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1

Research progresses on the key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in maize.  

PubMed

Sucrose, as the major product of photosynthesis, is a vital metabolite and signaling molecule in higher plants. Three enzymes are responsible for the synthesis, transport, and degradation of sucrose. In this article, the gene structure, expression and regulation, and the physiological functions of the key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in maize are reviewed, moreover, the existing problems of the sucrose metabolism research were discussed in detail, and we present our ideas for future research. PMID:23318271

Ren, Xiaodong; Zhang, Junjie

2013-03-01

2

Activities of key metabolic enzymes in the heater organs of scombroid fishes.  

PubMed

Maximal in vitro activities of key metabolic enzymes were measured in brain and eye heaters of five species of scombroid fishes. Istiophorid billfishes (blue marlin, striped marlin and Mediterranean spearfish), xiphiid billfishes (Pacific and Mediterranean stocks) and a scombrid fish (butterfly mackerel) were included in the analysis. Our main objectives were (1) to assess the maximum possible substrate flux in heater tissue, and (2) to determine what metabolic substrates could fuel heat production. Heater tissue of all scombroids examined showed extremely high oxidative capacity. Activities of citrate synthase, a commonly measured index of oxidative metabolism, included the highest value ever reported for vertebrate tissue. In most billfishes, citrate synthase activities were similar to or higher than those found for mammalian cardiac and avian flight muscle. Marker enzymes for aerobic carbohydrate metabolism (hexokinase) and fatty acid metabolism (carnitine palmitoyltransferase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) also displayed extraordinarily high activities. Activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase measured in heater organs were among the highest reported for vertebrates. These results indicate that heat production could be fueled aerobically by either lipid or carbohydrate metabolism. Inter- and intraspecifically, heater organs of fishes from the colder Mediterranean waters had a higher aerobic capacity and, hence, a greater heat-generating potential, than fishes from the warmer waters of the Pacific. This difference may be attributed to different thermal environments or it may result from allometry, since fishes caught in the Mediterranean were considerably smaller than those caught in the Pacific. PMID:1757772

Tullis, A; Block, B A; Sidell, B D

1991-11-01

3

Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

4

A Key Role for Old Yellow Enzyme in the Metabolism of Drugs by Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. So far, first choice anti-chagasic drugs in use have been shown to have undesirable side effects in addition to the emergence of parasite resistance and the lack of prospect for vaccine against T. cruzi infection. Thus, the isolation and characterization of molecules essential in parasite metabolism of the anti-chagasic drugs are fundamental for the development of new strategies for rational drug design and/or the improvement of the current chemotherapy. While searching for a prostaglandin (PG) F2? synthase homologue, we have identified a novel “old yellow enzyme” from T. cruzi (TcOYE), cloned its cDNA, and overexpressed the recombinant enzyme. Here, we show that TcOYE reduced 9,11-endoperoxide PGH2 to PGF2? as well as a variety of trypanocidal drugs. By electron spin resonance experiments, we found that TcOYE specifically catalyzed one-electron reduction of menadione and ?-lapachone to semiquinone-free radicals with concomitant generation of superoxide radical anions, while catalyzing solely the two-electron reduction of nifurtimox and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide drugs without free radical production. Interestingly, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that anti-TcOYE polyclonal antibody abolished major reductase activities of the lysates toward these drugs, identifying TcOYE as a key drug-metabolizing enzyme by which quinone drugs have their mechanism of action.

Kubata, Bruno Kilunga; Kabututu, Zakayi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Munday, Craig J.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Lazarus, Michael; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Martin, Samuel K.; Duszenko, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro

2002-01-01

5

Comparative analysis on the key enzymes of the glycerol cycle metabolic pathway in Dunaliella salina under osmotic stresses.  

PubMed

The glycerol metabolic pathway is a special cycle way; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (G3pp), dihydroxyacetone reductase (Dhar), and dihydroxyacetone kinase (Dhak) are the key enzymes around the pathway. Glycerol is an important osmolyte for Dunaliella salina to resist osmotic stress. In this study, comparative activities of the four enzymes in D. salina and their activity changes under various salt stresses were investigated, from which glycerol metabolic flow direction in the glycerol metabolic pathway was estimated. Results showed that the salinity changes had different effects on the enzymes activities. NaCl could stimulate the activities of all the four enzymes in various degrees when D. salina was grown under continuous salt stress. When treated by hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic shock, only the activity of G3pdh in D. salina was significantly stimulated. It was speculated that, under osmotic stresses, the emergency response of the cycle pathway in D. salina was driven by G3pdh via its response to the osmotic stress. Subsequently, with the changes of salinity, other three enzymes started to respond to osmotic stress. Dhar played a role of balancing the cycle metabolic pathway by its forward and backward reactions. Through synergy, the four enzymes worked together for the effective flow of the cycle metabolic pathways to maintain the glycerol requirements of cells in order to adapt to osmotic stress environments. PMID:22675484

Chen, Hui; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

2012-01-01

6

Comparative Analysis on the Key Enzymes of the Glycerol Cycle Metabolic Pathway in Dunaliella salina under Osmotic Stresses  

PubMed Central

The glycerol metabolic pathway is a special cycle way; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (G3pp), dihydroxyacetone reductase (Dhar), and dihydroxyacetone kinase (Dhak) are the key enzymes around the pathway. Glycerol is an important osmolyte for Dunaliella salina to resist osmotic stress. In this study, comparative activities of the four enzymes in D. salina and their activity changes under various salt stresses were investigated, from which glycerol metabolic flow direction in the glycerol metabolic pathway was estimated. Results showed that the salinity changes had different effects on the enzymes activities. NaCl could stimulate the activities of all the four enzymes in various degrees when D. salina was grown under continuous salt stress. When treated by hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic shock, only the activity of G3pdh in D. salina was significantly stimulated. It was speculated that, under osmotic stresses, the emergency response of the cycle pathway in D. salina was driven by G3pdh via its response to the osmotic stress. Subsequently, with the changes of salinity, other three enzymes started to respond to osmotic stress. Dhar played a role of balancing the cycle metabolic pathway by its forward and backward reactions. Through synergy, the four enzymes worked together for the effective flow of the cycle metabolic pathways to maintain the glycerol requirements of cells in order to adapt to osmotic stress environments.

Chen, Hui; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

2012-01-01

7

KEY RESIDUES CONTROLLING PHENACETIN METABOLISM BY HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450 2A ENZYMES  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450s (CYP) metabolize a large number of diverse substrates with specific regio- and stereo-specificity. A number of compounds, including nicotine, cotinine, and aflatoxin B1, are metabolites of the 94% identical CYP2A13 and CYP2A6 enzymes but at different rates. Phenacetin and 4-aminobiphenyl were identified as substrates of human cytochromes P450 1A2 and 2A13, but not of CYP2A6. The purpose of this study is to identify active site amino acids that are responsible for CYP2A substrate specificity using phenacetin as a structural probe. Ten amino acid residues that differ in the CYP2A13 and CYP2A6 active sites were exchanged between the two enzymes. Phenacetin binding revealed that the six substitutions CYP2A13 S208I, A213S, F300I, A301G, M365V, and G369S decreased phenacetin affinity. While incorporation of individual CYP2A13 residues into CYP2A6 had little effect on this enzyme’s very low levels of phenacetin metabolism, the combination of double, triple, and quadruple substitutions at positions 208, 300, 301, and 369 increasingly endowed CYP2A6 with the ability to metabolize phenacetin. Enzyme kinetics revealed that the CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G mutant protein O-deethylated phenacetin with a Km of 10.3 ?M and a kcat of 2.9 min?1, which compare very favorably with CYP2A13 (Km 10.7 ?M, kcat 3.8 min?1). A 2.15 Ĺ crystal structure of the mutant CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G protein with phenacetin in the active site provided a structural rationale for the differences in phenacetin metabolism between CYP2A6 and CYP2A13.

DeVore, Natasha M.; Smith, Brian D.; Urban, Michael J.; Scott, Emily E.

2009-01-01

8

Effect of copper on liver key enzymes of anaerobic glucose metabolism from freshwater tropical fish Prochilodus lineatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of copper on liver key enzymes of the anaerobic glucose metabolism (hexokinase, HK; phosphofructokinase, PFK; pyruvate kinase, PK; lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) as well as of the pentose pathway (glycose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PDH) from the fish Prochilodus lineatus. The fish were acclimated at either 20 °C or 30 °C at pH 7.0, transferred to water at pH 4.5 or 8.0,

Cleoni dos Santos Carvalho; Marisa Narciso Fernandes

2008-01-01

9

Sucrose metabolism during somatic and zygotic embryogeneses in Norway spruce: content of soluble saccharides and localisation of key enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in soluble carbohydrate compounds and their amounts were analysed during the somatic embryo maturation and seed development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The data were correlated to the localisation of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism (invertase, EC 3.2.1.26; sucrose synthase, EC 2.4.1.13; phosphoglucomutase, EC 5.4.2.2). The decrease in total carbohydrate content as well as the accumulation of

Hana Konrádová; Helena Lipavská; Jana Albrechtová; Dick Vreugdenhil

2002-01-01

10

S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase in yeast: key enzyme of methylation metabolism and coordinated regulation with phospholipid synthesis.  

PubMed

S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (Sah1p, EC 3.3.1.1.) is a key enzyme of methylation metabolism. It catabolizes S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, which is formed after donation of the activated methyl group of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) to an acceptor, and which acts as strong competitive inhibitor of all AdoMet-dependent methyltransferases. Sah1p is an essential enzyme in yeast and one of the most highly conserved proteins with up to 80% sequence homology throughout all kingdoms of life. SAH1 expression in yeast is subject to the general transcriptional control of phospholipid synthesis. Profound changes in cellular lipid composition upon depletion of Sah1p support the notion of a tight interaction between lipid metabolism and Sah1p function. PMID:15556636

Tehlivets, Oksana; Hasslacher, Meinhard; Kohlwein, Sepp D

2004-11-19

11

Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C4 and CAM metabolism  

PubMed Central

CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C4 phenotypes.

Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Monica; Osborne, Colin P.; Brautigam, Andrea; Sage, Rowan F.; Hibberd, Julian M.; Kelly, Steven; Covshoff, Sarah; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hancock, Lillian; Edwards, Erika J.

2014-01-01

12

Efficacy of azelaic acid on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet induced type 2 diabetic mice.  

PubMed

Azelaic acid (AzA), a C9 linear ?,?-dicarboxylic acid, is found in whole grains namely wheat, rye, barley, oat seeds and sorghum. The study was performed to investigate whether AzA exerts beneficial effect on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet (HFD) induced type 2 diabetic C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diet for 10 weeks and subjected to intragastric administration of various doses (20 mg, 40 mg and 80 mg/kg BW) of AzA daily for the subsequent 5 weeks. Rosiglitazone (RSG) was used as reference drug. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, blood haemoglobin (Hb), blood glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), liver glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase), hepatic shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes(glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase), liver glycogen, plasma and liver triglycerides were examined in mice fed with normal standard diet (NC), high fat diet (HFD), HFD with AzA (HFD + AzA) and HFD with rosiglitazone (HFD + RSG). Among the three doses, 80 mg/kg BW of AzA was able to positively regulate plasma glucose, insulin, blood HbA1c and haemoglobin levels by significantly increasing the activity of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and significantly decreasing the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase thereby increasing the glycogen content in the liver. From this study, we put forward that AzA could significantly restore the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, Hb, liver glycogen and carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes to near normal in diabetic mice and hence, AzA may be useful as a biomaterial in the development of therapeutic agents against high fat diet induced T2DM. PMID:23402910

Muthulakshmi, Shanmugam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

2013-06-01

13

Effect of copper on liver key enzymes of anaerobic glucose metabolism from freshwater tropical fish Prochilodus lineatus.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of copper on liver key enzymes of the anaerobic glucose metabolism (hexokinase, HK; phosphofructokinase, PFK; pyruvate kinase, PK; lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) as well as of the pentose pathway (glycose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PDH) from the fish Prochilodus lineatus. The fish were acclimated at either 20 degrees C or 30 degrees C at pH 7.0, transferred to water at pH 4.5 or 8.0, and exposed to 96 h-CL(50) copper concentrations. Copper accumulation in liver was higher in fish acclimated at 20 degrees C and maintained in water pH 8.0. Three-way analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of temperature on all enzymes, a significant effect of pH on all enzymes except for PK, and a significant effect of copper on only PFK, and LDH in pH 4.5 at 20 degrees C and, at 30 degrees C, on PFK and PK at pH 4.5 and 8.0, HK at pH 4.5 and G6PDH at pH 8.0. There were significant interactions between treatments for many enzymes. These changes suggest that the activity of enzymes in question is modified by a change in ambient water. At least at 30 degrees C, the overall reduction in the glycolytic enzyme activities of copper-exposed fish seems to reduce energy availability via glucose metabolism, thereby contributing to enhance copper toxic effects. PMID:17537655

Carvalho, Cleoni dos Santos; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

2008-11-01

14

Key Residues Controlling Phenacetin Metabolism By Human Cytochrome P450 2A Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Although the human lung cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) and its liver counterpart cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) are 94% identical in amino acid sequence, they metabolize a number of substrates with substantially different efficiencies. To determine differences in binding for a diverse set of cytochrome P450 2A ligands, we have measured the spectral binding affinities (K{sub D}) for nicotine, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), coumarin, 2{prime}-methoxyacetophenone (MAP), and 8-methoxypsoralen. The differences in the K{sub D} values for CYP2A6 versus CYP2A13 ranged from 74-fold for 2{prime}-methoxyacetophenone to 1.1-fold for coumarin, with CYP2A13 demonstrating the higher affinity. To identify active site amino acids responsible for the differences in binding of MAP, PEITC, and coumarin, 10 CYP2A13 mutant proteins were generated in which individual amino acids from the CYP2A6 active site were substituted into CYP2A13 at the corresponding position. Titrations revealed that substitutions at positions 208, 300, and 301 individually had the largest effects on ligand binding. The collective relevance of these amino acids to differential ligand selectivity was verified by evaluating binding to CYP2A6 mutant enzymes that incorporate several of the CYP2A13 amino acids at these positions. Inclusion of four CYP2A13 amino acids resulted in a CYP2A6 mutant protein (I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G) with binding affinities for MAP and PEITC much more similar to those observed for CYP2A13 than to those for CYP2A6 without altering coumarin binding. The structure-based quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis using COMBINE successfully modeled the observed mutant-ligand trends and emphasized steric roles for active site residues including four substituted amino acids and an adjacent conserved Leu{sup 370}.

DeVore, N.M.; Smith, B.D.; Urban, M.J.; Scott, E.E.

2009-05-14

15

Crystal structure of Bifidobacterium Longum phosphoketolase; key enzyme for glucose metabolism in Bifidobacterium.  

PubMed

The crystal structure of Bifidobacterium longum phosphoketolase, a thiamine diphosphate (TPP) dependent enzyme, has been determined at 2.2A resolution. The enzyme is a dimer with the active sites located at the interface between the two identical subunits with molecular mass of 92.5 kDa. The bound TPP is almost completely shielded from solvent except for the catalytically important C2-carbon of the thiazolium ring, which can be accessed by a substrate sugar through a narrow funnel-shaped channel. In silico docking studies of B. longum phosphoketolase with its substrate enable us to propose a model for substrate binding. PMID:20674574

Takahashi, Kazutoshi; Tagami, Uno; Shimba, Nobuhisa; Kashiwagi, Tatsuki; Ishikawa, Kohki; Suzuki, Ei-ichiro

2010-09-24

16

Key Residues Controlling Phenacetin Metabolism By Human Cytochrome P450 2A Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the human lung cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) and its liver counterpart cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) are 94% identical in amino acid sequence, they metabolize a number of substrates with substantially different efficiencies. To determine differences in binding for a diverse set of cytochrome P450 2A ligands, we have measured the spectral binding affinities (K{sub D}) for nicotine, phenethyl isothiocyanate

N. M. DeVore; B. D. Smith; M. J. Urban; E. E. Scott

2009-01-01

17

Inhibitory Potential of Turbinaria ornata against Key Metabolic Enzymes Linked to Diabetes  

PubMed Central

One of the therapeutic approaches in treating diabetes is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting major carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. In the present study, crude extracts of marine seaweed, Turbinaria ornata, were tested for their antidiabetic potential using enzyme inhibitory assays (?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV). Among the tested extracts, methanol and acetone extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on ?-amylase (IC50 250.9??g/mL), ?-glucosidase (535.6??g/mL), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (55.2??g/mL), respectively. Free radical scavenging activity of these extracts was analyzed using DPPH assay (65%). Extracts were tested for in vitro toxicity using DNA fragmentation assay, haemolytic assay, and MTT assay. None of the extracts showed toxicity in tested models. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of lead extracts showed the presence of major compounds, hentriacontane, z, z-6, 28-heptatriactontadien-2-one, 8-heptadecene, and 1-heptacosanol. Our findings suggest that Turbinaria ornata can be used as a potential source for further in vivo studies in controlling hyperglycemia.

Unnikrishnan, P. S.; Suthindhiran, K.; Jayasri, M. A.

2014-01-01

18

Metabolic enzyme expression highlights a key role for MTHFD2 and the mitochondrial folate pathway in cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metabolic remodeling is now widely regarded as a hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. Here we compare messenger RNA profiles of 1,454 metabolic enzymes across 1,981 tumours spanning 19 cancer types to identify enzymes that are consistently differentially expressed. Our meta-analysis recovers established targets of some of the most widely used chemotherapeutics, including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase and ribonucleotide reductase, while also spotlighting new enzymes, such as the mitochondrial proline biosynthetic enzyme PYCR1. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and is centred on MTHFD2. MTHFD2 RNA and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. MTHFD2 is expressed in the developing embryo, but is absent in most healthy adult tissues, even those that are proliferating. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one-carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses.

Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit; Madhusudhan, Nikhil; Sheppard, Nina Gustafsson; Strittmatter, Laura; Kampf, Caroline; Huang, Jenny; Asplund, Anna; Mootha, Vamsi K.

2014-01-01

19

Expressional regulation of key hepatic enzymes of intermediary metabolism in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during food deprivation and refeeding.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that the analysis of mRNA level and activity of key enzymes in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in a feeding/fasting/refeeding setting could improve our understanding of how a carnivorous fish, like the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), responds to changes in dietary intake at the hepatic level. To this end cDNA fragments encoding genes for cytosolic and mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase (cALT; mALT), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) were cloned and sequenced. Measurement of mRNA levels through quantitative real-time PCR performed in livers of fasted seabass revealed a significant increase in cALT (8.5-fold induction) while promoting a drastic 45-fold down-regulation of PK in relation to the levels found in fed seabass. These observations were corroborated by enzyme activity meaning that during food deprivation an increase in the capacity of pyruvate generation happened via alanine to offset the reduction in pyruvate derived via glycolysis. After a 3-day refeeding period cALT returned to control levels while PK was not able to rebound. No alterations were detected in the expression levels of G6PDH while 6PGDH was revealed to be more sensitive specially to fasting, as confirmed by a significant 5.7-fold decrease in mRNA levels with no recovery after refeeding. Our results indicate that in early stages of refeeding, the liver prioritized the restoration of systemic normoglycemia and replenishment of hepatic glycogen. In a later stage, once regular feeding is re-established, dietary fuel may then be channeled to glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. PMID:24746983

Viegas, Ivan; Caballero-Solares, Albert; Rito, Joăo; Giralt, Marina; Pardal, Miguel A; Metón, Isidoro; Jones, John G; Baanante, Isabel V

2014-08-01

20

Mass spectrometry-based workflow for accurate quantification of Escherichia coli enzymes: how proteomics can play a key role in metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

Metabolic engineering aims to design high performance microbial strains producing compounds of interest. This requires systems-level understanding; genome-scale models have therefore been developed to predict metabolic fluxes. However, multi-omics data including genomics, transcriptomics, fluxomics, and proteomics may be required to model the metabolism of potential cell factories. Recent technological advances to quantitative proteomics have made mass spectrometry-based quantitative assays an interesting alternative to more traditional immuno-affinity based approaches. This has improved specificity and multiplexing capabilities. In this study, we developed a quantification workflow to analyze enzymes involved in central metabolism in Escherichia coli (E. coli). This workflow combined full-length isotopically labeled standards with selected reaction monitoring analysis. First, full-length (15)N labeled standards were produced and calibrated to ensure accurate measurements. Liquid chromatography conditions were then optimized for reproducibility and multiplexing capabilities over a single 30-min liquid chromatography-MS analysis. This workflow was used to accurately quantify 22 enzymes involved in E. coli central metabolism in a wild-type reference strain and two derived strains, optimized for higher NADPH production. In combination with measurements of metabolic fluxes, proteomics data can be used to assess different levels of regulation, in particular enzyme abundance and catalytic rate. This provides information that can be used to design specific strains used in biotechnology. In addition, accurate measurement of absolute enzyme concentrations is key to the development of predictive kinetic models in the context of metabolic engineering. PMID:24482123

Trauchessec, Mathieu; Jaquinod, Michel; Bonvalot, Aline; Brun, Virginie; Bruley, Christophe; Ropers, Delphine; de Jong, Hidde; Garin, Jérôme; Bestel-Corre, Gwenaëlle; Ferro, Myriam

2014-04-01

21

Assessment of mercaptopurine (6MP) metabolites and 6MP metabolic key-enzymes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.  

PubMed

Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is treated with combination chemotherapy including mercaptopurine (6MP) as an important component. Upon its uptake, 6MP undergoes a complex metabolism involving many enzymes and active products. The prognostic value of all the factors engaged in this pathway still remains unclear. This study attempted to determine which components of 6MP metabolism in leukemic blasts and red blood cells are important for 6MP's sensitivity and toxicity. In addition, changes in the enzymatic activities and metabolite levels during the treatment were analyzed. In a cohort (N=236) of pediatric ALL patients enrolled in the Dutch ALL-9 protocol, we studied the enzymes inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT), hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) as well as thioguanine nucleotides (TGN) and methylthioinosine nucleotides (meTINs). Activities of selected enzymes and levels of 6MP derivatives were measured at various time points during the course of therapy. The data obtained and the toxicity related parameters available for these patients were correlated with each other. We found several interesting relations, including high concentrations of two active forms of 6MP--TGN and meTIN--showing a trend toward association with better in vitro antileukemic effect of 6MP. High concentrations of TGN and elevated activity of HGPRT were found to be significantly associated with grade III/IV leucopenia. However, a lot of data of enzymatic activities and metabolite concentrations as well as clinical toxicity were missing, thereby limiting the number of assessed relations. Therefore, although a complex study of 6MP metabolism in ALL patients is feasible, it warrants more robust and strict data collection in order to be able to draw more reliable conclusions. PMID:24940700

Wojtuszkiewicz, Anna; Barcelos, Ana; Dubbelman, Boas; De Abreu, Ronney; Brouwer, Connie; Bökkerink, Jos P; de Haas, Valerie; de Groot-Kruseman, Hester; Jansen, Gerrit; Kaspers, Gertjan L; Cloos, Jacqueline; Peters, G J

2014-01-01

22

Characterization of a NADH-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase Mutant of Arabidopsis Demonstrates the Key Role of this Enzyme in Root Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism[W  

PubMed Central

The role of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was investigated by studying the physiological impact of a complete lack of enzyme activity in an Arabidopsis thaliana plant deficient in three genes encoding the enzyme. This study was conducted following the discovery that a third GDH gene is expressed in the mitochondria of the root companion cells, where all three active GDH enzyme proteins were shown to be present. A gdh1-2-3 triple mutant was constructed and exhibited major differences from the wild type in gene transcription and metabolite concentrations, and these differences appeared to originate in the roots. By placing the gdh triple mutant under continuous darkness for several days and comparing it to the wild type, the evidence strongly suggested that the main physiological function of NADH-GDH is to provide 2-oxoglutarate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The differences in key metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the triple mutant versus the wild type indicated that, through metabolic processes operating mainly in roots, there was a strong impact on amino acid accumulation, in particular alanine, ?-aminobutyrate, and aspartate in both roots and leaves. These results are discussed in relation to the possible signaling and physiological functions of the enzyme at the interface of carbon and nitrogen metabolism.

Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Terce-Laforgue, Therese; Armengaud, Patrick; Clement, Gilles; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Sandra; Catterou, Manuella; Azzopardi, Marianne; Gibon, Yves; Lea, Peter J.; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frederic

2012-01-01

23

Crystal structures of ?-glutamyltranspeptidase from Escherichia coli, a key enzyme in glutathione metabolism, and its reaction intermediate  

PubMed Central

?-Glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) is a heterodimic enzyme that is generated from the precursor protein through posttranslational processing and catalyzes the hydrolysis of ?-glutamyl bonds in ?-glutamyl compounds such as glutathione and/or the transfer of the ?-glutamyl group to other amino acids and peptides. We have determined the crystal structure of GGT from Escherichia coli K-12 at 1.95 Ĺ resolution. GGT has a stacked ???? fold comprising the large and small subunits, similar to the folds seen in members of the N-terminal nucleophile hydrolase superfamily. The active site Thr-391, the N-terminal residue of the small subunit, is located in the groove, from which the pocket for ?-glutamyl moiety binding follows. We have further determined the structure of the ?-glutamyl-enzyme intermediate trapped by flash cooling the GGT crystal soaked in glutathione solution and the structure of GGT in complex with l-glutamate. These structures revealed how the ?-glutamyl moiety and l-glutamate are recognized by the enzyme. A water molecule was seen on the carbonyl carbon of the ?-glutamyl-Thr-391 O? bond in the intermediate that is to be hydrolyzed. Notably the residues essential for GGT activity (Arg-114, Asp-433, Ser-462, and Ser-463 in E. coli GGT) shown by site-directed mutagenesis of human GGT are all involved in the binding of the ?-glutamyl moiety. The structure of E. coli GGT presented here, together with sequence alignment of GGTs, may be applicable to interpret the biochemical and genetic data of other GGTs.

Okada, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Wada, Kei; Kumagai, Hidehiko; Fukuyama, Keiichi

2006-01-01

24

S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine Hydrolase, Key Enzyme of Methylation Metabolism, Regulates Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis and Triacylglycerol Homeostasis in Yeast  

PubMed Central

In eukaryotes, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Sah1) offers a single way for degradation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, a product and potent competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases. De novophosphatidylcholine(PC)synthesisrequiresthreeAdoMet-dependent methylation steps. Here we show that down-regulation of SAH1 expression in yeast leads to accumulation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and decreased de novo PC synthesis in vivo. This decrease is accompanied by an increase in triacylglycerol (TG) levels, demonstrating that Sah1-regulated methylation has a major impact on cellular lipid homeostasis. TG accumulation is also observed in cho2 and opi3 mutants defective in methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to PC, confirming that PC de novo synthesis and TG synthesis are metabolically coupled through the efficiency of the phospholipid methylation reaction. Indeed, because both types of lipids share phosphatidic acid as a precursor, we find in cells with down-regulated Sah1 activity major alterations in the expression of the INO1 gene as well as in the localization of Opi1, a negative regulatory factor of phospholipid synthesis, which binds and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by phosphatidic acid in conjunction with VAMP/synaptobrevin-associated protein, Scs2. The addition of homocysteine, by the reversal of the Sah1-catalyzed reaction, also leads to TG accumulation in yeast, providing an attractive model for the role of homocysteine as a risk factor of atherosclerosis in humans.

Malanovic, Nermina; Streith, Ingo; Wolinski, Heimo; Rechberger, Gerald; Kohlwein, Sepp D.; Tehlivets, Oksana

2008-01-01

25

Effect of a compost and its water-soluble fractions on key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in maize seedlings.  

PubMed

The growing concern on long-term productivity of agroecosystems has emphasized the need to develop management strategies to maintain and protect soil resources, particularly soil organic matter (SOM). Among these, the composting process allows both recycling of the increasing amount of organic waste materials and restoration of the content of organic matter in soil. A sequential chemical fractionation into structurally unbound (SU), weakly bound (WB) and strongly bound (SB) compounds was applied to a bulk compost, and its soluble fractions were extracted in water, either after oxidation of compost suspension with an oxygen flux (TEA), or without oxidation but separated into hydrophilic (HiDOM) and hydrophobic (HoDOM) components. The ratio of hydrophilic over hydrophobic compounds decreased in the order HiDOM > TEA > compost > HoDOM, while TEA and compost showed the largest content of SU and WB components, respectively. Such chemically characterized bulk compost and fractions were tested on maize seedlings grown in sand and in hydroponic conditions, and the effects on plant growth and nitrogen metabolism were measured. The structurally complex bulk compost and the hydrophobic HoDOM fraction negatively affected plant growth, whereas the hydrophilic and less-structured fractions (HiDOM and TEA) showed large positive effects on both growth and enzymatic activities of plants. These results suggest that composted organic matter can become useful to stimulate plant growth if the content of potentially bioavailable hydrophilic and poorly structured components is large. These components may be progressively separated from the compost matrix and contribute to the dynamics of natural organic matter in soil. PMID:19891475

Vaccaro, Silvia; Muscolo, Adele; Pizzeghello, Diego; Spaccini, Riccado; Piccolo, Alessandro; Nardi, Serenella

2009-12-01

26

Orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. They have important roles as membrane components of e.g. lens, brain and testis, and as mediators such as platelet-activating factor. The metabolic enzymes for biosynthesis and degradation have been investigated to some extent. As most involved enzymes are integral membrane proteins they are tricky to handle in biochemical protocols. The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. Defined enzymes without assigned sequence are known as orphan enzymes. One of these enzymes with uncharacterised sequence is plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of one of the most abundant phospholipids in our body, the plasmalogens. This review aims to briefly summarise known functions of ether lipids, give an overview on their metabolism including the most prominent members, platelet-activating factor and the plasmalogens. A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. Only one of these four was characterised by classical protein purification and sequencing, whereas the other three required alternative strategies such as bioinformatic candidate gene selection and recombinant expression or development of an inhibitor and multidimensional metabolic profiling.

Watschinger, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R.

2013-01-01

27

Biochemical and biological studies on 2-desamino-2-methylaminopterin, an antifolate the polyglutamates of which are more potent than the monoglutamate against three key enzymes of folate metabolism.  

PubMed

Biochemical and biological studies have been carried out with 2-desamino-2-methylaminopterin (dmAMT), which inhibits tumor cell growth in culture but is only a weak inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). Since it was possible that the species responsible for growth inhibition are polyglutamylated metabolites, the di-, tri-, and tetraglutamates of dmAMT were synthesized and tested as inhibitors of purified recombinant human DHFR, murine L1210 leukemia thymidylate synthase (TS), chicken liver glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (GARFT), and murine L1210 leukemia aminoimidazolecarboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase (AICARFT). The compounds with three and four gamma-glutamyl residues were found to bind two orders of magnitude better than dmAMT itself to DHFR, TS, and AICARFT, with 50% inhibitory concentration values in the 200 to 300 nM range against all three enzymes. In contrast, at a concentration of 10 microM, dmAMT polyglutamates had no appreciable effect on GARFT activity. These findings support the hypothesis that dmAMT requires intracellular polyglutamylation for activity and indicate that replacement of the 2-amino group by 2-methyl is as acceptable a structural modification in antifolates targeted against DHFR as it is in antifolates targeted against TS. In growth assays against methotrexate (MTX)-sensitive H35 rat hepatoma cells and MTX-resistant H35 sublines with a transport defect, dmAMT was highly cross-resistant with MTX, but not with the TS inhibitors N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid and N-(5-[N-(3,4-dihydro-2-methyl-4-ox-oquinazolin-6-yl)-N- methylamino]thenoyl)-L-glutamic acid, implicating DHFR rather than TS as the principal target for dmAMT polyglutamates in intact cells. On the other hand, an H35 subline resistant to 2'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine by virtue of increased TS activity was highly cross-resistant to N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid and not cross-resistant to MTX, but showed partial cross-resistance to dmAMT. Both thymidine and hypoxanthine were required to protect H35 cells treated with concentrations of dmAMT and MTX that inhibited growth by greater than 90% relative to unprotected controls. In contrast, N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid and N-(5-[N-(3,4-dihydro-2-methyl-4-oxoquinazolin-6-yl)-N-methylamino] thenoyl)- L-glutamic acid required only thymidine for protection. Like MTX, therefore, dmAMT appears to inhibit purine as well as pyrimidine de novo synthesis, and its effect on cell growth probably reflects the ability of dmAMT polyglutamates to not only block dihydrofolate reduction but also interfere with other steps of folate metabolism, either directly or indirectly via alteration of reduced folate pools.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1313737

Rosowsky, A; Galivan, J; Beardsley, G P; Bader, H; O'Connor, B M; Russello, O; Moroson, B A; DeYarman, M T; Kerwar, S S; Freisheim, J H

1992-04-15

28

Beneficial effects of thymoquinone on hepatic key enzymes in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimsThe present study was designed to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of thymoquinone (TQ), major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds on the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-nicotinamide (NA)-induced diabetic rats.

Leelavinothan Pari; Chandrasekaran Sankaranarayanan

2009-01-01

29

Arthrobacter P 1, a fast growing versatile methylotroph with amine oxidase as a key enzyme in the metabolism of methylated amines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A facultative methylotrophic bacterium was isolated from enrichment cultures containing methylamine as the sole carbon source.\\u000a It was tentatively identified as an Arthrobacter species. Extracts of cells grown on methylamine or ethylamine contained high levels of amine oxidase (E.C. 1.4.3.) activity.\\u000a Glucose- or choline-grown cells lacked this enzyme. Oxidation of primary amines by the enzyme resulted in the formation of

P. R. Levering; J. P. van Dijken; M. Veenhuis; W. Harder

1981-01-01

30

Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment.

Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

2012-01-01

31

Pollen wall development: the associated enzymes and metabolic pathways.  

PubMed

Pollen grains are surrounded by a sculpted wall, which protects male gametophytes from various environmental stresses and microbial attacks, and also facilitates pollination. Pollen wall development requires lipid and polysaccharide metabolism, and some key genes and proteins that participate in these processes have recently been identified. Here, we summarise the genes and describe their functions during pollen wall development via several metabolic pathways. A working model involving substances and catalytic enzyme reactions that occur during pollen development is also presented. This model provides information on the complete process of pollen wall development with respect to metabolic pathways. PMID:23252839

Jiang, J; Zhang, Z; Cao, J

2013-03-01

32

Enzyme kinetics in drug metabolism: fundamentals and applications.  

PubMed

Enzymes are protein catalysts that lower the energy barrier for a reaction and speed the rate of a chemical change. The kinetics of reactions catalyzed by enzymes, as well as several mechanisms underlying the kinetics, have been comprehensively studied and written in textbooks (1, 2). The importance of quantitative evaluation of enzymatic processes has been recognized in many fields of study, including biochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmaceutical sciences to name a few. In pharmaceutical sciences, the applications of enzyme kinetics range from hit finding efforts for new chemical entities on a pharmacological target to concentration effect relationships to large-scale biosynthesis. The study of the science of drug metabolism has two principal concepts-rate and extent. While understanding disposition pathways and identification of metabolites provides an insight into the extent of metabolism, kinetics of depletion of substrates (endogenous or exogenous) and formation of metabolites deals with the rate of metabolism. The current textbook specifically focuses on kinetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes, detailing specific enzyme classes, and discusses kinetics as they apply to drug transporters. This textbook also outlines additional factors that contribute to the kinetics of reactions catalyzed by these proteins such as variability in isoforms (pharmacogenomics) and experimental factors including key concepts such as alterations of substrate concentrations due to binding. Applications of these approaches in predicting kinetic parameters and alternative approaches for enzymes (systems biology) and transporters are also discussed. The final section focuses on real-life examples (case studies) to try and exemplify the applications of enzyme kinetic principles. This chapter provides a brief overview outlining some key concepts within each of the sections and the chapters within this textbook. PMID:24523105

Nagar, Swati; Argikar, Upendra A; Tweedie, Donald J

2014-01-01

33

Maximal activities of enzymes of intermediary metabolism in the estivating terrestrial snail Cepaea nemoralis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of estivation on maximal activities of key enzymes of aerobic, carbohydrate, lipid, ketone body and amino acid metabolism were studied in tissues of the terrestrial snail Cepaea nemoralis. With the exception of a 40% decrease in citrate synthase activity in hepatopancreas, enzyme activities were unaltered in all tissues following 6 weeks of estivation. Activities of enzymes of lipid,

J. A Stuart; E.-L Ooi; J. S Ballantyne

1998-01-01

34

Enzyme recruitment and its role in metabolic expansion.  

PubMed

Although more than 10(9) years have passed since the existence of the last universal common ancestor, proteins have yet to reach the limits of divergence. As a result, metabolic complexity is ever expanding. Identifying and understanding the mechanisms that drive and limit the divergence of protein sequence space impact not only evolutionary biologists investigating molecular evolution but also synthetic biologists seeking to design useful catalysts and engineer novel metabolic pathways. Investigations over the past 50 years indicate that the recruitment of enzymes for new functions is a key event in the acquisition of new metabolic capacity. In this review, we outline the genetic mechanisms that enable recruitment and summarize the present state of knowledge regarding the functional characteristics of extant catalysts that facilitate recruitment. We also highlight recent examples of enzyme recruitment, both from the historical record provided by phylogenetics and from enzyme evolution experiments. We conclude with a look to the future, which promises fruitful consequences from the convergence of molecular evolutionary theory, laboratory-directed evolution, and synthetic biology. PMID:24483367

Schulenburg, Cindy; Miller, Brian G

2014-02-11

35

Metabolic Syndrome -- Lifestyle Changes are Key  

MedlinePLUS

... anemia, bone loss, weight gain and glucose intolerance. Weight gain, particularly around the abdominal region, and glucose intolerance put a person at greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) — Women with PCOS have high levels of ...

36

The enzymes of human diphosphoinositol polyphosphate metabolism  

PubMed Central

Diphospho-myo-inositol polyphosphates have many roles to play, including roles in apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, the response of cells to stress, the regulation of telomere length and DNA damage repair, and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85 system that monitors phosphate levels. This review focuses on the three classes of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these compounds: inositol hexakisphosphate kinases, inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinases and diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolases. However, these enzymes have roles beyond being mere catalysts, and their interactions with other proteins have cellular consequences. Through their interactions, the three inositol hexakisphosphate kinases have roles in exocytosis, diabetes, the response to infection, and apoptosis. The two inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinases influence the cellular response to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and the migration of pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins to the plasma membrane. The five diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolases interact with ribosomal proteins and transcription factors, as well as proteins involved in membrane trafficking, exocytosis, ubiquitination and the proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Possible directions for future research aiming to determine the roles of these enzymes are highlighted.

Thomas, Mark P; Potter, Barry V L

2014-01-01

37

Expression of Enzymes that Metabolize Medications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

INTRODUCTION: Increased exposure to radiation is one physiological stressor associated with spaceflight and it is feasible to conduct ground experiments using known radiation exposures. The health of the liver, especially the activity rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. While radiation is known to alter normal physiological function, how radiation affects liver metabolism of administered medications is unclear. Crew health could be affected if the actions of medications used in spaceflight deviated from expectations formed during terrestrial medication use. This study is an effort to identify liver metabolic enzymes whose expression is altered by spaceflight or by radiation exposures that mimic features of the spaceflight environment. METHODS: Using procedures approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee, mice were exposed to either 137Cs (controls, 50 mGy, 6Gy, or 50 mGy + 6Gy separated by 24 hours) or 13 days of spaceflight on STS 135. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed at several time points (4 hours, 24 hours or 7 days) after their last radiation exposure, or within 6 hours of return to Earth for the STS 135 animals. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted, purified and quality-tested. Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used in RT-qPCR experiments to determine relative expression of a wide variety of genes involved in general metabolism and drug metabolism. RESULTS: Results of the ground radiation exposure experiments indicated 65 genes of the 190 tested were significantly affected by at least one of the radiation doses. Many of the affected genes are involved in the metabolism of drugs with hydrophobic or steroid-like structures, maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage. Most affected genes returned to near control expression levels by 7 days post-treatment. Not all recovered completely by the final time point tested: with 6 Gy exposure, metallothionein expression was 132-fold more than control at the 4 hr time point, and fell at each later time point (11-fold at 24 hrs, and 8-fold at 7 days). In contrast, there were other genes whose expression was altered and remained relatively constant through the 7 day period we tested. One examples is Cyp17a1, which showed a 4-fold elevation at 4 hrs after exposure and remained constant for 7 days after the last treatment. Spaceflight samples evaluated with similar methods and comparisons will be made between the radiation-treated groups and the spaceflight samples. CONCLUSION It seems likely that radiation exposure triggers homeostatic mechanisms, which could include alterations of gene expression. Better understanding of these pathways could aid in optimizing medications doses given to crewmembers who require treatment and eventually, to development of new countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent radiation-induced damage to cells and tissues.

Wotring, V. E.; Peters, C. P.

2011-01-01

38

Key applications of plant metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field. PMID:24915445

Lau, Warren; Fischbach, Michael A; Osbourn, Anne; Sattely, Elizabeth S

2014-06-01

39

Key Applications of Plant Metabolic Engineering  

PubMed Central

Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field.

Lau, Warren; Fischbach, Michael A.; Osbourn, Anne; Sattely, Elizabeth S.

2014-01-01

40

The phylogenetic extent of metabolic enzymes and pathways.  

PubMed

The evolution of metabolic enzymes and pathways has been a subject of intense study for more than half a century. Yet, so far, previous studies have focused on a small number of enzyme families or biochemical pathways. Here, we examine the phylogenetic distribution of the full-known metabolic complement of Escherichia coli, using sequence comparison against taxa-specific databases. Half of the metabolic enzymes have homologs in all domains of life, representing families involved in some of the most fundamental cellular processes. We thus show for the first time and in a comprehensive way that metabolism is conserved at the enzyme level. In addition, our analysis suggests that despite the sequence conservation and the extensive phylogenetic distribution of metabolic enzymes, their groupings into biochemical pathways are much more variable than previously thought. PMID:12618373

Peregrin-Alvarez, José Manuel; Tsoka, Sophia; Ouzounis, Christos A

2003-03-01

41

Potential activities of androgen metabolizing enzymes in human prostate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The entire androgen metabolism of the human prostate is an integral part of the DHT mediated cellular processes, which eventually give rise to the androgen responsiveness of the prostate. Therefore, the potential activities of various androgen metabolizing enzymes were studied. Moreover, the impact of aging on the androgen metabolism and the inhibition of 5?-reductase by finasteride were studied. In epithelium

Michael Krieg; Heike Weisser; Sabine Tunn

1995-01-01

42

[Key enzymes in butanol fermentation by a facultative anaerobe Bacillus sp. TSH1].  

PubMed

Bacillus sp. TSH1 is a butanol-producing microorganism newly isolated in our laboratory; it can grow and ferment under facultative anaerobic conditions, while sharing similar fermentation pathways and products with Clostridium acetobutylicum. To illustrate the relationships between the products and the enzyme activities in Bacillus sp. TSH1, key butanol- and ethanol-forming enzymes were studied, including butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, butanol dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The activities of the three enzymes increased rapidly after the initiation of fermentation. Activities of three enzymes peaked before 21 h, and simultaneously, product concentrations also began to increase gradually. The maximum activity of alcohol dehydrogenase was 0.054 U/mg at 12 h, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase 0.035 U/mg at 21 h and butanol dehydrogenase 0.055 U/mg at 15 h. The enzyme activities then decreased, but remained constant at a low level after 24 h, while the concentrations of butanol, acetone, and ethanol continued increasing until the end of the fermentation. The results will attribute to the understanding of the butanol metabolic mechanism, and provide a reference for further study of a facultative Bacillus metabolic pathway. PMID:24010360

Duan, Xiaorui; Wang, Genyu; Liu, Hongjuan; Xue, Jianwei; Zhang, Jian'an

2013-05-01

43

Identifying metabolic enzymes with multiple types of association evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Existing large-scale metabolic models of sequenced organisms commonly include enzymatic functions which can not be attributed to any gene in that organism. Existing computational strategies for identifying such missing genes rely primarily on sequence homology to known enzyme-encoding genes. Results: We present a novel method for identifying genes encoding for a specific metabolic function based on a local structure

Peter Kharchenko; Lifeng Chen; Yoav Freund; Dennis Vitkup; George M. Church

2006-01-01

44

[Progress in study on microbial enzymes for the metabolism of environmental refractory organic compounds].  

PubMed

With the rapid development of socialization and industrialization, more and more pollutes were produced and discharged into natural environment. It is harmful to human health and life. These pollutes included refractory degradation organic compounds like PAHs, RDX, HMX, CL-20, PCBs and alkanes and their relative substances. Various compounds exist in nature with long life span. They are the most hazardous than other organics. The impact of pollutes can be treated by microorganisms. Results showed that it is an effective way for bioremediation of these pollutes with microbial metabolism or cometabolism. A few key enzymes, mainly oxidative and reductive enzymes, connected with the first step of initial degradation. Normally, enzymes grouped with other active fraction on the cell membrane are composed of one oxidative and reductive system for substrates oxidation. The metabolic intermediates can be used with TCA by microorganisms. The pathways of metabolism and the key enzymes were summarized. The further research topics should be focused on microorganism screen and its relative enzyme, pathway and mechanism of metabolism or cometabolism for such compounds degradation, and the result was hoped for the environmental protection. PMID:20352962

Wu, Ke; Pan, Renrui; Cai, Jingmin; Liu, Bin

2009-12-01

45

Bedaquiline metabolism: enzymes and novel metabolites.  

PubMed

Bedaquiline is a recently approved drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Adverse cardiac and hepatic drug reactions to bedaquiline have been noted in clinical practice. The current study investigated bedaquiline metabolism in human hepatocytes using a metabolomic approach. Bedaquiline N-demethylation via CYP3A4 was confirmed as the major pathway in bedaquiline metabolism. In addition to CYP3A4, we found that both CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 contributed to bedaquiline N-demethylation. The Km values of CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 in bedaquiline N-demethylation were 13.1, 21.3, and 8.5 µM, respectively. We also identified a novel metabolic pathway of bedaquiline that produced an aldehyde intermediate. In summary, this study extended our knowledge of bedaquiline metabolism, which can be applied to predict and prevent drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions associated with bedaquiline. PMID:24513655

Liu, Ke; Li, Feng; Lu, Jie; Liu, Shinlan; Dorko, Kenneth; Xie, Wen; Ma, Xiaochao

2014-05-01

46

Control of key metabolic intersections in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

The remarkable ability of bacteria to adapt efficiently to a wide range of nutritional environments reflects their use of overlapping regulatory systems that link gene expression to intracellular pools of a small number of key metabolites. By integrating the activities of global regulators, such as CcpA, CodY and TnrA, Bacillus subtilis manages traffic through two metabolic intersections that determine the flow of carbon and nitrogen to and from crucial metabolites, such as pyruvate, 2-oxoglutarate and glutamate. Here, the latest knowledge on the control of these key intersections in B. subtilis is reviewed. PMID:17982469

Sonenshein, Abraham L

2007-12-01

47

Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 2; The Distribution of Selected Enzymes and Amino Acids in the Hippocampal Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six key metabolic enzymes plus glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as glutamate, aspartate and GABA, were measured in 11 regions of the hippocampal formation of synchronous, flight and tail suspension rats. Major differences were observed in the normal distribution patterns of each enzyme and amino acid, but no substantive effects of either microgravity or tail suspension on these patterns were clearly demonstrated.

Lowry, O. H.; Krasnov, I.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Nemeth, P. M.; McDougal, D. B., Jr.; Choksi, R.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M. Y.; Manchester, J. K.; Pusateri, M. E.

1994-01-01

48

Regulation of yeast central metabolism by enzyme phosphorylation  

PubMed Central

As a frequent post-translational modification, protein phosphorylation regulates many cellular processes. Although several hundred phosphorylation sites have been mapped to metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, functionality was demonstrated for few of them. Here, we describe a novel approach to identify in vivo functionality of enzyme phosphorylation by combining flux analysis with proteomics and phosphoproteomics. Focusing on the network of 204 enzymes that constitute the yeast central carbon and amino-acid metabolism, we combined protein and phosphoprotein levels to identify 35 enzymes that change their degree of phosphorylation during growth under five conditions. Correlations between previously determined intracellular fluxes and phosphoprotein abundances provided first functional evidence for five novel phosphoregulated enzymes in this network, adding to nine known phosphoenzymes. For the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E1 ? subunit Pda1 and the newly identified phosphoregulated glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Gpd1 and phosphofructose-1-kinase complex ? subunit Pfk2, we then validated functionality of specific phosphosites through absolute peptide quantification by targeted mass spectrometry, metabolomics and physiological flux analysis in mutants with genetically removed phosphosites. These results demonstrate the role of phosphorylation in controlling the metabolic flux realised by these three enzymes.

Oliveira, Ana Paula; Ludwig, Christina; Picotti, Paola; Kogadeeva, Maria; Aebersold, Ruedi; Sauer, Uwe

2012-01-01

49

Original Article: Metabolism Inflammation, hepatic enzymes and resistance training in individuals with metabolic risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Increases in inflammatory markers, hepatic enzymes and physical inactivity are associated with the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We examined whether inflammatory markers and hepatic enzymes are correlated with traditional risk factors for MetS and studied the effects of resistance training (RT) on these emerging risk factors in individuals with a high number of metabolic risk factors (HiMF,

I. Levinger; C. Goodman; J. Peake; A. Garnham; D. L. Hare; G. Jerums; S. Selig

2009-01-01

50

2D SMARTCyp reactivity-based site of metabolism prediction for major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2 are the most important drug-metabolizing enzymes in the human liver. Knowledge of which parts of a drug molecule are subject to metabolic reactions catalyzed by these enzymes is crucial for rational drug design to mitigate ADME/toxicity issues. SMARTCyp, a recently developed 2D ligand structure-based method, is able to predict site-specific metabolic reactivity of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 substrates with an accuracy that rivals the best and more computationally demanding 3D structure-based methods. In this article, the SMARTCyp approach was extended to predict the metabolic hotspots for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 substrates. This was accomplished by taking into account the impact of a key substrate-receptor recognition feature of each enzyme as a correction term to the SMARTCyp reactivity. The corrected reactivity was then used to rank order the likely sites of CYP-mediated metabolic reactions. For 60 CYP1A2 substrates, the observed major sites of CYP1A2 catalyzed metabolic reactions were among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 positions in 67%, 80%, and 83% of the cases, respectively. The results were similar to those obtained by MetaSite and the reactivity + docking approach. For 70 CYP2C9 substrates, the observed sites of CYP2C9 metabolism were among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 positions in 66%, 86%, and 87% of the cases, respectively. These results were better than the corresponding results of StarDrop version 5.0, which were 61%, 73%, and 77%, respectively. For 36 compounds metabolized by CYP2C19, the observed sites of metabolism were found to be among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 sites in 78%, 89%, and 94% of the cases, respectively. The computational procedure was implemented as an extension to the program SMARTCyp 2.0. With the extension, the program can now predict the site of metabolism for all five major drug-metabolizing enzymes with an accuracy similar to or better than that achieved by the best 3D structure-based methods. Both the Java source code and the binary executable of the program are freely available to interested users. PMID:22631565

Liu, Ruifeng; Liu, Jin; Tawa, Greg; Wallqvist, Anders

2012-06-25

51

Key Building Blocks via Enzyme-Mediated Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocatalytic approaches to valuable building blocks in organic synthesis have emerged as an important tool in the last few years. While first applications were mainly based on hydrolases, other enzyme classes such as oxidoreductases or lyases moved into the focus of research. Nowadays, a vast number of biotransformations can be found in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries delivering fine chemicals or drugs. The mild reaction conditions, high stereo-, regio-, and chemoselectivities, and the often shortened reaction pathways lead to economical and ecological advantages of enzymatic conversions. Due to the enormous number of enzyme-mediated syntheses, the present chapter is not meant to be a complete review, but to deliver comprehensive insights into well established enzymatic systems and recent advances in the application of enzymes in natural product synthesis. Furthermore, it is focused on the most frequently used enzymes or enzyme classes not covered elsewhere in the present volume.

