acids verified the operation of the proposed carbon fixation cycle, in which 4-hydroxybutyrate is converted to two molecules of acetyl-CoA. The results also showed that major biosynthetic flux does not occur via acetyl-CoA, except for the formation of building blocks that are directly derived from acetyl-CoA. Notably, acetyl-CoA is not assimilated via reductive carboxylation to pyruvate. Rather, our data suggest that the majority of anabolic precursors are derived from succinyl-CoA, which is removed from the cycle via oxidation to malate and oxaloacetate. These C4 intermediates yield pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Enzyme activities that are required for forming intermediates from succinyl-CoA were detected, including enzymes catalyzing gluconeogenesis from PEP. This study completes the picture of the central carbon metabolism in autotrophic Sulfolobales by connecting the autotrophic carbon fixation cycle to the formation of central carbon precursor metabolites.

Estelmann, Sebastian; Hugler, Michael; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Werner, Katharina; Berg, Ivan A.; Ramos-Vera, W. Hugo; Say, Rafael F.; Kockelkorn, Daniel; Gad?on, Nasser; Fuchs, Georg

2011-01-01

314

Gallic acid and gallic acid derivatives: effects on drug metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Gallic acid and its structurally related compounds are found widely distributed in fruits and plants. Gallic acid, and its catechin derivatives are also present as one of the main phenolic components of both black and green tea. Esters of gallic acid have a diverse range of industrial uses, as antioxidants in food, in cosmetics and in the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, gallic acid is employed as a source material for inks, paints and colour developers. Studies utilising these compounds have found them to possess many potential therapeutic properties including anti-cancer and antimicrobial properties. In this review, studies of the effects of gallic acid, its esters, and gallic acid catechin derivatives on Phase I and Phase II enzymes are examined. Many published reports of the effects of the in vitro effects of gallic acid and its derivatives on drug metabolising enzymes concern effects directly on substrate (generally drug or mutagen) metabolism or indirectly through observed effects in Ames tests. In the case of the Ames test an antimutagenic effect may be observed through inhibition of CYP activation of indirectly acting mutagens and/or by scavenging of metabolically generated mutagenic electrophiles. There has been considerable interest in the in vivo effects of the gallate esters because of their incorporation into foodstuffs as antioxidants and in the catechin gallates with their potential role as chemoprotective agents. Principally an induction of Phase II enzymes has been observed however more recent studies using HepG2 cells and primary cultures of human hepatocytes provide evidence for the overall complexity of actions of individual components versus complex mixtures, such as those in food. Further systematic studies of mechanisms of induction and inhibition of drug metabolising enzymes by this group of compounds are warranted in the light of their distribution and consequent ingestion, current uses and suggested therapeutic potential. However, it must be noted that numerous constituents of foodstuffs have been found to be potent modulators of xenobiotic metabolism and the net human health effects may depend on concentrations of individual components and individual genetic makeup. PMID:12769668

Ow, Yin-Yin; Stupans, Ieva

2003-06-01

315

Lead (Pb)-inhibited radicle emergence in Brassica campestris involves alterations in starch-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal released into the natural environment and known to cause oxidative damage and alter antioxidant mechanism in plants. However, not much is known about the interference of Pb with the biochemical processes and carbohydrate metabolism during seed germination. We, therefore, investigated the effect of Pb (50-500 ?M) upon biochemical alterations in germinating seeds (at 24-h stage) of Brassica campestris L. Pb treatment significantly enhanced protein and carbohydrate contents that increased by ~43% and 200%, respectively, at 500-?M Pb over control. In contrast, the activities of starch/carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes--?-amylases, ?-amylases, acid invertases, and acid phosphatases--decreased by ~54%, 60%, 74%, and 52%, respectively, over control. Activities of peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases, involved in stress acclimation, however, increased by ~1.2- to 3.9-folds and 0.4- to 1.4-folds upon 50-500-?M Pb treatment. Pb enhanced oxidizing ability by 10 to 16.7 times over control suggesting interference with emerging root's oxidizing capacity. The study concludes that Pb exposure inhibits radicle emergence from B. campestris by interfering with the biochemical processes linked to protein and starch metabolism. PMID:21735112

Singh, Harminder Pal; Kaur, Gurpreet; Batish, Daizy R; Kohli, Ravinder K

2011-07-07

316

Identification and functional characterisation of genes and corresponding enzymes involved in carnitine metabolism of Proteus sp.  

PubMed

Enzymes involved in carnitine metabolism of Proteus sp. are encoded by the cai genes organised as the caiTABCDEF operon. The complete operon could be sequenced from the genomic DNA of Proteus sp. Amino acid sequence similarities and/or enzymatic analysis confirmed the function assigned to each protein involved in carnitine metabolism. CaiT was suggested to be an integral membrane protein responsible for the transport of betaines. The caiA gene product was shown to be a crotonobetainyl-CoA reductase catalysing the irreversible reduction of crotonobetainyl-CoA to gamma-butyrobetainyl-CoA. CaiB and CaiD were identified to be the two components of the crotonobetaine hydrating system, already described. CaiB and caiD were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification of both proteins, their individual enzymatic functions were solved. CaiB acts as betainyl-CoA transferase specific for carnitine, crotonobetaine, gamma-butyrobetaine and its CoA derivatives. Transferase reaction proceeds, following a sequential bisubstrate mechanism. CaiD was identified to be a crotonobetainyl-CoA hydratase belonging to the crotononase superfamily. Because of amino acid sequence similarities, CaiC was suggested to be a betainyl-CoA ligase. Taken together, these results show that the metabolism of carnitine and crotonobetaine in Proteus sp. proceeds at the CoA level. PMID:15731894

Engemann, Claudia; Elssner, Thomas; Pfeifer, Sven; Krumbholz, Carsten; Maier, Thomas; Kleber, Hans-Peter

2005-02-25

317

Discovery of new enzymes and metabolic pathways by using structure and genome context.  

PubMed

Assigning valid functions to proteins identified in genome projects is challenging: overprediction and database annotation errors are the principal concerns. We and others are developing computation-guided strategies for functional discovery with 'metabolite docking' to experimentally derived or homology-based three-dimensional structures. Bacterial metabolic pathways often are encoded by 'genome neighbourhoods' (gene clusters and/or operons), which can provide important clues for functional assignment. We recently demonstrated the synergy of docking and pathway context by 'predicting' the intermediates in the glycolytic pathway in Escherichia coli. Metabolite docking to multiple binding proteins and enzymes in the same pathway increases the reliability of in silico predictions of substrate specificities because the pathway intermediates are structurally similar. Here we report that structure-guided approaches for predicting the substrate specificities of several enzymes encoded by a bacterial gene cluster allowed the correct prediction of the in vitro activity of a structurally characterized enzyme of unknown function (PDB 2PMQ), 2-epimerization of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline betaine (tHyp-B) and cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline betaine (cHyp-B), and also the correct identification of the catabolic pathway in which Hyp-B 2-epimerase participates. The substrate-liganded pose predicted by virtual library screening (docking) was confirmed experimentally. The enzymatic activities in the predicted pathway were confirmed by in vitro assays and genetic analyses; the intermediates were identified by metabolomics; and repression of the genes encoding the pathway by high salt concentrations was established by transcriptomics, confirming the osmolyte role of tHyp-B. This study establishes the utility of structure-guided functional predictions to enable the discovery of new metabolic pathways. PMID:24056934

Zhao, Suwen; Kumar, Ritesh; Sakai, Ayano; Vetting, Matthew W; Wood, B McKay; Brown, Shoshana; Bonanno, Jeffery B; Hillerich, Brandan S; Seidel, Ronald D; Babbitt, Patricia C; Almo, Steven C; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Gerlt, John A; Cronan, John E; Jacobson, Matthew P

2013-09-22

318

The activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in the model tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

The drug-metabolizing enzymes of some helminths can deactivate anthelmintics and therefore partially protect helminths against these drugs' toxic effect. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (albendazole, flubendazole, mebendazole) in the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, a species often used as a model tapeworm. In vitro and ex vivo experiments were performed. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified by HPLC with spectrofluorometric or mass-spectrometric detection. The enzymes of H. diminuta are able to reduce the carbonyl group of flubendazole, mebendazole and several other xenobiotics. Although the activity of a number of oxidation enzymes was determined, no oxidative metabolites of albendazole were detected. Regarding conjugation enzymes, a high activity of glutathione S-transferase was observed. A methyl derivative of reduced flubendazole was the only conjugation metabolite identified in ex vivo incubations of H. diminuta with anthelmintics. The results revealed that H. diminuta metabolized flubendazole and mebendazole, but not albendazole. The biotransformation pathways found in H. diminuta differ from those described in Moniezia expanza and suggest the interspecies differences in drug metabolism not only among classes of helminths, but even among tapeworms. PMID:22309895

Bártíková, Hana; Vok?ál, Ivan; Skálová, Lenka; Kubí?ek, Vladimír; Firbasová, Jana; Briestenský, David; Lamka, Ji?í; Szotáková, Barbora

2012-02-06

319

Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation, and meat tenderization in beef.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine LM to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES; 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at an early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) phosphorylation of creatine kinase M chain, fructose bisphosphate aldolase C-A, ?-enolase, and pyruvate kinase at 3 h postmortem. Zymography indicated an earlier (P < 0.05) activation of ?-calpain in ES muscles. Free lysosomal cathepsin B and L activity increased faster (P < 0.05) in ES muscles up to 24 h. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that lysosomal enzymes were released at an early postmortem time. Electrical stimulation also induced ultrastructural disruption of sarcomeres. In addition, ES accelerated (P < 0.05) the depletion of ATP, creatine phosphate, and glycogen, as well as a pH decline and the more preferred pH/temperature decline mode. Finally, ES accelerated meat tenderization, resulting in lesser (P < 0.05) shear force values than the control over the testing time. A possible relationship was suggested between a change in the phosphorylation of energy metabolic enzymes and the postmortem tenderization of beef. Our results suggested the possible importance of the activation of ?-calpain, phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins, and release of lysosomal enzymes for ES-induced tenderization of beef muscle. PMID:22147478

Li, C B; Li, J; Zhou, G H; Lametsch, R; Ertbjerg, P; Brüggemann, D A; Huang, H G; Karlsson, A H; Hviid, M; Lundström, K

2011-12-06

320

Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase, a critical enzyme for bacterial metabolism.  

PubMed

The importance of methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine (MTA/SAH) nucleosidase in bacteria has started to be appreciated only in the past decade. A comprehensive analysis of its various roles here demonstrates that it is an integral component of the activated methyl cycle, which recycles adenine and methionine through S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-mediated methylation reactions, and also produces the universal quorum-sensing signal, autoinducer-2 (AI-2). SAM is also essential for synthesis of polyamines, N-acylhomoserine lactone (autoinducer-1), and production of vitamins and other biomolecules formed by SAM radical reactions. MTA, SAH and 5'-deoxyadenosine (5'dADO) are product inhibitors of these reactions, and are substrates of MTA/SAH nucleosidase, underscoring its importance in a wide array of metabolic reactions. Inhibition of this enzyme by certain substrate analogues also limits synthesis of autoinducers and hence causes reduction in biofilm formation and may attenuate virulence. Interestingly, the inhibitors of MTA/SAH nucleosidase are very effective against the Lyme disease causing spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which uniquely expresses three homologous functional enzymes. These results indicate that inhibition of this enzyme can affect growth of different bacteria by affecting different mechanisms. Therefore, new inhibitors are currently being explored for development of potential novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials. PMID:21166890

Parveen, Nikhat; Cornell, Kenneth A

2010-11-18

321

Characterization of DNA metabolizing enzymes in situ following polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis  

SciTech Connect

The authors have detected the in situ activities of DNA glycosylase, endonuclease, exonuclease, DNA polymerase, and DNA ligase using a novel polyacrylamide activity gel electrophoresis procedure. DNA metabolizing enzymes were resolved through either native or SDS-polyacrylamide gels containing defined {sup 32}P-labeled oligonucleotides annealed to M13 DNA. After electrophoresis, these enzymes catalyzed in situ reactions and their ({sup 32}P)DNA products were resolved from the gel by a second dimension of electrophoresis through a denaturing DNA sequencing gel. Detection of modified (degraded or elongated) oligonucleotide chains was used to locate various enzyme activities. The catalytic and physical properties of Novikoff hepatoma DNA polymerase {beta} were found to be similar under both in vitro and in situ conditions. With 3{prime}-terminally matched and mismatched ({sup 32}P)DNA substrates in the same activity gel, DNA polymerase and/or 3{prime} to 5{prime} exonuclease activities of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I (large fragment), DNA polymerase III (holoenzyme), and exonuclease III were detected and characterized. Several restriction endonucleases and the tripeptide (Lys-Try-Lys), which acts as an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease, were able to diffuse into gels and modify DNA. This ability to create intermediate substrates within activity gels could prove extremely useful in delineating the steps of DNA replication and repair pathways.

Longley, M.J.; Mosbaugh, D.W. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

1991-03-12

322

Effects of cow ghee (clarified butter oil) & soybean oil on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in rats  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Our previous study showed that cow ghee relative to soybean oil had a protective effect against carcinogen induced mammary cancer in rats. The objective of this study was to elucidate its biochemical mechanism. Methods: Two groups of 21 day old rats (20 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 0 day and at 5, 21 and 44 wk for analysis of phase I and phase II pathways enzymes of carcinogen metabolism. Results: Dietary cow ghee relative to soybean oil decreased the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and CYP2B1, responsible for activation of carcinogen in liver. Carcinogen detoxification activities of uridinediphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) and quinone reductase (QR) in liver, and ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP) and QR in mammary tissue were significantly higher in cow ghee fed rats than in soybean oil fed rats. The hepatic GGTP activity decreased on soybean oil diet; while in cow ghee group it remained unaffected. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that dietary cow ghee compared to soybean oil downregulates the enzyme activities responsible for carcinogen activation in liver and upregulates carcinogen detoxification activities in liver and mammary tissues.

Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod K.

2012-01-01

323

Vitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo Cerebrum  

PubMed Central

Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. It forms an important component of our antioxidant system. The structure of Vitamin E makes it unique and indispensable in protecting cell membranes. ?-tocopherol, one of the forms of Vitamin E, is also known to regulate signal transduction pathways by mechanisms that are independent of its antioxidant properties. Vitamin E compounds reduce the production of inflammatory compounds such as prostaglandins. Swollen, dystrophic axons are considered as the hallmark of Vitamin E deficiency in the brains of rats, monkeys, and humans. The present work aimed to study the Vitamin E- (?-tochopherol acetate-) induced alterations of enzymes involved in metabolism of Glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis of cerebrum. Therefore, cytosolic and crude mitochondrial enzyme activities of glutamine synthetase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, GABA transaminase, succinic Semialdehyde dehydrogenase, glutamic dehydrogenase, and ?-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were analysed. Vitamin E induced significant changes in these enzymes thus altering the normal levels of glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis. Such changes are surely to disturb the expression and/or intensity of neurotransmitter signaling during critical periods of brain development.

Dessai, Shanti N.; Pinto, Annaliza

2013-01-01

324

Predictive markers of capecitabine sensitivity identified from the expression profile of pyrimidine nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Molecular markers predicting sensitivity to anticancer drugs are important and useful not only for selecting potential responders but also for developing new combinations. In the present study, we analyzed the difference in the sensitivity of xenograft models to capecitabine (Xeloda®), 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR, doxifluridine, Furtulon®) and 5-FU by comparing the mRNA levels of 12 pyrimidine nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes. Amounts of mRNA in the tumor tissues of 80 xenograft models were determined by real-time RT-PCR and mutual correlations were examined. A clustering analysis revealed that the 12 enzymes were divided into two groups; one group consisted of 8 enzymes, including orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT), TMP kinase (TMPK) and UMP kinase (UMPK), and was related to the de novo synthesis pathway for nucleotides, with mRNA expression levels showing significant mutual correlation. In the other group, 4 enzymes, including thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), were involved in the salvage/degradation pathway of the nucleotides, and the mRNA levels of this group were dispersed more widely than that of the de novo group. Antitumor activity was assessed in 24 xenograft models for each drug. The antitumor activity of capecitabine and 5'-DFUR correlated significantly with the mRNA levels of TP and with the TP/DPD ratio, whereas the activity of 5-FU correlated significantly with OPRT, TMPK, UMPK and CD. In a stepwise regression analysis, TP and DPD were found to be independent predictive factors of sensitivity to capecitabine and 5'-DFUR, and UMPK was predictive of sensitivity to 5-FU. These results indicate that the predictive factors for sensitivity to capecitabine and 5'-DFUR in xenograft models may be different from those for 5-FU, suggesting that these drugs may have different responders in clinical usage. PMID:23229803

Yasuno, Hideyuki; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yanagisawa, Mieko; Sato, Yasuko; Harada, Naoki; Mori, Kazushige

2012-11-27

325

Garlic Oil Attenuated Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis by Modulating the Metabolic Activation and Detoxification Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a potent carcinogen widely existing in the environment. Our previous study has demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) could prevent NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It has been well documented that the metabolic activation may play important roles in NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we designed the current study to explore the potential mechanisms by investigating the changes of hepatic phase ? enzymes (including cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) 2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP1A1) and phase ? enzymes (including glutathione S transferases (GSTs) and UDP- Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)) by using enzymatic methods, real-time PCR, and western blotting analysis. We found that NDEA treatment resulted in significant decreases of the activities of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu, UGTs and increases of the activities of CYP1A1 and GST pi. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu and UGT1A6 in the liver of NDEA-treated rats were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group rats, while the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A1 and GST pi were dramatically increased. Interestingly, all these adverse effects induced by NDEA were simultaneously and significantly suppressed by GO co-treatment. These data suggest that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis might be, at least partially, attributed to the modulation of phase I and phase II enzymes.

Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

2013-01-01

326

Evidence that a Linear Megaplasmid Encodes Enzymes of Aliphatic Alkene and Epoxide Metabolism and Coenzyme M (2-Mercaptoethanesulfonate) Biosynthesis in Xanthobacter Strain Py2  

PubMed Central

The bacterial metabolism of propylene proceeds by epoxidation to epoxypropane followed by a sequence of three reactions resulting in epoxide ring opening and carboxylation to form acetoacetate. Coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid) (CoM) plays a central role in epoxide carboxylation by serving as the nucleophile for epoxide ring opening and the carrier of the C3 unit that is ultimately carboxylated to acetoacetate, releasing CoM. In the present work, a 320-kb linear megaplasmid has been identified in the gram-negative bacterium Xanthobacter strain Py2, which contains the genes encoding the key enzymes of propylene oxidation and epoxide carboxylation. Repeated subculturing of Xanthobacter strain Py2 under nonselective conditions, i.e., with glucose or acetate as the carbon source in the absence of propylene, resulted in the loss of the propylene-positive phenotype. The propylene-negative phenotype correlated with the loss of the 320-kb linear megaplasmid, loss of induction and expression of alkene monooxgenase and epoxide carboxylation enzyme activities, and the loss of CoM biosynthetic capability. Sequence analysis of a hypothetical protein (XecG), encoded by a gene located downstream of the genes for the four enzymes of epoxide carboxylation, revealed a high degree of sequence identity with proteins of as-yet unassigned functions in the methanogenic archaea Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and Methanococcus jannaschii and in Bacillus subtilis. The M. jannaschii homolog of XecG, MJ0255, is located next to a gene, MJ0256, that has been shown to encode a key enzyme of CoM biosynthesis (M. Graupner, H. Xu, and R. H. White, J. Bacteriol. 182: 4862–4867, 2000). We propose that the propylene-positive phenotype of Xanthobacter strain Py2 is dependent on the selective maintenance of a linear megaplasmid containing the genes for the key enzymes of alkene oxidation, epoxide carboxylation, and CoM biosynthesis.

Krum, Jonathan G.; Ensign, Scott A.

2001-01-01

327

Crystal Structure of Baeyer?Villiger Monooxygenase MtmOIV, the Key Enzyme of the Mithramycin Biosynthetic Pathway  

SciTech Connect

Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs), mostly flavoproteins, were shown to be powerful biocatalysts for synthetic organic chemistry applications and were also suggested to play key roles for the biosyntheses of various natural products. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of MtmOIV, a 56 kDa homodimeric FAD- and NADPH-dependent monooxygenase, which catalyzes the key frame-modifying step of the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway and currently the only BVMO proven to react with its natural substrate via a Baeyer-Villiger reaction. MtmOIV's structure was determined by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.9 A. MtmOIV cleaves a C-C bond, essential for the conversion of the biologically inactive precursor, premithramycin B, into the active drug mithramycin. The MtmOIV structure combined with substrate docking calculations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments identifies several residues that participate in cofactor and substrate binding. Future experimentation aimed at broadening the substrate specificity of the enzyme could facilitate the generation of chemically diverse mithramycin analogues through combinatorial biosynthesis.

Beam, Miranda P.; Bosserman, Mary A.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Wehenkel, Marie; Rohr, Jurgen; Kentucky

2009-06-01

328

The Action of Antidiabetic Plants of the Canadian James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia on Key Enzymes of Hepatic Glucose Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada) to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and glycogen synthase (GS) activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) were probed by Western blot. Seven of the seventeen plant extracts significantly decreased G6Pase activity, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca, exerting an effect similar to insulin. This action involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, several plant extracts activated GS, Larix laricina and A. balsamea, far exceeding the action of insulin. We also found a significant correlation between GS stimulation and GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by plant extract treatments. In summary, three Cree plants stand out for marked effects on hepatic glucose homeostasis. P. glauca affects glucose production whereas L. laricina rather acts on glucose storage. However, A. balsamea has the most promising profile, simultaneously and powerfully reducing G6Pase and stimulating GS. Our studies thus confirm that the reduction of hepatic glucose production likely contributes to the therapeutic potential of several antidiabetic Cree traditional medicines.

Nachar, Abir; Vallerand, Diane; Musallam, Lina; Lavoie, Louis; Arnason, John; Haddad, Pierre S.

2013-01-01

329

Crystal Structure of Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase MtmOIV, the Key Enzyme of the Mithramycin Biosynthetic Pathway†  

PubMed Central

Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs), mostly flavoproteins, were shown to be powerful biocatalysts for synthetic organic chemistry applications and were also suggested to play key roles for the biosyntheses of various natural products. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of MtmOIV, a 56 kD homo-dimeric FAD- and NADPH-dependent monooxygenase, which catalyzes the key frame-modifying step of the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway and currently the only BVMO proven to react with its natural substrate via a Baeyer-Villiger reaction. MtmOIV’s structure was determined by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.9Ĺ. MtmOIV cleaves a C-C bond, essential for the conversion of the biologically inactive precursor, premithramycin B, into the active drug mithramycin. The MtmOIV structure combined with substrate docking calculations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments implicate several residues to participate in co-factor and substrate binding. Future experimentation aimed at broadening the substrate specificity of the enzyme could facilitate the generation of chemically diverse mithramycin analogues through combinatorial biosynthesis.

Beam, Miranda P.; Bosserman, Mary A.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Wehenkel, Marie; Rohr, Jurgen

2009-01-01

330

Intravenous infusions of glucose stimulate key lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue of dairy cows in a dose-dependent manner.  

PubMed

The present study was investigated whether increasing amounts of glucose supply have a stimulatory effect on the mRNA abundance and activity of key lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue of midlactation dairy cows. Twelve Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in midlactation were cannulated in the jugular vein and infused with either a 40% glucose solution (n=6) or saline (n=6). For glucose infusion cows, the infusion dose increased by 1.25%/d relative to the initial net energy for lactation (NEL) requirement until a maximum dose equating to a surplus of 30% NEL was reached on d 24. This maximum dose was maintained until d 28 and stopped thereafter (between d 29-32). Cows in the saline infusion group received an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline solution. Samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were taken on d 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 when surplus glucose reached 0, 10, 20, and 30% of the NEL requirement, respectively. The mRNA abundance of fatty acid synthase, cytoplasmic acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-1, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase showed linear treatment × dose interactions with increasing mRNA abundance with increasing glucose dose. The increased mRNA abundance was paralleled by a linear treatment × dose interaction for fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase enzymatic activities. The mRNA abundance of ATP-citrate lyase showed a tendency for linear treatment × dose interaction with increasing mRNA abundance with increasing glucose dose. The mRNA abundance of all tested enzymes, as well as the activities of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, correlated with plasma glucose and serum insulin levels. In a multiple regression model, the predictive value of insulin was dominant over that of glucose. In conclusion, gradual increases in glucose supply upregulate key lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue of midlactating dairy cows with linear dose dependency. Insulin appears to be critically involved in this regulation. PMID:23660139

Carra, Mirja; Al-Trad, Bahaa; Penner, Gregory B; Wittek, Thomas; Gäbel, Gotthold; Für, Manfred; Aschenbach, Jörg R

2013-05-06

331

Transgenic Mouse Models Resistant to Diet-Induced Metabolic Disease: Is Energy Balance the Key?  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and economic burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes is a driving force for the discovery of molecular targets to improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Here, we review several transgenic mouse models that identify promising targets, ranging from proteins involved in the insulin signaling pathway, alterations of genes affecting energy metabolism, and transcriptional metabolic regulators. Despite the diverse endpoints in each model, a common thread that emerges is the necessity for maintenance of energy balance, suggesting pharmacotherapy must target the development of drugs that decrease energy intake, accelerate energy expenditure in a well controlled manner, or augment natural compensatory responses to positive energy balance.

Gilliam, Laura A. A.

2012-01-01

332

Selective glucocorticoid receptor nonsteroidal ligands completely antagonize the dexamethasone mediated induction of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and glutamine metabolism.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids (GCs) are vital multi-faceted hormones with recognized effects on carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. Previous studies with the steroid antagonist, RU486 have underscored the essential role of GCs in the regulation of these metabolic pathways. This article describes the discovery and characterization of novel GRalpha selective nonsteroidal antagonists (NSGCAs). NSGCAs 2 and 3 are spirocyclic dihydropyridine derivatives that selectively bind the GRalpha with IC(50s) of 2 and 1.5 nM, respectively. Importantly, these compounds are full antagonists of the induction by dexamethasone (Dex) of marker genes for glucose and glutamine metabolism; the tyrosine amino transferase (TAT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) enzymes, respectively. In contrast, GC-dependent transcriptional repression of the collagenase 1 (MMP-1) enzyme, an established GRalpha responsive proinflammatory gene; is poorly antagonized by these compounds. These NSGCAs might have useful applications as tools in metabolic research and drug discovery. PMID:15698539

Einstein, Monica; Greenlee, Mark; Rouen, Greg; Sitlani, Ayesha; Santoro, Joe; Wang, Chuanlin; Pandit, Shilpa; Mazur, Paul; Smalera, Isabella; Weaver, Alehna Pm; Zeng, Ying Ying; Ge, Lan; Kelly, Theresa; Paiva, Tony; Geissler, Wayne; Mosley, Ralph T; Williamson, Joanne; Ali, Amjad; Balkovec, Jim; Harris, Georgianna

2005-01-21

333

Gene Expression Variability in Human Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters  

PubMed Central

Interindividual variability in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) in human liver may contribute to interindividual differences in drug efficacy and adverse reactions. Published studies that analyzed variability in the expression of DMET genes were limited by sample sizes and the number of genes profiled. We systematically analyzed the expression of 374 DMETs from a microarray data set consisting of gene expression profiles derived from 427 human liver samples. The standard deviation of interindividual expression for DMET genes was much higher than that for non-DMET genes. The 20 DMET genes with the largest variability in the expression provided examples of the interindividual variation. Gene expression data were also analyzed using network analysis methods, which delineates the similarities of biological functionalities and regulation mechanisms for these highly variable DMET genes. Expression variability of human hepatic DMET genes may affect drug-gene interactions and disease susceptibility, with concomitant clinical implications.

