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1

Yeast RNase III as a Key Processing Enzyme in Small Nucleolar RNAs Metabolism  

E-print Network

Yeast RNase III as a Key Processing Enzyme in Small Nucleolar RNAs Metabolism Guillaume Chanfreau searched for yeast snoRNAs which are affected by the depletion of the yeast ortholog of bacterial RNase III, Rnt1. In a yeast strain inactivated for RNT1, almost half of the snoRNAs tested are depleted

Chanfreau, Guillaume

2

Metabolism of aflatoxins: key enzymes and interindividual as well as interspecies differences.  

PubMed

Aflatoxins are potent hepatocarcinogen in animal models and suspected carcinogen in humans. The most important aflatoxin in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In this review, we mainly summarized the key metabolizing enzymes of AFB1 in animals and humans. Moreover, the interindividual and the interspecies differences in AFB1 metabolism are highly concerned. In human liver, CYP3A4 plays an important role in biotransforming AFB1 to the toxic product AFB1-8,9-epoxide. In human lung, CYP2A13 has a significant activity in metabolizing AFB1 to AFB1-8,9-epoxide and AFM1-8,9-epoxide. The epoxide of AFB1-8,9-epoxide could conjugate with glutathione to reduce the toxicity by glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In poultry species, CYP2A6, CYP3A37, CYP1A5, and CYP1A1 are responsible for bioactivation of AFB1. There are interindividual variations in the rate of activation of aflatoxins in various species, and there are also differences between children and adults. The age and living regions are important factors affecting resistance of species to AFB1. The rate of AFB1-8,9-epoxide formation and its conjugation with glutathione are key parameters in interspecies and interindividual differences in sensitivity to the toxic effect of AFB1. This review provides an important information for key metabolizing enzymes and the global metabolism of aflatoxins in different species. PMID:25027283

Dohnal, Vlastimil; Wu, Qinghua; Ku?a, Kamil

2014-09-01

3

Rhodanese Functions as Sulfur Supplier for Key Enzymes in Sulfur Energy Metabolism  

PubMed Central

How microorganisms obtain energy is a challenging topic, and there have been numerous studies on the mechanisms involved. Here, we focus on the energy substrate traffic in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. This bacterium can use insoluble sulfur as an energy substrate and has an intricate sulfur energy metabolism involving several sulfur-reducing and -oxidizing supercomplexes and enzymes. We demonstrate that the cytoplasmic rhodanese SbdP participates in this sulfur energy metabolism. Rhodaneses are a widespread family of proteins known to transfer sulfur atoms. We show that SbdP has also some unusual characteristics compared with other rhodaneses; it can load a long sulfur chain, and it can interact with more than one partner. Its partners (sulfur reductase and sulfur oxygenase reductase) are key enzymes of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus and share the capacity to use long sulfur chains as substrate. We demonstrate a positive effect of SbdP, once loaded with sulfur chains, on sulfur reductase activity, most likely by optimizing substrate uptake. Taken together, these results lead us to propose a physiological role for SbdP as a carrier and sulfur chain donor to these key enzymes, therefore enabling channeling of sulfur substrate in the cell as well as greater efficiency of the sulfur energy metabolism of A. aeolicus. PMID:22496367

Aussignargues, Clement; Giuliani, Marie-Cecile; Infossi, Pascale; Lojou, Elisabeth; Guiral, Marianne; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Therese; Ilbert, Marianne

2012-01-01

4

Lactate dehydrogenase is the key enzyme for pneumococcal pyruvate metabolism and pneumococcal survival in blood.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A Y; Andrew, Peter W; Neves, Ana Rute; Yesilkaya, Hasan

2014-12-01

5

Subcellular distribution of key enzymes of lipid metabolism during the euthermia-hibernation-arousal cycle  

PubMed Central

Mammalian hibernation is a natural, fully reversible hypometabolic state characterized by a drastic reduction of body temperature and metabolic activity, which ensures survival to many species under adverse environmental conditions. During hibernation, many hibernators rely for energy supply almost exclusively on lipid reserves; the shift from carbohydrate to lipid metabolism implies profound rearrangement of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of energetic substrates. However, the structural counterpart of such adaptation is not known. In this study we investigated, by using immunoelectron microscopy, the fine intracellular distribution of two key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, namely, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and the long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL), in hepatocytes of euthermic, hibernating and arousing hazel dormice. Our results show that the two enzymes are differentially distributed in cellular compartments (cytoplasm, mitochondria and cell nuclei) of hepatocytes during euthermia. Quantitative redistribution of both enzymes among cellular compartments takes place during hibernation and arousal, in accordance with the physiological changes. Interestingly, this redistribution follows different seasonal patterns in cytoplasm, mitochondria and nuclei. In conclusion, our data represent the first quantitative morphological evidence of lipid enzyme distribution in a true hibernator throughout the year cycle, thus providing a structural framework to biochemical changes associated with the hypometabolism of hibernation. PMID:19538638

Suozzi, Anna; Malatesta, Manuela; Zancanaro, Carlo

2009-01-01

6

Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

7

A Key Role for Old Yellow Enzyme in the Metabolism of Drugs by Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. So far, first choice anti-chagasic drugs in use have been shown to have undesirable side effects in addition to the emergence of parasite resistance and the lack of prospect for vaccine against T. cruzi infection. Thus, the isolation and characterization of molecules essential in parasite metabolism of the anti-chagasic drugs are fundamental for the development of new strategies for rational drug design and/or the improvement of the current chemotherapy. While searching for a prostaglandin (PG) F2? synthase homologue, we have identified a novel “old yellow enzyme” from T. cruzi (TcOYE), cloned its cDNA, and overexpressed the recombinant enzyme. Here, we show that TcOYE reduced 9,11-endoperoxide PGH2 to PGF2? as well as a variety of trypanocidal drugs. By electron spin resonance experiments, we found that TcOYE specifically catalyzed one-electron reduction of menadione and ?-lapachone to semiquinone-free radicals with concomitant generation of superoxide radical anions, while catalyzing solely the two-electron reduction of nifurtimox and 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide drugs without free radical production. Interestingly, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that anti-TcOYE polyclonal antibody abolished major reductase activities of the lysates toward these drugs, identifying TcOYE as a key drug-metabolizing enzyme by which quinone drugs have their mechanism of action. PMID:12417633

Kubata, Bruno Kilunga; Kabututu, Zakayi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Munday, Craig J.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Lazarus, Michael; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Martin, Samuel K.; Duszenko, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro

2002-01-01

8

Pyruvate decarboxylase: a key enzyme for the oxidative metabolism of lactic acid by Acetobacter pasteurianus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetobacter pasteurianus, an obligately oxidative bacterium, is the first organism shown to utilize pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) as a central enzyme for oxidative metabolism. In plants, yeast, and other bacteria, PDC functions solely as part of the fermentative ethanol pathway. During the growth of A. pasteurianus on lactic acid, the central intermediate pyruvate is cleaved to acetaldehyde and CO2 by PDC.

Krishnan Chandra Raj; Lonnie O. Ingram; Julie A. Maupin-Furlow

2001-01-01

9

Role of photosynthesis and analysis of key enzymes involved in primary metabolism throughout the lifespan of the tobacco flower.  

PubMed

Although the physiological and economical relevance of flowers is recognized, their primary metabolism during development has not been characterized, especially combining protein, transcript, and activity levels of the different enzymes involved. In this work, the functional characterization of the photosynthetic apparatus, pigment profiles, and the main primary metabolic pathways were analysed in tobacco sepals and petals at different developmental stages. The results indicate that the corolla photosynthetic apparatus is functional and capable of fixing CO(2); with its photosynthetic activity mainly involved in pigment biosynthesis. The particular pattern of expression, across the tobacco flower lifespan, of several proteins involved in respiration and primary metabolism, indicate that petal carbon metabolism is highest at the anthesis stage; while some enzymes are activated at the later stages, along with senescence. The first signs of corolla senescence in attached flowers are observed after anthesis; however, molecular data suggest that senescence is already onset at this stage. Feeding experiments to detached flowers at anthesis indicate that sugars, but not photosynthetic activity of the corolla, are capable of delaying the senescence process. On the other hand, photosynthetic activity and CO(2) fixation is active in sepals, where high expression levels of particular enzymes were detected. Sepals remained green and did not show signs of senescence in all the flower developmental stages analysed. Overall, the data presented contribute to an understanding of the metabolic processes operating during tobacco flower development, and identify key enzymes involved in the different stages. PMID:20591899

Müller, Gabriela Leticia; Drincovich, María Fabiana; Andreo, Carlos Santiago; Lara, María Valeria

2010-08-01

10

Pyruvate decarboxylase: a key enzyme for the oxidative metabolism of lactic acid by Acetobacter pasteurianus.  

PubMed

Acetobacter pasteurianus, an obligately oxidative bacterium, is the first organism shown to utilize pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) as a central enzyme for oxidative metabolism. In plants, yeast, and other bacteria, PDC functions solely as part of the fermentative ethanol pathway. During the growth of A. pasteurianus on lactic acid, the central intermediate pyruvate is cleaved to acetaldehyde and CO(2) by PDC. Acetaldehyde is subsequently oxidized to its final product, acetic acid. The presence of the PDC enzyme in A. pasteurianus was confirmed by zymograms stained for acetaldehyde production, enzyme assays using alcohol dehydrogenase as the coupling enzyme, and by cloning and characterization of the pdc operon. A. pasteurianus pdc was also expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli. The level of PDC activity was regulated in response to growth substrate, highest with lactic acid and absent with mannitol. The translated PDC sequence (548 amino acids) was most similar to that of Zymomonas mobilis, an obligately fermentative bacterium. A second operon ( aldA) was also found which is transcribed divergently from pdc. This operon encodes a putative aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD2; 357 amino acids) related to class III alcohol dehydrogenases and most similar to glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenases from alpha-Proteobacteria and Anabeana azollae. PMID:11734888

Chandra Raj, K; Ingram, L O; Maupin-Furlow, J A

2001-12-01

11

Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C4 and CAM metabolism.  

PubMed

CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C4 phenotypes. PMID:24638902

Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Monica; Osborne, Colin P; Bräutigam, Andrea; Sage, Rowan F; Hibberd, Julian M; Kelly, Steven; Covshoff, Sarah; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hancock, Lillian; Edwards, Erika J

2014-07-01

12

Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C4 and CAM metabolism  

PubMed Central

CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C4 phenotypes. PMID:24638902

Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Monica; Osborne, Colin P.; Brautigam, Andrea; Sage, Rowan F.; Hibberd, Julian M.; Kelly, Steven; Covshoff, Sarah; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hancock, Lillian; Edwards, Erika J.

2014-01-01

13

An alternative, arginase-independent pathway for arginine metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis involves guanidinobutyrase as a key enzyme.  

PubMed

Most available knowledge on fungal arginine metabolism is derived from studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which arginine catabolism is initiated by releasing urea via the arginase reaction. Orthologues of the S. cerevisiae genes encoding the first three enzymes in the arginase pathway were cloned from Kluyveromyces lactis and shown to functionally complement the corresponding deletion in S. cerevisiae. Surprisingly, deletion of the single K. lactis arginase gene KlCAR1 did not completely abolish growth on arginine as nitrogen source. Growth rate of the deletion mutant strongly increased during serial transfer in shake-flask cultures. A combination of RNAseq-based transcriptome analysis and (13)C-(15)N-based flux analysis was used to elucidate the arginase-independent pathway. Isotopic (13)C(15)N-enrichment in ?-aminobutyrate revealed succinate as the entry point in the TCA cycle of the alternative pathway. Transcript analysis combined with enzyme activity measurements indicated increased expression in the Klcar1? mutant of a guanidinobutyrase (EC.3.5.3.7), a key enzyme in a new pathway for arginine degradation. Expression of the K. lactis?KLLA0F27995g (renamed KlGBU1) encoding guanidinobutyrase enabled S. cerevisiae to use guanidinobutyrate as sole nitrogen source and its deletion in K. lactis almost completely abolish growth on this nitrogen source. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this enzyme activity is widespread in fungi. PMID:24912400

Romagnoli, G; Verhoeven, M D; Mans, R; Fleury Rey, Y; Bel-Rhlid, R; van den Broek, M; Seifar, R Maleki; Ten Pierick, A; Thompson, M; Müller, V; Wahl, S A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

2014-07-01

14

Key Residues Controlling Phenacetin Metabolism By Human Cytochrome P450 2A Enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Although the human lung cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) and its liver counterpart cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) are 94% identical in amino acid sequence, they metabolize a number of substrates with substantially different efficiencies. To determine differences in binding for a diverse set of cytochrome P450 2A ligands, we have measured the spectral binding affinities (K{sub D}) for nicotine, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), coumarin, 2{prime}-methoxyacetophenone (MAP), and 8-methoxypsoralen. The differences in the K{sub D} values for CYP2A6 versus CYP2A13 ranged from 74-fold for 2{prime}-methoxyacetophenone to 1.1-fold for coumarin, with CYP2A13 demonstrating the higher affinity. To identify active site amino acids responsible for the differences in binding of MAP, PEITC, and coumarin, 10 CYP2A13 mutant proteins were generated in which individual amino acids from the CYP2A6 active site were substituted into CYP2A13 at the corresponding position. Titrations revealed that substitutions at positions 208, 300, and 301 individually had the largest effects on ligand binding. The collective relevance of these amino acids to differential ligand selectivity was verified by evaluating binding to CYP2A6 mutant enzymes that incorporate several of the CYP2A13 amino acids at these positions. Inclusion of four CYP2A13 amino acids resulted in a CYP2A6 mutant protein (I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G) with binding affinities for MAP and PEITC much more similar to those observed for CYP2A13 than to those for CYP2A6 without altering coumarin binding. The structure-based quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis using COMBINE successfully modeled the observed mutant-ligand trends and emphasized steric roles for active site residues including four substituted amino acids and an adjacent conserved Leu{sup 370}.

DeVore, N.M.; Smith, B.D.; Urban, M.J.; Scott, E.E.

2009-05-14

15

Inhibitory Potential of Turbinaria ornata against Key Metabolic Enzymes Linked to Diabetes  

PubMed Central

One of the therapeutic approaches in treating diabetes is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting major carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. In the present study, crude extracts of marine seaweed, Turbinaria ornata, were tested for their antidiabetic potential using enzyme inhibitory assays (?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV). Among the tested extracts, methanol and acetone extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on ?-amylase (IC50 250.9??g/mL), ?-glucosidase (535.6??g/mL), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (55.2??g/mL), respectively. Free radical scavenging activity of these extracts was analyzed using DPPH assay (65%). Extracts were tested for in vitro toxicity using DNA fragmentation assay, haemolytic assay, and MTT assay. None of the extracts showed toxicity in tested models. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of lead extracts showed the presence of major compounds, hentriacontane, z, z-6, 28-heptatriactontadien-2-one, 8-heptadecene, and 1-heptacosanol. Our findings suggest that Turbinaria ornata can be used as a potential source for further in vivo studies in controlling hyperglycemia. PMID:25050371

Unnikrishnan, P. S.; Suthindhiran, K.; Jayasri, M. A.

2014-01-01

16

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase identified as a key enzyme in erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum carbon metabolism.  

PubMed

Phospoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is absent from humans but encoded in the Plasmodium falciparum genome, suggesting that PEPC has a parasite-specific function. To investigate its importance in P. falciparum, we generated a pepc null mutant (D10(?pepc) ), which was only achievable when malate, a reduction product of oxaloacetate, was added to the growth medium. D10(?pepc) had a severe growth defect in vitro, which was partially reversed by addition of malate or fumarate, suggesting that pepc may be essential in vivo. Targeted metabolomics using (13)C-U-D-glucose and (13)C-bicarbonate showed that the conversion of glycolytically-derived PEP into malate, fumarate, aspartate and citrate was abolished in D10(?pepc) and that pentose phosphate pathway metabolites and glycerol 3-phosphate were present at increased levels. In contrast, metabolism of the carbon skeleton of (13)C,(15)N-U-glutamine was similar in both parasite lines, although the flux was lower in D10(?pepc); it also confirmed the operation of a complete forward TCA cycle in the wild type parasite. Overall, these data confirm the CO2 fixing activity of PEPC and suggest that it provides metabolites essential for TCA cycle anaplerosis and the maintenance of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox balance. Moreover, these findings imply that PEPC may be an exploitable target for future drug discovery. PMID:24453970

Storm, Janet; Sethia, Sonal; Blackburn, Gavin J; Chokkathukalam, Achuthanunni; Watson, David G; Breitling, Rainer; Coombs, Graham H; Müller, Sylke

2014-01-01

17

Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Identified as a Key Enzyme in Erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum Carbon Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Phospoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is absent from humans but encoded in the Plasmodium falciparum genome, suggesting that PEPC has a parasite-specific function. To investigate its importance in P. falciparum, we generated a pepc null mutant (D10?pepc), which was only achievable when malate, a reduction product of oxaloacetate, was added to the growth medium. D10?pepc had a severe growth defect in vitro, which was partially reversed by addition of malate or fumarate, suggesting that pepc may be essential in vivo. Targeted metabolomics using 13C-U-D-glucose and 13C-bicarbonate showed that the conversion of glycolytically-derived PEP into malate, fumarate, aspartate and citrate was abolished in D10?pepc and that pentose phosphate pathway metabolites and glycerol 3-phosphate were present at increased levels. In contrast, metabolism of the carbon skeleton of 13C,15N-U-glutamine was similar in both parasite lines, although the flux was lower in D10?pepc; it also confirmed the operation of a complete forward TCA cycle in the wild type parasite. Overall, these data confirm the CO2 fixing activity of PEPC and suggest that it provides metabolites essential for TCA cycle anaplerosis and the maintenance of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox balance. Moreover, these findings imply that PEPC may be an exploitable target for future drug discovery. PMID:24453970

Chokkathukalam, Achuthanunni; Watson, David G.; Breitling, Rainer; Coombs, Graham H.; Muller, Sylke

2014-01-01

18

Effect of T. foenumgraecum on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Trigonella foenumgraecum (FG). In the present study, FG (1g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of FG led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 14.4 and 46.64% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body weight was significantly increased in diabetics (P<0.0005) versus normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (P<0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of FG. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10 folds while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls versus controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by FG. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35, 50 and 60% of the controls and FG partially corrected this alteration in PFK, HK and GK. PMID:12639747

Vats, V; Yadav, S P; Grover, J K

2003-04-01

19

Tomato Key Sucrose Metabolizing Enzyme Activities and Gene Expression Under NaCl and PEG Iso-Osmotic Stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in sucrose metabolism in response to salt (NaCl) and water (polyethylene glycol, PEG6000) iso-osmotic stresses were measured in tomato cultivar Liaoyuan Duoli (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and the objective was to provide a new evidence for the relationship between salt and osmotic stresses. The carbohydrate contents, as well as sucrose metabolizing enzymes activities and transcript levels were determined. The results

Shao-wei LU; Tian-lai LI; Jing JIANG

2009-01-01

20

Expressional regulation of key hepatic enzymes of intermediary metabolism in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during food deprivation and refeeding.  

PubMed

We hypothesized that the analysis of mRNA level and activity of key enzymes in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in a feeding/fasting/refeeding setting could improve our understanding of how a carnivorous fish, like the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), responds to changes in dietary intake at the hepatic level. To this end cDNA fragments encoding genes for cytosolic and mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase (cALT; mALT), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) were cloned and sequenced. Measurement of mRNA levels through quantitative real-time PCR performed in livers of fasted seabass revealed a significant increase in cALT (8.5-fold induction) while promoting a drastic 45-fold down-regulation of PK in relation to the levels found in fed seabass. These observations were corroborated by enzyme activity meaning that during food deprivation an increase in the capacity of pyruvate generation happened via alanine to offset the reduction in pyruvate derived via glycolysis. After a 3-day refeeding period cALT returned to control levels while PK was not able to rebound. No alterations were detected in the expression levels of G6PDH while 6PGDH was revealed to be more sensitive specially to fasting, as confirmed by a significant 5.7-fold decrease in mRNA levels with no recovery after refeeding. Our results indicate that in early stages of refeeding, the liver prioritized the restoration of systemic normoglycemia and replenishment of hepatic glycogen. In a later stage, once regular feeding is re-established, dietary fuel may then be channeled to glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. PMID:24746983

Viegas, Ivan; Caballero-Solares, Albert; Rito, Joăo; Giralt, Marina; Pardal, Miguel A; Metón, Isidoro; Jones, John G; Baanante, Isabel V

2014-08-01

21

Stereochemistry of a bifunctional dihydroceramide delta 4-desaturase/hydroxylase from Candida albicans; a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism.  

PubMed

The stereochemical course of the dihydroceramide delta 4-(E)-desaturase from Candida albicans, cloned and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain sur2 delta, was determined using stereospecifically labelled (2R,3S)-[2,3,4,4-2H4]-palmitic acid as a metabolic probe. Mass spectrometric analysis of the dinitrophenyl-derivatives of the labelled long-chain bases revealed elimination of a single deuterium atom from C(4) (corresponding to the C(4)-HR) along with a hydrogen atom from C(5) (corresponding to the C(5)-HS). This finding is consistent with an overall syn-elimination of the two vicinal hydrogen atoms. Besides the desaturation product sphingosine (93%) minor amounts of a 4-hydroxylated product (phytosphinganine, 7%) were identified that classify the Candida enzyme as a bifunctional desaturase/hydroxylase. Both processes, desaturation and hydroxylation proceed with loss of C(4)-HR from the chiral precursor. This finding is in agreement with a two-step process involving activation of the substrate by removal of the C(4)-HR to give a C-centred radical or radicaloid followed by either disproportionation into an olefin, water and a reduced diiron complex, or to recombination of the primary reactive intermediate with an active site-bound oxygen to yield a secondary alcohol. This result demonstrates the close mechanistic relationship between desaturation and hydroxylation as two different reaction pathways of a single enzyme and strengthens the mechanistic relationship of desaturases from fatty acid metabolism and sphingolipids. PMID:12956060

Beckmann, Christoph; Rattke, Janine; Sperling, Petra; Heinz, Ernst; Boland, Wilhelm

2003-07-21

22

The metabolic acclimation of Arabidopsis thaliana to arsenate is sensitized by the loss of mitochondrial LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE2, a key enzyme in oxidative metabolism.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial lipoamide dehydrogenase is essential for the activity of four mitochondrial enzyme complexes central to oxidative metabolism. The reduction in protein amount and enzyme activity caused by disruption of mitochondrial LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE2 enhanced the arsenic sensitivity of Arabidopsis thaliana. Both arsenate and arsenite inhibited root elongation, decreased seedling size and increased anthocyanin production more profoundly in knockout mutants than in wild-type seedlings. Arsenate also stimulated lateral root formation in the mutants. The activity of lipoamide dehydrogenase in isolated mitochondria was sensitive to arsenite, but not arsenate, indicating that arsenite could be the mediator of the observed phenotypes. Steady-state metabolite abundances were only mildly affected by mutation of mitochondrial LIPOAMIDE DEHYDROGENASE2. In contrast, arsenate induced the remodelling of metabolite pools associated with oxidative metabolism in wild-type seedlings, an effect that was enhanced in the mutant, especially around the enzyme complexes containing mitochondrial lipoamide dehydrogenase. These results indicate that mitochondrial lipoamide dehydrogenase is an important protein for determining the sensitivity of oxidative metabolism to arsenate in Arabidopsis. PMID:23961884

Chen, Weihua; Taylor, Nicolas L; Chi, Yingjun; Millar, A Harvey; Lambers, Hans; Finnegan, Patrick M

2014-03-01

23

Modulatory effect of green tea extract on hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin and high fat diet induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of green tea extract on carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes in control and streptozotocin high fat diet -induced diabetic rats. The daily oral treatment of green tea extract (300 mg/kg body weight) to diabetic rats for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and increase in the levels of insulin and hemoglobin. The altered activities of the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in liver of diabetic rats were significantly reverted to near normal levels by the administration of green tea extract. Further, green tea extract administration to diabetic rats improved muscle and hepatic glycogen content suggesting the antihyperglycemic potential of green tea extract in diabetic rats. The obtained results were compared with metformin, a standard oral hypoglycemic drug. Thus, this study indicates that the administration of green tea extract to diabetic rats resulted in alterations in the metabolism of glucose with subsequent reduction in plasma glucose levels. PMID:23453307

Sundaram, Ramalingam; Naresh, Rajendran; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

2013-05-15

24

Modulation of key metabolic enzyme of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) juvenile: effect of dietary starch type, protein level and exogenous ?-amylase in the diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to delineate the effect of both gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) corn with or\\u000a without supplementation of exogenous ?-amylase, either at optimum (35%) or sub-optimum (27%) protein levels, on blood glucose,\\u000a and the key metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, HK), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6 phosphatase, G6Pase and fructose-1,6\\u000a bisphosphatase, FBPase), lipogenesis (glucose-6 phaosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD) and

Shivendra Kumar; N. P. Sahu; A. K. Pal; Vidya Sagar; Amit Kumar Sinha; Kartik Baruah

2009-01-01

25

Effects of myogenin on muscle fiber types and key metabolic enzymes in gene transfer mice and C2C12 myoblasts.  