Fischer, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jörg

52

Filament formation by metabolic enzymes is a specific adaptation to an advanced state of cellular starvation  

PubMed Central

One of the key questions in biology is how the metabolism of a cell responds to changes in the environment. In budding yeast, starvation causes a drop in intracellular pH, but the functional role of this pH change is not well understood. Here, we show that the enzyme glutamine synthetase (Gln1) forms filaments at low pH and that filament formation leads to enzymatic inactivation. Filament formation by Gln1 is a highly cooperative process, strongly dependent on macromolecular crowding, and involves back-to-back stacking of cylindrical homo-decamers into filaments that associate laterally to form higher order fibrils. Other metabolic enzymes also assemble into filaments at low pH. Hence, we propose that filament formation is a general mechanism to inactivate and store key metabolic enzymes during a state of advanced cellular starvation. These findings have broad implications for understanding the interplay between nutritional stress, the metabolism and the physical organization of a cell. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02409.001

Petrovska, Ivana; Nuske, Elisabeth; Munder, Matthias C; Kulasegaran, Gayathrie; Malinovska, Liliana; Kroschwald, Sonja; Richter, Doris; Fahmy, Karim; Gibson, Kimberley; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Simon

2014-01-01

53

Prolyl 4-hydroxylases, the key enzymes of collagen biosynthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), enzymes residing within the endoplasmic reticulum, have a central role in the biosynthesis of collagens. In addition, cytoplasmic P4Hs play a critical role in the regulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF?. Collagen and HIF P4Hs constitute enzyme families as several isoenzymes have been identified. Two catalytic ? subunit isoforms have been cloned and characterized

Johanna Myllyharju

2003-01-01

54

Increased enzyme secretion by 2-deoxy- d-glucose in presence of succinate by suppression of metabolic enzymes in Termitomyces clypeatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory mode of secretion of proteins was detected for the industrial glycosidase, cellobiase, under secreting conditions (in presence of TCA cycle intermediates like succinate etc.) in the filamentous fungus Termitomyces clypeatus. The titers of key metabolic enzymes were investigated under secreting and non-secreting conditions of growth and compared to the corresponding production of intra and extracellular levels of cellobiase. Results

Swagata Pal; Samudra Prosad Banik; Shakuntala Ghorai; Sudeshna Chowdhury; Suman Khowala

2011-01-01

55

Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes in Mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most administered pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver and exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. Additionally, it has been previous noted that pre-exposure to small radiation doses seems to confer protection against later and larger radiation doses. This protective power of pre-exposure has been called a priming effect or radioadaptation. This study is an effort to examine the drug metabolizing effects of radioadaptation mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses.

Wotring, V. E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

2011-01-01

56

Dynamic Reorganization of Metabolic Enzymes into Intracellular Bodies  

PubMed Central

Both focused and large-scale cell biological and biochemical studies have revealed that hundreds of metabolic enzymes across diverse organisms form large intracellular bodies. These proteinaceous bodies range in form from fibers and intracellular foci—such as those formed by enzymes of nitrogen and carbon utilization and of nucleotide biosynthesis—to high-density packings inside bacterial microcompartments and eukaryotic microbodies. Although many enzymes clearly form functional mega-assemblies, it is not yet clear for many recently discovered cases whether they represent functional entities, storage bodies, or aggregates. In this article, we survey intracellular protein bodies formed by metabolic enzymes, asking when and why such bodies form and what their formation implies for the functionality—and dysfunctionality—of the enzymes that comprise them. The panoply of intracellular protein bodies also raises interesting questions regarding their evolution and maintenance within cells. We speculate on models for how such structures form in the first place and why they may be inevitable.

O'Connell, Jeremy D.; Zhao, Alice; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

2013-01-01

57

Serine palmitoyltransferase, a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first step in the biosynthesis of sphingolipids is the condensation of serine and palmitoyl CoA, a reaction catalyzed by serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) to produce 3-ketodihydrosphingosine (KDS). This review focuses on recent advances in the biochemistry and molecular biology of SPT. SPT belongs to a family of pyridoxal 5?-phosphate (PLP)-dependent ?-oxoamine synthases (POAS). Mammalian SPT is a heterodimer of 53-kDa

Kentaro Hanada

2003-01-01

58

Induction of rat liver drug-metabolizing enzymes by tetrachloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tetrachloroethylene on Phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver was examined. Rats were treated orally with tetrachloroethylene daily for five days, at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg\\/kg. The higher doses (>500 mg\\/kg) of tetrachloroethylene induced the hepatic microsomal 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase and 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase activities associated with the CYP2B subfamily. 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase

N. Hanioka; H. Jinno; T. Toyo'oka; T. Nishimura; M. Ando

1995-01-01

59

Engineering isoflavone metabolism with an artificial bifunctional enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant secondary metabolism has been a focus of research in recent years due to its significant roles in plant defense and\\u000a in human medicine and nutrition. A protein engineering strategy was designed to more effectively manipulate plant secondary\\u000a metabolite (isoflavonoid) biosynthesis. A bifunctional isoflavone synthase\\/chalcone isomerase (IFS\\/CHI) enzyme was constructed\\u000a by in-frame gene fusion, and expressed in yeast and tobacco.

L. Tian; R. A. Dixon

2006-01-01

60

Effects of lignans on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of lignans, related to macelignan, on hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme (DME) activity were evaluated\\u000a to elucidate the structure-activity relationship in mice and rats. The compounds carrying the methylenedioxyphenyl nucleus\\u000a were found to be the most potent among compounds tested; which not only produced a marked inhibition of DME with a single\\u000a dose but a significant induction with repeated

Kuk Hyun Shin; Won Sick Woo; Jung Yun Lee; Yong Bong Han

1990-01-01

61

Elucidation of metabolic pathways from enzyme classification data.  

PubMed

The IUBMB Enzyme List is widely used by other databases as a source for avoiding ambiguity in the recognition of enzymes as catalytic entities. However, it was not designed for metabolic pathway tracing, which has become increasingly important in systems biology. A Reactions Database has been created from the material in the Enzyme List to allow reactions to be searched by substrate/product, and pathways to be traced from any selected starting/seed substrate. An extensive synonym glossary allows searches by many of the alternative names, including accepted abbreviations, by which a chemical compound may be known. This database was necessary for the development of the application Reaction Explorer ( http://www.reaction-explorer.org ), which was written in Real Studio ( http://www.realsoftware.com/realstudio/ ) to search the Reactions Database and draw metabolic pathways from reactions selected by the user. Having input the name of the starting compound (the "seed"), the user is presented with a list of all reactions containing that compound and then selects the product of interest as the next point on the ensuing graph. The pathway diagram is then generated as the process iterates. A contextual menu is provided, which allows the user: (1) to remove a compound from the graph, along with all associated links; (2) to search the reactions database again for additional reactions involving the compound; (3) to search for the compound within the Enzyme List. PMID:24218216

McDonald, Andrew G; Tipton, Keith F

2014-01-01

62

Carbon Metabolism Enzymes of Rhizobium tropici Cultures and Bacteroids  

PubMed Central

We determined the activities of selected enzymes involved in carbon metabolism in free-living cells of Rhizobium tropici CFN299 grown in minimal medium with different carbon sources and in bacteroids of the same strain. The set of enzymatic activities in sucrose-grown cells suggests that the pentose phosphate pathway, with the participation of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, is probably the primary route for sugar catabolism. In glutamate- and malate-grown cells, high activities of the gluconeogenic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose-6-phosphate aldolase, and fructose bisphosphatase) were detected. In bacteroids, isolated in Percoll gradients, the levels of activity for many of the enzymes measured were similar to those of malate-grown cells, except that higher activities of glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were detected. Phosphoglucomutase and UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase showed high and constant levels under all growth conditions and in bacteroids.

Romanov, Vassily I.; Hernandez-Lucas, Ismael; Martinez-Romero, Esperanza

1994-01-01

63

The tangled past of eukaryotic enzymes involved in anaerobic metabolism  

PubMed Central

There is little doubt that genes can spread across unrelated prokaryotes, eukaryotes and even between these domains. It is expected that organisms inhabiting a common niche may exchange their genes even more often due to their physical proximity and similar demands. One such niche is anaerobic or microaerophilic environments in some sediments and intestines of animals. Indeed, enzymes advantageous for metabolism in these environments often exhibit an evolutionary history incoherent with the history of their hosts indicating potential transfers. The evolutionary paths of some very basic enzymes for energy metabolism of anaerobic eukaryotes (pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, [FeFe]hydrogenase and arginine deiminase) seems to be particularly intriguing and although their histories are not identical they share several unexpected features in common. Every enzyme mentioned above is present in groups of eukaryotes that are unrelated to each other. Although the enzyme phylogenies are not always robustly supported, they always suggest that the eukaryotic homologues form one or two clades, in which the relationships are not congruent with the eukaryotic phylogeny. Finally, these eukaryotic enzymes are never specifically related to homologues from ?-proteobacteria, ancestors of mitochondria. The most plausible explanation for evolution of this pattern expects one or two interdomain transfers to one or two eukaryotes from prokaryotes, who were not the mitochondrial endosymbiont. Once the genes were introduced into the eukaryotic domain they have spread to other eukaryotic groups exclusively via eukaryote-to-eukaryote transfers. Currently, eukaryote-to-eukaryote gene transfers have been regarded as less common than prokaryote-to-eukaryote transfers. The fact that eukaryotes accepted genes for these enzymes solely from other eukaryotes and not prokaryotes present in the same environment is surprising.

Stairs, Courtney W; Roger, Andrew J

2011-01-01

64

Induction of Lipid Metabolic Enzymes during the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Plants1  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a signal transduction pathway activated by the perturbation of normal ER metabolism. We used the maize (Zea mays) floury-2 (fl2) mutant and soybean (Glycine max) suspension cultures treated with tunicamycin (Tm) to investigate the ER stress response as it relates to phospholipid metabolism in plants. Four key phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes, including DG kinase and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-phosphate 5-kinase were up-regulated in the fl2 mutant, specifically in protein body fractions where the mutation has its greatest effect. The third up-regulated enzyme, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, was regulated by fl2 gene dosage and developmental signals. Elevated accumulation of the fourth enzyme, PI 4-kinase, was observed in the fl2 endosperm and soybean cells treated with Tm. The activation of these phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes was accompanied by alterations in membrane lipid synthesis and accumulation. The fl2 mutant exhibited increased PI content in protein body membranes at 18 d after pollination and more than 3-fold higher triacylglycerol accumulation in the endosperm by 36 d after pollination. Incorporation of radiolabeled acetate into phospholipids in soybean culture cells increased by about 30% with Tm treatment. The coordinated regulation of ER stress related proteins and multiple components of phospholipid biosynthesis is consistent with signaling through a common pathway. We postulate that the plant ER stress response has an important role in general plant metabolism, and more specifically in integrating the synthesis of protein and lipid reserves to allow proper seed formation.

Shank, Karin J.; Su, Pei; Brglez, Irena; Boss, Wendy F.; Dewey, Ralph E.; Boston, Rebecca S.

2001-01-01

65

Prolyl 4-hydroxylases, the key enzymes of collagen biosynthesis.  

PubMed

The collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), enzymes residing within the endoplasmic reticulum, have a central role in the biosynthesis of collagens. In addition, cytoplasmic P4Hs play a critical role in the regulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIFalpha. Collagen and HIF P4Hs constitute enzyme families as several isoenzymes have been identified. Two catalytic alpha subunit isoforms have been cloned and characterized for collagen P4Hs from vertebrates, both of them assembling into alpha(2)beta(2) P4H tetramers in which protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) acts as the beta subunit. The catalytic properties of the two isoenzymes are very similar, but distinct differences are found in the binding properties of peptide substrates and inhibitors, and major differences are seen in the expression patterns of the isoenzymes. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has five P4H alpha subunit isoforms, PHY1-PHY5. The C. elegans PHY1 and PHY2, together with PDI, are expressed in the collagen synthesizing hypodermal cells and three P4H forms are assembled from them, a PHY-1/PHY-2/PDI(2) mixed tetramer and PHY-1/PDI and PHY-2/PDI dimers. The mixed tetramer is the main P4H form in wild-type C. elegans. PHY-3 is much shorter than PHY-1 and PHY-2, has a unique expression pattern, and is most likely involved in the synthesis of collagens in early embryos. The genome of Drosophila melanogaster contains approximately 20 P4H alpha subunit-related genes, and that of Arabidopsis thaliana six. One A. thaliana P4H has been cloned and shown to be a soluble monomer with several unexpected properties. It effectively hydroxylates poly(L-proline), (Pro-Pro-Gly)(10) and many other proline-containing peptides. PMID:12714038

Myllyharju, Johanna

2003-03-01

66

Inhibition of key digestive enzymes by cocoa extracts and procyanidins.  

PubMed

This study determined the in vitro inhibitory effects of cocoa extracts and procyanidins against pancreatic ?-amylase (PA), pancreatic lipase (PL), and secreted phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) and characterized the kinetics of such inhibition. Lavado, regular, and Dutch-processed cocoa extracts as well as cocoa procyanidins (degree of polymerization (DP) = 2-10) were examined. Cocoa extracts and procyanidins dose-dependently inhibited PA, PL, and PLA(2). Lavado cocoa extract was the most potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 8.5-47 ?g/mL). An inverse correlation between log IC(50) and DP (R(2) > 0.93) was observed. Kinetic analysis suggested that regular cocoa extract, the pentamer, and decamer inhibited PL activity in a mixed mode. The pentamer and decamer noncompetitively inhibited PLA(2) activity, whereas regular cocoa extract inhibited PLA(2) competitively. This study demonstrates that cocoa polyphenols can inhibit digestive enzymes in vitro and may, in conjunction with a low-calorie diet, play a role in body weight management. PMID:21495725

Gu, Yeyi; Hurst, William J; Stuart, David A; Lambert, Joshua D

2011-05-25

67

Modulation of key enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and TCA cycle of the tropical freshwater fish Labeo rohita fed gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60-day experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) starch on the key\\u000a metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6\\u000a phosphatase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase), protein metabolism (aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase),\\u000a and TCA cycle (malate dehydrogenase) in Labeo rohita juveniles. In the analysis, 234 juveniles

Vikas Kumar; N. P. Sahu; A. K. Pal; Shivendra Kumar; Amit Kumar Sinha; Jayant Ranjan; Kartik Baruah

2010-01-01

68

Unusual pathways and enzymes of central carbohydrate metabolism in Archaea.  

PubMed

Sugar-utilizing hyperthermophilic and halophilic Archaea degrade glucose and glucose polymers to acetate or to CO2 using O2, nitrate, sulfur or sulfate as electron acceptors. Comparative analyses of glycolytic pathways in these organisms indicate a variety of differences from the classical Emden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathways that are operative in Bacteria and Eukarya, respectively. The archaeal pathways are characterized by the presence of numerous novel enzymes and enzyme families that catalyze, for example, the phosphorylation of glucose and of fructose 6-phosphate, the isomerization of glucose 6-phosphate, the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, the oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate. Recent major advances in deciphering the complexity of archaeal central carbohydrate metabolism were gained by combination of classical biochemical and genomic-based approaches. PMID:16256419

Siebers, Bettina; Schönheit, Peter

2005-12-01

69

Drug metabolizing enzyme systems in the houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata).  

PubMed

This study compared catalytic and immunochemical properties of drug metabolizing phase I and II enzyme systems in houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata) liver and kidney and rat liver. P450 content in bustard liver (0.34 +/- 0.03 nmol mg-1 protein) was 50% lower than that of rat liver (0.70 +/- 0.02 nmol mg-1 protein). With the exception of aniline hydroxylase activity, monooxygenase activities using aminopyrine, ethoxyresorufin and ethoxycoumarin as substrates were all significantly lower than corresponding rat liver enzymes. As found in mammalian systems the P450 activities in the bird liver were higher than in the kidney. Immunohistochemical analysis of microsomes using antibodies to rat hepatic P450 demonstrated that bustard liver and kidney express P4502C11 homologous protein; no appreciable cross-reactivity was observed in bustards using antibodies to P4502E1, 1A1 or 1A2 isoenzymes. Glutathione content and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in bustard liver were comparable with those of rat liver. GST activity in the kidney was 65% lower than the liver. Western blotting of liver and kidney cytosol with human GST isoenzyme-specific antibodies revealed that the expression of alpha-class of antibodies exceeds mu in the bustard. In contrast, the pi-class of GST was not detected in the bustard liver. This data demonstrates that hepatic and renal microsomes from the bustard have multiple forms of phase I and phase II enzymes. The multiplicity and tissue specific expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in bustards may play a significant role in determining the pharmacokinetics of drugs and susceptibility of the birds to various environmental pollutants and toxic insults. PMID:9827052

Bailey, T A; John, A; Mensah-Brown, E P; Garner, A; Samour, J; Raza, H

1998-10-01

70

The metabolic enzyme CTP synthase forms cytoskeletal filaments.  

PubMed

Filament-forming cytoskeletal proteins are essential for the structure and organization of all cells. Bacterial homologues of the major eukaryotic cytoskeletal families have now been discovered, but studies suggest that yet more remain to be identified. We demonstrate that the metabolic enzyme CTP synthase (CtpS) forms filaments in Caulobacter crescentus. CtpS is bifunctional, as the filaments it forms regulate the curvature of C. crescentus cells independently of its catalytic function. The morphogenic role of CtpS requires its functional interaction with the intermediate filament, crescentin (CreS). Interestingly, the Escherichia coli CtpS homologue also forms filaments both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that CtpS polymerization may be widely conserved. E. coli CtpS can replace the enzymatic and morphogenic functions of C. crescentus CtpS, indicating that C. crescentus has adapted a conserved filament-forming protein for a secondary role. These results implicate CtpS as a novel bifunctional member of the bacterial cytoskeleton and suggest that localization and polymerization may be important properties of metabolic enzymes. PMID:20639870

Ingerson-Mahar, Michael; Briegel, Ariane; Werner, John N; Jensen, Grant J; Gitai, Zemer

2010-08-01

71

The pharmacogenetics of drug metabolizing enzymes in the Lebanese population.  

PubMed

Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) play a major role in the metabolism and final elimination of most drugs and xenobiotics from the body. Both phase I and phase II enzymes are highly polymorphic. Most studies on the pharmacogenetics (PGx) of DMEs and its influence on interindividual variability have been conducted in Western countries. Middle Easterners, however, may have a different genetic makeup and may be exposed to different environmental factors when compared with their Western counterparts. Thus, results obtained in Western populations cannot be extrapolated to the population of the Middle East, and it is important to examine and document PGx differences and influences within the Middle Eastern population as there have been very little published data from this region. Herein, we provide an update on the genetic polymorphisms of DMEs that were studied in Lebanon and their impact on drug toxicity and efficacy. It is hoped that with more time, additional funds, and perseverance, the PGx of DMEs in Lebanon picks up and becomes closer in quantity and quality to that in the West. PMID:24413215

Ossaily, Safaa; Zgheib, Nathalie K

2014-01-01

72

The Evolution of Enzyme Specificity in the Metabolic Replicator Model of Prebiotic Evolution  

PubMed Central

The chemical machinery of life must have been catalytic from the outset. Models of the chemical origins have attempted to explain the ecological mechanisms maintaining a minimum necessary diversity of prebiotic replicator enzymes, but little attention has been paid so far to the evolutionary initiation of that diversity. We propose a possible first step in this direction: based on our previous model of a surface-bound metabolic replicator system we try to explain how the adaptive specialization of enzymatic replicator populations might have led to more diverse and more efficient communities of cooperating replicators with two different enzyme activities. The key assumptions of the model are that mutations in the replicator population can lead towards a) both of the two different enzyme specificities in separate replicators: efficient “specialists” or b) a “generalist” replicator type with both enzyme specificities working at less efficiency, or c) a fast-replicating, non-enzymatic “parasite”. We show that under realistic trade-off constraints on the phenotypic effects of these mutations the evolved replicator community will be usually composed of both types of specialists and of a limited abundance of parasites, provided that the replicators can slowly migrate on the mineral surface. It is only at very weak trade-offs that generalists take over in a phase-transition-like manner. The parasites do not seriously harm the system but can freely mutate, therefore they can be considered as pre-adaptations to later, useful functions that the metabolic system can adopt to increase its own fitness.

Konnyu, Balazs; Czaran, Tamas

2011-01-01

73

MIT-led study finds turning on key enzyme blocks tumor formation  

Cancer.gov

Unlike ordinary cells, cancer cells devote most of their energy to reproducing themselves. To do this, they must trigger alternative metabolic pathways that produce new cellular building blocks, such as DNA, carbohydrates and lipids. Chemical compounds that disrupt an enzyme critical to this metabolic diversion prevent tumors from forming in mice, according to an MIT-led study appearing online in Nature Chemical Biology on Aug. 26. MIT is home to the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research.

74

2D SMARTCyp Reactivity-Based Site of Metabolism Prediction for Major Drug-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzymes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2 are the most important drug-metabolizing enzymes in the human liver. Knowledge of which parts of a drug molecule are subject to metabolic reactions catalyzed by these enzymes is crucial for rational drug ...

A. Wallqvist G. Tawa J. Liu R. Liu

2012-01-01

75

Induction of drug metabolizing enzymes by vitamin E.  

PubMed

Vitamin E is an essential micronutrient involved in various processes relevant to human health and disease. Although it has long been considered just as an antioxidant, it has now become clear that vitamin E has functions far exceeding that as an antioxidant. These include regulation of cellular signaling processes and gene expression. Expression control of enzymes involved in drug metabolism was recognized during the investigation of vitamin E degradation. Vitamin E is metabolized by side chain degradation initiated by an omega-hydroxylation, catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP). This mechanism is identical for all forms of vitamin E. The degree to which they are degraded, however, varies dramatically, and may, in part, explain their different biological activities. CYPs degrade various endogenous and exogenous compounds and many of them are induced by their substrates. Also, gamma-tocotrienol, identified as substrate of CYPs, increased endogenous CYP3A4 in human HepG2 cells. In two studies with mice undertaken independently, alpha-tocopherol induced Cyp3a11, the murine homolog to human CYP3A4, whereas neither gamma-tocopherol nor gamma-tocotrienol, due to rapid degradation, showed any effect. CYPs are induced via the activation of the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR), a member of the family of nuclear receptors. They are activated by a large number of lipophilic xenobiotics. Also, vitamin E induced a reporter gene driven by PXR. The induction was highest with alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol and low but significant with alpha-tocopherol. This roughly correlates with the in vitro binding of vitamin E to PXR. These findings reveal that, in principle, vitamin E is able to directly influence gene activity. They also raise the question of whether vitamin E may interfere with drug metabolism in humans. Related research is urgently deeded. PMID:16008107

Brigelius-Flohé, Regina

2005-07-01

76

Enzymes involved in l-lactate metabolism in humans.  

PubMed

l-lactate formation occurs via the reduction of pyruvate catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase. l-lactate removal takes place via its oxidation into pyruvate, which may be oxidized or converted into glucose. Pyruvate oxidation involves the cooperative effort of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Enzymes of the gluconeogenesis pathway sequentially convert pyruvate into glucose. In addition, pyruvate may undergo reversible transamination to alanine by alanine aminotransferase. Enzymes involved in l-lactate metabolism are crucial to diabetes pathophysiology and therapy. Elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase concentration has been associated with insulin resistance. Polymorphisms in the G6PC2 gene have been associated with fasting glucose concentration and insulin secretion. In diabetes patients, pyruvate dehydrogenase is down-regulated and the activity of pyruvate carboxylase is diminished in the pancreatic islets. Inhibitors of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase are being investigated as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes. In addition, enzymes implicated in l-lactate metabolism have revealed to be important in cancer cell homeostasis. Many human tumors have higher LDH5 levels than normal tissues. The LDHC gene is expressed in a broad range of tumors. The activation of PDH is a potential mediator in the body response that protects against cancer and PDH activation has been observed to reduce glioblastoma growth. The expression of PDK1 may serve as a biomarker of poor prognosis in gastric cancer. Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been detected in a number of human cancers. Genes encoding succinate dehydrogenase have tumor suppressor functions and consequently mutations in these genes may cause a variety of tumors. PMID:24029012

Adeva, M; González-Lucán, M; Seco, M; Donapetry, C

2013-11-01

77

Glucocorticoid metabolism and reproduction: a tale of two enzymes.  

PubMed

Within potential target cells, the actions of physiological glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) are modulated by isoforms of the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta HSD). To date, two isoforms of 11 beta HSD have been cloned: 11 beta HSD1 acts predominantly as an NADP(H)-dependent reductase to generate active cortisol or corticosterone, and 11 beta HSD2 is a high affinity NAD(+)-dependent enzyme that catalyses the enzymatic inactivation of glucocorticoids. Whereas the regeneration of active glucocorticoids by 11 beta HSD1 has been implicated in the cellular mechanisms of pituitary function, ovulation and parturition, the enzymatic inactivation of cortisol and corticosterone by 11 beta HSD enzymes appears to be central to the protection of gonadal steroidogenesis, prevention of intra-uterine growth retardation, and lactation. Recent evidence indicates that follicular fluid contains endogenous modulators of cortisol metabolism by 11 beta HSD1, the concentrations of which are associated with the clinical outcome of assisted conception cycles and are altered in cystic ovarian disease. In conclusion, the two cloned isoforms of 11 beta HSD fulfil diverse roles in a wide range of reproductive processes from conception to lactation. PMID:14525525

Michael, Anthony E; Thurston, Lisa M; Rae, Michael T

2003-10-01

78

Carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c): two key regulators of glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis in liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mammals, the regulation of hepatic metabolism plays a key role in whole body energy balance, since the liver is the major site of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and glycogen synthesis) and triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis). Lipogenesis is regulated through the acute control of key enzyme activities by means of allosteric and covalent modifications. Moreover, the synthesis of most glycolytic and lipogenic

Renaud Dentin; Jean Girard; Catherine Postic

2005-01-01

79

Autophagy-a key player in cellular and body metabolism.  

PubMed

Knowledge gained over the past 10 years about the mechanisms that underpin autophagy has provided a universal framework for studies of diverse physiological and pathological processes. Of particular interest is the emerging role of autophagy in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, both at the cellular level and within the organism as a whole. Dysregulation of autophagy might contribute to the development of metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. The authors of this Review highlight research findings on the regulation of cellular autophagy by nutrients. They also describe the role of autophagy in various tissues in the regulation of energy metabolism and the development of diseases related to altered metabolism. Finally, the potential of pharmacological modulation of autophagy as a treatment for human metabolic disorders is discussed. PMID:24663220

Kim, Kook Hwan; Lee, Myung-Shik

2014-06-01

80

Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Activity During Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Activities of drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are known to change throughout the course of physical and sexual maturation with the greatest variability noted during infancy and adolescence. The mechanisms responsible for developmental regulation of DME are currently unknown. However, the hormonal changes of puberty/adolescence provide a theoretical framework for understanding biochemical regulation of DME activity during growth and maturation. Important information regarding potential influences of growth and sex hormones can also be extrapolated from studies evaluating changes in activities of DMEs occurring as a consequence of physiologic, pathologic and/or pharmacologic hormonal fluctuations. Collectively, current data support the hypothesis that isoform-specific alterations in DME activity during adolescence are mediated via sex and/or growth hormones. Characterization of the underlying biochemical alterations responsible for developmental changes in DME activity will require additional studies in which relationships between DME and important hormonal axes are evaluated during the course of pubertal development.

Kennedy, M.J.

2009-01-01

81

Maternal smoking, xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants, and gastroschisis risk.  

PubMed

Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one proposed risk factor for gastroschisis, but reported associations have been modest, suggesting that differences in genetic susceptibility might play a role. We included 108 non-Hispanic white and 62 Hispanic families who had infants with gastroschisis, and 1,147 non-Hispanic white and 337 Hispanic families who had liveborn infants with no major structural birth defects (controls) in these analyses. DNA was extracted from buccal cells collected from infants and mothers, and information on periconceptional smoking history was obtained from maternal interviews, as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We analyzed five polymorphisms in three genes that code for enzymes involved in metabolism of some cigarette smoke constituents (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and NAT2). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) independently for maternal smoking and maternal and infant gene variants, and to assess joint associations of maternal smoking and maternal or infant gene variants with gastroschisis. In analyses adjusted for maternal age at delivery and stratified by maternal race-ethnicity, we identified three suggestive associations among 30 potential associations with sufficient numbers to calculate ORs: CYP1A1*2A for non-Hispanic white mothers who smoked periconceptionally (aOR?=?0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.98), and NAT2*6 for Hispanic non-smoking mothers (aOR?=?2.17, 95% CI 1.12-4.19) and their infants (aOR?=?2.11, 95% CI 1.00-4.48). This analysis does not support the occurrence of effect modification between periconceptional maternal smoking and most of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants assessed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24668907

Jenkins, Mary M; Reefhuis, Jennita; Gallagher, Margaret L; Mulle, Jennifer G; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Koontz, Deborah A; Sturchio, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Witte, John S; Richter, Patricia; Honein, Margaret A

2014-06-01

82

Carbohydrate Content and Enzyme Metabolism in Developing Canola Siliques.  

PubMed Central

Little biochemical information is available on carbohydrate metabolism in developing canola (Brassica napus L.) silique (pod) wall and seed tissues. This research examines the carbohydrate contents and sucrose (Suc) metabolic enzyme activities in different aged silique wall and seed tissues during oil filling. The silique wall partitioned photosynthate into Suc over starch and predominantly accumulated hexose. The silique wall hexose content and soluble acid invertase activity rapidly fell as embryos progressed from the early- to late-cotyledon developmental stages. A similar trend was not evident for alkaline invertase, Suc synthase (SuSy), and Suc-phosphate synthase. Silique wall SuSy activities were much higher than source leaves at all times and may serve to supply the substrate for secondary cell wall thickening. In young seeds starch was the predominant accumulated carbohydrate over the sampled developmental range. Seed hexose levels dropped as embryos developed from the early- to midcotyledon stage. Hexose and starch were localized to the testa or liquid endosperm, whereas Suc was evenly distributed among seed components. With the switch to oil accumulation, seed SuSy activity increased by 3.6-fold and soluble acid invertase activity decreased by 76%. These data provide valuable baseline knowledge for the genetic manipulation of canola seed carbon partitioning.

King, S. P.; Lunn, J. E.; Furbank, R. T.

1997-01-01

83

Decreased carbohydrate metabolism enzyme activities in the glaucomatous trabecular meshwork  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine whether activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes (aldolase, pyruvate kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase) are altered in the glaucomatous trabecular meshwork (TM) compared to controls. Methods Tissue specimens were obtained from trabeculectomy (n=45 open angle glaucoma; Caucasian, average age 61±8 years of age of both genders) and from cadaver eyes (n=15 control and n=5 glaucoma; Caucasian, average age 63±4 years of both genders). Protein extracts from TM tissue were prepared in a non-denaturing buffer containing 0.1% genapol. Aldolase activity was measured spectrophotometrically at 240 nm absorbance using reaction of 3-phosphoglycerate with hydrazine to form hydrazone. Pyruvate kinase activity was measured by coupling lactate dehydrogenase with NADPH and pyruvate absorbance was measured at 340 nm. Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity was measured using reduction of NADP to NADPH at the characteristic absorbance at 340 nm. Malate dehydrogenase catalyzes the interconversion of L-malate and oxaloacetate using NADP as a coenzyme, quantified by its absorbance at 340 nm. Results Aldolase, pyruvate kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and malate dehyrogenase activities in the glaucomatous TM tissue were found to be reduced 70, 50, 25, and 69 percent, respectively. SDS–PAGE analysis suggests the presence of 4-hydorxynonenal (HNE) modified isocitrate dehydrogenase protein in the glaucomatous TM tissue compared to controls. Conclusions Several Krebs cycle enzyme activities are considerably reduced in glaucomatous TM. HNE modified isocitrate dehydrogenase activity is consistent with reduced inactivated form of the protein. Lipid peroxidation product modification of aldolase, pyruvate kinase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase serves as a likely reason for the reduction of enzyme activity.

Goel, Manik; Mundorf, Tom; Rockwood, Edward J.; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K.

2010-01-01

84

Energetic cell sensors: a key to metabolic homeostasis.  

PubMed

Recent breakthrough studies suggest that metabolic signals such as AMP/NAD(+) and acetyl-CoA during fasting and feeding, respectively, translate the energetic cell status into specific transcriptional metabolic programs. Notably, NAD(+) and acetyl-CoA modulate chromatin packaging and gene expression as substrates of histone deacetylases or histone acetyltransferases, respectively. These energetic sensors regulate circadian rhythms and their related physiological processes. In addition, NAD(+) indirectly activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) during fasting, whereas acetyl-CoA inactivates PGC-1alpha upon feeding. In this review, we focus on recent evidence supporting the concept of an energetic code by which metabolic sensors control homeostasis during fasting and feeding and discuss its relevance to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. PMID:19819719

Naďmi, Mourad; Arous, Caroline; Van Obberghen, Emmanuel

2010-02-01

85

PGC-1{alpha}: a key regulator of energy metabolism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} is a member of a family of transcription coactivators that plays a central role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. This makes it an inviting target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

Huiyun Liang (University of Texas Health Science Center Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies); Walter F. Ward (University of Texas Health Science Center Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies)

2006-12-01

86

Life-history evolution and the microevolution of intermediary metabolism: activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in life-history morphs of a wing-dimorphic cricket.  

PubMed

Although a considerable amount of information is available on the ecology, genetics, and physiology of life-history traits, much more limited data are available on the biochemical and genetic correlates of life-history variation within species. Specific activities of five enzymes of lipid biosynthesis and two enzymes of amino acid catabolism were compared among lines selected for flight-capable (LW[f]) versus flightless (SW) morphs of the cricket Gryllus firmus. These morphs, which exist in natural populations, differ genetically in ovarian growth (100-400% higher in SW) and aspects of flight capability including the size of wings and flight muscles, and the concentration of triglyceride flight fuel (40% greater in LW[f]). Consistently higher activity of each enzyme in LW(f) versus SW-selected lines, and strong co-segregation between morph and enzyme activity, demonstrated genetically based co-variance between wing morph and enzyme activity. Developmental profiles of enzyme activities strongly paralleled profiles of triglyceride accumulation during adulthood and previous measures of in vivo lipid biosynthesis. These data strongly imply that genetically based elevation in activities of lipogenic enzymes, and enzymes controlling the conversion of amino acids into lipids, is an important cause underlying the elevated accumulation of triglyceride in the LW(f) morph, a key biochemical component of the trade-off between elevated early fecundity and flight capability. Global changes in lipid and amino-acid metabolism appear to have resulted from microevolutionary alteration of regulators of metabolism. Finally, strong genotype x environment (diet) interactions were observed for most enzyme activities. Future progress in understanding the functional causes of life-history evolution requires a more detailed synthesis of the fields of life-history evolution and metabolic biochemistry. Wing polymorphism is a powerful experimental model in such integrative studies. PMID:12703948

Zera, Anthony J; Zhao, Zhangwu

2003-03-01

87

Effect of Chromium(VI) Toxicity on Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism in Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.).  

PubMed

Heavy metals are the intrinsic component of the environment with both essential and nonessential types. Their excessive levels pose a threat to plant growth and yield. Also, some heavy metals are toxic to plants even at very low concentrations. The present investigation (a pot experiment) was conducted to determine the affects of varying chromium(VI) levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0?mg chromium(VI)?kg(-1) soil in the form of potassium dichromate) on the key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in clusterbean. Chromium treatment adversely affect nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate dehydrogenase in various plant organs at different growth stages as specific enzyme activity of these enzymes decreased with an increase in chromium(VI) levels from 0 to 2.0?mg chromium(VI)?kg(-1) soil and 4.0?mg chromium(VI)?kg(-1) soil was found to be lethal to clusterbean plants. In general, the enzyme activity increased with advancement of growth to reach maximum at flowering stage and thereafter decreased at grain filling stage. PMID:24744916

Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Vinod; Joshi, U N

2014-01-01

88

Increased enzyme secretion by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in presence of succinate by suppression of metabolic enzymes in Termitomyces clypeatus.  

PubMed

Regulatory mode of secretion of proteins was detected for the industrial glycosidase, cellobiase, under secreting conditions (in presence of TCA cycle intermediates like succinate etc.) in the filamentous fungus Termitomyces clypeatus. The titers of key metabolic enzymes were investigated under secreting and non-secreting conditions of growth and compared to the corresponding production of intra and extracellular levels of cellobiase. Results were compared in presence of 2-deoxy-D-glucose, a potent glycosylation inhibitor in the secreting media. Inclusion of 2-deoxy-D-glucose in presence of succinate caused about 10 to 100 times decrease in titers of the metabolic enzymes hexokinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, isocitrate lyase and malate dehydrogenase leading to increased secretion of cellobiase by more than 100 times. The intracellular concentration of cAMP (86-fold decrease in presence of 2-deoxy-D-glucose under secreting conditions) and turnover rate of proteins also dropped significantly. In this suppressed metabolic state, a 10-fold increase in the titer of the secreted cellobiase was noticed. The results indicated elucidation of carbon catabolite repression like phenomenon in the fungus under secreting conditions which was more pronounced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose. The interdependence between secretion and regulation of metabolic enzymes will help in better understanding of the physiology of these highly adapted organisms for increasing their secretion potential of glycosidases like cellobiase with high industrial value. PMID:21920514

Pal, Swagata; Banik, Samudra Prosad; Ghorai, Shakuntala; Chowdhury, Sudeshna; Khowala, Suman

2011-11-01

89

Metabolism as a key to histone deacetylase inhibition  

PubMed Central

There is growing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated in cancer and other human pathologies. Under this broad umbrella, modulators of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity have gained interest as both cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. Of the first generation, FDA-approved HDAC inhibitors to have progressed to clinical trials, vorinostat represents a “direct acting” compound with structural features suitable for docking into the HDAC pocket, whereas romidepsin can be considered a prodrug that undergoes reductive metabolism to generate the active intermediate (a zinc-binding thiol). It is now evident that other agents, including those in the human diet, can be converted by metabolism to intermediates that affect HDAC activity. Examples are cited of short-chain fatty acids, seleno-?-keto acids, small molecule thiols, mercapturic acid metabolites, indoles, and polyphenols. The findings are discussed in the context of putative endogenous HDAC inhibitors generated by intermediary metabolism (e.g. pyruvate), the yin–yang of HDAC inhibition versus HDAC activation, and the screening assays that might be most appropriate for discovery of novel HDAC inhibitors in the future.

Rajendran, Praveen; Williams, David E.; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H.

2012-01-01

90

Metabolism as a key to histone deacetylase inhibition.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated in cancer and other human pathologies. Under this broad umbrella, modulators of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity have gained interest as both cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. Of the first generation, FDA-approved HDAC inhibitors to have progressed to clinical trials, vorinostat represents a "direct acting" compound with structural features suitable for docking into the HDAC pocket, whereas romidepsin can be considered a prodrug that undergoes reductive metabolism to generate the active intermediate (a zinc-binding thiol). It is now evident that other agents, including those in the human diet, can be converted by metabolism to intermediates that affect HDAC activity. Examples are cited of short-chain fatty acids, seleno-?-keto acids, small molecule thiols, mercapturic acid metabolites, indoles, and polyphenols. The findings are discussed in the context of putative endogenous HDAC inhibitors generated by intermediary metabolism (e.g. pyruvate), the yin-yang of HDAC inhibition versus HDAC activation, and the screening assays that might be most appropriate for discovery of novel HDAC inhibitors in the future. PMID:21599534

Rajendran, Praveen; Williams, David E; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H

2011-06-01

91

Characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in bovine small intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

The intestinal mucosa plays a capital role in dictating the bioavailability of a large array of orally ingested drugs and toxicants. The activity and the expression of several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes were measured in subcellular fractions from the duodenal mucosa of male veal calves and beef cattle displaying a functional rumen but differing in both age (about 8 months vs. 18 to 24 months) and dietary regimens (i.e., milk replacer plus hay and straw vs. corn and concentrated meal). Intestinal microsomes showed cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B, 2C- and 3A-mediated activities and the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins, but no proof of CYP1A expression and/or functions could be provided. Intestinal microsomes were also active in performing reactions typically mediated by carboxylesterases (indophenylacetate hydrolysis), flavin-containing monooxygenases (methimazole S-oxidation), and uridindiphosphoglucuronyltransferases (1-naphthol glucuronidation), respectively. Cytosolic fractions displayed the glutathione S-transferase (GST)-dependent conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; besides, the GST-mediated conjugation of ethacrinic acid (GSTpi) or cumene hydroperoxide (GSTalpha) was matched by the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins. Conversely, despite the lack of measurable activity with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, a protein cross reacting with anti-rat GSTmu antibodies could be clearly detected. Although, as detected by densitometry, CYPs and GST isoenzymes tended to be more expressed in beef cattle than in veal calf preparations, there was a general poor correlation with the rate of the in vitro metabolism of the selected diagnostic probes. PMID:20557447

Virkel, G; Carletti, M; Cantiello, M; Della Donna, L; Gardini, G; Girolami, F; Nebbia, C

2010-06-01

92

Methylated analogs of spermine and spermidine as tools to investigate cellular functions of polyamines and enzymes of their metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogenic amines spermine (Spm) and spermidine (Spd) are essential for cell growth. Polyamine analogs are widely used to investigate\\u000a the enzymes of polyamine metabolism and the functions of spermine and spermidine in vitro and in vivo. It was demonstrated\\u000a recently that ?-methylated derivatives of Spm and Spd are able to fulfill the key cellular functions of polyamines, moreover,\\u000a in some

A. R. Khomutov; T. A. Keinanen; N. A. Grigorenko; M. T. Hyvonen; A. Uimari; M. Pietila; M. Cerrada-Gimenez; A. R. Simonian; M. A. Khomutov; J. Vepsalainen; L. Alhonen; J. Janne

2009-01-01

93

Induction and Regulation of the Carcinogen-Metabolizing Enzyme CYP1A1 by Marijuana Smoke and D 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a key step in the development of to- bacco-related cancers. To determine if marijuana smoke acti- vates CYP1A1, a murine hepatoma cell line expressing an in- ducible CYP1A1 gene (Hepa-1) was exposed in vitro to tar extracts prepared from either tobacco, marijuana, or placebo marijuana cigarettes. Marijuana tar induced higher levels

Michael D. Roth; Jose A. Marques-Magallanes; Michael Yuan; Weimin Sun; Donald P. Tashkin; Oliver Hankinson

94

Mutations in Phosphoinositide Metabolizing Enzymes and Human Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphoinositides are implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular functions. Their importance in cellular and organismal physiology is underscored by the growing number of human diseases linked to perturbation of kinases and phosphatases that catalyze interconversion from one phosphoinositide to another. Many such enzymes are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions. Here, we review diseases linked to inheritable or somatic mutations of these enzymes. Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), a membrane phospholipid, can be reversibly phosphorylated at the 3, 4, and 5 positions of the inositol ring to generate seven phosphoinositides [PI3P, PI4P, PI5P, PI(3,4)P2, PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,5)P2, and PI(3,4,5)P3] (FIGURE 1A). The importance of this metabolism in cell regulation was first established in the context of studies on stimulus-secretion coupling. It was found that many stimuli that trigger secretion also trigger enhanced turnover of PtdIns and phosphoinositides (42). Subsequently, it became clear that phospholipase C-dependent hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 to generate the second messenger molecules diacyl glycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P3 (IP3) is a mechanism through which many cell surface receptors, including many receptors that stimulate secretion, transduce their signals (10). Diacyl glycerol binds and regulates protein kinase C and a variety of other effectors, whereas IP3 triggers calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (10, 42). In another signal transduction pathway, PI(4,5)P2 is cleaved by phospholipase A2 to generate arachidonic acid, a precursor of many signaling molecules.

Heather J. McCrea (Yale University); Pietro De Camilli (Yale University School of Medicine)

2009-02-01

95

A multiscale approach to modelling drug metabolism by membrane-bound cytochrome p450 enzymes.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

Lonsdale, Richard; Rouse, Sarah L; Sansom, Mark S P; Mulholland, Adrian J

2014-07-01

96

A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes.

Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

2014-01-01

97

A QUANTITATIVE MODEL FOR XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING ENZYME (XME) INDUCTION REGULATED BY THE PREGNANE X RECEPTOR (PXR)  

EPA Science Inventory

The nuclear receptor, PXR, is an integral part of the regulation of hepatic metabolism. It has been shown to regulate specific CYPs (phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes) as well as certain phase II drug metabolism activities, including UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT), sulfotran...

98

A key enzyme of the Leloir pathway is involved in pathogenicity of Leptosphaeria maculans toward oilseed rape.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated random insertional mutagenesis was used to investigate pathogenicity determinants in Leptosphaeria maculans. One tagged nonpathogenic mutant, termed m186, is analyzed in detail here. Microscopic analyses of infected plant tissues revealed that m186 is specifically blocked at the invasive growth phase after an unaffected initial penetration stage and is unable to switch to the necrotrophic lifestyle. In addition, m186 exhibits an altered cell wall and seems to be affected in its ability to produce cell-wall-degrading enzymes. The T-DNA insertion occurs in the intergenic region between two head-to-tail genes, leading to a constitutive upregulation of their expression. Complementation experiments showed that only one of these two genes, Lmepi, fully accounts for the mutant phenotype. Bioinformatics and expression analyses along with functional studies suggested that the Lmepi gene encodes for the highly conserved UDP-glucose-4-epimerase, a key enzyme of the Leloir pathway involved in galactose metabolism. For the third time, this study highlights the intimate connection between primary metabolism and pathogenicity in L. maculans. This finding, along with similar data obtained from the related species Stagonospora nodorum, indicates the importance of in planta nutrition for the success of infection of plants by fungi belonging to class Dothideomycete. PMID:19445597

Remy, E; Meyer, M; Blaise, F; Simon, U K; Kuhn, D; Balesdent, M H; Rouxel, T

2009-06-01

99

Unmasking the dynamic interplay between efflux transporters and metabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

Drug efflux by intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is known to decrease the bioavailability of many CYP3A4 substrates. We have demonstrated that the interplay between P-gp and CYP3A4 at the apical intestinal membrane can increase the opportunity for drug metabolism by determining bidirectional extraction ratios across CYP3A4-transfected Caco-2 cells for two dual P-gp/CYP3A4 substrates, K77 (an experimental cysteine protease inhibitor) and sirolimus, as well as two negative control, CYP3A4 only substrates, midazolam and felodipine. Studies were carried out under control conditions, with a P-gp inhibitor (GG918) and with a dual inhibitor (cyclosporine). Measurement of intracellular concentration changes is an important component in calculating the extraction ratios. We hypothesize that the inverse orientation of P-gp and CYP3A4 in the liver will result in an opposite interactive effect in that organ. In vivo rat intestinal perfusion studies with K77 and rat liver perfusion studies with tacrolimus under control conditions and with inhibitors of CYP3A4 (troleandomycin), P-gp (GG918) and both CYP3A4/P-gp (cyclosporine) lend support to our hypotheses. These results serve as a template for predicting enzyme-transporter (both absorptive and efflux) interactions in the intestine and the liver. PMID:15158963

Benet, L Z; Cummins, C L; Wu, C Y

2004-06-11

100

Methanol metabolism in yeasts: Regulation of the synthesis of catabolic enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The regulation of the synthesis of four dissimilatory enzymes involved in methanol metabolism, namely alcohol oxidase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase and catalase was investigated in the yeasts Hansenula polymorpha and Kloeckera sp. 2201. Enzyme profiles in cell-free extracts of the two organisms grown under glucose limitation at various dilution rates, suggested that the synthesis of these enzymes is controlled by

Th. Egli; J. P. van Dijken; M. Veenhuis; W. Harder; A. Fiechter

1980-01-01

101

Natural product juglone targets three key enzymes from Helicobacter pylori: inhibition assay with crystal structure characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim:To investigate the inhibition features of the natural product juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) against the three key enzymes from Helicobacter pylori (cystathionine ?-synthase [HpCGS], malonyl-CoA:acyl carrier protein transacylase [HpFabD], and ?-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydratase [HpFabZ]).Methods:An enzyme inhibition assay against HpCGS was carried out by using a continuous coupled spectrophotometric assay approach. The inhibition assay of HpFabD was performed based on the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase-coupled system,

Yun-hua Kong; Liang Zhang; Zheng-yi Yang; Cong Han; Li-hong Hu; Hua-liang Jiang; Xu Shen

2008-01-01

102

Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites, key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings.  

PubMed

Boron (B) deficiency is a widespread problem in many crops, including Citrus. The effects of B-deficiency on gas exchange, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, total soluble proteins and phenolics, and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves and roots were investigated. Boron-deficient leaves displayed excessive accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and much lower CO2 assimilation, demonstrating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. Dark respiration, concentrations of most organic acids [i.e., malate, citrate, oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate] and activities of enzymes [i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NAD-malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME), NADP-ME, pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase (PEPP), citrate synthase (CS), aconitase (ACO), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH) and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B-deficient leaves than in controls. Also, total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration and related enzyme [i.e., NADH-dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (NADH-GOGAT) and glutamate OAA transaminase (GOT)] activities were enhanced in B-deficient leaves. By contrast, respiration, concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids (malate, citrate and pyruvate), and activities of most enzymes [i.e., PEPC, NADP-ME, PK, PEPP, CS, ACO, NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADP-IDH and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction, as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes (i.e., nitrate reductase, NADH-GOGAT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase) were lower in B-deficient roots than in controls. Interestingly, leaf and root concentration of total phenolics increased, whereas that of total soluble protein decreased, in response to B-deficiency. In conclusion, respiration, organic acid (i.e., glycolysis and the TCA cycle) metabolism, the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B-deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to 'consume' the excessive carbon available, but downregulated in B-deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance. PMID:24957048

Lu, Yi-Bin; Yang, Lin-Tong; Li, Yan; Xu, Jing; Liao, Tian-Tai; Chen, Yan-Bin; Chen, Li-Song

2014-06-01

103

Evolution of the key alkaloid enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase from spermidine synthase.  