Yang, Lun; Price, Elvin T.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Li, Yan; Huang, Ying; Guo, Li-Wu; Guo, Yongli; Kaput, Jim; Shi, Leming; Ning, Baitang

2013-01-01

334

Effect of light on enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism and hispidin biosynthesis in Polyporus hispidus  

PubMed Central

The effects of light on growth, pigmentation and the activities of enzymes involved in the deamination of phenylalanine and tyrosine and in the biosynthesis of hispidin were examined in Polyporus hispidus. Evidence is presented for the stimulation of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by light. Tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity and aminotransferase activities for phenylalanine and tyrosine were higher in the dark. Tracer studies showed that conversion of cinnamate into p-coumarate is enhanced by light. p-Coumaric acid hydroxylase, catalysing the conversion of p-coumarate into caffeate, could be detected only in cultures exposed to light. These results suggest that the cinnamate pathway for the metabolism of phenylalanine, leading to hispidin synthesis, is regulated by light in P. hispidus.

Nambudiri, A. M. D.; Vance, C. P.; Towers, G. H. N.

1973-01-01

335

Non-Viral Gene Transfer as a Tool for Studying Transcription Regulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Numerous xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes are regulated by nuclear receptors at transcriptional level. The challenge we currently face is to understand how a given nuclear receptor interacts with its xenobiotics, migrates into nucleus, binds to the xenobiotic response element of a target gene, and regulates transcription. Toward this end, new methods have been developed to introduce the nuclear receptor gene into appropriate cells and study its activity in activating reporter gene expression under the control of a promoter containing xenobiotic response elements. The goal of this review is to critically examine the gene transfer methods currently available. We concentrate on the gene transfer mechanism, advantages and limitations of each method when employed for nuclear receptor-mediated gene regulation studies. It is our hope that the information provided highlights the importance of gene transfer in studying the mechanisms by which our body eliminates the potentially harmful substances and maintains the homeostasis.

Bonamassa, Barbara; Liu, Dexi

2010-01-01

336

Changes in metabolic enzymes, cortisol and glucose concentrations of Beluga (Huso huso) exposed to dietary methylmercury.  

PubMed

In this paper, effects of dietary methylmercury (MeHg) on several blood biochemical parameters including GLU (glucose), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and cortisol were investigated in the Beluga sturgeon (Huso huso). Beluga juveniles were fed for 32 days on four diets containing MeHg (control: 0.04 mg kg?ą; low: 0.76 mg kg?ą; medium: 7.88 mg kg?ą; and high 16.22 mg kg?ą treatment). Significant increases (P < 0.05) were observed in all biochemical parameters, except ALP levels, which decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group with either dose- or time-dependent effects. These results suggest that long-term dietary MeHg exposure may affect metabolic enzyme activity and glucose levels in Belugas. These findings provide useful information for environmental and fishery officials to apply in future decisions for managing fish resources in Caspian Sea. PMID:21110088

Gharaei, Ahmad; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Akrami, Reza

2010-11-26

337

Structural basis of heroin and cocaine metabolism by a promiscuous human drug-processing enzyme.  

PubMed

We present the first crystal structures of a human protein bound to analogs of cocaine and heroin. Human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a broad-spectrum bioscavenger that catalyzes the hydrolysis of heroin and cocaine, and the detoxification of organophosphate chemical weapons, such as sarin, soman and tabun. Crystal structures of the hCE1 glycoprotein in complex with the cocaine analog homatropine and the heroin analog naloxone provide explicit details about narcotic metabolism in humans. The hCE1 active site contains both specific and promiscuous compartments, which enable the enzyme to act on structurally distinct chemicals. A selective surface ligand-binding site regulates the trimer-hexamer equilibrium of hCE1 and allows each hCE1 monomer to bind two narcotic molecules simultaneously. The bioscavenger properties of hCE1 can likely be used to treat both narcotic overdose and chemical weapon exposure. PMID:12679808

Bencharit, Sompop; Morton, Christopher L; Xue, Yu; Potter, Philip M; Redinbo, Matthew R

2003-05-01

338

Enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism in salivary glands from rats submitted to excess of vitamin A.  

PubMed

Male albino rats of the Wistar strain were submitted to daily doses of 15 000 I.U. of vitamin A. Enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism were assayed in the salivary glands after 1,2, 3 and 4 doses. Phosphofructokinase showed decreased activity in the submandibular gland while it was not affected in the parotid. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was higher in the submandibular glands of all experimental groups and only in the group of 1 dose for the parotid gland. Hexokinase activity did not alter in the submandibular gland while for parotid it showed higher activity only in the group of 1 dose. Pyruvate kinase activity was different only in the group of 3 doses for both glands. PMID:152300

Siquara-da-Rocha, M C; Sarkis, J J; Padial, E; Silva, C L; Nicolau, J

1978-01-01

339

Nrf2 Plays an Important Role in Coordinated Regulation of Phase II Drug Metabolize Enzymes and Phase III Drug Transporters  

PubMed Central

The nuclear transcription factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown to play pivotal roles in preventing xenobiotics-induced toxicity and carcinogen- related tumorigenesis. These protective effects are mainly attributed to the induction of Phase II drug metabolizing/detoxification and antioxidant enzymes through the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathways. In this review, we will summarize the current research status on the identification of Nrf2-regulated drug metabolism enzymes (DMEs), especially Phase II DMEs, and Phase III drug transporters. In addition, the molecular mechanisms underlying the coordinated regulation of Phase II DMEs and Pharse III transporters are also discussed based on finding published in the literatures.

Shen, Guoxiang; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

2009-01-01

340

Glycogen content and activities of enzymes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism of the salivary glands of rats during postnatal development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrate metabolism was examined in the developing rat salivary glands by analysing enzymatic activity and glycogen content in the postnatal parotid and submandibular glands. The following enzymes of the carbohydrate metabolism, hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as the content of glycogen were determined in the salivary glands of rats

José Nicolau; Emily Ganzerla; Douglas Nesadal de Souza

2003-01-01

341

[Effects of krestin (PSK) on drug-metabolizing enzymes with special reference to the activation of FT-207].  

PubMed

The effects of PSK on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes were investigated using Sarcoma 180-bearing and non-tumor-bearing ICR mice. PSK, an immunomodulator, has been commonly used in combination with tegafur for post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy. Tegafur is a typical masked compound transformed into 5-FU by the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme P-450. It has been reported that immunostimulants such as BCG and anaerobic Corynebacterium suppress the drug metabolism. PSK and Propionibacterium acnes were administered to mice inoculated s.c. with Sarcoma 180. It was demonstrated that Propionibacterium acnes had an effect of inhibiting these enzymatic activities, especially the amount of P-450 and cytochrome b5 and aminopyrine demethylation. On the other hand, PSK had no influence on the drug-metabolizing enzymes. Propionibacterium acnes was shown to decrease the 5-FU level in organs and sera of mice given FT-207 orally. By contrast, PSK showed no difference in 5-FU level compared to controls, indicating that PSK had no inhibitory effect on the activation of FT-207 by hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:3090941

Fujita, H; Ogawa, K; Ikuzawa, M; Muto, S; Matsuki, M; Nakajima, S; Shimamura, M; Togawa, M; Yoshikumi, C; Kawai, Y

1986-08-01

342

Enzymatic Synthesis of RNAs Capped with Nucleotide Analogues Reveals the Molecular Basis for Substrate Selectivity of RNA Capping Enzyme: Impacts on RNA Metabolism  

PubMed Central

RNA cap binding proteins have evolved to specifically bind to the N7-methyl guanosine cap structure found at the 5’ ends of eukaryotic mRNAs. The specificity of RNA capping enzymes towards GTP for the synthesis of this structure is therefore crucial for mRNA metabolism. The fact that ribavirin triphosphate was described as a substrate of a viral RNA capping enzyme, raised the possibility that RNAs capped with nucleotide analogues could be generated in cellulo. Owing to the fact that this prospect potentially has wide pharmacological implications, we decided to investigate whether the active site of the model Parameciumbursaria Chlorella virus-1 RNA capping enzyme was flexible enough to accommodate various purine analogues. Using this approach, we identified several key structural determinants at each step of the RNA capping reaction and generated RNAs harboring various different cap analogues. Moreover, we monitored the binding affinity of these novel capped RNAs to the eIF4E protein and evaluated their translational properties in cellulo. Overall, this study establishes a molecular rationale for the specific selection of GTP over other NTPs by RNA capping enzyme It also demonstrates that RNAs can be enzymatically capped with certain purine nucleotide analogs, and it also describes the impacts of modified RNA caps on specific steps involved in mRNA metabolism. For instance, our results indicate that the N7-methyl group of the classical N7-methyl guanosine cap is not always indispensable for binding to eIF4E and subsequently for translation when compensatory modifications are present on the capped residue. Overall, these findings have important implications for our understanding of the molecular determinants involved in both RNA capping and RNA metabolism.

Issur, Moheshwarnath; Bougie, Isabelle; Despins, Simon; Bisaillon, Martin

2013-01-01

343

Functional Polymorphisms in Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes and Their Impact on the Therapy of Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer is the top cancer among women, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although the mortality tends to decrease due to early detection and treatment, there is great variability in the rates of clinical response and survival, which makes breast cancer one of the most appealing targets for pharmacogenomic studies. The recognition that functional CYP2D6 polymorphisms affect tamoxifen pharmacokinetics has motivated the attempts of using CYP2D6 genotyping for predicting breast cancer outcomes. In addition to tamoxifen, the chemotherapy of breast cancer includes combinations of cytotoxic drugs, which are substrates for various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Because of these drugs’ narrow therapeutic window, it has been postulated that impaired biotransformation could lead to increased toxicity. In the present review, we performed a systematic search of all published data exploring associations between polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and clinical outcomes of breast cancer. We retrieved 43 original articles involving either tamoxifen or other chemotherapeutic protocols, and compiled all information regarding response or toxicity. The data indicate that, although CYP2D6 polymorphisms can indeed modify tamoxifen pharmacokinetics, CYP2D6 genotyping alone is not enough for predicting breast cancer outcomes. The studies involving other chemotherapeutic protocols explored a great diversity of pharmacogenetic targets, but the number of studies for each functional polymorphism is still very limited, with usually no confirmation of positive associations. In conclusion, the application of pharmacogenetics to predict breast cancer outcomes and to select one individual’s chemotherapeutic protocol is still far from clinical routine. Although some very interesting results have been produced, no clear practical recommendations are recognized yet.

Vianna-Jorge, Rosane; Festa-Vasconcellos, Juliana Simoes; Goulart-Citrangulo, Sheyla Maria Torres; Leite, Marcelo Sobral

2013-01-01

344

An Overview of Gibberellin Metabolism Enzyme Genes and Their Related Mutants in Rice1[w  

PubMed Central

To enhance our understanding of GA metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa), we intensively screened and identified 29 candidate genes encoding the following GA metabolic enzymes using all available rice DNA databases: ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox). In contrast to the Arabidopsis genome, multiple CPS-like, KS-like, and KO-like genes were identified in the rice genome, most of which are contiguously arranged. We also identified 18 GA-deficient rice mutants at six different loci from rice mutant collections. Based on the mutant and expression analyses, we demonstrated that the enzymes catalyzing the early steps in the GA biosynthetic pathway (i.e. CPS, KS, KO, and KAO) are mainly encoded by single genes, while those for later steps (i.e. GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox) are encoded by gene families. The remaining CPS-like, KS-like, and KO-like genes were likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of diterpene phytoalexins rather than GAs because the expression of two CPS-like and three KS-like genes (OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKS4, OsKS7, and OsKS8) were increased by UV irradiation, and four of these genes (OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKS4, and OsKS7) were also induced by an elicitor treatment.

Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Miura, Koutarou; Itoh, Hironori; Tatsumi, Tomoko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Ishiyama, Kanako; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Agrawal, Ganesh K.; Takeda, Shin; Abe, Kiyomi; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

2004-01-01

345

Distribution of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism among marine microorganisms in the Sea of Japan and the South Chinese Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to produce extracellular enzymes of carbon metabolism was studied in 55 strains related to 18 taxa and isolated\\u000a from various habitats. Production of a number of enzymes was found to depend on the source from which the strains were isolated.\\u000a Among the strains associated with algae and marine invertebrates, the highest number of producers were found in the

I. A. Beleneva; V. V. Agarkova; A. D. Kukhlevskiy; T. N. Zviagintseva

2010-01-01

346

Phytoestrogens decrease brain calcium-binding proteins but do not alter hypothalamic androgen metabolizing enzymes in adult male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoestrogen [plant estrogenic-like molecule(s)] research has grown rapidly in recent years due to their potential health benefits. However, little is known about phytoestrogen's effects on the CNS. Androgen metabolizing enzymes are known to regulate neuroendocrine functions and reproductive behaviors, while calcium-binding proteins are associated with protecting against neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we examined aromatase and 5?-reductase enzyme activities in the medial

Edwin D Lephart; Joseph M Thompson; Kenneth D. R Setchell; Herman Adlercreutz; K. Scott Weber

2000-01-01

347

Changes in hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and lipid peroxidation by methanol extract and major compound of Orostachys japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of methanol extract and gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) of Orostachys japonicus A. Berger on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and lipid peroxidation were investigated in rats treated with bromobenzene. The methanol extract of Orostachys japonicus reduced the activities of phase I enzymes, aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase, that had been increased by i.p. injection of bromobenzene. Gallic acid isolated

Jong Cheol Park; Won Dong Han; Jeong Ro Park; Seong Hee Choi; Jong Won Choi

2005-01-01

348

Role of pyruvate kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, malic enzyme and lactate dehydrogenase in anaerobic energy metabolism of Tubifex spec  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.During anaerobic exposure ofTubifex, lactate and alanine increase only within the first 24 h, while concentrations of succinate, propionate and also acetate continually increase under prevailing anaerobic conditions. Enzymes involved in anaerobic energy metabolism were isolated, and the effects of various metabolites and inorganic compounds on their catalytic properties studied.2.The specific activities of the cytosolic enzymes LDH, PK, MDH, and

K. H. Hoffmann; T. Mustafa; J. B. Jřrgensen

1979-01-01

349

Long-term effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and metabolic control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and metabolic control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients.BackgroundIn hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular events than those treated with calcium channel-blocking agents. However, the long-term renal effects of ACE inhibitors in these patients remain inconclusive. In 1989, we commenced a

Juliana C N Chan; Gary T C Ko; Denis H Y Leung; Robert C K Cheung; Margaret Y F Cheung; Wing-Yee So; Ramasmyiyer Swaminathan; M Gary Nicholls; Julian A J H Critchley; Clive S Cockram

2000-01-01

350

Enzyme Informatics  

PubMed Central

Over the last 50 years, sequencing, structural biology and bioinformatics have completely revolutionised biomolecular science, with millions of sequences and tens of thousands of three dimensional structures becoming available. The bioinformatics of enzymes is well served by, mostly free, online databases. BRENDA describes the chemistry, substrate specificity, kinetics, preparation and biological sources of enzymes, while KEGG is valuable for understanding enzymes and metabolic pathways. EzCatDB, SFLD and MACiE are key repositories for data on the chemical mechanisms by which enzymes operate. At the current rate of genome sequencing and manual annotation, human curation will never finish the functional annotation of the ever-expanding list of known enzymes. Hence there is an increasing need for automated annotation, though it is not yet widespread for enzyme data. In contrast, functional ontologies such as the Gene Ontology already profit from automation. Despite our growing understanding of enzyme structure and dynamics, we are only beginning to be able to design novel enzymes. One can now begin to trace the functional evolution of enzymes using phylogenetics. The ability of enzymes to perform secondary functions, albeit relatively inefficiently, gives clues as to how enzyme function evolves. Substrate promiscuity in enzymes is one example of imperfect specificity in protein-ligand interactions. Similarly, most drugs bind to more than one protein target. This may sometimes result in helpful polypharmacology as a drug modulates plural targets, but also often leads to adverse side-effects. Many cheminformatics approaches can be used to model the interactions between druglike molecules and proteins in silico. We can even use quantum chemical techniques like DFT and QM/MM to compute the structural and energetic course of enzyme catalysed chemical reaction mechanisms, including a full description of bond making and breaking.

Alderson, Rosanna G.; Ferrari, Luna De; Mavridis, Lazaros; McDonagh, James L.; Mitchell, John B. O.; Nath, Neetika

2012-01-01

351

Alteration of fatty-acid-metabolizing enzymes affects mitochondrial form and function in hereditary spastic paraplegia.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A M; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M; Durand, Christelle M; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A; Kabiraj, Mohammad M; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-11-21

352

A cross-kingdom Nudix enzyme that pre-empts damage in thiamin metabolism.  

PubMed

Genes specifying the thiamin monophosphate phosphatase and adenylated thiazole diphosphatase steps in fungal and plant thiamin biosynthesis remain unknown, as do genes for ThDP (thiamin diphosphate) hydrolysis in thiamin metabolism. A distinctive Nudix domain fused to Tnr3 (thiamin diphosphokinase) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe was evaluated as a candidate for these functions. Comparative genomic analysis predicted a role in thiamin metabolism, not biosynthesis, because free-standing homologues of this Nudix domain occur not only in fungi and plants, but also in proteobacteria (whose thiamin biosynthesis pathway has no adenylated thiazole or thiamin monophosphate hydrolysis steps) and animals (which do not make thiamin). Supporting this prediction, recombinant Tnr3 and its Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis and maize Nudix homologues lacked thiamin monophosphate phosphatase activity, but were active against ThDP, and up to 60-fold more active against diphosphates of the toxic thiamin degradation products oxy- and oxo-thiamin. Deleting the S. cerevisiae Nudix gene (YJR142W) lowered oxythiamin resistance, overexpressing it raised resistance, and expressing its plant or bacterial counterparts restored resistance to the YJR142W deletant. By converting the diphosphates of damaged forms of thiamin into monophosphates, the Tnr3 Nudix domain and its homologues can pre-empt the misincorporation of damaged diphosphates into ThDP-dependent enzymes, and the resulting toxicity. PMID:23834287

Goyer, Aymeric; Hasnain, Ghulam; Frelin, Océane; Ralat, Maria A; Gregory, Jesse F; Hanson, Andrew D

2013-09-15

353

Rice Debranching Enzyme Isoamylase3 Facilitates Starch Metabolism and Affects Plastid Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Debranching enzymes, which hydrolyze ?-1 and 6-glucosidic linkages in ?-polyglucans, play a dual role in the synthesis and degradation of starch in plants. A transposon-inserted rice mutant of isoamylase3 (isa3) contained an increased amount of starch in the leaf blade at the end of the night, indicating that ISA3 plays a role in the degradation of transitory starch during the night. An epitope-tagged ISA3 expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited hydrolytic activity on ?-limit dextrin and amylopectin. We investigated whether ISA3 plays a role in amyloplast development and starch metabolism in the developing endosperm. ISA3–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein expressed under the control of the rice ISA3 promoter was targeted to the amyloplast stroma in the endosperm. Overexpression of ISA3 in the sugary1 mutant, which is deficient in ISA1 activity, did not convert water-soluble phytoglycogen to starch granules, indicating that ISA1 and ISA3 are not functionally redundant. Both overexpression and loss of function of ISA3 in the endosperm generated pleomorphic amyloplasts and starch granules. Furthermore, chloroplasts in the leaf blade of isa3 seedlings were large and pleomorphic. These results suggest that ISA3 facilitates starch metabolism and affects morphological characteristics of plastids in rice.

Yun, Min-Soo; Umemoto, Takayuki; Kawagoe, Yasushi

2011-01-01

354

Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in cells used for testing skin sensitization in vitro.  

PubMed

For ethical and regulatory reasons, in vitro tests for scoring potential toxicities of cosmetics are essential. A test strategy for investigating potential skin sensitization using two human keratinocytic and two human dendritic cell lines has been developed (Mehling et al. Arch Toxicol 86:1273–1295, 2012). Since prohaptens may be metabolically activated in the skin, information on xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) activities in these cell lines is of high interest. In this study, XME activity assays, monitoring metabolite or cofactor, showed the following: all three passages of keratinocytic (KeratinoSens® and LuSens) and dendritic (U937 und THP-1) cells displayed N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) activities (about 6–60 nmol/min/mg S9-protein for acetylation of para-aminobenzoic acid). This is relevant since reactive species of many cosmetics are metabolically controlled by cutaneous NAT1. Esterase activities of about 1–4 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein were observed in all passages of investigated keratinocytic and about 1 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein in dendritic cell lines. This is also of practical relevance since many esters and amides are detoxified and others activated by cutaneous esterases. In both keratinocytic cell lines, activities of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were observed (5–17 nmol product/min/mg cytosolic protein). ALDH is relevant for the detoxication of reactive aldehydes. Activities of several other XME were below detection, namely the investigated cytochrome P450-dependent alkylresorufin O-dealkylases 7-ethylresorufin O-deethylase, 7-benzylresorufin O-debenzylase and 7-pentylresorufin O-depentylase (while NADPH cytochrome c reductase activities were much above the limit of quantification), the flavin-containing monooxygenase, the alcohol dehydrogenase as well as the UDP glucuronosyl transferase activities. PMID:23958860

Fabian, E; Vogel, D; Blatz, V; Ramirez, T; Kolle, S; Eltze, T; van Ravenzwaay, B; Oesch, F; Landsiedel, R

2013-09-01

355

Cigarette Smoking, Genetic Variants in Carcinogen-metabolizing Enzymes, and Colorectal Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

The risk of colorectal cancer associated with smoking is unclear and may be influenced by genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize cigarette carcinogens. The authors examined the colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking and 26 variants in carcinogen metabolism genes in 1,174 colorectal cancer cases and 1,293 population-based controls recruited in Canada by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry from 1997 to 2001. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated by multivariable logistic regression. Smoking for >27 years was associated with a statistically significant increased colorectal cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.53) in all subjects. Colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking was higher in males for smoking status, duration, and intensity. The CYP1A1-3801-CC (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.94) and CYP2C9-430-CT (AOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99) genotypes were associated with decreased risk, and the GSTM1-K173N-CG (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.25) genotype was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Statistical interactions between smoking and genetic variants were assessed by comparing logistic regression models with and without a multiplicative interaction term. Significant interactions were observed between smoking status and SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.02), NAT2-857 (P = 0.01), and CYP1B1-4390 (P = 0.04) variants and between smoking duration and NAT1-1088 (P = 0.02), SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.04), and NAT1-acetylator (P = 0.03) status. These findings support the hypothesis that prolonged cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer and that this risk may be modified by variation in carcinogen metabolism genes.

Cleary, Sean P.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Shi, Ellen; Gallinger, Steven; Harper, Patricia

2010-01-01

356

The UBIAD1 prenyltransferase links menaquinone-4 [corrected] synthesis to cholesterol metabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

Schnyder corneal dystrophy (SCD) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by germline variants in UBIAD1 introducing missense alterations leading to deposition of cholesterol in the cornea, progressive opacification, and loss of visual acuity. UBIAD1 was recently shown to synthesize menaquinone-4 (MK-4, vitamin K(2) ), but causal mechanisms of SCD are unknown. We report a novel c.864G>A UBIAD1 mutation altering glycine 177 to glutamic acid (p.G177E) in six SCD families, including four families from Finland who share a likely founder mutation. We observed reduced MK-4 synthesis by UBIAD1 altered by SCD mutations p.N102S, p.G177R/E, and p.D112N, and molecular models showed p.G177-mutant UBIAD1 disrupted transmembrane helices and active site residues. We show UBIAD1 interacts with HMGCR and SOAT1, enzymes catalyzing cholesterol synthesis and storage, respectively, using yeast two-hybrid screening and immunoprecipitation. Docking simulations indicate cholesterol binds to UBIAD1 in the substrate-binding cleft and substrate-binding overlaps with GGPP binding, an MK-4 substrate, suggesting potential competition between these metabolites. Impaired MK-4 synthesis is a biochemical defect identified in SCD suggesting UBIAD1 links vitamin K and cholesterol metabolism through physical contact between enzymes and metabolites. Our data suggest a role for endogenous MK-4 in maintaining cornea health and visual acuity. PMID:23169578

Nickerson, Michael L; Bosley, Allen D; Weiss, Jayne S; Kostiha, Brittany N; Hirota, Yoshihisa; Brandt, Wolfgang; Esposito, Dominic; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Wessjohann, Ludger; Morham, Scott G; Andresson, Thorkell; Kruth, Howard S; Okano, Toshio; Dean, Michael

2012-11-27

357

Polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes: What is their clinical relevance and why do they exist?  

SciTech Connect

The beautiful report by Sachse in this issue of the journal represents the culmination of 2 decades of increasingly exciting work on the {open_quotes}debrisoquine oxidation polymorphism,{close_quotes} one of dozens of pharmacogenetic or ecogenetic polymorphisms that have been shown to have an important impact on innumerable clinical diseases. Pharmacogenetics is the study of the hereditary basis of the differences in responses to drugs. Ecogenetics is the broader field of interindividual differences in response to all environmental chemical and physical agents (e.g., heavy metals, insecticides, compounds formed during combustion, and UV radiation). It is now clear that each of us has his or her own {open_quotes}individual fingerprint{close_quotes} of unique alleles encoding the so-called drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and the receptors that regulate these enzymes. In this invited editorial, I first introduce the current thinking in the field of DME (and DME-receptor) research and how DMEs have evolved from animal-plant interactions. I then describe the debrisoquine oxidation polymorphism, as well as two other relevant DME polymorphisms; show the relationship between these polymorphisms and human disease; provide examples of synergistic effects caused by the combination of two DME polymorphisms; and discuss the ethical considerations of such research. Last, I speculate on why these allelic frequencies of the DME genes might exist in human populations in the first place. 35 refs.

Nebert, D.W. [Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (United States)

1997-02-01

358

Expression of retinoic acid-synthesizing and -metabolizing enzymes during nephrogenesis in the rat.  