PubMed

Skeletal muscle fiber type composition is one of the important factors influencing muscle growth and meat quality. As a member of the myogenic transcription factors, myogenin (MyoG) is required for embryonic myoblast differentiation, but the expression of MyoG continues in mature muscle tissue of adult animals, especially in oxidative metabolic muscle, which suggests that MyoG may play a more extended role. Therefore, using MyoG gene transfer mice and C2C12 myoblasts as in vivo and in vitro models, respectively, we elected to study the role of MyoG in muscle fiber types and oxidative metabolism by using overexpression and siRNA suppression strategies. The overexpression of MyoG by DNA electroporation in mouse gastrocnemius muscle had no significant effect on fiber type composition but upregulated the mRNA expression (P<0.01) and enzyme activity (P<0.05) of oxidative succinic dehydrogenase (SDH). In addition, downregulation of the activity of the glycolytic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (PK, P<0.05) was observed in MyoG gene transfer mice. In vitro experiments verified the results obtained in mice. Stable MyoG-transfected differentiating C2C12 cells showed higher mRNA expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform IIX (P<0.01) and SDH (P<0.05), while the LDH mRNA was attenuated. The enzyme activities of SDH (P<0.01) and LDH (P<0.05) were similarly altered at the mRNA level. When MyoG was knocked down in C2C12 cells, MyHC IIX expression (P<0.05) was decreased, but the mRNA level (P<0.05) and the enzyme activity (P<0.05) of SDH were increased. Downregulating MyoG also increased the activity of the glycolytic enzymes PK (P<0.05) and hexokinase (HK, P<0.05). Based on those results, we concluded that MyoG barely changes the MyHC isoforms, except MyHC IIX, in differentiating myoblasts but probably influences the shift from glycolytic metabolism towards oxidative metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. These results contribute to further understand the role of MyoG in skeletal muscle energy metabolism and also help to explore the key genes that regulate meat quality. PMID:24055422

Zhu, Lin-Na; Ren, Yang; Chen, Jing-Qing; Wang, Yi-Zhen

2013-12-15

26

Effect of feeding aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Pterocarpus marsupium (PM). In the present study, aqueous extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of PM led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 38 and 60% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body-weight was significantly increased in diabetics (p < 0.0005) vs. normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (p < 0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of PM extract. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10-fold while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls vs. controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by PM. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35,50 and 60% of the controls and PM completely corrected this alteration in PFK and only partly in HK and GK. PMID:12482025

Grover, Jagdish Kumari; Vats, Vikrant; Yadav, Satyapal

2002-12-01

27

Tyrosine metabolic enzymes from insects and mammals: a comparative perspective.  

PubMed

Differences in the metabolism of tyrosine between insects and mammals present an interesting example of molecular evolution. Both insects and mammals possess fine-tuned systems of enzymes to meet their specific demands for tyrosine metabolites; however, more homologous enzymes involved in tyrosine metabolism have emerged in many insect species. Without knowledge of modern genomics, one might suppose that mammals, which are generally more complex than insects and require tyrosine as a precursor for important catecholamine neurotransmitters and for melanin, should possess more enzymes to control tyrosine metabolism. Therefore, the question of why insects actually possess more tyrosine metabolic enzymes is quite interesting. It has long been known that insects rely heavily on tyrosine metabolism for cuticle hardening and for innate immune responses, and these evolutionary constraints are likely the key answers to this question. In terms of melanogenesis, mammals also possess a high level of regulation; yet mammalian systems possess more mechanisms for detoxification whereas insects accelerate pathways like melanogenesis and therefore must bear increased oxidative pressure. Our research group has had the opportunity to characterize the structure and function of many key proteins involved in tyrosine metabolism from both insects and mammals. In this mini review we will give a brief overview of our research on tyrosine metabolic enzymes in the scope of an evolutionary perspective of mammals in comparison to insects. PMID:23955993

Vavricka, Christopher John; Han, Qian; Mehere, Prajwalini; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

2014-02-01

28

21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.  

...2014-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862.3360 Section...Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device...

2014-04-01

29

21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862.3360 Section...Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification . A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device...

2010-04-01

30

21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862.3360 Section...Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification . A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device...

2011-04-01

31

21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862.3360 Section...Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification . A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device...

2012-04-01

32

21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862.3360 Section...Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification . A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device...

2013-04-01

33

Cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase: A key enzyme in the sucrose biosynthetic pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a ubiquitous enzyme controlling a key reaction. In non-photosynthetic tissues, it regulates the rate of gluconeogenesis. In photosynthetic tissues, two FBPase isozymes (chloroplastic and cytosolic) play key roles in carbon assimilation and metabolism. The cytosolic FBPase is one of the regulatory enzymes in the sucrose biosynthetic pathway — its activity is regulated by both fine and

Jaleh Daie

1993-01-01

34

Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment. PMID:22531028

Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

2012-01-01

35

Metaproteogenomic analysis of a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture reveals genomic organization of key enzymes in the m-xylene degradation pathway and metabolic activity of proteobacteria.  

PubMed

This study aimed to ascertain the functional and phylogenetic relationships within an m-xylene degrading sulfate-reducing enrichment culture, which had been maintained for several years in the laboratory with m-xylene as the sole source of carbon and energy. Previous studies indicated that a phylotype affiliated to the Desulfobacteraceae was the main m-xylene assimilating organism. In the present study, genes and gene products were identified by a metaproteogenomic approach using LC-MS/MS analysis of the microbial community, and 2426 peptides were identified from 576 proteins. In the metagenome of the community, gene clusters encoding enzymes involved in fumarate addition to a methyl moiety of m-xylene (nms, bss), as well as gene clusters coding for enzymes involved in modified beta-oxidation to (3-methyl)benzoyl-CoA (bns), were identified in two separate contigs. Additionally, gene clusters containing homologues to bam genes encoding benzoyl-CoA reductase (Bcr) class II, catalyzing the dearomatization of (3-methyl)benzoyl-CoA, were identified. Time-resolved protein stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) experiments using (13)C-labeled m-xylene showed that the respective gene products were highly (13)C-labeled. The present data suggested the identification of gene products that were similar to those involved in methylnaphthalene degradation even though the consortium was not capable of growing in the presence of naphthalene, methylnaphthalene or toluene as substrates. Thus, a novel branch of enzymes was found that was probably specific for anaerobic m-xylene degradation. PMID:25156802

Bozinovski, Dragana; Taubert, Martin; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; von Bergen, Martin; Vogt, Carsten; Seifert, Jana

2014-10-01

36

Composition of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich fractions and in vitro inhibitory activities against key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Polyphenolic-rich fractions obtained from three native Australian herbs: Tasmannia pepper leaf, anise myrtle and lemon myrtle were characterised with regards to their composition, antioxidant capacities and inhibitory activities against ?-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase and angiotensin I-converting enzyme, using in vitro models. Ellagic acid and derivatives were the dominant compounds of anise myrtle and lemon myrtle fractions, accompanied by flavonoids (catechin, myricetin, hesperetin, and quercetin). Tasmannia pepper leaf fraction comprised chlorogenic acid and quercetin derivatives, exhibited the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity and effectively inhibited ?-glucosidase (IC(50): 0.83 mg/ml) and pancreatic lipase (IC(50): 0.60 mg/ml). Anise myrtle and lemon myrtle fractions had pronounced ?-glucosidase-inhibitory activities (IC(50): 0.30 and 0.13 mg/ml, respectively) and were less effective against lipase. Enzyme-inhibitory activities showed various levels of correlation with the levels of total phenolics and antioxidant capacities, indicating a specificity of individual phenolic compounds present in the isolated fractions to complex with proteins. PMID:23107721

Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Konczak, Izabela

2012-09-15

37

Enzymes of glucose metabolism in Frankia sp.  

PubMed

Enzymes of glucose metabolism were assayed in crude cell extracts of Frankia strains HFPArI3 and HFPCcI2 as well as in isolated vesicle clusters from Alnus rubra root nodules. Activities of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway enzymes glucokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase were found in Frankia strain HFPArI3 and glucokinase and pyruvate kinase were found in Frankia strain HFPCcI2 and in the vesicle clusters. An NADP+-linked glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and an NAD-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were found in all of the extracts, although the role of these enzymes is unclear. No NADP+-linked 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase was found. Both dehydrogenases were inhibited by adenosine 5-triphosphate, and the apparent Km's for glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate were 6.86 X 10(-4) and 7.0 X 10(-5) M, respectively. In addition to the enzymes mentioned above, an NADP+-linked malic enzyme was detected in the pure cultures but not in the vesicle clusters. In contrast, however, the vesicle clusters had activity of an NAD-linked malic enzyme. The possibility that this enzyme resulted from contamination from plant mitochondria trapped in the vesicle clusters could not be discounted. None of the extracts showed activities of the Entner-Doudoroff enzymes or the gluconate metabolism enzymes gluconate dehydrogenase or gluconokinase. Propionate- versus trehalose-grown cultures of strain HFPArI3 showed similar activities of most enzymes except malic enzyme, which was higher in the cultures grown on the organic acid. Nitrogen-fixing cultures of strain HFPArI3 showed higher specific activities of glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases and phosphofructokinase than ammonia-grown cultures. PMID:3980434

Lopez, M F; Torrey, J G

1985-04-01

38

Acetylation of Metabolic Enzymes Coordinates Carbon Source Utilization and Metabolic Flux  

PubMed Central

Lysine acetylation regulates many eukaryotic cellular processes, but its function in prokaryotes is largely unknown. We demonstrated that central metabolism enzymes in Salmonella were acetylated extensively and differentially in response to different carbon sources, concomitantly with changes in cell growth and metabolic flux. The relative activities of key enzymes controlling the direction of glycolysis versus gluconeogenesis and the branching between citrate cycle and glyoxylate bypass were all regulated by acetylation. This modulation is mainly controlled by a pair of lysine acetyltransferase and deacetylase, whose expressions are coordinated with growth status. Reversible acetylation of metabolic enzymes ensure that cells respond environmental changes via promptly sensing cellular energy status and flexibly altering reaction rates or directions. It represents a metabolic regulatory mechanism conserved from bacteria to mammals. PMID:20167787

Wang, Qijun; Zhang, Yakun; Yang, Chen; Xiong, Hui; Lin, Yan; Yao, Jun; Li, Hong; Xie, Lu; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Yufeng; Ning, Zhi-Bin; Zeng, Rong; Xiong, Yue; Guan, Kun-Liang; Zhao, Shimin; Zhao, Guo-Ping

2014-01-01

39

Enzymes of drug metabolism during delirium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: delirium is common in ill medical patients. Several drugs and polypharmacy are recognised risk factors, yet little is known about drug metabolism in people with delirium. Objective: the aim of this study was to investigate the activities of plasma esterases (drug metabolising enzymes) in delirium. Design: this was a prospective study of delirium present at time of hospital admission

SUSAN WHITE; B. L. CALVER; VICKY NEWSWAY; R. WADE; S. PATEL; A. BAYER; M. SINEAD

2005-01-01

40

Expression of Enzymes that Metabolize Medications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. Clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result if the liver is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver.

Wotring, Virginia E.; Peters, C. P.

2012-01-01

41

Critical Enzymes Involved in Endocannabinoid Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Investigations of the pathways involved in the metabolism of endocannabinoids have grown exponentially in recent years following the discovery of cannabinoid receptors (CB) and their endogenous ligands, such as anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The in vivo biosynthesis of AEA has been shown to occur through several pathways mediated by N-acylphosphatidylethanolamide-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), a secretory PLA2 and PLC. 2-AG, a second endocannabinoid is generated through the action of selective enzymes such as phosphatidic acid phsophohydrolase, diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), phosphoinositide-specific PLC (PI-PLC) and lyso-PLC. A putative membrane transporter or facilitated diffusion is involved in the cellular uptake or release of endocannabinoids. AEA is metabolized by fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH) and 2-AG is metabolized by both FAAH and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). The author presents an integrative overview of current research on the enzymes involved in the metabolism of endocannabinoids and discusses possible therapeutic interventions for various diseases, including addiction. PMID:17346227

Basavarajappa, Balapal S.

2007-01-01

42

The enzymes of human diphosphoinositol polyphosphate metabolism.  

PubMed

Diphospho-myo-inositol polyphosphates have many roles to play, including roles in apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, the response of cells to stress, the regulation of telomere length and DNA damage repair, and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85 system that monitors phosphate levels. This review focuses on the three classes of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these compounds: inositol hexakisphosphate kinases, inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinases and diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolases. However, these enzymes have roles beyond being mere catalysts, and their interactions with other proteins have cellular consequences. Through their interactions, the three inositol hexakisphosphate kinases have roles in exocytosis, diabetes, the response to infection, and apoptosis. The two inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinases influence the cellular response to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and the migration of pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins to the plasma membrane. The five diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolases interact with ribosomal proteins and transcription factors, as well as proteins involved in membrane trafficking, exocytosis, ubiquitination and the proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Possible directions for future research aiming to determine the roles of these enzymes are highlighted. PMID:24152294

Thomas, Mark P; Potter, Barry V L

2014-01-01

43

Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation  

PubMed Central

The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates. PMID:22826120

2012-01-01

44

Thermal sensitivity of metabolic enzymes in subarctic and temperate freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature has a major impact on the physiological processes of freshwater invertebrates. Despite the endangered status of many freshwater mussel species and the potential effect of global warming on North America’s northern aquatic habitats, thermal sensitivity of the metabolic apparatus of freshwater bivalves has received little attention. By examining the thermal sensitivity of 10 key metabolic enzymes and in situ

Hélčne Doucet-Beaupré; Caroline Dubé; Sophie Breton; Hans O. Pörtner; Pierre U. Blier

2010-01-01

45

Enzyme clustering accelerates processing of intermediates through metabolic channeling.  

PubMed

We present a quantitative model to demonstrate that coclustering multiple enzymes into compact agglomerates accelerates the processing of intermediates, yielding the same efficiency benefits as direct channeling, a well-known mechanism in which enzymes are funneled between enzyme active sites through a physical tunnel. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with previously reported spacings between coclusters in mammalian cells. For direct validation, we study a metabolic branch point in Escherichia coli and experimentally confirm the model prediction that enzyme agglomerates can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch, and thus regulate steady-state flux division. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation. PMID:25262299

Castellana, Michele; Wilson, Maxwell Z; Xu, Yifan; Joshi, Preeti; Cristea, Ileana M; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Gitai, Zemer; Wingreen, Ned S

2014-10-01

46

Unraveling the toxicity mechanisms of the herbicide diclofop-methyl in rice: modulation of the activity of key enzymes involved in citrate metabolism and induction of cell membrane anion channels.  

PubMed

Residual soil concentrations of the herbicide diclofop-methyl (DM) can be toxic to other nontarget plant species, but the toxicity mechanisms at play are not fully understood. In the present study, we analyzed the toxic effect of DM on root growth and metabolism in the rice species Oryza sativa. The results show that a 48-h exposure to a trace level (5 ?g/L) of DM inhibits rice root growth by almost 70%. A 48-h exposure to 5 ?g/L DM also leads to an ?2.5-fold increase in citrate synthase (CS) activity (and CS gene transcription) and an ?2-fold decrease in the citrate lyase gene transcripts, which lead to an increase in the intracellular concentration of citrate and in citrate exudation rate. Addition of a specific inhibitor of cell membrane anion channel, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid, decreased citrate release in the culture, suggesting that DM-induced citrate loss from the cells is mediated by a specific membrane-bound channel protein. This study brings new insights into the key biochemical mechanisms leading to DM toxicity in rice. PMID:25307187

Ding, Haiyan; Lu, Haiping; Lavoie, Michel; Xie, Jun; Li, Yali; Lv, Xiaolu; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng

2014-11-01

47

[Progress in study on microbial enzymes for the metabolism of environmental refractory organic compounds].  

PubMed

With the rapid development of socialization and industrialization, more and more pollutes were produced and discharged into natural environment. It is harmful to human health and life. These pollutes included refractory degradation organic compounds like PAHs, RDX, HMX, CL-20, PCBs and alkanes and their relative substances. Various compounds exist in nature with long life span. They are the most hazardous than other organics. The impact of pollutes can be treated by microorganisms. Results showed that it is an effective way for bioremediation of these pollutes with microbial metabolism or cometabolism. A few key enzymes, mainly oxidative and reductive enzymes, connected with the first step of initial degradation. Normally, enzymes grouped with other active fraction on the cell membrane are composed of one oxidative and reductive system for substrates oxidation. The metabolic intermediates can be used with TCA by microorganisms. The pathways of metabolism and the key enzymes were summarized. The further research topics should be focused on microorganism screen and its relative enzyme, pathway and mechanism of metabolism or cometabolism for such compounds degradation, and the result was hoped for the environmental protection. PMID:20352962

Wu, Ke; Pan, Renrui; Cai, Jingmin; Liu, Bin

2009-12-01

48

Targeting protozoan parasite metabolism: glycolytic enzymes in the therapeutic crosshairs.  

PubMed

Glycolysis is an important metabolic pathway for most organisms, including protozoan parasites. Many of these primitive eukaryotes have streamlined their metabolism, favoring glycolysis for generating ATP in the glucose-rich environments in which they reside. Therefore, the enzymes involved in hexose metabolism could prove to be attractive targets for therapeutic development. This hypothesis is supported by a number of chemical and genetic validation studies. Additionally, the peculiar biochemistry of many of the components, along with limited protein sequence identity emphasizes the likelihood of developing compounds that selectively inhibit the parasite enzymes. In this review, we examine the status of target validation at the genetic and/or chemical levels from the protozoan parasites. While the proteins from some species have been interrogated to the point that well-defined lead compounds have been identified with activities against both enzyme and parasite growth, progress in other systems has to date been limited. PMID:24083603

Harris, M T; Mitchell, W G; Morris, J C

2014-01-01

49

Role of xenobiotic metabolic enzymes in cancer epidemiology.  

PubMed

The cause of the majority of cancers is poorly understood albeit multifactorial. The ultimate consequence of etiological factors where defined is an alteration within the cellular genotype, which is manifested in the cells acquiring malignant phenotype. There are several environmental carcinogens that contribute to carcinogenesis. These carcinogens are metabolized by a large number of enzymes, including the cyto-chrome P 450 group, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the uridine glucuronyl transferase (UGT) super-family, alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, sulphatases, etc. These enzymes can either inactivate carcinogens or in some cases generate reactive moieties that lead to carcinogenesis. This review summarises the available evidence regarding the role of xenobiotic metabolic enzymes and their role in cancer epidemiology. The available data and studies have identified correlates between expression of various metabolizing enzymes with risk of malignancies known to be induced by their substrates. The data may have relevance in one population but not for another for a specific malignancy and at times may be conflicting. We believe that with mature data in the future it may be possible to stratify patients by risk. PMID:19107436

Singh, Madhu S; Michael, Michael

2009-01-01

50

Enzymes of gluconate metabolism and glycolysis in Penicillium notatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the ability of Penicillium notatum to grow on sucrose, glucose, fructose and gluconate, substantial growth occurred on 2-ketogluconate and 5-ketogluconate thereby indicating a diverse sugar metabolism. Cell-free extracts contained all the enzymes of the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway and for both oxidative and non-oxidative pentose phosphate metabolism. Despite inconsistencies in results between different assay methods for the conventional Entner-Doudoroff

D. Pitt; M. J. Mosley

1985-01-01

51

Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 2; The Distribution of Selected Enzymes and Amino Acids in the Hippocampal Formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Six key metabolic enzymes plus glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as glutamate, aspartate and GABA, were measured in 11 regions of the hippocampal formation of synchronous, flight and tail suspension rats. Major differences were observed in the normal distribution patterns of each enzyme and amino acid, but no substantive effects of either microgravity or tail suspension on these patterns were clearly demonstrated.

Lowry, O. H.; Krasnov, I.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Nemeth, P. M.; McDougal, D. B., Jr.; Choksi, R.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M. Y.; Manchester, J. K.; Pusateri, M. E.

1994-01-01

52

Sensitivity Analysis of Metabolic Cascades Catalyzed by Bifunctional Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Covalent modification\\/demodification cycles are common in metabolism. When the modification and demodification steps are carried out by two independent enzymes, the degree of modification can be ultrasensitive to the total concentration of either catalyst. We recently showed that the degree of modification of a target molecule cannot exhibit ultrasensitivity to the free concentrations of effectors that decide whether a bifunctional

Fernando Ortega; Mĺns Ehrenberg; Luis Acerenza; Hans V. Westerhoff; Francesc Mas; Marta Cascante

2002-01-01

53

Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes in Mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most administered pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver and exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. Additionally, it has been previous noted that pre-exposure to small radiation doses seems to confer protection against later and larger radiation doses. This protective power of pre-exposure has been called a priming effect or radioadaptation. This study is an effort to examine the drug metabolizing effects of radioadaptation mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses.

Wotring, V. E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

2011-01-01

54

Increased enzyme secretion by 2-deoxy- d-glucose in presence of succinate by suppression of metabolic enzymes in Termitomyces clypeatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulatory mode of secretion of proteins was detected for the industrial glycosidase, cellobiase, under secreting conditions (in presence of TCA cycle intermediates like succinate etc.) in the filamentous fungus Termitomyces clypeatus. The titers of key metabolic enzymes were investigated under secreting and non-secreting conditions of growth and compared to the corresponding production of intra and extracellular levels of cellobiase. Results

Swagata Pal; Samudra Prosad Banik; Shakuntala Ghorai; Sudeshna Chowdhury; Suman Khowala

2011-01-01

55

Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes In Mice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism it is important to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. This study is an effort to examine the effects of adaptive mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses. Using procedures approved by the JSC Animal Care & Use Committee, C57 male mice were exposed to Cs-137 in groups: controls, low dose (50 mGy), high dose (6Gy) and a fourth group that received both radiation doses separated by 24 hours. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed 4 hours after their last radiation exposure. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted and purified (Absolutely RNA, Agilent). Quality of RNA samples was evaluated (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100). Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used to run RT-qPCR screening arrays for DNA Repair and Drug Metabolism (SuperArray, SABiosciences/Qiagen; BioRad Cfx96 qPCR System). Of 91 drug metabolism genes examined, expression of 7 was altered by at least one treatment condition. Genes that had elevated expression include those that metabolize promethazine and steroids (4-8-fold), many that reduce oxidation products, and one that reduces heavy metal exposure (greater than 200-fold). Of the 91 DNA repair and general metabolism genes examined, expression of 14 was altered by at least one treatment condition. These gene expression changes are likely homeostatic and could lead to development of new radioprotective countermeasures.

Wotring, Virginia E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

2010-01-01

56

Induction of rat liver drug-metabolizing enzymes by tetrachloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of tetrachloroethylene on Phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver was examined. Rats were treated orally with tetrachloroethylene daily for five days, at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg\\/kg. The higher doses (>500 mg\\/kg) of tetrachloroethylene induced the hepatic microsomal 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase and 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase activities associated with the CYP2B subfamily. 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase

N. Hanioka; H. Jinno; T. Toyo'oka; T. Nishimura; M. Ando

1995-01-01

57

Repeated oral benzene exposure alters enzymes involved in benzene metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Benzene is a known carcinogen and hematopoietic toxin in humans and experimental animals. The effect of acute, high-dose exposure to benzene on hepatic bioactivation and detoxication enzymes has been defined, while little is known about the effect of repeated, low-dose benzene exposure on these enzymes. Our objective was to determine whether repeated, oral benzene exposure alters enzymes involved in benzene metabolism. Specifically, we were concerned with cytochrome P-450-2E1, a bioactivation enzyme, and glutathione transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, two detoxifying enzymes. Female CD-1 mice were treated by gavage for 3 wk with benzene doses of 5 mg/kg (0.064 mmol/kg) or 50 mg/kg (0.646 mmol/kg) in corn oil. These doses of benzene produced 0.048 and 0.236 {mu}mol muconic acid/d, respectively. We found that repeated exposure to 50 mg benzene/kg/d decreased P-450-2E1 activity by 14% and induced glutathione transferase activity by 39% without affecting aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. These changes in enzyme activities may serve a protective role against repeated exposure to benzene. 35 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

Daiker, D.H.; Moslen, M.T.; Carr, J.B.; Ward, J.B. Jr. [Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States)

1996-08-09

58

Regulation of liver metabolism by enzyme phosphorylation during mammalian hibernation.  

PubMed

Kinetic properties of regulatory enzymes of glycolysis in liver of the mouse, Zapus hudsonius, were modified during hibernation, the probable mechanism being covalent modification. Liver glycogen phosphorylase activity was strongly depressed during both short (less than 24 h) and long (5-8 days) term hibernation, the mechanism involving a decrease in both the percentage of enzyme in the active a form and the total amount (a + b) of enzyme expressed. Phosphofructokinase showed kinetic changes (a 2.5-fold increase in Ka for fructose-2,6-P2, 4- and 3.7-fold decreases in I50 values for ATP and citrate, compared to euthermic controls) in liver of hibernators indicative of phosphorylation inactivation of the enzyme. Measured levels of fructose-2,6-P2 in liver did not change during hibernation. Changes in pyruvate kinase kinetics in liver from long term hibernators similarly indicated enzyme phosphorylation in the depressed state (Ka for fructose-1,6-P2 increased 4.4-fold, I50 for L-alanine decreased 6.3-fold). Apparent covalent modification of glycolytic enzymes during hibernation may serve two functions: depression of glycolytic activity as part of the general metabolic rate depression of hibernation, or reorganization of fuel use in the hibernating state to limit carbohydrate catabolism and promote gluconeogenesis. PMID:2948958

Storey, K B

1987-02-01

59

Elucidation of metabolic pathways from enzyme classification data.  

PubMed

The IUBMB Enzyme List is widely used by other databases as a source for avoiding ambiguity in the recognition of enzymes as catalytic entities. However, it was not designed for metabolic pathway tracing, which has become increasingly important in systems biology. A Reactions Database has been created from the material in the Enzyme List to allow reactions to be searched by substrate/product, and pathways to be traced from any selected starting/seed substrate. An extensive synonym glossary allows searches by many of the alternative names, including accepted abbreviations, by which a chemical compound may be known. This database was necessary for the development of the application Reaction Explorer ( http://www.reaction-explorer.org ), which was written in Real Studio ( http://www.realsoftware.com/realstudio/ ) to search the Reactions Database and draw metabolic pathways from reactions selected by the user. Having input the name of the starting compound (the "seed"), the user is presented with a list of all reactions containing that compound and then selects the product of interest as the next point on the ensuing graph. The pathway diagram is then generated as the process iterates. A contextual menu is provided, which allows the user: (1) to remove a compound from the graph, along with all associated links; (2) to search the reactions database again for additional reactions involving the compound; (3) to search for the compound within the Enzyme List. PMID:24218216

McDonald, Andrew G; Tipton, Keith F

2014-01-01

60

Key Building Blocks via Enzyme-Mediated Synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biocatalytic approaches to valuable building blocks in organic synthesis have emerged as an important tool in the last few years. While first applications were mainly based on hydrolases, other enzyme classes such as oxidoreductases or lyases moved into the focus of research. Nowadays, a vast number of biotransformations can be found in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries delivering fine chemicals or drugs. The mild reaction conditions, high stereo-, regio-, and chemoselectivities, and the often shortened reaction pathways lead to economical and ecological advantages of enzymatic conversions. Due to the enormous number of enzyme-mediated syntheses, the present chapter is not meant to be a complete review, but to deliver comprehensive insights into well established enzymatic systems and recent advances in the application of enzymes in natural product synthesis. Furthermore, it is focused on the most frequently used enzymes or enzyme classes not covered elsewhere in the present volume.