PubMed

Putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) are the first specific enzymes of the biosynthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids. PMTs transfer a methyl group onto the diamine putrescine from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as coenzyme. PMT proteins have presumably evolved from spermidine synthases (SPDSs), which are ubiquitous enzymes of polyamine metabolism. SPDSs use decarboxylated SAM as coenzyme to transfer an aminopropyl group onto putrescine. In an attempt to identify possible and necessary steps in the evolution of PMT from SPDS, homology based modeling of Datura stramonium SPDS1 and PMT was employed to gain deeper insight in the preferred binding positions and conformations of the substrate and the alternative coenzymes. Based on predictions of amino acids responsible for the change of enzyme specificities, sites of mutagenesis were derived. PMT activity was generated in D. stramonium SPDS1 after few amino acid exchanges. Concordantly, Arabidopsis thaliana SPDS1 was mutated and yielded enzymes with both, PMT and SPDS activities. Kinetic parameters were measured for enzymatic characterization. The switch from aminopropyl to methyl transfer depends on conformational changes of the methionine part of the coenzyme in the binding cavity of the enzyme. The rapid generation of PMT activity in SPDS proteins and the wide-spread occurrence of putative products of N-methylputrescine suggest that PMT activity is present frequently in the plant kingdom. PMID:23908659

Junker, Anne; Fischer, Juliane; Sichhart, Yvonne; Brandt, Wolfgang; Dräger, Birgit

2013-01-01

104

Evolution of the key alkaloid enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase from spermidine synthase  

PubMed Central

Putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) are the first specific enzymes of the biosynthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids. PMTs transfer a methyl group onto the diamine putrescine from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as coenzyme. PMT proteins have presumably evolved from spermidine synthases (SPDSs), which are ubiquitous enzymes of polyamine metabolism. SPDSs use decarboxylated SAM as coenzyme to transfer an aminopropyl group onto putrescine. In an attempt to identify possible and necessary steps in the evolution of PMT from SPDS, homology based modeling of Datura stramonium SPDS1 and PMT was employed to gain deeper insight in the preferred binding positions and conformations of the substrate and the alternative coenzymes. Based on predictions of amino acids responsible for the change of enzyme specificities, sites of mutagenesis were derived. PMT activity was generated in D. stramonium SPDS1 after few amino acid exchanges. Concordantly, Arabidopsis thaliana SPDS1 was mutated and yielded enzymes with both, PMT and SPDS activities. Kinetic parameters were measured for enzymatic characterization. The switch from aminopropyl to methyl transfer depends on conformational changes of the methionine part of the coenzyme in the binding cavity of the enzyme. The rapid generation of PMT activity in SPDS proteins and the wide-spread occurrence of putative products of N-methylputrescine suggest that PMT activity is present frequently in the plant kingdom.

Junker, Anne; Fischer, Juliane; Sichhart, Yvonne; Brandt, Wolfgang; Drager, Birgit

2013-01-01

105

In vitro metabolism and identification of human enzymes involved in the metabolism of methylnaltrexone.  

PubMed

Methylnaltrexone (MNTX) is a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist and is currently indicated for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced illness who are receiving palliative care, when response to laxative therapy has not been sufficient. Sulfation to MNTX-3-sulfate (M2) and carbonyl reduction to methyl-6alpha-naltrexol (M4) and methyl-6beta-naltrexol (M5) are the primary metabolic pathways for MNTX in humans. The objectives of this study were to investigate MNTX in vitro metabolism in human and nonclinical species and to identify the human enzymes involved in MNTX metabolism. Of the five commercially available sulfotransferases investigated, only SULT2A1 and SULT1E1 catalyzed M2 formation. Formation of M4 and M5 was catalyzed by NADPH-dependent hepatic cytosolic enzymes, which were identified using selective chemical inhibitors (10 and 100 microM) for aldo-keto reductase (AKR) isoforms, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase including carbonyl reductase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and quinone oxidoreductase. The results were then compared with the effects of the same inhibitors on 6beta-naltrexol formation from naltrexone, a structural analog of MNTX, which is catalyzed mainly by AKR1C4. The AKR1C inhibitor phenolphthalein inhibited MNTX and naltrexone reduction up to 98%. 5beta-Cholanic acid 3alpha,7alpha-diol, the AKR1C2 inhibitor, and medroxyprogesterone acetate, an inhibitor of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, and AKR1C4, inhibited MNTX reduction up to 67%. Other inhibitors were less potent. In conclusion, the carbonyl reduction of MNTX to M4 and M5 in hepatic cytosol was consistent with previous in vivo observations. AKR1C4 appeared to play a major role in the carbonyl reduction of MNTX, although multiple enzymes in the AKR1C subfamily may be involved. Human SULT2A1 and SULT1E1 were involved in MNTX sulfation. PMID:20173089

Tong, Zeen; Chandrasekaran, Appavu; Li, Hongshan; Rotshteyn, Yakov; Erve, John C L; Demaio, William; Talaat, Rasmy; Hultin, Theresa; Scatina, JoAnn

2010-05-01

106

A key role for vesicles in fungal secondary metabolism.  

PubMed

Eukaryotes have evolved highly conserved vesicle transport machinery to deliver proteins to the vacuole. In this study we show that the filamentous fungus Aspergillus parasiticus employs this delivery system to perform new cellular functions, the synthesis, compartmentalization, and export of aflatoxin; this secondary metabolite is one of the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens known. Here we show that a highly pure vesicle-vacuole fraction isolated from A. parasiticus under aflatoxin-inducing conditions converts sterigmatocystin, a late intermediate in aflatoxin synthesis, to aflatoxin B(1); these organelles also compartmentalize aflatoxin. The role of vesicles in aflatoxin biosynthesis and export was confirmed by blocking vesicle-vacuole fusion using 2 independent approaches. Disruption of A. parasiticus vb1 (encodes a protein homolog of AvaA, a small GTPase known to regulate vesicle fusion in A. nidulans) or treatment with Sortin3 (blocks Vps16 function, one protein in the class C tethering complex) increased aflatoxin synthesis and export but did not affect aflatoxin gene expression, demonstrating that vesicles and not vacuoles are primarily involved in toxin synthesis and export. We also observed that development of aflatoxigenic vesicles (aflatoxisomes) is strongly enhanced under aflatoxin-inducing growth conditions. Coordination of aflatoxisome development with aflatoxin gene expression is at least in part mediated by Velvet (VeA), a global regulator of Aspergillus secondary metabolism. We propose a unique 2-branch model to illustrate the proposed role for VeA in regulation of aflatoxisome development and aflatoxin gene expression. PMID:19889978

Chanda, Anindya; Roze, Ludmila V; Kang, Suil; Artymovich, Katherine A; Hicks, Glenn R; Raikhel, Natasha V; Calvo, Ana M; Linz, John E

2009-11-17

107

Gallium Nitrate Is Efficacious in Murine Models of Tuberculosis and Inhibits Key Bacterial Fe-Dependent Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Acquiring iron (Fe) is critical to the metabolism and growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Disruption of Fe metabolism is a potential approach for novel antituberculous therapy. Gallium (Ga) has many similarities to Fe. Biological systems are often unable to distinguish Ga3+ from Fe3+. Unlike Fe3+, Ga3+ cannot be physiologically reduced to Ga2+. Thus, substituting Ga for Fe in the active site of enzymes may render them nonfunctional. We previously showed that Ga inhibits growth of M. tuberculosis in broth and within cultured human macrophages. We now report that Ga(NO3)3 shows efficacy in murine tuberculosis models. BALB/c SCID mice were infected intratracheally with M. tuberculosis, following which they received daily intraperitoneal saline, Ga(NO3)3, or NaNO3. All mice receiving saline or NaNO3 died. All Ga(NO3)3-treated mice survived. M. tuberculosis CFU in the lungs, liver, and spleen of the NaNO3-treated or saline-treated mice were significantly higher than those in Ga-treated mice. When BALB/c mice were substituted for BALB/c SCID mice as a chronic (nonlethal) infection model, Ga(NO3)3 treatment significantly decreased lung CFU. To assess the mechanism(s) whereby Ga inhibits bacterial growth, the effect of Ga on M. tuberculosis ribonucleotide reductase (RR) (a key enzyme in DNA replication) and aconitase activities was assessed. Ga decreased M. tuberculosis RR activity by 50 to 60%, but no additional decrease in RR activity was seen at Ga concentrations that completely inhibited mycobacterial growth. Ga decreased aconitase activity by 90%. Ga(NO3)3 shows efficacy in murine M. tuberculosis infection and leads to a decrease in activity of Fe-dependent enzymes. Additional work is warranted to further define Ga's mechanism of action and to optimize delivery forms for possible therapeutic uses in humans.

Olakanmi, Oyebode; Kesavalu, Banurekha; Pasula, Rajamouli; Abdalla, Maher Y.; Schlesinger, Larry S.

2013-01-01

108

Determination of Sequence Variants of Metabolizing Enzymes After Occupational Exposure to Fumes of Bitumen Under High Processing Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data concerning the influence of sequence variants of metabolizing enzymes on the effect modulation of current exposure to fumes of bitumen in humans are limited. To assess effect modulation of genetic variants of metabolizing enzymes, 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in metabolic enzymes were analyzed regarding their impact on the urinary levels of metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on

Hans-Peter Rihs; Monika Raulf-Heimsoth; Anne Spickenheuer; Sylvia Rabstein; Beate Pesch; Klaus Schott; Rainer Bramer; Jürgen Angerer; Jens-Uwe Hahn; Thomas Brüning

2007-01-01

109

Hydrogenosome Metabolism Is the Key Target for Antiparasitic Activity of Resveratrol against Trichomonas vaginalis  

PubMed Central

Metronidazole (MDZ) and related 5-nitroimidazoles are the recommended drugs for treatment of trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. However, novel treatment options are needed, as recent reports have claimed resistance to these drugs in T. vaginalis isolates. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the in vitro effects of the natural polyphenol resveratrol (RESV) on T. vaginalis. At concentrations of between 25 and 100 ?M, RESV inhibited the in vitro growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites; doses of 25 ?M exerted a cytostatic effect, and higher doses exerted a cytotoxic effect. At these concentrations, RESV caused inhibition of the specific activity of a 120-kDa [Fe]-hydrogenase (Tvhyd). RESV did not affect Tvhyd gene expression and upregulated pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (a hydrogenosomal enzyme) gene expression only at a high dose (100 ?M). At doses of 50 to 100 ?M, RESV also caused overexpression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a protective protein found in the hydrogenosome of T. vaginalis. The results demonstrate the potential of RESV as an antiparasitic treatment for trichomoniasis and suggest that the mechanism of action involves induction of hydrogenosomal dysfunction. In view of the results, we propose hydrogenosomal metabolism as a key target in the design of novel antiparasitic drugs.

Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesus

2013-01-01

110

Acute liver injury induces nucleocytoplasmic redistribution of hepatic methionine metabolism enzymes.  

PubMed

Abstract Aims: The discovery of methionine metabolism enzymes in the cell nucleus, together with their association with key nuclear processes, suggested a putative relationship between alterations in their subcellular distribution and disease. Results: Using the rat model of d-galactosamine intoxication, severe changes in hepatic steady-state mRNA levels were found; the largest decreases corresponded to enzymes exhibiting the highest expression in normal tissue. Cytoplasmic protein levels, activities, and metabolite concentrations suffered more moderate changes following a similar trend. Interestingly, galactosamine treatment induced hepatic nuclear accumulation of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) ?1 and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase tetramers, their active assemblies. In fact, galactosamine-treated livers showed enhanced nuclear MAT activity. Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication mimicked most galactosamine effects on hepatic MAT?1, including accumulation of nuclear tetramers. H35 cells that overexpress tagged-MAT?1 reproduced the subcellular distribution observed in liver, and the changes induced by galactosamine and APAP that were also observed upon glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine. The H35 nuclear accumulation of tagged-MAT?1 induced by these agents correlated with decreased glutathione reduced form/glutathione oxidized form ratios and was prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione ethyl ester. However, the changes in epigenetic modifications associated with tagged-MAT?1 nuclear accumulation were only prevented by NAC in galactosamine-treated cells. Innovation: Cytoplasmic and nuclear changes in proteins that regulate the methylation index follow opposite trends in acute liver injury, their nuclear accumulation showing potential as disease marker. Conclusion: Altogether these results demonstrate galactosamine- and APAP-induced nuclear accumulation of methionine metabolism enzymes as active oligomers and unveil the implication of redox-dependent mechanisms in the control of MAT?1 subcellular distribution. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2541-2554. PMID:24124652

Delgado, Miguel; Garrido, Francisco; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Pacheco, María; Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Pajares, María Angeles

2014-06-01

111

Salt stress induction of some key antioxidant enzymes and metabolites in eight Iranian wild almond species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work describes the changes in the activities of key antioxidant enzymes and the levels of some metabolites in\\u000a relation to salt tolerance in eight wild almond species. All the species were exposed to four levels of NaCl (control, 40,\\u000a 80 and 120 mM). Plant fresh biomass, ?-, ?- and ?-tocopherol, total soluble proteins, malondialdehyde (MDAeq), H2O2, total phenolics, and

Karim Sorkheh; Behrouz Shiran; Vahid Rouhi; Mahmood Khodambashi; Adriano Sofo

112

Articular cartilage chondrocytes express aromatase and use enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sex hormones, especially estrogens, have been implicated in articular cartilage metabolism and the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoarthritis. The conversion by aromatase (CYP19A1) of androstenedione into estrone (E1) and of testosterone into 17?-estradiol (E2) plays a key role in the endogenous synthesis of estrogens in tissue. Methods We analyzed the expression of aromatase (CYP19A1) in immortalized C-28/I2 and T/C-28a2 chondrocytes, as well as in cultured primary human articular chondrocytes and human articular cartilage tissue, by means of RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. By means of quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we also determined whether the aromatase inhibitor letrozole influences estrogen metabolism of cultured chondrocytes in immortalized C-28/I2 chondrocytes. Results Aromatase mRNA was detected in both immortalized chondrocyte cell lines, in cultured primary human chondrocytes, and in human articular cartilage tissue. By means of Western blot analysis, aromatase was detected at the protein level in articular cartilage taken from various patients of both sexes and different ages. Cultured primary human articular chondrocytes, C-28/I2 and T/C-28a2, and human articular cartilage tissue reacted with antibodies for aromatase. Incubation of C-28/I2 chondrocytes with 10?11 M to 10?7 M letrozole as an aromatase inhibitor revealed significantly increased amounts of the mRNAs of the enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), which is involved in the catagen estrogen metabolism, and of the estrogen receptors ER-? and ER-?. Concomitantly, synthesis of estrone (E1) was significantly downregulated after incubation with letrozole. Conclusions We demonstrate that human articular cartilage expresses aromatase at the mRNA and protein levels. Blocking of estrone synthesis by the aromatase inhibitor letrozole is counteracted by an increase in ER-? and ER-?. In addition, CYP1A1, an enzyme involved in catabolic estrogen metabolism, is upregulated. This suggests that articular chondrocytes use ERs functionally. The role of endogenous synthesized estrogens in articular cartilage health remains to be elucidated.

2014-01-01

113

Sensitivity of bacterioplankton nitrogen metabolism to eutrophication in sub-tropical coastal waters of Key West, Florida.  

PubMed

Expression of intracellular ammonium assimilation enzymes were used to assess the response of nitrogen (N) metabolism in bacterioplankton to N-loading of sub-tropical coastal waters of Key West, Florida. Specific activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and total glutamate dehydrogenase (GDHT) were measured on the bacterial size fraction (<0.8 microm) to assess N-deplete versus N-replete metabolic states, respectively. Enzyme results were compared to concentrations of dissolved organic matter and nutrients and to the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic N (DIN), dissolved organic N (DON), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) positively correlated with specific activities of GDHT and negatively correlated with that of GS. Total dissolved N (TDN) concentration explained 81% of variance in bacterioplankton GDHT:GS activity ratio. The GDHT:GS ratio, TDN, DOC, and bacterial parameters decreased in magnitude along a tidally dynamic trophic gradient from north of Key West to south at the reef tract, which is consistent with the combined effects of localized coastal eutrophication and tidal exchange of seawater from the Southwest Florida Shelf and Florida Strait. The N-replete bacterioplankton north of Key West can regenerate ammonium which sustains primary production transported south to the reef. The range in GDHT:GS ratios was 5-30 times greater than that for commonly used indicators of planktonic eutrophication, which emphasizes the sensitivity of bacterioplankton N-metabolism to changes in N-bioavailability caused by nutrient pollution in sub-tropical coastal waters and utility of GDHT:GS ratio as an bioindicator of N-replete conditions. PMID:18331746

Hoch, Matthew P; Dillon, Kevin S; Coffin, Richard B; Cifuentes, Luis A

2008-05-01

114

Sensor potency of the moonlighting enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton: the cytoskeleton as a metabolic sensor  

PubMed Central

Background There is extensive evidence for the interaction of metabolic enzymes with the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The significance of these interactions is far from clear. Presentation of the hypothesis In the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis presented here, the cytoskeleton senses and integrates the general metabolic activity of the cell. This activity depends on the binding to the cytoskeleton of enzymes and, depending on the nature of the enzyme, this binding may occur if the enzyme is either active or inactive but not both. This enzyme-binding is further proposed to stabilize microtubules and microfilaments and to alter rates of GTP and ATP hydrolysis and their levels. Testing the hypothesis Evidence consistent with the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis is presented in the case of glycolysis. Several testable predictions are made. There should be a relationship between post-translational modifications of tubulin and of actin and their interaction with metabolic enzymes. Different conditions of cytoskeletal dynamics and enzyme-cytoskeleton binding should reveal significant differences in local and perhaps global levels and ratios of ATP and GTP. The different functions of moonlighting enzymes should depend on cytoskeletal binding. Implications of the hypothesis The physical and chemical effects arising from metabolic sensing by the cytoskeleton would have major consequences on cell shape, dynamics and cell cycle progression. The hypothesis provides a framework that helps the significance of the enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton be determined.

2013-01-01

115

Temperature Features of Enzymes Affecting Crassulacean acid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Enzymes involved in malic acid production via a pathway with 2 carboxylation reactions and in malic acid conversion via total oxidation have been demonstrated in mitochondria of Bryophyllum tubiflorum Harv. Activation of the mitochondria by Tween 40 was necessary to reveal part of the enzyme activities. The temperature behavior of the enzymes has been investigated, revealing optimal activity of acid-producing enzymes at 35°. Even at 53° the optimum for acid-converting enzymes was not yet reached. From the simultaneous action of acid-producing and acid-converting enzyme systems the overall result at different temperatures was established. Up to 15° the net result was a malic acid production. Moderate temperatures brought about a decrease in this accumulation, which was partly accompanied by a shift to isocitrate production, while at higher temperatures total oxidation of the acids exceeded the production.

Brandon, P. C.

1967-01-01

116

Brain drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes are active in vivo, demonstrated by mechanism-based enzyme inhibition.  

PubMed

Individuals vary in their response to centrally acting drugs, and this is not always predicted by drug plasma levels. Central metabolism by brain cytochromes P450 (CYPs) may contribute to interindividual variation in response to drugs. Brain CYPs have unique regional and cell-type expression and induction patterns, and they are regulated independently of their hepatic isoforms. In vitro, these enzymes can metabolize endogenous and xenobiotic substrates including centrally acting drugs, but there is no evidence to date of their in vivo function. This has been difficult to demonstrate in the presence of hepatically derived metabolites that may cross the blood-brain barrier. In addition, because of the membrane location of brain CYPs and the rate limiting effect of endogenous heme levels on the activity and appropriate membrane insertion of some induced CYPs, it has been unclear whether sufficient cofactors and coenzymes are present for constitutive and induced CYP forms to be enzymatically active. We have developed a method using a radiolabeled mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP2B1, (3)H-8-methoxypsoralen, to demonstrate for the first time that both the constitutive and induced forms of this enzyme are active in situ in the living rat brain. This methodology provides a novel approach to assess the function of enzymes in extrahepatic tissues, where expression levels are often low. Selective induction of metabolically active drug metabolizing enzymes in the brain may also provide ways to control prodrug activation in specific brain regions as a novel therapeutic avenue. PMID:18668033

Miksys, Sharon; Tyndale, Rachel F

2009-02-01

117

Induction and recovery of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats treated with Ginkgo biloba extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herb–drug interactions, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated interactions, cause an enhancement or attenuation in efficacy of co-administered drugs. In a previous study, we reported that repeated oral ingestion of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) markedly induced hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats (Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 90, 345–351, 2002). In this study, we focused on the recovery of GBE-induced hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes

Tomomi Sugiyama; Yoko Kubota; Kazumasa Shinozuka; Shizuo Yamada; Kazuhiko Yamada; Keizo Umegaki

2004-01-01

118

Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: crucial metabolic enzyme and attractive target for drug discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism in most living organisms. Mice deficient in ACC2 have continuous fatty acid oxidation and reduced body fat and body weight, validating this enzyme as a target for drug development against obesity, diabetes and other symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. ACC is a biotin-dependent enzyme and catalyzes the carboxylation of

L. Tong

2005-01-01

119

Biochemical strategies of overwintering in the gall gly larva, Eurosta solidaginis : Effect of low temperature acclimation on the activities of enzymes of intermediary metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The activities of some enzymes of intermediary metabolism, including those involved in glycerol and sorbitol synthesis, were measured in the third instar larvae of the gall fly,Eurosta solidaginis sampled during a controlled (1°C per day decrease) low temperature acclimation of the larvae from 15 to 30°C.2.Low temperature acclimation resulted in increased activities of three key enzymes of carbohydrate catabolism: phosphorylase,

Kenneth B. Storey; Janet M. Storey

1981-01-01

120

Axonal and dendritic localization of mRNAs for glycogen-metabolizing enzymes in cultured rodent neurons  

PubMed Central

Background Localization of mRNAs encoding cytoskeletal or signaling proteins to neuronal processes is known to contribute to axon growth, synaptic differentiation and plasticity. In addition, a still increasing spectrum of mRNAs has been demonstrated to be localized under different conditions and developing stages thus reflecting a highly regulated mechanism and a role of mRNA localization in a broad range of cellular processes. Results Applying fluorescence in-situ-hybridization with specific riboprobes on cultured neurons and nervous tissue sections, we investigated whether the mRNAs for two metabolic enzymes, namely glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP), the key enzymes of glycogen metabolism, may also be targeted to neuronal processes. If it were so, this might contribute to clarify the so far enigmatic role of neuronal glycogen. We found that the mRNAs for both enzymes are localized to axonal and dendritic processes in cultured lumbar spinal motoneurons, but not in cultured trigeminal neurons. In cultured cortical neurons which do not store glycogen but nevertheless express glycogen synthase, the GS mRNA is also subject to axonal and dendritic localization. In spinal motoneurons and trigeminal neurons in situ, however, the mRNAs could only be demonstrated in the neuronal somata but not in the nerves. Conclusions We could demonstrate that the mRNAs for major enzymes of neural energy metabolism can be localized to neuronal processes. The heterogeneous pattern of mRNA localization in different culture types and developmental stages stresses that mRNA localization is a versatile mechanism for the fine-tuning of cellular events. Our findings suggest that mRNA localization for enzymes of glycogen metabolism could allow adaptation to spatial and temporal energy demands in neuronal events like growth, repair and synaptic transmission.

2014-01-01

121

Effects of anticonvulsant drug gabapentin on the enzymes in metabolic pathways of glutamate and GABA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gabapentin is a novel anticonvulsant drug. The anticonvulsant mechanism of gabapentin is not known. Based on the amino acid structure of gabapentin we explored its possible effects on glutamate and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in brain as they may relate to its anticonvulsant mechanisms of action. Gabapentin was tested for its effects on seven enzymes in the metabolic pathways of

Arie Goldlust; Ti-Zhi Su; Devin F. Welty; Charles P. Taylor; Dale L. Oxender

1995-01-01

122

Nuclear receptor-mediated induction of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters by anticancer drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Role of nuclear receptors in adverse anticancer drug reactions? Unwanted drug-drug interactions and the development of multidrug resistance are ongoing concerns in the treatment of cancer patients. A common factor that is shared by both phenomena is enzyme induction. Especially, the induction of enzymes involved in the metabolism and disposition of anticancer drugs can pose a major health risk. Since

S. Harmsen

2009-01-01

123

Expression of intestinal drug-metabolizing enzymes in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cause of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. A recent hypothesis suggests that ulcerative colitis may be caused by one or more reactive xenobiotic metabolites. If so, the presence, distribution, and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the gut could be important, because those enzymes represent a first defense against ingested xenobiotics. To assess whether patients with IBD express

Ulrich Klotz; Harald Hoensch; Tatjana Schütz; Philippe Beaune; Ulrich Zanger; Johann C. Bode; Peter Fritz

1998-01-01

124

Enzymes of General Phenylpropanoid Metabolism and of Flavonoid Glycoside Biosynthesis in Parsley  

PubMed Central

Several enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism showed large changes in their inducibility by light during the growth cycle of cell suspension cultures from parsley (Petroselinum hortense Hoffm.). Two of the three enzymes of general phenylpropanoid metabolism (group I) and six of the approximately 13 enzymes of the flavone and flavonol glycoside pathways (group II) were investigated. Both enzymes of group I (phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase) were most efficiently induced at two different stages: first, soon after starting a new culture, and second, near the beginning of the stationary phase. In contrast, the enzymes of group II (acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, flavanone synthase, chalcone isomerase, UDP-apiose synthase, and at least one of two malonyltransferases) were maximally induced during exponential growth of the culture. This result supports the conclusions drawn from previous data that the two groups are regulated differentially and that the enzymes within each group are regulated in a coordinated manner.

Heller, Werner; Egin-Buhler, Barbara; Gardiner, Susan E.; Knobloch, Karl-Heinz; Matern, Ulrich; Ebel, Jurgen; Hahlbrock, Klaus

1979-01-01

125

Predicting enzyme targets for cancer drugs by profiling human Metabolic reactions in NCI60 cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Drugs can influence the whole metabolic system by targeting enzymes which catalyze metabolic reactions. The existence of interactions between drugs and metabolic reactions suggests a potential way to discover drug targets. RESULTS: In this paper, we present a computational method to predict new targets for approved anti-cancer drugs by exploring drug-reaction interactions. We construct a Drug-Reaction Network to provide

Limin Li; Xiaobo Zhou; Wai-Ki Ching; Ping Wang

2010-01-01

126

Hypoglycemic effects of Coccinia indica: inhibition of key gluconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase.  

PubMed

Coccinia indica (Family: Cucurbitaceae, locally known as telakucha) leaves were extracted with 95% ethanol. Following evaporation of the solvents, the residue was suspended in distilled water. When this suspension was fed orally to male normal-fed and 48-hr starved rats, the blood glucose was lowered 21% (P less than 0.01) in normal-fed and 24% (P less than 0.001) in 48-hr starved animals respectively. Starvation had induced a 3-fold increase in the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and this activity was depressed 19% (P less than 0.05) by extract feeding while basal activity of the enzyme in normal-fed rats remained unaffected. Consistent with the depression of glucose-6-phosphatase, urea cycle enzyme arginase was also depressed 21% (P less than 0.001) and 12% (P less than 0.01) in the liver of 48 hr-starved and normal-fed animals respectively. Unlike glucose-6-phosphatase, starvation induced levels of gluconeogenic enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by Coccinia extract. These results suggest that the hypoglycemic effect of C. indica is partly due to the repression of the key gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase. PMID:1334043

Hossain, M Z; Shibib, B A; Rahman, R

1992-05-01

127

[Metformin and AMPK: an old drug and a new enzyme in the context of metabolic syndrome].  

PubMed

Metformin is one of the most commonly prescribed oral antidiabetic agents worldwide. However, its mechanism of action remains unknown. The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group studies have shown that metformin administration and lifestyle-intervention (diet and exercise) reduce the incidence of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 (DM2). A possible biochemical connection between both therapies may be the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This enzyme was originally described as a sensor of cellular energy status, being activated in exercise. On the other hand, several experimental evidences indicate that AMPK may be an important target of metformin action. This paper discusses various ways for AMPK regulation, suggesting a possible mechanism for its activation by metformin that involves the production of reactive nitrogen species. AMPK activation determines a wide variety of physiological effects, including enhanced glucose uptake by skeletal muscle and enhanced lipid catabolism. Thus, it may be a key player not only in the prevention and treatment of DM2, but also in the development of new treatments for obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The finding of AMPK activation by metformin draws attention to this enzyme as an important pharmacological target. PMID:18345405

Santomauro Júnior, Augusto Cézar; Ugolini, Michelle Remiăo; Santomauro, Ana Teresa; Souto, Ricardo Peres do

2008-02-01

128

Entropy is Key to the Formation of Pentacyclic Terpenoids by Enzyme-Catalyzed Polycyclization.  

PubMed

Polycyclizations constitute a cornerstone of chemistry and biology. Multicyclic scaffolds are generated by terpene cyclase enzymes in nature through a carbocationic polycyclization cascade of a prefolded polyisoprene backbone, for which electrostatic stabilization of transient carbocationic species is believed to drive catalysis. Computational studies and site-directed mutagenesis were used to assess the contribution of entropy to the polycyclization cascade catalyzed by the triterpene cyclase from A. acidocaldarius. Our results show that entropy contributes significantly to the rate enhancement through the release of water molecules through specific channels. A single rational point mutation that results in the disruption of one of these water channels decreased the entropic contribution to catalysis by 60?kcal?mol(-1) . This work demonstrates that entropy is the key to enzyme-catalyzed polycyclizations, which are highly relevant in biology since 90?% of all natural products contain a cyclic subunit. PMID:24711227

Syrén, Per-Olof; Hammer, Stephan C; Claasen, Birgit; Hauer, Bernhard

2014-05-01

129

Impact of metabolizing enzymes on drug response of endocrine therapy in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer accounts for 75% of diagnosed breast cancers worldwide. There are currently two major options for adjuvant treatment: tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Variability in metabolizing enzymes determines their pharmacokinetic profile, possibly affecting treatment response. Therefore, prediction of therapy outcome based on genotypes would enable a more personalized medicine approach, providing optimal therapy for each patient. In this review, the authors will discuss the current evidence on the most important metabolizing enzymes in endocrine therapy, with a special focus on CYP2D6 and its role in tamoxifen metabolism. PMID:23638818

Saladores, Pilar H; Precht, Jana C; Schroth, Werner; Brauch, Hiltrud; Schwab, Matthias

2013-05-01

130

UCLA scientists discover how key enzyme involved in aging, cancer assembles  

Cancer.gov

UCLA biochemists have mapped the structure of a key protein–RNA complex that is required for the assembly of telomerase, an enzyme important in both cancer and aging. The researchers found that a region at the end of the p65 protein that includes a flexible tail is responsible for bending telomerase's RNA backbone in order to create a scaffold for the assembly of other protein building blocks. Understanding this protein, which is found in a type of single-celled organism that lives in fresh water ponds, may help researchers predict the function of similar proteins in humans and other organisms. UCLA is home to the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.

131

Biochemistry and biotechnology of mesophilic and thermophilic nitrile metabolizing enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mesophilic nitrile-degrading enzymes are widely dispersed in the Bacteria and lower orders of the eukaryotic kingdom. Two\\u000a distinct enzyme systems, a nitrilase catalyzing the direct conversion of nitriles to carboxylic acids and separate but cotranscribed\\u000a nitrile hydratase and amidase activities, are now well known. Nitrile hydratases are metalloenzymes, incorporating FeIII or CoII ions in thiolate ligand networks where they function

Don Cowan; Rebecca Cramp; Rui Pereira; Dan Graham; Qadreyah Almatawah

1998-01-01

132

Flux Analysis Uncovers Key Role of Functional Redundancy in Formaldehyde Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Genome-scale analysis of predicted metabolic pathways has revealed the common occurrence of apparent redundancy for specific functional units, or metabolic modules. In many cases, mutation analysis does not resolve function, and instead, direct experimental analysis of metabolic flux under changing conditions is necessary. In order to use genome sequences to build models of cellular function, it is important to define function for such apparently redundant systems. Here we describe direct flux measurements to determine the role of redundancy in three modules involved in formaldehyde assimilation and dissimilation in a bacterium growing on methanol. A combination of deuterium and 14C labeling was used to measure the flux through each of the branches of metabolism for growth on methanol during transitions into and out of methylotrophy. The cells were found to differentially partition formaldehyde among the three modules depending on the flux of methanol into the cell. A dynamic mathematical model demonstrated that the kinetic constants of the enzymes involved are sufficient to account for this phenomenon. We demonstrate the role of redundancy in formaldehyde metabolism and have uncovered a new paradigm for coping with toxic, high-flux metabolic intermediates: a dynamic, interconnected metabolic loop.

2005-01-01

133

Flux analysis uncovers key role of functional redundancy in formaldehyde metabolism.  

PubMed

Genome-scale analysis of predicted metabolic pathways has revealed the common occurrence of apparent redundancy for specific functional units, or metabolic modules. In many cases, mutation analysis does not resolve function, and instead, direct experimental analysis of metabolic flux under changing conditions is necessary. In order to use genome sequences to build models of cellular function, it is important to define function for such apparently redundant systems. Here we describe direct flux measurements to determine the role of redundancy in three modules involved in formaldehyde assimilation and dissimilation in a bacterium growing on methanol. A combination of deuterium and (14)C labeling was used to measure the flux through each of the branches of metabolism for growth on methanol during transitions into and out of methylotrophy. The cells were found to differentially partition formaldehyde among the three modules depending on the flux of methanol into the cell. A dynamic mathematical model demonstrated that the kinetic constants of the enzymes involved are sufficient to account for this phenomenon. We demonstrate the role of redundancy in formaldehyde metabolism and have uncovered a new paradigm for coping with toxic, high-flux metabolic intermediates: a dynamic, interconnected metabolic loop. PMID:15660163

Marx, Christopher J; Van Dien, Stephen J; Lidstrom, Mary E

2005-02-01

134

Activity of enzymes of carbon metabolism during the induction of Crassulacean acid metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maximum extractable activities of twenty-one photosynthetic and glycolytic enzymes were measured in mature leaves of Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants, grown under a 12 h light 12 h dark photoperiod, exhibiting photosynthetic characteristics of either a C3 or a Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant. Following the change from C3 photosynthesis to CAM in response to an increase in the salinity of

Joseph A. M. Holtum; Klaus Winter

1982-01-01

135

Fructose metabolizing enzymes in the rat liver and metabolic parameters: Interactions between dietary copper, type of carbohydrates, and gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effects of nutrient interactions between dietary carbohydrates and copper levels on fructose-metabolizing hepatic enzymes in male and female rats. Male and female rats were fed diets for 5 weeks that were either adequate or deficient in copper that contained either starch or fructose. Rats of both sexes fed fructose as compared with those

Moshe J. Werman; Sam J. Bhathena

1995-01-01

136

Metabolic cold adaptation in fishes occurs at the level of whole animal, mitochondria and enzyme  

PubMed Central

Metabolic cold adaptation (MCA), the hypothesis that species from cold climates have relatively higher metabolic rates than those from warm climates, was first proposed nearly 100 years ago and remains one of the most controversial hypotheses in physiological ecology. In the present study, we test the MCA hypothesis in fishes at the level of whole animal, mitochondria and enzyme. In support of the MCA hypothesis, we find that when normalized to a common temperature, species with ranges that extend to high latitude (cooler climates) have high aerobic enzyme (citrate synthase) activity, high rates of mitochondrial respiration and high standard metabolic rates. Metabolic compensation for the global temperature gradient is not complete however, so when measured at their habitat temperature species from high latitude have lower absolute rates of metabolism than species from low latitudes. Evolutionary adaptation and thermal plasticity are therefore insufficient to completely overcome the acute thermodynamic effects of temperature, at least in fishes.

White, Craig R.; Alton, Lesley A.; Frappell, Peter B.

2012-01-01

137

Predicting enzyme targets for cancer drugs by profiling human Metabolic reactions in NCI-60 cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Drugs can influence the whole metabolic system by targeting enzymes which catalyze metabolic reactions. The existence of interactions between drugs and metabolic reactions suggests a potential way to discover drug targets. Results In this paper, we present a computational method to predict new targets for approved anti-cancer drugs by exploring drug-reaction interactions. We construct a Drug-Reaction Network to provide a global view of drug-reaction interactions and drug-pathway interactions. The recent reconstruction of the human metabolic network and development of flux analysis approaches make it possible to predict each metabolic reaction's cell line-specific flux state based on the cell line-specific gene expressions. We first profile each reaction by its flux states in NCI-60 cancer cell lines, and then propose a kernel k-nearest neighbor model to predict related metabolic reactions and enzyme targets for approved cancer drugs. We also integrate the target structure data with reaction flux profiles to predict drug targets and the area under curves can reach 0.92. Conclusions The cross validations using the methods with and without metabolic network indicate that the former method is significantly better than the latter. Further experiments show the synergism of reaction flux profiles and target structure for drug target prediction. It also implies the significant contribution of metabolic network to predict drug targets. Finally, we apply our method to predict new reactions and possible enzyme targets for cancer drugs.

2010-01-01

138

The role of intracellular signaling in insulin-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption produce changes in hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression. This difference in expression alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants

Sang K. Kim; Raymond F. Novak

2007-01-01

139

Fructose: A Key Factor in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome are becoming leading causes of death in the world. Identifying the etiology of diabetes is key to prevention. Despite the similarity in their structures, fructose and glucose are metabolized in different ways. Uric acid, a byproduct of uncontrolled fructose metabolism is known risk factor for hypertension. In the liver, fructose bypasses the two highly regulated steps in glycolysis, glucokinase and phosphofructokinase, both of which are inhibited by increasing concentrations of their byproducts. Fructose is metabolized by fructokinase (KHK). KHK has no negative feedback system, and ATP is used for phosphorylation. This results in intracellular phosphate depletion and the rapid generation of uric acid due to activation of AMP deaminase. Uric acid, a byproduct of this reaction, has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and hypertension. We present possible mechanisms by which fructose causes insulin resistance and suggest actions based on this association that have therapeutic implications.

Kim, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

140

Enzymes of purine metabolism in lymphoid neoplasms, clinical relevance for treatment with enzyme inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A few enzymes of the purine degradative pathway have proved valuable in diagnosis and treatment of lymphomas and lymphocytic leukemia. Of particular interest are the enzymes adenosine deaminase (ADA), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (5NT). Intact activities of ADA and PNP have been shown to be vital for lymphoid cells. During development, lymphoid precursors go through remarkable changes

A. D. Ho; K. Ganeshaguru

1988-01-01

141

Thyroid regulation of resting metabolic rate and intermediary metabolic enzymes in a lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).  

PubMed

This study investigates the effects of physiological increments in plasma thyroxine (T4) at three levels of biological organization in thyroid-intact and thyroidectomized captive western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis. Two doses of T4-loaded pellets elevated plasma T4 in thyroid-intact lizards from 4.8 +/- 0.47 to 10.7 +/- 2.25 and 20.4 +/- 5.77 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Surgical thyroidectomy reduced T4 to 1.8 +/- 0.23 ng/ml, and subsequent T4 pellet implantation raised T4 to 14.8 +/- 4.30 ng/ml. Minimal resting metabolic rate (= standard metabolic rate; SMR), a common organismal metric of thyroid perturbation, was reduced 31% (P less than 0.0001) by thyroidectomy and was restored by T4 replacement but was not stimulated by T4 supplementation in thyroid-intact lizards. In T4-replaced, thyroidectomized lizards, SMR was significantly correlated with plasma T4 (r2 = 0.626, P = 0.003, n = 11). At the organ level, liver mass was not changed by any treatment; heart mass was decreased by thyroid deficiency and restored by T4 replacement. At the molecular level, citrate synthase activity was significantly reduced by thyroidectomy and was returned to control levels by T4 replacement in liver and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) but was not changed in cardiac muscle. Citrate synthase was not affected in any tissue by T4 supplementation in thyroid-intact lizards. Pyruvate kinase activity was not affected by any of the treatments in any of the tissues. Cytosolic alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase was significantly reduced in liver by all treatments and in skeletal muscle by T4 replacement after thyroidectomy. These results indicate that SMR and cardiac muscle mass in lizards are dependent on normal thyroid function and are expressed maximally in euthyroid animals. The stimulatory effect of T4 on SMR in thyroid-intact lizards, which has been reported previously by several investigators, is a nonphysiological response to pharmacological T4 levels, at least in these captive lizards. Molecular responses are tissue and enzyme dependent and cannot be generalized. Pellet implantation is an effective means of inducing physiological increments in plasma T4 and should replace previously used injection protocols. This new method can be used in capture-recapture experiments involving field-active lizards. PMID:2295423

John-Alder, H B

1990-01-01

142

Nicotine dependence pharmacogenetics: role of genetic variation in nicotine-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Nicotine-dependence pharmacogenetics research is an emerging field, and a number of studies have begun to characterize the clinical relevance and predictive power of genetic variation in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug target genes for response to medication. The present paper focuses on evidence for the role of nicotine-metabolizing enzymes in smoking behavior and response to treatment. Nicotine metabolism is mediated primarily by cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6). Genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene has been linked with several smoking behavior phenotypes. Individuals who carry null or reduced activity alleles for CYP2A6 smoke fewer cigarettes per day, are less dependent on nicotine, and may have an easier time quitting smoking. A phenotypic measure of CYP2A6 enzyme activity, defined as the ratio of the nicotine metabolites 3'hydroxycotinine/cotinine, also predicts successful quitting with the transdermal nicotine patch, and counseling alone. Faster metabolizers of nicotine respond more poorly to these treatments; however, they may be excellent candidates for non-nicotine therapies, such as bupropion. Inherited variation in the CYP2B6 enzyme is also associated with response to bupropion treatment and counseling alone for smoking cessation. Inhibition of the CYP2A6 enzyme to slow nicotine metabolism is a promising approach to increase nicotine availability and potentially reduce harm from tobacco smoking. PMID:19169923

Ray, Riju; Tyndale, Rachel F; Lerman, Caryn

2009-01-01

143

Mannose metabolizing enzymes from the red alga Galdieria sulphuraria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unicellular thermo-acidophilic rhodophyte Galdieria sulphuraria is capable of growing at high rates on d-mannose, a sugar toxic to many higher plants. Mannose is introduced into metabolism through an ATP-dependent fructokinase which phosphorylates fructose (Km = 0.21 mM as well as mannose (Km = 0.48 mM but not glucose. The product, mannose-6-phosphate, is converted to fructose-6-phosphate by a mannose-6-phosphate isomerase

Ingo Heilmann; Claus Schnarrenberger; Wolfgang Gross

1997-01-01

144

Redesigning enzymes based on adaptive evolution for optimal function in synthetic metabolic pathways  

PubMed Central

Nature has balanced most metabolic pathways such that no one enzyme in the pathway controls the flux through that pathway. However, unnatural or non-native, constructed metabolic pathways may have limited product flux due to unfavorable in vivo properties of one or more enzymes in the pathway. One such example is the mevalonate-based isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway that we previously reconstructed in Escherichia coli. We have used a probable mechanism of adaptive evolution to engineer the in vivo properties of two enzymes (hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHMGR) and many terpene synthases) in this pathway and thereby eliminate or minimize the bottleneck created by these inefficient or non-functional enzymes. Here, we demonstrate how we significantly improved the productivity (approximately 1000-fold) of this reconstructed biosynthetic pathway using this strategy. We anticipate that this strategy will find broad applicability in the functional construction (or reconstruction) of biological pathways in heterologous hosts.

Yoshikuni, Yasuo; Dietrich, Jeffrey A.; Nowroozi, Farnaz F.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Keasling, Jay D.

2014-01-01

145

FAst MEtabolizer (FAME): A rapid and accurate predictor of sites of metabolism in multiple species by endogenous enzymes.  

PubMed

FAst MEtabolizer (FAME) is a fast and accurate predictor of sites of metabolism (SoMs). It is based on a collection of random forest models trained on diverse chemical data sets of more than 20?000 molecules annotated with their experimentally determined SoMs. Using a comprehensive set of available data, FAME aims to assess metabolic processes from a holistic point of view. It is not limited to a specific enzyme family or species. Besides a global model, dedicated models are available for human, rat, and dog metabolism; specific prediction of phase I and II metabolism is also supported. FAME is able to identify at least one known SoM among the top-1, top-2, and top-3 highest ranked atom positions in up to 71%, 81%, and 87% of all cases tested, respectively. These prediction rates are comparable to or better than SoM predictors focused on specific enzyme families (such as cytochrome P450s), despite the fact that FAME uses only seven chemical descriptors. FAME covers a very broad chemical space, which together with its inter- and extrapolation power makes it applicable to a wide range of chemicals. Predictions take less than 2.5 s per molecule in batch mode on an Ultrabook. Results are visualized using Jmol, with the most likely SoMs highlighted. PMID:24219364

Kirchmair, Johannes; Williamson, Mark J; Afzal, Avid M; Tyzack, Jonathan D; Choy, Alison P K; Howlett, Andrew; Rydberg, Patrik; Glen, Robert C

2013-11-25

146

Identification and Functional Analysis of Delta-9 Desaturase, a Key Enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, Isolated from the Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera  

PubMed Central

Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of ?9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 ?9 desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative ?9 acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical ?9 desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these ?9 desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (?ole1). All the putative ?9 acyl-CoA desaturases showed ?9 desaturation activity for C16?0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18?0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of ?9 desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain.

Muto, Masaki; Kubota, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Satoh, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

2013-01-01

147

Identification and functional analysis of delta-9 desaturase, a key enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, isolated from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera.  

PubMed

Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of ?9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 ?(9) desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative ?(9) acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical ?(9) desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these ?(9) desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (?ole1). All the putative ?(9) acyl-CoA desaturases showed ?(9) desaturation activity for C16?0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18?0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of ?(9) desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain. PMID:24039966

Muto, Masaki; Kubota, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Satoh, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

2013-01-01

148

Drug metabolizing enzyme expression in rat choroid plexus: effects of in vivo xenobiotics treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of drug metabolizing enzymes in extrahepatic tissues such as the choroid plexus (CP) suggests that the CP, like\\u000a the blood–brain barrier, affords a metabolic protection to the brain against xenobiotics. The CP, which is the principal site\\u000a of formation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), controls the exchange of many endogenous compounds and exogenous molecules\\u000a between brain tissue and

Daniela Gradinaru; Anne-Laure Minn; Yves Artur; Alain Minn; Jean-Marie Heydel

2009-01-01

149

Redox balance is key to explaining full vs. partial switching to low-yield metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Low-yield metabolism is a puzzling phenomenon in many unicellular and multicellular organisms. In abundance of glucose, many cells use a highly wasteful fermentation pathway despite the availability of a high-yield pathway, producing many ATP molecules per glucose, e.g., oxidative phosphorylation. Some of these organisms, including the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis, downregulate their high-yield pathway in favor of the low-yield pathway. Other organisms, including Escherichia coli do not reduce the flux through the high-yield pathway, employing the low-yield pathway in parallel with a fully active high-yield pathway. For what reasons do some species use the high-yield and low-yield pathways concurrently and what makes others downregulate the high-yield pathway? A classic rationale for metabolic fermentation is overflow metabolism. Because the throughput of metabolic pathways is limited, influx of glucose exceeding the pathway's throughput capacity is thought to be redirected into an alternative, low-yield pathway. This overflow metabolism rationale suggests that cells would only use fermentation once the high-yield pathway runs at maximum rate, but it cannot explain why cells would decrease the flux through the high-yield pathway. Results Using flux balance analysis with molecular crowding (FBAwMC), a recent extension to flux balance analysis (FBA) that assumes that the total flux through the metabolic network is limited, we investigate the differences between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and L. lactis that downregulate the high-yield pathway at increasing glucose concentrations, and E. coli, which keeps the high-yield pathway functioning at maximal rate. FBAwMC correctly predicts the metabolic switching mode in these three organisms, suggesting that metabolic network architecture is responsible for differences in metabolic switching mode. Based on our analysis, we expect gradual, "overflow-like" switching behavior in organisms that have an additional energy-yielding pathway that does not consume NADH (e.g., acetate production in E. coli). Flux decrease through the high-yield pathway is expected in organisms in which the high-yield and low-yield pathways compete for NADH. In support of this analysis, a simplified model of metabolic switching suggests that the extra energy generated during acetate production produces an additional optimal growth mode that smoothens the metabolic switch in E. coli. Conclusions Maintaining redox balance is key to explaining why some microbes decrease the flux through the high-yield pathway, while other microbes use "overflow-like" low-yield metabolism.

2012-01-01

150

Coevolution of amino acid residues in the key photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco  

PubMed Central

Background One of the key forces shaping proteins is coevolution of amino acid residues. Knowing which residues coevolve in a particular protein may facilitate our understanding of protein evolution, structure and function, and help to identify substitutions that may lead to desired changes in enzyme kinetics. Rubisco, the most abundant enzyme in biosphere, plays an essential role in the process of carbon fixation through photosynthesis, thus facilitating life on Earth. This makes Rubisco an important model system for studying the dynamics of protein fitness optimization on the evolutionary landscape. In this study we investigated the selective and coevolutionary forces acting on large subunit of land plants Rubisco using Markov models of codon substitution and clustering approaches applied to amino acid substitution histories. Results We found that both selection and coevolution shape Rubisco, and that positively selected and coevolving residues have their specifically favored amino acid composition and pairing preference. The mapping of these residues on the known Rubisco tertiary structures showed that the coevolving residues tend to be in closer proximity with each other compared to the background, while positively selected residues tend to be further away from each other. This study also reveals that the residues under positive selection or coevolutionary force are located within functionally important regions and that some residues are targets of both positive selection and coevolution at the same time. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that coevolution of residues is common in Rubisco of land plants and that there is an overlap between coevolving and positively selected residues. Knowledge of which Rubisco residues are coevolving and positively selected could be used for further work on structural modeling and identification of substitutions that may be changed in order to improve efficiency of this important enzyme in crops.

2011-01-01

151

The key steroidogenic enzyme 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps (WFU).  