PubMed

Vitamin A signaling through its active form retinoic acid (RA) plays a critical role during kidney development and vitamin A deficiency in the rat induces renal hypoplasia. Here, we describe the distribution of four enzymes of the RA synthetic pathway (aldehyde dehydrogenases ALDH1A1-3 and ALDH8A1) and two enzymes of the degradative pathway (CYP26A1 and CYP26B1) in the developing rat metanephros. We provide evidence that each enzyme displays a cell-type specific expression pattern that changes considerably in the course of renal organogenesis and nephron differentiation. ALDH1A2 expression was restricted to the cortical stroma cell population, whereas ALDH8A1 transcripts were present in emerging renal vesicles. CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 mRNAs were absent during this time. Following nephron induction, ALDH1A1 remained weakly expressed in the UB ends, but was highly expressed in the UB-connected tubule and in all differentiating tubular segments of the developing nephron. ALDH1A2 was strongly expressed in the visceral layer of the developing glomeruli, as well as in cortical collecting tubules. ALDH1A3 mRNAs were found in the developing papilla and ureter. During postnatal nephrogenesis, ALDH1A3 and ALDH8A1 were co-expressed in the ureteric bud ends. CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 were both expressed from E18.5 onwards in S-shaped bodies, in tubular and glomerular anlagen, respectively. On the last day of nephrogenesis in the rat, CYP26B1 expression extended to UB ends. Our results indicate that tubular and glomerular differentiation of the nephron relies upon precise control of the RA metabolic pathway. PMID:15567713

Marlier, Arnaud; Gilbert, Thierry

2004-12-01

359

The protein level of PGC-1?, a key metabolic regulator, is controlled by NADH-NQO1.  

PubMed

PGC-1? is a key transcription coactivator regulating energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. PGC-1? expression is tightly regulated, it is a highly labile protein, and it interacts with various proteins--the known attributes of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In this study, we characterize PGC-1? as an IDP and demonstrate that it is susceptible to 20S proteasomal degradation by default. We further demonstrate that PGC-1? degradation is inhibited by NQO1, a 20S gatekeeper protein. NQO1 binds and protects PGC-1? from degradation in an NADH-dependent manner. Using different cellular physiological settings, we also demonstrate that NQO1-mediated PGC-1? protection plays an important role in controlling both basal and physiologically induced PGC-1? protein level and activity. Our findings link NQO1, a cellular redox sensor, to the metabolite-sensing network that tunes PGC-1? expression and activity in regulating energy metabolism. PMID:23648480

Adamovich, Yaarit; Shlomai, Amir; Tsvetkov, Peter; Umansky, Kfir B; Reuven, Nina; Estall, Jennifer L; Spiegelman, Bruce M; Shaul, Yosef

2013-05-06

360

Rocking cell metabolism: revised functions of the key glycolytic regulator PKM2 in cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer cell metabolism is exemplified by high glucose consumption and lactate production. Pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyzes the final step of glycolysis, has emerged as a potential regulator of this metabolic phenotype. The M2 isoform of PK (PKM2) is highly expressed in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which PKM2 coordinates high energy requirements with high anabolic activities to support cancer cell proliferation are still not completely understood. Current research has elucidated novel regulatory mechanisms for PKM2, contributing to its important role in cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding and explores future directions in the field, highlighting controversies regarding the activity and specificity of PKM2 in cancer. In light of this knowledge, the potential therapeutic implications and strategies are critically discussed. PMID:22626471

Chaneton, Barbara; Gottlieb, Eyal

2012-05-23

361

Phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase and pyruvate, phosphate dikinase of Thermoproteus tenax: key pieces in the puzzle of archaeal carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

The interconversion of phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate represents an important control point of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway in Bacteria and Eucarya, but little is known about this site of regulation in Archaea. Here we report on the coexistence of phosphoenolpyruvate synthetase (PEPS) and the first described archaeal pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (PPDK), which, besides pyruvate kinase (PK), are involved in the catalysis of this reaction in the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeote Thermoproteus tenax. The genes encoding T. tenax PEPS and PPDK were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the enzymic and regulatory properties of the recombinant gene products were analysed. Whereas PEPS catalyses the unidirectional conversion of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate, PPDK shows a bidirectional activity with a preference for the catabolic reaction. In contrast to PK of T. tenax, which is regulated on transcript level but exhibits only limited regulatory potential on protein level, PEPS and PPDK activities are modulated by adenosine phosphates and intermediates of the carbohydrate metabolism. Additionally, expression of PEPS is regulated on transcript level in response to the offered carbon source as revealed by Northern blot analyses. The combined action of the differently regulated enzymes PEPS, PPDK and PK represents a novel way of controlling the interconversion of phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate in the reversible EMP pathway, allowing short-term and long-term adaptation to different trophic conditions. Comparative genomic analyses indicate the coexistence of PEPS, PPDK and PK in other Archaea as well, suggesting a similar regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism in these organisms. PMID:16573681

Tjaden, Britta; Plagens, André; Dörr, Christine; Siebers, Bettina; Hensel, Reinhard

2006-04-01

362

Keeping the engine primed: HIF factors as key regulators of cardiac metabolism and angiogenesis during ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial ischemia, the most common cause of cardiac hypoxia in clinical medicine, occurs when oxygen delivery cannot meet\\u000a myocardial metabolic requirements in the heart. This deficiency can result from either a reduced supply of oxygen (decreased\\u000a coronary bloodflow) or an increased myocardial demand for oxygen (increased wall stress or afterload). Patients with stable\\u000a coronary artery disease as well as patients

Ralph V. Shohet; Joseph A. Garcia

2007-01-01

363

Integrative analyses of genetic variation in enzyme activities of primary carbohydrate metabolism reveal distinct modes of regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

Background Plant primary carbohydrate metabolism is complex and flexible, and is regulated at many levels. Changes of transcript levels do not always lead to changes in enzyme activities, and these do not always affect metabolite levels and fluxes. To analyze interactions between these three levels of function, we have performed parallel genetic analyses of 15 enzyme activities involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism, transcript levels for their encoding structural genes, and a set of relevant metabolites. Quantitative analyses of each trait were performed in the Arabidopsis thaliana Ler × Cvi recombinant inbred line (RIL) population and subjected to correlation and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Results Traits affecting primary metabolism were often correlated, possibly due to developmental control affecting multiple genes, enzymes, or metabolites. Moreover, the activity QTLs of several enzymes co-localized with the expression QTLs (eQTLs) of their structural genes, or with metabolite accumulation QTLs of their substrates or products. In addition, many trait-specific QTLs were identified, revealing that there is also specific regulation of individual metabolic traits. Regulation of enzyme activities often occurred through multiple loci, involving both cis- and trans-acting transcriptional or post-transcriptional control of structural genes, as well as independently of the structural genes. Conclusion Future studies of the regulatory processes in primary carbohydrate metabolism will benefit from an integrative genetic analysis of gene transcription, enzyme activity, and metabolite content. The multiparallel QTL analyses of the various interconnected transducers of biological information flow, described here for the first time, can assist in determining the causes and consequences of genetic regulation at different levels of complex biological systems.

Keurentjes, Joost JB; Sulpice, Ronan; Gibon, Yves; Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Fu, Jingyuan; Koornneef, Maarten; Stitt, Mark; Vreugdenhil, Dick

2008-01-01

364

Intermediary carbon metabolism in Frankia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frankia isolate NPI 0136010 was able to use only propionate and acetate as sole carbon sources and was unable to use hexoses, pentoses, disaccharides, and trisaccharides. Cell free extracts were surveyed for key enzymes of intermediary carbon metabolism. Enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glyoxylate shunt were detected while enzymes of the pentose phosphate

M. D. Stowers; R. K. Kulkarni; D. B. Steele

1986-01-01

365

Arabidopsis CYP707As Encode (+)-Abscisic Acid 8?-Hydroxylase, a Key Enzyme in the Oxidative Catabolism of Abscisic Acid1  

PubMed Central

Abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in a number of critical processes in normal growth and development as well as in adaptive responses to environmental stresses. For correct and accurate actions, a physiologically active ABA level is controlled through fine-tuning of de novo biosynthesis and catabolism. The hydroxylation at the 8?-position of ABA is known as the key step of ABA catabolism, and this reaction is catalyzed by ABA 8?-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450. Here, we demonstrate CYP707As as the P450 responsible for the 8?-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA. First, all four CYP707A cDNAs were cloned from Arabidopsis and used for the production of the recombinant proteins in insect cells using a baculovirus system. The insect cells expressing CYP707A3 efficiently metabolized (+)-ABA to yield phaseic acid, the isomerized form of 8?-hydroxy-ABA. The microsomes from the insect cells exhibited very strong activity of 8?-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA (Km = 1.3 ?m and kcat = 15 min?1). The solubilized CYP707A3 protein bound (+)-ABA with the binding constant Ks = 3.5 ?m, but did not bind (?)-ABA. Detailed analyses of the reaction products confirmed that CYP707A3 does not have the isomerization activity of 8?-hydroxy-ABA to phaseic acid. Further experiments revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A1 and CYP707A4 also encode ABA 8?-hydroxylase. The transcripts of the CYP707A genes increased in response to salt, osmotic, and dehydration stresses as well as ABA. These results establish that the CYP707A family plays a key role in regulating the ABA level through the 8?-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA.

Saito, Shigeki; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Matsumoto, Chiaki; Ohigashi, Hajime; Ohta, Daisaku; Sakata, Kanzo; Mizutani, Masaharu

2004-01-01

366

Metabolism of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate by a soil pseudomonad. Ring-fission, lactonizing and delactonizing enzymes  

PubMed Central

1. A cell-free system, prepared from Pseudomonas N.C.I.B. 9340 grown on 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate (MCPA) was shown to catalyse the reaction sequence: 5-chloro-3-methylcatechol ? cis–cis-?-chloro-?-methylmuconate ? ?-carboxymethylene-?-methyl-???-butenolide ? ?-hydroxy-?-methylmuconate. 2. The activity of the three enzymes involved in these reactions was completely resolved and the lactonizing and delactonizing enzymes were separated. 3. This part of the metabolic pathway of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetate is thus confirmed for this bacterium. 4. The ring-fission oxygenase required Fe2+ or Fe3+ and reduced glutathione for activity; the lactonizing enzyme is stimulated by Mn2+, Mg2+, Co2+ and Fe2+; no cofactor requirement could be demonstrated for the delactonizing enzyme. 5. cis–cis-?-Chloro-?-methylmuconic acid was isolated and found to be somewhat unstable, readily lactonizing to ?-carboxymethylene-?-methyl-???-butenolide. 6. Enzymically the lactonization appears to be a single-step dehydrochlorinase reaction.

Gaunt, J. K.; Evans, W. C.

1971-01-01

367

Activities of fructan- and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in wheat stems subjected to water stress during grain filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated if a controlled water deficit during grain filling of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) could accelerate grain filling by facilitating the remobilization of carbon reserves in the stem through regulating the enzymes involved in fructan and sucrose metabolism. Two high lodging-resistant wheat cultivars were grown in pots and treated with either a normal (NN) or high amount

Jianchang Yang; Jianhua Zhang; Zhiqing Wang; Qingsen Zhu; Lijun Liu

2004-01-01

368

Modulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes by ToxCast Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

369

Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by ToxCast Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

370

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

1999-01-01

371

Modifications of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme activities in rats fed baobab seed oil containing cyclopropenoid fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects on drug metabolizing enzymes of cyclopropenoid fatty acids present in baobab seed oil were evaluated in rats fed either a diet with baobab seed oil (1.27% cyclopropenoid fatty acids in the diet) or a diet with heated baobab seed oil (0.046% cyclopropenoid fatty acids in the diet). Comparison was made with rats fed a mixture of oils that

A. A. Andrianaivo-Rafehivola; M.-H. Siess; E. M. Gaydou

1995-01-01

372

Effects of medium containing heparin and theophylline on capacitation and metabolic enzyme activities of ejaculated spermatozoa from dogs with asthenozoospermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The percentages of motile sperm (%MO), hyperactivated sperm (%HA), and acrosome-reacted sperm (%AR) of four beagle dogs with asthenozoospermia (AS) and five normal beagle dogs were determined during 7 h of incubation. The metabolic enzyme activities of the sperm was examined after 0 and 4 h of incubation. The sperm were incubated in canine capacitation medium (CCM) and CCM containing

Eiichi Kawakami; Toshiro Arai; Ukyo Nakamura

1999-01-01

373

Characterization of enzymes involved in the central metabolism of Gluconobacter oxydans.  