Fischer, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jörg

61

Enzymes To Die For: Exploiting Nucleotide Metabolizing Enzymes for Cancer Gene Therapy  

PubMed Central

Suicide gene therapy is an attractive strategy to selectively destroy cancer cells while minimizing unnecessary toxicity to normal cells. Since this idea was first introduced more than two decades ago, numerous studies have been conducted and significant developments have been made to further its application for mainstream cancer therapy. Major limitations of the suicide gene therapy strategy that have hindered its clinical application include inefficient directed delivery to cancer cells and the poor prodrug activation capacity of suicide enzymes. This review is focused on efforts that have been and are currently being pursued to improve the activity of individual suicide enzymes towards their respective prodrugs with particular attention to the application of nucleotide metabolizing enzymes in suicide cancer gene therapy. A number of protein engineering strategies have been employed and our discussion here will center on the use of mutagenesis approaches to create and evaluate nucleotide metabolizing enzymes with enhanced prodrug activation capacity and increased thermostability. Several of these studies have yielded clinically important enzyme variants that are relevant for cancer gene therapy applications because their utilization can serve to maximize cancer cell killing while minimizing the prodrug dose, thereby limiting undesirable side effects. PMID:22384805

Ardiani, Andressa; Johnson, Adam J.; Ruan, Hongmei; Sanchez-Bonilla, Marilyn; Serve, Kinta; Black, Margaret E.

2012-01-01

62

Regulation of amino acid metabolic enzymes and transporters in plants.  

PubMed

Amino acids play several critical roles in plants, from providing the building blocks of proteins to being essential metabolites interacting with many branches of metabolism. They are also important molecules that shuttle organic nitrogen through the plant. Because of this central role in nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, degradation, and transport are tightly regulated to meet demand in response to nitrogen and carbon availability. While much is known about the feedback regulation of the branched biosynthesis pathways by the amino acids themselves, the regulation mechanisms at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and protein levels remain to be identified. This review focuses mainly on the current state of our understanding of the regulation of the enzymes and transporters at the transcript level. Current results describing the effect of transcription factors and protein modifications lead to a fragmental picture that hints at multiple, complex levels of regulation that control and coordinate transport and enzyme activities. It also appears that amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, and stress signal integration can influence each other in a so-far unpredictable fashion. PMID:25114014

Pratelli, Réjane; Pilot, Guillaume

2014-10-01

63

In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Low-dose continuous infusions of (2H5)phenylalanine, (1-13C)propionate, and (1-13C)leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD.

Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (England))

1990-08-01

64

Postmortem activity of the key enzymes of glycolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activities of the rate-limiting enzymes of glycolytic pathway were measured in various areas of rat brains kept at a temperature of +25°C for various intervals after death by cervical dislocation. Hexokinase shows a substantial decline in activity over a period of 24 h, reaching 41%, 57%, 44%, and 51% of the controls in cerebellum, medulla oblongata and pons, cerebral

Antonio Pla; Loreto Lemus; Aurora Valenzuela; Enrique Villanueva

1986-01-01

65

Monitoring the metabolic status of geobacter species in contaminated groundwater by quantifying key metabolic proteins with Geobacter-specific antibodies.  

PubMed

Simple and inexpensive methods for assessing the metabolic status and bioremediation activities of subsurface microorganisms are required before bioremediation practitioners will adopt molecular diagnosis of the bioremediation community as a routine practice for guiding the development of bioremediation strategies. Quantifying gene transcripts can diagnose important aspects of microbial physiology during bioremediation but is technically challenging and does not account for the impact of translational modifications on protein abundance. An alternative strategy is to directly quantify the abundance of key proteins that might be diagnostic of physiological state. To evaluate this strategy, an antibody-based quantification approach was developed to investigate subsurface Geobacter communities. The abundance of citrate synthase corresponded with rates of metabolism of Geobacter bemidjiensis in chemostat cultures. During in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater the quantity of Geobacter citrate synthase increased with the addition of acetate to the groundwater and decreased when acetate amendments stopped. The abundance of the nitrogen-fixation protein, NifD, increased as ammonium became less available in the groundwater and then declined when ammonium concentrations increased. In a petroleum-contaminated aquifer, the abundance of BamB, an enzyme subunit involved in the anaerobic degradation of mono-aromatic compounds by Geobacter species, increased in zones in which Geobacter were expected to play an important role in aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. These results suggest that antibody-based detection of key metabolic proteins, which should be readily adaptable to standardized kits, may be a feasible method for diagnosing the metabolic state of microbial communities responsible for bioremediation, aiding in the rational design of bioremediation strategies. PMID:21551286

Yun, Jiae; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Miletto, Marzia; Lovley, Derek R

2011-07-01

66

The pharmacogenetics of drug metabolizing enzymes in the Lebanese population.  

PubMed

Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) play a major role in the metabolism and final elimination of most drugs and xenobiotics from the body. Both phase I and phase II enzymes are highly polymorphic. Most studies on the pharmacogenetics (PGx) of DMEs and its influence on interindividual variability have been conducted in Western countries. Middle Easterners, however, may have a different genetic makeup and may be exposed to different environmental factors when compared with their Western counterparts. Thus, results obtained in Western populations cannot be extrapolated to the population of the Middle East, and it is important to examine and document PGx differences and influences within the Middle Eastern population as there have been very little published data from this region. Herein, we provide an update on the genetic polymorphisms of DMEs that were studied in Lebanon and their impact on drug toxicity and efficacy. It is hoped that with more time, additional funds, and perseverance, the PGx of DMEs in Lebanon picks up and becomes closer in quantity and quality to that in the West. PMID:24413215

Ossaily, Safaa; Zgheib, Nathalie K

2014-01-01

67

Evolution of Domain Architectures and Catalytic Functions of Enzymes in Metabolic Systems  

E-print Network

Evolution of Domain Architectures and Catalytic Functions of Enzymes in Metabolic Systems Summit architectures and catalytic functions of enzymes constitute the centerpieces of a metabolic network. These types. In contrast, prokaryotic enzymes become more versatile by catalyzing multiple reactions with similar chemical

Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

68

The enzymes of biotin dependent CO2 metabolism: What structures reveal about  

E-print Network

REVIEW The enzymes of biotin dependent CO2 metabolism: What structures reveal about their reaction cofactor involved in carbon dioxide metabolism. Indeed, biotin- dependent enzymes are ubiquitous in nature. It is the ureido ring that functions as the CO2 carrier. A complete understanding of biotin-dependent enzymes

Holden, Hazel

69

The use of caffeine as a metabolic probe for human drug metabolizing enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Caffeine (CA) is metabolized extensively and at least 17 metabolites arising from primary and secondary biotransformation pathways are found in urine following CA ingestion. The enzymes responsible for the formation of most of the metabolites derived from CA have been identified.2.2. Given the near ubiquitous consumption of CA, this compound potentially constitutes a useful substrate probe for assessment of

John O. Miners; Donald J. Birkett

1996-01-01

70

Modulation of key enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and TCA cycle of the tropical freshwater fish Labeo rohita fed gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60-day experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) starch on the key\\u000a metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6\\u000a phosphatase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase), protein metabolism (aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase),\\u000a and TCA cycle (malate dehydrogenase) in Labeo rohita juveniles. In the analysis, 234 juveniles

Vikas Kumar; N. P. Sahu; A. K. Pal; Shivendra Kumar; Amit Kumar Sinha; Jayant Ranjan; Kartik Baruah

2010-01-01

71

Mercaptosuccinate Dioxygenase, a Cysteine Dioxygenase Homologue, from Variovorax paradoxus Strain B4 Is the Key Enzyme of Mercaptosuccinate Degradation.  

PubMed

The versatile thiol mercaptosuccinate has a wide range of applications, e.g. in quantum dot research or in bioimaging. Its metabolism is investigated in Variovorax paradoxus strain B4, which can utilize this compound as the sole source of carbon and sulfur. Proteomic studies of strain B4 resulted in the identification of a putative mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase, a cysteine dioxygenase homologue, possibly representing the key enzyme in the degradation of mercaptosuccinate. Therefore, the putative mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized in this study. The results clearly demonstrated that the enzyme utilizes mercaptosuccinate with concomitant consumption of oxygen. Thus, the enzyme is designated as mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase. Succinate and sulfite were verified as the final reaction products. The enzyme showed an apparent Km of 0.4 mm, and a specific activity (Vmax) of 20.0 ?mol min(-1) mg(-1) corresponding to a kcat of 7.7 s(-1). Furthermore, the enzyme was highly specific for mercaptosuccinate, no activity was observed with cysteine, dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol, and 3-mercaptopropionate. These structurally related thiols did not have an inhibitory effect either. Fe(II) could clearly be identified as metal cofactor of the mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase with a content of 0.6 mol of Fe(II)/mol of enzyme. The recently proposed hypothesis for the degradation pathway of mercaptosuccinate based on proteome analyses could be strengthened in the present study. (i) Mercaptosuccinate is first converted to sulfinosuccinate by this mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase; (ii) sulfinosuccinate is spontaneously desulfinated to succinate and sulfite; and (iii) whereas succinate enters the central metabolism, sulfite is detoxified by the previously identified putative molybdopterin oxidoreductase. PMID:25228698

Brandt, Ulrike; Schürmann, Marc; Steinbüchel, Alexander

2014-10-31

72

Comparison of the Small Molecule Metabolic Enzymes of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of the small molecule metabolism pathways in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) shows that 271 enzymes are common to both organisms. These common enzymes involve 384 gene products in E. coli and 390 in yeast, which are between one half and two thirds of the gene products of small molecule metabolism in E. coli and yeast, respectively.

Oliver Jardine; Julian Gough; Cyrus Chothia; Sarah A. Teichmann

2002-01-01

73

Development of Phase II Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes in Differentiating Murine Clara Cells  

E-print Network

disease is the leading cause of death in infants under 1 year of age (American Lung Association, 1999Development of Phase II Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes in Differentiating Murine Clara Cells Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes in Differentiating Murine Clara Cells. Fanucchi, M. V., Buckpitt, A. R

Hammock, Bruce D.

74

Evidence for key enzymatic controls on metabolism of Arctic river organic matter.  

PubMed

Permafrost thaw in the Arctic driven by climate change is mobilizing ancient terrigenous organic carbon (OC) into fluvial networks. Understanding the controls on metabolism of this OC is imperative for assessing its role with respect to climate feedbacks. In this study, we examined the effect of inorganic nutrient supply and dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition on aquatic extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) in waters draining the Kolyma River Basin (Siberia), including permafrost-derived OC. Reducing the phenolic content of the DOM pool resulted in dramatic increases in hydrolase EEAs (e.g., phosphatase activity increased >28-fold) supporting the idea that high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in DOM (e.g., plant structural tissues) inhibit enzyme synthesis or activity, limiting OC degradation. EEAs were significantly more responsive to inorganic nutrient additions only after phenolic inhibition was experimentally removed. In controlled mixtures of modern OC and thawed permafrost endmember OC sources, respiration rates per unit dissolved OC were 1.3-1.6 times higher in waters containing ancient carbon, suggesting that permafrost-derived OC was more available for microbial mineralization. In addition, waters containing ancient permafrost-derived OC supported elevated phosphatase and glucosidase activities. Based on these combined results, we propose that both composition and nutrient availability regulate DOM metabolism in Arctic aquatic ecosystems. Our empirical findings are incorporated into a mechanistic conceptual model highlighting two key enzymatic processes in the mineralization of riverine OM: (i) the role of phenol oxidase activity in reducing inhibitory phenolic compounds and (ii) the role of phosphatase in mobilizing organic P. Permafrost-derived DOM degradation was less constrained by this initial 'phenolic-OM' inhibition; thus, informing reports of high biological availability of ancient, permafrost-derived DOM with clear ramifications for its metabolism in fluvial networks and feedbacks to climate. PMID:24115585

Mann, Paul J; Sobczak, William V; Larue, Madeleine M; Bulygina, Ekaterina; Davydova, Anna; Vonk, Jorien E; Schade, John; Davydov, Sergei; Zimov, Nikita; Holmes, Robert M; Spencer, Robert G M

2014-04-01

75

Effect of Chromium(VI) Toxicity on Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism in Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.).  

PubMed

Heavy metals are the intrinsic component of the environment with both essential and nonessential types. Their excessive levels pose a threat to plant growth and yield. Also, some heavy metals are toxic to plants even at very low concentrations. The present investigation (a pot experiment) was conducted to determine the affects of varying chromium(VI) levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0?mg chromium(VI)?kg(-1) soil in the form of potassium dichromate) on the key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in clusterbean. Chromium treatment adversely affect nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate dehydrogenase in various plant organs at different growth stages as specific enzyme activity of these enzymes decreased with an increase in chromium(VI) levels from 0 to 2.0?mg chromium(VI)?kg(-1) soil and 4.0?mg chromium(VI)?kg(-1) soil was found to be lethal to clusterbean plants. In general, the enzyme activity increased with advancement of growth to reach maximum at flowering stage and thereafter decreased at grain filling stage. PMID:24744916

Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Vinod; Joshi, U N

2014-01-01

76

Effect of Chromium(VI) Toxicity on Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism in Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)  

PubMed Central

Heavy metals are the intrinsic component of the environment with both essential and nonessential types. Their excessive levels pose a threat to plant growth and yield. Also, some heavy metals are toxic to plants even at very low concentrations. The present investigation (a pot experiment) was conducted to determine the affects of varying chromium(VI) levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0?mg chromium(VI)?kg?1 soil in the form of potassium dichromate) on the key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in clusterbean. Chromium treatment adversely affect nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate dehydrogenase in various plant organs at different growth stages as specific enzyme activity of these enzymes decreased with an increase in chromium(VI) levels from 0 to 2.0?mg chromium(VI)?kg?1 soil and 4.0?mg chromium(VI)?kg?1 soil was found to be lethal to clusterbean plants. In general, the enzyme activity increased with advancement of growth to reach maximum at flowering stage and thereafter decreased at grain filling stage. PMID:24744916

Sangwan, Punesh; Joshi, U. N.

2014-01-01

77

communication between distal protein sites and the enzyme catalytic core Key feature of the catalytic cycle of TNF-{alpha} converting enzyme involves  

E-print Network

communication between distal protein sites and the enzyme catalytic core Key feature of the catalytic cycle of TNF-{alpha} converting enzyme involves Ariel Solomon, Barak Akabayov, Anatoly Frenkel.pnas.org/misc/reprints.shtml To order reprints, see: Notes: #12;Key feature of the catalytic cycle of TNF- converting enzyme involves

Frenkel, Anatoly

78

Mutations in Phosphoinositide Metabolizing Enzymes and Human Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Phosphoinositides are implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular functions. Their importance in cellular and organismal physiology is underscored by the growing number of human diseases linked to perturbation of kinases and phosphatases that catalyze interconversion from one phosphoinositide to another. Many such enzymes are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions. Here, we review diseases linked to inheritable or somatic mutations of these enzymes. Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), a membrane phospholipid, can be reversibly phosphorylated at the 3, 4, and 5 positions of the inositol ring to generate seven phosphoinositides [PI3P, PI4P, PI5P, PI(3,4)P2, PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,5)P2, and PI(3,4,5)P3] (FIGURE 1A). The importance of this metabolism in cell regulation was first established in the context of studies on stimulus-secretion coupling. It was found that many stimuli that trigger secretion also trigger enhanced turnover of PtdIns and phosphoinositides (42). Subsequently, it became clear that phospholipase C-dependent hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P2 to generate the second messenger molecules diacyl glycerol and Ins(1,4,5)P3 (IP3) is a mechanism through which many cell surface receptors, including many receptors that stimulate secretion, transduce their signals (10). Diacyl glycerol binds and regulates protein kinase C and a variety of other effectors, whereas IP3 triggers calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (10, 42). In another signal transduction pathway, PI(4,5)P2 is cleaved by phospholipase A2 to generate arachidonic acid, a precursor of many signaling molecules.

Heather J. McCrea (Yale University); Pietro De Camilli (Yale University School of Medicine)

2009-02-01

79

Induction and Regulation of the Carcinogen-Metabolizing Enzyme CYP1A1 by Marijuana Smoke and D 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a key step in the development of to- bacco-related cancers. To determine if marijuana smoke acti- vates CYP1A1, a murine hepatoma cell line expressing an in- ducible CYP1A1 gene (Hepa-1) was exposed in vitro to tar extracts prepared from either tobacco, marijuana, or placebo marijuana cigarettes. Marijuana tar induced higher levels

Michael D. Roth; Jose A. Marques-Magallanes; Michael Yuan; Weimin Sun; Donald P. Tashkin; Oliver Hankinson

80

Reference: Bid. Bull. 187: 84-98. (August, 1994) Oxygen Consumption Rates and Metabolic Enzyme  

E-print Network

Reference: Bid. Bull. 187: 84-98. (August, 1994) Oxygen Consumption Rates and Metabolic Enzyme in Krebs cycle enzyme activities. LDH activities, on the other hand, in- creased with increasing wet weight (Childress et al., 1989). In addition, we recently measured the respiratory rates and enzyme activities

Thuesen, Erik V.

81

Activities of amino acid metabolizing enzymes in the stomach and small intestine of developing rats  

E-print Network

Activities of amino acid metabolizing enzymes in the stomach and small intestine of developing rats on their roles. Most enzyme activities were low during late intrauterine life and after birth, attaining adult by a fast-growing gut. These modi- fications can be expected to induce alterations in the enzyme activity

Boyer, Edmond

82

Extraction and study of enzymes linked to malate metabolism in tree leaves  

E-print Network

Extraction and study of enzymes linked to malate metabolism in tree leaves D. Gerant, A. Citerne, C, 1984). Enzymes implicated in synthesis and catabolism of this substrate are widely distributed in the cellular compartments. If these enzymes have become well known in herbaceous plants (Macrae, 1971; Davis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

83

Molecular characterization of genes encoding enzymes of the metabolic pathways in Neocallimastix frontalis.  

E-print Network

Molecular characterization of genes encoding enzymes of the metabolic pathways in Neocallimastix. Enzyme activities leading to the formation of succinate, lactate, formate and ethanol are associated with the cytoplasmic fraction, while the enzymes leading to the formation of the main fermentation products H2, C02

Boyer, Edmond

84

Fungal colonization and enzyme-mediated metabolism of waste coal by Neosartorya fischeri strain ECCN 84.  

PubMed

Colonization and oxidative metabolism of South African low-rank discard coal by the fungal strain ECCN 84 previously isolated from a coal environment and identified as Neosartorya fischeri was investigated. Results show that waste coal supported fungal growth. Colonization of waste coal particles by N. fischeri ECCN 84 was associated with the formation of compact spherical pellets or sclerotia-like structures. Dissection of the pellets from liquid cultures revealed a nucleus of "engulfed" coal which when analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a time-dependent decline in weight percentage of elemental carbon and an increase in elemental oxygen. Proliferation of peroxisomes in hyphae attached to coal particles and increased extracellular laccase activity occurred after addition of waste coal to cultures of N. fischeri ECCN 84. These results support a role for oxidative enzyme action in the biodegradation of coal and suggest that extracellular laccase is a key component in this process. PMID:25273148

Sekhohola, Lerato Mary; Isaacs, Michelle Louise; Cowan, Ashton Keith

2014-10-01

85

PGC-1{alpha}: a key regulator of energy metabolism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} is a member of a family of transcription coactivators that plays a central role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. This makes it an inviting target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

Huiyun Liang (University of Texas Health Science Center Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies); Walter F. Ward (University of Texas Health Science Center Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies)

2006-12-01

86

flora on the expression of the key mito-chondrial enzymes, HMGCoA synthase  

E-print Network

flora on the expression of the key mito- chondrial enzymes, HMGCoA synthase and glutaminase (CV), 2, 144 or 30 days after an inoculation of a con- ventional flora (IN) or 30 days after an inoculation of a flora that produces (Clostridium paraputrificum, CP) or does not produce (Bifidobacterium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

87

Regulation of Squalene Synthase, a Key Enzyme of Sterol Biosynthesis, in Tobacco1  

PubMed Central

Squalene synthase (SS) represents a putative branch point in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway capable of diverting carbon flow specifically to the biosynthesis of sterols and, hence, is considered a potential regulatory point for sterol metabolism. For example, when plant cells grown in suspension culture are challenged with fungal elicitors, suppression of sterol biosynthesis has been correlated with a reduction in SS enzyme activity. The current study sought to correlate changes in SS enzyme activity with changes in the level of the corresponding protein and mRNA. Using an SS-specific antibody, the initial suppression of SS enzyme activity in elicitor-challenged cells was not reflected by changes in the absolute level of the corresponding polypeptide, implicating a post-translational control mechanism for this enzyme activity. In comparison, the absolute level of the SS mRNA did decrease approximately 5-fold in the elicitor-treated cells, which is suggestive of decreased transcription of the SS gene. Study of SS in intact plants was also initiated by measuring the level of SS enzyme activity, the level of the corresponding protein, and the expression of SS gene promoter-reporter gene constructs in transgenic plants. SS enzyme activity, polypeptide level, and gene expression were all localized predominately to the shoot apical meristem, with much lower levels observed in leaves and roots. These later results suggest that sterol biosynthesis is localized to the apical meristems and that apical meristems may be a source of sterols for other plant tissues. PMID:12114564

Devarenne, Timothy P.; Ghosh, Anirban; Chappell, Joe

2002-01-01

88

Modification of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats treated with alkyl sulfides.  

PubMed

Natural compounds which elevate detoxification enzymes and/or reduce activating enzymes could be considered as good candidates to protect against cancer. In this work, we studied the modulation of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats treated with dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), methylpropyl disulfide (MPDS), dipropyl sulfide (DPS), dipropyl disulfide (DPDS) and diallyl disulfide (DADS) issued from Allium species. Compounds containing methyl groups had little or no effect. Compounds with two propyl groups or two allyl groups provoked a pleiotropic response on drug-metabolizing enzymes. DPS, DPDS and DADS induced ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, methoxyresorufin O-demethylase and mostly pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase and decreased nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylase and erythromycin N-demethylase. These modifications of enzyme activities were accompanied by an increase of CYP 2B1,2 and a decrease of CYP 2E1, evidenced by immunoblotting. The same treatments stimulated some phase II enzyme activities such as glutathione transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferases. This pattern of induction and/or inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes was qualitatively similar to that elicited by the enzyme inducer, phenobarbital. The magnitude of the effects produced by DPDS was smaller than those produced by DADS and DPS. Our results suggest a possible protective effect of alkyl sulfides as well as diallyl disulfide, on the first step of carcinogenesis via the modulation of enzymes involved in carcinogen metabolism. PMID:9461037

Siess, M H; Le Bon, A M; Canivenc-Lavier, M C; Suschetet, M

1997-12-01

89

Metabolism as a key to histone deacetylase inhibition  

PubMed Central

There is growing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated in cancer and other human pathologies. Under this broad umbrella, modulators of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity have gained interest as both cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. Of the first generation, FDA-approved HDAC inhibitors to have progressed to clinical trials, vorinostat represents a “direct acting” compound with structural features suitable for docking into the HDAC pocket, whereas romidepsin can be considered a prodrug that undergoes reductive metabolism to generate the active intermediate (a zinc-binding thiol). It is now evident that other agents, including those in the human diet, can be converted by metabolism to intermediates that affect HDAC activity. Examples are cited of short-chain fatty acids, seleno-?-keto acids, small molecule thiols, mercapturic acid metabolites, indoles, and polyphenols. The findings are discussed in the context of putative endogenous HDAC inhibitors generated by intermediary metabolism (e.g. pyruvate), the yin–yang of HDAC inhibition versus HDAC activation, and the screening assays that might be most appropriate for discovery of novel HDAC inhibitors in the future. PMID:21599534

Rajendran, Praveen; Williams, David E.; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H.

2012-01-01

90

Modulation of metabolizing enzymes by bisphenol a in human and animal models.  

PubMed

Xenobiotics, such as contaminants and drugs, can be converted to potentially toxic reactive metabolites by phase 1 oxidizing enzymes. These metabolites are further detoxified by phase 2 conjugating enzymes and eliminated from cells by phase 3 transporters. Moreover, many of these xenobiotics are also able to induce or inhibit these enzymes, potentially modulating their own toxicity or that of other chemicals. The present review is focused on bisphenol A, a synthetic monomer used for many industrial applications and exhibiting xenoestrogen properties. The impact of this contaminant on all major classes of metabolizing enzymes (i.e., cytochromes P450, glutathione-S-transferases, sulfotransferases, UDP-glucuronyltransferases, and transporters) was reviewed, with a highlight on the modulation of cytochromes P450 involved in steroid metabolism. Interestingly, most of the studies reported in this review show that BPA is able to induce or inhibit metabolizing enzymes at high doses but also at doses compatible with human exposure. PMID:25142872

Quesnot, Nicolas; Bucher, Simon; Fromenty, Bernard; Robin, Marie-Anne

2014-09-15

91

Short and long-term effects of refeeding on key enzyme activities in glycolysis–gluconeogenesis in the liver of gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand metabolic adaptations during the starved-to-fed transition, the modulation of key enzyme activities in glycolysis–gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway was studied in liver of gilthead seabream. Starvation resulted in barely detectable levels of glycogen, a low liver-somatic index (LSI), a decrease in 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6P-DH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PG-DH), and an

I. Metón; F. Fernández; I. V. Baanante

2003-01-01

92

Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression in aging humans.  