PubMed

Larval and adult stages of Taenia solium and Taenia crassiceps WFU strain were analyzed by histochemical and biochemical methods to determine the existence of steroid pathways. The presence of the key enzyme 3beta-hydroxisteroid-dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) was examined in frozen sections of cysticerci obtained from mice and segments of tapeworms obtained from the intestine of hamsters. 3beta-HSD activity was detected by nitroblue-tetrazolium products after incubation with dehydroepiandrosterone, androstendiol, or pregnenolone. Tapeworm tissues exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary areas of the neck and immature proglottids following incubation with androstendiol, as well as surrounding the testes in mature proglottids. T. solium cysticerci exhibited 3beta-HSD activity in the subtegumentary tissues. The synthesis of steroid hormones involving the activity of 3beta-HSD was studied in cysticerci or tapeworms incubated in the presence of tritiated steroid precursors. The culture media were analyzed by thin layer chromatography and showed synthesis of androstendiol, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol by cysticerci, androstendiol, and 17beta-estradiol by tapeworms. The results strongly suggest the activity of 3beta-HSD in taeniid parasites that have at least a part of the enzymatic chain required for androgen and estrogen synthesis and that the enzymes are present in the larval stage and from the early strobilar stages to the mature proglottids. PMID:18626663

Fernández Presas, Ana María; Valdez, Ricardo A; Willms, Kaethe; Romano, Marta C

2008-09-01

152

Fumarate-Mediated Inhibition of Erythrose Reductase, a Key Enzyme for Erythritol Production by Torula corallina  

PubMed Central

Torula corallina, a strain presently being used for the industrial production of erythritol, has the highest erythritol yield ever reported for an erythritol-producing microorganism. The increased production of erythritol by Torula corallina with trace elements such as Cu2+ has been thoroughly reported, but the mechanism by which Cu2+ increases the production of erythritol has not been studied. This study demonstrated that supplemental Cu2+ enhanced the production of erythritol, while it significantly decreased the production of a major by-product that accumulates during erythritol fermentation, which was identified as fumarate by instrumental analyses. Erythrose reductase, a key enzyme that converts erythrose to erythritol in T. corallina, was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic methods, including ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. In vitro, purified erythrose reductase was significantly inhibited noncompetitively by increasing the fumarate concentration. In contrast, the enzyme activity remained almost constant regardless of Cu2+ concentration. This suggests that supplemental Cu2+ reduced the production of fumarate, a strong inhibitor of erythrose reductase, which led to less inhibition of erythrose reductase and a high yield of erythritol. This is the first report that suggests catabolite repression by a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate in T. corallina.

Lee, Jung-Kul; Koo, Bong-Seong; Kim, Sang-Yong

2002-01-01

153

Repression of intestinal drug metabolizing enzymes by the SV40 large T antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic compounds such as carcinogens are removed from the body by the action of a series of detoxifying enzymes and transporters expressed in the liver and the small intestine. We have found that intestinal epithelial cells expressing the SV40 large T antigen (TAg) contain significantly lower levels of mRNAs, encoding several drug metabolizing\\/detoxifying enzymes and transporters compared to their non-transgenic

M T Sáenz-Robles; D Toma; P Cantalupo; J Zhou; H Gong; C Edwards; J M Pipas; W Xie

2007-01-01

154

Drug metabolizing enzyme activities in porcine urinary bladder epithelial cell cultures (PUBEC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drug metabolizing enzyme activities have been determined in cultured porcine urinary bladder epithelial cells (PUBEC) in\\u000a order to evaluate this system as an in vitro model for studies of urinary bladder carcinogens. Activities of several phase\\u000a I and II enzymes were measured in cells cultured for various periods and compared with the activities determined in freshly\\u000a isolated PUBEC. Prostaglandin H

Christine Guhe; Gisela H. Degen; Ulrike S. Schuhmacher; Franz Kiefer; Wolfram Föllmann

1996-01-01

155

Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was

Heather E. Kleiner; Xiaojun Xia; Junichiro Sonoda; Jun Zhang; Elizabeth Pontius; Jane Abey; Ronald M. Evans; David D. Moore; John DiGiovanni

2008-01-01

156

Engineering of lactose metabolism in E. coli by introducing ?-galactosidase\\/galactokinase fusion enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A series of plasmids encoding ß-galactosidase\\/galactokinase fusion proteins with connecting linkers of different lengths and properties separating the enzyme moieties were made.E. coli cells harbouring the genes for these bifunctional enzymes were grown on minimal media with lactose as carbon source in order to asses possible metabolic effects. Differences in growth rates were observed when the cells contained a

Helén Carlsson; Peter Ljungcrantz; Leif Bülow; Klaus Mosbach

1992-01-01

157

Thioredoxin Glutathione Reductase from Schistosoma mansoni: An Essential Parasite Enzyme and a Key Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis—infection with helminth parasites in the genus Schistosoma, including S. mansoni—is a widespread, devastating tropical disease affecting more than 200 million people. No vaccine is available, and praziquantel, the only drug extensively utilized, is currently administered more than 100 million people yearly. Because praziquantel resistance may develop it is essential to identify novel drug targets. Our goal was to investigate the potential of a unique, selenium-containing parasite enzyme thioredoxin glutathione reductase (TGR) as a drug target. Methods and Findings Using RNA interference we found that TGR is essential for parasite survival; after silencing of TGR expression, in vitro parasites died within 4 d. We also found that auranofin is an efficient inhibitor of pure TGR (Ki = 10 nM), able to kill parasites rapidly in culture at physiological concentrations (5 ?M), and able to partially cure infected mice (worm burden reductions of ~60%). Furthermore, two previously used antischistosomal compounds inhibited TGR activity, suggesting that TGR is a key target during therapy with those compounds. Conclusions Collectively, our results indicate that parasite TGR meets all the major criteria to be a key target for antischistosomal chemotherapy. To our knowledge this is the first validation of a Schistosoma drug target using a convergence of both genetic and biochemical approaches.

Kuntz, Angela N; Davioud-Charvet, Elisabeth; Sayed, Ahmed A; Califf, Lindsay L; Dessolin, Jean; Arner, Elias S. J; Williams, David L

2007-01-01

158

Increments and Duplication Events of Enzymes and Transcription Factors Influence Metabolic and Regulatory Diversity in Prokaryotes  

PubMed Central

In this work, the content of enzymes and DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) in 794 non-redundant prokaryotic genomes was evaluated. The identification of enzymes was based on annotations deposited in the KEGG database as well as in databases of functional domains (COG and PFAM) and structural domains (Superfamily). For identifications of the TFs, hidden Markov profiles were constructed based on well-known transcriptional regulatory families. From these analyses, we obtained diverse and interesting results, such as the negative rate of incremental changes in the number of detected enzymes with respect to the genome size. On the contrary, for TFs the rate incremented as the complexity of genome increased. This inverse related performance shapes the diversity of metabolic and regulatory networks and impacts the availability of enzymes and TFs. Furthermore, the intersection of the derivatives between enzymes and TFs was identified at 9,659 genes, after this point, the regulatory complexity grows faster than metabolic complexity. In addition, TFs have a low number of duplications, in contrast to the apparent high number of duplications associated with enzymes. Despite the greater number of duplicated enzymes versus TFs, the increment by which duplicates appear is higher in TFs. A lower proportion of enzymes among archaeal genomes (22%) than in the bacterial ones (27%) was also found. This low proportion might be compensated by the interconnection between the metabolic pathways in Archaea. A similar proportion was also found for the archaeal TFs, for which the formation of regulatory complexes has been proposed. Finally, an enrichment of multifunctional enzymes in Bacteria, as a mechanism of ecological adaptation, was detected.

Martinez-Nunez, Mario Alberto; Poot-Hernandez, Augusto Cesar; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Katya; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

2013-01-01

159

Metabolism of Beclomethasone Dipropionate by Cytochrome P450 3A Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Inhaled glucocorticoids, such as beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), are the mainstay treatment of asthma. However, ?30% of patients exhibit little to no benefit from treatment. It has been postulated that glucocorticoid resistance, or insensitivity, is attributable to individual differences in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated processes. It is possible that variations in cytochrome P450 3A enzyme-mediated metabolism of BDP may contribute to this phenomenon. This hypothesis was explored by evaluating the contributions of CYP3A4, 3A5, 3A7, and esterase enzymes in the metabolism of BDP in vitro and relating metabolism to changes in CYP3A enzyme mRNA expression via the glucocorticoid receptor in lung and liver cells. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolized BDP via hydroxylation ([M4] and [M6]) and dehydrogenation ([M5]) at similar rates; CYP3A7 did not metabolize BDP. A new metabolite [M6], formed by the combined action of esterases and CYP3A4 hydroxylation, was also characterized. To validate the results observed using microsomes and recombinant enzymes, studies were also conducted using A549 lung and DPX2 liver cells. Both liver and lung cells produced esterase-dependent metabolites [M1–M3], with [M1] correlating with CYP3A5 mRNA induction in A549 cells. Liver cells produced both hydroxylated and dehydrogenated metabolites [M4, M5, and M6], but lung cells produced only the dehydrogenated metabolite [M5]. These studies show that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolize BDP to inactive metabolites and suggest that differences in the expression or function of these enzymes in the lung and/or liver could influence BDP disposition in humans.

Roberts, Jessica K.; Moore, Chad D.; Ward, Robert M.; Yost, Garold S.

2013-01-01

160

Cultured bovine trophoblast cells differentially express genes encoding key steroid synthesis enzymes.  

PubMed

Placental trophoblasts are an important source of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine acting hormones. The aim of the present study was to establish and evaluate a tissue culture model for bovine trophoblasts to study regulation of key genes of steroid hormone synthesis. Trophoblast cells were isolated from cotyledons by collagenase disaggregation and subsequent percoll density gradient centrifugation. The cells were seeded on collagen coated dishes and incubated for up to seven days. The cells were characterized for the presence of mesenchymal vimentin and epithelial cytokeratin filaments and for Dolichos biflorus agglutinin (DBA) binding, a marker for differentiated trophoblast giant cells. Transcripts of Hsd3b, Cyp17 and Cyp19 encoding 3beta-HSD, P450c17 and P450arom, the key enzymes of progesterone, androgen, and oestrogen biosynthesis, respectively, and of Csh1 encoding the trophoblast-specific hormone placental lactogen (PL) were measured by qPCR. Uninucleate cotyledonary epithelial cells and bi- and trinucleate trophoblast giant cells efficiently formed a dense cell layer on the collagen coated dishes within 24 h. Bi- and trinucleate cells showed DBA binding and weak or undetectable cytokeratin immunoreactivity. Vimentin-positive, fibroblast-like cells were found on top of this cell layer. Cyp19 transcripts were found in freshly dissociated but not in cultured cells. Cyp17 expression continuously increased, Hsd3b transcripts largely and rapidly increased during the first days in culture, followed by a decline after three days, whereas Csh1 decreased towards day seven. Serum free culture conditions significantly enhanced Cyp17 and Csh1 but not Hsd3b expression. The data indicate that collagen is a favourable substrate for cultured binucleate trophoblast giant cells. The cells represent an in vitro model to study the regulation of key genes of placental progesterone and androgen but not of oestrogen biosynthesis. PMID:18455233

Vanselow, J; Fürbass, R; Tiemann, U

2008-06-01

161

The involvement of extracellular enzymes in the metabolism of Bdellovibrio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Three host-independent (H-I)Bdellovibrio species are stimulated in growth by addition to the medium of cell-free host extracts. A mixture of fifteen labeled amino\\u000a acids was used to follow incorporation of counts into trichloroacetic acid (TCA) insoluble material. No label was recovered\\u000a in the nucleic acids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a LabeledEscherichia coli RNA, protein, andAeromonas DNA preparations were hydrolyzed byBdellovibrio extracellular enzymes.

H. Mark Engelking; Ramon J. Seidler

1974-01-01

162

Functional genomics and SNP analysis of human genes encoding proline metabolic enzymes  

PubMed Central

Proline metabolism in mammals involves two other amino acids, glutamate and ornithine, and five enzymatic activities, ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (P5CR), proline oxidase, P5C dehydrogenase, P5C synthase and ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT). With the exception of OAT, which catalyzes a reversible reaction, the other 4 enzymes are unidirectional, suggesting that proline metabolism is purpose-driven, tightly regulated, and compartmentalized. In addition, this tri-amino-acid system also links with three other pivotal metabolic systems, namely the TCA cycle, urea cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway. Abnormalities in proline metabolism are relevant in several diseases: six monogenic inborn errors involving metabolism and/or transport of proline and its immediate metabolites have been described. Recent advances in the Human Genome Project, in silico database mining techniques, and research in dissecting the molecular basis of proline metabolism prompted us to utilize functional genomic approaches to analyze human genes which encode proline metabolic enzymes in the context of gene structure, regulation of gene expression, mRNA variants, protein isoforms, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.

Williams, D. Bart; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Khalil, Shadi; Wan, Guanghua; Valle, David

2009-01-01

163

Elasticity analysis and design for large metabolic responses produced by changes in enzyme activities.  

PubMed Central

Metabolic control analysis has been extensively used to describe how the sensitivity properties of the component enzymes in a metabolic pathway (represented by the elasticity coefficients) determine the way in which metabolic variables respond (described by the control coefficients). Similarly, metabolic control design addresses the inverse problem of obtaining the sensitivity properties of the component enzymes that are required for the system to show a pre-established pattern of responses. These formalisms, including what is called elasticity analysis and design, were developed for small, strictly speaking infinitesimal, changes. Here we extend them to large metabolic responses. The new approach can be applied to simple two-step pathways or to any arbitrary metabolic system divided into two groups linked by one intermediate. General expressions that relate control and elasticity coefficients for large changes are derived. Concentration and flux connectivity relationships are obtained. The relationships for large changes indicate that the pattern of responses is not necessarily the same as the one obtained with the traditional infinitesimal approach, in some cases the patterns being qualitatively different. The general analysis is used to study the control of ketogenesis in rat liver mitochondria, starting from data available in the literature. The control profile of the pathway subject to large changes shows both quantitative and qualitative differences from the one obtained from an analysis that is performed with infinitesimal coefficients. This exemplifies the type of errors that may be introduced when drawing conclusions about large metabolic responses from results obtained with an infinitesimal treatment.

Ortega, Fernando; Acerenza, Luis

2002-01-01

164

Case study 3. Application of basic enzyme kinetics to metabolism studies: real-life examples.  

PubMed

An appreciation of the principles of enzyme kinetics can be applied in a number of drug metabolism applications. The concept for this chapter arose from a simple discussion on selecting appropriate time points to most efficiently assess metabolite profiles in a human Phase 1a clinical study (Subheading 4). By considering enzyme kinetics, a logical approach to the issue was derived. The dialog was an important learning opportunity for the participants in the discussion, and we have endeavored to capture this experience with other questions related to determination of K m and V max parameters, a consideration of the value of hepatocytes versus liver microsomes and enzyme inhibition parameters. PMID:24523124

Li, Yongmei; McCabe, Michelle; Podila, Lalitha; Tracy, Timothy S; Tweedie, Donald J

2014-01-01

165

Spatial modulation of key pathway enzymes by DNA-guided scaffold system and respiration chain engineering for improved N-acetylglucosamine production by Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed

Previously we constructed a Bacillus subtilis strain for efficient production of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) by engineering of GlcNAc synthetic and catabolic pathways. However, the further improvement of GlcNAc titer is limited by the intrinsic inefficiency of GlcNAc synthetic pathway and undesirable cellular properties including sporulation and high maintenance metabolism. In this work, we further improved GlcNAc titer through spatial modulation of key pathway enzymes and by blocking sporulation and decreasing maintenance metabolism. Specifically, a DNA-guided scaffold system was firstly used to modulate the activities of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase and GlcNAc-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase, increasing the GlcNAc titer from 1.83g/L to 4.55g/L in a shake flask. Next, sporulation was blocked by respectively deleting spo0A (gene encoding the initiation regulon of sporulation) and sigE (gene encoding RNA polymerase sporulation-specific sigma factor). Deletion of sigE more effectively blocked sporulation without altering cell growth or GlcNAc production. The respiration chain was then engineered to decrease the maintenance metabolism of recombinant B. subtilis by deleting cydB and cydC, genes encoding cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase (subunit II) and ATP-binding protein for the expression of cytochrome bd, respectively. The respiration-engineered B. subtilis produced 6.15g/L GlcNAc in a shake flask and 20.58g/L GlcNAc in a 3-L fed-batch bioreactor. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the modulation of pathway enzymes via a DNA-guided scaffold system in B. subtilis. The combination of spatial modulation of key pathway enzymes and optimization of cellular properties may be used to develop B. subtilis as a well-organized cell factory for the production of the other industrially useful chemicals. PMID:24815549

Liu, Yanfeng; Zhu, Yanqiu; Ma, Wenlong; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

2014-07-01

166

Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Exogenous cannabinoids are structurally and pharmacologically diverse compounds that are widely used. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the data characterizing the potential for these compounds to act as substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes, with the aim of clarifying the significance of these properties in clinical care and drug interactions. In vitro data were identified that characterize cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) enzymes as potential significant contributors to the primary metabolism of several exogenous cannabinoids: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; CYPs 2C9, 3A4); cannabidiol (CBD; CYPs 2C19, 3A4); cannabinol (CBN; CYPs 2C9, 3A4); JWH-018 (CYPs 1A2, 2C9); and AM2201 (CYPs 1A2, 2C9). CYP-450 enzymes may also contribute to the secondary metabolism of THC, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases have been identified as capable of catalyzing both primary (CBD, CBN) and secondary (THC, JWH-018, JWH-073) cannabinoid metabolism. Clinical pharmacogenetic data further support CYP2C9 as a significant contributor to THC metabolism, and a pharmacokinetic interaction study using ketoconazole with oromucosal cannabis extract further supports CYP3A4 as a significant metabolic pathway for THC and CBD. However, the absence of interaction between CBD from oromucosal cannabis extract with omeprazole suggests a less significant role of CYP2C19 in CBD metabolism. Studies of THC, CBD, and CBN inhibition and induction of major human CYP-450 isoforms generally reflect a low risk of clinically significant drug interactions with most use, but specific human data are lacking. Smoked cannabis herb (marijuana) likely induces CYP1A2 mediated theophylline metabolism, although the role of cannabinoids specifically in eliciting this effect is questionable. PMID:24160757

Stout, Stephen M; Cimino, Nina M

2014-02-01

167

Hepatic CYP Isoforms and Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Broiler Chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Day-old chicks were raised for four - six weeks in pens using different bedding materials (wire, paper, corn cobs, hardwood, rice hulls, cedar, and pine) to determine if these beddings have any effect on hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme activities, cytochrome P450 isoforms, and the disposition of enrofloxacin, a drug previously approved for use in chickens. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms from

2006-01-01

168

Elicitor-induced rosmarinic acid accumulation and secondary metabolism enzyme activities in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is to examine the rosmarinic acid (RA) accumulation and related secondary metabolism enzyme activities of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiacae) hairy roots in response to a biotic elicitor, yeast extract (YE) and an abiotic elicitor, Ag+. RA accumulation as well as total phenolic content of the hairy roots was increased by both elicitors, but more significantly by YE. Preceding

Qiong Yan; Ming Shi; Janet Ng; Jian Yong Wu

2006-01-01

169

Comparative genomic and phylogenetic investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. We report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis employing an exhaustive dataset of NAT-homologous sequences recovered through inspection of 2445 genomes. We describe the first NAT homologues in viruses, archaea, protists, many fungi and invertebrates, providing complete annotations in line with the consensus nomenclature. Contrary to the NAT

Anthony E. Glenn; Eleni P. Karagianni; ?ntigona Ulndreaj; Sotiria Boukouvala

2010-01-01

170

Genetic selection? A study of individual variation in the enzymes of folate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic variation in folate metabolism has been associated with survival in utero, the success of in vitro fertilisation, multiple pathologies and longevity. METHODS: We have looked at the prevalence of genetic variants of the enzymes MTHFR and TYMS in 2,898 DNA samples derived from five cohorts collected in the United Kingdom. The simultaneous analysis of genetic variants of the

Barbara A Jennings; Gavin A Willis; Jane Skinner; Caroline L Relton

2010-01-01

171

Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme, Transporter and Nuclear Receptor Genetically Modified Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

Determining the in vivo significance of a specific enzyme, transporter or xenobiotic receptor in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics may be hampered by gene multiplicity and complexity, levels of expression and interaction between various components involved. The development of knockout (loss-of-function) and transgenic (gain-of-function) mouse models opens the door to the improved understanding of gene function in a whole body system. There is also growing interest in the development of humanized mice to overcome species difference in drug metabolism and disposition. This review, therefore, aims to summarize and discuss some successful examples of drug-metabolizing enzyme, transporter, and nuclear receptor genetically modified mouse models. These genetically modified mouse models have proven as invaluable models for understanding in vivo function of drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters and xenobiotic receptors in drug metabolism and transport, as well as predicting potential drug-drug interaction and toxicity in humans. Nevertheless, concerns remain about interpretation of data obtained from such genetically modified mouse models in which the expression of related genes is altered significantly.

Jiang, Xi-Ling; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yu, Ai-Ming

2011-01-01

172

Thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes: from enzymology to metabolic regulation, drug design and disease models.  

PubMed

Bringing a knowledge of enzymology into research in vivo and in situ is of great importance in understanding systems biology and metabolic regulation. The central metabolic significance of thiamin (vitamin B1 ) and its diphosphorylated derivative (thiamin diphosphate; ThDP), and the fundamental differences in the ThDP-dependent enzymes of metabolic networks in mammals versus plants, fungi and bacteria, or in health versus disease, suggest that these enzymes are promising targets for biotechnological and medical applications. Here, the in vivo action of known regulators of ThDP-dependent enzymes, such as synthetic structural analogs of the enzyme substrates and thiamin, is analyzed in light of the enzymological data accumulated during half a century of research. Mimicking the enzyme-specific catalytic intermediates, the phosphonate analogs of 2-oxo acids selectively inhibit particular ThDP-dependent enzymes. Because of their selectivity, use of these compounds in cellular and animal models of ThDP-dependent enzyme malfunctions improves the validity of the model and its predictive power when compared with the nonselective and enzymatically less characterized oxythiamin and pyrithiamin. In vitro studies of the interaction of thiamin analogs and their biological derivatives with potential in vivo targets are necessary to identify and attenuate the analog selectivity. For both the substrate and thiamin synthetic analogs, in vitro reactivities with potential targets are highly relevant in vivo. However, effective concentrations in vivo are often higher than in vitro studies would suggest. The significance of specific inihibition of the ThDP-dependent enzymes for the development of herbicides, antibiotics, anticancer and neuroprotective strategies is discussed. PMID:24004353

Bunik, Victoria I; Tylicki, Adam; Lukashev, Nikolay V

2013-12-01

173

Homeostatic control of xeno- and endobiotics in the drug-metabolizing enzyme system.  

PubMed

Drug-metabolizing Phase I and II enzyme families, drug transporters (Phase III) and their ligand-activated transcription factors probably evolved as a system involved in homeostatic control of lipophilic endobiotics and detoxification of xenobiotics. The review is focused on CYP, UGT enzymes and the Ah receptor as transcription factor. The hypothesis of a system is supported by (i) coordinate regulation of subsets of these enzyme families and transporters by transcription factors including the AhR, and (ii) feedback loops between endobiotic AhR agonists and substrates of major catabolic target genes/proteins; for example, 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole as substrate of CYP1A1, and bilirubin, as substrate of UGT1A1. In the latter case the AhR is one of multiple transcription factors contributing to bilirubin homeostasis. Interestingly, xenobiotics including dietary phytochemicals, products of microbiota, ubiquitous environmental pollutants such as benzo[a]pyrene may also have shaped this system in intestinal epithelia during millions of years of evolution. Most lipophilic drugs are metabolized by the same system since drug-metabolizing enzymes are broad substrate spectrum enzymes. Better understanding of this system may lead to generation of drugs with desirable therapeutic properties. PMID:24837423

Bock, Karl Walter

2014-07-01

174

Parvoviruses Cause Nuclear Envelope Breakdown by Activating Key Enzymes of Mitosis  

PubMed Central

Disassembly of the nuclear lamina is essential in mitosis and apoptosis requiring multiple coordinated enzymatic activities in nucleus and cytoplasm. Activation and coordination of the different activities is poorly understood and moreover complicated as some factors translocate between cytoplasm and nucleus in preparatory phases. Here we used the ability of parvoviruses to induce nuclear membrane breakdown to understand the triggers of key mitotic enzymes. Nuclear envelope disintegration was shown upon infection, microinjection but also upon their application to permeabilized cells. The latter technique also showed that nuclear envelope disintegration was independent upon soluble cytoplasmic factors. Using time-lapse microscopy, we observed that nuclear disassembly exhibited mitosis-like kinetics and occurred suddenly, implying a catastrophic event irrespective of cell- or type of parvovirus used. Analyzing the order of the processes allowed us to propose a model starting with direct binding of parvoviruses to distinct proteins of the nuclear pore causing structural rearrangement of the parvoviruses. The resulting exposure of domains comprising amphipathic helices was required for nuclear envelope disintegration, which comprised disruption of inner and outer nuclear membrane as shown by electron microscopy. Consistent with Ca++ efflux from the lumen between inner and outer nuclear membrane we found that Ca++ was essential for nuclear disassembly by activating PKC. PKC activation then triggered activation of cdk-2, which became further activated by caspase-3. Collectively our study shows a unique interaction of a virus with the nuclear envelope, provides evidence that a nuclear pool of executing enzymes is sufficient for nuclear disassembly in quiescent cells, and demonstrates that nuclear disassembly can be uncoupled from initial phases of mitosis.

Porwal, Manvi; Cohen, Sarah; Snoussi, Kenza; Popa-Wagner, Ruth; Anderson, Fenja; Dugot-Senant, Nathalie; Wodrich, Harald; Dinsart, Christiane; Kleinschmidt, Jurgen A.; Pante, Nelly; Kann, Michael

2013-01-01

175

Regional variation in muscle metabolic enzymes in individual American shad (Alosa sapidissima)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of the activity of metabolic enzymes is often used to asses metabolic capacity at the tissue level, but the amount of regional variability within a tissue in an individual fish of a given species is frequently unknown. The activities of four enzymes (citrate synthase (CS), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ??-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) were assayed in red and white muscle at 10 sites along the body of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Red and white muscle HOAD and white muscle CS and LDH varied significantly, generally increasing posteriorly. Maximal variation occurs in red muscle HOAD (~450%) and white muscle LDH (~60%) activity. Differences between the sexes also vary with sampling location. This study suggests that the variability in enzyme activity may be linked to functional differences in the muscle at different locations, and also provides guidelines for sample collection in this species.

Leonard, J. B. K.

1999-01-01

176

Metabolic pathways of inhaled glucocorticoids by the CYP3A enzymes.  

PubMed

Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6?-hydroxylation and ?(6)-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of ?(6)-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

Moore, Chad D; Roberts, Jessica K; Orton, Christopher R; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P; Reilly, Christopher A; Ward, Robert M; Yost, Garold S

2013-02-01

177

Metabolic Pathways of Inhaled Glucocorticoids by the CYP3A Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6?-hydroxylation and ?6-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of ?6-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and NMR analysis.

Moore, Chad D.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Orton, Christopher R.; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Ward, Robert M.

2013-01-01

178

Metabolism of myclobutanil and triadimefon by human and rat cytochrome P450 enzymes and liver microsomes.  

PubMed

Metabolism of two triazole-containing antifungal azoles was studied using expressed human and rat cytochrome P450s (CYP) and liver microsomes. Substrate depletion methods were used due to the complex array of metabolites produced from myclobutanil and triadimefon. Myclobutanil was metabolized more rapidly than triadimefon, which is consistent with metabolism of the n-butyl side-chain in the former and the t-butyl group in the latter compound. Human and rat CYP2C and CYP3A enzymes were the most active. Metabolism was similar in microsomes prepared from livers of control and low-dose rats. High-dose (115 mg kg-1 day-1 of triadimefon or 150 mg kg-1 day-1 of myclobutanil) rats showed increased liver weight, induction of total CYP, and increased metabolism of the two triazoles, though the apparent Km appeared unchanged relative to the control. These data identify CYP enzymes important for the metabolization of these two triazoles. Estimated hepatic clearances suggest that CYP induction may have limited impact in vivo. PMID:16971344

Barton, H A; Tang, J; Sey, Y M; Stanko, J P; Murrell, R N; Rockett, J C; Dix, D J

2006-09-01

179

Resistance to TRAIL in mantle cell lymphoma cells is associated with the decreased expression of purine metabolism enzymes.  

PubMed

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare aggressive type of B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Response to chemotherapy tends to be short and virtually all patients sooner or later relapse. The prognosis of relapsed patients is extremely poor. The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is considered one of the novel experimental molecules with strong antitumor effects. TRAIL triggers extrinsic apoptotis in tumor cells by binding to TRAIL 'death receptors' on the cell surface. Recombinant TRAIL has shown promising pro-apoptotic effects in a variety of malignancies including lymphoma. However, as with other drugs, lymphoma cells can develop resistance to TRAIL. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for, and associated with TRAIL resistance in MCL cells. If identified, these features may be used as molecular targets for the effective elimination of TRAIL-resistant lymphoma cells. From an established TRAIL-sensitive mantle cell lymphoma cell line (HBL-2) we derived a TRAIL-resistant HBL-2/R subclone. By TRAIL receptor analysis and differential proteomic analysis of HBL-2 and HBL-2/R cells we revealed a marked downregulation of all TRAIL receptors and, among others, the decreased expression of 3 key enzymes of purine nucleotide metabolism, namely purine nucleoside phosphorylase, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2, in the resistant HBL-2/R cells. The downregulation of the 3 key enzymes of purine metabolism can have profound effects on nucleotide homeostasis in TRAIL-resistant lymphoma cells and can render such cells vulnerable to any further disruption of purine nucleotide metabolism. This pathway represents a 'weakness' of the TRAIL-resistant MCL cells and has potential as a therapeutic target for the selective elimination of such cells. PMID:23503700

Pospisilova, Jana; Vit, Ondrej; Lorkova, Lucie; Klanova, Magdalena; Zivny, Jan; Klener, Pavel; Petrak, Jiri

2013-05-01

180

PGC-1?, a key modulator of p53, promotes cell survival upon metabolic stress.  

PubMed

Metabolic stress results in p53 activation, which can trigger cell-cycle arrest, ROS clearance, or apoptosis. However, what determines the p53-mediated cell fate decision upon metabolic stress is not very well understood. We show here that PGC-1? binds to p53 and modulates its transactivation function, resulting in preferential transactivation of proarrest and metabolic target genes. Thus glucose starvation results in p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and ROS clearance, but abrogation of PGC-1? expression results in extensive apoptosis. Additionally, prolonged starvation results in PGC-1? degradation concomitant with induction of apoptosis. We have also identified RNF2, a Polycomb group (PcG) protein, as the cognate E3 ubiquitin ligase. Starvation of mice where PGC-1? expression is abrogated results in loss of p53-mediated ROS clearance, enhanced p53-dependent apoptosis, and consequent severe liver atrophy. These findings provide key insights into the role of PGC-1? in regulating p53-mediated cell fate decisions in response to metabolic stress. PMID:22099309

Sen, Nirmalya; Satija, Yatendra Kumar; Das, Sanjeev

2011-11-18

181

Resveratrol Modulates Drug and Carcinogen Metabolizing Enzymes in a Healthy Volunteer Study  

PubMed Central

Resveratrol has been shown to exhibit cancer preventive activities in preclinical studies. We conducted a clinical study to determine the effect of pharmacological doses of resveratrol on drug and carcinogen metabolizing enzymes. Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent baseline assessment of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and Phase II detoxification enzymes. CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2C9, and 3A4 enzyme activities were measured by the metabolism of caffeine, dextromethorphan, losartan, and buspirone, respectively. Blood lymphocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST-? level and serum total and direct bilirubin, a surrogate for UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1 activity, were measured to assess Phase II enzymes. After the baseline evaluation, study participants took 1 gm of resveratrol once daily for 4 wks. Enzyme assessment was repeated upon intervention completion. Resveratrol intervention was found to inhibit the phenotypic indices of CYP3A4, 2D6, and 2C9, and to induce the phenotypic index of 1A2. Overall, GST and UGT1A1 activities were minimally affected by the intervention, although an induction of GST-? level and UGT1A1 activity was observed in individuals with low baseline enzyme level/activity. We conclude that resveratrol can modulate enzyme systems involved in carcinogen activation and detoxification, which may be one mechanism by which resveratrol inhibits carcinogenesis. However, pharmacological doses of resveratrol could potentially lead to increased adverse drug reactions or altered drug efficacy due to inhibition or induction of certain CYPs. Further clinical development of resveratrol for cancer prevention should consider evaluation of lower doses of resveratrol to minimize adverse metabolic drug interactions.

Chow, H-H. Sherry; Garland, Linda; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Vining, Donna R.; Chew, Wade M.; Miller, Jessica A.; Perloff, Marjorie; Crowell, James A.; Alberts, David

2010-01-01

182

Nettle extract (Urtica dioica) affects key receptors and enzymes associated with allergic rhinitis.  

PubMed

A nettle (Urtica dioica) extract shows in vitro inhibition of several key inflammatory events that cause the symptoms of seasonal allergies. These include the antagonist and negative agonist activity against the Histamine-1 (H(1)) receptor and the inhibition of mast cell tryptase preventing degranulation and release of a host of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause the symptoms of hay fevers. The nettle extract also inhibits prostaglandin formation through inhibition of Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D(2) synthase (HPGDS), central enzymes in pro-inflammatory pathways. The IC(50) value for histamine receptor antagonist activity was 251 (+/-13) microg mL(-1) and for the histamine receptor negative agonist activity was 193 (+/-71) microg mL(-1). The IC(50) values for inhibition of mast cell tryptase was 172 (+/-28) microg mL(-1), for COX-1 was 160 (+/-47) microg mL(-1), for COX-2 was 275 (+/-9) microg mL(-1), and for HPGDS was 295 (+/-51) microg mL(-1). Through the use of DART TOF-MS, which yields exact masses and relative abundances of compounds present in complex mixtures, bioactives have been identified in nettle that contribute to the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways related to allergic rhinitis. These results provide for the first time, a mechanistic understanding of the role of nettle extracts in reducing allergic and other inflammatory responses in vitro. PMID:19140159

Roschek, Bill; Fink, Ryan C; McMichael, Matthew; Alberte, Randall S

2009-07-01

183

Mannose-6-Phosphate Reductase, a Key Enzyme in Photoassimilate Partitioning, Is Abundant and Located in the Cytosol of Photosynthetically Active Cells of Celery (Apium graveolens L.) Source Leaves.  

PubMed Central

Mannitol, a major photosynthetic product and transport carbohydrate in many plants, accounts for approximately 50% of the carbon fixed by celery (Apium graveolens L.) leaves. Previous subfractionation studies of celery leaves indicated that the enzymes for mannitol synthesis were located in the cytosol, but these data are inconsistent with that published for the sites of sugar alcohol synthesis in other families and taxa, including apple (Malus) and a brown alga (Fucus). Using antibodies to a key synthetic enzyme, NADPH-dependent mannose-6-phosphate reductase (M6PR), and immunocytochemical techniques, we have resolved both the inter-cellular and intracellular sites of mannitol synthesis. In leaves, M6PR was found only in cells containing ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. M6PR was almost exclusively cytosolic in these cells, with the nucleus being the only organelle to show labeling. The key step in transport carbohydrate biosynthesis that is catalyzed by M6PR displays no apparent preferential association with vascular tissues or with the bundle sheath. These results show that M6PR and, thus, mannitol synthesis are closely associated with the distribution of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in celery leaves. The principal role of M6PR is, therefore, in the assimilation of carbon being exported from the chloroplast, and it seems unlikely that this enzyme plays even an indirect role in phloem loading of mannitol.

Everard, J. D.; Franceschi, V. R.; Loescher, W. H.

1993-01-01

184

Structural and Functional Insights into (S)-Ureidoglycolate Dehydrogenase, a Metabolic Branch Point Enzyme in Nitrogen Utilization  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen metabolism is one of essential processes in living organisms. The catabolic pathways of nitrogenous compounds play a pivotal role in the storage and recovery of nitrogen. In Escherichia coli, two different, interconnecting metabolic routes drive nitrogen utilization through purine degradation metabolites. The enzyme (S)-ureidoglycolate dehydrogenase (AllD), which is a member of l-sulfolactate dehydrogenase-like family, converts (S)-ureidoglycolate, a key intermediate in the purine degradation pathway, to oxalurate in an NAD(P)-dependent manner. Therefore, AllD is a metabolic branch-point enzyme for nitrogen metabolism in E. coli. Here, we report crystal structures of AllD in its apo form, in a binary complex with NADH cofactor, and in a ternary complex with NADH and glyoxylate, a possible spontaneous degradation product of oxalurate. Structural analyses revealed that NADH in an extended conformation is bound to an NADH-binding fold with three distinct domains that differ from those of the canonical NADH-binding fold. We also characterized ligand-induced structural changes, as well as the binding mode of glyoxylate, in the active site near the NADH nicotinamide ring. Based on structural and kinetic analyses, we concluded that AllD selectively utilizes NAD+ as a cofactor, and further propose that His116 acts as a general catalytic base and that a hydride transfer is possible on the B-face of the nicotinamide ring of the cofactor. Other residues conserved in the active sites of this novel l-sulfolactate dehydrogenase-like family also play essential roles in catalysis.

Kim, Myung-Il; Shin, Inchul; Cho, Suhee; Lee, Jeehyun; Rhee, Sangkee

2012-01-01

185

Cellulase: A Key Enzyme in Fermentation. Progress Report, 1983-1984.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress has been achieved in three areas. N-glycosylation has been shown not to be absolutely essential for maintenance of activity of cellulase enzymes through both inhibitor (Tunicamycin) and enzyme (Endo-H) degradative studies. Thus deglycosylated cel...

D. E. Eveleigh

1984-01-01

186

Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a key cell factory platform for future biorefineries.  

PubMed

Metabolic engineering is the enabling science of development of efficient cell factories for the production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients through microbial fermentations. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a key cell factory already used for the production of a wide range of industrial products, and here we review ongoing work, particularly in industry, on using this organism for the production of butanol, which can be used as biofuel, and isoprenoids, which can find a wide range of applications including as pharmaceuticals and as biodiesel. We also look into how engineering of yeast can lead to improved uptake of sugars that are present in biomass hydrolyzates, and hereby allow for utilization of biomass as feedstock in the production of fuels and chemicals employing S. cerevisiae. Finally, we discuss the perspectives of how technologies from systems biology and synthetic biology can be used to advance metabolic engineering of yeast. PMID:22388689

Hong, Kuk-Ki; Nielsen, Jens

2012-08-01

187

Enzyme Basis for pH Regulation of Citrate and Pyruvate Metabolism by Leuconostoc oenos  

PubMed Central

Citrate and pyruvate metabolism by nongrowing cells of Leuconostoc oenos was investigated. (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to elucidate the pathway of citrate breakdown and to probe citrate or pyruvate utilization, noninvasively, in living cell suspensions. The utilization of isotopically enriched substrates allowed us to account for the end products derived from the metabolism of endogenous reserves. The effect of environmental parameters, e.g., pH, gas atmosphere, and presence of malate, on the end products of citrate utilization was studied. Approximately 10% of the citrate supplied was converted to aspartate which remained inside the cells. A metabolic shift with pH was observed, with acetoin production being favored at pH 4, whereas lactate and acetate production increased significantly at higher pH values. The information obtained with NMR was complemented with studies on the relevant enzyme activities in the metabolic pathway of citrate breakdown. The intracellular pH of the cells was strongly dependent on the external pH; this result, together with the determination of the pH profile of the enzymic activities, allowed us to establish the basis for pH regulation; lactate dehydrogenase activity was optimal at pH 7, whereas the acetoin-forming enzymes displayed maximal activities below pH 5. Citrate utilization was also monitored in dilute cell suspensions for comparison with NMR experiments performed with dense suspensions.

Ramos, A.; Lolkema, J. S.; Konings, W. N.; Santos, H.

1995-01-01

188

Spore Germination and Carbon Metabolism in Fusarium solani V. Changes in Anaerobic Metabolism and Related Enzyme Activities during Development 1  

PubMed Central

Macroconidia of Fusarium solani f. phascoli have no detectable capacity to respire glucose anaerobically; germinated spores and mycelium, on the other hand, ferment glucose, although slowly. Extracts of ungerminated spores contain hexokinase, phosphohexoisomerase, phosphofructokinase, aldolase, triose phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, phosphoglyceric kinase, enolase, phosphoglyceric mutase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate decarboxylase. It follows, therefore, that the appearance of fermentative capacity during spore germination cannot be ascribed to the de novo synthesis of any of these enzymes. During germination and mycelial development the specific activity of all of the enzymes named except phosphohexoisomerase and aldolase increases 2- to 8-fold. Specific activity of all of the enzymes is substantially higher than the fermentative capacity of intact cells, i.e., none is limiting to anaerobic respiration. The enzymatic assay data are consistent with a conclusion reached earlier on the basis of studies of aerobic glucose metabolism, that the process of germination involves an acceleration of pre-existing metabolic systems rather than an appearance of new pathways.

Cochrane, Vincent W.; Cochrane, Jean C.

1966-01-01

189

Biological responses of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes to lead exposure in cultured H4IIE rat cells.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the constitutive response of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) to lead (Pb2+) exposure in cultured rat liver (H4IIE) cell lines. Phase I enzymes such as CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 had mRNA expressions that were slightly induced after exposure to low concentrations of Pb2+; however, under higher concentrations of Pb2+, the mRNA expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were significantly down-regulated. These effects were in correspondence with AhR mRNA expression. Phase II enzymes had mRNA expressions that were reduced upon exposure to Pb2+. Metallothionein mRNA expression was induced after treatment with Pb2+ in a dose-dependent trend. In conclusion, Phase I and II enzymes were significantly modulated upon lead exposure indicating some toxicological implications for lead exposure in cultured H4IIE cells. PMID:23631153

Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2013-02-01

190

Ontogeny of mammalian metabolizing enzymes in humans and animals used in toxicological studies.  

PubMed

It is well recognized that expression of enzymes varies during development and growth. However, an in-depth review of this acquired knowledge is needed to translate the understanding of enzyme expression and activity into the prediction of change in effects (e.g. kinetics and toxicity) of xenobiotics with age. Age-related changes in metabolic capacity are critical for understanding and predicting the potential differences resulting from exposure. Such information may be especially useful in the evaluation of the risk of exposure to very low (µg/kg/day or ng/kg/day) levels of environmental chemicals. This review is to better understand the ontogeny of metabolizing enzymes in converting chemicals to either less-toxic metabolite(s) or more toxic products (e.g. reactive intermediate[s]) during stages before birth and during early development (neonate/infant/child). In this review, we evaluated the ontogeny of major "phase I" and "phase II" metabolizing enzymes in humans and commonly used experimental animals (e.g. mouse, rat, and others) in order to fill the information gap. PMID:22512665

Saghir, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Sarosh Ahmed; McCoy, Alene Theresa

2012-05-01

191

Head and Neck Squamous-Cell Cancer and its Association with Polymorphic Enzymes of Xenobiotic Metabolism and Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are the major proven risk factors for human head and neck squamous-cell cancer (HNSCC). Major research focus on gene–environment interactions concerning HNSCC has been on genes encoding enzymes of metabolism for tobacco smoke constituents and repair enzymes. To investigate the role of genetically determined individual predispositions in enzymes of

Volker Harth; Martin Schäfer; Josef Abel; Laura Maintz; Thomas Neuhaus; Mette Besuden; Robert Primke; Anja Wilkesmann; Ricarda Thier; Hans Vetter; Yon-Dschun Ko; Thomas Brüning; Hermann M. Bolt; Katja Ickstadt

2008-01-01

192

Genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes and the pharmacokinetics of indapamide in Taiwanese subjects.  

PubMed

To understand the genetic makeup and impact on pharmacokinetics (PK) in the Taiwanese population, we analyzed the pharmacogenetic (PG) profile and demonstrated its effects on enzyme metabolism using indapamide as an example. A multiplex mass spectrometry method was used to examine the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profile of eight major phases I and II metabolic enzymes in 1,038 Taiwanese subjects. A PG/PK study was conducted in 24 healthy subjects to investigate the possible effects of 28 SNPs on drug biotransformation. Among the genetic profile analyzed, eight SNPs from CYP2A6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A5, and UGT2B7 showed higher variant frequencies than those previously reported in Caucasians or Africans. For instance, we observed 14.7% frequency of the SNP rs5031016 (I471T) from CYP2A6 in Taiwanese, whereas 0% variation was reported in Caucasians and Africans. The PG/PK study of indapamide demonstrated that the polymorphic SNPs CYP2C9 rs4918758 and CYP2C19 rs4244285 appeared to confer lowered enzyme activity, as indicated by increased C max (25%???64%), increased area under the plasma level-time curves (30~76%), increased area under the time infinity (43%???80%), and lower apparent clearance values than PK for wild-type indapamide. Our results reinforce the biochemical support of CYP2C19 in indapamide metabolism and identify a possible new participating enzyme CYP2C9. The PG/PK approach contributed toward understanding the genetic makeup of different ethnic groups and associations of enzymes in drug metabolism. It could be used to identify two genetic markers that enable to differentiate subjects with varied PK outcomes of indapamide. PMID:24357089

Wang, Teng-Hsu; Hsiong, Cheng-Huei; Ho, Hsin-Tien; Shih, Tung-Yuan; Yen, San-Jan; Wang, Hui-Hung; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Kuo, Benjamin Pei-Chung; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Ho, Shung-Tai; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu

2014-03-01

193

Identification of key licorice constituents which interact with cytochrome P450: evaluation by LC/MS/MS cocktail assay and metabolic profiling.  

PubMed

Licorice has been shown to affect the activities of several cytochrome P450 enzymes. This study aims to identify the key constituents in licorice which may affect these activities. Bioactivity assay was combined with metabolic profiling to identify these compounds in several complex licorice extracts. Firstly, the inhibition potencies of 40 pure licorice compounds were tested using an liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry cocktail method. Significant inhibitors of human P450 isozymes 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 were then selected for examination of their structural features by molecular docking to determine their molecular interaction with several P450 isozymes. Based on the present in vitro inhibition findings, along with our previous in vivo metabolic studies and the prevalence of individual compounds in licorice extract, we identified several licorice constituents, viz., liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, together with seven isoprenylated flavonoids and arylcoumarins, which could be key components responsible for the herb-drug interaction between cytochrome P450 and licorice. In addition, hydrophilic flavonoid glycosides and saponins may be converted into these P450 inhibitors in vivo. These studies represent a comprehensive examination of the potential effects of licorice components on the metabolic activities of P450 enzymes. PMID:24254844

Qiao, Xue; Ji, Shuai; Yu, Si-Wang; Lin, Xiong-Hao; Jin, Hong-Wei; Duan, Yao-Kai; Zhang, Liang-Ren; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

2014-01-01

194

A profile of Drosophila species' enzymes assayed by electrophoresis. I. Number of alleles, heterozygosities, and linkage disequilibrium in glucose-metabolizing systems and some other enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven isolated large populations of Drosophila belonging to five different species were examined by starch gel electrophoresis for allozyme variation. Six to eleven enzyme loci in the glucose-metabolizing system (group I) and six to eight enzyme loci (group II) which were not directly involved in the above-mentioned system were assayed. The parameters estimated were the average number of alleles per

Ken-ichi Kojima; John Gillespie; Yoshiko N. Tobari

1970-01-01

195

Localization of enzymes relating to C4 organic acid metabolisms in the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana.  

PubMed

In the genome of the marine diatom-Thalassiosira pseudonana, there are several putative genes encoding enzymes potentially constitute a classical C4 type biochemical CO2-concentrating mechanism. Two genes encode a carboxylation enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)1 and PEPC2; and another two encode decarboxylation enzymes, NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). These genes were tagged by the enhanced-green fluorescence protein, egfp, ligated in the transformation vector, and transformed into the cells of T. pseudonana for localization of GFP fusion products. The PEPC1:GFP fusion was localized at the matrix of the periplastidal compartment, while the PEPC2:GFP fusion was localized at the mitochondria. The NAD-ME:GFP fusion was localized in the cytosol and the PEPCK:GFP fusion at the mitochondria. The transcripts level of NAD-ME was extremely low, and PEPCK transcript was significantly induced under the dark, suggesting that PEPCK is involved in the dark metabolism such as respiration and amino acid metabolism in the mitochondria. Treatments of low-CO2grown T. pseudonana cells with inhibitors for PEPCK and PEPC efficiently dissipated the maximum rate of photosynthesis while these treatments did not affect high-affinity photosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that classical C4 enzymes play little role in the CCM in T. pseudonana. PMID:24414292

Tanaka, Rie; Kikutani, Sae; Mahardika, Anggara; Matsuda, Yusuke

2014-09-01

196

Increased oxygen radical-dependent inactivation of metabolic enzymes by liver microsomes after chronic ethanol consumption  

SciTech Connect

Enzymatic and nonenzymatic mixed-function oxidase systems have been shown to generate an oxidant that catalyzes the inactivation of glutamine synthetase and other metabolic enzymes. Recent studies have shown that microsomes isolated from rats chronically fed ethanol generate reactive oxygen intermediates at elevated rates compared with controls. Microsomes from rats fed ethanol were found to be more effective than control microsomes in catalyzing the inactivation of enzymes added to the incubation system. The enzymes studied were alcohol dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase. The inactivation process by both types of microsomal preparations was sensitive to catalase and glutathione plus glutathione peroxidase, but was not affected by superoxide dismutase or hydroxyl radical scavengers. Iron was required for the inactivation of added enzymes; microsomes from the rats fed ethanol remained more effective than control microsomes in catalyzing the inactivation of enzymes in the absence or presence of several ferric complexes. The inactivation of enzymes was enhanced by the addition of menadione or paraquat to the microsomes, and rates of inactivation were higher with the microsomes from the ethanol-fed rats. The enhanced generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and increased inactivation of enzymes by microsomes may contribute toward the hepatotoxic effects associated with ethanol consumption.

Dicker, E.; Cederbaum, A.I. (Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (USA))

1988-10-01

197

Effect of urethane, dimethylnitrosamine, paraquat, and butylated hydroxytoluene on the activities of glycolytic key enzymes in mouse lung  

SciTech Connect

Effects of carcinogens and noncarcinogenic pulmonary toxicants on the activities of glycolytic key enzymes in the mouse lung were investigated. The carcinogens urethane (URTH) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) permanently enhanced, and the noncarcinogenic pulmonary toxicants paraquat (PAR) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) temporarily, enhanced the activities of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the lungs of mice.

Arany, I.; Rady, P.; Bojan, I.; Kertai, P.

1981-12-01

198

Fructan metabolism and expression of genes coding fructan metabolic enzymes during cold acclimation and overwintering in timothy (Phleum pratense).  