PubMed

Gluconobacter oxydans is an industrially important bacterium that lacks a complete Embden-Meyerhof pathway (glycolysis). The organism instead uses the pentose phosphate pathway to oxidize sugars and their phosphorylated intermediates. However, the lack of glycolysis limits the amount of NADH as electron donor for electron transport phosphorylation. It has been suggested that the pentose phosphate pathway contributes to NADH production. Six enzymes predicted to play central roles in intracellular glucose and gluconate flux were heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli and characterized to investigate the intracellular flow of glucose and gluconates into the pentose phosphate pathway and to explore the contribution of the pentose phosphate pathway to NADH generation. The key pentose phosphate enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gox0145) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Gox1705) had dual cofactor specificities but were physiologically NADP- and NAD-dependent, respectively. Putative glucose dehydrogenase (Gox2015) was NADP-dependent and exhibited a preference for mannose over glucose, whereas a 2-ketogluconate reductase (Gox0417) displayed dual cofactor specificity for NAD(P)H. Furthermore, a putative gluconokinase and a putative glucokinase were identified. The gluconokinase displayed high activities with gluconate and is thought to shuttle intracellular gluconate into the pentose phosphate pathway. A model for the trafficking of glucose and gluconates into the pentose phosphate pathway and its role in NADH generation is presented. The role of NADPH in chemiosmotic energy conservation is also discussed. PMID:20676631

Rauch, Bernadette; Pahlke, Jennifer; Schweiger, Paul; Deppenmeier, Uwe

2010-07-30

374

Thiol Redox Sensitivity of Two Key Enzymes of Heme Biosynthesis and Pentose Phosphate Pathways: Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase and Transketolase  

PubMed Central

Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Hem12p) and transketolase (Tkl1p) are key mediators of two critical processes within the cell, heme biosynthesis, and the nonoxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The redox properties of both Hem12p and Tkl1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated using proteomic techniques (SRM and label-free quantification) and biochemical assays in cell extracts and in vitro with recombinant proteins. The in vivo analysis revealed an increase in oxidized Cys-peptides in the absence of Grx2p, and also after treatment with H2O2 in the case of Tkl1p, without corresponding changes in total protein, demonstrating a true redox response. Out of three detectable Cys residues in Hem12p, only the conserved residue Cys52 could be modified by glutathione and efficiently deglutathionylated by Grx2p, suggesting a possible redox control mechanism for heme biosynthesis. On the other hand, Tkl1p activity was sensitive to thiol redox modification and although Cys622 could be glutathionylated to a limited extent, it was not a natural substrate of Grx2p. The human orthologues of both enzymes have been involved in certain cancers and possess Cys residues equivalent to those identified as redox sensitive in yeast. The possible implication for redox regulation in the context of tumour progression is put forward.

Pedrajas, Jose Rafael; Padilla, C. Alicia; Barcena, Jose Antonio

2013-01-01

375

Thiol redox sensitivity of two key enzymes of heme biosynthesis and pentose phosphate pathways: uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase and transketolase.  

PubMed

Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Hem12p) and transketolase (Tkl1p) are key mediators of two critical processes within the cell, heme biosynthesis, and the nonoxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The redox properties of both Hem12p and Tkl1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated using proteomic techniques (SRM and label-free quantification) and biochemical assays in cell extracts and in vitro with recombinant proteins. The in vivo analysis revealed an increase in oxidized Cys-peptides in the absence of Grx2p, and also after treatment with H2O2 in the case of Tkl1p, without corresponding changes in total protein, demonstrating a true redox response. Out of three detectable Cys residues in Hem12p, only the conserved residue Cys52 could be modified by glutathione and efficiently deglutathionylated by Grx2p, suggesting a possible redox control mechanism for heme biosynthesis. On the other hand, Tkl1p activity was sensitive to thiol redox modification and although Cys622 could be glutathionylated to a limited extent, it was not a natural substrate of Grx2p. The human orthologues of both enzymes have been involved in certain cancers and possess Cys residues equivalent to those identified as redox sensitive in yeast. The possible implication for redox regulation in the context of tumour progression is put forward. PMID:23970950

McDonagh, Brian; Pedrajas, José Rafael; Padilla, C Alicia; Bárcena, José Antonio

2013-07-16

376

Key electrophysiological, molecular, and metabolic signatures of sleep and wakefulness revealed in primary cortical cultures.  

PubMed

Although sleep is defined as a behavioral state, at the cortical level sleep has local and use-dependent features suggesting that it is a property of neuronal assemblies requiring sleep in function of the activation experienced during prior wakefulness. Here we show that mature cortical cultured neurons display a default state characterized by synchronized burst-pause firing activity reminiscent of sleep. This default sleep-like state can be changed to transient tonic firing reminiscent of wakefulness when cultures are stimulated with a mixture of waking neurotransmitters and spontaneously returns to sleep-like state. In addition to electrophysiological similarities, the transcriptome of stimulated cultures strikingly resembles the cortical transcriptome of sleep-deprived mice, and plastic changes as reflected by AMPA receptors phosphorylation are also similar. We used our in vitro model and sleep-deprived animals to map the metabolic pathways activated by waking. Only a few metabolic pathways were identified, including glycolysis, aminoacid, and lipids. Unexpectedly large increases in lysolipids were found both in vivo after sleep deprivation and in vitro after stimulation, strongly suggesting that sleep might play a major role in reestablishing the neuronal membrane homeostasis. With our in vitro model, the cellular and molecular consequences of sleep and wakefulness can now be investigated in a dish. PMID:22956841

Hinard, Valérie; Mikhail, Cyril; Pradervand, Sylvain; Curie, Thomas; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Auwerx, Johan; Franken, Paul; Tafti, Mehdi

2012-09-01

377

Metabolic flexibility: the key to long-term evolutionary success in Bryozoa?  

PubMed Central

Oxygen consumption (MO2) and activity were evaluated in Antarctic Bryozoa. Three species representing two different morphologies, flat sheet, laminar forms, Isoseculiflustra tenuis and Kymella polaris, and the bush form Camptoplites bicornis were used. In Bryozoa, activity is measured as the proportion of colony zooids with their lophophores extended. In I. tenuis and K. polaris, residual analysis showed that the percentage of zooids with extended lophophores was not correlated with colony MO2. Lophophore extension is, therefore, a poor measure of activity, and other costs (e.g. growth, reproduction, storage) probably form the major metabolic costs. MO2 per unit of ash-free dry mass (AFDM) in the laminar forms was low compared with other Antarctic marine invertebrates, but not lower than brachiopods and echinoderms. However, the lowest rate here, 16.8 microg O2 g AFDM(-1) h(-1) for a K. polaris colony, is (to our knowledge) the lowest for any animal so far reported. MO2 per unit of AFDM for C. bicornis, however, is among the highest reported for sessile or slow moving Antarctic marine ectotherms, with values similar to those for bivalve and gastropod molluscs. The highest rate, 527 microg O2 g AFDM(-1) h(-1) for one colony is (to our knowledge) the highest reported for polar animals of this type. Extreme diversity in metabolic strategy may explain the bryozoan long evolutionary record and great success in shallow marine environments worldwide.

Peck, Lloyd S; Barnes, David K A

2004-01-01

378

Impact of limited solvent capacity on metabolic rate, enzyme activities, and metabolite concentrations of S. cerevisiae glycolysis.  

PubMed

The cell's cytoplasm is crowded by its various molecular components, resulting in a limited solvent capacity for the allocation of new proteins, thus constraining various cellular processes such as metabolism. Here we study the impact of the limited solvent capacity constraint on the metabolic rate, enzyme activities, and metabolite concentrations using a computational model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycolysis as a case study. We show that given the limited solvent capacity constraint, the optimal enzyme activities and the metabolite concentrations necessary to achieve a maximum rate of glycolysis are in agreement with their experimentally measured values. Furthermore, the predicted maximum glycolytic rate determined by the solvent capacity constraint is close to that measured in vivo. These results indicate that the limited solvent capacity is a relevant constraint acting on S. cerevisiae at physiological growth conditions, and that a full kinetic model together with the limited solvent capacity constraint can be used to predict both metabolite concentrations and enzyme activities in vivo. PMID:18846199

Vazquez, Alexei; de Menezes, Marcio A; Barabási, Albert-László; Oltvai, Zoltan N

2008-10-10

379

Glucoraphasatin and glucoraphenin, a redox pair of glucosinolates of brassicaceae, differently affect metabolizing enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

Brassica vegetables are an important dietary source of glucosinolates (GLs), whose breakdown products exhibit anticancer activity. The protective properties of Brassicaceae are believed to be due to the inhibition of Phase-I or induction of Phase-II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), thus enhancing carcinogen clearance. To study whether GLs affect XMEs and the role of their chemical structure, we focused on two alkylthio GLs differing in the oxidation degree of the side chain sulfur. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were supplemented (per oral somministration by gavage) with either glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl GL; GRH) or glucoraphenin (4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl GL; GRE), at 24 or 120 mg/kg body weight in a single or repeated fashion (daily for four consecutive days), and hepatic microsomes were prepared for XME analyses. Both GLs were able to induce XMEs, showing different induction profiles. While the inductive effect was stronger after multiple administration of the higher GRH dosage, the single lower GRE dose was the most effective in boosting cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-associated monooxygenases and the postoxidative metabolism. CYP3A1/2 were the most affected isoforms by GRH treatment, whereas GRE induced mainly CYP1A2 supported oxidase. Glutathione S-transferase increased up to approximately 3.2-fold after a single (lower) GRE dose and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase up to approximately 2-fold after four consecutive (higher) GRH doses. In conclusion, the induction profile of these GLs we found is not in line with the chemopreventive hypothesis. Furthermore, the oxidation degree of the side chain sulfur of GLs seems to exert a crucial role on XME modulation. PMID:17579433

Barillari, Jessica; Iori, Renato; Broccoli, Massimiliano; Pozzetti, Laura; Canistro, Donatella; Sapone, Andrea; Bonamassa, Barbara; Biagi, Gian Luigi; Paolini, Moreno

2007-06-19

380

Meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms in relation to colorectal polyp risk  

PubMed Central

Most colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps or certain hyperplastic polyps. Only a few studies have investigated potential genetic modifiers of the associations between meat intake and polyp risk, and results are inconsistent. Using data from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS), a large colonoscopy-based study including 1,002 polyp cases (557 adenoma only, 250 hyperplastic polyp only, 195 both polyps) and 1,493 polyp-free patients, we evaluated the association of colorectal polyp risk with carcinogen exposure from meat and genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in heterocyclic amine (HCA) metabolism including, N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Intake levels of meats by preparation methods, doneness preferences, and other lifestyle factors were obtained. Fourteen SNPs in the AhR, CYP1A2, NAT1 and NAT2 genes were evaluated. No clear association was found for any polymorphisms with polyp risk. However, apparent interactions were found for intake of meat and HCAs with AhR, NAT1, and NAT2 genotypes, and the interactions were statistically significant for the group with both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Dose-response relationships with meat or HCA intake were found only among those with the AhR GA/AA (rs2066853) genotype, NAT1 rapid, or NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylators, but not among those with other genotypes of these genes. This dose-response relationship was more evident among those with both AhR GA/AA and the NAT1 rapid acetylator than those without this genotype combination. These results provide strong evidence for a modifying effect of metabolizing genes on the association of meat intake and HCA exposure with colorectal polyp risk.

Shin, Aesun; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Rice, Jeffrey M.; Cai, Qiuyin; Doll, Mark A.; Long, Jirong; Smalley, Walter E.; Shyr, Yu; Sinha, Rashmi; Ness, Reid M.; Hein, David W.; Zheng, Wei

2008-01-01

381

Expression of vitamin D receptor and metabolizing enzymes in multiple sclerosis-affected brain tissue.  

PubMed

Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), but how vitamin D metabolism affects MS pathophysiology is not understood. We studied the expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and related enzymes, including 1,25(OH)(2)D-24-hydroxylase (24-OHase; CYP24A1) and 25(OH)D-1?-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), in CNS tissues of 39 MS patients and 20 controls and in primary human glial cells in vitro. In control and MS normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), nuclear VDR immunostaining was observed in oligodendrocyte-like cells, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-positive microglia, and glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. There was a 2-fold increase in VDR transcripts in MS NAWM versus control white matter (p = 0.03). In chronic active MS lesions, HLA-positive microglia/macrophages showed nuclear VDR staining; astrocytes showed nuclear and cytoplasmic VDR staining. Staining for 24-OHase was restricted to astrocytes.VDR and CYP27B1 mRNA expressions were increased in active MS lesions versus NAWM (p < 0.01, p = 0.04, respectively). In primary human astrocytes in vitro, the active form of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), induced upregulation of VDR and CYP24A1. Tumor necrosis factor and interferon-? upregulated CYP27B1 mRNA in primary human microglia and astrocytes. Increased VDR expression in MS NAWM and inflammatory cytokine-induced amplified expression of VDR and CYP27B1 in chronic active MS lesions suggest increased sensitivity to vitamin D in NAWM and a possible endogenous role for vitamin D metabolism in the suppression of active MS lesions. PMID:23334593

Smolders, Joost; Schuurman, Karianne G; van Strien, Miriam E; Melief, Jeroen; Hendrickx, Debbie; Hol, Elly M; van Eden, Corbert; Luchetti, Sabina; Huitinga, Inge

2013-02-01

382

Carboxylation of phenylphosphate by phenol carboxylase, an enzyme system of anaerobic phenol metabolism.  

PubMed Central

Several lines of evidence indicate that the first step in the anaerobic metabolism of phenol is phenol carboxylation to 4-hydroxybenzoate; this reaction is considered a biological Kolbe-Schmitt carboxylation. A phenol carboxylase system was characterized by using a denitrifying Pseudomonas strain, K 172, which catalyzes an isotope exchange between 14CO2 and the carboxyl group of 4-hydroxybenzoate. The enzymatic isotope exchange activity (100 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein) requires Mn2+ and K+. We show that this system also catalyzes the carboxylation of phenylphosphate (the phosphoric acid monophenyl ester) to 4-hydroxybenzoate and phosphate. The specific activity of phenylphosphate carboxylation at the optimal pH of 6.5 is 12 nmol of CO2 fixed min-1 mg-1 of protein. Phenylphosphate cannot be replaced by Mg(2+)-ATP and phenol. The carboxylase activity requires Mn2+ but, in contrast to the isotope exchange activity, does not require K+. The apparent Km values are 1.5 mM dissolved CO2 and 0.2 mM phenylphosphate. Several convenient assays for phenylophosphate carboxylation are described. The isotope exchange reaction and the net carboxylation reaction are catalyzed by the same oxygen-sensitive enzyme, which has a half-life in an air-saturated solution of less than 1 min. Both activities cochromatographed with a protein with a Mr of 280,000, and both activities were induced only after anaerobic growth on phenol. The carboxylation of phenylphosphate suggests that phenylphosphate itself is the physiological CO2 acceptor molecular of this novel CO2 fixation reaction. Alternatively, phenylphosphate could simulate the unknown natural precursor. It is suggested that the formation of an enzyme-bound phenolate anion from the activated phenolic compound is the rate-determining step in the carboxylation reaction.