EPA Science Inventory

In the presence of foreign compounds, metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver?s ability to detoxify and eliminate these xenobiotics. This is accomplished, in part, by the expression of XMEs, which metabolize xenobiotics and determine whether exposure will...

93

Consumption of enzyme resistant starch and cholesterol metabolism in normo- and hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of raw and retrograded high amylose corn starch on cholesterol metabolism in normo- as well as hypercholesterolemic rats was studied. No effect on cholesterol metabolism was observed in normocholesterolemic rats. On the contrary, in hypercholesterolemic animals plasma free and total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower when enzyme resistant starch was fed. Liver cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased in

K. Vanhoof; De Schrijver

1997-01-01

94

RESVERATROL IN HUMAN HEPATOMA HEPG2 CELLS: METABOLISM AND INDUCIBILITY OF DETOXIFYING ENZYMES  

E-print Network

1 RESVERATROL IN HUMAN HEPATOMA HEPG2 CELLS: METABOLISM AND INDUCIBILITY OF DETOXIFYING ENZYMES-Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France Running title page : Resveratrol metabolism in human liver-derived HepG2 transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. ABSTRACT trans-Resveratrol is a polyphenol present in several plant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

The Emerging Significance of Drug Transporters and Metabolizing Enzymes to Ophthalmic Drug Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Ophthalmic drugs typically achieve less than 10% ocular bioavailability. A drug applied to the surface of the eye may cross ocular–blood barriers, where it may encounter cellular transporters and metabolizing enzymes, before it is distributed to the site of action. Characterization of ocular membrane transporters, enzyme systems and their respective substrate selectivity has provided new insight into the roles

Mayssa Attar; Jie Shen

96

Evolution of the key alkaloid enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase from spermidine synthase  

PubMed Central

Putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) are the first specific enzymes of the biosynthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids. PMTs transfer a methyl group onto the diamine putrescine from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as coenzyme. PMT proteins have presumably evolved from spermidine synthases (SPDSs), which are ubiquitous enzymes of polyamine metabolism. SPDSs use decarboxylated SAM as coenzyme to transfer an aminopropyl group onto putrescine. In an attempt to identify possible and necessary steps in the evolution of PMT from SPDS, homology based modeling of Datura stramonium SPDS1 and PMT was employed to gain deeper insight in the preferred binding positions and conformations of the substrate and the alternative coenzymes. Based on predictions of amino acids responsible for the change of enzyme specificities, sites of mutagenesis were derived. PMT activity was generated in D. stramonium SPDS1 after few amino acid exchanges. Concordantly, Arabidopsis thaliana SPDS1 was mutated and yielded enzymes with both, PMT and SPDS activities. Kinetic parameters were measured for enzymatic characterization. The switch from aminopropyl to methyl transfer depends on conformational changes of the methionine part of the coenzyme in the binding cavity of the enzyme. The rapid generation of PMT activity in SPDS proteins and the wide-spread occurrence of putative products of N-methylputrescine suggest that PMT activity is present frequently in the plant kingdom. PMID:23908659

Junker, Anne; Fischer, Juliane; Sichhart, Yvonne; Brandt, Wolfgang; Drager, Birgit

2013-01-01

97

Biochemical strategies of overwintering in the gall gly larva, Eurosta solidaginis : Effect of low temperature acclimation on the activities of enzymes of intermediary metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The activities of some enzymes of intermediary metabolism, including those involved in glycerol and sorbitol synthesis, were measured in the third instar larvae of the gall fly,Eurosta solidaginis sampled during a controlled (1°C per day decrease) low temperature acclimation of the larvae from 15 to 30°C.2.Low temperature acclimation resulted in increased activities of three key enzymes of carbohydrate catabolism: phosphorylase,

Kenneth B. Storey; Janet M. Storey

1981-01-01

98

Axonal and dendritic localization of mRNAs for glycogen-metabolizing enzymes in cultured rodent neurons  

PubMed Central

Background Localization of mRNAs encoding cytoskeletal or signaling proteins to neuronal processes is known to contribute to axon growth, synaptic differentiation and plasticity. In addition, a still increasing spectrum of mRNAs has been demonstrated to be localized under different conditions and developing stages thus reflecting a highly regulated mechanism and a role of mRNA localization in a broad range of cellular processes. Results Applying fluorescence in-situ-hybridization with specific riboprobes on cultured neurons and nervous tissue sections, we investigated whether the mRNAs for two metabolic enzymes, namely glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP), the key enzymes of glycogen metabolism, may also be targeted to neuronal processes. If it were so, this might contribute to clarify the so far enigmatic role of neuronal glycogen. We found that the mRNAs for both enzymes are localized to axonal and dendritic processes in cultured lumbar spinal motoneurons, but not in cultured trigeminal neurons. In cultured cortical neurons which do not store glycogen but nevertheless express glycogen synthase, the GS mRNA is also subject to axonal and dendritic localization. In spinal motoneurons and trigeminal neurons in situ, however, the mRNAs could only be demonstrated in the neuronal somata but not in the nerves. Conclusions We could demonstrate that the mRNAs for major enzymes of neural energy metabolism can be localized to neuronal processes. The heterogeneous pattern of mRNA localization in different culture types and developmental stages stresses that mRNA localization is a versatile mechanism for the fine-tuning of cellular events. Our findings suggest that mRNA localization for enzymes of glycogen metabolism could allow adaptation to spatial and temporal energy demands in neuronal events like growth, repair and synaptic transmission. PMID:24898526

2014-01-01

99

The Influence of Genetic Polymorphisms on Population Variability in Six Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review provides variability statistics for polymorphic enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Six enzymes were evaluated: cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2D6, CYP2E1, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), paraoxonase (PON1), glutathione transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1), and N-acetyltransferases (NAT1 and NAT2). The polymorphisms were characterized with respect to (1) number and type of variants, (2) effects of polymorphisms on enzyme

Gary Ginsberg; Susan Smolenski; Patricia Neafsey; Dale Hattis; Katy Walker; Kathryn Z. Guyton; Douglas O. Johns; Babasaheb Sonawane

2009-01-01

100

Relative imbalances in the expression of estrogen-metabolizing enzymes in the breast tissue of women with breast carcinoma.  

PubMed

Estrogens are a known risk factor for breast cancer. Studies indicate that initiation of breast cancer may occur by metabolism of estrogens to form abnormally high levels of catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones, which can then react with DNA to form depurinating adducts and, subsequently, induce mutations that lead to cancer. Among the key enzymes metabolizing estrogens are two activating enzymes: cytochrome P450 (CYP)19 (aromatase), which converts androgens to estrogens, and CYP1B1, which converts estrogens predominantly to the 4-catechol estrogens that are further oxidized to catechol estrogen-3,4-quinones. Formation of the quinones is prevented by methylation of the 4-catechol estrogens by the enzyme, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). In addition, catechol estrogen quinones can be reduced back to catechol estrogens by NADPH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and/or are coupled with glutathione, preventing reaction with DNA. Thus, COMT and NQO1 are key deactivating enzymes. In this initial study, we examined whether the expression of these four critical estrogen activating/deactivating enzymes is altered in breast cancer. Control breast tissue was obtained from four women who underwent reduction mammoplasty. Breast tissues from five women with breast carcinoma, who underwent mastectomy, were used as cases. The level of expression of CYP19, CYP1B1, COMT and NQO1 mRNAs was quantified from total RNA using a real time RT-PCR method in an ABI PRISM 7700 sequence detection system. The control breast tissues showed lower expression of the activating enzymes, CYP19 and CYP1B1, and higher expression of the deactivating enzymes, COMT and NQO1, compared to the cases. In the cases, the reverse pattern was observed: greater expression of activating enzymes and lower expression of deactivating enzymes. Thus, in women with breast cancer, estrogen metabolism may be related to altered expression of multiple genes. These unbalances appear to be instrumental in causing excessive formation of catechol estrogen quinones that, by reacting with DNA, initiate the series of events leading to breast cancer. PMID:16142378

Singh, Seema; Chakravarti, Dhrubajyoti; Edney, James A; Hollins, Ronald R; Johnson, Perry J; West, William W; Higginbotham, Sheila M; Cavalieri, Ercole L; Rogan, Eleanor G

2005-10-01

101

Metaproteomic Analysis of a Chemosynthetic Hydrothermal Vent Community Reveals Insights into Key-Metabolic Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2005 researchers at the Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, Norway, discovered two active vent fields at the southwestern Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The fields harbours both low-temperature iron deposits and high-temperature white smoker vents. Distinct microbial mats were abundantly present and located in close vicinity to the hydrothermal vent sites. Characteristics of the mat environment were steep physical and chemical gradients with temperatures ranging from 10°C in the top layer to 90°C at 10 cm bsf and high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methane. The work presented here focus on the In situ community activities, and is part of an integrated strategy combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics to in-depth characterise these newly discovered hydrothermal vent communities. Extracted proteins were separated via SDS-PAGE. Peptides extracted after In-gel tryptic digest was injected into an Ultimate 3000 nanoLC system connected to a linear quadropole ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) mass spectrometer equipped with a nanoelectrospray ion source. A custom database of open reading frames (ORFs) from the combined metatranscriptome and metagenome datasets was implemented and searched against using Mascot 2.2; the IRMa tool box [1] was used in peptide validation. Validated ORFs were subjected to a Blastp search against Refseq with an E-value cut-off of 0.001. A total of 1097 proteins with ? 2 peptides were identified of which 921 gave a hit against Refseq, containing 519 unique proteins. Key enzymes of the sulfur oxidation pathway (sox) were found, which were taxonomically affiliated to Epsilonproteobacteria. In addition, this group actively expressed hydrogenases and membrane proteins involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains. Enzymes of dissimilatory sulfate-reduction (APS-reductase, AprAB and DsrA2) were found with closest hit to members of the Deltaproteobacteria. These findings indicate an internal sulfur cycle within the community. The community contained expressed enzymes of a variety of carbon metabolism pathways. Key enzymes of the reverse TCA cycle for fixation of CO2 and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for oxidation of acetyl-CoA and / or the fixation of CO2 were found. Key enzymes of aerobic and anaerobic methane-oxidation pathways were identified as well, namely particulate methane monooxygenase and methyl-Coenzyme M reductase. Various house-keeping gene-products, like cold- and heat shock proteins as well as ribosomal proteins and ATP synthases were identified. This approach has a future potential of broadening our understanding of environmental complexity and regulation in response to geochemical constraints. [1] Dupierris, V., Masselon, C., Court, M., Kieffer-Jaquinod, S., and Bruley, C. (2009) A toolbox for validation of mass spectrometry peptides identification and generation of database: IRMa. Bioinformatics 25, 1980-1981.

Steen, I.; Stokke, R.; Lanzen, A.; Pedersen, R.; Řvreĺs, L.; Urich, T.

2010-12-01

102

Health-related effects of genetic variations of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes in African Americans.  

PubMed

Alcohol metabolism involves two key enzymes-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). There are several types of ADH and ALDH, each of which may exist in several variants (i.e., isoforms) that differ in their ability to break down alcohol and its toxic metabolite acetaldehyde. The isoforms are encoded by different gene variants (i.e., alleles) whose distribution among ethnic groups differs. One variant of ADH is ADH1B, which is encoded by several alleles. An allele called ADH1 B*3 is unique to people of African descent and certain Native American tribes. This allele is associated with more rapid breakdown of alcohol, leading to a transient accumulation of acetaldehyde. African Americans carrying this allele are less likely to have a family history of alcoholism and experience a less rewarding subjective response to alcohol. Moreover, children of mothers with this allele are less vulnerable to alcohol-related birth defects. The enzyme ALDH1 also is encoded by several alleles. Two of these alleles that are found in African Americans-ALDH1 A1 *2 and ALDH1A1 *3--may be associated with a reduced risk of alcoholism. PMID:17718396

Scott, Denise M; Taylor, Robert E

2007-01-01

103

Pyruvate kinase and aspartate-glutamate carrier distributions reveal key metabolic links between neurons and glia in retina.  

PubMed

Symbiotic relationships between neurons and glia must adapt to structures, functions, and metabolic roles of the tissues they are in. We show here that Müller glia in retinas have specific enzyme deficiencies that can enhance their ability to synthesize Gln. The metabolic cost of these deficiencies is that they impair the Müller cell's ability to metabolize Glc. We show here that the cells can compensate for this deficiency by using metabolites produced by neurons. Müller glia are deficient for pyruvate kinase (PK) and for aspartate/glutamate carrier 1 (AGC1), a key component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. In contrast, photoreceptor neurons express AGC1 and the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase, which is commonly associated with aerobic glycolysis in tumors, proliferating cells, and some other cell types. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified type of metabolic relationship between neurons and glia. Müller glia compensate for their unique metabolic adaptations by using lactate and aspartate from neurons as surrogates for their missing PK and AGC1. PMID:25313047

Lindsay, Ken J; Du, Jianhai; Sloat, Stephanie R; Contreras, Laura; Linton, Jonathan D; Turner, Sally J; Sadilek, Martin; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Hurley, James B

2014-10-28

104

Glucocorticoid metabolism and reproduction: a tale of two enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within potential target cells, the actions of physiological glucocorticoids (cortisol and corticosterone) are modulated by isoforms of the enzyme 11-hydroxysteroid de- hydrogenase (11HSD). To date, two isoforms of 11HSD have been cloned: 11HSD1 acts predominantly as an NADP(H)-dependent reductase to generate active cortisol or corticosterone, and 11HSD2 is a high affinity NAD+-dependent enzyme that catalyses the enzymatic inactivation of glucocorticoids.

Anthony E. Michael; Lisa M. Thurston; Michael T. Rae

2003-01-01

105

Mutations in Phosphoinositide Metabolizing Enzymes and Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Phosphoinositides are implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular functions. Their importance in cellular and organismal physiology is underscored by the growing number of human diseases linked to perturbation of kinases and phosphatases that catalyze interconversion from one phosphoinositide to another. Many such enzymes are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions. Here, we review diseases linked to inheritable or somatic mutations of these enzymes. PMID:19196647

McCrea, Heather J.; De Camilli, Pietro

2012-01-01

106

Widespread recruitment of ancient domain structures in modern enzymes during metabolic evolution.  

PubMed

Protein domains sometime combine to form multidomain proteins and are acquired or lost in lineages of organisms. These processes are ubiquitous in modern metabolism. To sort out evolutionary patterns of domain recruitment, we developed an algorithm that derives the most plausible ancestry of an enzyme from structural and evolutionary annotations in the MANET database. We applied this algorithm to the analysis of 1,163 enzymes with structural assignments. We then counted the number of enzymes along a time series and analyzed enzyme distribution in organisms belonging to superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. The generated timelines described the evolution of modern metabolic networks and showed an early build-up of metabolic activities associated with metabolism of nucleotides, cofactors, and vitamins, followed by enzymes involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. More importantly, we find that existing domain structures were pervasively co-opted to perform more modern enzymatic tasks, either singly or in combination with other domains. This occurred differentially in lineages of the superkingdoms as the world diversified and organisms adapted to various environments. Our results highlight the important role of recruitment and domain organization in metabolic evolution. PMID:23406778

Kim, Hee Shin; Mittenthal, Jay E; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

2013-01-01

107

Predicting Metabolic Pathways of Small Molecules and Enzymes Based on Interaction Information of Chemicals and Proteins  

PubMed Central

Metabolic pathway analysis, one of the most important fields in biochemistry, is pivotal to understanding the maintenance and modulation of the functions of an organism. Good comprehension of metabolic pathways is critical to understanding the mechanisms of some fundamental biological processes. Given a small molecule or an enzyme, how may one identify the metabolic pathways in which it may participate? Answering such a question is a first important step in understanding a metabolic pathway system. By utilizing the information provided by chemical-chemical interactions, chemical-protein interactions, and protein-protein interactions, a novel method was proposed by which to allocate small molecules and enzymes to 11 major classes of metabolic pathways. A benchmark dataset consisting of 3,348 small molecules and 654 enzymes of yeast was constructed to test the method. It was observed that the first order prediction accuracy evaluated by the jackknife test was 79.56% in identifying the small molecules and enzymes in a benchmark dataset. Our method may become a useful vehicle in predicting the metabolic pathways of small molecules and enzymes, providing a basis for some further analysis of the pathway systems. PMID:23029334

Feng, Kai-Yan; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Yang

2012-01-01

108

Computational prediction of metabolism: sites, products, SAR, P450 enzyme dynamics, and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Metabolism of xenobiotics remains a central challenge for the discovery and development of drugs, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and agrochemicals. Metabolic transformations are frequently related to the incidence of toxic effects that may result from the emergence of reactive species, the systemic accumulation of metabolites, or by induction of metabolic pathways. Experimental investigation of the metabolism of small organic molecules is particularly resource demanding; hence, computational methods are of considerable interest to complement experimental approaches. This review provides a broad overview of structure- and ligand-based computational methods for the prediction of xenobiotic metabolism. Current computational approaches to address xenobiotic metabolism are discussed from three major perspectives: (i) prediction of sites of metabolism (SOMs), (ii) elucidation of potential metabolites and their chemical structures, and (iii) prediction of direct and indirect effects of xenobiotics on metabolizing enzymes, where the focus is on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of enzymes, the cardinal xenobiotics metabolizing enzymes. For each of these domains, a variety of approaches and their applications are systematically reviewed, including expert systems, data mining approaches, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), and machine learning-based methods, pharmacophore-based algorithms, shape-focused techniques, molecular interaction fields (MIFs), reactivity-focused techniques, protein-ligand docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and combinations of methods. Predictive metabolism is a developing area, and there is still enormous potential for improvement. However, it is clear that the combination of rapidly increasing amounts of available ligand- and structure-related experimental data (in particular, quantitative data) with novel and diverse simulation and modeling approaches is accelerating the development of effective tools for prediction of in vivo metabolism, which is reflected by the diverse and comprehensive data sources and methods for metabolism prediction reviewed here. This review attempts to survey the range and scope of computational methods applied to metabolism prediction and also to compare and contrast their applicability and performance. PMID:22339582

Kirchmair, Johannes; Williamson, Mark J; Tyzack, Jonathan D; Tan, Lu; Bond, Peter J; Bender, Andreas; Glen, Robert C

2012-03-26

109

Drug metabolizing enzyme activities versus genetic variances for drug of clinical pharmacogenomic relevance  

PubMed Central

Enzymes are critically important in the transportation, metabolism, and clearance of most therapeutic drugs used in clinical practice today. Many of these enzymes have significant genetic polymorphisms that affect the enzyme's rate kinetics. Regarding drug metabolism, specific polymorphisms to the cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzyme family are linked to phenotypes that describe reaction rates as "ultra", "intermediate", and "poor," as referenced to "extensive" metabolizers that are assigned to wildtype individuals. Activity scores is an alternate designation that provides more genotype-to-phenotype resolution. Understanding the relative change in enzyme activities or rate of clearance of specific drugs relative to an individual's genotypes is an important component in the interpretation of pharmacogenomic data for personalized medicine. Currently, the most relevant drug metabolizing enzymes are CYP 2D6, CYP 2C9, CYP 2C19, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Each of these enzymes is reactive to a host of different drug substrates. Pharmacogenomic tests that are in routine clinical practice include CYP 2C19 for clopidogrel, TPMT for thiopurine drugs, and UDP-1A1 for irinotecan. Other tests where there is considerable data but have not been widely implemented includes CYP 2C9 for warfarin, CYP 2D6 for tamoxifen and codeine, and CYP 2C19 for the proton pump inhibitors. PMID:21906384

2011-01-01

110

Hydrogenosome Metabolism Is the Key Target for Antiparasitic Activity of Resveratrol against Trichomonas vaginalis  

PubMed Central

Metronidazole (MDZ) and related 5-nitroimidazoles are the recommended drugs for treatment of trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. However, novel treatment options are needed, as recent reports have claimed resistance to these drugs in T. vaginalis isolates. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the in vitro effects of the natural polyphenol resveratrol (RESV) on T. vaginalis. At concentrations of between 25 and 100 ?M, RESV inhibited the in vitro growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites; doses of 25 ?M exerted a cytostatic effect, and higher doses exerted a cytotoxic effect. At these concentrations, RESV caused inhibition of the specific activity of a 120-kDa [Fe]-hydrogenase (Tvhyd). RESV did not affect Tvhyd gene expression and upregulated pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (a hydrogenosomal enzyme) gene expression only at a high dose (100 ?M). At doses of 50 to 100 ?M, RESV also caused overexpression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a protective protein found in the hydrogenosome of T. vaginalis. The results demonstrate the potential of RESV as an antiparasitic treatment for trichomoniasis and suggest that the mechanism of action involves induction of hydrogenosomal dysfunction. In view of the results, we propose hydrogenosomal metabolism as a key target in the design of novel antiparasitic drugs. PMID:23478970

Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesus

2013-01-01

111

11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases: Key enzymes in determining tissue-specific glucocorticoid effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have demonstrated that the interconversion of active and inactive glucocorticoids plays a key role in determining the specificity of the mineralocorticoid receptor and controlling local tissue glucocorticoid receptor activation. Two distinct isoforms of the enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD) have been identified. 11?-HSD1 is NADPH-dependent and at its major site of action (the liver) is a reductase. converting cortisone

Christopher R. W. Edwards; Rafn Benediktsson; Robbie S. Lindsay; Jonathan R. Seckl

1996-01-01

112

Activity of key enzymes in glucose catabolism during the growth and metacyclogenesis of Leishmania infantum  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper follows the development in the activity of the key enzymes of glycolysis and dehydro- genases of the pentose phosphate\\u000a shunt throughout the in vitro growth and metacyclogenesis of two human strains of Leishmania infantum– one visceral (VL) and the other cutaneous (CL) – together with changes in the glucose, ammonium, and proton concentrations\\u000a in the culture medium. In

Mostafa Louassini; María R. Foulquié; Rocío Benítez; F. Javier Adroher

1999-01-01

113

Effect of Photoperiod on Key Enzyme Activities of Respiration in Nectarine Buds During Dormancy Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shuguang (Prunus persica var. nectariana cv. Shuguang) nectarine was used to study effects of photoperiod on key-enzyme activities of respiration during dormancy induction. The dormancy status was determined with sprouting ability. Spectrophotometry was used to investigate activities of phosphohexose isomerase (PGI), malic dehydrogenase (MDH), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). The results revealed that short day (SD) treatment promoted dormancy induction while

Dong-mei LI; Ling LI; Yue TAN; Xiu-de CHEN; Hai-sen ZHANG; Dong-sheng GAO; Jin LI

2011-01-01

114

Experiment K-6-21. Effect of microgravity on 1) metabolic enzymes of type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers and on 2) metabolic enzymes, neutransmitter amino acids, and neurotransmitter associated enzymes in motor and somatosensory cerebral cortex. Part 1: Metabolic enzymes of individual muscle fibers; part 2: metabolic enzymes of hippocampus and spinal cord  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The individual fibers of any individual muscle vary greatly in enzyme composition, a fact which is obscured when enzyme levels of a whole muscle are measured. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the changes due to weightless on the enzyme patterns composed by the individual fibers within the flight muscles. In spite of the limitation in numbers of muscles examined, it is apparent that: (1) that the size of individual fibers (i.e., their dry weight) was reduced about a third, (2) that this loss in dry mass was accompanied by changes in the eight enzymes studied, and (3) that these changes were different for the two muscles, and different for the two enzyme groups. In the soleus muscle the absolute amounts of the three enzymes of oxidative metabolism decreased about in proportion to the dry weight loss, so that their concentration in the atrophic fibers was almost unchanged. In contrast, there was little loss among the four enzymes of glycogenolysis - glycolysis so that their concentrations were substantially increased in the atrophic fibers. In the TA muscle, these seven enzymes were affected in just the opposite direction. There appeared to be no absolute loss among the oxidative enzymes, whereas the glycogenolytic enzymes were reduced by nearly half, so that the concentrations of the first metabolic group were increased within the atrophic fibers and the concentrations of the second group were only marginally decreased. The behavior of hexokinase was exceptional in that it did not decrease in absolute terms in either type of muscle and probably increased as much as 50 percent in soleus. Thus, their was a large increase in concentration of this enzyme in the atrophied fibers of both muscles. Another clear-cut finding was the large increase in the range of activities of the glycolytic enzymes among individual fibers of TA muscles. This was due to the emergence of TA fibers with activities for enzymes of this group extending down to levels as low as those found in control soleus muscles. It would be interesting to know if this represents a transition stage, and whether with prolonged weightlessness most of the fibers would be transformed into a low glycogenolytic type.

Lowry, O.; Mcdougal, D., Jr.; Nemeth, Patti M.; Maggie, M.-Y. Chi; Pusateri, M.; Carter, J.; Manchester, J.; Norris, Beverly; Krasnov, I.

1990-01-01

115

Enzyme allocation problems in kinetic metabolic networks: optimal solutions are elementary flux modes.  

PubMed

The survival and proliferation of cells and organisms require a highly coordinated allocation of cellular resources to ensure the efficient synthesis of cellular components. In particular, the total enzymatic capacity for cellular metabolism is limited by finite resources that are shared between all enzymes, such as cytosolic space, energy expenditure for amino-acid synthesis, or micro-nutrients. While extensive work has been done to study constrained optimization problems based only on stoichiometric information, mathematical results that characterize the optimal flux in kinetic metabolic networks are still scarce. Here, we study constrained enzyme allocation problems with general kinetics, using the theory of oriented matroids. We give a rigorous proof for the fact that optimal solutions of the non-linear optimization problem are elementary flux modes. This finding has significant consequences for our understanding of optimality in metabolic networks as well as for the identification of metabolic switches and the computation of optimal flux distributions in kinetic metabolic networks. PMID:24295962

Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, Georg; Steuer, Ralf

2014-04-21

116

Polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and susceptibility to cancer.  

PubMed Central

The variation in individual responses to exogenous agents is exceptionally wide. It is because of this large diversity of responsiveness that risk factors to environmentally induced diseases have been difficult to pinpoint, particularly at low exposure levels. Opportunities now exist for studies of host factors in cancer or other diseases in which an environmental component can be presumed. Many of the studies have shown an elevated disease proneness for individuals carrying the potential at-risk alleles of metabolic genes, but a number of controversial results have also been reported. This article is an overview of the data published to date on metabolic genotypes related to individual susceptibility to cancer. PMID:10229705

Hirvonen, A

1999-01-01

117

[Effect of domestication of the silver fox on the main enzymes of serotonin metabolism and serotonin receptors].  