PubMed

Metabolism of fructans in temperate grasses dynamically fluctuates before and during winter and is involved in the overwintering activity of plants. We monitored three candidate factors that may be involved in seasonal fructan metabolism in timothy (Phleum pratense): transcription levels of two fructosyltransferase (PpFT1 and PpFT2) genes and one fructan exohydrolase (Pp6-FEH1) gene during fall and winter and under artificially cold conditions. Functional analysis using a recombinant enzyme for PpFT2, a novel fructosyltransferase cDNA, revealed that it encoded sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase, with enzymatic properties different from previously characterized PpFT1. PpFT1 transcripts decreased from September to December as the amount of fructans increased, whereas PpFT2 transcripts increased in timothy crowns. PpFT2 was transcriptionally more induced than PpFT1 in response to cold and sucrose in timothy seedlings. A rapid increase in Pp6-FEH1 transcripts and increased monosaccharide content were observed in timothy crowns when air temperature was continuously below 0°C and plants were not covered by snow. Transcriptional induction of Pp6-FEH1 by exposure to -3°C was also observed in seedlings. These findings suggest Pp6-FEH1 involvement in the second phase of hardening. PpFT1 and PpFT2 transcription levels decreased under snow cover, whereas Pp6-FEH1 transcription levels were constant, which corresponded with the fluctuation of fructosyltransferase and fructan exohydrolase activities. Inoculation with snow mold fungi (Typhula ishikariensis) increased Pp6-FEH1 transcription levels and accelerated hydrolysis of fructans. These results suggest that transcriptional regulation of genes coding fructan metabolizing enzymes is partially involved in the fluctuation of fructan metabolism during cold acclimation and overwintering. PMID:24913052

Tamura, Ken-Ichi; Sanada, Yasuharu; Tase, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Midori

2014-07-01

199

Enzyme Regulation in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Photosynthesis : Studies on Thioredoxin-Linked Enzymes of KalanchoE daigremontiana.  

PubMed

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) were identified and purified from the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, Kalanchoë daigremontiana. FBPase and SBPase showed respective molecular weights of 180,000 and 76,000, and exhibited immunological cross-reactivity with their counterparts from chloroplasts of C(3) (spinach) and C(4) (corn) plants. Based on Western blot analysis, FBPase was composed of four identical 45,000-dalton subunits and SBPase of two identical 38,000-dalton subunits. Immunological evidence, together with physical properties, indicated that both enzymes were of chloroplast origin.Kalanchoë FBPase and SBPase could be activated by thioredoxin f reduced chemically by dithiothreitol or photochemically by a reconstituted Kalanchoë ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. Both enzymes were activated synergistically by reduced thioredoxin f and thier respective substrates.Kalanchoë FBPase could be partially activated by Mg(2+) at concentrations greater than 10 millimolar; however, such activation was considerably less than that observed in the presence of reduced thioredoxin and Ca(2+), especially in the pH range between 7.8 and 8.3. In contrast to FBPase, Kalanchoë SBPase exhibited an absolute requirement for a dithiol such as reduced thioredoxin irrespective of Mg(2+) concentration. However, like FBPase, increased Mg(2+) concentrations enhanced the thioredoxin-linked activation of this enzyme.In conjunction with these studies, an NADP-linked malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) was identified in cell-free preparations of Kalanchoë leaves which required reduced thioredoxin m for activity.These results indicate that Kalanchoë FBPase, SBPase, and NADP-MDH share physical and regulatory properties with their equivalents in C(3) and C(4) plants. In contrast to previous evidence, all three enzymes appear to have the capacity to be photoregulated in chloroplasts of CAM plants, thereby providing a means for the functional segregation of glucan synthesis and degradation. PMID:16663102

Hutcheson, S W; Buchanan, B B

1983-07-01

200

Dietary chemoprevention strategies for induction of phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in lung carcinogenesis: A review  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women in the United States and is a growing worldwide problem. Protection against lung cancer is associated with higher dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, according to recent large epidemiologic studies. One strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention focuses on the use of agents to modulate the metabolism and disposition of tobacco, environmental and endogenous carcinogens through upregulation of detoxifying phase II enzymes. We summarize the substantial evidence that suggests that induction of phase II enzymes, particularly the glutathione S-transferases, plays a direct role in chemoprotection against lung carcinogenesis. The engagement of the Keap1–Nrf2 complex regulating the antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway has been identified as a key molecular target of chemopreventive phase II inducers in several systems. Monitoring of phase II enzyme induction has led to identification of novel chemopreventive agents such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, and the 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones. However, no agents have yet demonstrated clear benefit in human cell systems, or in clinical trials. Alternative strategies include: (a) using intermediate cancer biomarkers for the endpoint in human trials; (b) high-throughput small molecule discovery approaches for induced expression of human phase II genes; and (c) integrative approaches that consider pharmacogenetics, along with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in target lung tissue. These approaches may lead to a more effective strategy of tailored chemoprevention efforts using compounds with proven human activity.

Tan, Xiang-Lin; Spivack, Simon D.

2013-01-01

201

The role of cytochrome P450 enzymes in the metabolism of risperidone and its clinical relevance for drug interactions.  

PubMed

In the recent years it has been increasingly recognized that pharmacogenetical factors play an important role in the drug treatment. These factors may influence the appearance of side-effects and drug interactions due to interindividual differences in the activity of metabolizing enzymes. Risperidone in humans is mainly metabolized to 9-hydroxyrisperidone by the polymorphic cytochrome enzyme P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Plasma concentrations of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone show large interindividual variability, which may be partly related to the activity of the CYP2D6 enzyme. Around seven percent of Caucasians have a genetically inherited impaired activity of the CYP2D6 enzyme. Debrisoquine metabolic ratio (a marker of CYP2D6 activity) and the number of CYP2D6 active genes have been related to risperidone plasma concentrations among patients during steady-state conditions. A large number drugs have been described to be metabolized by CYP2D6, and it is therefore important to evaluate the clinical significance of the impaired metabolism and possible drug interactions on the enzyme. Since risperidone/9-hydroxyrisperidone ratio strongly correlates with CYP2D6 enzyme activity and the number of CYP2D6 active genes, thus it might be a useful tool in clinical practice to estimate the possible risk of drug interactions due to impaired CYP2D6 enzyme activity. CYP3A4 is the most abundant drug metabolizing enzyme in humans, and in vitro and in vivo results suggest also a role for the enzyme in risperidone metabolism. The consideration of the implication of cytochrome P450 enzymes in risperidone metabolism may help to individualize dose schemes in order to avoid interactions and potentially dangerous side-effects, such us QTc interval lengthening among patients with cardiac risk factors. PMID:15270204

Berecz, R; Dorado, P; De La Rubia, A; Cáceres, M C; Degrell, I; LLerena, A

2004-08-01

202

Target organ-specific inactivation of drug metabolizing enzymes in kidney of hamsters treated with estradiol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic treatment of hamsters with estradiol for several months has previously been shown to decrease the specific content\\u000a of cytochrome P450 in the kidney, a target of hormonal carcinogenesis, but not in liver. The reason for this decrease in metabolic\\u000a enzyme activity is unknown and has been examined in this investigation. We now report that the decrease in specific content

Deodutta Roy; Joachim G. Liehr

1992-01-01

203

Comparative effects of flavonoids and model inducers on drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inducing effects of some flavonoids (flavone, flavanone, tangeretin and quercetin) and model substances have been studied in rats, and the activity and the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes have been compared in rats. The addition of flavonoids to the diet (0.3% w\\/w) for 2 weeks did not change the liver cytochrome P450 content nor the activities of the NADPH-cytochrome P450

Marie-Chantal Canivenc-Lavier; Marie-France Vernevaut; Muriel Totis; Marie-Hélčne Siess; Jacques Magdalou; Marc Suschetet

1996-01-01

204

Zinc mediates normalization of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the protective effects of zinc in attenuating the altered activities of drug metabolizing enzymes in the livers of rats intoxicated with chlorpyrifos. Male Sprague–Dawley rats received oral chlorpyrifos treatment (at a dose level of 13.5mg\\/kg body weight in corn oil every alternate day), zinc supplementation alone (at a dose level of 227mg\\/l in drinking water), or

Ajay Goel; Vijayta Dani; D. K. Dhawan

2007-01-01

205

Effect of a PCB-based transformer oil on testicular steroidogenesis and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyralene is a PCB-based transformer oil with a unique PCB congener profile when compared to other mixtures. We studied the influence of Pyralene on testicular steroidogenesis and the status of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the testis and liver of rats during oral exposure (10 and 50mg\\/kg body weight, p.o. daily for 1 week) and a 3-week post-treatment recovery period. As expected,

Nebojsa L. Andric; Tatjana S. Kostic; Sonja N. Zoric; Bojana D. Stanic; Silvana A. Andric; Radmila Z. Kovacevic

2006-01-01

206

Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinols and cannabinol by human hepatic microsomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, tetrahydrocannabinols (THCs) were mainly oxidized at the 11-position and allylic sites at the 7?-position for ?8-THC and the 8?-position for ?9-THC by human hepatic microsomes. Cannabinol (CBN) was also mainly metabolized to 11-hydroxy-CBN and 8-hydroxy-CBN by the microsomes. The 11-hydroxylation of three cannabinoids by the microsomes was markedly inhibited by sulfaphenazole, a selective inhibitor of CYP2C enzymes,

Kazuhito Watanabe; Satoshi Yamaori; Tatsuya Funahashi; Toshiyuki Kimura; Ikuo Yamamoto

2007-01-01

207

Topiramate does not alter expression in rat brain of enzymes of arachidonic acid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: When administered chronically to rats, drugs that are effective in bipolar disorder—lithium and the anticonvulsants, valproic acid and carbamazepine —have been shown to downregulate the expression of certain enzymes involved in brain arachidonic acid (AA) release and cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated metabolism. Phase II clinical trials with the anticonvulsant topiramate (2,3:4,5-bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-beta-D-fructopyranose sulfamate) suggest that this drug may also be effective for

Sandra Ghelardoni; Richard P. Bazinet; Stanley I. Rapoport; Francesca Bosetti

2005-01-01

208

Responses of glutathione cycle enzymes and glutathione metabolism to copper stress in Scenedesmus bijugatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymes of glutathione metabolism and GSH content in copper-treated Scenedesmusbijugatus cells and the synthesis of metal-binding peptides are reported in this investigation. Progressive depletion of GSH content in the cells was observed with increasing concentrations of copper. There was an increase in the protein thiol content while the non-protein thiol content decreased. There was an initial elevation and later decrease

N Nagalakshmi; M. N. V Prasad

2001-01-01

209

Design optimization for bioMEMS studies of enzyme-controlled metabolic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS) provide an attractive approach to understanding and modifying enzymatic\\u000a pathways by separating and interrogating individual reaction steps at localized sites in a microfluidic network. We have previously\\u000a shown that electrodeposited chitosan enables immobilization of an enzyme at a specific site while maintaining its catalytic\\u000a activity. While promising as a methodology to replicate metabolic pathways and search

Xiaolong Luo; Dean Larios Berlin; Susan Buckhout-White; William E. Bentley; Gregory F. Payne; Reza Ghodssi; Gary W. Rubloff

2008-01-01

210

Engineering protein-based machines to emulate key steps of metabolism (biological energy conversion)  

PubMed

Metabolism is the conversion of available energy sources to those energy forms required for sustaining and propagating living organisms; this is simply biological energy conversion. Proteins are the machines of metabolism; they are the engines of motility and the other machines that interconvert energy forms not involving motion. Accordingly, metabolic engineering becomes the use of natural protein-based machines for the good of society. In addition, metabolic engineering can utilize the principles, whereby proteins function, to design new protein-based machines to fulfill roles for society that proteins have never been called upon throughout evolution to fulfill. This article presents arguments for a universal mechanism whereby proteins perform their diverse energy conversions; it begins with background information, and then asserts a set of five axioms for protein folding, assembly, and function and for protein engineering. The key process is the hydrophobic folding and assembly transition exhibited by properly balanced amphiphilic protein sequences. The fundamental molecular process is the competition for hydration between hydrophobic and polar, e.g., charged, residues. This competition determines Tt, the onset temperature for the hydrophobic folding and assembly transition, Nhh, the numbers of waters of hydrophobic hydration, and the pKa of ionizable functions. Reported acid-base titrations and pH dependence of microwave dielectric relaxation data simultaneously demonstrate the interdependence of Tt, Nhh and the pKa using a series of microbially prepared protein-based poly(30mers) with one glutamic acid residue per 30mer and with an increasing number of more hydrophobic phenylalanine residues replacing valine residues. Also, reduction of nicotinamides and flavins is shown to lower Tt, i.e., to increase hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the argument is presented, and related to an extended Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, wherein reduction of nicotinamides represents an increase in hydrophobicity and resulting hydrophobic-induced pKa shifts become the basis for understanding a primary energy conversion (proton transport) process of mitochondria. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10191388

Urry; Peng; Hayes; McPherson; Xu; Woods; Gowda; Pattanaik

1998-04-01

211

Genes, Enzymes, and Regulation of para-Cresol Metabolism in Geobacter metallireducens? †  

PubMed Central

In aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the degradation of para-cresol (p-cresol) involves the initial hydroxylation to p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol by water catalyzed by the soluble, periplasmatic flavocytochrome p-cresol methylhydroxylase (PCMH; ?2?2 composition). In denitrifying bacteria the further metabolism proceeds via oxidation to p-hydroxybenzoate, the formation of p-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), and the subsequent dehydroxylation of the latter to benzoyl-CoA by reduction. In contrast, the strictly anaerobic Desulfobacterium cetonicum degrades p-cresol by addition to fumarate, yielding p-hydroxybenzylsuccinate. In this work, in vitro enzyme activity measurements revealed that the obligately anaerobic Geobacter metallireducens uses the p-cresol degradation pathway of denitrifying bacteria. Surprisingly, PCMH, which is supposed to catalyze both p-cresol hydroxylation and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation to the corresponding aldehyde, was located in the membrane fraction. The ? subunit of the enzyme was present in two isoforms, suggesting an ????2 composition. We propose that the unusual asymmetric architecture and the membrane association of PCMH might be important for alternative electron transfer routes to either cytochrome c (in the case of p-cresol oxidation) or to menaquinone (in the case of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation). Unusual properties of further enzymes of p-cresol metabolism, p-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase, and p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase were identified and are discussed. A proteomic approach identified a gene cluster comprising most of the putative structural genes for enzymes involved in p-cresol metabolism (pcm genes). Reverse transcription-PCR studies revealed a different regulation of transcription of pcm genes and the corresponding enzyme activities, suggesting the presence of posttranscriptional regulatory elements.

Peters, Franziska; Heintz, Dimitri; Johannes, Jorg; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Boll, Matthias

2007-01-01

212

Androgenic/estrogenic balance in the male rat cerebral circulation: metabolic enzymes and sex steroid receptors  

PubMed Central

Tissues from males can be regulated by a balance of androgenic and estrogenic effects because of local metabolism of testosterone and expression of relevant steroid hormone receptors. As a critical first step to understanding sex hormone influences in the cerebral circulation of males, we investigated the presence of enzymes that metabolize testosterone to active products and their respective receptors. We found that cerebral blood vessels from male rats express 5?-reductase type 2 and aromatase, enzymes responsible for conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17?-estradiol, respectively. Protein levels of these enzymes, however, were not modulated by long-term in vivo hormone treatment. We also showed the presence of receptors for both androgens (AR) and estrogens (ER) from male cerebral vessels. Western blot analysis showed bands corresponding to the full-length AR (110 kDa) and ER? (66 kDa). Long-term in vivo treatment of orchiectomized rats with testosterone or DHT, but not estrogen, increased AR levels in cerebral vessels. In contrast, ER? protein levels were increased after in vivo treatment with estrogen but not testosterone. Fluorescent immunostaining revealed ER?, AR, and 5?-reductase type 2 in both the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of cerebral arteries, whereas aromatase staining was solely localized to the endothelium. Thus, cerebral vessels from males are target tissues for both androgens and estrogen. Furthermore, local metabolism of testosterone might balance opposing androgenic and estrogenic influences on cerebrovascular as well as brain function in males.

Gonzales, Rayna J; Ansar, Saema; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N

2008-01-01

213

Fatty acid metabolic enzyme acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 promotes the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Dysregulated metabolism is an emerging hallmark of cancer development, and upregulated lipid synthesis is one of the important tumor metabolic features. However, lipolysis may also contribute to cancer pathogenesis by altering free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism. In the present study, we investigated the importance of the lipolytic enzyme acyl-CoA thioesterase 8 (ACOT8) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Bioinformatic analysis of published microarrays regarding clinical specimens revealed that both ACOT8 gene copy number and mRNA expression were increased in HCC tissues when compared to these variables in non-tumor tissues. ACOT8 silencing with specific shRNA stably expressed in Huh7 and Hep3B HCC cell lines showed that ACOT8 protein expression and overall thioesterase activity were reduced following ACOT8 knockdown. In vitro tumorigenic assays revealed that ACOT8 knockdown inhibited anchorage-dependent and ?independent growth of HCC cell lines. This growth inhibition was partially rescued by addition of the FFA, myristic acid, indicating the importance of FFA in cancer metabolism. In summary, lipolytic enzyme ACOT8 is frequently upregulated in HCC clinical specimens. More importantly, ACOT8 silencing leads to inhibition of cell growth in HCC in vitro. PMID:24788990

Hung, Yu-Hsuan; Chan, Yi-Shin; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Lee, Kuo-Ting; Hsu, Hui-Ping; Yen, Meng-Chi; Chen, Wei-Ching; Wang, Chih-Yang; Lai, Ming-Derg

2014-06-01

214

Protein Acetylation Microarray Reveals NuA4 Controls Key Metabolic Target Regulating Gluconeogenesis  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) conduct many critical functions through nonhistone substrates in metazoans, but only chromatin-associated nonhistone substrates are known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using yeast proteome microarrays, we identified and validated many nonchromatin substrates of the essential nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4 (NuA4) complex. Among these, acetylation sites (Lys 19 and 514) of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1p) were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Acetylation at Lys 514 was crucial for enzymatic activity and the ability of yeast cells to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources. Loss of Pck1p activity blocked the extension of yeast chronological life span caused by water starvation. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, human Pck1 acetylation and glucose production was dependent on TIP60, the human homolog of ESA1. Our results demonstrate a novel regulatory function for the NuA4 complex in glucose metabolism and life span by acetylating a critical metabolic enzyme.

Lin, Yu-yi; Lu, Jin-ying; Zhang, Junmei; Walter, Wendy; Dang, Weiwei; Wan, Jun; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yingming; Boeke, Jef D.; Berger, Shelley L.; Zhu, Heng

2009-01-01

215

Mammary expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and their potential role in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast cancer is the major cause of cancer death in women worldwide. High penetrance genes account for only 5% of cases, whereas polymorphic low penetrance genes acting in concert with lifestyle/environmental risk factors are likely to account for a much higher proportion. Genotoxic compounds implicated in human breast carcinogenesis include endogenous compounds, estrogens, and dietary or environmental xenobiotics-heterocyclic amides, aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we review evidence for a role of mammary-expressed enzymes that metabolically activate and/or detoxify potential genotoxic breast carcinogens: cytochrome P-450s, catechol-O-methyltransferase, epoxide hydrolase, peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, N-acetyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and other enzymes catalyzing conjugation reactions. This information is particularly relevant in the light of evidence for the presence of genotoxic agents that require metabolic activation in mammary lipid, in nipple aspirates and in breast milk, and for the presence of DNA adducts in human mammary epithelial cells (from which most breast carcinomas originate). The effect of polymorphisms in the genes encoding these enzymes on breast cancer risk are also considered. The evidence for the role of genotoxic carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer is compelling, but mammary-specific enzyme expression should be taken into account when considering the contribution of polymorphisms to risk. PMID:10987265

Williams, J A; Phillips, D H

2000-09-01

216

Enzyme inhibition as a key target for the development of novel metal-based anti-cancer therapeutics.  

PubMed

Historically, DNA has been the target for many metal-based anti-cancer drugs, but drawbacks of prevailing therapies have stimulated the search for new molecular targets which may present unique opportunities for therapeutic exploitation. Enzyme inhibition has recently been identified as an alternative and significant target. The pursuit of novel metallodrug candidates that selectively target enzymes is now the subject of intense investigation in medicinal bioinorganic chemistry and chemical biology. In the field of drug design, it is recognised by many that exploiting the structural and chemical diversity of metal ions for the identification of potential hit and lead candidates can dramatically increase the number of possible drug candidates that may be added to the already abundant armoury of chemotherapeutic agents. This review will focus on recent key advancements in enzyme inhibition as a key target for the development of novel metal-based anti-cancer therapeutics. The enormous clinical success of classical platinum drugs, amongst others, coupled with the wealth of knowledge accumulated in recent years on enzyme structure and function, has undoubtedly been the impetus behind the development of new metallodrug candidates with enzyme inhibitory properties. Recent trends in this field will be reviewed with a particular emphasis on metal complexes that inhibit protein and lipid kinases, matrix metalloproteases, telomerases, topoisomerases, glutathione-S-transferases, and histone deacetylases. PMID:20380633

Griffith, Darren; Parker, James P; Marmion, Celine J

2010-06-01

217

Conserving energy with sulfate around 100 °C--structure and mechanism of key metal enzymes in hyperthermophilic Archaeoglobus fulgidus.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria and archaea are important players in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. ATP sulfurylase, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate reductase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase are the key enzymes in the energy conserving process of SO4(2-) ? H2S reduction. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the activation of sulfate to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, the following reductive cleavage to SO3(2-) and AMP, and the final six-electron reduction of SO3(2-) to H2S in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus. Structure based mechanisms will be discussed for these three enzymes which host unique metal centers at their catalytic sites. PMID:23324858

Parey, Kristian; Fritz, Günter; Ermler, Ulrich; Kroneck, Peter M H

2013-04-01

218

Alteration of the Expression of Pesticide-Metabolizing Enzymes in Pregnant Mice: Potential Role in the Increased Vulnerability of the Developing Brain  

PubMed Central

Studies on therapeutic drug disposition in humans have shown significant alterations as the result of pregnancy. However, it is not known whether pesticide metabolic capacity changes throughout pregnancy, which could affect exposure of the developing brain. We sought to determine the effect of pregnancy on the expression of hepatic enzymes involved in the metabolism of pesticides. Livers were collected from virgin and pregnant C57BL/6 mice at gestational days (GD)7, GD11, GD14, GD17, and postpartum days (PD)1, PD15, and PD30. Relative mRNA expression of several enzymes involved in the metabolism of pesticides, including hepatic cytochromes (Cyp) P450s, carboxylesterases (Ces), and paraoxonase 1 (Pon1), were assessed in mice during gestation and the postpartum period. Compared with virgin mice, alterations in the expression occurred at multiple time points, with the largest changes observed on GD14. At this time point, the expression of most of the Cyps involved in pesticide metabolism in the liver (Cyp1a2, Cyp2d22, Cyp2c37, Cyp2c50, Cyp2c54, and Cyp3a11) were downregulated by 30% or more. Expression of various Ces isoforms and Pon1 were also decreased along with Pon1 activity. These data demonstrate significant alterations in the expression of key enzymes that detoxify pesticides during pregnancy, which could alter exposure of developing animals to these chemicals.

Fortin, Marie C.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.

2013-01-01

219

The Catalytic Machinery of a Key Enzyme in Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The aspartate pathway of amino acid biosynthesis is essential for all microbial life but is absent in mammals. Characterizing the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in this pathway can identify new protein targets for the development of antibiotics with unique modes of action. The enzyme aspartate {beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes an early branch point reaction in the aspartate pathway. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural studies of ASADH from various microbial species have been used to elucidate mechanistic details and to identify essential amino acids involved in substrate binding, catalysis, and enzyme regulation. Important structural and functional differences have been found between ASADHs isolated from these bacterial and fungal organisms, opening the possibility for developing species-specific antimicrobial agents that target this family of enzymes.

Viola, Ronald E.; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Blanco, Julio; Moore, Roger A.; Liu, Xuying; Arachea, Buenafe T.; Pavlovsky, Alexander G. (Toledo); (Yale); (Cold Spring); (NIH)

2013-02-28

220

Mechanisms for Regulation of the Activity of Key Enzymes in Developing Dormant and Germinated Bacterial Spores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Highlights of research findings in the past three years are: (1) A novel enzyme which uses NADH to reduce disulfides (such as oxidized Coenzyme A) containing 4-phosphopantethine residues has been purified to homogeneity from Bacillus megaterium spores and...

P. Setlow

1983-01-01

221

Cellulase a Key Enzyme in Fermentation: Annual Report, 1985--1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many microbial cellulase systems are comprised of multiple components namely, endoglucanase (EG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), and betaglucosidabe. These three types of enzyme of the cellulase complex act synergistically but their mechanism of interaction in ...

D. E. Eveleigh J. D. Macmillan

1986-01-01

222

Gestational Age-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression of Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters in Pregnant Mice  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics can be explained by changes in expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and/or normal physiology. In this study, we determined gestational age-dependent expression profiles for all metabolic enzyme and transporter genes in the maternal liver, kidney, small intestine, and placenta of pregnant mice by microarray analysis. We specifically examined the expression of genes important for xenobiotic, bile acid, and steroid hormone metabolism and disposition, namely, cytochrome P450s (Cyp), UDP-glucuronosyltranserases (Ugt), sulfotransferases (Sult), and ATP-binding cassette (Abc), solute carrier (Slc), and solute carrier organic anion (Slco) transporters. Few Ugt and Sult genes were affected by pregnancy. Cyp17a1 expression in the maternal liver increased 3- to 10-fold during pregnancy, which was the largest observed change in the maternal tissues. Cyp1a2, most Cyp2 isoforms, Cyp3a11, and Cyp3a13 expression in the liver decreased on gestation days (gd) 15 and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls (gd 0). In contrast, Cyp2d40, Cyp3a16, Cyp3a41a, Cyp3a41b, and Cyp3a44 in the liver were induced throughout pregnancy. In the placenta, Cyp expression on gd 10 and 15 was upregulated compared with gd 19. Notable changes were also observed in Abc and Slc transporters. Abcc3 expression in the liver and Abcb1a, Abcc4, and Slco4c1 expression in the kidney were downregulated on gd 15 and 19. In the placenta, Slc22a3 (Oct3) expression on gd 10 was 90% lower than that on gd 15 and 19. This study demonstrates important gestational age-dependent expression of metabolic enzyme and transporter genes, which may have mechanistic relevance to drug disposition in human pregnancy.

Shuster, Diana L.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P.; MacDonald, James W.; Tsai, Jesse M.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hebert, Mary F.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

2013-01-01

223

Penn Medicine researchers find that a metabolic enzyme stops progression of most common type of kidney cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers found that an enzyme called FBP1 -- essential for regulating metabolism -- binds to a transcription factor in the nucleus of certain kidney cells and restrains energy production in the cell body.

224

Cadmium effect on microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in rat livers with respect to differences in age and sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cadmium on the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system was investigated. Cadmium chloride caused the conversion of cytochrome P-450 to P-420 in rat liver microsomes. The destruction of cytochrome P-450 by cadmium caused the reduction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity and prolonged the pentobarbital sleeping time. There is a sex-related difference in the ability of cadmium to inhibit

M. Ando

1982-01-01

225

Reduction of nuclear encoded enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities in HEK293 cells devoid of mtDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzymes partially encoded by mtDNA show reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also the entirely nuclear encoded complex II and citrate synthase exhibit reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of mtDNA induces a feedback mechanism that downregulates complex II and citrate synthase. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are generally associated with reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes that contain subunits encoded by mtDNA. Conversely, entirely nuclear encoded mitochondrial enzymes in these syndromes, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and OXPHOS complex II, usually exhibit normal or compensatory enhanced activities. Here we report that a human cell line devoid of mtDNA (HEK293 {rho}{sup 0} cells) has diminished activities of both complex II and CS. This finding indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism in {rho}{sup 0} cells that downregulates the expression of entirely nuclear encoded components of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

Mueller, Edith E., E-mail: ed.mueller@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Mayr, Johannes A., E-mail: h.mayr@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Zimmermann, Franz A., E-mail: f.zimmermann@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Feichtinger, Rene G., E-mail: r.feichtinger@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Stanger, Olaf, E-mail: o.stanger@rbht.nhs.uk [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)] [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Sperl, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.sperl@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)] [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Kofler, Barbara, E-mail: b.kofler@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)] [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

2012-01-20

226

Genetic polymorphism in metabolism and host defense enzymes: implications for human health risk assessment.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes can have profound influence on enzyme function, with implications for chemical clearance and internal dose. The effects of polymorphisms have been evaluated for certain therapeutic drugs but there has been relatively little investigation with environmental toxicants. Polymorphisms can also affect the function of host defense mechanisms and thus modify the pharmacodynamic response. This review and analysis explores the feasibility of using polymorphism data in human health risk assessment for four enzymes, two involved in conjugation (uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferases [UGTs], sulfotransferases [SULTs]), and two involved in detoxification (microsomal epoxide hydrolase [EPHX1], NADPH quinone oxidoreductase I [NQO1]). This set of evaluations complements our previous analyses with oxidative and conjugating enzymes. Of the numerous UGT and SULT enzymes, the greatest likelihood for polymorphism effect on conjugation function are for SULT1A1 (*2 polymorphism), UGT1A1 (*6, *7, *28 polymorphisms), UGT1A7 (*3 polymorphism), UGT2B15 (*2 polymorphism), and UGT2B17 (null polymorphism). The null polymorphism in NQO1 has the potential to impair host defense. These highlighted polymorphisms are of sufficient frequency to be prioritized for consideration in chemical risk assessments. In contrast, SNPs in EPHX1 are not sufficiently influential or defined for inclusion in risk models. The current analysis is an important first step in bringing the highlighted polymorphisms into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling framework. PMID:20662711

Ginsberg, Gary; Guyton, Kathryn; Johns, Douglas; Schimek, Jennifer; Angle, Kenneth; Sonawane, Babasaheb

2010-08-01

227

Effects of Oxygen Limitation on Xylose Fermentation, Intracellular Metabolites, and Key Enzymes of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602 were studied using batch cultures. The maximum yield of ethanol was 0.34 g/g at oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of 8.4 mmol/L·h. The maximum yield of xylitol was 0.33 g/g at OTR of 5.1 mmol/L·h. Oxygen limitation greatly affected mycelia growth and xylitol and ethanol productions. The specific growth rate (?) decreased 82% from 0.045 to 0.008 h-1 when OTR changed from 12.6 to 8.4 mmol/L·h. Intracellular metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were determined at various OTRs. Concentrations of most intracellular metabolites decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation. Intracellular enzyme activities of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase, the first three enzymes in xylose metabolic pathway, decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation, resulting in the decreased xylose uptake rate. Under all tested conditions, transaldolase and transketolase activities always maintained at low levels, indicating a great control on xylose metabolism. The enzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase played a major role in NADPH regeneration, and its activity decreased remarkably with the increase in oxygen limitation.

Zhang, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Jianqiang

228

Reconstruction of Ancestral Metabolic Enzymes Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Evolutionary Innovation through Gene Duplication  

PubMed Central

Gene duplications are believed to facilitate evolutionary innovation. However, the mechanisms shaping the fate of duplicated genes remain heavily debated because the molecular processes and evolutionary forces involved are difficult to reconstruct. Here, we study a large family of fungal glucosidase genes that underwent several duplication events. We reconstruct all key ancestral enzymes and show that the very first preduplication enzyme was primarily active on maltose-like substrates, with trace activity for isomaltose-like sugars. Structural analysis and activity measurements on resurrected and present-day enzymes suggest that both activities cannot be fully optimized in a single enzyme. However, gene duplications repeatedly spawned daughter genes in which mutations optimized either isomaltase or maltase activity. Interestingly, similar shifts in enzyme activity were reached multiple times via different evolutionary routes. Together, our results provide a detailed picture of the molecular mechanisms that drove divergence of these duplicated enzymes and show that whereas the classic models of dosage, sub-, and neofunctionalization are helpful to conceptualize the implications of gene duplication, the three mechanisms co-occur and intertwine.

Vanneste, Kevin; van der Zande, Elisa; Voet, Arnout; Maere, Steven; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

2012-01-01

229

Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles.  

PubMed

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17?-estradiol (E?) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 ?g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 ?g/mL) decreased E(2) (DMSO: 3009.72±744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1679.66±461.99 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 1752.72±532.41 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 45.89±33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43±2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1?g/mL: 17.17±4.71 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 13.64±3.53 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 1.29±0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92±0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 ?g/mL: 1.49±0.43ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 0.64±0.31 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 0.12±0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11±4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1?g/mL: 26.77±4.41 ng/mL; 1 ?g/mL: 20.90±3.75 ng/mL; 10 ?g/mL: 9.44±2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis. PMID:20840852

Craig, Zelieann R; Leslie, Traci C; Hatfield, Kimberly P; Gupta, Rupesh K; Flaws, Jodi A

2010-12-01

230

Changes in the activity of connective tissue matrix enzymes in the metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction Early atherosclerotic changes in the endothelium associated with metabolic syndrome are generated with the participation of inflammatory cells, cytokines and enzymes of the extracellular matrix. The study is aimed at a comparison between the activity of inflammatory agents, tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) and the enzymes of the connective tissue matrix in the blood of healthy female patients as well as those suffering from the metabolic syndrome. Material and methods The examination included 35 women with metabolic syndrome (MS). The control group (C) comprised 35 healthy women. Lipidogram, C-reactive protein level (CRP), fasting glucose level (FGL), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and -9 activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TNF-? levels in blood were determined. Results As compared with the control group, the level of inflammatory factors and the activity of extracellular matrix enzymes in the metabolic syndrome were statistically higher (p < 0.05) and concerned the following parameters: TNF-? (pg/ml): MS 6.59 ±3.18, C 4.78 ±2.91; CRP (mg/dl): MS 2.18 ±2.04, C 1,26 ±1.35; TIMP-1 (ng/ml): MS 265.5 ±2.9, C 205.4 ±72.6; MMP-9 (ng/ml): MS 198.2 ±138.6, C 138.6 ±116.1. Statistically significant correlations were also found between TIMP-1 and the following factors: BMI (R = 0.400, p < 0.001), waist/hip ratio (WHR) (R = 0.278, p < 0.05), waistline (R = 0.417, p < 0.001), FGL (R = 0.290, p < 0.05), HDL cholesterol (R = –0.253, p < 0.05) and triglycerides (R = 0.269, p < 0.05).There were positive correlations of MMP-9 with FGL (R = 0.446, p < 0.001) and waistline (R = 0.260, p < 0.05); MMP-8 with FGL (R = 0.308, p < 0.05); and CRP with BMI (R = 0.370, p < 0.01), WHR (R = 0.325, p < 0.01) and waistline (R = 0.368, p < 0.01). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome is connected with higher activity of cytokines (TNF-?), inflammatory markers (CRP) and matrix enzymes (MMP-9, MMP-8, TIMP-1).

Mieczkowska, Jolanta; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Barud, Wojciech; Kwasniewski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

231

Enzyme  

MedlinePLUS

Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

232

Origins of metabolic diversity: substitution of homologous sequences into genes for enzymes with different catalytic activities.  

PubMed Central

Similar amino acid sequences were found in portions of bacterial enzymes that mediate different biochemical transformations. Reaction catalyzed by the enzymes include oxygenation, decarboxylation, isomerization, and hydrolysis. The proteins share a common evolutionary history because they participate in an overall catabolic process known as the beta-ketoadipate pathway. One interpretation of the sequence similarities might be that duplication of a single gene gave rise to ancestral genes for the enzymes with different catalytic activities. According to this view, homologous sequences from the ancestral gene were conserved as the proteins diverged to assume different functions. This hypothesis is vitiated by comparison of the NH2-terminal amino acid sequences of sets of enzymes that mediate identical or analogous metabolic reactions within an organism. Gene duplications giving rise to the enzymes within each set must have followed duplication of a putative ancestral gene for all the sets. Yet the amino acid sequences of the proteins within each set have diverged widely, and against this background of divergence the conservation of sequences from an ancestor common to all the enzymes is unlikely. Rather, it appears that most regions of sequence similarity shared by enzymes from different sets were acquired subsequent to their divergence from any common ancestor. In some cases it appears that relatively short regions of sequence homology were achieved by mutations causing the transfer of sequence information from one set of structural genes to structural genes in another set. Alignment of homologous amino acid sequences within any single set requires the introduction of few gaps. Because gaps are required to align sequences that have been altered by the insertion of genetic material, the evidence indicates that copies of oligonucleotides were exchanged by genetic substitution among different structural genes as they coevolved.

Yeh, W K; Ornston, L N

1980-01-01

233

Lack of evidence for metabolism of p-phenylenediamine by human hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) is a widely used ingredient in permanent hair dyes; however, little has been published on its metabolism, especially with respect to hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidation. This is regarded as a key step in the activation of carcinogenic arylamines that ultimately leads to the development of bladder cancer. Most epidemiology studies show no significant association between personal use

Lesley A. Stanley; Julie A. Skare; Edward Doyle; Robert Powrie; Diane D’Angelo; Clifford R. Elcombe

2005-01-01

234

Androgen and androgen-metabolizing enzymes in metastasized lymph nodes of breast cancer.  

PubMed

Androgen receptor and androgen metabolizing enzymes, 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17?HSD5) and 5?-reductase1 (5?1), are frequently detected in primary tumor of breast cancer, but their status in metastatic lymph nodes has not been examined. The biological role of androgen in breast cancer and its metastatic process also remain unknown. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to localize the expression of androgen receptor, 17?HSD5, and 5?1 in primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes and correlated the findings with clinicopathologic factors of individual patients. Approximately 70% of primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes expressed androgen receptor, with significant correlation between both lesions. However, 17?HSD5 and 5?1 immunoreactivity was decreased in metastatic lymph nodes. Alone or in tandem with androgen receptor, 5?1 was associated with significantly lower Ki-67 index, lower pathologic grade, and higher estrogen receptor positivity, but androgen receptor/5?1 double positivity in lymph nodes was associated with larger lymph node metastasis and higher TNM stage. In conclusion, androgen receptor immunoreactivity remained stable during the process of metastasis, whereas androgen-metabolizing enzymes decreased. Although results of our study and previous reports imply additional roles of androgen metabolism in the metastasis process, especially conversion by 5?1, there may be divergence between its effects on primary tumor and those in metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:23953348

Shibahara, Yukiko; Miki, Yasuhiro; Sakurada, Chikako; Uchida, Keiko; Hata, Shuko; McNamara, Keely; Yoda, Tomomi; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takashi; Ishida, Takanori; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

2013-10-01

235

Relationship between activities of key enzymes involved in starch synthesis and accumulation in maize inbred lines during grain filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time course of starch production and the key enzyme activities in the grains of four maize inbred lines (two high-starch and\\u000a two low-starch lines) were studied. Accumulation of grain starch and its components in four maize inbred lines rose continuously\\u000a after pollination and increased as a sigmoid curve during grain filling. The accumulation rates showed single-peak curves.\\u000a The accumulation rates

J. J. Zhang; Y. F. Hu; Y. B. Huang

2008-01-01

236

The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

1981-01-01

237

Tropinone reductases, enzymes at the branch point of tropane alkaloid metabolism.  

PubMed

Two stereospecific oxidoreductases constitute a branch point in tropane alkaloid metabolism. Products of tropane metabolism are the alkaloids hyoscyamine, scopolamine, cocaine, and polyhydroxylated nortropane alkaloids, the calystegines. Both tropinone reductases reduce the precursor tropinone to yield either tropine or pseudotropine. In Solanaceae, tropine is incorporated into hyoscyamine and scopolamine; pseudotropine is the first specific metabolite on the way to the calystegines. Isolation, cloning and heterologous expression of both tropinone reductases enabled kinetic characterisation, protein crystallisation, and structure elucidation. Stereospecificity of reduction is achieved by binding tropinone in the respective enzyme active centre in opposite orientation. Immunolocalisation of both enzyme proteins in cultured roots revealed a tissue-specific protein accumulation. Metabolite flux through both arms of the tropane alkaloid pathway appears to be regulated by the activity of both enzymes and by their access to the precursor tropinone. Both tropinone reductases are NADPH-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases with amino acid sequence similarity of more than 50% suggesting their descent from a common ancestor. Putative tropinone reductase sequences annotated in plant genomes other that Solanaceae await functional characterisation. PMID:16426652

Dräger, Birgit

2006-02-01

238

Extract from Eugenia punicifolia is an antioxidant and inhibits enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate in vitro biological activities of extract of Eugenia punicifolia leaves (EEP), emphasizing the inhibitory activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome and its antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by free radicals scavengers in vitro assays: DPPH·, ABTS(·+), O2(·?), and NO· and a cell-based assay. EEP were tested in inhibitory colorimetric assays using ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase, and pancreatic lipase enzymes. The EEP exhibited activity in ABTS(·+), DPPH·, and O2(·?) scavenger (IC50 = 10.5 ± 1.2, 28.84 ± 0.54, and 38.12 ± 2.6 ?g/mL), respectively. EEP did not show cytotoxic effects, and it showed antioxidant activity in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EEP exhibited inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase activities in vitro assays (IC50 = 122.8 ± 6.3; 2.9 ± 0.1; 23.5 ± 2.6), respectively; however, EEP did not inhibit the lipase activity. The findings supported that extract of E. punicifolia leaves is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of enzymes, such as ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase, which can result in a reduction in the carbohydrate absorption rate and decrease of risks factors of cardiovascular disease, thereby providing a novel dietary opportunity for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24078187

Lopes Galeno, Denise Morais; Carvalho, Rosany Piccolotto; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Lima, Arleilson Sousa; Oliveira de Almeida, Patricia Danielle; Pacheco, Carolina Carvalho; Pereira de Souza, Tatiane; Lima, Emerson Silva

2014-01-01

239

Hepatic activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and biliary levels of xenobiotics in english sole ( Parophrys vetulus ) exposed to environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

English sole (Parophrys vetulus) are susceptible to the development of hepatic disease, including neoplasia, as a result of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The metabolism of PAHs, believed to be an essential factor in the development of neoplasia, has received considerable study in English sole, except that xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) have not been wellstudied in this species.

Tracy K. Collier; Usha Varanasi

1991-01-01

240

Impact of Limited Solvent Capacity on Metabolic Rate, Enzyme Activities, and Metabolite Concentrations of S. cerevisiae Glycolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell's cytoplasm is crowded by its various molecular components, resulting in a limited solvent capacity for the allocation of new proteins, thus constraining various cellular processes such as metabolism. Here we study the impact of the limited solvent capacity constraint on the metabolic rate, enzyme activities, and metabolite concentrations using a computational model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycolysis as a

Alexei Vazquez; Marcio A. de Menezes; Albert-László Barabási; Zoltan N. Oltvai

2008-01-01

241

Expression pattern of enzymes related to juvenile hormone metabolism in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological balance of juvenile hormone (JH) in insects depends on its biosynthesis and degradation pathway. Three key\\u000a enzymes namely, juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) and juvenile hormone diol kinase\\u000a (JHDK) are required for degradation in insects. Our present results showed that JHE and JHEH exhibited expression in almost\\u000a all the tissues. This indicated that JHE

Yang Hua-jun; Zhou Fang; Sabhat Awquib; Firdose Ahmad Malik; Bhaskar Roy; Li Xing-hua; Hu Jia-biao; Sun Chun-guang; Yan-shan Niu; Miao Yun-gen

242

Multiple roles for lipins\\/phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes in lipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphatidate phosphatase-1 (PAP1) enzymes have a key role in glycerolipid synthesis through the con- version of phosphatidate to diacylglycerol, the immediate precursor of triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and phos- phatidylethanolamine. PAP1 activity in mammals is deter- mined by the lipin family of proteins, lipin-1, lipin-2, and lipin-3, which each have distinct tissue expression patterns and appear to have unique physiological functions. In

Karen Reue; David N. Brindley

243

Genes encoding hub and bottleneck enzymes of the Arabidopsis metabolic network preferentially retain homeologs through whole genome duplication  

PubMed Central

Background Whole genome duplication (WGD) occurs widely in angiosperm evolution. It raises the intriguing question of how interacting networks of genes cope with this dramatic evolutionary event. Results In study of the Arabidopsis metabolic network, we assigned each enzyme (node) with topological centralities (in-degree, out-degree and between-ness) to measure quantitatively their centralities in the network. The Arabidopsis metabolic network is highly modular and separated into 11 interconnected modules, which correspond well to the functional metabolic pathways. The enzymes with higher in-out degree and between-ness (defined as hub and bottleneck enzymes, respectively) tend to be more conserved and preferentially retain homeologs after WGD. Moreover, the simultaneous retention of homeologs encoding enzymes which catalyze consecutive steps in a pathway is highly favored and easily achieved, and enzyme-enzyme interactions contribute to the retention of one-third of WGD enzymes. Conclusions Our analyses indicate that the hub and bottleneck enzymes of metabolic network obtain great benefits from WGD, and this event grants clear evolutionary advantages in adaptation to different environments.

2010-01-01

244

Plastid localization of the key carotenoid enzyme phytoene synthase is altered by isozyme, allelic variation, and activity.  

PubMed

Plant carotenoids have unique physiological roles related to specific plastid suborganellar locations. Carotenoid metabolic engineering could enhance plant adaptation to climate change and improve food security and nutritional value. However, lack of fundamental knowledge on carotenoid pathway localization limits targeted engineering. Phytoene synthase (PSY), a major rate-controlling carotenoid enzyme, is represented by multiple isozymes residing at unknown plastid sites. In maize (Zea mays), the three isozymes were transiently expressed and found either in plastoglobuli or in stroma and thylakoid membranes. PSY1, with one to two residue modifications of naturally occurring functional variants, exhibited altered localization, associated with distorted plastid shape and formation of a fibril phenotype. Mutating the active site of the enzyme reversed this phenotype. Discovery of differential PSY locations, linked with activity and isozyme type, advances the engineering potential for modifying carotenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23023170

Shumskaya, Maria; Bradbury, Louis M T; Monaco, Regina R; Wurtzel, Eleanore T

2012-09-01

245

Plastid Localization of the Key Carotenoid Enzyme Phytoene Synthase Is Altered by Isozyme, Allelic Variation, and Activity[W  

PubMed Central

Plant carotenoids have unique physiological roles related to specific plastid suborganellar locations. Carotenoid metabolic engineering could enhance plant adaptation to climate change and improve food security and nutritional value. However, lack of fundamental knowledge on carotenoid pathway localization limits targeted engineering. Phytoene synthase (PSY), a major rate-controlling carotenoid enzyme, is represented by multiple isozymes residing at unknown plastid sites. In maize (Zea mays), the three isozymes were transiently expressed and found either in plastoglobuli or in stroma and thylakoid membranes. PSY1, with one to two residue modifications of naturally occurring functional variants, exhibited altered localization, associated with distorted plastid shape and formation of a fibril phenotype. Mutating the active site of the enzyme reversed this phenotype. Discovery of differential PSY locations, linked with activity and isozyme type, advances the engineering potential for modifying carotenoid biosynthesis.

Shumskaya, Maria; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Monaco, Regina R.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

2012-01-01

246

The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Alterations of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes gene and protein expression, observed in diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants, and therapeutic agents and may also impact the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, as well as result in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the mitogen activated protein kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, mTOR, and the p70S6 kinase. Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how chronic disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control.

Kim, Sang K.; Novak, Raymond F.

2007-01-01

247

Differential Expression of Enzymes Associated with Serine/Glycine Metabolism in Different Breast Cancer Subtypes  

PubMed Central

Purpose Glycine and serine are well-known, classic metabolites of glycolysis. Here, we profiled the expression of enzymes associated with serine/glycine metabolism in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer and discuss their potential clinical implications. Methods We used western blotting and immunohistochemistry to examine five serine-/glycine-metabolism–associated proteins (PHGDH, PSAT, PSPH, SHMT, and GLDC) in six breast cancer cell lines and 709 breast cancer cases using tissue microarray (TMA). Results PHGDH and PSPH, associated with serine metabolism, were highly expressed in the TNBC cells. GLDC, associated with glycine metabolism, was highly expressed in HER-2-positive MDA-MB-453 and TNBC-related MDA-MB-435S. TMA showed that the TNBC-type breast cancer tissues highly expressed PHGDH, PSPH, and SHMT1, but not the luminal-A-type tissues (p<0.001). PSPH and SHMT1 expression in the tumor stroma of HER-2-type cancers was the highest, but the luminal-A tissues showed the lowest expression (p<0.001). GLDC was most frequently expressed in cancer cells and stroma of the HER-2-positive cancers and least frequently in TNBC (p<0.001). By Cox multivariate analysis, tumor PSPH positivity (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.068, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.049–4.079, p?=?0.036), stromal PSPH positivity (HR: 2.152, 95% CI: 1.107–4.184, p?=?0.024), and stromal SHMT1 negativity (HR: 2.142, 95% CI: 1.219–3.764, p?=?0.008) were associated with short overall survival. Conclusions Expression of serine-metabolism–associated proteins was increased in TNBC and decreased in the luminal-A cancers. Expression of glycine-metabolism–associated proteins was high in the tumor and stroma of HER-2-positive cancers.

Kim, Sang Kyum; Jung, Woo Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

2014-01-01

248

Effects of the agrochemicals butachlor, pretilachlor and isoprothiolane on rat liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

1. The herbicides butachlor (2-chloro-2',6',diethyl-N-[buthoxymethyl] acetanilide) and pretilachlor (2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-[2-propoxyethyl] acetanilide) are widely used in Asia, South America, Europe and Africa. Isoprothiolane (diisopropyl-1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidenemalonate) is used as a fungicide and an insecticide in rice paddies. We administered these agrochemicals to the male rat and examined their effects on cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione S-transferase (GST), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT), and NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-related metabolism in the liver. 2. Administration of isoprothiolane, butachlor or pretilachlor to rat induced hepatic P4502B subfamily-dependent enzyme activities (pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation and testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylation) up to 271-413% of control, which coincided with the increase in expression levels of the P4502B apoprotein. 3. Activities of GST toward 1-chloro-2,4-nitrobenzene and 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene were slightly induced (127-133% of control) in the liver of the rat treated with these pesticides. On the other hand, marked elevations of UDPGT activities toward p-nitrophenol (164-281% of control) were observed. NQO1-related metabolism (menadione reductase activity) was also induced (123-176% of control) in the liver of rat treated with these agrochemicals. 4. These results indicate that some of the agrochemicals currently in use are capable of inducing phase I and II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in an isozyme selective manner. The induction of these activities may disrupt normal physiologic functions related to these enzymes in exposed animals. PMID:9879635

Ishizuka, M; Iwata, H; Kazusaka, A; Hatakeyama, S; Fujita, S

1998-11-01

249

The Subcellular Compartmentalization of Arginine Metabolizing Enzymes and Their Role in Endothelial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) mediates endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and restrains vascular inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and platelet aggregation. Impaired production of NO is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and promotes the development of cardiovascular disease. In endothelial cells, NO is generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through the conversion of its substrate, l-arginine to l-citrulline. Reduced access to l-arginine has been proposed as a major mechanism underlying reduced eNOS activity and NO production in cardiovascular disease. The arginases (Arg1 and Arg2) metabolize l-arginine to generate l-ornithine and urea and increased expression of arginase has been proposed as a mechanism of reduced eNOS activity secondary to the depletion of l-arginine. Indeed, supplemental l-arginine and suppression of arginase activity has been shown to improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and ameliorate cardiovascular disease. However, this simple relationship is complicated by observations that l-arginine concentrations in endothelial cells remain sufficiently high to support NO synthesis. Accordingly, the subcellular compartmentalization of intracellular l-arginine into poorly interchangeable pools has been proposed to allow for the local depletion of pools or pockets of l-arginine. In agreement with this, there is considerable evidence supporting the importance of the subcellular localization of l-arginine metabolizing enzymes. In endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, eNOS is found in discrete intracellular locations and the capacity to generate NO is heavily influenced by its localization inside the cell. Arg1 and Arg2 also reside in different subcellular environments and are thought to differentially influence endothelial function. The plasma membrane solute transporter, CAT-1 and the arginine recycling enzyme, arginosuccinate lyase, co-localize with eNOS and facilitate NO release. Herein, we highlight the importance of the subcellular location of eNOS and arginine transporting and metabolizing enzymes to NO release and cardiovascular disease.