Lack, A; Fuchs, G

1992-01-01

383

Carboxylation of phenylphosphate by phenol carboxylase, an enzyme system of anaerobic phenol metabolism.  

PubMed

Several lines of evidence indicate that the first step in the anaerobic metabolism of phenol is phenol carboxylation to 4-hydroxybenzoate; this reaction is considered a biological Kolbe-Schmitt carboxylation. A phenol carboxylase system was characterized by using a denitrifying Pseudomonas strain, K 172, which catalyzes an isotope exchange between 14CO2 and the carboxyl group of 4-hydroxybenzoate. The enzymatic isotope exchange activity (100 nmol min-1 mg-1 of protein) requires Mn2+ and K+. We show that this system also catalyzes the carboxylation of phenylphosphate (the phosphoric acid monophenyl ester) to 4-hydroxybenzoate and phosphate. The specific activity of phenylphosphate carboxylation at the optimal pH of 6.5 is 12 nmol of CO2 fixed min-1 mg-1 of protein. Phenylphosphate cannot be replaced by Mg(2+)-ATP and phenol. The carboxylase activity requires Mn2+ but, in contrast to the isotope exchange activity, does not require K+. The apparent Km values are 1.5 mM dissolved CO2 and 0.2 mM phenylphosphate. Several convenient assays for phenylophosphate carboxylation are described. The isotope exchange reaction and the net carboxylation reaction are catalyzed by the same oxygen-sensitive enzyme, which has a half-life in an air-saturated solution of less than 1 min. Both activities cochromatographed with a protein with a Mr of 280,000, and both activities were induced only after anaerobic growth on phenol. The carboxylation of phenylphosphate suggests that phenylphosphate itself is the physiological CO2 acceptor molecular of this novel CO2 fixation reaction. Alternatively, phenylphosphate could simulate the unknown natural precursor. It is suggested that the formation of an enzyme-bound phenolate anion from the activated phenolic compound is the rate-determining step in the carboxylation reaction. PMID:1592817

Lack, A; Fuchs, G

1992-06-01

384

Arachidonic Acid-metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Are Targets of ?-3 Fatty Acids*  

PubMed Central

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protect against cardiovascular disease by largely unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that EPA and DHA may compete with arachidonic acid (AA) for the conversion by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, resulting in the formation of alternative, physiologically active, metabolites. Renal and hepatic microsomes, as well as various CYP isoforms, displayed equal or elevated activities when metabolizing EPA or DHA instead of AA. CYP2C/2J isoforms converting AA to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) preferentially epoxidized the ?-3 double bond and thereby produced 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP) from EPA and DHA. We found that these ?-3 epoxides are highly active as antiarrhythmic agents, suppressing the Ca2+-induced increased rate of spontaneous beating of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, at low nanomolar concentrations. CYP4A/4F isoforms ?-hydroxylating AA were less regioselective toward EPA and DHA, catalyzing predominantly ?- and ? minus 1 hydroxylation. Rats given dietary EPA/DHA supplementation exhibited substantial replacement of AA by EPA and DHA in membrane phospholipids in plasma, heart, kidney, liver, lung, and pancreas, with less pronounced changes in the brain. The changes in fatty acids were accompanied by concomitant changes in endogenous CYP metabolite profiles (e.g. altering the EET/EEQ/EDP ratio from 87:0:13 to 27:18:55 in the heart). These results demonstrate that CYP enzymes efficiently convert EPA and DHA to novel epoxy and hydroxy metabolites that could mediate some of the beneficial cardiovascular effects of dietary ?-3 fatty acids.

Arnold, Cosima; Markovic, Marija; Blossey, Katrin; Wallukat, Gerd; Fischer, Robert; Dechend, Ralf; Konkel, Anne; von Schacky, Clemens; Luft, Friedrich C.; Muller, Dominik N.; Rothe, Michael; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen

2010-01-01

385

Polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzymes, fish intake, and risk of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Cooking fish at high temperature can produce potent carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of these carcinogens may undergo modification by the enzymes responsible for their detoxification and/or activation. In this study, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in nine carcinogen metabolism enzymes and their modifying effects on the association between white or dark fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk. We genotyped 497 localized and 936 advanced PCA cases and 760 controls from the California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Three polymorphisms, EPHX1 Tyr113His, CYP1B1 Leu432Val and GSTT1 null/present, were associated with localized PCA risk. The PTGS2 765 G/C polymorphism modified the association between white fish consumption and advanced PCA risk (interaction P 5 0.002), with high white fish consumption being positively associated with risk only among carriers of the C allele. This effect modification by PTGS2 genotype was stronger when restricted to consumption of well-done white fish (interaction P 5 0.021). These findings support the hypotheses that changes in white fish brought upon by high-temperature cooking methods, such as carcinogen accumulation and/or fatty acid composition changes, may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. However, the gene–diet interactions should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Thus, our findings require further validation with additional studies. Abbreviations: AA African American; BMI body mass index; CI confidence interval; CNV copy number variant; EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HCA heterocyclic amine; HCFA Health Care Financing Administration; LAC Los Angeles county; MAF minor allele frequency; NHW non-Hispanic White; OR odds ratio; PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PCA prostate cancer; PTGS2 prostaglandin- endoperoxide synthase 2; PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids; RDD random-digit dialing; SEER Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result; SES socio-economic status; SFBA San Francisco Bay Area; SNP single-nucleotide polymorphism

Stern, Mariana C.

2012-01-01

386

Identification of a novel enzyme required for starch metabolism in Arabidopsis leaves. The phosphoglucan, water dikinase.  

PubMed

The phosphorylation of amylopectin by the glucan, water dikinase (GWD; EC 2.7.9.4) is an essential step within starch metabolism. This is indicated by the starch excess phenotype of GWD-deficient plants, such as the sex1-3 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To identify starch-related enzymes that rely on glucan-bound phosphate, we studied the binding of proteins extracted from Arabidopsis wild-type leaves to either phosphorylated or nonphosphorylated starch granules. Granules prepared from the sex1-3 mutant were prephosphorylated in vitro using recombinant potato (Solanum tuberosum) GWD. As a control, the unmodified, phosphate free granules were used. An as-yet uncharacterized protein was identified that preferentially binds to the phosphorylated starch. The C-terminal part of this protein exhibits similarity to that of GWD. The novel protein phosphorylates starch granules, but only following prephosphorylation with GWD. The enzyme transfers the beta-P of ATP to the phosphoglucan, whereas the gamma-P is released as orthophosphate. Therefore, the novel protein is designated as phosphoglucan, water dikinase (PWD). Unlike GWD that phosphorylates preferentially the C6 position of the glucose units, PWD phosphorylates predominantly (or exclusively) the C3 position. Western-blot analysis of protoplast and chloroplast fractions from Arabidopsis leaves reveals a plastidic location of PWD. Binding of PWD to starch granules strongly increases during net starch breakdown. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants in which the expression of PWD was reduced by either RNAi or a T-DNA insertion exhibit a starch excess phenotype. Thus, in Arabidopsis leaves starch turnover requires a close collaboration of PWD and GWD. PMID:15618411

Kötting, Oliver; Pusch, Kerstin; Tiessen, Axel; Geigenberger, Peter; Steup, Martin; Ritte, Gerhard

2004-12-23

387

Arachidonic acid-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes are targets of {omega}-3 fatty acids.  

PubMed

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) protect against cardiovascular disease by largely unknown mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that EPA and DHA may compete with arachidonic acid (AA) for the conversion by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, resulting in the formation of alternative, physiologically active, metabolites. Renal and hepatic microsomes, as well as various CYP isoforms, displayed equal or elevated activities when metabolizing EPA or DHA instead of AA. CYP2C/2J isoforms converting AA to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) preferentially epoxidized the ?-3 double bond and thereby produced 17,18-epoxyeicosatetraenoic (17,18-EEQ) and 19,20-epoxydocosapentaenoic acid (19,20-EDP) from EPA and DHA. We found that these ?-3 epoxides are highly active as antiarrhythmic agents, suppressing the Ca(2+)-induced increased rate of spontaneous beating of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, at low nanomolar concentrations. CYP4A/4F isoforms ?-hydroxylating AA were less regioselective toward EPA and DHA, catalyzing predominantly ?- and ? minus 1 hydroxylation. Rats given dietary EPA/DHA supplementation exhibited substantial replacement of AA by EPA and DHA in membrane phospholipids in plasma, heart, kidney, liver, lung, and pancreas, with less pronounced changes in the brain. The changes in fatty acids were accompanied by concomitant changes in endogenous CYP metabolite profiles (e.g. altering the EET/EEQ/EDP ratio from 87:0:13 to 27:18:55 in the heart). These results demonstrate that CYP enzymes efficiently convert EPA and DHA to novel epoxy and hydroxy metabolites that could mediate some of the beneficial cardiovascular effects of dietary ?-3 fatty acids. PMID:20732876

Arnold, Cosima; Markovic, Marija; Blossey, Katrin; Wallukat, Gerd; Fischer, Robert; Dechend, Ralf; Konkel, Anne; von Schacky, Clemens; Luft, Friedrich C; Muller, Dominik N; Rothe, Michael; Schunck, Wolf-Hagen

2010-08-23

388

Cytochrome P450 3A4 is the major enzyme responsible for the metabolism of laquinimod, a novel immunomodulator.  

PubMed

In the present study, the involvement of cytochrome P450 enzyme(s) in the primary metabolism of laquinimod, a new orally active immunomodulator, has been investigated in human liver microsomes. Hydroxylated and dealkylated metabolites were formed. The metabolite formation exhibited single enzyme Michaelis-Menten kinetics with apparent KM in the range of 0.09 to 1.9 mM and Vmax from 22 to 120 pmol/mg/min. A strong correlation between the formation rate of metabolites and 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone was obtained within a panel of liver microsomes from 15 individuals (r2 = 0.6 to 0.94). Moreover, ketoconazole and troleandomycin, specific inhibitors of CYP3A4 metabolism, demonstrated a significant inhibition of laquinimod metabolism. Furthermore, in incubations with recombinant CYP3A4, all the primary metabolites were formed. In vitro interaction studies with CYP3A4 substrates and possible concomitant medication demonstrated that laquinimod inhibits the metabolism of ethinyl estradiol with an IC50 value of about 150 microM, which is high above the plasma level of laquinimod after clinically relevant doses. Ketoconazole, troleandomycin, erythromycin, prednisolone, and ethinyl estradiol inhibited the metabolism of laquinimod, and IC50 values of 0.2, 11, 24, 87, and 235 microM, respectively, were calculated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that laquinimod is a low affinity substrate for CYP3A4 in human liver microsomes. The likelihood for in vivo effects of laquinimod on the metabolism of other CYP3A4 substrates is minor. However, inhibitory effects on the metabolism of laquinimod by potent and specific inhibitors of CYP3A4, such as ketoconazole, are anticipated and should be considered in the continued clinical program for laquinimod. PMID:15764719

Tuvesson, Helén; Hallin, Ingrid; Persson, Robert; Sparre, Birgitta; Gunnarsson, Per Olov; Seidegĺrd, Janeric

2005-03-11

389

Short communication: expression of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the female lower genital tract: implications for microbicide research.  

PubMed

Abstract Topical vaginal microbicides have been considered a promising option for preventing the male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV; however, clinical trials to date have not clearly demonstrated robust and reproducible effectiveness results. While multiple approaches may help enhance product effectiveness observed in clinical trials, increasing the drug exposure in lower genital tract tissues is a compelling option, given the difficulty in achieving sufficient drug exposure and positive correlation between tissue exposure and microbicide efficacy. Since many microbicide drug candidates are substrates of transporters and/or metabolizing enzymes, there is emerging interest in improving microbicide exposure and efficacy through local modulation of transporters and enzymes in the female lower genital tract. However, no systematic information on transporter/enzyme expression is available for ectocervical and vaginal tissues of premenopausal women, the genital sites most relevant to microbicide drug delivery. The current study utilized reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the mRNA expression profile of 22 transporters and 19 metabolizing enzymes in premenopausal normal human ectocervix and vagina. Efflux and uptake transporters important for antiretroviral drugs, such as P-gp, BCRP, OCT2, and ENT1, were found to be moderately or highly expressed in the lower genital tract as compared to liver. Among the metabolizing enzymes examined, most CYP isoforms were not detected while a number of UGTs such as UGT1A1 were highly expressed. Moderate to high expression of select transporters and enzymes was also observed in mouse cervix and vagina. The implications of this information on microbicide research is also discussed, including microbicide pharmacokinetics, the utilization of the mouse model in microbicide screening, as well as the in vivo functional studies of cervicovaginal transporters and enzymes. PMID:23607746

Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Cost, Marilyn; Poloyac, Samuel; Rohan, Lisa

2013-05-17

390

Quantitative studies of enzyme-substrate compartmentation, functional coupling and metabolic channelling in muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some historical aspects of development of the concepts of functional coupling, metabolic channelling, compartmentation and energy transfer networks are reviewed. Different quantitative approaches, including kinetic and mathematical modeling of energy metabolism, intracellular energy transfer and metabolic regulation of energy production and fluxes in the cells in vivo are analyzed. As an example of the system with metabolic channelling, thermodynamic aspects

Valdur Saks; Pierre Dos Santos; Frank N. Gellerich; Philippe Diolez

1998-01-01

391

Odorant-binding proteins and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes: implications in olfactory perireceptor events.  