PubMed

In silver foxes significant alterations in the activities of basic enzymes of neurotransmitter serotonin metabolism as well as in the densities of receptors caused by selection for the absence of the aggressive defensive reaction to man were demonstrated. In the midbrain and hypothalamus of animals selected for the absence of aggressive behavior, the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase, the key enzyme of serotonin biosynthesis, was found to be remarkably higher than in animals selected for highly aggressive behavior. Domesticated animals were characterized by low activity of the main enzyme of serotonin catabolism, monoamine oxidase type A, increased Michaelis constant km, and an unchanged maximum reaction rate (Vmax). No changes in the specific binding of [3H]-ketanserin and [3H]-8-OH-DPAT in the frontal cortex of domesticated foxes were revealed; however, in the hypothalamus, the low values of Bmax for the [3H]-8-OH-DPAT specific binding were observed, indicating the decreased density of the 5-HT1A receptors. It is assumed that the transformation of a wild aggressive animal into a domesticated one taking place during directional selection is caused by hereditary alterations favored by artificial selection in the activity of the main enzymes of serotonin metabolism and serotonin receptors. PMID:9244768

Popova, N K; Kulikov, A V; Avgustinovich, D F; Vo?tenko, N N; Trut, L N

1997-03-01

118

Control of Sertoli cell metabolism by sex steroid hormones is mediated through modulation in glycolysis-related transporters and enzymes.  

PubMed

Sertoli cells (SCs) glucose metabolism is crucial for spermatogenesis since developing germ cells consume lactate produced by SCs as their main energy source. Recently, androgens and estrogens have been implicated in SCs energy metabolism modulation, although the molecular mechanisms remained undisclosed. Here, we report the effect of sex steroid hormones on key points of cultured rat SCs glycolytic pathway. We used primary cultures of immature rat SCs treated with 17?-estradiol (E2) or 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The transcript levels of glucose transporters (GLUTs), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK-1) and lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH C) were analyzed after 25 and 50 h of culture by qPCR. Protein levels of GLUTs, PFK-1, LDH and monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) after 25 and 50 h were determined by western blot and LDH activity was also assessed. Our results show that both E2 and DHT downregulated the transcript levels of PFK-1, GLUT1 and GLUT3 after 50 h. However, only DHT-treated cells presented a downregulation of LDH C transcript levels. Interestingly, the protein levels of these enzymes and transporters remained unaltered except in DHT-treated cells that presented a significant decrease on GLUT1 protein levels evidencing a possible site for the regulation of SCs glucose metabolism by androgens. Taken together, our results provide evidence that sex steroid hormones action in SCs energy metabolism is mediated through modulation in glycolysis-related transporters and enzymes, particularly at the transcriptional level. DHT decreased GLUT1 protein levels and increased LDH activity after 25 h, evidencing key points for this hormone action in the regulation of SCs metabolism. PMID:24057877

Martins, Ana D; Alves, Marco G; Simőes, Vera L; Dias, Tânia R; Rato, Luís; Moreira, Paula I; Socorro, Sílvia; Cavaco, José E; Oliveira, Pedro F

2013-12-01

119

Deep sequencing of Lotus corniculatus L. reveals key enzymes and potential transcription factors related to the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway.  

PubMed

Lotus corniculatus L. is used worldwide as a forage crop due to its abundance of secondary metabolites and its ability to grow in severe environments. Although the entire genome of L. corniculatus var. japonicus R. is being sequenced, the differences in morphology and production of secondary metabolites between these two related species have led us to investigate this variability at the genetic level, in particular the differences in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our goal is to use the resulting information to develop more valuable forage crops and medicinal materials. Here, we conducted Illumina/Solexa sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. corniculatus. We produced 26,492,952 short reads that corresponded to 2.38 gigabytes of total nucleotides. These reads were then assembled into 45,698 unigenes, of which a large number associated with secondary metabolism were annotated. In addition, we identified 2,998 unigenes based on homology with L. japonicus transcription factors (TFs) and grouped them into 55 families. Meanwhile, a comparison of four tag-based digital gene expression libraries, built from the flowers, pods, leaves, and roots, revealed distinct patterns of spatial expression of candidate unigenes in flavonoid biosynthesis. Based on these results, we identified many key enzymes from L. corniculatus which were different from reference genes of L. japonicus, and five TFs that are potential enhancers in flavonoid biosynthesis. Our results provide initial genetics resources that will be valuable in efforts to manipulate the flavonoid metabolic pathway in plants. PMID:23463169

Wang, Ying; Hua, Wenping; Wang, Jian; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Xu, Ziqin; Wang, Zhezhi

2013-04-01

120

Inhibition of hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes by imperatorin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of imperatorin on hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidases (MFO) was investigated. On acute treatment, imperatorin\\u000a (30 mg\\/kg, i.p.) caused a significant reduction in activities of hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase, hexobarbital hydroxylase\\u000a and aniline hydroxylase as well as cytochrome p-450 content in rats and mice. Kinetic studies on rat liver enzymes revealed\\u000a that imperatorin appeared to be a competitive inhibitor

Kuk Hyun Shin; Won Sick Woo

1986-01-01

121

Selenium modifies carcinogen metabolism by inhibiting enzyme induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since selenium has been found to exert a protective action against carcinogenesis in various systems, the mechanism where-by\\u000a sodium selenite inhibits DNA binding of the carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, was investigated. It was found that\\u000a selenite preferentially reduced DNA binding occurring through ananti-dihydrodiol epoxide metabolite of this carcinogen by inhibiting the induction of an enzyme system that generates this specific\\u000a reactive metabolite.

Anthony Dipple; Margaret A. Pigott; John A. Milner

1986-01-01

122

Entropy is Key to the Formation of Pentacyclic Terpenoids by Enzyme-Catalyzed Polycyclization.  

PubMed

Polycyclizations constitute a cornerstone of chemistry and biology. Multicyclic scaffolds are generated by terpene cyclase enzymes in nature through a carbocationic polycyclization cascade of a prefolded polyisoprene backbone, for which electrostatic stabilization of transient carbocationic species is believed to drive catalysis. Computational studies and site-directed mutagenesis were used to assess the contribution of entropy to the polycyclization cascade catalyzed by the triterpene cyclase from A. acidocaldarius. Our results show that entropy contributes significantly to the rate enhancement through the release of water molecules through specific channels. A single rational point mutation that results in the disruption of one of these water channels decreased the entropic contribution to catalysis by 60?kcal?mol(-1) . This work demonstrates that entropy is the key to enzyme-catalyzed polycyclizations, which are highly relevant in biology since 90?% of all natural products contain a cyclic subunit. PMID:24711227

Syrén, Per-Olof; Hammer, Stephan C; Claasen, Birgit; Hauer, Bernhard

2014-05-01

123

Metabolic flux is a determinant of the evolutionary rates of enzyme-encoding genes.  

PubMed

Relationships between evolutionary rates and gene properties on a genomic, functional, pathway, or system level are being explored to unravel the principles of the evolutionary process. In particular, functional network properties have been analyzed to recognize the constraints they may impose on the evolutionary fate of genes. Here we took as a case study the core metabolic network in human erythrocytes and we analyzed the relationship between the evolutionary rates of its genes and the metabolic flux distribution throughout it. We found that metabolic flux correlates with the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates. Genes encoding enzymes that carry high fluxes have been more constrained in their evolution, while purifying selection is more relaxed in genes encoding enzymes carrying low metabolic fluxes. These results demonstrate the importance of considering the dynamical functioning of gene networks when assessing the action of selection on system-level properties. PMID:24102646

Colombo, Martino; Laayouni, Hafid; Invergo, Brandon M; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Montanucci, Ludovica

2014-02-01

124

Metabolism of the Tricyclic Antidepressant Amitriptyline by cDNA-Expressed Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of amitriptyline was studied in vitro using cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes 1A2, 3A4, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1. CYP 2C19 was the most important enzyme with regard to the demethylation of amitriptyline, the quantitatively most important metabolic pathway. CYP 1A2, 3A4, 2C9 and CYP 2D6 also participated in the demethylation of amitriptyline. CYP 2D6 was the

Ole V. Olesen; Kristian Linnet

1997-01-01

125

FAst MEtabolizer (FAME): A rapid and accurate predictor of sites of metabolism in multiple species by endogenous enzymes.  

PubMed

FAst MEtabolizer (FAME) is a fast and accurate predictor of sites of metabolism (SoMs). It is based on a collection of random forest models trained on diverse chemical data sets of more than 20?000 molecules annotated with their experimentally determined SoMs. Using a comprehensive set of available data, FAME aims to assess metabolic processes from a holistic point of view. It is not limited to a specific enzyme family or species. Besides a global model, dedicated models are available for human, rat, and dog metabolism; specific prediction of phase I and II metabolism is also supported. FAME is able to identify at least one known SoM among the top-1, top-2, and top-3 highest ranked atom positions in up to 71%, 81%, and 87% of all cases tested, respectively. These prediction rates are comparable to or better than SoM predictors focused on specific enzyme families (such as cytochrome P450s), despite the fact that FAME uses only seven chemical descriptors. FAME covers a very broad chemical space, which together with its inter- and extrapolation power makes it applicable to a wide range of chemicals. Predictions take less than 2.5 s per molecule in batch mode on an Ultrabook. Results are visualized using Jmol, with the most likely SoMs highlighted. PMID:24219364

Kirchmair, Johannes; Williamson, Mark J; Afzal, Avid M; Tyzack, Jonathan D; Choy, Alison P K; Howlett, Andrew; Rydberg, Patrik; Glen, Robert C

2013-11-25

126

Assembly and multiple gene expression of thermophilic enzymes in Escherichia coli for in vitro metabolic engineering.  

PubMed

In vitro reconstitution of an artificial metabolic pathway is an emerging approach for the biocatalytic production of industrial chemicals. However, several enzymes have to be separately prepared (and purified) for the construction of an in vitro metabolic pathway, thereby limiting the practical applicability of this approach. In this study, genes encoding the nine thermophilic enzymes involved in a non-ATP-forming chimeric glycolytic pathway were assembled in an artificial operon and co-expressed in a single recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Gene expression levels of the thermophilic enzymes were controlled by their sequential order in the artificial operon. The specific activities of the recombinant enzymes in the cell-free extract of the multiple-gene-expression E. coli were 5.0-1,370 times higher than those in an enzyme cocktail prepared from a mixture of single-gene-expression strains, in each of which a single one of the nine thermophilic enzymes was overproduced. Heat treatment of a crude extract of the multiple-gene-expression cells led to the denaturation of indigenous proteins and one-step preparation of an in vitro synthetic pathway comprising only a limited number of thermotolerant enzymes. Coupling this in vitro pathway with other thermophilic enzymes including the H2 O-forming NADH oxidase or the malate/lactate dehydrogenase facilitated one-pot conversion of glucose to pyruvate or lactate, respectively. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 189-196. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25065559

Ninh, Pham Huynh; Honda, Kohsuke; Sakai, Takaaki; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao

2015-01-01

127

Effects of frying oil and Houttuynia cordata thunb on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of rodents  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the effects of frying oil and Houttuynia cordata Thunb (H. cordata), a vegetable traditionally consumed in Taiwan, on the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of rodents. METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet containing 0%, 2% or 5% H. cordata powder and 15% fresh soybean oil or 24-h oxidized frying oil (OFO) for 28 d respectively. The level of microsomal protein, total cytochrome 450 content (CYP450) and enzyme activities including NADPH reductase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), aniline hydroxylase (ANH), aminopyrine demethylase (AMD), and quinone reductase (QR) were determined. QR represented phase II enzymes, the rest of the enzymes tested represented phase I enzymes. RESULTS: The oxidized frying oil feeding produced a significant increase in phase I and II enzyme systems, including the content of CYP450 and microsomal protein, and the activities of NADPH reductase, EROD, PROD, ANH, AMD and QR in rats (P<0.05). In addition, the activities of EROD, ANH and AMD decreased and QR increased after feeding with H. cordata in OFO-fed group (P<0.05). The feeding with 2% H. cordata diet showed the most significant effect. CONCLUSION: The OFO diet induces phases I and II enzyme activity, and the 2% H. cordata diet resulted in a better regulation of the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system. PMID:15637750

Chen, Ya-Yen; Chen, Chiao-Ming; Chao, Pi-Yu; Chang, Tsan-Ju; Liu, Jen-Fang

2005-01-01

128

Steroidogenic Enzyme and Key Decidualization Marker Dysregulation in Endometrial Stromal Cells from Women with Versus Without Endometriosis1  

PubMed Central

Identification of mechanisms underlying endometriosis pathogenesis will facilitate understanding and treatment of infertility and pain associated with this disorder. Herein, we investigated the expression of steroidogenic pathway enzymes and key decidualization biomarkers in endometrial tissue and in eutopic endometrial stromal fibroblasts (hESFs) from women with vs. those without endometriosis, and subsequently treated in vitro with 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) or progesterone (P4). Real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry, ELISA, and radiometric aromatase activity assay were used. The results demonstrate significantly increased (14.5-fold; P = 0.037) expression of aromatase in eutopic endometrium of women with disease. In 8-Br-cAMP-treated hESF from eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis, the balance in estradiol (E2) and P4 biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes is disturbed (decreased HSD3B1 and HSD17B2, and increased HSD17B1 and aromatase), with the equilibrium being shifted towards an E2-enriched milieu. However, hESF from the same group of women treated with P4 did not demonstrate such responsiveness. Lower expression of IGFBP1 and prolactin mRNA and protein was observed in hESF from women with vs. those without endometriosis in response to 8-Br-cAMP, but not P4, suggesting a blunted response of these decidual biomarkers to activation of the PKA pathway in eutopic endometrium in women with disease. The dichotomy of 8-Br-cAMP regulation of select steroidogenic enzymes leading to an enriched E2 milieu within the endometrium and a blunted response of decidual biomarkers to this decidualizing agent of hESF from women with endometriosis suggests resistance to full decidualization of the stromal fibroblasts and mechanisms underlying implantation failure and the pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:18815356

Aghajanova, L.; Hamilton, A.; Kwintkiewicz, J.; Vo, K.C.; Giudice, L.C.

2008-01-01

129

Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was

Heather E. Kleiner; Xiaojun Xia; Junichiro Sonoda; Jun Zhang; Elizabeth Pontius; Jane Abey; Ronald M. Evans; David D. Moore; John DiGiovanni

2008-01-01

130

Cytochrome P450 enzymes from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four (CYP195A2, CYP199A2, CYP203A1, and CYP153A5) of the seven P450 enzymes, and palustrisredoxin A, a ferredoxin associated with CYP199A2, from the metabolically diverse bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris have been expressed and purified. A range of substituted benzenes, phenols, benzaldehydes, and benzoic acids was shown to bind to the four P450 enzymes. Monooxygenase activity of CYP199A2 was reconstituted with palustrisredoxin A and

Stephen G.. Bell; Nicola Hoskins; Feng Xu; Domenico Caprotti; Zihe Rao; Luet-Lok Wong

2006-01-01

131

UCLA scientists discover how key enzyme involved in aging, cancer assembles  

Cancer.gov

UCLA biochemists have mapped the structure of a key protein–RNA complex that is required for the assembly of telomerase, an enzyme important in both cancer and aging. The researchers found that a region at the end of the p65 protein that includes a flexible tail is responsible for bending telomerase's RNA backbone in order to create a scaffold for the assembly of other protein building blocks. Understanding this protein, which is found in a type of single-celled organism that lives in fresh water ponds, may help researchers predict the function of similar proteins in humans and other organisms. UCLA is home to the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.

132

Increments and Duplication Events of Enzymes and Transcription Factors Influence Metabolic and Regulatory Diversity in Prokaryotes  

PubMed Central

In this work, the content of enzymes and DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) in 794 non-redundant prokaryotic genomes was evaluated. The identification of enzymes was based on annotations deposited in the KEGG database as well as in databases of functional domains (COG and PFAM) and structural domains (Superfamily). For identifications of the TFs, hidden Markov profiles were constructed based on well-known transcriptional regulatory families. From these analyses, we obtained diverse and interesting results, such as the negative rate of incremental changes in the number of detected enzymes with respect to the genome size. On the contrary, for TFs the rate incremented as the complexity of genome increased. This inverse related performance shapes the diversity of metabolic and regulatory networks and impacts the availability of enzymes and TFs. Furthermore, the intersection of the derivatives between enzymes and TFs was identified at 9,659 genes, after this point, the regulatory complexity grows faster than metabolic complexity. In addition, TFs have a low number of duplications, in contrast to the apparent high number of duplications associated with enzymes. Despite the greater number of duplicated enzymes versus TFs, the increment by which duplicates appear is higher in TFs. A lower proportion of enzymes among archaeal genomes (22%) than in the bacterial ones (27%) was also found. This low proportion might be compensated by the interconnection between the metabolic pathways in Archaea. A similar proportion was also found for the archaeal TFs, for which the formation of regulatory complexes has been proposed. Finally, an enrichment of multifunctional enzymes in Bacteria, as a mechanism of ecological adaptation, was detected. PMID:23922780

Martínez-Núńez, Mario Alberto; Poot-Hernandez, Augusto Cesar; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

2013-01-01

133

Controls on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Enzymes: A Key Driver of In Situ Enzyme Activity Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Enzyme activities are commonly measured in lab assays at a single standard temperature, which does not provide any information\\u000a on their temperature sensitivity. Temperature is one of the primary controls on enzyme activities, yet few studies have explored\\u000a how temperature drives enzyme activities in the environment. The temperature sensitivity of enzyme activity is controlled\\u000a by the structure and conformation of

Matthew Wallenstein; Steven D. Allison; Jessica Ernakovich; J. Megan Steinweg; Robert Sinsabaugh

134

Metabolism of beclomethasone dipropionate by cytochrome P450 3A enzymes.  

PubMed

Inhaled glucocorticoids, such as beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), are the mainstay treatment of asthma. However, ? 30% of patients exhibit little to no benefit from treatment. It has been postulated that glucocorticoid resistance, or insensitivity, is attributable to individual differences in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated processes. It is possible that variations in cytochrome P450 3A enzyme-mediated metabolism of BDP may contribute to this phenomenon. This hypothesis was explored by evaluating the contributions of CYP3A4, 3A5, 3A7, and esterase enzymes in the metabolism of BDP in vitro and relating metabolism to changes in CYP3A enzyme mRNA expression via the glucocorticoid receptor in lung and liver cells. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolized BDP via hydroxylation ([M4] and [M6]) and dehydrogenation ([M5]) at similar rates; CYP3A7 did not metabolize BDP. A new metabolite [M6], formed by the combined action of esterases and CYP3A4 hydroxylation, was also characterized. To validate the results observed using microsomes and recombinant enzymes, studies were also conducted using A549 lung and DPX2 liver cells. Both liver and lung cells produced esterase-dependent metabolites [M1-M3], with [M1] correlating with CYP3A5 mRNA induction in A549 cells. Liver cells produced both hydroxylated and dehydrogenated metabolites [M4, M5, and M6], but lung cells produced only the dehydrogenated metabolite [M5]. These studies show that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolize BDP to inactive metabolites and suggest that differences in the expression or function of these enzymes in the lung and/or liver could influence BDP disposition in humans. PMID:23512537

Roberts, Jessica K; Moore, Chad D; Ward, Robert M; Yost, Garold S; Reilly, Christopher A

2013-05-01

135

Metabolism of Beclomethasone Dipropionate by Cytochrome P450 3A Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Inhaled glucocorticoids, such as beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), are the mainstay treatment of asthma. However, ?30% of patients exhibit little to no benefit from treatment. It has been postulated that glucocorticoid resistance, or insensitivity, is attributable to individual differences in glucocorticoid receptor-mediated processes. It is possible that variations in cytochrome P450 3A enzyme-mediated metabolism of BDP may contribute to this phenomenon. This hypothesis was explored by evaluating the contributions of CYP3A4, 3A5, 3A7, and esterase enzymes in the metabolism of BDP in vitro and relating metabolism to changes in CYP3A enzyme mRNA expression via the glucocorticoid receptor in lung and liver cells. CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolized BDP via hydroxylation ([M4] and [M6]) and dehydrogenation ([M5]) at similar rates; CYP3A7 did not metabolize BDP. A new metabolite [M6], formed by the combined action of esterases and CYP3A4 hydroxylation, was also characterized. To validate the results observed using microsomes and recombinant enzymes, studies were also conducted using A549 lung and DPX2 liver cells. Both liver and lung cells produced esterase-dependent metabolites [M1–M3], with [M1] correlating with CYP3A5 mRNA induction in A549 cells. Liver cells produced both hydroxylated and dehydrogenated metabolites [M4, M5, and M6], but lung cells produced only the dehydrogenated metabolite [M5]. These studies show that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 metabolize BDP to inactive metabolites and suggest that differences in the expression or function of these enzymes in the lung and/or liver could influence BDP disposition in humans. PMID:23512537

Roberts, Jessica K.; Moore, Chad D.; Ward, Robert M.; Yost, Garold S.

2013-01-01

136

In vivo co-localization of enzymes on RNA scaffolds increases metabolic production in a geometrically dependent manner  

PubMed Central

Co-localization of biochemical processes plays a key role in the directional control of metabolic fluxes toward specific products in cells. Here, we employ in vivo scaffolds made of RNA that can bind engineered proteins fused to specific RNA binding domains. This allows proteins to be co-localized on RNA scaffolds inside living Escherichia coli. We assembled a library of eight aptamers and corresponding RNA binding domains fused to partial fragments of fluorescent proteins. New scaffold designs could co-localize split green fluorescent protein fragments to produce activity as measured by cell-based fluorescence. The scaffolds consisted of either single bivalent RNAs or RNAs designed to polymerize in one or two dimensions. The new scaffolds were used to increase metabolic output from a two-enzyme pentadecane production pathway that contains a fatty aldehyde intermediate, as well as three and four enzymes in the succinate production pathway. Pentadecane synthesis depended on the geometry of enzymes on the scaffold, as determined through systematic reorientation of the acyl-ACP reductase fusion by rotation via addition of base pairs to its cognate RNA aptamer. Together, these data suggest that intra-cellular scaffolding of enzymatic reactions may enhance the direct channeling of a variety of substrates. PMID:25034694

Sachdeva, Gairik; Garg, Abhishek; Godding, David; Way, Jeffrey C.; Silver, Pamela A.

2014-01-01

137

In vivo co-localization of enzymes on RNA scaffolds increases metabolic production in a geometrically dependent manner.  

PubMed

Co-localization of biochemical processes plays a key role in the directional control of metabolic fluxes toward specific products in cells. Here, we employ in vivo scaffolds made of RNA that can bind engineered proteins fused to specific RNA binding domains. This allows proteins to be co-localized on RNA scaffolds inside living Escherichia coli. We assembled a library of eight aptamers and corresponding RNA binding domains fused to partial fragments of fluorescent proteins. New scaffold designs could co-localize split green fluorescent protein fragments to produce activity as measured by cell-based fluorescence. The scaffolds consisted of either single bivalent RNAs or RNAs designed to polymerize in one or two dimensions. The new scaffolds were used to increase metabolic output from a two-enzyme pentadecane production pathway that contains a fatty aldehyde intermediate, as well as three and four enzymes in the succinate production pathway. Pentadecane synthesis depended on the geometry of enzymes on the scaffold, as determined through systematic reorientation of the acyl-ACP reductase fusion by rotation via addition of base pairs to its cognate RNA aptamer. Together, these data suggest that intra-cellular scaffolding of enzymatic reactions may enhance the direct channeling of a variety of substrates. PMID:25034694

Sachdeva, Gairik; Garg, Abhishek; Godding, David; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

2014-01-01

138

[Metabolic/nutrition programming of the enzyme system in the offspring small intestine].  

PubMed

Protein deficiency in female rats diet during pregnancy and lactation resulted in changes of the intestine enzymes activity in posterity in early and late periods of ontogenesis. In the former period, deceleration of sucrase induction, acceleration of lactase suppression and maltase induction, and an earlier occurrence of the adult-type distribution of the intestine alkaline phosphatase, were found. At 2 to 4-month age a reduction of the latter enzyme activity was revealed in the doudenum, jejunum and ileum. The changes in the intestine enzymes activities led to a disorder in intermediary metabolism and to occurrence of "risk diseases". PMID:11195219

Timofeeva, N M

2000-11-01

139

2D SMARTCyp Reactivity-Based Site of Metabolism Prediction for Major Drug-Metabolizing Cytochrome P450 Enzymes  

E-print Network

Information ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2 are the most important drug of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 substrates with an accuracy that rivals the best and more computationally demanding-drug interactions and metabolism-dependent toxicity issues.3 Among the CYP enzymes, CYP3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2

140

Functional genomics and SNP analysis of human genes encoding proline metabolic enzymes  

PubMed Central

Proline metabolism in mammals involves two other amino acids, glutamate and ornithine, and five enzymatic activities, ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (P5CR), proline oxidase, P5C dehydrogenase, P5C synthase and ornithine-?-aminotransferase (OAT). With the exception of OAT, which catalyzes a reversible reaction, the other 4 enzymes are unidirectional, suggesting that proline metabolism is purpose-driven, tightly regulated, and compartmentalized. In addition, this tri-amino-acid system also links with three other pivotal metabolic systems, namely the TCA cycle, urea cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway. Abnormalities in proline metabolism are relevant in several diseases: six monogenic inborn errors involving metabolism and/or transport of proline and its immediate metabolites have been described. Recent advances in the Human Genome Project, in silico database mining techniques, and research in dissecting the molecular basis of proline metabolism prompted us to utilize functional genomic approaches to analyze human genes which encode proline metabolic enzymes in the context of gene structure, regulation of gene expression, mRNA variants, protein isoforms, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. PMID:18506409

Williams, D. Bart; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Khalil, Shadi; Wan, Guanghua; Valle, David

2009-01-01

141

Functional genomics and SNP analysis of human genes encoding proline metabolic enzymes.  