Chen, Feng; Lucas, Rudolf; Fulton, David

2013-01-01

250

Identification and expression of isoflavone synthase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of isoflavones in legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isoflavones have drawn much attention because of their benefits to human health. These compounds, which are produced almost exclusively in legumes, have natural roles in plant defense and root nodulation. Isoflavone synthase catalyzes the first committed step of isoflavone biosynthesis, a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we used a yeast expression assay to

Woosuk Jung; Oliver Yu; Sze-Mei Cindy Lau; Daniel P. O'Keefe; Joan Odell; Gary Fader; Brian McGonigle

2000-01-01

251

[Hypotensive, organoprotective, and metabolic effects of Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor moexipril in women with postmenopausal syndrome].  

PubMed

Hypotensive, organoprotective, and metabolic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor moexipril (7.5-15 mg/day for 16 weeks) with or without combination with hydrochlorothiazide was studied in 34 women (mean age 59.6+/-1.6 years) with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Thirty four women had dyslipidemia, 22 -- disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism, 18 -- obesity (mean body mass index 31.1+/-0.8 kg/m(2)). Treatment was associated with lowering of office systolic(-20.1%) and diastolic (-17.4%) blood pressure (BP). Target BP (140/90 mm Hg) was achieved in 27 patients. There also occurred significant lowering of mean 24 hour, diurnal, and nocturnal systolic and diastolic BP (p<0.05), significant changes of values of systolic and diastolic BP time indexes, normalization of which was observed both during day and night hours. Significant lowering of total cholesterol (-11.6%, p<0.05), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (-16.3%, p<0.02), and in patients with obesity of triglycerides (-27%, p<0.02) was revealed at the background of treatment with moexipril. In a group as a whole we observed significant lowering of excretion of albumins and b2-microglobulin; most pronounced antiproteinuretic effect was noted in patients with high microproteinuria and obesity. Vasodilating function of vessels improved in all patients with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome, mainly at the account of increment of endothelium dependent vasodilation and normalization of index of vasodilatation. PMID:16858353

Leonova, M V; Demidova, M A; Tarasov, A V; Belousov, Iu B

2006-01-01

252

Calcium-regulated nuclear enzymes: potential mediators of phytochrome-induced changes in nuclear metabolism?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calcium ions have been proposed to serve as important regulatory elements in stimulus-response coupling for phytochrome responses. An important test of this hypothesis will be to identify specific targets of calcium action that are required for some growth or development process induced by the photoactivated form of phytochrome (Pfr). Initial studies have revealed that there are at least two enzymes in pea nuclei that are stimulated by Pfr in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, a calmodulin-regulated nucleoside triphosphatase and a calmodulin-independent but Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. The nucleoside triphosphatase appears to be associated with the nuclear envelope, while the protein kinase co-purifies with a nuclear fraction highly enriched for chromatin. This short review summarizes the latest findings on these enzymes and relates them to what is known about Pfr-regulated nuclear metabolism.

Roux, S. J.

1992-01-01

253

Cytochrome P450 enzymes from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

SciTech Connect

Four (CYP195A2, CYP199A2, CYP203A1, and CYP153A5) of the seven P450 enzymes, and palustrisredoxin A, a ferredoxin associated with CYP199A2, from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been expressed and purified. A range of substituted benzenes, phenols, benzaldehydes, and benzoic acids was shown to bind to the four P450 enzymes. Monooxygenase activity of CYP199A2 was reconstituted with palustrisredoxin A and putidaredoxin reductase of the P450cam system from Pseudomonas putida. We found that 4-ethylbenzoate and 4-methoxybenzoate were oxidized to single products, and 4-methoxybenzoate was demethylated to form 4-hydroxybenzoate. Crystals of substrate-free CYP199A2 which diffracted to {approx}2.0 A have been obtained.

Bell, Stephen G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: stephen.bell@chem.ox.ac.uk; Hoskins, Nicola [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Xu Feng [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Department of Biological Science and Technology and MOE Laboratory of Protein Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Caprotti, Domenico [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom); Rao Zihe [Laboratory of Structural Biology, Department of Biological Science and Technology and MOE Laboratory of Protein Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wong, L.-L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Oxford, Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3QR (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: luet.wong@chem.ox.ac.uk

2006-03-31

254

In vivo cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzyme characterization using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate in vivo phenotyping methodology for characterizing drug-metabolizing phenotypes with reference to the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes would be very beneficial. In terms of application, in the wake of the human genome project, considerable interest is focused on the development of new drugs whose uses will be tailored to specific genetic polymorphisms, and on the individualization of dosing regimens that are also tailored to meet individual patient needs depending upon genotype. In this investigation, chemical probes for CYP450 enzymes were characterized and identified with Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, gold-based metal colloid clusters were utilized to generate surface enhanced Raman spectra for each of the chemical probes. Results will be presented demonstrating the ability of SERS to identify minute quantities of these probes on the order needed for in vivo application.

Li, Yanfang; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Cameron, Brent D.

2003-07-01

255

Identification of a Metabolizing Enzyme in Human Kidney by Proteomic Correlation Profiling  

PubMed Central

Molecular identification of endogenous enzymes and biologically active substances from complex biological sources remains a challenging task, and although traditional biochemical purification is sometimes regarded as outdated, it remains one of the most powerful methodologies for this purpose. While biochemical purification usually requires large amounts of starting material and many separation steps, we developed an advanced method named “proteomic correlation profiling” in our previous study. In proteomic correlation profiling, we first fractionated biological material by column chromatography, and then calculated each protein's correlation coefficient between the enzyme activity profile and protein abundance profile determined by proteomics technology toward fractions. Thereafter, we could choose possible candidates for the enzyme among proteins with a high correlation value by domain predictions using informatics tools. Ultimately, this streamlined procedure requires fewer purification steps and reduces starting materials dramatically due to low required purity compared with conventional approaches. To demonstrate the generality of this approach, we have now applied an improved workflow of proteomic correlation profiling to a drug metabolizing enzyme and successfully identified alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme (ALPL) as a phosphatase of CS-0777 phosphate (CS-0777-P), a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator with potential benefits in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, from human kidney extract. We identified ALPL as a candidate protein only by the 200-fold purification and only from 1 g of human kidney. The identification of ALPL as CS-0777-P phosphatase was strongly supported by a recombinant protein, and contribution of the enzyme in human kidney extract was validated by immunodepletion and a specific inhibitor. This approach can be applied to any kind of enzyme class and biologically active substance; therefore, we believe that we have provided a fast and practical option by combination of traditional biochemistry and state-of-the-art proteomic technology.

Sakurai, Hidetaka; Kubota, Kazuishi; Inaba, Shin-ichi; Takanaka, Kaoru; Shinagawa, Akira

2013-01-01

256

Identification of a metabolizing enzyme in human kidney by proteomic correlation profiling.  

PubMed

Molecular identification of endogenous enzymes and biologically active substances from complex biological sources remains a challenging task, and although traditional biochemical purification is sometimes regarded as outdated, it remains one of the most powerful methodologies for this purpose. While biochemical purification usually requires large amounts of starting material and many separation steps, we developed an advanced method named "proteomic correlation profiling" in our previous study. In proteomic correlation profiling, we first fractionated biological material by column chromatography, and then calculated each protein's correlation coefficient between the enzyme activity profile and protein abundance profile determined by proteomics technology toward fractions. Thereafter, we could choose possible candidates for the enzyme among proteins with a high correlation value by domain predictions using informatics tools. Ultimately, this streamlined procedure requires fewer purification steps and reduces starting materials dramatically due to low required purity compared with conventional approaches. To demonstrate the generality of this approach, we have now applied an improved workflow of proteomic correlation profiling to a drug metabolizing enzyme and successfully identified alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme (ALPL) as a phosphatase of CS-0777 phosphate (CS-0777-P), a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator with potential benefits in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, from human kidney extract. We identified ALPL as a candidate protein only by the 200-fold purification and only from 1 g of human kidney. The identification of ALPL as CS-0777-P phosphatase was strongly supported by a recombinant protein, and contribution of the enzyme in human kidney extract was validated by immunodepletion and a specific inhibitor. This approach can be applied to any kind of enzyme class and biologically active substance; therefore, we believe that we have provided a fast and practical option by combination of traditional biochemistry and state-of-the-art proteomic technology. PMID:23674616

Sakurai, Hidetaka; Kubota, Kazuishi; Inaba, Shin-Ichi; Takanaka, Kaoru; Shinagawa, Akira

2013-08-01

257

Testing biochemistry revisited: how in vivo metabolism can be understood from in vitro enzyme kinetics.  

PubMed

A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation.Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i) including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii) measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i) implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii) implementation of V(max) values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii) redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions.Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation), or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry. PMID:22570597

van Eunen, Karen; Kiewiet, José A L; Westerhoff, Hans V; Bakker, Barbara M

2012-01-01

258

Effects of Naturally Occurring Coumarins on Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Mice  

PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often are a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10,Cyp3a1, GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(?/?) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have diverse activities in terms of inducing various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes based on their chemical structure.

Kleiner, Heather E.; Xia, Xiojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni., John

2008-01-01

259

Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice  

SciTech Connect

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have diverse activities in terms of inducing various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes based on their chemical structure.

Kleiner, Heather E. [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)], E-mail: hklein@lsuhsc.edu; Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Zhang, Jun [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Evans, Ronald M. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Moore, David D. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); DiGiovanni, John [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2008-10-15

260

Expression profiles of key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in Beijing-You chickens.  

PubMed

Intramuscular fat (IMF) is a crucial factor for the meat quality of chickens. With the aim of studying the molecular mechanisms underlying IMF deposition in chickens, the expression profiles of five candidate transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism in several tissues were examined in Beijing-You (BJY) chickens at five ages (0, 4, 8, 14 and 20 wk). Results showed that accumulation of IMF in breast (IMFbr), thigh (IMFth) and abdominal fat weight increased significantly (P<0.01) after 8 wk. Accumulation of both IMFbr and IMFth from 8 to 14 wk exceeded that from 14 to 20 wk; IMFth was 4-7 times of IMFbr. As for the expression profiles of key transcription factors: 1) expression of C/EBP? and PPAR? in abdominal fat was significantly higher than that in breast and thigh muscles at all ages. The expression of C/EBP? was positively correlated with PPAR? in both breast and thigh muscles, which indicated that both C/EBP? and PPAR? promoted fat deposition and might act through a unified pathway; 2) the expression of SREBP-1 in 0, 4, and 8 wk in thigh muscle was significantly higher than that in breast; 3) expression of C/EBP? at 4 and 8 wk was significantly higher than that at 14 and 20 wk; and it was positively correlated with IMFth and IMFbr from 0 to 8 wk; 4) expression of PPAR? in breast and thigh muscles was significantly higher than that in abdominal fat. Taken together, all five transcription factors studied play roles in lipid metabolism in chickens with C/EBP? and PPAR? being important effectors. PMID:24100085

Fu, R Q; Liu, R R; Zhao, G P; Zheng, M Q; Chen, J L; Wen, J

2014-03-01

261

Transcription of genes coding for metabolic key functions in Nitrosomonas europaea during aerobic and anaerobic growth.  

PubMed

Nitrosomonas europaea can grow under conditions of chemolithoautotrophic aerobic (oxygen as oxidant) as well as anaerobic [nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) as oxidant] nitrification or chemoorganotrophic anaerobic pyruvate-dependent denitrification. In this study, the adaptation of the transcription (mRNA synthesis/concentration) of N. europaea to aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions was evaluated and the transcription of genes coding for metabolic key functions was analyzed: nitrogen and energy metabolism (amoA, hao, rh1, nirK, norB, nsc, aceE, ldhA, ppc, gltA, odhA, coxA), carbon dioxide fixation (cbbL), gluconeogenesis (ppsA), cell growth (ftsZ), and oxidative stress (sodB). During aerobic ammonia oxidation the specific activities of ammonia oxidation, nitrite reduction, and the growth rates correlated with the transcription level of the corresponding genes amoA/hao, nirK/norB/nsc, and cbbL/ftsZ. In anaerobically ammonia-oxidizing cells of N. europaea, the cellular mRNA concentrations of amoA, hao, rh1,coxA, cbbL, ftsZ, and sodB were reduced compared with aerobically nitrifying cells, but the mRNA levels of nirK, norB, and nsc were significantly increased. During anaerobic pyruvate-dependent denitrification, the mRNA abundance of nirK, norB, nsc, aceE, gltA, and odhA was increased, while the concentrations of amoA,hao, rh1, coxAcbbL, ftsZ, and sodB were significantly reduced. Temperature, pH value, and NH(4)(+), O(2), NO, and NO(2) concentrations had comparatively small effects on the transcription of the studied genes. PMID:18594130

Beyer, Sonja; Gilch, Stefan; Meyer, Ortwin; Schmidt, Ingo

2009-01-01

262

Specificity of inhibitors of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), a key enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis, in intact cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we demonstrate a model cell system for evaluating the specificity of inhibitors of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of sphingolipid biosynthesis. The LY-B strain is a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutant defective in SPT, and the LY-B\\/cLCB1 strain is a genetically corrected revertant of the mutant. Although LY-B cells grew

Kentaro Hanada; Masahiro Nishijima; Tetsuro Fujita; Sh? Kobayashi

2000-01-01

263

Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase: A key regulatory enzyme for insect metamorphosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile hormone (JH) acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) is an enzyme that converts JH acids or inactive precursors of JHs to active JHs at the final step of JH biosynthesis pathway in insects. By fluorescent mRNA differential display, we have cloned a cDNA encoding JHAMT from the corpora allata (CA) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (BmJHAMT). The BmJHAMT cDNA encodes an ORF

Tetsuro Shinoda; Kyo Itoyama

2003-01-01

264

Age-related alteration of PKC, a key enzyme in memory processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain aging is characterized by a progressive decline of the cognitive and memory functions. It is becoming increasingly clear\\u000a that protein phosphorylation and, in particular, the activity of the calcium-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC)\\u000a may be one of the fundamental cellular changes associated with memory function. PKC is a multigene family of enzymes highly\\u000a expressed in brain tissues. The activation

A. Pascale; S. Govoni; F. Battaini

1998-01-01

265

Key Feature of the Catalytic Cycle of TNF-alpha Converting Enzyme Involves Communication Between Distal Protein Sites and the Enzyme Catalytic Core  

SciTech Connect

Despite their key roles in many normal and pathological processes, the molecular details by which zinc-dependent proteases hydrolyze their physiological substrates remain elusive. Advanced theoretical analyses have suggested reaction models for which there is limited and controversial experimental evidence. Here we report the structure, chemistry and lifetime of transient metal-protein reaction intermediates evolving during the substrate turnover reaction of a metalloproteinase, the tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} converting enzyme (TACE). TACE controls multiple signal transduction pathways through the proteolytic release of the extracellular domain of a host of membrane-bound factors and receptors. Using stopped-flow x-ray spectroscopy methods together with transient kinetic analyses, we demonstrate that TACE's catalytic zinc ion undergoes dynamic charge transitions before substrate binding to the metal ion. This indicates previously undescribed communication pathways taking place between distal protein sites and the enzyme catalytic core. The observed charge transitions are synchronized with distinct phases in the reaction kinetics and changes in metal coordination chemistry mediated by the binding of the peptide substrate to the catalytic metal ion and product release. Here we report key local charge transitions critical for proteolysis as well as long sought evidence for the proposed reaction model of peptide hydrolysis. This study provides a general approach for gaining critical insights into the molecular basis of substrate recognition and turnover by zinc metalloproteinases that may be used for drug design.

Solomon,A.; Akabayov, B.; Frenkel, A.; Millas, M.; Sagi, I.

2007-01-01

266

Unlocking the mechanisms of transcription factor YY1: are chromatin modifying enzymes the key?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transcription factor YY1 is a complex protein that is involved in repressing and activating a diverse number of promoters. Numerous studies have attempted to understand how this one factor can act both as a repressor and an activator in such a wide set of different contexts. The fact that YY1 interacts with a number of key regulatory proteins (e.g.

Matthew J. Thomas; Edward Seto

1999-01-01

267

Update on the Genetic Polymorphisms of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Antiepileptic Drug Therapy  

PubMed Central

Genetic polymorphisms in the genes that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes are implicated in the inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, the clinical impact of these polymorphisms on AED therapy still remains controversial. The defective alleles of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and/or CYP2C19 could affect not only the pharmacokinetics, but also the pharmacodynamics of phenytoin therapy. CYP2C19 deficient genotypes were associated with the higher serum concentration of an active metabolite of clobazam, N-desmethylclobazam, and with the higher clinical efficacy of clobazam therapy than the other CYP2C19 genotypes. The defective alleles of CYP2C9 and/or CYP2C19 were also found to have clinically significant effects on the inter-individual variabilities in the population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital, valproic acid and zonisamide. EPHX1 polymorphisms may be associated with the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine and the risk of phenytoin-induced congenital malformations. Similarly, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 genotype may affect the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine. Gluthatione S-transferase null genotypes are implicated in an increased risk of hepatotoxicity caused by carbamazepine and valproic acid. This article summarizes the state of research on the effects of mutations of drug-metabolizing enzymes on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AED therapies. Future directions for the dose-adjustment of AED are discussed.

Saruwatari, Junji; Ishitsu, Takateru; Nakagawa, Kazuko

2010-01-01

268

Role of aldo-keto reductase family 1 (AKR1) enzymes in human steroid metabolism.  

PubMed

Human aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1-AKR1C4 and AKR1D1 play essential roles in the metabolism of all steroid hormones, the biosynthesis of neurosteroids and bile acids, the metabolism of conjugated steroids, and synthetic therapeutic steroids. These enzymes catalyze NADPH dependent reductions at the C3, C5, C17 and C20 positions on the steroid nucleus and side-chain. AKR1C1-AKR1C4 act as 3-keto, 17-keto and 20-ketosteroid reductases to varying extents, while AKR1D1 acts as the sole ?(4)-3-ketosteroid-5?-reductase (steroid 5?-reductase) in humans. AKR1 enzymes control the concentrations of active ligands for nuclear receptors and control their ligand occupancy and trans-activation, they also regulate the amount of neurosteroids that can modulate the activity of GABAA and NMDA receptors. As such they are involved in the pre-receptor regulation of nuclear and membrane bound receptors. Altered expression of individual AKR1C genes is related to development of prostate, breast, and endometrial cancer. Mutations in AKR1C1 and AKR1C4 are responsible for sexual development dysgenesis and mutations in AKR1D1 are causative in bile-acid deficiency. PMID:24189185

Rižner, Tea Lanišnik; Penning, Trevor M

2014-01-01

269

Genetic polymorphism of drug metabolizing enzymes in association with risk of bile duct cancer.  

PubMed

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the most common cancer in endemic areas of liver fluke infection. Although the liver fluke is recognized as a carcinogenic agent in cholangiocarcinogenesis, other factors may play important roles in bringing about the high prevalence of the cancer in populations of this region. Drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are essential for detoxification of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals. Moreover, DME can play an alternative role by activating chemicals to more toxic metabolites. The large variation of DME activity among individuals is partly due to polymorphism of the genes encoding enzymes. Defective or variant alleles of DME genes may modify the risk of cancer in those who are exposeed to carcinogenic agents. The focus in this review is on DME genes which have been reported to be associated with CCA risk. These include CYP1A2, arylamine- N-acetyltransferase-1 (NAT1) and NAT2, NADPH-quinone oxidorecutase-1 (NQO1), glutathione-S-transferase M1 (GSTM1), GSTT1, GSTO1 and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). Mutant alleles which have been reportedly associated with an increased risk include CYP1A2*1F, GSTT1 null, GSTO1 and MTHFR 677C>T, whereas, slow NAT2 and NQO1*2 decrease risk and NAT1 variants and GSTM1 null have no effect. These genes modify the risk of cancer potentially by interaction and exposure with certain environmental conditions, thereby altering the metabolism of causative agents. PMID:23480767

Kukongviriyapan, Veerapol

2012-01-01

270

A pangenomic analysis of the Nannochloropsis organellar genomes reveals novel genetic variations in key metabolic genes  

PubMed Central

Background Microalgae in the genus Nannochloropsis are photosynthetic marine Eustigmatophytes of significant interest to the bioenergy and aquaculture sectors due to their ability to efficiently accumulate biomass and lipids for utilization in renewable transportation fuels, aquaculture feed, and other useful bioproducts. To better understand the genetic complement that drives the metabolic processes of these organisms, we present the assembly and comparative pangenomic analysis of the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from Nannochloropsis salina CCMP1776. Results The chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of N. salina are 98.4% and 97% identical to their counterparts in Nannochloropsis gaditana. Comparison of the Nannochloropsis pangenome to other algae within and outside of the same phyla revealed regions of significant genetic divergence in key genes that encode proteins needed for regulation of branched chain amino synthesis (acetohydroxyacid synthase), carbon fixation (RuBisCO activase), energy conservation (ATP synthase), protein synthesis and homeostasis (Clp protease, ribosome). Conclusions Many organellar gene modifications in Nannochloropsis are unique and deviate from conserved orthologs found across the tree of life. Implementation of secondary and tertiary structure prediction was crucial to functionally characterize many proteins and therefore should be implemented in automated annotation pipelines. The exceptional similarity of the N. salina and N. gaditana organellar genomes suggests that N. gaditana be reclassified as a strain of N. salina.

2014-01-01

271

Structural Insights into Maize Viviparous14, a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid W  

SciTech Connect

The key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a hormone central to the regulation of several important processes in plants, is the oxidative cleavage of the 11,12 double bond of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The enzyme viviparous14 (VP14) performs this cleavage in maize (Zea mays), making it a target for the rational design of novel chemical agents and genetic modifications that improve plant behavior through the modulation of ABA levels. The structure of VP14, determined to 3.2-{angstrom} resolution, provides both insight into the determinants of regio- and stereospecificity of this enzyme and suggests a possible mechanism for oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the distantly related CCD1 of maize shows how the VP14 structure represents a template for all plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). In addition, the structure suggests how VP14 associates with the membrane as a way of gaining access to its membrane soluble substrate.

Messing, S.; Gabelli, S; Echeverria, I; Vogel, J; Guan, J; Tan, B; Klee, H; McCarty, D; Amzela, M

2010-01-01

272

Potato steroidal glycoalkaloid levels and the expression of key isoprenoid metabolic genes.  

PubMed

The potato steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) are toxic secondary metabolites, and their total content in tubers should not exceed 20 mg/100 g fresh weight. The two major SGA in cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) are alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine. SGA biosynthetic genes and the genetic factors that control their expression have not yet been determined. In the present study, potato genotypes exhibiting different levels of SGA content showed an association between high SGA levels in their leaves and tubers and high expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase 1 (hmg1) and squalene synthase 1 (pss1), genes of the mevalonic/isoprenoid pathway. Transcripts of other key enzymes of branches of the isoprenoid pathway, vetispiradiene/sesquiterpene synthase (pvs1) and sterol C24-methyltransferase type1 (smt1), were undetectable or exhibited stable expression regardless of SGA content, respectively, suggesting facilitated precursor flow to the SGA biosynthetic branch. The transcript ratio of solanidine glucosyltransferase (sgt2) to solanidine galactosyltransferase (sgt1) was correlated to the documented chaconine-to-solanine ratio in the tested genotypes. Significantly higher expression of hmg1, pss1, smt1, sgt1 and sgt2 was monitored in the tuber phelloderm than in the parenchyma of the tuber's flesh, targeting the former as the main SGA-producing tissue in the tuber, in agreement with the known high SGA content in the layers directly under the tuber skin. PMID:17701426

Krits, Pinchas; Fogelman, Edna; Ginzberg, Idit

2007-12-01

273

Integration of the metabolic/redox state, histone gene switching, DNA replication and S-phase progression by moonlighting metabolic enzymes  

PubMed Central

The concept of one-protein–multiple-function, i.e. moonlighting proteins, is an ever-expanding paradigm. We obtained compelling evidence that an array of ‘cytoplasmic’ metabolic enzymes can enter the nuclei to carry out moonlighting transcription functions; this phenomenon is conserved from Drosophila to humans. Of particular interest are the classical glycolytic enzymes GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), which utilize NAD(H) as coenzymes and not only moonlight (in their nuclear forms) to regulate the transcription of S-phase-specific histone genes, but also act as metabolic/redox sensors that link histone gene switching to DNA replication and S-phase progression.

He, Hongpeng; Lee, Mei-Chin; Zheng, Li-Ling; Zheng, Lei; Luo, Yan

2013-01-01

274

Induction of a crassulacean acid-like metabolism in the C(4) succulent plant, Portulaca oleracea L: study of enzymes involved in carbon fixation and carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

The C(4) succulent plant Portulaca oleracea shifts its photosynthetic metabolism to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) after 23 d of withholding water. This is accounted by diurnal acid fluctuation, net nocturnal but not day CO(2) uptake and drastic changes in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) kinetic and regulatory properties [Lara et al. (2003) Photosynth: Res. 77: 241]. The goal of the present work was to characterize the CAM activity in leaves of P. oleracea during water stress through the study of enzymes involved in carbon fixation and carbohydrate metabolism. After drought stress, a general decrease in the photosynthetic metabolism, as accounted by the decrease in the net CO(2) fixation and in the activity of enzymes such as ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, PEPC, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and NAD-malic enzyme was observed. We also found changes in the day/night activities and level of immunoreactive protein of some of these enzymes which were correlated to night CO(2) fixation, as occurs under CAM metabolism. Based on the results obtained, including those from in situ immunolocalization studies, we propose a scheme for the possible CO(2) fixation pathways used by P. oleracea under conditions of sufficient and limiting water supply. PMID:15169944

Lara, María V; Drincovich, María F; Andreo, Carlos S

2004-05-01

275

Diabetes induces lysine acetylation of intermediary metabolism enzymes in the kidney.  

PubMed

Cells in which insulin is not required for glucose uptake are susceptible to the long-term complications of diabetes. Even in these tissues, however, the major perturbations that would otherwise be engendered by the greatly increased intracellular glucose concentration are mollified by adaptive changes in the enzymes of intermediary metabolism. These include allosteric regulation, product inhibition, and covalent modification as well as alterations in gene transcription. More recently, advances in proteomic technology have shown that reversible acetylation of the ?-amino group of lysine provides an additional means of modulating protein function and, in particular, enzyme activity. Here, we explored the extent of protein acetylation in an organ susceptible to the long-term complications of diabetes, examining the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and kidney cells exposed to high glucose. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with immunoaffinity enrichment, we identified 47 lysine-acetylated proteins in the kidneys of diabetic rats compared with 11 in control kidneys. Bioinformatic interrogation of the acetylome from diabetic animals showed a predominance of metabolic pathway involvement including the citrate acid cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and metabolism of branched chain amino acids. Increased lysine acetylation was also noted in mesangial and tubular cells exposed to 25 mmol/L compared with 5.6 mmol/L glucose. These findings highlight acetylation as a posttranslational modification affecting numerous proteins. Current drug discovery efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors and activators of various lysine acetylases and deacetylases offer a new potential strategy to reduce the likelihood of diabetes complications. PMID:24677711

Kosanam, Hari; Thai, Kerri; Zhang, Yanling; Advani, Andrew; Connelly, Kim A; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Gilbert, Richard E

2014-07-01

276

Discovery of new enzymes and metabolic pathways using structure and genome context  

PubMed Central

Assigning valid functions to proteins identified in genome projects is challenging, with over-prediction and database annotation errors major concerns1. We, and others2, are developing computation-guided strategies for functional discovery using “metabolite docking” to experimentally derived3 or homology-based4 three-dimensional structures. Bacterial metabolic pathways often are encoded by “genome neighborhoods” (gene clusters and/or operons), which can provide important clues for functional assignment. We recently demonstrated the synergy of docking and pathway context by “predicting” the intermediates in the glycolytic pathway in E. coli5. Metabolite docking to multiple binding proteins/enzymes in the same pathway increases the reliability of in silico predictions of substrate specificities because the pathway intermediates are structurally similar. We report that structure-guided approaches for predicting the substrate specificities of several enzymes encoded by a bacterial gene cluster allowed i) the correct prediction of the in vitro activity of a structurally characterized enzyme of unknown function (PDB 2PMQ), 2-epimerization of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline betaine (tHyp-B) and cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline betaine (cHyp-B), and ii) the correct identification of the catabolic pathway in which Hyp-B 2-epimerase participates. The substrate-liganded pose predicted by virtual library screening (docking) was confirmed experimentally. The enzymatic activities in the predicted pathway were confirmed by in vitro assays and genetic analyses; the intermediates were identified by metabolomics; and repression of the genes encoding the pathway by high salt was established by transcriptomics, confirming the osmolyte role of tHyp-B. This study establishes the utility of structure-guide functional predictions to enable the discovery of new metabolic pathways.

Zhao, Suwen; Kumar, Ritesh; Sakai, Ayano; Vetting, Matthew W.; Wood, B. McKay; Brown, Shoshana; Bonanno, Jeffery B.; Hillerich, Brandan S.; Seidel, Ronald D.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Almo, Steven C.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Gerlt, John A.; Cronan, John E.; Jacobson, Matthew P.

2014-01-01

277

Antimutagenic potential and modulation of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes by ginger essential oil.  

PubMed

Essential oil extracted from ginger (GEO) was evaluated for its mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, TA 100, TA 102, and TA 1535 strains with and without microsomal activation. GEO was found to be non-mutagenic up to a concentration of 3?mg/plate. It was also assessed for antimutagenic potential against direct acting mutagens such as sodium azide, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, tobacco extract, and 2-acetamidoflourene, which needs microsomal activation. GEO significantly inhibited (p?metabolizing enzymes was investigated by studying its effect on various isoforms of microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Significant inhibition of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP2B1/2, aniline hydroxylase (an indicator of CYP2E1 activity), and aminopyrine-N-demethylase (indicator of CYP1A, 2A, 2B, 2D, and 3A activity) was shown by GEO both in vitro and in vivo. GEO gave an IC50 value of 30, 57.5, and 40?µg for CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP2B1/2, respectively, 55?µg for aniline hydroxylase, and 37.5?µg for aminopyrene-N-demethylase. GEO also significantly increased the levels of phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronyl transferase and glutathione-S-transferase in vivo indicating the use of GEO as an antimutagen and as a potential chemopreventive agent. PMID:24023002

Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayasteltar B; Viswanathan, Ramanath; Kuttan, Ramadasan

2014-06-01

278

A combined computational-experimental analyses of selected metabolic enzymes in Pseudomonas species.  

PubMed

Comparative genomic analysis has revolutionized our ability to predict the metabolic subsystems that occur in newly sequenced genomes, and to explore the functional roles of the set of genes within each subsystem. These computational predictions can considerably reduce the volume of experimental studies required to assess basic metabolic properties of multiple bacterial species. However, experimental validations are still required to resolve the apparent inconsistencies in the predictions by multiple resources. Here, we present combined computational-experimental analyses on eight completely sequenced Pseudomonas species. Comparative pathway analyses reveal that several pathways within the Pseudomonas species show high plasticity and versatility. Potential bypasses in 11 metabolic pathways were identified. We further confirmed the presence of the enzyme O-acetyl homoserine (thiol) lyase (EC: 2.5.1.49) in P. syringae pv. tomato that revealed inconsistent annotations in KEGG and in the recently published SYSTOMONAS database. These analyses connect and integrate systematic data generation, computational data interpretation, and experimental validation and represent a synergistic and powerful means for conducting biological research. PMID:18802474

Perumal, Deepak; Lim, Chu Sing; Chow, Vincent T K; Sakharkar, Kishore R; Sakharkar, Meena K

2008-01-01

279

A combined computational-experimental analyses of selected metabolic enzymes in Pseudomonas species  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomic analysis has revolutionized our ability to predict the metabolic subsystems that occur in newly sequenced genomes, and to explore the functional roles of the set of genes within each subsystem. These computational predictions can considerably reduce the volume of experimental studies required to assess basic metabolic properties of multiple bacterial species. However, experimental validations are still required to resolve the apparent inconsistencies in the predictions by multiple resources. Here, we present combined computational-experimental analyses on eight completely sequenced Pseudomonas species. Comparative pathway analyses reveal that several pathways within the Pseudomonas species show high plasticity and versatility. Potential bypasses in 11 metabolic pathways were identified. We further confirmed the presence of the enzyme O-acetyl homoserine (thiol) lyase (EC: 2.5.1.49) in P. syringae pv. tomato that revealed inconsistent annotations in KEGG and in the recently published SYSTOMONAS database. These analyses connect and integrate systematic data generation, computational data interpretation, and experimental validation and represent a synergistic and powerful means for conducting biological research.

Perumal, Deepak; Lim, Chu Sing; Chow, Vincent T.K.; Sakharkar, Kishore R.; Sakharkar, Meena K.

2008-01-01

280

Responses of digestive enzymes of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) to dietary cornstarch changes and metabolic inferences.  

PubMed

Digestive enzyme responses plus metabolic implications were studied in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed isoproteic diets containing 28% crude protein, 3300 kcal of gross energy/kg and different amounts of cornstarch (30, 40 and 50%). Amylase, maltase, acid protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin from the alimentary tract were assayed. Plasma, liver and white muscle metabolites were gauged to profile metabolism of the fish. The alimentary tract of tambaqui is compartmentalized morphologically and enzymatically. Amylase was present through the gut; acid protease was detected in stomach; maltase, trypsin and chymotrypsin were found in pyloric caeca and proximal and distal intestine sections. Increase of cornstarch levels from 40 to 50% in the diet resulted in an increase in amylase and maltase. Trypsin and chymotrypsin were unresponsive to starch levels. Acid protease follows the protein/carbohydrate ratio decrease. The increase of dietary cornstarch resulted in liver glycogenesis and the increase in plasma triglycerides is suggestive of lipogenesis. Digestive biochemical responses of tambaqui correlated with changes of feeding plus the analyses of metabolic profile are assumed as a tool for optimizing diet formulation and are a clue to other feeding optimizations for freshwater tropical species. PMID:17490905

Corręa, Cristina Ferro; de Aguiar, Lúcia Helena; Lundstedt, Lícia Maria; Moraes, Gilberto

2007-08-01

281

Antidiabetic activity of Boerhaavia diffusa L.: effect on hepatic key enzymes in experimental diabetes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of daily oral administration of aqueous solution of Boerhaavia diffusa L. leaf extract (BLEt) (200 mg/kg) for 4 weeks on blood glucose concentration and hepatic enzymes in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. A significant decrease in blood glucose and significant increase in plasma insulin levels were observed in normal and diabetic rats treated with BLEt. Treatment with BLEt resulted in a significant reduction of glycosylated haemoglobin and an increase in total haemoglobin level. The activities of the hepatic enzymes such as hexokinase was significantly increased and glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase were significantly decreased by the administration of BLEt in normal and diabetic rats. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in the same groups, in which there was a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in rats treated with BLEt. A comparison was made between the action of BLEt and antidiabetic drug-glibenclamide (600 microg/kg). The effect of BLEt was more prominent when compared to glibenclamide. PMID:15036478

Pari, L; Amarnath Satheesh, M

2004-03-01

282

The activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in the model tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.  

PubMed

The drug-metabolizing enzymes of some helminths can deactivate anthelmintics and therefore partially protect helminths against these drugs' toxic effect. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (albendazole, flubendazole, mebendazole) in the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, a species often used as a model tapeworm. In vitro and ex vivo experiments were performed. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified by HPLC with spectrofluorometric or mass-spectrometric detection. The enzymes of H. diminuta are able to reduce the carbonyl group of flubendazole, mebendazole and several other xenobiotics. Although the activity of a number of oxidation enzymes was determined, no oxidative metabolites of albendazole were detected. Regarding conjugation enzymes, a high activity of glutathione S-transferase was observed. A methyl derivative of reduced flubendazole was the only conjugation metabolite identified in ex vivo incubations of H. diminuta with anthelmintics. The results revealed that H. diminuta metabolized flubendazole and mebendazole, but not albendazole. The biotransformation pathways found in H. diminuta differ from those described in Moniezia expanza and suggest the interspecies differences in drug metabolism not only among classes of helminths, but even among tapeworms. PMID:22309895

Bártíková, Hana; Vok?ál, Ivan; Skálová, Lenka; Kubí?ek, Vladimír; Firbasová, Jana; Briestenský, David; Lamka, Ji?í; Szotáková, Barbora

2012-05-01

283

Effect of a PCB-based transformer oil on testicular steroidogenesis and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Pyralene is a PCB-based transformer oil with a unique PCB congener profile when compared to other mixtures. We studied the influence of Pyralene on testicular steroidogenesis and the status of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the testis and liver of rats during oral exposure (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. daily for 1 week) and a 3-week post-treatment recovery period. As expected, Pyralene induced a rapid and sustained increase in mRNA transcripts for CYP1A1 and CYP2B1 in hepatocytes that was associated with a dramatic increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) activities. Testicular androgenesis and the conversion of progesterone to testosterone in testicular microsomes were bidirectionally affected. An increase in these parameters was observed 24h after the initial administration of Pyralene, followed by inhibition that lasted until the fourth post-treatment day. Expression PCR analysis revealed a significant decrease in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD) transcript abundance at 48 h after Pyralene administration. In contrast, transcripts for several other steroidogenic enzymes and for testicular CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2B1 were unaffected under the same conditions. These results in the rat indicate that a sub-chronic exposure to Pyralene disrupted testicular steroidogenesis and suggest the mechanism may involve direct action on the regulation of specific steroidogenic enzymes such as 17betaHSD. PMID:16439096

Andric, Nebojsa L; Kostic, Tatjana S; Zoric, Sonja N; Stanic, Bojana D; Andric, Silvana A; Kovacevic, Radmila Z

2006-07-01

284

Atrazine effects on antioxidant status and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes after oral administration in peripubertal male rat.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported that in vivo applied atrazine from postnatal day 23 to 50 induced strong inhibition of testicular steroidogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate, in the same experimental model, the oxidative status in androgen-producing testicular interstitial compartment characterized by diminished steroidogenesis. In parallel, we determined activities of antioxidative and cytochrome P450 (CYP) xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver. To confirm the results on atrazine induced-inhibition of testicular androgenesis, we measured ex vivo production of androgen in Leydig cells. The results revealed decreased activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially glutathione S-transferase (GST), but also glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT) in testicular interstitial cells, in parallel with strongly diminished ex vivo basal and agonist-stimulated Leydig cell androgenesis. In liver, atrazine increased the activity of GSH-Px, GST, and CYP1A1/2 enzyme, but not lipid peroxidation. These results indicate that atrazine markedly affects both antioxidant status and androgenesis in peripubertal rats. PMID:22797327

Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Kaisarevic, Sonja; Fa, Svetlana; Dakic, Vanja; Glisic, Branka; Hrubik, Jelena; Kovacevic, Radmila

2012-09-01

285

Malate metabolism in Bacillus subtilis: distinct roles for three classes of malate-oxidizing enzymes.  

PubMed

The Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis uses glucose and malate as the preferred carbon sources. In the presence of either glucose or malate, the expression of genes and operons for the utilization of secondary carbon sources is subject to carbon catabolite repression. While glucose is a preferred substrate in many organisms from bacteria to man, the factors that contribute to the preference for malate have so far remained elusive. In this work, we have studied the contribution of the different malate-metabolizing enzymes in B. subtilis, and we have elucidated their distinct functions. The malate dehydrogenase and the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase are both essential for malate utilization; they introduce malate into gluconeogenesis. The NADPH-generating malic enzyme YtsJ is important to establish the cellular pools of NADPH for anabolic reactions. Finally, the NADH-generating malic enzymes MaeA, MalS, and MleA are involved in keeping the ATP levels high. Together, this unique array of distinct activities makes malate a preferred carbon source for B. subtilis. PMID:23136871

Meyer, Frederik M; Stülke, Jörg

2013-02-01

286

Effects of cow ghee (clarified butter oil) & soybean oil on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in rats  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Our previous study showed that cow ghee relative to soybean oil had a protective effect against carcinogen induced mammary cancer in rats. The objective of this study was to elucidate its biochemical mechanism. Methods: Two groups of 21 day old rats (20 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 0 day and at 5, 21 and 44 wk for analysis of phase I and phase II pathways enzymes of carcinogen metabolism. Results: Dietary cow ghee relative to soybean oil decreased the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and CYP2B1, responsible for activation of carcinogen in liver. Carcinogen detoxification activities of uridinediphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) and quinone reductase (QR) in liver, and ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP) and QR in mammary tissue were significantly higher in cow ghee fed rats than in soybean oil fed rats. The hepatic GGTP activity decreased on soybean oil diet; while in cow ghee group it remained unaffected. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that dietary cow ghee compared to soybean oil downregulates the enzyme activities responsible for carcinogen activation in liver and upregulates carcinogen detoxification activities in liver and mammary tissues.

Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod K.

2012-01-01

287

Reactive Intermediates Produced from Metabolism of the Vanilloid Ring of Capsaicinoids by P450 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

This study characterized electrophilic and radical products derived from metabolism of capsaicin by cytochrome P450 and peroxidase enzymes. Multiple glutathione and ?-mercaptoethanol conjugates (a.k.a., adducts), derived from trapping of quinone methide and quinone intermediates of capsaicin, its analogue nonivamide, and O-demethylated and aromatic hydroxylated metabolites thereof, were produced by human liver microsomes and individual recombinant human P450 enzymes. Conjugates derived from concomitant dehydrogenation of the alkyl terminus of capsaicin, were also characterized. Modifications to the 4-OH substituent of the vanilloid ring of capsaicinoids largely prevented the formation of electrophilic intermediates, consistent with the proposed structures and mechanisms of formation for the various conjugates. 5,5’-Dicapsaicin, presumably arising from bi-molecular coupling of free radical intermediates, was also characterized. Finally, the analysis of hepatic glutathione conjugates and urinary N-acetylcysteine conjugates from mice dosed with capsaicin confirmed the formation of glutathione conjugates of O-demethylated, quinone methide, and 5-OH-capsaicin in vivo. These data demonstrated that capsaicin and structurally similar analogues are converted to reactive intermediates by certain P450 enzymes, which may partially explain conflicting reports related to the cytotoxic, pro-carcinogenic, and chemoprotective effects of capsaicinoids in different cells and/or organ systems.

Reilly, Christopher A.; Henion, Fred; Bugni, Tim S.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Stockmann, Chris; Pramanik, Kartick C.; Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Yost, Garold S.

2012-01-01

288

Vitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo Cerebrum.  

PubMed

Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. It forms an important component of our antioxidant system. The structure of Vitamin E makes it unique and indispensable in protecting cell membranes. ? -tocopherol, one of the forms of Vitamin E, is also known to regulate signal transduction pathways by mechanisms that are independent of its antioxidant properties. Vitamin E compounds reduce the production of inflammatory compounds such as prostaglandins. Swollen, dystrophic axons are considered as the hallmark of Vitamin E deficiency in the brains of rats, monkeys, and humans. The present work aimed to study the Vitamin E- ( ? -tochopherol acetate-) induced alterations of enzymes involved in metabolism of Glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis of cerebrum. Therefore, cytosolic and crude mitochondrial enzyme activities of glutamine synthetase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, GABA transaminase, succinic Semialdehyde dehydrogenase, glutamic dehydrogenase, and ? -Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were analysed. Vitamin E induced significant changes in these enzymes thus altering the normal levels of glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis. Such changes are surely to disturb the expression and/or intensity of neurotransmitter signaling during critical periods of brain development. PMID:23984094

Pereira, Ivy; Dessai, Shanti N; Pinto, Annaliza

2013-01-01

289

Submitochondrial localization and function of enzymes of glutamine metabolism in avian liver  

PubMed Central

Glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) was localized within the matrix compartment of avian liver mitochondria. The submitochondrial localization of this enzyme was determined by the digitonin-Lubrol method of Schnaitman and Greenawalt (35). The matrix fraction contained over 74% of the glutamine synthetase activity and the major proportion of the matirx marker enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (71%), NADP- dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (83%), and glutamate dehydrogenase (57%). The highest specific activities of these enzymes were also found in the matrix compartment. Oxidation of glutamine by avian liver mitochondria was substantially less than that of glutamate. Bromofuroate, an inhibitor of glutamate dehydrogenase, blocked oxidation of glutamate and of glutamine whereas aminoxyacetate, a transaminase inhibitor, had little or no effect with either substrate. These results indicate that glutamine metabolism is probably initiated by the conversion of glutamine to glutamate rather than to an alpha- keto acid. The localization of a glutaminase activity within avian liver mitochondria plus the absence of an active mitochondrial glutamine transaminase is consistent with the differential effects of the transaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase inhibitors. The high glutamine synthetase activity (40:1) suggests that mitochondrial catabolism of glutamine is minimal, freeing most of the glutamine synthesized for purine (uric acid) biosynthesis.

1977-01-01

290

Vitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo Cerebrum  

PubMed Central

Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. It forms an important component of our antioxidant system. The structure of Vitamin E makes it unique and indispensable in protecting cell membranes. ?-tocopherol, one of the forms of Vitamin E, is also known to regulate signal transduction pathways by mechanisms that are independent of its antioxidant properties. Vitamin E compounds reduce the production of inflammatory compounds such as prostaglandins. Swollen, dystrophic axons are considered as the hallmark of Vitamin E deficiency in the brains of rats, monkeys, and humans. The present work aimed to study the Vitamin E- (?-tochopherol acetate-) induced alterations of enzymes involved in metabolism of Glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis of cerebrum. Therefore, cytosolic and crude mitochondrial enzyme activities of glutamine synthetase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, GABA transaminase, succinic Semialdehyde dehydrogenase, glutamic dehydrogenase, and ?-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were analysed. Vitamin E induced significant changes in these enzymes thus altering the normal levels of glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis. Such changes are surely to disturb the expression and/or intensity of neurotransmitter signaling during critical periods of brain development.

Dessai, Shanti N.; Pinto, Annaliza

2013-01-01

291

Computational approach to characterization of human liver drug-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Cytochromes P450 are the key enzymes for activating and inactivating many drugs; individual expression levels of CYPs may play a crucial role in drug safety and drug efficacy. Statistical comparison of biochemical profiles of 23 human liver microsomes have been used to characterize human liver samples. The profile included 12 parameters, namely activity of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome P450 content and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase activities with marker substrates. Unsupervised statistical methods including cluster analysis and principal component analysis revealed with very high confidence the presence of two groups. Difference between the groups was explained by peculiarities of reductase activity and cytochrome P450 enzyme activities with 7-ethoxyresorufin, 7-methoxyresorufin, 7-methoxycoumarin, 7-benzyloxyresorufin and 7-benzyloxyquinoline. Results of biochemical assays coupled with multidimensional data analysis can be further used for targeted proteomic profiling of microsome oxidation mechanisms. PMID:20599500

Petushkova, Natalia A; Pyatnitskiy, Mikhail A; Lisitsa, Andrey V; Larina, Olesya V; Kuznetsova, Galina P; Skipenko, Oleg G; Karuzina, Irina I; Archakov, Alexander I

2010-10-01

292

Midazolam metabolism in Cytochrome P450 3A knockout mice can be attributed to upregulated CYP2C enzymes  

PubMed Central

The cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes represent one of the most important drug-metabolizing systems in human. Recently, our group has generated cytochrome P450 3A knockout mice to study this drug-handling system in vivo. Here, we have characterized the Cyp3a knockout mice by studying the metabolism of midazolam, one of the most widely used probes to assess CYP3A activity. We expected that the midazolam metabolism would be severely reduced in the absence of CYP3A enzymes. We used hepatic and intestinal microsomal preparations from Cyp3a knockout and wild-type mice to assess the midazolam metabolism in vitro. In addition, in vivo metabolite formation was determined after intravenous administration of midazolam. Surprisingly, our results demonstrated that there is still marked midazolam metabolism in hepatic (but not intestinal) microsomes from Cyp3a knockout mice. Accordingly, we found comparable amounts of midazolam as well as its major metabolites in plasma after intravenous administration in Cyp3a knockout mice when compared to wild-type mice. These data suggested that other hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes could take over the midazolam metabolism in Cyp3a knockout mice. We provide evidence that CYP2C enzymes, which were found to be upregulated in Cyp3a knockout mice, are primarily responsible for this metabolism and that several but not all murine CYP2C enzymes are capable of metabolizing midazolam to its 1’-OH and/or 4-OH derivatives. These data illustrate interesting compensatory changes that may occur in Cyp3a knockout mice. Such flexible compensatory interplay between functionally related detoxifying systems is probably essential to their biological role in xenobiotic protection.

van Waterschoot, Robert A.B.; van Herwaarden, Antonius E.; Lagas, Jurjen S.; Sparidans, Rolf W.; Wagenaar, Els; van der Kruijssen, Cornelia M.M.; Goldstein, Joyce A.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schinkel, Alfred H.