PubMed

At the periphery of the olfactory system, the binding of odorants on olfactory receptors (ORs) is usually thought to be the first level of the perception of smell. However, at this stage, there is evidence that other molecular mechanisms also interfere with this chemoreception by ORs. These perireceptor events are mainly supported by two groups of proteins present in the olfactory nasal mucus or in the nasal epithelium. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), the first group of proteins have been investigated for many years. OBPs are small carrier proteins capable of binding odorants with affinities in the micromolar range. Although there is no absolute evidence to support their functional roles in vertebrates, OBPs are good candidates for the transport of inhaled odorants towards the ORs via the nasal mucus. The second group of proteins involves xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, which are strongly expressed in the olfactory epithelium and supposed to be involved in odorant transformation, degradation, and/or olfactory signal termination. Following an overview of these proteins, this review explores their roles, which are still a matter of debate. Anat Rec, 296:1333-1345, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23907783

Heydel, Jean-Marie; Coelho, Alexandra; Thiebaud, Nicolas; Legendre, Aričle; Bon, Anne-Marie Le; Faure, Philippe; Neiers, Fabrice; Artur, Yves; Golebiowski, Jérôme; Briand, Loďc

2013-07-31

392

Transmammary modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in liver of mouse pups by mace (Myristica fragrans Houtt.).  

PubMed

The present study examines the possible transfer of the active principle(s) of mace (aril of the plant Myristica fragrans) through the transmammary route and its ability to modulate hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the F1 progeny of mice. An aqueous suspension of mace at the dose levels of 0.025 or 0.1 g/animal/day was administered by oral gavage to dams from day 1 of lactation and continued daily for 14 or 21 days. Dams receiving mace treatment and their F1 pups showed significantly elevated hepatic sulfhydryl content, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities and cytochrome b5 content. Hepatic cytochrome P450 content decreased in dams (P < 0.05) receiving the lower mace dose for 21 days and the F1 pups (P < 0.001), but increased in dams receiving the higher dose for both time periods (P < 0.001) and the lower dose for 14 days (P < 0.05). Only the 14-day-old pups of dams receiving either mace dose showed significantly elevated (P < 0.001) levels of hepatic glutathione peroxidase. PMID:7934086

Chhabra, S K; Rao, A R

1994-05-01

393

Inhibitory effects of kale ingestion on metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala DC) is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. There are any reports about the effects of kale ingestion on the chemoprevention function and mechanism, but the interactions between kale and drugs have not been researched. We investigated the effects of kale intake on cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism by using cocktail probe drugs, including midazolam (for CYP3A4), caffeine (for CYP1A2), dextromethorphan (for CYP2D6), tolbutamide (for CYP2C9), omeprazole (for CYP2C19), and chlorzoxazone (for CYP2E1). Cocktail drugs were administered into rats treated with kale and cabbage (2000 mg/kg) for a week. The results showed that kale intake induced a significant increase in plasma levels and the AUC of midazolam, caffeine, and dextromethorphan. In addition, the plasma concentration and AUC of omeprazole tended to increase. Additionally, no almost differences in the mRNA expression levels of CYP enzymes in the liver were observed. In conclusion, kale ingestion was considered to have an inhibitory effect on the activities of CYP3A4, 1A2, 2D6, and 2C19 for a reason competitive inhibition than inhibitory changes in the mRNA expressions. PMID:22975634

Yamasaki, Izumi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Teramoto, Sachiyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

394

The Conserved Rieske Oxygenase DAF-36/Neverland Is a Novel Cholesterol-metabolizing Enzyme*  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormones play essential roles in a wide variety of biological processes in multicellular organisms. The principal steroid hormones in nematodes and arthropods are dafachronic acids and ecdysteroids, respectively, both of which are synthesized from cholesterol as an indispensable precursor. The first critical catalytic step in the biosynthesis of these ecdysozoan steroids is the conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol. However, the enzymes responsible for cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenation remain unclear at the molecular level. Here we report that the Rieske oxygenase DAF-36/Neverland (Nvd) is a cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenase. The daf-36/nvd genes are evolutionarily conserved, not only in nematodes and insects but also in deuterostome species that do not produce dafachronic acids or ecdysteroids, including the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis, the fish Danio rerio, and the frog Xenopus laevis. An in vitro enzymatic assay system reveals that all DAF-36/Nvd proteins cloned so far have the ability to convert cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol. Moreover, the lethality of loss of nvd function in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is rescued by the expression of daf-36/nvd genes from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the insect Bombyx mori, or the vertebrates D. rerio and X. laevis. These data suggest that daf-36/nvd genes are functionally orthologous across the bilaterian phylogeny. We propose that the daf-36/nvd family of proteins is a novel conserved player in cholesterol metabolism across the animal phyla.

Yoshiyama-Yanagawa, Takuji; Enya, Sora; Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Matsuya, Takeshi; Shiomi, Kensuke; Sasakura, Yasunori; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Niwa, Ryusuke

2011-01-01

395

SPORCalc: A development of a database analysis that provides putative metabolic enzyme reactions for ligand-based drug design.  

PubMed

Understanding both the enzyme reactions that contribute to intermediate metabolism and the biochemical fate of candidate therapeutic and toxic agents are essential for drug design. Traditional metabolic databases indicate whether reactions have been observed but do not provide the likelihoods of reactions occurring, for example those of mixed function oxygenases and oxidases, during phase I metabolism. The desire for more quantitative predictions motivated the development of the recently introduced Substrate Product Occurrence Ratio Calculator (SPORCalc) that identifies metabolically labile atom positions in candidate compounds. This paper describes a further development and provides a clearer explanation of SPORCalc for the computational pharmacology, medicinal chemistry and drug design communities interested in metabolic prediction of xenobiotics using chemical databases of biotransformations. Examples of reaction centre detection in Metabolite are described followed by a demonstration of almokalant, an anti-arrhythmic agent, undergoing phase I metabolism. In general, occurrence ratio (OR) values are calculated throughout a compound and its transformed metabolites to give propensity (p) values at each atom position. The OR values from substrates and products in the database are essential for addition and elimination reactions. For almokalant, the resulting p values ranged from 10(-1) to 10(-5) and their order of magnitude reflected the known and experimentally observed metabolites. SPORCalc depends entirely on the level of detail from isoform- or species-specific reaction classes in Metabolite. Labile atom positions (sites of metabolism) are identified in both the candidate compound and its metabolites. In general, the likelihood of one enzyme isoform-dependent reaction occurring relative to another and the putative metabolic routes from different isoforms can be investigated. SPORCalc can be developed further to include suitable three-dimensional, structure-activity and physiochemical information. PMID:19157988

Smith, James; Stein, Viktor

2008-11-27

396

In vitro metabolism of jaceosidin and characterization of cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes in human liver microsomes.  

PubMed

Jaceosidin is an active component in Artemisia species as well as Eupatorium species and it exhibits antiallergic, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic activities. Jaceosidin was metabolized to jaceosidin glucuronide, 6-O-desmethyljaceosidin, hydroxyjaceosidin, 6-O-desmethyljaceosidin glucuronide, and hydroxyjaceosidin glucuronide in human liver microsomes. This study characterized the human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDPglucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes responsible for the metabolism of jaceosidin. CYP1A2 was identified as the major enzyme responsible for the formation of 6-O-desmethyljaceosidin and hydroxyjaceosidin from jaceosidin on the basis of a combination of correlation analysis and experiments including immuno-inhibition, chemical inhibition in human liver microsomes, and metabolism by human cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes. Jaceosidin glucuronidation was catalyzed by UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT1A10. These results suggest that the pharmacokinetics of jaceosidin may be dramatically affected by polymorphic CYP1A2, UGT1A1, and UGT1A7 responsible for the metabolism of jaceosidin or by the coadministration of relevant CYP1A2 or UGT inhibitors or inducers. PMID:21191764

Song, Won Young; Ji, Hye Young; Baek, Nam-In; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Hye Suk

2010-12-30

397

[Mutations in structural genes of tryptophan metabolic enzymes of the kynurenine pathway modulate some units of the L-glutamate receptor--actin cytoskeleton signaling cascade].  

PubMed

Methods of immunohistochemistry and fluorescent staining was used to study the localization and amounts of protein components of the signal cascade connecting the receptor link (NMDA-subtype glutamate receptor) with actin of the cytoskeleton in the head ganglia of Drosophila strain Canton-S (wild type, control) and strains carrying mutations vermilion, cinnabar, and cardinal, which sequentially inactivate tryptophan-hydrolyzing enzymes during its metabolism into ommochrome. The obtained data are evidence for modulatory effects of genes controlling the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism on the major components of the signal cascade: the initial link (NMDA receptor, postsynaptic density protein-95, a structural protein involved in receptor localization and internalization), the intermediate link (limkinase-l, the key neuronal enzyme in actin remodeling) and the final link (f-actin, the critical factor in the morphogenesis of synaptic structures and, hence, in the processes of synaptic plasticity, learning and memory). It is suggested that kynurenine acid (an endogenous nonspecific antagonist of L-glutamate receptor) and 3-hydroxykynurenine capable of inducing a nonspecific stimulating effect are biochemical intermediates of the effects of these genes. PMID:18069344

Lopatina, N G; Zachepilo, T G; Chesnokova, E G; Savateeva-Popova, E V

2007-10-01

398

Functional Identification of APIP as Human mtnB, a Key Enzyme in the Methionine Salvage Pathway  

PubMed Central

The methionine salvage pathway is widely distributed among some eubacteria, yeast, plants and animals and recycles the sulfur-containing metabolite 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) to methionine. In eukaryotic cells, the methionine salvage pathway takes place in the cytosol and usually involves six enzymatic activities: MTA phosphorylase (MTAP, EC 2.4.2.28), 5?-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase (mtnA, EC 5.3.1.23), 5?-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase (mtnB, EC: 4.2.1.109), 2,3-dioxomethiopentane-1-phosphate enolase/phosphatase (mtnC, EC 3.1.3.77), aci-reductone dioxygenase (mtnD, EC 1.13.11.54) and 4-methylthio-2-oxo-butanoate (MTOB) transaminase (EC 2.6.1.-). The aim of this study was to complete the available information on the methionine salvage pathway in human by identifying the enzyme responsible for the dehydratase step. Using a bioinformatics approach, we propose that a protein called APIP could perform this role. The involvement of this protein in the methionine salvage pathway was investigated directly in HeLa cells by transient and stable short hairpin RNA interference. We show that APIP depletion specifically impaired the capacity of cells to grow in media where methionine is replaced by MTA. Using a Shigella mutant auxotroph for methionine, we confirm that the knockdown of APIP specifically affects the recycling of methionine. We also show that mutation of three potential phosphorylation sites does not affect APIP activity whereas mutation of the potential zinc binding site completely abrogates it. Finally, we show that the N-terminal region of APIP that is missing in the short isoform is required for activity. Together, these results confirm the involvement of APIP in the methionine salvage pathway, which plays a key role in many biological functions like cancer, apoptosis, microbial proliferation and inflammation.

Mary, Camille; Duek, Paula; Salleron, Lisa; Tienz, Petra; Bumann, Dirk; Bairoch, Amos; Lane, Lydie

2012-01-01

399

Correlative Interrelations between the Oxygen Consumption Rate, Body Temperature and Activities of the Key Antioxidant Enzymes of Liver of Mus musculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using one-, two-, and three-dimensional statistical methods, there were analyzed peculiarities of distribution and the degree of the correlative-regressional dependence between the parameters characterizing the oxygen consumption rate (VO2), body temperature (BT), activities of three key enzymes of the antioxidant system - superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CL), and glutathion peroxidase (GP) in 15 females of the laboratory population of Mus

Kh. K. Muradian; N. A. Utko; T. G. Mozzhukhina; I. N. Pishel; A. Ya. Litoshenko; V. V. Bezrukov; V. E. Fraifeld

2004-01-01

400

A Model of Oxidative Stress Management: Moderation of Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes in SOD1-Null Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The response to oxidative stress involves numerous genes and mutations in these genes often manifest in pleiotropic ways that presumably reflect perturbations in ROS-mediated physiology. The Drosophila melanogaster SOD1-null allele (cSODn108) is proposed to result in oxidative stress by preventing superoxide breakdown. In SOD1-null flies, oxidative stress management is thought to be reliant on the glutathione-dependent antioxidants that utilize NADPH to cycle between reduced and oxidized form. Previous studies suggest that SOD1-null Drosophila rely on lipid catabolism for energy rather than carbohydrate metabolism. We tested these connections by comparing the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, lipid and triglyceride concentration, and steady state NADPH:NADP+ in SOD1-null and control transgenic rescue flies. We find a negative shift in the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in SOD1-nulls and the NADP+-reducing enzymes were found to have significantly lower activity than the other enzymes assayed. Little evidence for the catabolism of lipids as preferential energy source was found, as the concentration of lipids and triglycerides were not significantly lower in SOD1-nulls compared with controls. Using a starvation assay to impact lipids and triglycerides, we found that lipids were indeed depleted in both genotypes when under starvation stress, suggesting that oxidative damage was not preventing the catabolism of lipids in SOD1-null flies. Remarkably, SOD1-nulls were also found to be relatively resistant to starvation. Age profiles of enzyme activity, triglyceride and lipid concentration indicates that the trends observed are consistent over the average lifespan of the SOD1-nulls. Based on our results, we propose a model of physiological response in which organisms under oxidative stress limit the production of ROS through the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in order to moderate the products exiting the electron transport chain.

Bernard, Kristine E.; Parkes, Tony L.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.

2011-01-01