PubMed

Proline metabolism in mammals involves two other amino acids, glutamate and ornithine, and five enzymatic activities, Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (P5CR), proline oxidase, P5C dehydrogenase, P5C synthase and ornithine-delta-aminotransferase (OAT). With the exception of OAT, which catalyzes a reversible reaction, the other four enzymes are unidirectional, suggesting that proline metabolism is purpose-driven, tightly regulated, and compartmentalized. In addition, this tri-amino-acid system also links with three other pivotal metabolic systems, namely the TCA cycle, urea cycle, and pentose phosphate pathway. Abnormalities in proline metabolism are relevant in several diseases: six monogenic inborn errors involving metabolism and/or transport of proline and its immediate metabolites have been described. Recent advances in the Human Genome Project, in silico database mining techniques, and research in dissecting the molecular basis of proline metabolism prompted us to utilize functional genomic approaches to analyze human genes which encode proline metabolic enzymes in the context of gene structure, regulation of gene expression, mRNA variants, protein isoforms, and single nucleotide polymorphisms. PMID:18506409

Hu, Chien-An A; Bart Williams, D; Zhaorigetu, Siqin; Khalil, Shadi; Wan, Guanghua; Valle, David

2008-11-01

142

Sex-specific basal and hypoglycemic patterns of in vivo caudal dorsal vagal complex astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme protein expression.  

PubMed

Astrocytes contribute to neurometabolic stability through uptake, catabolism, and storage of glucose. These cells maintain the major brain glycogen reservoir, which is a critical fuel supply to neurons during glucose deficiency and increased brain activity. We used a combinatory approach incorporating immunocytochemistry, laser microdissection, and Western blotting to investigate the hypothesis of divergent expression of key enzymes regulating glycogen metabolism and glycolysis during in vivo normo- and/or hypoglycemia in male versus female hindbrain astrocytes. Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) levels were both enhanced in dorsal vagal complex astrocytes from vehicle-injected female versus male controls, with incremental increase in GS exceeding GP. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) diminished GS and increased glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (GSK3?) expression in both sexes, but decreased phosphoprotein phosphatase-1 (PP1) levels only in males. Astrocyte GP content was elevated by IIH in male, but not female rats. Data reveal sex-dependent sensitivity of these enzyme proteins to lactate as caudal hindbrain repletion of this energy substrate fully or incompletely reversed hypoglycemic inhibition of GS and prevented hypoglycemic augmentation of GSK3? and GP in females and males, respectively. Sex dimorphic patterns of glycogen branching and debranching enzyme protein expression were also observed. Levels of the rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme, phosphofructokinase, were unaffected by IIH with or without lactate repletion. Current data demonstrating sex-dependent basal and hypoglycemic patterns of hindbrain astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme expression imply that glycogen volume and turnover during glucose sufficiency and shortage may vary accordingly. PMID:25152463

Tamrakar, Pratistha; Shrestha, Prem; Briski, Karen P

2014-10-24

143

The reversible Hill equation: how to incorporate cooperative enzymes into metabolic models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Realistic simulation of the kinetic properties of metabolic pathways requires rate equations to be expressed in reversible form, because substrate and product elasticities are drastically different in reversible and irreversible reactions. This presents no special problem for reactions that follow reversible Michaelis-Menten kinetics, but for enzymes showing cooperative kinetics the full reversible rate equations are extremely complicated, and anyway

Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr; A. Cornish-bowden

1997-01-01

144

The reversible Hill equation: how to incorporate cooperative enzymes into metabolic models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Motivation. Realistic simulation ,of the ,kinetic properties of metabolic ,pathways requires rate equations to be expressed in reversible form, because substrate and product,elasticities are drastically different in reversible ,and irreversible reactions. This presents ,no special ,problem ,for ,reactions ,that ,follow ,reversible Michaelis–Menten kinetics, but for enzymes showing cooperative kinetics the full reversible rate equations are extremely complicated, and anyway

Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr; Athel Cornish-Bowden; J.-H. S. Hofmeyr

145

Elicitor-induced rosmarinic acid accumulation and secondary metabolism enzyme activities in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is to examine the rosmarinic acid (RA) accumulation and related secondary metabolism enzyme activities of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiacae) hairy roots in response to a biotic elicitor, yeast extract (YE) and an abiotic elicitor, Ag+. RA accumulation as well as total phenolic content of the hairy roots was increased by both elicitors, but more significantly by YE. Preceding

Qiong Yan; Ming Shi; Janet Ng; Jian Yong Wu

2006-01-01

146

Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression Through the Life Stages of the Mouse  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been ca...

147

Steroid metabolizing enzymes in pluripotential progenitor central nervous system cells: Effect of differentiation and maturation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel in vitro system which allows extensive culturing of multipotential stem cells from mouse brain has made it possible to test whether enzymes that metabolize androgens and progestagens are present in undifferentiated central nervous system progenitor cells. Embryonic day 14 striatal cells were grown in the presence of either 20 ng\\/ml of epidermal growth factor (which prevents cell differentiation),

R. C. Melcangi; P. Froelichsthal; L. Martini; A. L. Vescovi

1996-01-01

148

Acetaminophen induces xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat: Impact of a uranium chronic exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extensive use of uranium in civilian and military applications increases the risk of human chronic exposure. Uranium is a slightly radioactive heavy metal with a predominantly chemical toxicity, especially in kidney but also in liver. Few studies have previously shown some effects of uranium on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) that might disturb drug pharmacokinetic. The aim of this study was

Caroline Rouas; Maâmar Souidi; Line Grandcolas; Stephane Grison; Cedric Baudelin; Patrick Gourmelon; Marc Pallardy; Yann Gueguen

2009-01-01

149

IDENTIFICATION OF CHANGES IN XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM ENZYME EXPRESSION DURING AGING USING COMPREHENSIVE TRANSCRIPT PROFILING  

EPA Science Inventory

Aging leads to changes in the expression of enzymes and transporters important in the metabolism and fate of xenobiotics in liver, kidney and intestine. Most notable are the changes in a number of CYP and xenobiotic transporter genes regulated by the nuclear receptors PXR, CAR an...

150

Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Exogenous cannabinoids are structurally and pharmacologically diverse compounds that are widely used. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the data characterizing the potential for these compounds to act as substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes, with the aim of clarifying the significance of these properties in clinical care and drug interactions. In vitro data were identified that characterize cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) enzymes as potential significant contributors to the primary metabolism of several exogenous cannabinoids: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; CYPs 2C9, 3A4); cannabidiol (CBD; CYPs 2C19, 3A4); cannabinol (CBN; CYPs 2C9, 3A4); JWH-018 (CYPs 1A2, 2C9); and AM2201 (CYPs 1A2, 2C9). CYP-450 enzymes may also contribute to the secondary metabolism of THC, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases have been identified as capable of catalyzing both primary (CBD, CBN) and secondary (THC, JWH-018, JWH-073) cannabinoid metabolism. Clinical pharmacogenetic data further support CYP2C9 as a significant contributor to THC metabolism, and a pharmacokinetic interaction study using ketoconazole with oromucosal cannabis extract further supports CYP3A4 as a significant metabolic pathway for THC and CBD. However, the absence of interaction between CBD from oromucosal cannabis extract with omeprazole suggests a less significant role of CYP2C19 in CBD metabolism. Studies of THC, CBD, and CBN inhibition and induction of major human CYP-450 isoforms generally reflect a low risk of clinically significant drug interactions with most use, but specific human data are lacking. Smoked cannabis herb (marijuana) likely induces CYP1A2 mediated theophylline metabolism, although the role of cannabinoids specifically in eliciting this effect is questionable. PMID:24160757

Stout, Stephen M; Cimino, Nina M

2014-02-01

151

Relevance of drug metabolizing enzyme activity modulation by tea polyphenols in the inhibition of esophageal tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Tea is a popular, socially accepted, drink that is enjoyed by millions of people. A growing body of evidence suggests that moderate consumption of tea may protect against several forms of cancer. It is also known that bioactivation of precarcinogens and detoxification of ultimate carcinogens is carried out mainly by drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP). The present study investigates the effect of tea consumption on modulating CYP and phase II conjugating enzymes, and their association in the chemopreventive effect against esophageal tumorigenesis using both in vitro and in vivo techniques. Female Wistar rats were given aqueous solutions (2% w/v) of six different teas, standard green tea extract (GTE) (0.5% w/v), and dandelion tea (2% w/v) as the sole source of fluid for two weeks prior to and during the entire period of tumour induction (12 weeks). Animals were gavaged with 0.5 mg/kg N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA) twice weekly for 12 weeks for esophageal tumor induction and the activities of different CYP isoforms and phase II enzymes were determined in the liver microsomes or cytosols. GTE, green tea and Dandelion tea caused decrease in tumour multiplication, tumour size and tumour volume; however, none of these tea preparations altered tumour incidence. No appreciable changes in drug metabolizing enzyme activity were observed in the treatment groups. Thus, the modulations in the activities of CYP 1A1/ 1A2 and CYP2E enzymes, by pre-treatment with green and dandelion teas, observed in our earlier experiments, seem to be compensated by the tumor inducing agent, NMBA. The balance between phase I carcinogen-activating enzymes and phase II detoxifying enzymes could be important in determining the risk of developing chemically-induced cancer and the present study in conjunction with the previous observations suggest a possible role of drug metabolizing enzymes in the anticancer effect of tea. PMID:21801144

Maliakal, Pius; Sankpal, Umesh T; Basha, Riyaz; Maliakal, Cima; Ledford, Andrea; Wanwimolruk, Sompon

2011-09-01

152

Enzymes of glucose metabolism in carcinoma of the cervix and endometrium of the human uterus.  

PubMed Central

Twelve enzymes related to the direct oxidative and glycolytic pathways of glucose metabolism were assayed in 88 cancers of the cervix and 48 cancers of the endometrium of the human uterus, and the activities compared with those obtained from a group of control tissues. Significant increases for all but one of the enzymes studied (alpha-glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase) were found in cancer of the cervix, when compared with normal cervix epithelium. Hexokinase, phoshofructokinase, and aldolase appear to be rate-limiting in normal cervix epithelium; however, since the increase in activity of the first two in cancers was least of all the glycolytic enzymes, redundant enzyme synthesis probably occurs in the malignant cell for the enzymes catalysing reversible reactions. There was virtually no correlation between the activity of any enzyme measured in the cancer sample and histological assessments of the degree of malignancy of the tumour, or the clinical stage of the disease. All enzymes except pyruvate kinase had significantly higher activity in normal endometrium than in normal cervix epithelium, presumably reflecting the greater metabolic requirements of the former tissue. Only phosphoglucose isomerase and pyruvate kinase were significantly higher in endometrial cancer than in normal endometrium, and there were few significant differences between cancers of the cervix and of the endometrium, despite the marked differences in their tissues of origin. These results suggest the changes occur during malignant transformation to the activities of both regulatory enzymes and those catalysing reversible reactions, in a manner justifying the conclusion that the general metabolism of tumours is convergent. PMID:678439

Marshall, M. J.; Goldberg, D. M.; Neal, F. E.; Millar, D. R.

1978-01-01

153

Fructose: A Key Factor in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome are becoming leading causes of death in the world. Identifying the etiology of diabetes is key to prevention. Despite the similarity in their structures, fructose and glucose are metabolized in different ways. Uric acid, a byproduct of uncontrolled fructose metabolism is known risk factor for hypertension. In the liver, fructose bypasses the two highly regulated steps in glycolysis, glucokinase and phosphofructokinase, both of which are inhibited by increasing concentrations of their byproducts. Fructose is metabolized by fructokinase (KHK). KHK has no negative feedback system, and ATP is used for phosphorylation. This results in intracellular phosphate depletion and the rapid generation of uric acid due to activation of AMP deaminase. Uric acid, a byproduct of this reaction, has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and hypertension. We present possible mechanisms by which fructose causes insulin resistance and suggest actions based on this association that have therapeutic implications. PMID:23762544

Kim, Dong Hyun

2013-01-01

154

Regional variation in muscle metabolic enzymes in individual American shad (Alosa sapidissima)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Evaluation of the activity of metabolic enzymes is often used to asses metabolic capacity at the tissue level, but the amount of regional variability within a tissue in an individual fish of a given species is frequently unknown. The activities of four enzymes (citrate synthase (CS), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ??-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) were assayed in red and white muscle at 10 sites along the body of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Red and white muscle HOAD and white muscle CS and LDH varied significantly, generally increasing posteriorly. Maximal variation occurs in red muscle HOAD (~450%) and white muscle LDH (~60%) activity. Differences between the sexes also vary with sampling location. This study suggests that the variability in enzyme activity may be linked to functional differences in the muscle at different locations, and also provides guidelines for sample collection in this species.

Leonard, J.B.K.

1999-01-01

155

The role of leukotriene-inducing and -metabolizing enzymes in inflammation.  

PubMed

Leukotrienes are potent mediators of allergy and inflammation. Polymorphonuclear granulocytes which participate in acute and chronic disease processes can be activated by immunological and nonimmunological stimuli to generate leukotrienes. It appears that on activation of the cells 5-lipoxygenase is released into the supernatant and thus may exert a potent role with regard to interdependent cellular interactions. The release of leukotriene-metabolizing enzymes (e.g., gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, dipeptidase) is stimulus-dependent. Polymorphonuclear granulocytes alter their release profile once the cells have been prestimulated. Thus, a precise knowledge on the leukotriene-inducing and -metabolizing enzymes is of utmost importance for future immunopharmacological interventions. It appears that the enzyme activity reflects the state of cellular activation. PMID:2883130

König, W; Bremm, K D; Brom, H J; Köller, M; Knöller, J; Raulf, M; Schönfeld, W; Stüning, M

1987-01-01

156

Altered Constitutive Expression of Fatty Acid-metabolizing Enzymes in Mice Lacking the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated  

E-print Network

Altered Constitutive Expression of Fatty Acid-metabolizing Enzymes in Mice Lacking the Peroxisome University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano 390, Japan Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR of peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolizing enzymes were deter- mined in the PPAR null mouse

Omiecinski, Curtis

157

Odorant Metabolism Catalyzed by Olfactory Mucosal Enzymes Influences Peripheral Olfactory Responses in Rats  

PubMed Central

A large set of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs), such as the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), esterases and transferases, are highly expressed in mammalian olfactory mucosa (OM). These enzymes are known to catalyze the biotransformation of exogenous compounds to facilitate elimination. However, the functions of these enzymes in the olfactory epithelium are not clearly understood. In addition to protecting against inhaled toxic compounds, these enzymes could also metabolize odorant molecules, and thus modify their stimulating properties or inactivate them. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro biotransformation of odorant molecules in the rat OM and assessed the impact of this metabolism on peripheral olfactory responses. Rat OM was found to efficiently metabolize quinoline, coumarin and isoamyl acetate. Quinoline and coumarin are metabolized by CYPs whereas isoamyl acetate is hydrolyzed by carboxylesterases. Electro-olfactogram (EOG) recordings revealed that the hydroxylated metabolites derived from these odorants elicited lower olfactory response amplitudes than the parent molecules. We also observed that glucurono-conjugated derivatives induced no olfactory signal. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the local application of a CYP inhibitor on rat olfactory epithelium increased EOG responses elicited by quinoline and coumarin. Similarly, the application of a carboxylesterase inhibitor increased the EOG response elicited by isoamyl acetate. This increase in EOG amplitude provoked by XME inhibitors is likely due to enhanced olfactory sensory neuron activation in response to odorant accumulation. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that biotransformation of odorant molecules by enzymes localized to the olfactory mucosa may change the odorant’s stimulating properties and may facilitate the clearance of odorants to avoid receptor saturation. PMID:23555703

Thiebaud, Nicolas; Veloso Da Silva, Stephanie; Jakob, Ingrid; Sicard, Gilles; Chevalier, Joelle; Menetrier, Franck; Berdeaux, Olivier; Artur, Yves; Heydel, Jean-Marie; Le Bon, Anne-Marie

2013-01-01

158

Metabolic pathways of inhaled glucocorticoids by the CYP3A enzymes.  

PubMed

Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6?-hydroxylation and ?(6)-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of ?(6)-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

Moore, Chad D; Roberts, Jessica K; Orton, Christopher R; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P; Reilly, Christopher A; Ward, Robert M; Yost, Garold S

2013-02-01

159

Resveratrol Modulates Drug and Carcinogen Metabolizing Enzymes in a Healthy Volunteer Study  

PubMed Central

Resveratrol has been shown to exhibit cancer preventive activities in preclinical studies. We conducted a clinical study to determine the effect of pharmacological doses of resveratrol on drug and carcinogen metabolizing enzymes. Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent baseline assessment of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and Phase II detoxification enzymes. CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2C9, and 3A4 enzyme activities were measured by the metabolism of caffeine, dextromethorphan, losartan, and buspirone, respectively. Blood lymphocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST-? level and serum total and direct bilirubin, a surrogate for UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1 activity, were measured to assess Phase II enzymes. After the baseline evaluation, study participants took 1 gm of resveratrol once daily for 4 wks. Enzyme assessment was repeated upon intervention completion. Resveratrol intervention was found to inhibit the phenotypic indices of CYP3A4, 2D6, and 2C9, and to induce the phenotypic index of 1A2. Overall, GST and UGT1A1 activities were minimally affected by the intervention, although an induction of GST-? level and UGT1A1 activity was observed in individuals with low baseline enzyme level/activity. We conclude that resveratrol can modulate enzyme systems involved in carcinogen activation and detoxification, which may be one mechanism by which resveratrol inhibits carcinogenesis. However, pharmacological doses of resveratrol could potentially lead to increased adverse drug reactions or altered drug efficacy due to inhibition or induction of certain CYPs. Further clinical development of resveratrol for cancer prevention should consider evaluation of lower doses of resveratrol to minimize adverse metabolic drug interactions. PMID:20716633

Chow, H-H. Sherry; Garland, Linda; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Vining, Donna R.; Chew, Wade M.; Miller, Jessica A.; Perloff, Marjorie; Crowell, James A.; Alberts, David

2010-01-01

160

Identification and Functional Analysis of Delta-9 Desaturase, a Key Enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, Isolated from the Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera  

PubMed Central

Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of ?9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 ?9 desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative ?9 acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical ?9 desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these ?9 desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (?ole1). All the putative ?9 acyl-CoA desaturases showed ?9 desaturation activity for C16?0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18?0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of ?9 desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain. PMID:24039966

Muto, Masaki; Kubota, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Satoh, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

2013-01-01

161

Anaerobic degradation of homocyclic aromatic compounds via arylcarboxyl-coenzyme A esters: organisms, strategies and key enzymes.  

PubMed

Next to carbohydrates, aromatic compounds are the second most abundant class of natural organic molecules in living organic matter but also make up a significant proportion of fossil carbon sources. Only microorganisms are capable of fully mineralizing aromatic compounds. While aerobic microbes use well-studied oxygenases for the activation and cleavage of aromatic rings, anaerobic bacteria follow completely different strategies to initiate catabolism. The key enzymes related to aromatic compound degradation in anaerobic bacteria are comprised of metal- and/or flavin-containing cofactors, of which many use unprecedented radical mechanisms for C-H bond cleavage or dearomatization. Over the past decade, the increasing number of completed genomes has helped to reveal a large variety of anaerobic degradation pathways in Proteobacteria, Gram-positive microbes and in one archaeon. This review aims to update our understanding of the occurrence of aromatic degradation capabilities in anaerobic microorganisms and serves to highlight characteristic enzymatic reactions involved in (i) the anoxic oxidation of alkyl side chains attached to aromatic rings, (ii) the carboxylation of aromatic rings and (iii) the reductive dearomatization of central arylcarboxyl-coenzyme A intermediates. Depending on the redox potential of the electron acceptors used and the metabolic efficiency of the cell, different strategies may be employed for identical overall reactions. PMID:24238333

Boll, Matthias; Löffler, Claudia; Morris, Brandon E L; Kung, Johannes W

2014-03-01

162

Coevolution of amino acid residues in the key photosynthetic enzyme Rubisco  

PubMed Central

Background One of the key forces shaping proteins is coevolution of amino acid residues. Knowing which residues coevolve in a particular protein may facilitate our understanding of protein evolution, structure and function, and help to identify substitutions that may lead to desired changes in enzyme kinetics. Rubisco, the most abundant enzyme in biosphere, plays an essential role in the process of carbon fixation through photosynthesis, thus facilitating life on Earth. This makes Rubisco an important model system for studying the dynamics of protein fitness optimization on the evolutionary landscape. In this study we investigated the selective and coevolutionary forces acting on large subunit of land plants Rubisco using Markov models of codon substitution and clustering approaches applied to amino acid substitution histories. Results We found that both selection and coevolution shape Rubisco, and that positively selected and coevolving residues have their specifically favored amino acid composition and pairing preference. The mapping of these residues on the known Rubisco tertiary structures showed that the coevolving residues tend to be in closer proximity with each other compared to the background, while positively selected residues tend to be further away from each other. This study also reveals that the residues under positive selection or coevolutionary force are located within functionally important regions and that some residues are targets of both positive selection and coevolution at the same time. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that coevolution of residues is common in Rubisco of land plants and that there is an overlap between coevolving and positively selected residues. Knowledge of which Rubisco residues are coevolving and positively selected could be used for further work on structural modeling and identification of substitutions that may be changed in order to improve efficiency of this important enzyme in crops. PMID:21942934

2011-01-01

163

Catalase is a key enzyme in seed recovery from ageing during priming.  

PubMed

Ageing induces seed deterioration expressed as the loss of seed vigour and/or viability. Priming treatment, which consists in soaking of seeds in a solution of low water potential, has been shown to reinvigorate aged seeds. We investigate the importance of catalase in oxidation protection during accelerated ageing and repair during subsequent priming treatment of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. Seeds equilibrated to 0.29g H2Og(-1) dry matter (DM) were aged at 35°C for different durations and then primed by incubation for 7 days at 15°C in a solution of polyethylene glycol 8000 at -2MPa. Accelerated ageing affected seed germination and priming treatment reversed partially the ageing effect. The inhibition of catalase by the addition of aminotriazol during priming treatment reduced seed repair indicating that catalase plays a key role in protection and repair systems during ageing. Ageing was associated with H2O2 accumulation as showed by biochemical quantification and CeCl3 staining. Catalase was reduced at the level of gene expression, protein content and affinity. Interestingly, priming induced catalase synthesis by activating expression and translation of the enzyme. Immunocytolocalization of catalase showed that the enzyme co-localized with H2O2 in the cytosol. These results clearly indicate that priming induce the synthesis of catalase which is involved in seed recovery during priming. PMID:21763542

Kibinza, Serge; Bazin, Jérémie; Bailly, Christophe; Farrant, Jill M; Corbineau, Françoise; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

2011-09-01

164

Effects of lead nitrate on the activity of metabolic enzymes during early developmental stages of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate kinase (PK) are key metabolic enzymes.\\u000a G6PDH has been used as a biomarker of pollution-induced carcinogenesis in fish. LDH has been used as marker of lesions in\\u000a toxicology and clinical chemistry, and PK catalyses the conversion of phosphoenol pyruvate to pyruvate, with regeneration\\u000a of ATP. The effect of different concentrations of lead

Alaa G. M. Osman; Imam A. Mekkawy; Johan Verreth; Frank Kirschbaum

2007-01-01

165

Biological responses of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes to lead exposure in cultured H4IIE rat cells.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the constitutive response of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) to lead (Pb2+) exposure in cultured rat liver (H4IIE) cell lines. Phase I enzymes such as CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 had mRNA expressions that were slightly induced after exposure to low concentrations of Pb2+; however, under higher concentrations of Pb2+, the mRNA expressions of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were significantly down-regulated. These effects were in correspondence with AhR mRNA expression. Phase II enzymes had mRNA expressions that were reduced upon exposure to Pb2+. Metallothionein mRNA expression was induced after treatment with Pb2+ in a dose-dependent trend. In conclusion, Phase I and II enzymes were significantly modulated upon lead exposure indicating some toxicological implications for lead exposure in cultured H4IIE cells. PMID:23631153

Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2013-02-01

166

The effects of coffee on enzymes involved in metabolism of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of coffee on the metabolism and genotoxicity of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were investigated. Coffee diminished the bacterial mutagenicity of PhIP in the Ames reversion assay through inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), a key enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of PhIP. When given as part of the diet (0, 1 or 5% w\\/w) to male

Robert J. Turesky; Janique Richoz; Anne Constable; Kellie D. Curtis; Karen H. Dingley; Kenneth W. Turteltaub

2003-01-01

167

Stereochemical course, isotope effects, and enzyme inhibitor studies of glaucine metabolism in fungi  

SciTech Connect

The microbial transformation of the aporphine alkaloid glaucine by the fungi Fusarium solani (ATCC 12823) and Aspergillus flavipes (ATCC 1030) proceeds with complete substrate stereoselectivity. The fungus F. solani metabolizes only S-(+)-glaucine (1) to dehydroglaucine (3), and A. flavipes metabolizes only R-(-)-glaucine (2) to dehydroglaucine. This facile microbiological reaction is useful in the destructive resolution of racemic mixtures of glaucine, and may provide a model for producing pure enantiomers (either R or S) of other aporphines from racemic mixtures. In order to extend the reaction to other aporphines and related alkaloids, the overall stereochemical course and enzyme(s) involved in the reaction, and the substrate requirements of the enzyme were investigated. The overall stereochemical course of the transformation was examined using C-7 methyl-blocked analogs of glaucine, cis- and trans-7-methylglaucine, as substrates for the fungi. Isolation and examination of residual substrates from semi-preparative scale incubations by MS, PMR, PMR with a chiral shift reagent, OR and ORD indicated that the transformation was enantioselective in the case of A. flavipes. However, only a 10% enrichment of 6aR,7R-cis-7-methylglaucine was observed in F. solani cultures. The oxidation of glaucine can be envisioned as proceeding through one of several mechanisms, each involving a different enzyme system. Deuterium isotope, induction and enzyme inhibitor experiments helped to distinguish between the three mechanisms.