2008-01-01

293

Optimizing the Distribution of Resources between Enzymes of Carbon Metabolism Can Dramatically Increase Photosynthetic Rate: A Numerical Simulation Using an Evolutionary Algorithm1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The distribution of resources between enzymes of photosynthetic carbon metabolism might be assumed to have been optimized by natural selection. However, natural selection for survival and fecundity does not necessarily select for maximal photosynthetic productivity. Further, the concentration of a key substrate, atmospheric CO2, has changed more over the past 100 years than the past 25 million years, with the likelihood that natural selection has had inadequate time to reoptimize resource partitioning for this change. Could photosynthetic rate be increased by altered partitioning of resources among the enzymes of carbon metabolism? This question is addressed using an “evolutionary” algorithm to progressively search for multiple alterations in partitioning that increase photosynthetic rate. To do this, we extended existing metabolic models of C3 photosynthesis by including the photorespiratory pathway (PCOP) and metabolism to starch and sucrose to develop a complete dynamic model of photosynthetic carbon metabolism. The model consists of linked differential equations, each representing the change of concentration of one metabolite. Initial concentrations of metabolites and maximal activities of enzymes were extracted from the literature. The dynamics of CO2 fixation and metabolite concentrations were realistically simulated by numerical integration, such that the model could mimic well-established physiological phenomena. For example, a realistic steady-state rate of CO2 uptake was attained and then reattained after perturbing O2 concentration. Using an evolutionary algorithm, partitioning of a fixed total amount of protein-nitrogen between enzymes was allowed to vary. The individual with the higher light-saturated photosynthetic rate was selected and used to seed the next generation. After 1,500 generations, photosynthesis was increased substantially. This suggests that the “typical” partitioning in C3 leaves might be suboptimal for maximizing the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis. An overinvestment in PCOP enzymes and underinvestment in Rubisco, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase were indicated. Increase in sink capacity, such as increase in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, was also indicated to lead to increased CO2 uptake rate. These results suggest that manipulation of partitioning could greatly increase carbon gain without any increase in the total protein-nitrogen investment in the apparatus for photosynthetic carbon metabolism.

Zhu, Xin-Guang; de Sturler, Eric; Long, Stephen P.

2007-01-01

294

Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles  

SciTech Connect

Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 {mu}g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 {mu}g/mL) decreased E{sub 2} (DMSO: 3009.72 {+-} 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1679.66 {+-} 461.99 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 1752.72 {+-} 532.41 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 45.89 {+-} 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 {+-} 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 17.17 {+-} 4.71 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 13.64 {+-} 3.53 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 1.29 {+-} 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 {+-} 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1.49 {+-} 0.43 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 0.64 {+-} 0.31 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 0.12 {+-} 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 {+-} 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 26.77 {+-} 4.41 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 20.90 {+-} 3.75 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 9.44 {+-} 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@gmail.co [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Leslie, Traci C., E-mail: traci.leslie@gmail.co [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Hatfield, Kimberly P., E-mail: kpm9786@yahoo.co [Program in Toxicology and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@illinois.ed [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.ed [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

2010-12-01

295

Identification and expression of isoflavone synthase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of isoflavones in legumes.  

PubMed

Isoflavones have drawn much attention because of their benefits to human health. These compounds, which are produced almost exclusively in legumes, have natural roles in plant defense and root nodulation. Isoflavone synthase catalyzes the first committed step of isoflavone biosynthesis, a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we used a yeast expression assay to screen soybean ESTs encoding cytochrome P450 proteins. We identified two soybean genes encoding isoflavone synthase, and used them to isolate homologous genes from other leguminous species including red clover, white clover, hairy vetch, mung bean, alfalfa, lentil, snow pea, and lupine, as well as from the nonleguminous sugarbeet. We expressed soybean isoflavone synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana, which led to production of the isoflavone genistein in this nonlegume plant. Identification of the isoflavone synthase gene should allow manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway for agronomic and nutritional purposes. PMID:10657130

Jung, W; Yu, O; Lau, S M; O'Keefe, D P; Odell, J; Fader, G; McGonigle, B

2000-02-01

296

Cloning of ?-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1  

PubMed Central

A ?-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of ?-primeverosides (6-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The ?-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The ?-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The ?-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to ?-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the ?-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze ?-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl ?-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the ?-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the ?-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the ?-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl ?-primeveroside by the ?-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the ?-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the ?-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed.

Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

2002-01-01

297

Schistosoma mansoni NAD(+) catabolizing enzyme: identification of key residues in catalysis.  

PubMed

Schistosoma mansoni NAD(+) catabolizing enzyme (SmNACE), a distant homolog of mammalian CD38, shows significant structural and functional analogy to the members of the CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase family. The hallmark of SmNACE is the lack of ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity that might be ascribed to subtle changes in its active site. To better characterize the residues of the active site we determined the kinetic parameters of nine mutants encompassing three acidic residues: (i) the putative catalytic residue Glu202 and (ii) two acidic residues within the 'signature' region (the conserved Glu124 and the downstream Asp133), (iii) Ser169, a strictly conserved polar residue and (iv) two aromatic residues (His103 and Trp165). We established the very important role of Glu202 and of the hydrophobic domains overwhelmingly in the efficiency of the nicotinamide-ribosyl bond cleavage step. We also demonstrated that in sharp contrast with mammalian CD38, the 'signature' Glu124 is as critical as Glu202 for catalysis by the parasite enzyme. The different environments of the two Glu residues in the crystal structure of CD38 and in the homology model of SmNACE could explain such functional discrepancies. Mutagenesis data and 3D structures also indicated the importance of aromatic residues, especially His103, in the stabilization of the reaction intermediate as well as in the selection of its conformation suitable for cyclization to cyclic ADP-ribose. Finally, we showed that inhibition of SmNACE by the natural product cyanidin requires the integrity of Glu202 and Glu124, but not of His103 and Trp165, hence suggesting different recognition modes for substrate and inhibitor. PMID:24035885

Kuhn, Isabelle; Kellenberger, Esther; Schuber, Francis; Muller-Steffner, Hélčne

2013-12-01

298

Alterations of the catalytic activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes in cultures of human liver slices.  

PubMed

Precision-cut human liver slices are an important tool for defining the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of drug candidates early in development. Because of the frequent use of this in vitro tool, a knowledge of the catalytic activities of the drug-metabolizing enzymes during human liver slice culture is necessary. Therefore, marker catalytic activities for various cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) forms, as well as phase II activities (glucuronidation and sulfation of 7-hydroxycoumarin), were measured in slices from three different human livers during 96 hr in culture. Standard viability measures were found to be stable from 8 to 24 hr and then declined to 96 hr. Catalytic activities measured for the P450s were ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (CYP1A2), coumarin 7-hydroxylase (CYP2A6), (S)-mephenytoin N-demethylase (CYP2B6), diclofenac 4'-hydroxylase (CYP2C9), (S)-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase (CYP2C19), bufuralol 1'-hydroxylase (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase (CYP2E1), and midazolam 1'-hydroxylase (CYP3A). The P450 activities decreased by approximately 20% by 4 hr and by at least 65% by 24 hr and were not measurable by 96 hr. In contrast to the phase I activities, 7-hydroxycoumarin glucuronosyltransferase activity was increased at the 8-hr time point by approximately 100% and then decreased to approximately initial values by 96 hr. The 7-hydroxycoumarin sulfotransferase activity of the slices decreased significantly more slowly than did the P450 activities. In conclusion, using conventional methods of liver slice preparation and culture, most of the metabolic capabilities of human liver slices are rapidly lost with time. Therefore, the development of culture methods for human liver slices that can improve the preservation of the drug-metabolizing capabilities may be required. PMID:9806947

VandenBranden, M; Wrighton, S A; Ekins, S; Gillespie, J S; Binkley, S N; Ring, B J; Gadberry, M G; Mullins, D C; Strom, S C; Jensen, C B

1998-11-01

299

Mesaconyl-coenzyme A hydratase, a new enzyme of two central carbon metabolic pathways in bacteria.  

PubMed

The coenzyme A (CoA)-activated C5-dicarboxylic acids mesaconyl-CoA and beta-methylmalyl-CoA play roles in two as yet not completely resolved central carbon metabolic pathways in bacteria. First, these compounds are intermediates in the 3-hydroxypropionate cycle for autotrophic CO2 fixation in Chloroflexus aurantiacus, a phototrophic green nonsulfur bacterium. Second, mesaconyl-CoA and beta-methylmalyl-CoA are intermediates in the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway for acetate assimilation in various bacteria, e.g., in Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Methylobacterium extorquens, and Streptomyces species. In both cases, mesaconyl-CoA hydratase was postulated to catalyze the interconversion of mesaconyl-CoA and beta-methylmalyl-CoA. The putative genes coding for this enzyme in C. aurantiacus and R. sphaeroides were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were purified and studied. The recombinant homodimeric 80-kDa proteins catalyzed the reversible dehydration of erythro-beta-methylmalyl-CoA to mesaconyl-CoA with rates of 1,300 micromol min(-1) mg protein(-1). Genes coding for similar enzymes with two (R)-enoyl-CoA hydratase domains are present in the genomes of Roseiflexus, Methylobacterium, Hyphomonas, Rhodospirillum, Xanthobacter, Caulobacter, Magnetospirillum, Jannaschia, Sagittula, Parvibaculum, Stappia, Oceanicola, Loktanella, Silicibacter, Roseobacter, Roseovarius, Dinoroseobacter, Sulfitobacter, Paracoccus, and Ralstonia species. A similar yet distinct class of enzymes containing only one hydratase domain was found in various other bacteria, such as Streptomyces species. The role of this widely distributed new enzyme is discussed. PMID:18065535

Zarzycki, Jan; Schlichting, Ansgar; Strychalsky, Nina; Müller, Michael; Alber, Birgit E; Fuchs, Georg

2008-02-01

300

Garlic Oil Attenuated Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis by Modulating the Metabolic Activation and Detoxification Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a potent carcinogen widely existing in the environment. Our previous study has demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) could prevent NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It has been well documented that the metabolic activation may play important roles in NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we designed the current study to explore the potential mechanisms by investigating the changes of hepatic phase ? enzymes (including cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) 2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP1A1) and phase ? enzymes (including glutathione S transferases (GSTs) and UDP- Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)) by using enzymatic methods, real-time PCR, and western blotting analysis. We found that NDEA treatment resulted in significant decreases of the activities of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu, UGTs and increases of the activities of CYP1A1 and GST pi. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu and UGT1A6 in the liver of NDEA-treated rats were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group rats, while the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A1 and GST pi were dramatically increased. Interestingly, all these adverse effects induced by NDEA were simultaneously and significantly suppressed by GO co-treatment. These data suggest that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis might be, at least partially, attributed to the modulation of phase I and phase II enzymes.

Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

2013-01-01

301

Predictive markers of capecitabine sensitivity identified from the expression profile of pyrimidine nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Molecular markers predicting sensitivity to anticancer drugs are important and useful not only for selecting potential responders but also for developing new combinations. In the present study, we analyzed the difference in the sensitivity of xenograft models to capecitabine (Xeloda®), 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-DFUR, doxifluridine, Furtulon®) and 5-FU by comparing the mRNA levels of 12 pyrimidine nucleoside-metabolizing enzymes. Amounts of mRNA in the tumor tissues of 80 xenograft models were determined by real-time RT-PCR and mutual correlations were examined. A clustering analysis revealed that the 12 enzymes were divided into two groups; one group consisted of 8 enzymes, including orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT), TMP kinase (TMPK) and UMP kinase (UMPK), and was related to the de novo synthesis pathway for nucleotides, with mRNA expression levels showing significant mutual correlation. In the other group, 4 enzymes, including thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), were involved in the salvage/degradation pathway of the nucleotides, and the mRNA levels of this group were dispersed more widely than that of the de novo group. Antitumor activity was assessed in 24 xenograft models for each drug. The antitumor activity of capecitabine and 5'-DFUR correlated significantly with the mRNA levels of TP and with the TP/DPD ratio, whereas the activity of 5-FU correlated significantly with OPRT, TMPK, UMPK and CD. In a stepwise regression analysis, TP and DPD were found to be independent predictive factors of sensitivity to capecitabine and 5'-DFUR, and UMPK was predictive of sensitivity to 5-FU. These results indicate that the predictive factors for sensitivity to capecitabine and 5'-DFUR in xenograft models may be different from those for 5-FU, suggesting that these drugs may have different responders in clinical usage. PMID:23229803

Yasuno, Hideyuki; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yanagisawa, Mieko; Sato, Yasuko; Harada, Naoki; Mori, Kazushige

2013-02-01

302

Experiment K-6-21. Effect of Microgravity on (1) Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers and on (2) Metabolic Enzymes, Neutransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Motor and Somatosensory Cerebral Cortex. Part 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Individual Muscle Fibers; Part 2: Metabolic Enzymes of Hippocampus and Spinal Cord.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The individual fibers of any individual muscle vary greatly in enzyme composition, a fact which is obscured when enzyme levels of a whole muscle are measured. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the changes due to weightless on the enzyme pa...

O. Lowry D. McDougal P. M. Nemeth M. C. Maggie M. Pusateri

1990-01-01

303

The ssu Locus Plays a Key Role in Organosulfur Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida S-313  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas putida S-313 can utilize a broad range of aromatic sulfonates as sulfur sources for growth in sulfate-free minimal medium. The sulfonates are cleaved monooxygenolytically to yield the corresponding phenols. miniTn5 mutants of strain S-313 which were no longer able to desulfurize arylsulfonates were isolated and were found to carry transposon insertions in the ssuEADCBF operon, which contained genes for an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter (ssuABC), a two-component reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent monooxygenase (ssuED) closely related to the Escherichia coli alkanesulfonatase, and a protein related to clostridial molybdopterin-binding proteins (ssuF). These mutants were also deficient in growth with a variety of other organosulfur sources, including aromatic and aliphatic sulfate esters, methionine, and aliphatic sulfonates other than the natural sulfonates taurine and cysteate. This pleiotropic phenotype was complemented by the ssu operon, confirming its key role in organosulfur metabolism in this species. Further complementation analysis revealed that the ssuF gene product was required for growth with all of the tested substrates except methionine and that the oxygenase encoded by ssuD was required for growth with sulfonates or methionine. The flavin reductase SsuE was not required for growth with aliphatic sulfonates or methionine but was needed for growth with arylsulfonates, suggesting that an alternative isozyme exists for the former compounds that is not active in transformation of the latter substrates. Aryl sulfate ester utilization was catalyzed by an arylsulfotransferase, and not by an arylsulfatase as in the related species Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Kahnert, Antje; Vermeij, Paul; Wietek, Claudia; James, Peter; Leisinger, Thomas; Kertesz, Michael A.

2000-01-01

304

Polyhalogenated biphenyls and phenobarbital: evaluation as inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes in the sheepshead, Archosargus probatocephalus.  

PubMed

Several doses of Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture), Firemaster FF1 (polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) mixture), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) and phenobarbital (PB) were administered to the marine fish sheepshead (Archosargus probatocephalus). The PCB and PBB mixtures caused induction of hepatic microsomal benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (7-EC) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (ERF) activities, but not benzphetamine N-demethylase (BND), epoxide hydrolase (EH) or glutathione S-transferase (GSH-T) activities. This induction pattern is typical of that caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in fish and mammals or by tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in mammals. The extent of induction of AHH-activity and cytochrome P-450 content was higher when experiments were carried out in summer (water temperature 25 +/- 4 degrees C) than in winter (water temperature 11 +/- 3 degrees C). Firemaster FF1 (15 mg/kg) induced fish for at least 56 days in both summer and winter at which time the liver concentrations of PBB were in the ppm range. PCB concentrations in the ppm range have been found in fish from polluted lakes and seas, thus we may expect that environmental exposure to PCB is sufficient to induce hepatic mixed function oxidase (MFO) activities. The PCB isomer 3,3'4,4'5,5'-HCB, which induces the same spectrum of hepatic drug-metabolizing activities as TCDD and PAH in rats, had a broadly similar effect in the sheepshead. Another purified isomer, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HBB, which induces the same enzymes as PB in rats, had no effect on drug-metabolizing activities in sheepshead. PB was also without effect on sheepshead hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes, although a typical narcotic effect was produced in PB-treated sheepshead. Our studies provide further evidence that drug-metabolizing activities in fish liver are readily induced by chemicals like TCDD or PAH, but we fail to demonstrate induction after treatment of sheepshead with inducers of the PB type. PMID:6268313

James, M O; Little, P J

1981-08-01

305

Toxicology in the Fast Lane: Application of High-Throughput Bioassays to Detect Modulation of Key Enzymes and Receptors  

PubMed Central

Background Legislation at state, federal, and international levels is requiring rapid evaluation of the toxicity of numerous chemicals. Whole-animal toxicologic studies cannot yield the necessary throughput in a cost-effective fashion, leading to a critical need for a faster and more cost-effective toxicologic evaluation of xenobiotics. Objectives We tested whether mechanistically based screening assays can rapidly provide information on the potential for compounds to affect key enzymes and receptor targets, thus identifying those compounds requiring further in-depth analysis. Methods A library of 176 synthetic chemicals was prepared and examined in a high-throughput screening (HTS) manner using nine enzyme-based and five receptor-based bioassays. Results All the assays have high Z? values, indicating good discrimination among compounds in a reliable fashion, and thus are suitable for HTS assays. On average, three positive hits were obtained per assay. Although we identified compounds that were previously shown to inhibit a particular enzyme class or receptor, we surprisingly discovered that triclosan, a microbiocide present in personal care products, inhibits carboxylesterases and that dichlone, a fungicide, strongly inhibits the ryanodine receptors. Conclusions Considering the need to rapidly screen tens of thousands of anthropogenic compounds, our study shows the feasibility of using combined HTS assays as a novel approach toward obtaining toxicologic data on numerous biological end points. The HTS assay approach is very useful to quickly identify potentially hazardous compounds and to prioritize them for further in-depth studies.

Morisseau, Christophe; Merzlikin, Oleg; Lin, Amy; He, Guochun; Feng, Wei; Padilla, Isela; Denison, Michael S.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Hammock, Bruce D.

2009-01-01

306

PGC1?, a key modulator of p53, promotes cell survival upon metabolic stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic stress results in p53 activation which can trigger cell cycle arrest, ROS clearance, or apoptosis. However what determines the p53-mediated cell fate decision upon metabolic stress is not very well understood. We show here that PGC-1? binds to p53 and modulates its transactivation function resulting in preferential transactivation of pro-arrest and metabolic target genes. Thus glucose starvation results in

Nirmalya Sen; Yatendra Kumar Satija; Sanjeev Das

307

Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 3 is the key enzyme for incorporating arachidonic acid into glycerophospholipids during adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

Cellular membranes contain glycerophospholipids, which have important structural and functional roles in cells. Glycerophospholipids are first formed in the de novo pathway (Kennedy pathway) and are matured in the remodeling pathway (Lands' cycle). Recently, lysophospholipid acyltransferases functioning in Lands' cycle were identified and characterized. Several enzymes involved in glycerophospholipid biosynthesis have been reported to have important roles in adipocytes. However, the role of Lands' cycle in adipogenesis has not yet been reported. Using C3H10T1/2, a cell line capable of differentiating to adipocyte-like cells in vitro, changes of lysophospholipid acyltransferase activities were investigated. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase (LPEAT) and lysophosphatidylserine acyltransferase (LPSAT) activities were enhanced, especially with 18:2-CoA and 20:4-CoA as donors. Correspondingly, mRNA expression of LPCAT3, which possesses LPCAT, LPEAT and LPSAT activities with high specificity for 18:2- and 20:4-CoA, was upregulated during adipogenesis. Analysis of acyl-chain compositions of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) showed a change in their profiles between preadipocytes and adipocytes, including an increase in the percentage of arachidonic acid-containing phospholipids. These changes are consistent with the activities of LPCAT3. Therefore, it is possible that enhanced phospholipid remodeling by LPCAT3 may be associated with adipocyte differentiation. PMID:23208369

Eto, Miki; Shindou, Hideo; Koeberle, Andreas; Harayama, Takeshi; Yanagida, Keisuke; Shimizu, Takao

2012-01-01

308

Squalene mono-oxygenase, a key enzyme in cholesterol synthesis, is stabilized by unsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

SM (squalene mono-oxygenase) catalyses the first oxygenation step in cholesterol synthesis, immediately before the formation of the steroid backbone at lanosterol. SM is an important control point in the pathway, and is regulated at the post-translational level by accelerated cholesterol-dependent ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, which is associated with the accumulation of squalene. Using model cell systems, we report that SM is stabilized by unsaturated fatty acids. Treatment with unsaturated fatty acids such as oleate, but not saturated fatty acids, increased protein levels of SM or SM-N100-GFP (the first 100 amino acids of SM fused to GFP) at the post-translational level and partially overcame cholesterol-dependent degradation, as well as reversing cholesterol-dependent squalene accumulation. Maximum stabilization required activation of fatty acids, but not triacylglycerol or phosphatidylcholine synthesis. The mechanism of oleate-mediated stabilization appeared to occur through reduced ubiquitination by the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH6. Stabilization of a cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme by unsaturated fatty acids may help maintain a constant cholesterol/phospholipid ratio. PMID:24840124

Stevenson, Julian; Luu, Winnie; Kristiana, Ika; Brown, Andrew J

2014-08-01

309

Inhibition of Key Digestive Enzymes by Cocoa Extracts 1 and Procyanidins  

PubMed Central

We determined the in vitro inhibitory effects of cocoa extracts and procyanidins against pancreatic ?-amylase (PA), pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and characterized the kinetics of such inhibition. Lavado, regular and Dutch-processed cocoa extracts as well as cocoa procyanidins (degree of polymerization (DP) = 2 to 10) were examined. Cocoa extracts and procyanidins dose-dependently inhibited PA, PL and PLA2. Lavado cocoa extract was the most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 8.5 – 47 ?g/mL). An inverse correlation between Log IC50 and DP (R2 > 0.93) was observed. Kinetic analysis suggested that regular cocoa extract, the pentamer and decamer inhibited PL activity in a mixed mode. The pentamer and decamer non-competitively inhibited PLA2 activity, whereas regular cocoa extract inhibited PLA2 competitively. Our study demonstrates that cocoa polyphenols can inhibit digestive enzymes in vitro, and may, in conjunction with a low calorie diet, play a role in body weight management.

Gu, Yeyi; Hurst, William J.; Stuart, David A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

2011-01-01

310

Plastid Cues Posttranscriptionally Regulate the Accumulation of Key Enzymes of the Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

Plastid isoprenoids (including hormones and photosynthetic pigments) are essential for plant growth and development, but relatively little is known of how the production of their metabolic precursors via the recently elucidated methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway is regulated. We have identified an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutant that survives an otherwise lethal block of the MEP pathway with fosmidomycin (FSM). In rif10 (resistant to inhibition with FSM 10) plants, the accumulation of flux-controlling enzymes of the pathway is posttranscriptionally up-regulated. Strikingly, this phenotype is linked to a lower accumulation of plastidial isoprenoid pigments such as chlorophylls and carotenoids, resulting in mutant plants that are paler and smaller than the wild type. The rif10 mutant is impaired in plastid RNA processing due to a T-DNA insertion in the coding region of the At3g03710 gene encoding the chloroplast-targeted exoribonuclease polyribonucleotide phosphorylase. FSM resistance and other rif10-like phenotypes were also observed in wild-type Arabidopsis, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), and rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of chloramphenicol (an inhibitor of protein synthesis in plastids). By contrast, treatment with norflurazon (an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis causing a similar pale cotyledon phenotype) did not result in FSM resistance. Together, the results support that plastome-encoded proteins are involved in negatively regulating the posttranscriptional accumulation of specific nuclear-encoded MEP pathway enzymes in chloroplasts. Regulation of the MEP pathway by a mechanism dependent on plastid cues might function under physiological conditions to finely adjust plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis to the metabolic capabilities or requirements of plastids.

Sauret-Gueto, Susanna; Botella-Pavia, Patricia; Flores-Perez, Ursula; Martinez-Garcia, Jaime F.; San Roman, Carolina; Leon, Patricia; Boronat, Albert; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

2006-01-01

311

Plasmalogen metabolism-related enzymes in rat brain during aging: influence of n-3 fatty acid intake.  

PubMed

Plasmalogens (Pls) are phospholipids containing a vinyl-ether bond at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone. They represent between 1/2 and 2/3 of the ethanolamine phospholipids in the brain. During aging, the Pls content in human brain falls down. However, the role of Pls metabolism-related enzymes in the regulation of Pls levels remains to be determined. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAP-AT) is the enzyme involved in the first step of Pls biosynthesis. In the brain, a phospholipase A2, which selectively acts on Pls, has been isolated (Pls-PLA2s). In this work, we aimed to evaluate the impact of DHAP-AT (a key enzyme of Pls biosynthesis) and Pls-PLA2 (a specific Pls degradation enzyme) on the evolution of Pls content in the rat brain during aging. The influence of n-3 fatty acid intake was also evaluated. Littermates from two generations of n-3 deficient rats were fed an equilibrated diet containing either alpha-LNA alone or with two doses of DHA. After weaning, 3, 9 or 21 months of diet, rats were sacrificed. Enzymatic assays were performed, Pls levels were assessed and the sn-2 position of ethanolamine Pls was analyzed. DHAP-AT activity significantly increased between weaning and 3 months with a concomitant increase of brain Pls, which reached maximal levels after 9 months. Then, Pls levels and DHAP-AT activity significantly decreased while Pls-PLA2s activity significantly increased. Dietary n-3 fatty acids had no effect on DHAP-AT activity and on Pls levels. In conclusion, the increase of brain Pls content in the first part of the life may be related to the high increase of DHAP-AT activity, probably stimulated by DHA. In aged animals, the decrease of Pls levels may mainly be caused to an increase of their degradation by Pls-PLA2. Dietary DHA may not oppose the physiologic aging. PMID:16046045

André, A; Juanéda, P; Sébédio, J L; Chardigny, J M

2006-01-01

312

Gene Expression Variability in Human Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters  

PubMed Central

Interindividual variability in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) in human liver may contribute to interindividual differences in drug efficacy and adverse reactions. Published studies that analyzed variability in the expression of DMET genes were limited by sample sizes and the number of genes profiled. We systematically analyzed the expression of 374 DMETs from a microarray data set consisting of gene expression profiles derived from 427 human liver samples. The standard deviation of interindividual expression for DMET genes was much higher than that for non-DMET genes. The 20 DMET genes with the largest variability in the expression provided examples of the interindividual variation. Gene expression data were also analyzed using network analysis methods, which delineates the similarities of biological functionalities and regulation mechanisms for these highly variable DMET genes. Expression variability of human hepatic DMET genes may affect drug-gene interactions and disease susceptibility, with concomitant clinical implications.

Yang, Lun; Price, Elvin T.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Li, Yan; Huang, Ying; Guo, Li-Wu; Guo, Yongli; Kaput, Jim; Shi, Leming; Ning, Baitang

2013-01-01

313

Modeling the role of covalent enzyme modification in Escherichia coli nitrogen metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) converts ammonium into the amino acid glutamine. GS is principally active when the cell is experiencing nitrogen limitation, and its activity is regulated by a bicyclic covalent modification cascade. The advantages of this bicyclic-cascade architecture are poorly understood. We analyze a simple model of the GS cascade in comparison to other regulatory schemes and conclude that the bicyclic cascade is suboptimal for maintaining metabolic homeostasis of the free glutamine pool. Instead, we argue that the lag inherent in the covalent modification of GS slows the response to an ammonium shock and thereby allows GS to transiently detoxify the cell, while maintaining homeostasis over longer times.

Kidd, Philip B.; Wingreen, Ned S.

2010-03-01

314

Changes in metabolic enzymes, cortisol and glucose concentrations of Beluga (Huso huso) exposed to dietary methylmercury.  

PubMed

In this paper, effects of dietary methylmercury (MeHg) on several blood biochemical parameters including GLU (glucose), LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), ALP (alkaline phosphatase) and cortisol were investigated in the Beluga sturgeon (Huso huso). Beluga juveniles were fed for 32 days on four diets containing MeHg (control: 0.04 mg kg?ą; low: 0.76 mg kg?ą; medium: 7.88 mg kg?ą; and high 16.22 mg kg?ą treatment). Significant increases (P < 0.05) were observed in all biochemical parameters, except ALP levels, which decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group with either dose- or time-dependent effects. These results suggest that long-term dietary MeHg exposure may affect metabolic enzyme activity and glucose levels in Belugas. These findings provide useful information for environmental and fishery officials to apply in future decisions for managing fish resources in Caspian Sea. PMID:21110088

Gharaei, Ahmad; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Akrami, Reza

2011-09-01

315

Modeling the role of covalent enzyme modification in Escherichia coli nitrogen metabolism  

PubMed Central

In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) converts ammonium into the amino acid glutamine. GS is principally active when the cell is experiencing nitrogen limitation, and its activity is regulated by a bicyclic covalent modification cascade. The advantages of this bicyclic-cascade architecture are poorly understood. We analyze a simple model of the GS cascade in comparison to other regulatory schemes and conclude that the bicyclic cascade is suboptimal for maintaining metabolic homeostasis of the free glutamine pool. Instead, we argue that the lag inherent in the covalent modification of GS slows the response to an ammonium shock and thereby allows GS to transiently detoxify the cell, while maintaining homeostasis over longer times.

Kidd, Philip B

2013-01-01

316

Expression pattern of enzymes related to juvenile hormone metabolism in the silkworm, Bombyx mori L.  

PubMed

The physiological balance of juvenile hormone (JH) in insects depends on its biosynthesis and degradation pathway. Three key enzymes namely, juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) and juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) are required for degradation in insects. Our present results showed that JHE and JHEH exhibited expression in almost all the tissues. This indicated that JHE and JHEH might degrade JH simultaneously. In addition, the highest levels of JHDK were observed in the midgut, with trace level being found in the malpighian tubule and haemocytes. Since the midgut is a digestive organ and not a JH target, it was hypothesized that both JHE and JHEH hydrolyzed JH to JH diol (JHd) which was then transported to midgut and hydrolyzed further by JHDK, to be finally excreted out of the body. Also the expression studies on JH degradation enzymes in different tissues and stages indicated that the activities of the three enzymes are specific and coincident with the JH functions in silkworm, Bombyx mori L. PMID:21107706

Hua-Jun, Yang; Fang, Zhou; Awquib, Sabhat; Malik, Firdose Ahmad; Roy, Bhaskar; Xing-Hua, Li; Jia-Biao, Hu; Chun-Guang, Sun; Niu, Yan-Shan; Yun-Gen, Miao

2011-10-01

317

Complete Proteomic-Based Enzyme Reaction and Inhibition Kinetics Reveal How Monolignol Biosynthetic Enzyme Families Affect Metabolic Flux and Lignin in Populus trichocarpa.  

PubMed

We established a predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model for the 21 enzymes and 24 metabolites of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway using Populus trichocarpa secondary differentiating xylem. To establish this model, a comprehensive study was performed to obtain the reaction and inhibition kinetic parameters of all 21 enzymes based on functional recombinant proteins. A total of 104 Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters and 85 inhibition kinetic parameters were derived from these enzymes. Through mass spectrometry, we obtained the absolute quantities of all 21 pathway enzymes in the secondary differentiating xylem. This extensive experimental data set, generated from a single tissue specialized in wood formation, was used to construct the predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model to provide a comprehensive mathematical description of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. The model was validated using experimental data from transgenic P. trichocarpa plants. The model predicts how pathway enzymes affect lignin content and composition, explains a long-standing paradox regarding the regulation of monolignol subunit ratios in lignin, and reveals novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. This model provides an explanation of the effects of genetic and transgenic perturbations of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway in flowering plants. PMID:24619611

Wang, Jack P; Naik, Punith P; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Shi, Rui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Shuford, Christopher M; Li, Quanzi; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Williams, Cranos M; Muddiman, David C; Ducoste, Joel J; Sederoff, Ronald R; Chiang, Vincent L

2014-03-01

318

Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase: a key regulatory enzyme for insect metamorphosis.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone (JH) acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) is an enzyme that converts JH acids or inactive precursors of JHs to active JHs at the final step of JH biosynthesis pathway in insects. By fluorescent mRNA differential display, we have cloned a cDNA encoding JHAMT from the corpora allata (CA) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (BmJHAMT). The BmJHAMT cDNA encodes an ORF of 278 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 32,544 Da. The predicted amino acid sequence contains a conserved S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding motif found in the family of SAM-dependent methyltransferases. Purified N-terminal 6xHis-tagged recombinant BmJHAMT protein expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed conversion of farnesoic acid and JH acids I, II, and III to their cognate methyl esters in the presence of SAM, confirming that this cDNA encodes a functional JHAMT. Putative orthologs, DmJHAMT and AgJHAMT, were identified from the genome sequence of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and a malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, respectively. Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that the BmJHAMT gene was expressed specifically in the CA throughout the third and fourth instar. At the beginning of the last (fifth) instar, the expression level of BmJHAMT declined rapidly and became undetectable by day 4 and remained so until pupation. Correlation of the BmJHAMT gene expression and the JH biosynthetic activity in the CA suggests that the transcriptional suppression of the BmJHAMT gene is crucial for the termination of JH biosynthesis in the CA, which is a prerequisite for the initiation of metamorphosis. PMID:14530389

Shinoda, Tetsuro; Itoyama, Kyo

2003-10-14

319

Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase: A key regulatory enzyme for insect metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Juvenile hormone (JH) acid methyltransferase (JHAMT) is an enzyme that converts JH acids or inactive precursors of JHs to active JHs at the final step of JH biosynthesis pathway in insects. By fluorescent mRNA differential display, we have cloned a cDNA encoding JHAMT from the corpora allata (CA) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori (BmJHAMT). The BmJHAMT cDNA encodes an ORF of 278 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 32,544 Da. The predicted amino acid sequence contains a conserved S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) binding motif found in the family of SAM-dependent methyltransferases. Purified N-terminal 6×His-tagged recombinant BmJHAMT protein expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed conversion of farnesoic acid and JH acids I, II, and III to their cognate methyl esters in the presence of SAM, confirming that this cDNA encodes a functional JHAMT. Putative orthologs, DmJHAMT and AgJHAMT, were identified from the genome sequence of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and a malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, respectively. Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed that the BmJHAMT gene was expressed specifically in the CA throughout the third and fourth instar. At the beginning of the last (fifth) instar, the expression level of BmJHAMT declined rapidly and became undetectable by day 4 and remained so until pupation. Correlation of the BmJHAMT gene expression and the JH biosynthetic activity in the CA suggests that the transcriptional suppression of the BmJHAMT gene is crucial for the termination of JH biosynthesis in the CA, which is a prerequisite for the initiation of metamorphosis.

Shinoda, Tetsuro; Itoyama, Kyo

2003-01-01

320

In vitro drug metabolism by human carboxylesterase 1: focus on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.  

PubMed

Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is the major hydrolase in human liver. The enzyme is involved in the metabolism of several important therapeutic agents, drugs of abuse, and endogenous compounds. However, no studies have described the role of human CES1 in the activation of two commonly prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: enalapril and ramipril. Here, we studied recombinant human CES1- and CES2-mediated hydrolytic activation of the prodrug esters enalapril and ramipril, compared with the activation of the known substrate trandolapril. Enalapril, ramipril, and trandolapril were readily hydrolyzed by CES1, but not by CES2. Ramipril and trandolapril exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics, while enalapril demonstrated substrate inhibition kinetics. Intrinsic clearances were 1.061, 0.360, and 0.02 ml/min/mg protein for ramipril, trandolapril, and enalapril, respectively. Additionally, we screened a panel of therapeutic drugs and drugs of abuse to assess their inhibition of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate by recombinant CES1 and human liver microsomes. The screening assay confirmed several known inhibitors of CES1 and identified two previously unreported inhibitors: the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, isradipine, and the immunosuppressive agent, tacrolimus. CES1 plays a role in the metabolism of several drugs used in the treatment of common conditions, including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus; thus, there is a potential for clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. The findings in the present study may contribute to the prediction of such interactions in humans, thus opening up possibilities for safer drug treatments. PMID:24141856

Thomsen, Ragnar; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Linnet, Kristian

2014-01-01

321

Effects of atorvastatin metabolites on induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters through human pregnane X receptor  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Atorvastatin metabolites differ in their potential for drug interaction because of differential inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. We here investigate whether they exert differential effects on the induction of these genes via activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ligand binding to PXR or CAR was analysed by mammalian two-hybrid assembly and promoter/reporter gene assays. Additionally, surface plasmon resonance was used to analyse ligand binding to CAR. Primary human hepatocytes were treated with atorvastatin metabolites, and mRNA and protein expression of PXR-regulated genes was measured. Two-hybrid co-activator interaction and co-repressor release assays were utilized to elucidate the molecular mechanism of PXR activation. KEY RESULTS All atorvastatin metabolites induced the assembly of PXR and activated CYP3A4 promoter activity. Ligand binding to CAR could not be proven. In primary human hepatocytes, the para-hydroxy metabolite markedly reduced or abolished induction of cytochrome P450 and transporter genes. While significant differences in co-activator recruitment were not observed, para-hydroxy atorvastatin demonstrated only 50% release of co-repressors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Atorvastatin metabolites are ligands of PXR but not of CAR. Atorvastatin metabolites demonstrate differential induction of PXR target genes, which results from impaired release of co-repressors. Consequently, the properties of drug metabolites have to be taken into account when analysing PXR-dependent induction of drug metabolism and transport. The drug interaction potential of the active metabolite, para-hydroxy atorvastatin, might be lower than that of the parent compound.

Hoffart, E; Ghebreghiorghis, L; Nussler, AK; Thasler, WE; Weiss, TS; Schwab, M; Burk, O

2012-01-01

322

Methionine metabolism: major pathways and enzymes involved and strategies for control and diversification of volatile sulfur compounds in cheese.  

PubMed

For economical reasons and to accommodate current market trends, cheese manufacturers and product developers are increasingly interested in controlling cheese flavor formation and developing new flavors. Due to their low detection threshold and diversity, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are of prime importance in the overall flavor of cheese and make a significant contribution to their typical flavors. Thus, the control of VSCs formation offers considerable potential for industrial applications. This paper gives an overview of the main VSCs found in cheese, along with the major pathways and key enzymes leading to the formation of methanethiol from methionine, which is subsequently converted into other sulfur-bearing compounds. As these compounds arise primarily from methionine, the metabolism of this amino acid and its regulation is presented. Attention is focused in the enzymatic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are widely used as starter and adjunct cultures in cheese-making. In view of industrial applications, different strategies such as the enhancement of the abilities of LAB to produce high amounts and diversity of VSCs are highlighted as the principal future research trend. PMID:23320908

Martínez-Cuesta, María Del Carmen; Peláez, Carmen; Requena, Teresa

2013-01-01

323

Glucose metabolism, enzymic analysis and product formation in chemostat culture of Hanseniaspora uvarum.  

PubMed

The physiology of Hanseniaspora uvarum K5 was studied in glucose-limited chemostat cultures and upon glucose pulse. Up to a dilution rate of 0.28 h-1, glucose was completely metabolized in biomass and CO2. Above this value, increase in the dilution rate was accompanied by sequential production of metabolites (glycerol, acetate and ethanol) and decrease in cell yield. Similar results were observed upon glucose pulse. From the enzyme activities (pyruvate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase, NAD and NADP-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenases, acetyl coenzyme A synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase) and substrate affinities, the following conclusions were drawn with respect to product formation of cells: (1) pyruvate was preferentially metabolized via pyruvate dehydrogenase, when biomass and CO2 were the only products formed; (2) acetaldehyde formed by pyruvate decarboxylase was preferentially oxidized in acetate by NADP-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase; acetate accumulation results from insufficient activity of acetyl-CoA synthetase required for the complete oxidation of acetate; (3) acetaldehyde was oxidized in ethanol by alcohol dehydrogenase, in addition to acetate production. PMID:7785333

Venturin, C; Boze, H; Moulin, G; Galzy, P

1995-04-15

324

Differential regulation of enzyme activities involved in aldehyde metabolism in the luminescent bacterium Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed Central

The effects of catabolite repression and nutrient abundance on the activities of Vibrio harveyi enzymes known to be related to aldehyde metabolism were investigated. The growth of cells in complex medium containing glucose, which decreases in vivo luminescence and luciferase synthesis, also resulted in decreases in the specific activities of V. harveyi aldehyde dehydrogenase and acyl carrier protein acyltransferase as well as in the degree of fatty acylation of three bioluminescence-specific polypeptides (32, 42, and 57 kilodaltons), as monitored by sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This repression was partially alleviated in glucose medium containing cyclic AMP. The acylation of the above-mentioned proteins, in addition to light emission and luciferase and acyltransferase activities, was also repressed when cells were grown in minimal medium, with partial recovery of these functions upon the addition of arginine. In contrast, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was increased in minimal medium. These results suggest that the 42-, 57-, and 32-kilodalton proteins, which are responsible for the supply and reduction of fatty acids to form aldehydes for the luciferase reaction, are regulated in the same way as luciferase under the above-described conditions. However, aldehyde dehydrogenase, whose role in V. harveyi aldehyde metabolism is not yet known, is regulated in a different way with respect to nutrient composition. Images

Byers, D M; Bognar, A; Meighen, E A

1988-01-01

325

The distribution of enzymes involved in purine metabolism in rat kidney.  

PubMed

Adenosine produced from 5'-AMP has been proposed as a mediator of intrinsic renal regulation. The rates of 5'-AMP and adenosine metabolism are dependent on the activities of enzyme involved in purine metabolism. The activities of adenosine kinase (AK), adenosine deaminase (ADA), 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), AMP deaminase, xanthine oxidase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase were measured in cytosolic and membrane fractions from glomeruli, cortical tubules, medullary thick ascending limb of Henle (MTAL) and collecting duct prepared from rat kidney by combinations of sieving and sucrose density gradient centrifugation techniques. In the cytoplasm of glomeruli cells, the activity ratios of ADA/AK and AMP deaminase/5'-NT were 70 and 2.4, respectively. The highest activity of 5'-NT was found in membrane fractions of cortical tubules where it was equally distributed between luminal and antiluminal membranes. Membrane fractions of MTAL did not contain detectable amounts of adenosine deaminase activity. The highest activity of xanthine oxidase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase was in the cytoplasm fraction of glomeruli. These results suggest that deamination of AMP and adenosine may be favored in the cytoplasm of glomeruli cells. In contrast, in the extracellular space of glomeruli and especially in the cortical tubule, AMP can be converted preferentially to adenosine by 5'-NT. PMID:1610888

Pawelczyk, T; Bizon, D; Angielski, S

1992-06-12

326

Alteration of fatty-acid-metabolizing enzymes affects mitochondrial form and function in hereditary spastic paraplegia.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A M; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M; Durand, Christelle M; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A; Kabiraj, Mohammad M; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-12-01

327

'Chiral compartmentation' in metabolism: enzyme stereo-specificity yielding evolutionary options.  

PubMed

We introduce the concept of 'chiral compartmentation' in metabolism that emerges from the stereo-specificity of enzymes for their substrate(s). The fully differentiated mammalian erythrocyte has no sub-cellular organelles and yet it displays compartmentation of lactic acid that is generated either by glycolysis or the glyoxalase pathway. A form of 'operational compartmentation' exists, based not on the chemistry of the reactive groups in the molecules but their stereoisomerism. This we call 'chiral compartmentation', and the rationale for its 'natural selection' in the erythrocyte (and presumably in the cytoplasm of other cells) is discussed. Increasing awareness of the presence of d-amino acids in proteins in the otherwise dominant 'L-chiral biosphere', and of the preferential use of one enantiomer of a metabolite versus the other is largely due to recent developments in rapidly-applicable, analytical-chemical methods. We confirmed that the glyoxalase pathway yields D-lactic acid by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of stretched chiral hydrogels. The activities of the two lactate-producing pathways have been described by numerical integration of simultaneous non-linear differential equations, based on enzyme models like that introduced by Michaelis and Menten in 1913. PMID:23707419

Kuchel, Philip W; Pagčs, Guilhem; Naumann, Christoph

2013-09-01

328

Effect of fasting on energy metabolism and tenderizing enzymes in chicken breast muscle early postmortem.  

PubMed

Pre-slaughter fasting is a very important practice in the meat industry. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of fasting on energy metabolism and tenderizing enzymes in chicken muscle early postmortem. A total of 30 Yellow-feathered chickens were deprived of feed for 0 h, 12 h and 24 h before slaughter (n=10 each group). Breast muscles were removed and cut into 3 parts and stored at 0°C for 0 h, 3 h and 10 h. Samples were used for analyses of zymography, cathepsins, pH, glycogen/ATP/ADP/AMP, hormones and ultrastructure. Fasting caused the accelerated depletion (p<0.05) of glycogen, ATP and ADP before or immediately after slaughter, but no difference existed in ATP at 3 and 10 h (p>0.05). Fasting resulted in greater ultimate pH (p<0.05). Zymography indicated that fasting delayed the activation of ?/m-calpain (p<0.05), however, it accelerated the release of lysosomal enzymes (p<0.05). Fasting for 24 h resulted in greater ultrastructural changes and plasma corticosterone levels than fasting for 12 h and control groups. Therefore, fasting for no more than 12 h is acceptable in practice. PMID:23313973

Wang, Sidang; Li, Chunbao; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

2013-04-01

329

Cigarette Smoking, Genetic Variants in Carcinogen-metabolizing Enzymes, and Colorectal Cancer Risk  

PubMed Central

The risk of colorectal cancer associated with smoking is unclear and may be influenced by genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize cigarette carcinogens. The authors examined the colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking and 26 variants in carcinogen metabolism genes in 1,174 colorectal cancer cases and 1,293 population-based controls recruited in Canada by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry from 1997 to 2001. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated by multivariable logistic regression. Smoking for >27 years was associated with a statistically significant increased colorectal cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.53) in all subjects. Colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking was higher in males for smoking status, duration, and intensity. The CYP1A1-3801-CC (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.94) and CYP2C9-430-CT (AOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99) genotypes were associated with decreased risk, and the GSTM1-K173N-CG (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.25) genotype was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Statistical interactions between smoking and genetic variants were assessed by comparing logistic regression models with and without a multiplicative interaction term. Significant interactions were observed between smoking status and SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.02), NAT2-857 (P = 0.01), and CYP1B1-4390 (P = 0.04) variants and between smoking duration and NAT1-1088 (P = 0.02), SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.04), and NAT1-acetylator (P = 0.03) status. These findings support the hypothesis that prolonged cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer and that this risk may be modified by variation in carcinogen metabolism genes.

Cleary, Sean P.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Shi, Ellen; Gallinger, Steven; Harper, Patricia

2010-01-01

330

Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in cells used for testing skin sensitization in vitro.  

PubMed

For ethical and regulatory reasons, in vitro tests for scoring potential toxicities of cosmetics are essential. A test strategy for investigating potential skin sensitization using two human keratinocytic and two human dendritic cell lines has been developed (Mehling et al. Arch Toxicol 86:1273–1295, 2012). Since prohaptens may be metabolically activated in the skin, information on xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) activities in these cell lines is of high interest. In this study, XME activity assays, monitoring metabolite or cofactor, showed the following: all three passages of keratinocytic (KeratinoSens® and LuSens) and dendritic (U937 und THP-1) cells displayed N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) activities (about 6–60 nmol/min/mg S9-protein for acetylation of para-aminobenzoic acid). This is relevant since reactive species of many cosmetics are metabolically controlled by cutaneous NAT1. Esterase activities of about 1–4 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein were observed in all passages of investigated keratinocytic and about 1 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein in dendritic cell lines. This is also of practical relevance since many esters and amides are detoxified and others activated by cutaneous esterases. In both keratinocytic cell lines, activities of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were observed (5–17 nmol product/min/mg cytosolic protein). ALDH is relevant for the detoxication of reactive aldehydes. Activities of several other XME were below detection, namely the investigated cytochrome P450-dependent alkylresorufin O-dealkylases 7-ethylresorufin O-deethylase, 7-benzylresorufin O-debenzylase and 7-pentylresorufin O-depentylase (while NADPH cytochrome c reductase activities were much above the limit of quantification), the flavin-containing monooxygenase, the alcohol dehydrogenase as well as the UDP glucuronosyl transferase activities. PMID:23958860

Fabian, E; Vogel, D; Blatz, V; Ramirez, T; Kolle, S; Eltze, T; van Ravenzwaay, B; Oesch, F; Landsiedel, R

2013-09-01

331

Photoperiodism and enzyme rhythms: Kinetic characteristics of the photoperiodic induction of Crassulacean acid metabolism.  

PubMed

The effect of photoperiod on Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poellniz, cv. Tom Thumb, has characteristics similar to its effect on flowering in this plant (although these two phenomena are not causally related). The photoperiodic control of CAM is based on (a) dependance on phytochrome, (b) an endogenous circadian rhythm of sensitivity to photoperiodic signals, (c) a balance between specific positive (increase in enzyme capacity) and negative (inhibitory substances) effects of the photoperiod. Variations in malate content, capacity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase, and capacity of CAM inhibitors in young leaves were measured under photoperiodic conditions noninductive for CAM and after transfer into photoperiodic conditions inductive for CAM. Essential characteristics of the photoperiodic induction of CAM are: 1) lag time for malate accumulation; 2) after-effect of the inductive photoperiod on the malate accumulation, on the increase in PEP carboxylase capacity, and on the decrease in the level of long-day produced inhibitors; final levels of malate, enzyme capacity and inhibitor are proportional to the number of inductive day-night cycles; 3) cireadian rhythm in PEP carboxylase capacity with a fixed phase under noninductive photoperiods and a continuously shifting phase under inductive photoperiods, after complex advancing and delaying transients. Kinetic similarities indicate that photoperiodic control of different physiological functions, namely, CAM and flowering, may be achieved through similar mechanisms. Preliminary results with species of Bryophyllum and Sedum support this hypothesis. Phase relationships suggest different degrees of coupling between endogenous enzymic rhythm and photoperiod, depending on whether the plants are under long days or short days. PMID:24435298

Brulfert, J; Guerrier, D; Queiroz, O

1975-01-01

332

Assessing prostate cancer growth with mRNA of spermine metabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

Statistical data from prostate cancer (PCa) clinics indicates that a large patient population discovered by annual prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening may have a latent form of the disease. However, current medical tests cannot differentiate slow from fast growing PCa, resulting in many unnecessary radical treatments and morbidities. It is thus necessary to find new screening tests that enable us to differentiate between fast- and slow-growing tumors. Inspired by the reported functions of spermine in carcinogenesis, we analyzed spermine and mRNA expression levels of rate-limiting enzymes in the spermine metabolic pathway for nine cases of PCa with accurately defined PSA velocity (Vpsa). Using MR spectroscopy, histopathology, laser-capture microdissection and real-time PCR techniques, we analyzed relationships between changes in spermine levels, mRNA expression levels of spermine anabolic and catabolic enzymes and human prostate cancer growth rates represented by serum Vpsa. The expression levels of spermine anabolic enzymes: ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AMD1) in benign epithelia surrounding cancer glands was logarithmically reduced with the increase of Vpsa (ODC1, p < 0.016; AMD1, p < 0.048), and antizyme (OAZ1) expression in cancer cells was increased with the increase of Vpsa (p < 0.001). Finally, we observed an inverse correlation between ODC1 and OAZ1 (p < 0.019) measured in cancer cells. These correlations may function to evaluate the aggressiveness of human prostate cancer, and assist patients and clinicians to select appropriate treatment strategies based on biological activities of individual tumors. PMID:20215859

Kaul, David; Wu, Chin-Lee; Adkins, Christen B; Jordan, Kate W; Defeo, Elita M; Habbel, Piet; Peterson, Randall T; McDougal, W Scott; Pohl, Ute; Cheng, Leo L

2010-05-01

333

Pharmacogenomics of drug-metabolizing enzymes: a recent update on clinical implications and endogenous effects.  