Kerr, K.M.

1986-01-01

168

Localization of enzymes relating to C4 organic acid metabolisms in the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana.  

PubMed

In the genome of the marine diatom-Thalassiosira pseudonana, there are several putative genes encoding enzymes potentially constitute a classical C4 type biochemical CO2-concentrating mechanism. Two genes encode a carboxylation enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)1 and PEPC2; and another two encode decarboxylation enzymes, NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). These genes were tagged by the enhanced-green fluorescence protein, egfp, ligated in the transformation vector, and transformed into the cells of T. pseudonana for localization of GFP fusion products. The PEPC1:GFP fusion was localized at the matrix of the periplastidal compartment, while the PEPC2:GFP fusion was localized at the mitochondria. The NAD-ME:GFP fusion was localized in the cytosol and the PEPCK:GFP fusion at the mitochondria. The transcripts level of NAD-ME was extremely low, and PEPCK transcript was significantly induced under the dark, suggesting that PEPCK is involved in the dark metabolism such as respiration and amino acid metabolism in the mitochondria. Treatments of low-CO2grown T. pseudonana cells with inhibitors for PEPCK and PEPC efficiently dissipated the maximum rate of photosynthesis while these treatments did not affect high-affinity photosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that classical C4 enzymes play little role in the CCM in T. pseudonana. PMID:24414292

Tanaka, Rie; Kikutani, Sae; Mahardika, Anggara; Matsuda, Yusuke

2014-09-01

169

PLP-dependent enzymes as entry and exit gates of sphingolipid metabolism  

PubMed Central

Sphingolipids are membrane constituents as well as signaling molecules involved in many essential cellular processes. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL), both PLP (pyridoxal 5?-phosphate)-dependent enzymes, function as entry and exit gates of the sphingolipid metabolism. SPT catalyzes the condensation of serine and a fatty acid into 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine, whereas SPL degrades sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) into phosphoethanolamine and a long-chain aldehyde. The recently solved X-ray structures of prokaryotic homologs of SPT and SPL combined with functional studies provide insight into the structure–function relationship of the two enzymes. Despite carrying out different reactions, the two enzymes reveal striking similarities in the overall fold, topology, and residues crucial for activity. Unlike their eukaryotic counterparts, bacterial SPT and SPL lack a transmembrane helix, making them targets of choice for biochemical characterization because the use of detergents can be avoided. Both human enzymes are linked to severe diseases or disorders and might therefore serve as targets for the development of therapeutics aiming at the modulation of their activity. This review gives an overview of the sphingolipid metabolism and of the available biochemical studies of prokaryotic SPT and SPL, and discusses the major similarities and differences to the corresponding eukaryotic enzymes. PMID:21710479

Bourquin, Florence; Capitani, Guido; Grutter, Markus Gerhard

2011-01-01

170

The Genes and Enzymes of Phosphonate Metabolism by Bacteria, and Their Distribution in the Marine Environment  

PubMed Central

Phosphonates are compounds that contain the chemically stable carbon–phosphorus (C–P) bond. They are widely distributed amongst more primitive life forms including many marine invertebrates and constitute a significant component of the dissolved organic phosphorus reservoir in the oceans. Virtually all biogenic C–P compounds are synthesized by a pathway in which the key step is the intramolecular rearrangement of phosphoenolpyruvate to phosphonopyruvate. However C–P bond cleavage by degradative microorganisms is catalyzed by a number of enzymes – C–P lyases, C–P hydrolases, and others of as-yet-uncharacterized mechanism. Expression of some of the pathways of phosphonate catabolism is controlled by ambient levels of inorganic P (Pi) but for others it is Pi-independent. In this report we review the enzymology of C–P bond metabolism in bacteria, and also present the results of an in silico investigation of the distribution of the genes that encode the pathways responsible, in both bacterial genomes and in marine metagenomic libraries, and their likely modes of regulation. Interrogation of currently available whole-genome bacterial sequences indicates that some 10% contain genes encoding putative pathways of phosphonate biosynthesis while ?40% encode one or more pathways of phosphonate catabolism. Analysis of metagenomic data from the global ocean survey suggests that some 10 and 30%, respectively, of bacterial genomes across the sites sampled encode these pathways. Catabolic routes involving phosphonoacetate hydrolase, C–P lyase(s), and an uncharacterized 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradative sequence were predominant, and it is likely that both substrate-inducible and Pi-repressible mechanisms are involved in their regulation. The data we present indicate the likely importance of phosphonate-P in global biogeochemical P cycling, and by extension its role in marine productivity and in carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the oceans. PMID:22303297

Villarreal-Chiu, Juan F.; Quinn, John P.; McGrath, John W.

2011-01-01

171

Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of artemisinin  

PubMed Central

Aims The study aimed to identify the specific human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of artemisinin. Methods Microsomes from human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed with individual CYP450 cDNAs were investigated for their capacity to metabolize artemisinin. The effect on artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by chemical inhibitors selective for individual forms of CYP450 was investigated. The relative contribution of individual CYP450 isoenzymes to artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes was evaluated with a tree-based regression model of artemisinin disappearance rate and specific CYP450 activities. Results The involvement of CYP2B6 in artemisinin metabolism was demonstrated by metabolism of artemisinin by recombinant CYP2B6, inhibition of artemisinin disappearance in human liver microsomes by orphenadrine (76%) and primary inclusion of CYP2B6 in the tree-based regression model. Recombinant CYP3A4 was catalytically competent in metabolizing artemisinin, although the rate was 10% of that for recombinant CYP2B6. The tree-based regression model suggested CYP3A4 to be of importance in individuals with low CYP2B6 expression. Even though ketoconazole inhibited artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by 46%, incubation with ketoconazole together with orphenadrine did not increase the inhibition of artemisinin metabolism compared to orphenadrine alone. Troleandomycin failed to inhibit artemisinin metabolism. The rate of artemisinin metabolism in recombinant CYP2A6 was 15% of that for recombinant CYP2B6. The inhibition of artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by 8-methoxypsoralen (a CYP2A6 inhibitor) was 82% but CYP2A6 activity was not included in the regression tree. Conclusions Artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes is mediated primarily by CYP2B6 with probable secondary contribution of CYP3A4 in individuals with low CYP2B6 expression. The contribution of CYP2A6 to artemisinin metabolism is likely of minor importance. PMID:10583023

Svensson, U S H; Ashton, M

1999-01-01

172

Effect of arsenic on behaviour of enzymes of sugar metabolism in germinating rice seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) is a potential contaminant of groundwater as well as soil in many parts of the world. The effects of increasing\\u000a concentration of As (25 µm and 50 µm As2O3) in the medium on the content of starch and sugars and activity levels of enzymes involved in starch and sugar metabolism\\u000a i.e. ?-amylase, ?-amylase, starch phosphorylase and acid invertase

A. B. Jha; R. S. Dubey

2005-01-01

173

Poloxamer 407-mediated alterations in the activities of enzymes regulating lipid metabolism in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Recently, the P-407-treated mouse was established as a useful animal model of hyper- lipidemia and atherosclerosis. The present study was aimed to determine whether P-407-induced hyperlipidemia in the rat is associated with alterations in the activities of enzymes responsible for lipid metabolism. Methods and Results: Rats were made hyperlipidemic by i.p. injection of 1.0 g\\/kg P-407 and blood samples

Kishor M. Wasan; Ramaswamy Subramanian; Mona Kwong; Ira J. Goldberg; Thamrah Wright; Thomas P. Johnston

174

Coordinated Changes in Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression in Aging Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain insight into the effects of aging on susceptibility to environmental toxins, we characterized the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) from the livers of male F344 and Brown Norway (BN) rats across the adult lifespan. Using full-genome Affymetrix arrays, principal component analysis showed a clear age-dependent separation between young and old animals in both rat strains.

Janice S. Lee; William O. Ward; Douglas C. Wolf; James W. Allen; Camilla Mills; Michael J. DeVito; J. Christopher Corton

2008-01-01

175

The role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during Giardia - host cell interactions in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid important in growing individuals and under non-homeostatic conditions/disease. Many pathogens interfere with arginine-utilization in host cells, especially nitric oxide (NO) production, by changing the expression of host enzymes involved in arginine metabolism. Here we used human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and three different isolates of the protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis to investigate the role of arginine and arginine-metabolizing enzymes during intestinal protozoan infections. Results RNA expression analyses of major arginine-metabolizing enzymes revealed the arginine-utilizing pathways in human IECs (differentiated Caco-2 cells) grown in vitro. Most genes were constant or down-regulated (e.g. arginase 1 and 2) upon interaction with Giardia, whereas inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) were up-regulated within 6 h of infection. Giardia was shown to suppress cytokine-induced iNOS expression, thus the parasite has both iNOS inducing and suppressive activities. Giardial arginine consumption suppresses NO production and the NO-degrading parasite protein flavohemoglobin is up-regulated in response to host NO. In addition, the secreted, arginine-consuming giardial enzyme arginine deiminase (GiADI) actively reduces T-cell proliferation in vitro. Interestingly, the effects on NO production and T cell proliferation could be reversed by addition of external arginine or citrulline. Conclusions Giardia affects the host’s arginine metabolism on many different levels. Many of the effects can be reversed by addition of arginine or citrulline, which could be a beneficial supplement in oral rehydration therapy. PMID:24228819

2013-01-01

176

Dietary chemoprevention strategies for induction of phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in lung carcinogenesis: A review  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality for men and women in the United States and is a growing worldwide problem. Protection against lung cancer is associated with higher dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, according to recent large epidemiologic studies. One strategy for lung cancer chemoprevention focuses on the use of agents to modulate the metabolism and disposition of tobacco, environmental and endogenous carcinogens through upregulation of detoxifying phase II enzymes. We summarize the substantial evidence that suggests that induction of phase II enzymes, particularly the glutathione S-transferases, plays a direct role in chemoprotection against lung carcinogenesis. The engagement of the Keap1–Nrf2 complex regulating the antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway has been identified as a key molecular target of chemopreventive phase II inducers in several systems. Monitoring of phase II enzyme induction has led to identification of novel chemopreventive agents such as the isothiocyanate sulforaphane, and the 1,2-dithiole-3-thiones. However, no agents have yet demonstrated clear benefit in human cell systems, or in clinical trials. Alternative strategies include: (a) using intermediate cancer biomarkers for the endpoint in human trials; (b) high-throughput small molecule discovery approaches for induced expression of human phase II genes; and (c) integrative approaches that consider pharmacogenetics, along with pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in target lung tissue. These approaches may lead to a more effective strategy of tailored chemoprevention efforts using compounds with proven human activity. PMID:19185948

Tan, Xiang-Lin; Spivack, Simon D.

2013-01-01

177

Genes, Enzymes, and Regulation of para-Cresol Metabolism in Geobacter metallireducens? †  

PubMed Central

In aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the degradation of para-cresol (p-cresol) involves the initial hydroxylation to p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol by water catalyzed by the soluble, periplasmatic flavocytochrome p-cresol methylhydroxylase (PCMH; ?2?2 composition). In denitrifying bacteria the further metabolism proceeds via oxidation to p-hydroxybenzoate, the formation of p-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), and the subsequent dehydroxylation of the latter to benzoyl-CoA by reduction. In contrast, the strictly anaerobic Desulfobacterium cetonicum degrades p-cresol by addition to fumarate, yielding p-hydroxybenzylsuccinate. In this work, in vitro enzyme activity measurements revealed that the obligately anaerobic Geobacter metallireducens uses the p-cresol degradation pathway of denitrifying bacteria. Surprisingly, PCMH, which is supposed to catalyze both p-cresol hydroxylation and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation to the corresponding aldehyde, was located in the membrane fraction. The ? subunit of the enzyme was present in two isoforms, suggesting an ????2 composition. We propose that the unusual asymmetric architecture and the membrane association of PCMH might be important for alternative electron transfer routes to either cytochrome c (in the case of p-cresol oxidation) or to menaquinone (in the case of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation). Unusual properties of further enzymes of p-cresol metabolism, p-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase, and p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase were identified and are discussed. A proteomic approach identified a gene cluster comprising most of the putative structural genes for enzymes involved in p-cresol metabolism (pcm genes). Reverse transcription-PCR studies revealed a different regulation of transcription of pcm genes and the corresponding enzyme activities, suggesting the presence of posttranscriptional regulatory elements. PMID:17449613

Peters, Franziska; Heintz, Dimitri; Johannes, Jorg; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Boll, Matthias

2007-01-01

178

Effect of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether on hepatic metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Glycol ethers have been extensively used in industry over the past 40-50 years. Numerous studies on the toxicity of glycol ethers have been performed, however, the effects of glycol ethers on the hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes are still unknown. We studied the changes of the putative metabolic enzymes, that is, the hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system and cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, by the oral administration of diEGME and EGME. Adult male Wistar rats were used. DiEGME was administered orally; 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days and EGME was 100, 300 mg/kg for 1, 2, 5 or 20 days. Decreases in liver weights were produced by highest doses of diEGME (2000 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days) and EGME (300 mg/kg body wt/day for 20 days). DiEGME increased hepatic microsomal protein contents and induced cytochrome P-450, but not cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was not affected by diEGME administration. On the other hand, EGME did not change cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5 or NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. The activity of cytosolic ADH was increased by repeated EGME treatment. Therefore it is suspected that the enzyme which takes part in the metabolism of diEGME is different from that of EGME, although diEGME is a structural homologue of EGME. PMID:2389243

Kawamoto, T; Matsuno, K; Kayama, F; Hirai, M; Arashidani, K; Yoshikawa, M; Kodama, Y

1990-06-01

179

Diurnal Changes in the Transcriptome Encoding Enzymes of Starch Metabolism Provide Evidence for Both Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis Leaves1  

PubMed Central

To gain insight into the synthesis and functions of enzymes of starch metabolism in leaves of Arabidopsis L. Heynth, Affymetrix microarrays were used to analyze the transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. Under the conditions employed, transitory leaf starch is degraded progressively during a 12-h dark period, and then accumulates during the following 12-h light period. Transcripts encoding enzymes of starch synthesis changed relatively little in amount over 24 h except for two starch synthases, granule bound starch synthase and starch synthase II, which increased appreciably during the transition from dark to light. The increase in RNA encoding granule-bound starch synthase may reflect the extensive destruction of starch granules in the dark. Transcripts encoding several enzymes putatively involved in starch breakdown showed a coordinated decline in the dark followed by rapid accumulation in the light. Despite marked changes in their transcript levels, the amounts of some enzymes of starch metabolism do not change appreciably through the diurnal cycle. Posttranscriptional regulation is essential in the maintenance of amounts of enzymes and the control of their activities in vivo. Even though the relationships between transcript levels, enzyme activity, and diurnal metabolism of starch metabolism are complex, the presence of some distinctive diurnal patterns of transcripts for enzymes known to be involved in starch metabolism facilitates the identification of other proteins that may participate in this process. PMID:15347792

Smith, Steven M.; Fulton, Daniel C.; Chia, Tansy; Thorneycroft, David; Chapple, Andrew; Dunstan, Hannah; Hylton, Christopher; Zeeman, Samuel C.; Smith, Alison M.

2004-01-01

180

Diurnal Changes in the Transcriptome Encoding Enzymes of Starch Metabolism Provide Evidence for Both Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Starch Metabolism in Arabidopsis Leaves1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain insight into the synthesis and functions of enzymes of starch metabolism in leaves of Arabidopsis L. Heynth, Affymetrix microarrays were used to analyze the transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. Under the conditions employed, transitory leaf starch is degraded progressively during a 12-h dark period, and then accumulates during the following 12-h light period. Transcripts encoding enzymes of starch

Steven M. Smith; Daniel C. Fulton; Tansy Chia; David Thorneycroft; Andrew Chapple; Hannah Dunstan; Christopher Hylton; Samuel C. Zeeman; Alison M. Smith

181

Gene expression of regulatory enzymes involved in the intermediate metabolism of sheep subjected to feed restriction.  

PubMed

The effect of feed restriction on gene expression of regulatory enzymes of intermediary metabolism was studied in two sheep breeds (Australian Merino and Dorper) subjected to two nutritional treatments: feed restriction (85% of daily maintenance requirements) and control (ad libitum feeding), during 42 days. The experimental animals (ram lambs) were divided into four groups, n = 5 (Australian Merino control (MC), Australian Merino Restriction (MR), Dorper control (DC) and Dorper Restriction (DR)). After the trial, animals were sacrificed and samples were taken from liver tissue to quantify glucose levels and gene expression of relevant intermediary metabolism enzymes (phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glycogen synthase (GS), fatty acid synthase (FAS), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPS)) through real-time PCR. During the experimental period, the MR animals lost 12.6% in BW compared with 5.3% lost by the Dorper lambs. MC and DC rams gained, respectively, 8.8% and 14% during the same period. Within the Dorper breed, restricted feed animals revealed a significant decrease over controls in the transcription of PFK (1.95-fold) and PK (2.26-fold), both glycolytic enzymes. The gluconeogenesis showed no change in the feed restricted animals of both breeds. DR feed group presented a significant decrease over the homologous Merino sheep group on GS. In both experimental breeds, FAS mRNA expression was decreased in restricted feed groups. GDH expression was decreased only in the DR animals (1.84-fold) indicating a reduced catabolism of amino acids in these animals. Finally, CPS was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the Dorper sheep, indicating a facilitated urea synthesis in this breed. These results indicate a better adaptation of metabolic intermediate regulatory enzymes and hepatic glucose production of Dorper sheep to feed restriction concurring with the BW results in the experimental groups. PMID:23031388

van Harten, S; Brito, R; Almeida, A M; Scanlon, T; Kilminster, T; Milton, J; Greeff, J; Oldham, C; Cardoso, L A

2013-03-01

182

Model of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate metabolism in the human erythrocyte based on detailed enzyme kinetic equations: equations and parameter refinement.  

PubMed Central

Over the last 25 years, several mathematical models of erythrocyte metabolism have been developed. Although these models have identified the key features in the regulation and control of erythrocyte metabolism, many important aspects remain unexplained. In particular, none of these models have satisfactorily accounted for 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) metabolism. 2,3-BPG is an important modulator of haemoglobin oxygen affinity, and hence an understanding of the regulation of 2,3-BPG concentration is important for understanding blood oxygen transport. A detailed, comprehensive, and hence realistic mathematical model of erythrocyte metabolism is presented that can explain the regulation and control of 2,3-BPG concentration and turnover. The model is restricted to the core metabolic pathways, namely glycolysis, the 2,3-BPG shunt and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and includes membrane transport of metabolites, the binding of metabolites to haemoglobin and Mg(2+), as well as pH effects on key enzymic reactions and binding processes. The model is necessarily complex, since it is intended to describe the regulation and control of 2,3-BPG metabolism under a wide variety of physiological and experimental conditions. In addition, since H(+) and blood oxygen tension are important external effectors of 2,3-BPG concentration, it was important that the model take into account the large array of kinetic and binding phenomena that result from changes in these effectors. Through an iterative loop of experimental and simulation analysis many values of enzyme-kinetic parameters of the model were refined to yield close conformity between model simulations and 'real' experimental data. This iterative process enabled a single set of parameters to be found which described well the metabolic behaviour of the erythrocyte under a wide variety of conditions. PMID:10477269

Mulquiney, P J; Kuchel, P W

1999-01-01

183

Carbohydrate metabolism in Archaea: current insights into unusual enzymes and pathways and their regulation.  

PubMed

The metabolism of Archaea, the third domain of life, resembles in its complexity those of Bacteria and lower Eukarya. However, this metabolic complexity in Archaea is accompanied by the absence of many "classical" pathways, particularly in central carbohydrate metabolism. Instead, Archaea are characterized by the presence of unique, modified variants of classical pathways such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is only partly present (if at all), and pentose degradation also significantly differs from that known for bacterial model organisms. These modifications are accompanied by the invention of "new," unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric regulation sites well established in Bacteria and Eukarya are lost. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of central carbohydrate metabolic pathways and their regulation in Archaea. In order to give an overview of their complexity, pathway modifications are discussed with respect to unusual archaeal biocatalysts, their structural and mechanistic characteristics, and their regulatory properties in comparison to their classic counterparts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, an overview focusing on hexose metabolic, i.e., glycolytic as well as gluconeogenic, pathways identified in archaeal model organisms is given. Their energy gain is discussed, and new insights into different levels of regulation that have been observed so far, including the transcript and protein levels (e.g., gene regulation, known transcription regulators, and posttranslational modification via reversible protein phosphorylation), are presented. PMID:24600042

Bräsen, Christopher; Esser, Dominik; Rauch, Bernadette; Siebers, Bettina

2014-03-01

184

In silico study of binding motifs in squalene synthase enzyme of secondary metabolic pathway solanaceae family.  

PubMed

Solanaceae is an important family with several plants of medicinal importance. These medicinal plants have distinctive pathways for secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In most of the plants, two important compounds, dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate, synthesize isoprenoid or terpenoids. Squalene synthase (SQS) is a key enzyme of the biosynthesis of isoprenoid (farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) ? squalene). Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), an important medicinal plant of family solanaceae produces withanolides. Withanolides are secondary metabolites synthesized through isoprenoid pathway. In this study, 13 SQS protein sequences from the plants of solanacae family and Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed. The conserved domains in corresponding sequences were searched. The multiple sequence alignment of conserved domains revealed the important motifs and identified the residue substitution in each motif. Our result further indicated that residue substitution in motifs might not lead to functional variation, although it may affect the binding affinity of Mg(++), FPP and NAD(P)H. In addition, the homology modelling of SQS enzyme of W. somnifera was done for the prediction of three-dimensional structure. Molecular docking study of considered substrates with WsSQS was performed and the docked structure were analyzed further. The docked structures showed binding affinity for motif 2 of WsSQS. Our analysis revealed that 29 residues of motif 2 might be important for catalytic/functional activity of SQS enzyme of W. somnifera. This study may provide an understanding of metabolic pathways responsible for the production of secondary metabolites. The motifs may play a key role in regulating the pathway towards enhanced production of metabolites. PMID:25106523

Sanchita; Singh, Garima; Sharma, Ashok

2014-11-01

185

Reduction of nuclear encoded enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities in HEK293 cells devoid of mtDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzymes partially encoded by mtDNA show reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also the entirely nuclear encoded complex II and citrate synthase exhibit reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of mtDNA induces a feedback mechanism that downregulates complex II and citrate synthase. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are generally associated with reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes that contain subunits encoded by mtDNA. Conversely, entirely nuclear encoded mitochondrial enzymes in these syndromes, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and OXPHOS complex II, usually exhibit normal or compensatory enhanced activities. Here we report that a human cell line devoid of mtDNA (HEK293 {rho}{sup 0} cells) has diminished activities of both complex II and CS. This finding indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism in {rho}{sup 0} cells that downregulates the expression of entirely nuclear encoded components of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

Mueller, Edith E., E-mail: ed.mueller@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Mayr, Johannes A., E-mail: h.mayr@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Zimmermann, Franz A., E-mail: f.zimmermann@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Feichtinger, Rene G., E-mail: r.feichtinger@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Stanger, Olaf, E-mail: o.stanger@rbht.nhs.uk [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)] [Department of Cardiac Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Sperl, Wolfgang, E-mail: w.sperl@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)] [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Kofler, Barbara, E-mail: b.kofler@salk.at [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)] [Research Program for Receptor Biochemistry and Tumor Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Muellner Hauptstrasse 48, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)

2012-01-20

186

Enzyme  

MedlinePLUS

Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

187

Pharmacogenetic profile of xenobiotic enzyme metabolism in survivors of the Spanish toxic oil syndrome.  

PubMed Central

In 1981, the Spanish toxic oil syndrome (TOS) affected more than 20,000 people, and over 300 deaths were registered. Assessment of genetic polymorphisms on xenobiotic metabolism would indicate the potential metabolic capacity of the victims at the time of the disaster. Thus, impaired metabolic pathways may have contributed to the clearance of the toxicant(s) leading to a low detoxification or accumulation of toxic metabolites contributing to the disease. We conducted a matched case-control study using 72 cases (54 females, 18 males) registered in the Official Census of Affected Patients maintained by the Spanish government. Controls were nonaffected siblings (n =72) living in the same household in 1981 and nonaffected nonrelatives (n = 70) living in the neighborhood at that time, with no ties to TOS. Genotype analyses were performed to assess the metabolic capacity of phase I [cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP2D6] and phase II [arylamine N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2), GSTM1 (glutathione S-transferase M1) and GSTT1] enzyme polymorphisms. The degree of association of the five metabolic pathways was estimated by calculating their odds ratios (ORs) using conditional logistic regression analysis. In the final model, cases compared with siblings (72 pairs) showed no differences either in CYP2D6 or CYP1A1 polymorphisms, or in conjugation enzyme polymorphisms, whereas cases compared with the unrelated controls (70 pairs) showed an increase in NAT2 defective alleles [OR = 6.96, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46-33.20] adjusted by age and sex. Glutathione transferase genetic polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1) showed no association with cases compared with their siblings or unrelated controls. These findings suggest a possible role of impaired acetylation mediating susceptibility in TOS. PMID:11335185

Ladona, M G; Izquierdo-Martinez, M; Posada de la Paz, M P; de la Torre, R; Ampurdanés, C; Segura, J; Sanz, E J

2001-01-01

188

Effects of aging and caloric restriction on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in the Fischer 344 rat. II: Effects on conjugating enzymes.  