PubMed

Interindividual differences in drug disposition are important causes for adverse drug reactions and lack of drug response. The majority of phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are polymorphic and constitute essential factors for the outcome of drug therapy. Recently, both genome-wide association (GWA) studies with a focus on drug response, as well as more targeted studies of genes encoding DMEs have revealed in-depth information and provided additional information for variation in drug metabolism and drug response, resulting in increased knowledge that aids drug development and clinical practice. In addition, an increasing number of meta-analyses have been published based on several original and often conflicting pharmacogenetic studies. Here, we review data regarding the pharmacogenomics of DMEs, with particular emphasis on novelties. We conclude that recent studies have emphasized the importance of CYP2C19 polymorphism for the effects of clopidogrel, whereas the CYP2C9 polymorphism appears to have a role in anticoagulant treatment, although inferior to VKORC1. Furthermore, the analgesic and side effects of codeine in relation to CYP2D6 polymorphism are supported and the influence of CYP2D6 genotype on breast cancer recurrence during tamoxifen treatment appears relevant as based on three large studies. The influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the effect of antidepressants in a clinical setting is yet without any firm evidence, and the relation between CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers and suicide behavior warrants further studies. There is evidence for the influence of CYP3A5 polymorphism on tacrolimus dose, although the influence on response is less studied. Recent large GWA studies support a link between CYP1A2 polymorphism and blood pressure as well as coffee consumption, and between CYP2A6 polymorphism and cigarette consumption, which in turn appears to influence the lung cancer incidence. Regarding phase II enzyme polymorphism, the anticancer treatment with mercaptopurines and irinotecan is still considered important in relation to the polymorphism of TPMT and UGT1A1, respectively. There is a need for further clarification of the clinical importance and use of all these findings, but the recent research in the field that encompasses larger studies and a whole genome perspective, improves the possibilities be able to make firm and cost-effective recommendations for drug treatment in the future. PMID:23089672

Sim, S C; Kacevska, M; Ingelman-Sundberg, M

2013-02-01

334

Activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the liver of rats with multi-vitamin deficiency.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to determine how multi-vitamin deficiency affects xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme (XME) activities in the rat liver. Vitamin levels and XME activities were studied in the livers of male Wistar rats who were fed for 4 weeks with semi-synthetic diets containing either adequate (100 % of recommended vitamin intake) levels of vitamins (control), or decreased vitamin levels (50 % or 20 % of recommended vitamin intake). The study results have shown that moderate vitamin deficiency (50 %) leads to a decrease of vitamin A levels only, and to a slight increase, as compared with the control, in the following enzyme activities: methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD) activity of CYP1 A2 - by 34 % (p < 0.05), UDP-glucuronosyl transferase - by 26 % (p < 0.05), and quinone reductase - by 55 % (p < 0.05). Profound vitamin deficiency (20 %) led to a decrease of vitamins A, E, B1, B2, and C, and enzyme activities in the liver: MROD - to 78 % of the control level (p < 0.05), 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase - to 74 % (p < 0.05), heme oxygenase-1 - to 83 % (p < 0.05), and quinone reductase - to 60 % (p < 0.05). At the same time, the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP1A1, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP2B1/2 and 6?-testosterone hydroxylase, as well as the total activity of glutathione transferase did not differ from the control levels. The study has demonstrated that profound multi-vitamin deficiency is associated with a decrease in the expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A1 mRNAs to 62 % and 79 %, respectively. These data indicated that a short-term but profound multi-vitamin deficiency in rats leads to a decrease in the activities and expression of the some XME that play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics and metabolism of drugs and antioxidant protection. PMID:24220160

Tutelyan, Victor A; Kravchenko, Lidia V; Aksenov, Ilya V; Trusov, Nikita V; Guseva, Galina V; Kodentsova, Vera M; Vrzhesinskaya, Oksana A; Beketova, Nina A

2013-02-01

335

Modulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes by dietary doses of thymoquinone in female New Zealand White rabbits.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines can affect drug metabolizing enzymes. Therefore the effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the active ingredient of black seeds, was examined on rabbit liver drug metabolizing enzymes. Two groups of New Zealand female rabbits received TQ at 10 and 20?mg/kg/day orally and a control group of six animals each were killed after 8?weeks. Blood and livers were harvested and the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and phase II enzymes in the microsomal and cytosolic preparations were measured by HPLC and ELISA methods. The liver enzymes ALT/AST and albumin were similar in the three groups. CYP1A2, CYP3A4, but not CYP2E1, were significantly diminished by TQ treatment. Of the phase II enzymes, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly induced by the high TQ dose, while the total glutathione levels were unaffected. Glutathione reductase (GR), on the other hand, was significantly induced in the two experimental groups. Thymoquinone has differential effects on CYP and phase II enzymes. Inhibition of some CYP enzyme activities may lead to a hazardous herb-drug interaction. Induction of GR activity may explain the salutatory effect of the black seeds in inhibiting the generation of bioactive metabolites known to promote carcinogenesis and oxidative cell damage. PMID:22422469

Elbarbry, Fawzy; Ragheb, Ahmed; Marfleet, Travis; Shoker, Ahmed

2012-11-01

336

Carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c): two key regulators of glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis in liver.  

PubMed

In mammals, the regulation of hepatic metabolism plays a key role in whole body energy balance, since the liver is the major site of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and glycogen synthesis) and triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis). Lipogenesis is regulated through the acute control of key enzyme activities by means of allosteric and covalent modifications. Moreover, the synthesis of most glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes is regulated in response to dietary status, in which glucose, in particular, is a crucial energy nutrient. This latter response occurs in large part through transcriptional regulation of genes encoding glycolytic and lipogenic enzymes. In the past few years, recent advances have been made in understanding the transcriptional regulation of hepatic glycolytic and lipogenic genes by insulin and glucose. Although insulin is a major regulator of hepatic lipogenesis, there is increasing evidence that glucose also contributes to the coordinated regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in liver. Here, we review the respective roles of the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in mediating the effect of insulin on hepatic gene expression, and the role of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) in regulating gene transcription by glucose. PMID:15733741

Dentin, Renaud; Girard, Jean; Postic, Catherine

2005-01-01

337

Azospirillum brasilense Produces the Auxin-Like Phenylacetic Acid by Using the Key Enzyme for Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

An antimicrobial compound was isolated from Azospirillum brasilense culture extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the auxin-like molecule, phenylacetic acid (PAA). PAA synthesis was found to be mediated by the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase, previously identified as a key enzyme in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in A. brasilense. In minimal growth medium, PAA biosynthesis by A. brasilense was only observed in the presence of phenylalanine (or precursors thereof). This observation suggests deamination of phenylalanine, decarboxylation of phenylpyruvate, and subsequent oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde as the most likely pathway for PAA synthesis. Expression analysis revealed that transcription of the ipdC gene is upregulated by PAA, as was previously described for IAA and synthetic auxins, indicating a positive feedback regulation. The synthesis of PAA by A. brasilense is discussed in relation to previously reported biocontrol properties of A. brasilense.

Somers, E.; Ptacek, D.; Gysegom, P.; Srinivasan, M.; Vanderleyden, J.

2005-01-01

338

Activities of fructan- and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in wheat stems subjected to water stress during grain filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated if a controlled water deficit during grain filling of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) could accelerate grain filling by facilitating the remobilization of carbon reserves in the stem through regulating the enzymes involved in fructan and sucrose metabolism. Two high lodging-resistant wheat cultivars were grown in pots and treated with either a normal (NN) or high amount

Jianchang Yang; Jianhua Zhang; Zhiqing Wang; Qingsen Zhu; Lijun Liu

2004-01-01

339

Effect of estradiol on gene expression profile in cynomolgus macaque liver: implications for drug-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Estrogen regulation of gene expression is essential for physiological function of estrogen-responsive tissues, such as mammary glands, ovaries, and the uterus. In the liver, estrogen is responsible for sex-dependent gene expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rodents. However, the influence of estrogen on hepatic gene expression has not been fully investigated in primates, including human. Macaque, including cynomolgus macaque, is an important species for comparative studies aimed at understanding human physiology due to its evolutionary closeness to human. To identify estrogen-responsive genes in primate liver, therefore, hepatic gene expression was compared, by microarray analysis, in ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques treated with estradiol or solvent (control). The analysis identified 98 estradiol-responsive genes; 47 and 51 were up- and down-regulated by estradiol, respectively (?2.0-fold, P < 0.05). Expression of drug-metabolizing enzyme genes was also influenced by estradiol treatment; estradiol enhanced expression of GSTM5 (3.8-fold, P < 0.05) and CYP3A8(4) (2.7-fold, P < 0.01), but lowered expression of CYP4F12 (2.2-fold, P < 0.01), as verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In particular, CYP3A8(4), orthologous to human CYP3A4, is an essential drug-metabolizing enzyme in cynomolgus macaque liver. These results suggest that expression of hepatic genes, including drug-metabolizing enzyme genes, is at least partly regulated by estradiol in cynomolgus macaque. PMID:21810968

Uno, Yasuhiro; Kito, Go

2011-11-01

340

Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by ToxCast Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

341

Modulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes by ToxCast Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

342

Chemopreventive and therapeutic modulation of green tea polyphenols on drug metabolizing enzymes in 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide induced oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. Drugs can modulate the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and are useful in chemoprevention as well as therapy in cancer. 4-Nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) is used to induce oral cancer in the present study. In the present investigation, the effect of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on the activities of

Periasamy Srinivasan; Subramaniyan Suchalatha; Pon Velayutham Anandh Babu; Rethinam Sundaresan Devi; Shoba Narayan; Kuruvimalai Ekambaram Sabitha; Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala Devi

2008-01-01

343

Effects of Subsoiling on Lateral Roots, Sucrose Metabolizing Enzymes, and Soil Ergosterol in Two Jeffrey Pine Stands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors determined the effects of subsoiling on woody lateral roots and enzyme activities involved in stem carbon metabolism of 90- the 100-year-old Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev, and Balf.) growing on the eastern side of the California Sierra Nev...

W. J. Otrosina, S. Sung, L. M. White

1996-01-01

344

Characterization of the Impact of Life Stage on Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Expression and Gene -Chemical Interactions in the Liver  

EPA Science Inventory

Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs thro...

345

The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The carotenoid metabolic pathway is well characterised, and the genes and enzymes have been studied in a number of plants. The study of the 42 carotenoid pathway genes of grapevine showed that they share a high degree of similarity with other eudicots. Expression and pigment profiling of developing berries provided insights into the most complete grapevine carotenoid pathway representation. This study represents an important reference study for further characterisation of carotenoid biosynthesis and catabolism in grapevine.

2012-01-01

346

Expression level, cellular compartment and metabolic network position all influence the average selective constraint on mammalian enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background A gene's position in regulatory, protein interaction or metabolic networks can be predictive of the strength of purifying selection acting on it, but these relationships are neither universal nor invariably strong. Following work in bacteria, fungi and invertebrate animals, we explore the relationship between selective constraint and metabolic function in mammals. Results We measure the association between selective constraint, estimated by the ratio of nonsynonymous (Ka) to synonymous (Ks) substitutions, and several, primarily metabolic, measures of gene function. We find significant differences between the selective constraints acting on enzyme-coding genes from different cellular compartments, with the nucleus showing higher constraint than genes from either the cytoplasm or the mitochondria. Among metabolic genes, the centrality of an enzyme in the metabolic network is significantly correlated with Ka/Ks. In contrast to yeasts, gene expression magnitude does not appear to be the primary predictor of selective constraint in these organisms. Conclusions Our results imply that the relationship between selective constraint and enzyme centrality is complex: the strength of selective constraint acting on mammalian genes is quite variable and does not appear to exclusively follow patterns seen in other organisms.

2011-01-01

347

Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on 5-fluorouracil-related metabolic enzymes in oral squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Lifestyle, particularly smoking and alcohol consumption, may induce and/or inhibit drug metabolism. In order to reveal the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-related metabolic enzymes, namely thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; a sole catabolic enzyme of 5-FU), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) and thymidine phosphorylase, in oral squamous cell carcinomas, the mRNA expression of these enzymes was investigated in 29 surgical specimens and compared by the Brinkman index and drinking years. The surgical specimens were divided into normal and tumor regions and were independently analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. There was a significantly positive correlation between DPD mRNA expression in these tissues and Brinkman index/drinking years, with OPRT mRNA expression being significantly correlated to the Brinkman index in tumor tissues. These results revealed that lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol consumption, may vary the activity of the 5-FU-related metabolic enzymes. DPD is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolic pathway of 5-FU. Therefore, smoking and alcohol consumption may reduce the anticancer activity of 5-FU, possibly through the induction of DPD activity.

YAMASHITA, TOMOMI; KATO, KEIZO; LONG, NGUYEN KHANH; MAKITA, HIROKI; YONEMOTO, KAZUHIRO; IIDA, KAZUKI; TAMAOKI, NARITAKA; HATAKEYAMA, DAIJIRO; SHIBATA, TOSHIYUKI

2014-01-01

348

Cadmium effect on microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in rat livers with respect to differences in age and sex  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cadmium on the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system was investigated. Cadmium chloride caused the conversion of cytochrome P-450 to P-420 in rat liver microsomes. The destruction of cytochrome P-450 by cadmium caused the reduction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity and prolonged the pentobarbital sleeping time. There is a sex-related difference in the ability of cadmium to inhibit the hepatic drug metabolism in rats: male rats are more sensitive to cadmium than females. The effective period when cadmium prolonged their sleep depended upon the age of rats; older rats were more sensitive to cadmium than younger ones. The maximum increase of sleeping time depended upon the dose level of cadium, and the rate constant of the equations seems to depend upon the age of the animals.

Ando, M.

1982-04-01

349

Phosphatidate Kinase, A Nove1 Enzyme in Phospholipid Metabolism' Characterization of the Enzyme from Suspension-Cultured Cafharanfhus roseus Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphatidate kinase (adenosine 5'-triphosphate:phosphatidic acid phosphotransferase), a novel enzyme of phospholipid metab- olism, was detected recently in the plasma membranes of suspen- sion-cultured Catharanthus roseus cells and purified (J.B. Wissing, H. Behrbohm (1993) Plant Physiol 102: 1243-1249). In the present work the properties of phosphatidate kinase are described. lhe enzyme showed a pH optimum of 6.1 and an isoelectric point

Josef B. Wissing; Brigitte Kornak; Almuth Funke; Bettina Riedel

350

Intravenous infusions of glucose stimulate key lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue of dairy cows in a dose-dependent manner.  

PubMed

The present study was investigated whether increasing amounts of glucose supply have a stimulatory effect on the mRNA abundance and activity of key lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue of midlactation dairy cows. Twelve Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in midlactation were cannulated in the jugular vein and infused with either a 40% glucose solution (n=6) or saline (n=6). For glucose infusion cows, the infusion dose increased by 1.25%/d relative to the initial net energy for lactation (NEL) requirement until a maximum dose equating to a surplus of 30% NEL was reached on d 24. This maximum dose was maintained until d 28 and stopped thereafter (between d 29-32). Cows in the saline infusion group received an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline solution. Samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were taken on d 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 when surplus glucose reached 0, 10, 20, and 30% of the NEL requirement, respectively. The mRNA abundance of fatty acid synthase, cytoplasmic acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, cytoplasmic glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-1, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase showed linear treatment × dose interactions with increasing mRNA abundance with increasing glucose dose. The increased mRNA abundance was paralleled by a linear treatment × dose interaction for fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase enzymatic activities. The mRNA abundance of ATP-citrate lyase showed a tendency for linear treatment × dose interaction with increasing mRNA abundance with increasing glucose dose. The mRNA abundance of all tested enzymes, as well as the activities of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase, correlated with plasma glucose and serum insulin levels. In a multiple regression model, the predictive value of insulin was dominant over that of glucose. In conclusion, gradual increases in glucose supply upregulate key lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue of midlactating dairy cows with linear dose dependency. Insulin appears to be critically involved in this regulation. PMID:23660139

Carra, Mirja; Al-Trad, Bahaa; Penner, Gregory B; Wittek, Thomas; Gäbel, Gotthold; Für, Manfred; Aschenbach, Jörg R

2013-07-01

351

Crystal Structure of Baeyer?Villiger Monooxygenase MtmOIV, the Key Enzyme of the Mithramycin Biosynthetic Pathway  

SciTech Connect

Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs), mostly flavoproteins, were shown to be powerful biocatalysts for synthetic organic chemistry applications and were also suggested to play key roles for the biosyntheses of various natural products. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of MtmOIV, a 56 kDa homodimeric FAD- and NADPH-dependent monooxygenase, which catalyzes the key frame-modifying step of the mithramycin biosynthetic pathway and currently the only BVMO proven to react with its natural substrate via a Baeyer-Villiger reaction. MtmOIV's structure was determined by X-ray crystallography using molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.9 A. MtmOIV cleaves a C-C bond, essential for the conversion of the biologically inactive precursor, premithramycin B, into the active drug mithramycin. The MtmOIV structure combined with substrate docking calculations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments identifies several residues that participate in cofactor and substrate binding. Future experimentation aimed at broadening the substrate specificity of the enzyme could facilitate the generation of chemically diverse mithramycin analogues through combinatorial biosynthesis.

Beam, Miranda P.; Bosserman, Mary A.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Wehenkel, Marie; Rohr, Jurgen; Kentucky

2009-06-01

352

Leptin in early life: a key factor for the development of the adult metabolic profile.  

PubMed

Leptin levels during the perinatal period are important for the development of metabolic systems involved in energy homeostasis. In rodents, there is a postnatal leptin surge, with circulating leptin levels increasing around postnatal day (PND) 5 and peaking between PND 9 and PND 10. At this time circulating leptin acts as an important trophic factor for the development of hypothalamic circuits that control energy homeostasis and food seeking and reward behaviors. Blunting the postnatal leptin surge results in long-term leptin insensitivity and increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity during adulthood. Pharmacologically increased leptin levels in the postnatal period also have long-term effects on metabolism. Nevertheless, this effect is controversial as postnatal hyperleptinemia is reported to both increase and decrease the predisposition to obesity in adulthood. The different effects reported in the literature could be explained by the different moments at which this hormone was administered, suggesting that modifications of the neonatal leptin surge at specific time points could selectively affect the development of central and peripheral systems that are undergoing modifications at this moment resulting in different metabolic and behavioral outcomes. In addition, maternal nutrition and the hormonal environment during pregnancy and lactation may also modulate the offspring's response to postnatal modifications in leptin levels. This review highlights the importance of leptin levels during the perinatal period in the development of metabolic systems that control energy homeostasis and how modifications of these levels may induce long-lasting and potentially irreversible effects on metabolism. PMID:22433625

Granado, Miriam; Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A

2012-01-01

353

Temperature during embryonic development has persistent effects on metabolic enzymes in the muscle of zebrafish.  

PubMed

Global warming is intensifying interest in the physiological consequences of temperature change in ectotherms, but we still have a relatively poor understanding of the effects of temperature on early life stages. This study determined how embryonic temperature (TE) affects development and the activity of metabolic enzymes in the swimming muscle of zebrafish. Embryos developed successfully to hatching (survival ?88%) from 22 to 32°C, but suffered sharp increases in mortality outside of this range. Embryos that were incubated until hatching at a control TE (27°C) or near the extremes for successful development (22 or 32°C) were next raised to adulthood under control conditions at 27°C. Growth trajectories after hatching were altered in the 22°C and 32°C TE groups compared with 27°C TE controls, but growth slowed after 3 months of age in all groups. Maximal enzyme activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), citrate synthase (CS), hydroxyacyl-coA dehydrogenase (HOAD), pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured across a range of assay temperatures (22, 27, 32 and 36°C) in adults from each TE group that were acclimated to 27 or 32°C. Substrate affinities (Km) were also determined for COX and LDH. In adult fish acclimated to 27°C, COX and PK activities were higher in 22°C and 32°C TE groups than in 27°C TE controls, and the temperature optimum for COX activity was higher in the 32°C TE group than in the 22°C TE group. Warm acclimation reduced COX, CS and/or PK activities in the 22 and 32°C TE groups, possibly to compensate for thermal effects on molecular activity. This response did not occur in the 27°C TE controls, which instead increased LDH and HOAD activities. Warm acclimation also increased thermal sensitivity (Q10) of HOAD to cool temperatures across all TE groups. We conclude that the temperature experienced during early development can have a persistent impact on energy metabolism pathways and acclimation capacity in later life. PMID:24363419

Schnurr, Meghan E; Yin, Yi; Scott, Graham R

2014-04-15

354

Induced Expression of Drug Metabolizing Enzymes by Preventive Agents: Role of the Antioxidant Response Element  

PubMed Central

Identifying agents that block tumor initiation is a goal of cancer prevention. The ability of a chemically varied group of agents to induce various drug metabolizing genes in livers of rats was examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for seven days with various agents in the diet or by gavage. The agents examined, which might be expected to respond via specific nuclear receptors (CAR, AhR) as well as antioxidant response elements (AREs), included Phase I/II inducers [5,6 benzoflavone (BF, 5000 mg/kg diet), diallyl sulfide (DAS, 500 mg/kg BW/day), ethoxyquin (EXO, 300 mg/kg BW/day) and phenobarbital (PB, 500 mg/kg diet)] or pure Phase II inducers [1,2 dithiol-3-thione (DTT, 500 mg/kg diet), and cyclopentadithiolthione (CPDTT, 175 mg/kg BW/day)]. Liver RNA expression was analyzed employing oligonucleotide microarrays. The agents yielded unique expression profiles. In genes with known AREs, the induction ratios (Levels Treated/Levels Controls) were: Quinone Oxidoreductase (BF, 8:1; DTT, 3.2:1; CPDTT, 3:1; DAS, 1.8:1; Exo, 1.7:1), Glutatione Transferase Pi (DTT, 36:1; CPDTT 34:1; EXO, 8:1; DAS, 5:1; BF, 2.5:1), and aldehyde keto reductase 7A3 (AFAR) (DTT and CPDTT, 14:1; DAS 6:1; EXO 4:1; PB, 1.5:1). When the search included a wider variety of Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, no clear pattern was observed. Agent induced gene expression and preventive activity in published carcinogen induced tumor models showed limited correlation; questioning whether measuring the induction of one or two genes (e.g., quinone reductase) is a surrogate for overall Phase II inducing (antioxidant) and potential anti-tumor activity.

Lubet, Ronald A.; Yao, Ruisheng; Grubbs, Clinton J.; You, Ming; Wang, Yian

2009-01-01

355

Meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms in relation to colorectal polyp risk  

PubMed Central

Most colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps or certain hyperplastic polyps. Only a few studies have investigated potential genetic modifiers of the associations between meat intake and polyp risk, and results are inconsistent. Using data from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS), a large colonoscopy-based study including 1,002 polyp cases (557 adenoma only, 250 hyperplastic polyp only, 195 both polyps) and 1,493 polyp-free patients, we evaluated the association of colorectal polyp risk with carcinogen exposure from meat and genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in heterocyclic amine (HCA) metabolism including, N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Intake levels of meats by preparation methods, doneness preferences, and other lifestyle factors were obtained. Fourteen SNPs in the AhR, CYP1A2, NAT1 and NAT2 genes were evaluated. No clear association was found for any polymorphisms with polyp risk. However, apparent interactions were found for intake of meat and HCAs with AhR, NAT1, and NAT2 genotypes, and the interactions were statistically significant for the group with both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Dose-response relationships with meat or HCA intake were found only among those with the AhR GA/AA (rs2066853) genotype, NAT1 rapid, or NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylators, but not among those with other genotypes of these genes. This dose-response relationship was more evident among those with both AhR GA/AA and the NAT1 rapid acetylator than those without this genotype combination. These results provide strong evidence for a modifying effect of metabolizing genes on the association of meat intake and HCA exposure with colorectal polyp risk.

Shin, Aesun; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Rice, Jeffrey M.; Cai, Qiuyin; Doll, Mark A.; Long, Jirong; Smalley, Walter E.; Shyr, Yu; Sinha, Rashmi; Ness, Reid M.; Hein, David W.; Zheng, Wei

2008-01-01

356

Induced expression of drug metabolizing enzymes by preventive agents: role of the antioxidant response element.  

PubMed

Identifying agents that block tumor initiation is a goal of cancer prevention. The ability of a chemically varied group of agents to induce various drug metabolizing genes in livers of rats was examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 7 days with various agents in the diet or by gavage. The agents examined, which might be expected to respond via specific nuclear receptors (CAR, AhR) as well as antioxidant response elements (AREs), included Phase I/II inducers [5,6-benzoflavone (BF, 5000mg/kg diet), diallyl sulfide (DAS, 500mg/kg BW/day), ethoxyquin (EXO, 300mg/kg BW/day) and phenobarbital (PB, 500mg/kg diet)] or pure Phase II inducers [1,2-dithiol-3-thione (DTT, 500mg/kg diet), and cyclopentadithiolthione (CPDTT, 175mg/kg BW/day)]. Liver RNA expression was analyzed employing oligonucleotide microarrays. The agents yielded unique expression profiles. In genes with known AREs, the induction ratios (Levels Treated/Levels Controls) were: quinone oxidoreductase (BF, 8:1; DTT, 3.2:1; CPDTT, 3:1; DAS, 1.8:1; Exo, 1.7:1), glutatione transferase Pi (DTT, 36:1; CPDTT, 34:1; EXO, 8:1; DAS, 5:1; BF, 2.5:1), and aldehyde keto reductase 7A3 (AFAR) (DTT and CPDTT, 14:1; DAS, 6:1; EXO, 4:1; PB, 1.5:1). When the search included a wider variety of Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, no clear pattern was observed. Agent induced gene expression and preventive activity in published carcinogen induced tumor models showed limited correlation; questioning whether measuring the induction of one or two genes (e.g., quinone reductase) is a surrogate for overall Phase II inducing (antioxidant) and potential anti-tumor activity. PMID:19695238

Lubet, Ronald A; Yao, Ruisheng; Grubbs, Clinton J; You, Ming; Wang, Yian

2009-11-10

357

Lipid metabolism enzyme ACSVL3 supports glioblastoma stem cell maintenance and tumorigenicity  

PubMed Central

Background Targeting cell metabolism offers promising opportunities for the development of drugs to treat cancer. We previously found that the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase VL3 (ACSVL3) is elevated in malignant brain tumor tissues and involved in tumorigenesis. This study investigates the role of ACSVL3 in the maintenance of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cell self-renewal and the capacity of GBM stem cells to initiate tumor xenograft formation. Methods We examined ACSVL3 expression during differentiation of several GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures. To study the function of ACSVL3, we performed loss-of-function by using small interfering RNAs to target ACSVL3 and examined stem cell marker expression, neurosphere formation and tumor initiation properties. Results ACSVL3 expression levels were substantially increased in GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures and decreased after differentiation of the neurospheres. Down-regulating ACSVL3 with small inhibiting RNAs decreased the expression of markers and regulators associated with stem cell self-renewal, including CD133, ALDH, Musashi-1 and Sox-2. ACSVL3 knockdown in neurosphere cells led to increased expression of differentiation markers GFAP and Tuj1. Furthermore, ACSVL3 knockdown reduced anchorage-independent neurosphere cell growth, neurosphere-forming capacity as well as self-renewal of these GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures. In vivo studies revealed that ACSVL3 loss-of-function substantially inhibited the ability of neurosphere cells to propagate orthotopic tumor xenografts. A link between ACSVL3 and cancer stem cell phenotype was further established by the findings that ACSVL3 expression was regulated by receptor tyrosine kinase pathways that support GBM stem cell self-renewal and tumor initiation, including EGFR and HGF/c-Met pathways. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the lipid metabolism enzyme ACSVL3 is involved in GBM stem cell maintenance and the tumor-initiating capacity of GBM stem cell enriched-neurospheres in animals.

2014-01-01

358

Murein-metabolizing enzymes from Escherichia coli: existence of a second lytic transglycosylase.  

PubMed Central

In addition to the soluble lytic transglycosylase, a murein-metabolizing enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa (Slt70), Escherichia coli possesses a second lytic transglycosylase, which has been described as a membrane-bound lytic transglycosylase (Mlt; 35 kDa; EC 3.2.1.-). The mlt gene, which supposedly encodes Mlt, was cloned, and the complete nucleotide sequence was determined. The open reading frame, identified on a 1.7-kb SalI-PstI fragment, codes for a protein of 323 amino acids (M(r) = 37,410). Two transmembrane helices and one membrane-associated helix were predicted in the N-terminal half of the protein. Lysine and arginine residues represent up to 15% of the amino acids, resulting in a calculated isoelectric point of 10.0. The deduced primary structure did not show significant sequence similarity to Slt70 from E. coli. High-level expression of the presumed mlt gene was not paralleled by an increase in murein hydrolase activity. To clarify the identity of the second transglycosylase, we purified an enzyme with the specificity of a transglycosylase from an E. coli slt deletion strain. The completely soluble transglycosylase, with a molecular mass of approximately 35 kDa, was designated Slt35. Its determined 26 N-terminal amino acids showed similarity to a segment in the middle of the Slt70 primary structure. Polyclonal anti-Mlt antibodies, which had been used for the isolation of the mlt gene, were found to cross-react with Mlt as well as with Slt35, suggesting that the previously described Mlt preparation was contaminated with Slt35. We conclude that the second transglycosylase of E. coli is not a membrane-bound protein but rather is a soluble protein. Images

Engel, H; Smink, A J; van Wijngaarden, L; Keck, W

1992-01-01

359

Polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzymes, fish intake, and risk of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Cooking fish at high temperature can produce potent carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of these carcinogens may undergo modification by the enzymes responsible for their detoxification and/or activation. In this study, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in nine carcinogen metabolism enzymes and their modifying effects on the association between white or dark fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk. We genotyped 497 localized and 936 advanced PCA cases and 760 controls from the California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Three polymorphisms, EPHX1 Tyr113His, CYP1B1 Leu432Val and GSTT1 null/present, were associated with localized PCA risk. The PTGS2 765 G/C polymorphism modified the association between white fish consumption and advanced PCA risk (interaction P 5 0.002), with high white fish consumption being positively associated with risk only among carriers of the C allele. This effect modification by PTGS2 genotype was stronger when restricted to consumption of well-done white fish (interaction P 5 0.021). These findings support the hypotheses that changes in white fish brought upon by high-temperature cooking methods, such as carcinogen accumulation and/or fatty acid composition changes, may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. However, the gene–diet interactions should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Thus, our findings require further validation with additional studies. Abbreviations: AA African American; BMI body mass index; CI confidence interval; CNV copy number variant; EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HCA heterocyclic amine; HCFA Health Care Financing Administration; LAC Los Angeles county; MAF minor allele frequency; NHW non-Hispanic White; OR odds ratio; PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PCA prostate cancer; PTGS2 prostaglandin- endoperoxide synthase 2; PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids; RDD random-digit dialing; SEER Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result; SES socio-economic status; SFBA San Francisco Bay Area; SNP single-nucleotide polymorphism

Stern, Mariana C.

2012-01-01

360

Functional Polymorphisms of Folate-Metabolizing Enzymes in Relation to Homocysteine Concentrations in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine if functional polymorphisms of folate/homocysteine pathway enzymes are associated with homocysteine concentrations and/or coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and controls. Methods We investigated 163 SLE patients and 160 controls. Functional polymorphisms in 6 genes in the folate/homocysteine pathway were genotyped: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) 844ins68, methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A>G, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A>G, thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 1494del6, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) c.86+60_78. Results Homocysteine levels were higher in African American SLE patients than Caucasian patients and African American controls. Genotype distributions were significantly different in African American and Caucasian controls for 6 of the 7 polymorphisms. Genotype distributions for each polymorphism did not differ significantly between SLE patients and controls even after stratification by race. Glomerular filtration rate was strongly negatively correlated to homocysteine levels, and was therefore adjusted for as a covariate in the models of the effects of the polymorphisms on homocysteine levels. In SLE patients none of the 7 polymorphisms was associated with homocysteine concentrations. In Caucasian controls only MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C showed effects on homo-cysteine similar to what would be expected from the literature. There were no genotypic associations with median CAC scores in SLE patients or controls with and without stratification by race. Conclusion Polymorphisms in folate/homocysteine metabolizing enzymes do not predict higher homocysteine levels or CAC scores in patients with SLE.

SUMMERS, CAROLYN M.; CUCCHIARA, ANDREW J.; NACKOS, ELENI; HAMMONS, ANDREA L.; MOHR, ELISABETH; WHITEHEAD, ALEXANDER S.; VON FELDT, JOAN M.

2014-01-01

361

Distinct patterns of dysregulated expression of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis and metabolism in metastatic prostate cancer tumors  

PubMed Central

Androgen receptor (AR) signaling persists in castration-resistant prostate carcinomas (CRPCs), due to several mechanisms that include increased AR expression and intratumoral androgen metabolism. We investigated the mechanisms underlying aberrant expression of transcripts involved in androgen metabolism in CRPC. We compared gene expression profiles and DNA copy number alteration (CNA) data from 29 normal prostate tissue samples, 127 primary prostate carcinomas (PCas) and 19 metastatic PCas. Steroidogenic enzyme transcripts were evaluated by qRT-PCR in PCa cell lines and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from CRPC patients. Metastatic PCas expressed higher transcript levels for AR and several steroidogenic enzymes, including SRD5A1, SRD5A3, and AKR1C3, while expression of SRD5A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7 was decreased. This aberrant expression was rarely associated with CNAs. Instead, our data suggest distinct patterns of coordinated aberrant enzyme expression. Inhibition of AR activity by itself stimulated AKR1C3 expression. The aberrant expression of the steroidogenic enzyme transcripts were detected in CTCs from CRPC patients. In conclusion, our findings identify substantial interpatient heterogeneity and distinct patterns of dysregulated expression of enzymes involved in intratumoral androgen metabolism in PCa. These steroidogenic enzymes represent targets for complete suppression of systemic and intratumoral androgen levels, an objective that is supported by the clinical efficacy of the CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone. A comprehensive AR axis targeting approach via simultaneous, frontline enzymatic blockade and/or transcriptional repression of several steroidogenic enzymes, in combination with GnRH analogs and potent anti-androgens, would represent a powerful future strategy for PCa management.

Mitsiades, Nicholas; Sung, Clifford C.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Danila, Daniel C.; He, Bin; Eedunuri, Vijay Kumar; Fleisher, Martin; Sander, Chris; Sawyers, Charles L.; Scher, Howard I.

2012-01-01

362

Short communication: expression of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the female lower genital tract: implications for microbicide research.  

PubMed

Topical vaginal microbicides have been considered a promising option for preventing the male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV; however, clinical trials to date have not clearly demonstrated robust and reproducible effectiveness results. While multiple approaches may help enhance product effectiveness observed in clinical trials, increasing the drug exposure in lower genital tract tissues is a compelling option, given the difficulty in achieving sufficient drug exposure and positive correlation between tissue exposure and microbicide efficacy. Since many microbicide drug candidates are substrates of transporters and/or metabolizing enzymes, there is emerging interest in improving microbicide exposure and efficacy through local modulation of transporters and enzymes in the female lower genital tract. However, no systematic information on transporter/enzyme expression is available for ectocervical and vaginal tissues of premenopausal women, the genital sites most relevant to microbicide drug delivery. The current study utilized reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the mRNA expression profile of 22 transporters and 19 metabolizing enzymes in premenopausal normal human ectocervix and vagina. Efflux and uptake transporters important for antiretroviral drugs, such as P-gp, BCRP, OCT2, and ENT1, were found to be moderately or highly expressed in the lower genital tract as compared to liver. Among the metabolizing enzymes examined, most CYP isoforms were not detected while a number of UGTs such as UGT1A1 were highly expressed. Moderate to high expression of select transporters and enzymes was also observed in mouse cervix and vagina. The implications of this information on microbicide research is also discussed, including microbicide pharmacokinetics, the utilization of the mouse model in microbicide screening, as well as the in vivo functional studies of cervicovaginal transporters and enzymes. PMID:23607746

Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Cost, Marilyn; Poloyac, Samuel; Rohan, Lisa

2013-11-01

363

Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. II. Metabolic characteristics of the enzyme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPG) has been shown to be a reversible reaction with the equilibrium away from ester formation and toward formation of IAA. The enzyme occurs primarily in the liquid endosperm of the corn kernel but some activity occurs in the embryo. It is relatively specific showing no glucose ester formation with oxindole-3-acetic acid or 7-hydroxy-oxindole-3-acetic acid, and low activity with phenylpropene acids, such as rho-coumaric acid. The enzyme is also specific for the nucleotide sugar showing no activity with UDPGalactose or UDPXylose. The enzyme is inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate, by phosphate esters and by phospholipids, particularly phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The enzyme is inhibited by zeatin, by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid, by IAA-myo-inositol and IAA-glucan, but not by zeatin riboside, and only weakly by gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and kinetin. The reaction is slightly stimulated by both calcium and calmodulin and, in some cases, by thiol compounds. The role of this enzyme in the homeostatic control of indole-3-acetic acid levels in Zea mays is discussed.

Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

1988-01-01

364

Control of glucose metabolism by enzyme IIGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The quantitative effects of variations in the amount of enzyme IIGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS) on glucose metabolism in Escherichia coli were studied. The level of enzyme IIGlc could be adjusted in vivo to between 20 and 600% of the wild-type chromosomal level by using the expression vector pTSG11. On this plasmid, expression of the structural gene for enzyme IIGlc, ptsG, is controlled by the tac promoter. As expected, the control coefficient (i.e., the relative increase in pathway flux, divided by the relative increase in amount of enzyme) of enzyme IIGlc decreased in magnitude if a more extensive pathway was considered. Thus, at the wild-type level of enzyme IIGlc activity, the control coefficient of this enzyme on the growth rate on glucose and on the rate of glucose oxidation was low, while the control coefficient on uptake and phosphorylation of methyl alpha-glucopyranoside (an enzyme IIGlc-specific, nonmetabolizable glucose analog) was relatively high (0.55 to 0.65). The implications of our findings for PTS-mediated regulation, i.e., inhibition of growth on non-PTS compounds by glucose, are discussed.

Ruyter, G J; Postma, P W; van Dam, K

1991-01-01

365

Integration of the metabolic/redox state, histone gene switching, DNA replication and S-phase progression by moonlighting metabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

The concept of one-protein-multiple-function, i.e. moonlighting proteins, is an ever-expanding paradigm. We obtained compelling evidence that an array of 'cytoplasmic' metabolic enzymes can enter the nuclei to carry out moonlighting transcription functions; this phenomenon is conserved from Drosophila to humans. Of particular interest are the classical glycolytic enzymes GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), which utilize NAD(H) as coenzymes and not only moonlight (in their nuclear forms) to regulate the transcription of S-phase-specific histone genes, but also act as metabolic/redox sensors that link histone gene switching to DNA replication and S-phase progression. PMID:23134369

He, Hongpeng; Lee, Mei-Chin; Zheng, Li-Ling; Zheng, Lei; Luo, Yan

2013-01-01

366

Sequence and organization of genes encoding enzymes involved in pyruvate metabolism in Mycoplasma capricolum.  

PubMed Central

The region of the genome of Mycoplasma capricolum upstream of the portion encompassing the genes for Enzymes I and IIAglc of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) was cloned and sequenced. Examination of the sequence revealed open reading frames corresponding to numerous genes involved with the oxidation of pyruvate. The deduced gene organization is naox (encoding NADH oxidase)-lplA (encoding lipoate-protein ligase)-odpA (encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase EI alpha)-odpB (encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase EI beta)-odp2(encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase EII)-dldH (encoding dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase)-pta (encoding phosphotransacetylase)-ack (encoding acetate kinase)-orfA (an unknown open reading frame)-kdtB-ptsI-crr. Analysis of the DNA sequence suggests that the naox and lplA genes are part of a single operon, odpA and odpB constitute an additional operon, odp2 and dldH a third operon, and pta and ack an additional transcription unit. Phylogenetic analyses of the protein products of the odpA and odpB genes indicate that they are most similar to the corresponding proteins from Mycoplasma genitalium, Acholeplasma laidlawii, and Gram-positive organisms. The product of the odp2 gene contains a single lipoyl domain, as is the case with the corresponding proteins from M. genitalium and numerous other organisms. An evolutionary tree places the M. capricolum odp2 gene product in close relationship to the corresponding proteins from A. laidlawii and M.genitalium. The dldH gene encodes an unusual form of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase that contains an aminoterminal extension corresponding to a lipoyl domain, a property shared by the corresponding proteins from Alcaligenes eutrophus and Clostridium magnum. Aside from that feature, the protein is related phylogenetically to the corresponding proteins from A. laidlawii and M. genitalium. The phosphotransacetylase from M. capricolum is related most closely to the corresponding protein from M. genitalium and is distinguished easily from the enzymes from Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae by the absence of the characteristic amino-terminal extension. The acetate kinase from M. capricolum is related evolutionarily to the homologous enzyme from M. genitalium. Map position comparisons of genes encoding proteins involved with pyruvate metabolism show that, whereas all the genes are clustered in M. capricolum, they are scattered in M. genitalium.

Zhu, P. P.; Peterkofsky, A.

1996-01-01

367

Stereoselective Formation and Metabolism of 4-Hydroxy-Retinoic Acid Enantiomers by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes*  

PubMed Central

All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the major active metabolite of vitamin A, plays a role in many biological processes, including maintenance of epithelia, immunity, and fertility and regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation. atRA is metabolized mainly by CYP26A1, but other P450 enzymes such as CYP2C8 and CYP3As also contribute to atRA 4-hydroxylation. Although the primary metabolite of atRA, 4-OH-RA, possesses a chiral center, the stereochemical course of atRA 4-hydroxylation has not been studied previously. (4S)- and (4R)-OH-RA enantiomers were synthesized and separated by chiral column HPLC. CYP26A1 was found to form predominantly (4S)-OH-RA. This stereoselectivity was rationalized via docking of atRA in the active site of a CYP26A1 homology model. The docked structure showed a well defined niche for atRA within the active site and a specific orientation of the ?-ionone ring above the plane of the heme consistent with stereoselective abstraction of the hydrogen atom from the pro-(S)-position. In contrast to CYP26A1, CYP3A4 formed the 4-OH-RA enantiomers in a 1:1 ratio and CYP3A5 preferentially formed (4R)-OH-RA. Interestingly, CYP3A7 and CYP2C8 preferentially formed (4S)-OH-RA from atRA. Both (4S)- and (4R)-OH-RA were substrates of CYP26A1 but (4S)-OH-RA was cleared 3-fold faster than (4R)-OH-RA. In addition, 4-oxo-RA was formed from (4R)-OH-RA but not from (4S)-OH-RA by CYP26A1. Overall, these findings show that (4S)-OH-RA is preferred over (4R)-OH-RA by the enzymes regulating atRA homeostasis. The stereoselectivity observed in CYP26A1 function will aid in better understanding of the active site features of the enzyme and the disposition of biologically active retinoids.

Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Roberts, Arthur G.; Scian, Michele; Topletz, Ariel R.; Blankert, Sean A.; Halpert, James R.; Nelson, Wendel L.; Isoherranen, Nina

2012-01-01

368

Quantitative studies of enzyme-substrate compartmentation, functional coupling and metabolic channelling in muscle cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some historical aspects of development of the concepts of functional coupling, metabolic channelling, compartmentation and energy transfer networks are reviewed. Different quantitative approaches, including kinetic and mathematical modeling of energy metabolism, intracellular energy transfer and metabolic regulation of energy production and fluxes in the cells in vivo are analyzed. As an example of the system with metabolic channelling, thermodynamic aspects

Valdur Saks; Pierre Dos Santos; Frank N. Gellerich; Philippe Diolez

1998-01-01

369

Effect of prostaglandins and dibutyryl cyclic AMP on the morphology of cells in primary astroglial cultures and on metabolic enzymes of GABA and glutamate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Prostaglandins (PGE1) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dBc AMP) induce similar morphological changes in astrocytes obtained in primary cultures. PGE1 and dBc AMP increased 2 enzymes of GABA and glutamate metabolism, GABA-T and AAT, but did not modify GDH and GLN-S. Prostaglandins probably affect the cAMP content of glial cells and act in the same way as dBc AMP on

M. Tardy; C. Fages; B. Rolland; J. Bardakdjian; P. Gonnard

1981-01-01

370

The protein kinase Sch9 is a key regulator of sphingolipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Sch9 is an in vitro and in vivo effector of sphingolipid signaling. This study examines the link between Sch9 and sphingolipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae in vivo based on the observation that the sch9? mutant displays altered sensitivity to different inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolism, namely myriocin and aureobasidin A. Sphingolipid profiling indicates that sch9? cells have increased levels of long-chain bases and long-chain base-1 phosphates, decreased levels of several species of (phyto)ceramides, and altered ratios of complex sphingolipids. We show that the target of rapamycin complex 1–Sch9 signaling pathway functions to repress the expression of the ceramidase genes YDC1 and YPC1, thereby revealing, for the first time in yeast, a nutrient-dependent transcriptional mechanism involved in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism. In addition, we establish that Sch9 affects the activity of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C, Isc1, which is required for ceramide production by hydrolysis of complex sphingolipids. Given that sphingolipid metabolites play a crucial role in the regulation of stress tolerance and longevity of yeast cells, our data provide a model in which Sch9 regulates the latter phenotypes by acting not only as an effector but also as a regulator of sphingolipid metabolism.

Swinnen, Erwin; Wilms, Tobias; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jolanta; Smets, Bart; De Snijder, Pepijn; Accardo, Sabina; Ghillebert, Ruben; Thevissen, Karin; Cammue, Bruno; De Vos, Dirk; Bielawski, Jacek; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Winderickx, Joris

2014-01-01

371

Expression profile of early estradiol-responsive genes in cynomolgus macaque liver: implications for drug-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Estrogen plays important roles in estrogen-responsive tissues, such as mammary glands, ovaries, and the uterus. In the liver, the major drug metabolizing organ, estrogen is known to regulate expression of some drug-metabolizing enzymes. Due to the lack of information on the role of estrogen in hepatic gene expression in primate species, we previously investigated the late response of hepatic gene expression to estradiol in cynomolgus macaques. To understand the early response of hepatic gene expression to estradiol, in this study, microarray analysis was conducted using cynomolgus macaque liver samples collected at 1 h and 5 h after estradiol injection. Comparison of expression profiles in estradiol and solvent (control)-treated ovariectomized cynomolgus macaques revealed 27 differentially expressed genes (>2.0-fold), including 18 at 1 h and 9 at 5 h after estradiol injection. As indicated by Gene Ontology analysis, these genes were related to oxidoreductase activity and transferase activity, partly representing important aspects of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Further analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that estradiol down-regulated CYP2A24, CYP2C76, and CYP2E1 (>2.0-fold) at 1 h and up-regulated GSTM5 (>2.0-fold) at 5 h after estradiol injection. These results suggest that the short-term estradiol treatment influenced expression of hepatic genes, including drug-metabolizing enzyme genes, in cynomolgus macaque liver. PMID:22354286

Ise, Ryota; Kito, Go; Uno, Yasuhiro

2012-01-01

372

In vitro metabolism of jaceosidin and characterization of cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes in human liver microsomes.  

PubMed

Jaceosidin is an active component in Artemisia species as well as Eupatorium species and it exhibits antiallergic, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic activities. Jaceosidin was metabolized to jaceosidin glucuronide, 6-O-desmethyljaceosidin, hydroxyjaceosidin, 6-O-desmethyljaceosidin glucuronide, and hydroxyjaceosidin glucuronide in human liver microsomes. This study characterized the human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) and UDPglucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes responsible for the metabolism of jaceosidin. CYP1A2 was identified as the major enzyme responsible for the formation of 6-O-desmethyljaceosidin and hydroxyjaceosidin from jaceosidin on the basis of a combination of correlation analysis and experiments including immuno-inhibition, chemical inhibition in human liver microsomes, and metabolism by human cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes. Jaceosidin glucuronidation was catalyzed by UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT1A10. These results suggest that the pharmacokinetics of jaceosidin may be dramatically affected by polymorphic CYP1A2, UGT1A1, and UGT1A7 responsible for the metabolism of jaceosidin or by the coadministration of relevant CYP1A2 or UGT inhibitors or inducers. PMID:21191764

Song, Won Young; Ji, Hye Young; Baek, Nam-In; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Hye Suk

2010-12-01

373

Genome-wide identification of gibberellins metabolic enzyme genes and expression profiling analysis during seed germination in maize.  

PubMed

Gibberellin (GA) is an essential phytohormone that controls many aspects of plant development. To enhance our understanding of GA metabolism in maize, we intensively screened and identified 27 candidate genes encoding the seven GA metabolic enzymes including ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox), using all available public maize databases. The results indicate that maize genome contains three CPS, four KS, two KO and one KAO genes, and most of them are arranged separately on the maize genome, which differs from that in rice. In addition, the enzymes catalyzing the later steps (ZmGA20ox, ZmGA3ox and ZmGA2ox) are also encoded by gene families in maize, but GA3ox enzyme is likely to be encoded by single gene. Expression profiling analysis exhibited that transcripts of 15 GA metabolic genes could be detected during maize seed germination, which provides further evidence for the notion that increased synthesis of active GA in the embryo is required for triggering germination events. Moreover, a variety of temporal genes expression patterns of GA metabolic genes were detected, which revealed the complexity of underlying mechanism for GA regulated seed germination. PMID:21640170

Song, Jian; Guo, Baojian; Song, Fangwei; Peng, Huiru; Yao, Yingyin; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

2011-08-15

374

Enzymes of myo-inositol and inositol lipid metabolism in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  

PubMed Central

Diabetes, with only mild ketosis, was induced in male rats by a single injection of streptozotocin. After 12 weeks the specific activities of enzymes concerned with the metabolism of inositol and of inositol lipids were measured in various tissues. Inositol 1-phosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.4) was most active in testis and the activity was significantly less in diabetic rats than in controls on a similar diet. Inositol oxygenase (EC 1.13.99.1), which converts myo-inositol into glucuronic acid, was also less active in kidney from diabetic animals. CDP-diacylglycerol-inositol phosphatidyltransferase (EC 2.7.8.11) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate kinase (EC 2.7.1.68) showed decreased specific activities in brain and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. By contrast the diabetic state did not affect the specific activities of phosphatidylinositol kinase (EC 2.7.1.67) or phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.36) in these tissues. The results are discussed in relation to diabetic neuropathy.

Whiting, P H; Palmano, K P; Hawthorne, J N

1979-01-01