PubMed

The effects of long-term caloric restriction on the hepatic phase II drug metabolizing enzymes were investigated in the male Fischer 344 rat. Rats that had been restricted to 60% of their pair-fed control consumption from 14 weeks post-partum exhibited altered conjugating enzyme activities at 22 months. Caloric restriction significantly reduced the age-related decrease in glutathione-S-transferase activity towards 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene, but did not significantly alter the age-related changes in UDP-glucuronyltransferase or sulfotransferase activities towards hydroxysteroids. Caloric restriction appeared to increase hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity toward bilirubin and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activities. These observations suggest that caloric restriction has multiple effects on the hepatic phase II drug metabolizing enzymes in the rat. Such effects may alter hepatic metabolism and activation or detoxification of drugs and carcinogens. PMID:2500570

Leakey, J A; Cunny, H C; Bazare, J; Webb, P J; Lipscomb, J C; Slikker, W; Feuers, R J; Duffy, P H; Hart, R W

1989-05-01

189

Reconstruction of Ancestral Metabolic Enzymes Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Evolutionary Innovation through Gene Duplication  

PubMed Central

Gene duplications are believed to facilitate evolutionary innovation. However, the mechanisms shaping the fate of duplicated genes remain heavily debated because the molecular processes and evolutionary forces involved are difficult to reconstruct. Here, we study a large family of fungal glucosidase genes that underwent several duplication events. We reconstruct all key ancestral enzymes and show that the very first preduplication enzyme was primarily active on maltose-like substrates, with trace activity for isomaltose-like sugars. Structural analysis and activity measurements on resurrected and present-day enzymes suggest that both activities cannot be fully optimized in a single enzyme. However, gene duplications repeatedly spawned daughter genes in which mutations optimized either isomaltase or maltase activity. Interestingly, similar shifts in enzyme activity were reached multiple times via different evolutionary routes. Together, our results provide a detailed picture of the molecular mechanisms that drove divergence of these duplicated enzymes and show that whereas the classic models of dosage, sub-, and neofunctionalization are helpful to conceptualize the implications of gene duplication, the three mechanisms co-occur and intertwine. PMID:23239941

Vanneste, Kevin; van der Zande, Elisa; Voet, Arnout; Maere, Steven; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

2012-01-01

190

Structural Phylogenomics Reveals Gradual Evolutionary Replacement of Abiotic Chemistries by Protein Enzymes in Purine Metabolism  

PubMed Central

The origin of metabolism has been linked to abiotic chemistries that existed in our planet at the beginning of life. While plausible chemical pathways have been proposed, including the synthesis of nucleobases, ribose and ribonucleotides, the cooption of these reactions by modern enzymes remains shrouded in mystery. Here we study the emergence of purine metabolism. The ages of protein domains derived from a census of fold family structure in hundreds of genomes were mapped onto enzymes in metabolic diagrams. We find that the origin of the nucleotide interconversion pathway benefited most parsimoniously from the prebiotic formation of adenine nucleosides. In turn, pathways of nucleotide biosynthesis, catabolism and salvage originated ?300 million years later by concerted enzymatic recruitments and gradual replacement of abiotic chemistries. Remarkably, this process led to the emergence of the fully enzymatic biosynthetic pathway ?3 billion years ago, concurrently with the appearance of a functional ribosome. The simultaneous appearance of purine biosynthesis and the ribosome probably fulfilled the expanding matter-energy and processing needs of genomic information. PMID:23516625

Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Caetano-Anolles, Gustavo

2013-01-01

191

Metabolic pathway analysis of enzyme-deficient human red blood cells.  

PubMed

Five enzymopathies (G6PDH, TPI, PGI, DPGM and PGK deficiencies) in the human red blood cells are investigated using a stoichiometric modeling approach, i.e., metabolic pathway analysis. Elementary flux modes (EFMs) corresponding to each enzyme deficiency case are analyzed in terms of functional capabilities. When available, experimental findings reported in literature related to metabolic behavior of the human red blood cells are compared with the results of EFM analysis. Control-effective flux (CEF) calculation, a novel approach which allows quantification and interpretation of determined EFMs, is performed for further analysis of enzymopathies. Glutathione reductase reaction is found to be the most effective reaction in terms of its CEF value in all enzymopathies in parallel with its known essential role for red blood cells. Efficiency profiles of the enzymatic reactions upon the degree of enzyme deficiency are obtained by the help of the CEF approach, as a basis for future experimental studies. CEF analysis, which is found to be promising in the analysis of erythrocyte enzymopathies, has the potential to be used in modeling efforts of human metabolism. PMID:15555758

Cakir, Tunahan; Tacer, Cemil Serhan; Ulgen, Kutlu Ozergin

2004-12-01

192

Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper  

PubMed Central

The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH?, NO?, and ABTS? and chelated Fe2+. ?-Pinene, ?-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of ?-glucosidase than ?-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

2013-01-01

193

The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

1981-01-01

194

Effect of urethane, dimethylnitrosamine, paraquat, and butylated hydroxytoluene on the activities of glycolytic key enzymes in mouse lung  

SciTech Connect

Effects of carcinogens and noncarcinogenic pulmonary toxicants on the activities of glycolytic key enzymes in the mouse lung were investigated. The carcinogens urethane (URTH) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) permanently enhanced, and the noncarcinogenic pulmonary toxicants paraquat (PAR) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) temporarily, enhanced the activities of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the lungs of mice.

Arany, I.; Rady, P.; Bojan, I.; Kertai, P.

1981-12-01

195

Hepatic activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and biliary levels of xenobiotics in english sole ( Parophrys vetulus ) exposed to environmental contaminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

English sole (Parophrys vetulus) are susceptible to the development of hepatic disease, including neoplasia, as a result of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The metabolism of PAHs, believed to be an essential factor in the development of neoplasia, has received considerable study in English sole, except that xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) have not been wellstudied in this species.

Tracy K. Collier; Usha Varanasi

1991-01-01

196

Flux Control and Excess Capacity in the Enzymes of Glycolysis and Their Relationship to Flight Metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important question in evolutionary and physiological genetics is how the control of flux-base phenotypes is distributed across the enzymes in a pathway. This control is often related to enzymespecific levels of activity that are reported to be in excess of that required for demand. In glycolysis, metabolic control is frequently considered vested in classical regulatory enzymes, each strongly displaced

Walter F. Eanes; Thomas J. S. Merritt; Jonathan M. Flowers; Seiji Kumagai; Efe Sezgin; Chen-Tseh Zhu

2006-01-01

197

JournalofPhysiology Acetycholinesterase (AChE) is a key enzyme in cholinergic  

E-print Network

acetylcholinesterase overexpression induces multilevelled aberrations in mouse neuromuscular physiology Noa Farchi-hydrolysing enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a notable consequence of exposure to anticholinesterase drugs

Hochner, Binyamin

198

The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression  

PubMed Central

Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Alterations of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes gene and protein expression, observed in diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants, and therapeutic agents and may also impact the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, as well as result in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the mitogen activated protein kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, mTOR, and the p70S6 kinase. Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how chronic disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control. PMID:17097148

Kim, Sang K.; Novak, Raymond F.

2007-01-01

199

Multiple roles for lipins\\/phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes in lipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphatidate phosphatase-1 (PAP1) enzymes have a key role in glycerolipid synthesis through the con- version of phosphatidate to diacylglycerol, the immediate precursor of triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and phos- phatidylethanolamine. PAP1 activity in mammals is deter- mined by the lipin family of proteins, lipin-1, lipin-2, and lipin-3, which each have distinct tissue expression patterns and appear to have unique physiological functions. In

Karen Reue; David N. Brindley

200

Comparisons of different muscle metabolic enzymes and muscle fiber types in Jinhua and Landrace pigs.  

PubMed

Western and indigenous Chinese pig breeds show obvious differences in muscle growth and meat quality, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the breed-specific mechanisms controlling meat quality and postmortem muscle metabolism. The specific purpose was to investigate the variations in meat quality, muscle fiber type, and enzyme activity between local Jinhua and exotic Landrace pigs at the same age (180 d of age), as well as the same BW of 64 kg, respectively. We compared differentially expressed muscle fiber types such as types I and IIa (oxidative), type IIb (glycolytic), as well as type IIx (intermediate) fibers in LM and soleus muscles of Jinhua and Landrace pigs using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Furthermore, the metabolic enzyme activities of lactate dehydrogenase, as well as succinic dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, were used as markers of glycolytic and oxidative capacities, respectively. Results showed that Jinhua pigs exhibited greater intramuscular fat content and less drip loss compared with the Landrace (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the mRNA abundance of oxidative and intermediate fibers was increased in Jinhua pigs, whereas the glycolytic fibers were more highly expressed in the Landrace (P < 0.01). In addition, Jinhua pigs possessed greater oxidative capacity than that of the Landrace (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the increased expression of the oxidative and intermediate fibers and greater activities of oxidative enzymes in Jinhua pigs were related to meat quality as indicated by a greater intramuscular fat and reduced drip loss. Based on these results, we conclude that muscle fiber composition and postmortem muscle metabolism can explain, in part, the variation of meat quality in Jinhua and Landrace pigs. These results may provide valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for breed specific differences in growth performance and meat quality. PMID:20889683

Guo, J; Shan, T; Wu, T; Zhu, L N; Ren, Y; An, S; Wang, Y

2011-01-01

201

Danning tablets attenuates ?-naphthylisothiocyanate-induced cholestasis by modulating the expression of transporters and metabolic enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background The Danning tablets (DNts) is commonly prescribed in China as a cholagogic formula. Our previous studies showed that DNts exerted the protective effect on ?-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced liver injury with cholestasis in a dose-dependent mannar. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of DNts against ANIT-induced cholestasis are still not fully explored. Methods Danning tablet (3 g/kg body weight/day) was administered orally to experimental rats for seven days before they were treated with ANIT (60 mg/kg daily via gastrogavage) which caused cholestasis. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (T-Bil), direct bilirubin (D-Bil) and total bile acid (TBA) were measured to evaluate the protective effect of Danning tablet at 12, 24 and 48h after ANIT treatment. Meanwhile, total bilirubin or total bile acid in the bile, urine and liver were also measured at 48h after ANIT treatment. Furthermore, the hepatic or renal mRNA and protein levels of metabolic enzymes and transports were investigated to elucidate the protective mechanisms of Danning tablet against ANIT-induced cholestasis. Results In this study, we found that DNts significantly attenuated translocation of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) from the canalicular membrane into an intracellular and up-regulated the hepatic mRNA and protein expressions of metabolic enzymes including cytochrome P450 2b1(Cyp2b1) and uridine diphosphate-5˘- glucuronosyltransferase (Ugt1a1)) and transporters including bile salt export pump (Bsep) and multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mdr2)) as well as renal organic solute transporter beta (Ost?), accompanied by further increase in urinary and biliary excretion of bile acid and bilirubin. Conclusions DNts might promote bile acid and bilirubin elimination by regulating the expressions of hepatic and renal transporters as well as hepatic metabolic enzymes. PMID:25033983

2014-01-01

202

Effects of the agrochemicals butachlor, pretilachlor and isoprothiolane on rat liver xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

1. The herbicides butachlor (2-chloro-2',6',diethyl-N-[buthoxymethyl] acetanilide) and pretilachlor (2-chloro-2',6'-diethyl-N-[2-propoxyethyl] acetanilide) are widely used in Asia, South America, Europe and Africa. Isoprothiolane (diisopropyl-1,3-dithiolan-2-ylidenemalonate) is used as a fungicide and an insecticide in rice paddies. We administered these agrochemicals to the male rat and examined their effects on cytochrome P450 (P450), glutathione S-transferase (GST), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT), and NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-related metabolism in the liver. 2. Administration of isoprothiolane, butachlor or pretilachlor to rat induced hepatic P4502B subfamily-dependent enzyme activities (pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation and testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylation) up to 271-413% of control, which coincided with the increase in expression levels of the P4502B apoprotein. 3. Activities of GST toward 1-chloro-2,4-nitrobenzene and 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene were slightly induced (127-133% of control) in the liver of the rat treated with these pesticides. On the other hand, marked elevations of UDPGT activities toward p-nitrophenol (164-281% of control) were observed. NQO1-related metabolism (menadione reductase activity) was also induced (123-176% of control) in the liver of rat treated with these agrochemicals. 4. These results indicate that some of the agrochemicals currently in use are capable of inducing phase I and II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in an isozyme selective manner. The induction of these activities may disrupt normal physiologic functions related to these enzymes in exposed animals. PMID:9879635

Ishizuka, M; Iwata, H; Kazusaka, A; Hatakeyama, S; Fujita, S

1998-11-01

203

Calcium-regulated nuclear enzymes: potential mediators of phytochrome-induced changes in nuclear metabolism?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Calcium ions have been proposed to serve as important regulatory elements in stimulus-response coupling for phytochrome responses. An important test of this hypothesis will be to identify specific targets of calcium action that are required for some growth or development process induced by the photoactivated form of phytochrome (Pfr). Initial studies have revealed that there are at least two enzymes in pea nuclei that are stimulated by Pfr in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, a calmodulin-regulated nucleoside triphosphatase and a calmodulin-independent but Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. The nucleoside triphosphatase appears to be associated with the nuclear envelope, while the protein kinase co-purifies with a nuclear fraction highly enriched for chromatin. This short review summarizes the latest findings on these enzymes and relates them to what is known about Pfr-regulated nuclear metabolism.

Roux, S. J.

1992-01-01

204

Structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an essential monotopic membrane enzyme involved in respiration and metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Its critical role is indicated by the multitiered regulatory mechanisms that stringently controls its expression and function. Once expressed, GlpD activity is regulated through lipid-enzyme interactions in Escherichia coli. Here, we report seven previously undescribed structures of the fully active E. coli GlpD, up to 1.75 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to elucidating the structure of the native enzyme, we have determined the structures of GlpD complexed with substrate analogues phosphoenolpyruvate, glyceric acid 2-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and product, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. These structural results reveal conformational states of the enzyme, delineating the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the glycerol-3-phosphate site. Two probable mechanisms for catalyzing the dehydrogenation of glycerol-3-phosphate are envisioned, based on the conformational states of the complexes. To further correlate catalytic dehydrogenation to respiration, we have additionally determined the structures of GlpD bound with ubiquinone analogues menadione and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, identifying a hydrophobic plateau that is likely the ubiquinone-binding site. These structures illuminate probable mechanisms of catalysis and suggest how GlpD shuttles electrons into the respiratory pathway. Glycerol metabolism has been implicated in insulin signaling and perturbations in glycerol uptake and catabolism are linked to obesity in humans. Homologs of GlpD are found in practically all organisms, from prokaryotes to humans, with >45% consensus protein sequences, signifying that these structural results on the prokaryotic enzyme may be readily applied to the eukaryotic GlpD enzymes.

Yeh, Joanne I.; Chinte, Unmesh; Du, Shoucheng (Pitt)

2008-04-02

205

Identification of a Metabolizing Enzyme in Human Kidney by Proteomic Correlation Profiling  

PubMed Central

Molecular identification of endogenous enzymes and biologically active substances from complex biological sources remains a challenging task, and although traditional biochemical purification is sometimes regarded as outdated, it remains one of the most powerful methodologies for this purpose. While biochemical purification usually requires large amounts of starting material and many separation steps, we developed an advanced method named “proteomic correlation profiling” in our previous study. In proteomic correlation profiling, we first fractionated biological material by column chromatography, and then calculated each protein's correlation coefficient between the enzyme activity profile and protein abundance profile determined by proteomics technology toward fractions. Thereafter, we could choose possible candidates for the enzyme among proteins with a high correlation value by domain predictions using informatics tools. Ultimately, this streamlined procedure requires fewer purification steps and reduces starting materials dramatically due to low required purity compared with conventional approaches. To demonstrate the generality of this approach, we have now applied an improved workflow of proteomic correlation profiling to a drug metabolizing enzyme and successfully identified alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme (ALPL) as a phosphatase of CS-0777 phosphate (CS-0777-P), a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator with potential benefits in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, from human kidney extract. We identified ALPL as a candidate protein only by the 200-fold purification and only from 1 g of human kidney. The identification of ALPL as CS-0777-P phosphatase was strongly supported by a recombinant protein, and contribution of the enzyme in human kidney extract was validated by immunodepletion and a specific inhibitor. This approach can be applied to any kind of enzyme class and biologically active substance; therefore, we believe that we have provided a fast and practical option by combination of traditional biochemistry and state-of-the-art proteomic technology. PMID:23674616

Sakurai, Hidetaka; Kubota, Kazuishi; Inaba, Shin-ichi; Takanaka, Kaoru; Shinagawa, Akira

2013-01-01

206

[Hypotensive, organoprotective, and metabolic effects of Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor moexipril in women with postmenopausal syndrome].  

PubMed

Hypotensive, organoprotective, and metabolic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor moexipril (7.5-15 mg/day for 16 weeks) with or without combination with hydrochlorothiazide was studied in 34 women (mean age 59.6+/-1.6 years) with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Thirty four women had dyslipidemia, 22 -- disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism, 18 -- obesity (mean body mass index 31.1+/-0.8 kg/m(2)). Treatment was associated with lowering of office systolic(-20.1%) and diastolic (-17.4%) blood pressure (BP). Target BP (140/90 mm Hg) was achieved in 27 patients. There also occurred significant lowering of mean 24 hour, diurnal, and nocturnal systolic and diastolic BP (p<0.05), significant changes of values of systolic and diastolic BP time indexes, normalization of which was observed both during day and night hours. Significant lowering of total cholesterol (-11.6%, p<0.05), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (-16.3%, p<0.02), and in patients with obesity of triglycerides (-27%, p<0.02) was revealed at the background of treatment with moexipril. In a group as a whole we observed significant lowering of excretion of albumins and b2-microglobulin; most pronounced antiproteinuretic effect was noted in patients with high microproteinuria and obesity. Vasodilating function of vessels improved in all patients with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome, mainly at the account of increment of endothelium dependent vasodilation and normalization of index of vasodilatation. PMID:16858353

Leonova, M V; Demidova, M A; Tarasov, A V; Belousov, Iu B

2006-01-01

207

Effect of enzyme inducer flumecinolum (Zixoryn) on aminophylline metabolism in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of the enzyme inducer flumecinolum, m-trifluoromethyl-alpha-ethylbenzhydrol (Zixoryn), on aminophylline metabolism was examined in rats. Aminophylline plasma levels were determined by HPLC. Aminophylline T1/2 was 2.85 hours (r = 0.9353) in the pretreated group and 3.75 hours (r = 0.9471) in the untreated control group. Flumecinolum was found to accelerate the elimination of aminophylline and the effect became significant 3.92 hours after the administration of aminophylline. PMID:3434310

Szeitz, A; Huszár, E; Herjavecz, I; Vértes, K; Debreczeni, L A

1987-01-01

208

The Stabilisation of Enzymes — a Key Factor in the Practical Application of Biocatalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state of the problem of the practical application of biocatalysis is examined and physicochemical approaches whereby the denaturation of enzymes under the influence of elevated temperatures, extreme pH values, and organic solvents can be suppressed are analysed. The general principles of the stabilisation of enzymes are formulated. The bibliography includes 225 references.

Martinek, K.; Berezin, I. B.

1980-05-01

209

Testing Biochemistry Revisited: How In Vivo Metabolism Can Be Understood from In Vitro Enzyme Kinetics  

PubMed Central

A decade ago, a team of biochemists including two of us, modeled yeast glycolysis and showed that one of the most studied biochemical pathways could not be quite understood in terms of the kinetic properties of the constituent enzymes as measured in cell extract. Moreover, when the same model was later applied to different experimental steady-state conditions, it often exhibited unrestrained metabolite accumulation. Here we resolve this issue by showing that the results of such ab initio modeling are improved substantially by (i) including appropriate allosteric regulation and (ii) measuring the enzyme kinetic parameters under conditions that resemble the intracellular environment. The following modifications proved crucial: (i) implementation of allosteric regulation of hexokinase and pyruvate kinase, (ii) implementation of Vmax values measured under conditions that resembled the yeast cytosol, and (iii) redetermination of the kinetic parameters of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under physiological conditions. Model predictions and experiments were compared under five different conditions of yeast growth and starvation. When either the original model was used (which lacked important allosteric regulation), or the enzyme parameters were measured under conditions that were, as usual, optimal for high enzyme activity, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and some other glycolytic intermediates tended to accumulate to unrealistically high concentrations. Combining all adjustments yielded an accurate correspondence between model and experiments for all five steady-state and dynamic conditions. This enhances our understanding of in vivo metabolism in terms of in vitro biochemistry. PMID:22570597

van Eunen, Karen; Kiewiet, José A. L.; Westerhoff, Hans V.; Bakker, Barbara M.

2012-01-01

210

Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

We have investigated the effect of herbal teas (peppermint, chamomile and dandelion) on the activity of hepatic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes using rat liver microsomes. Female Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 5 each). Three groups had free access to a tea solution (2%) while the control group had water. Two groups received either green tea extract (0.1%) or aqueous caffeine solution (0.0625%). After four weeks of pretreatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of liver microsomes or cytosol with appropriate substrates. Activity of CYP1A2 in the liver microsomes of rats receiving dandelion, peppermint or chamomile tea was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) to 15%, 24% and 39% of the control value, respectively. CYP1A2 activity was significantly increased by pretreatment with caffeine solution. No alterations were observed in the activities of CYP2D and CYP3A in any group of the pretreated rats. Activity of CYP2E in rats receiving dandelion or peppermint tea was significantly lower than in the control group, 48% and 60% of the control, respectively. There was a dramatic increase (244% of control) in the activity of phase II detoxifying enzyme UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the dandelion tea-pretreated group. There was no change in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase. The results suggested that, like green and black teas, certain herbal teas can cause modulation of phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. PMID:11697539

Maliakal, P P; Wanwimolruk, S

2001-10-01

211

Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice  

SciTech Connect

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have diverse activities in terms of inducing various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes based on their chemical structure.

Kleiner, Heather E. [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)], E-mail: hklein@lsuhsc.edu; Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Zhang, Jun [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Evans, Ronald M. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Moore, David D. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); DiGiovanni, John [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

2008-10-15

212

Effects of Naturally Occurring Coumarins on Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Mice  

PubMed Central

Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often are a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10,Cyp3a1, GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(?/?) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have diverse activities in terms of inducing various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes based on their chemical structure. PMID:18692084

Kleiner, Heather E.; Xia, Xiojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni., John

2008-01-01

213

CGI-58, a key regulator of lipid homeostasis and signaling in plants, also regulates polyamine metabolism  

PubMed Central

Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is an ?/? hydrolase-type protein that regulates lipid homeostasis and signaling in eukaryotes by interacting with and stimulating the activity of several different types of proteins, including a lipase in mammalian cells and a peroxisomal ABC transporter (PXA1) in plant cells. Here we show that plant CGI-58 also interacts with spermidine synthase 1 (SPDS1), an enzyme that plays a central role in polyamine metabolism by converting putrescine into spermidine. Analysis of polyamine contents in Arabidopsis thaliana plants revealed that spermidine levels were significantly reduced, and putrescine increased, in both cgi-58 and cgi-58/pxa1 mutant plants, relative to pxa1 mutant or wild-type plants. Evaluation of polyamine-related gene expression levels, however, revealed similar increases in transcript abundance in all mutants, including cgi-58, pxa1, and cgi-58/pxa1, in comparison to wild type. Taken together, the data support a model whereby CGI-58 and PXA1 contribute to the regulation of polyamine metabolism at the transcriptional level, perhaps through a shared lipid-signaling pathway, and that CGI-58 also acts independently of PXA1 to increase spermidine content at a post-transcriptional level, possibly through protein-protein interaction with SPDS1. PMID:24492485

Park, Sunjung; Keereetaweep, Jantana; James, Christopher N; Gidda, Satinder K; Chapman, Kent D; Mullen, Robert T; Dyer, John M

2014-01-01

214

Functional characteristics of leukotriene C4- and D4-metabolizing enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, dipeptidase) within human plasma.  

PubMed

Several properties of the leukotriene C4- and leukotriene D4-metabolizing enzymes within human plasma were studied after fractionation of the plasma proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation. Leukotriene D4-metabolizing enzymes were widely distributed among the fractions obtained. They showed different pH optima (pH 6.5, pH 7.0 and pH greater than or equal to 8.5) and revealed a different degree of thermal stability. The results indicate the presence of more than one enzyme in plasma which interacts with leukotriene D4. EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the metabolism of leukotriene D4. Two leukotriene C4-metabolizing activities (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidases) differing in their molecular weights were detected after gel filtration. Their molecular weights were estimated to be Mr greater than or equal to 150 000 and Mr between 55 000 and 100 000. PMID:2862918

Köller, M; König, W; Brom, J; Bremm, K D; Schönfeld, W; Knöller, J

1985-08-22

215

A network-based approach for predicting key enzymes explaining metabolite abundance alterations in a disease phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background The study of metabolism has attracted much attention during the last years due to its relevance in various diseases. The advance in metabolomics platforms allows us to detect an increasing number of metabolites in abnormal high/low concentration in a disease phenotype. Finding a mechanistic interpretation for these alterations is important to understand pathophysiological processes, however it is not an easy task. The availability of genome scale metabolic networks and Systems Biology techniques open new avenues to address this question. Results In this article we present a novel mathematical framework to find enzymes whose malfunction explains the accumulation/depletion of a given metabolite in a disease phenotype. Our approach is based on a recently introduced pathway concept termed Carbon Flux Paths (CFPs), which extends classical topological definition by including network stoichiometry. Using CFPs, we determine the Connectivity Curve of an altered metabolite, which allows us to quantify changes in its pathway structure when a certain enzyme is removed. The influence of enzyme removal is then ranked and used to explain the accumulation/depletion of such metabolite. For illustration, we center our study in the accumulation of two metabolites (L-Cystine and Homocysteine) found in high concentration in the brain of patients with mental disorders. Our results were discussed based on literature and found a good agreement with previously reported mechanisms. In addition, we hypothesize a novel role of several enzymes for the accumulation of these metabolites, which opens new strategies to understand the metabolic processes underlying these diseases. Conclusions With personalized medicine on the horizon, metabolomic platforms are providing us with a vast amount of experimental data for a number of complex diseases. Our approach provides a novel apparatus to rationally investigate and understand metabolite alterations under disease phenotypes. This work contributes to the development of Systems Medicine, whose objective is to answer clinical questions based on theoretical methods and high-throughput “omics” data. PMID:23870038

2013-01-01

216

Enzymes involved in the metabolism of the carcinogen 2-nitroanisole: evidence for its oxidative detoxication by human cytochromes P450.  

PubMed

2-Nitroanisole (2-NA) is an important industrial pollutant and a potent carcinogen for rodents. Determining the capability of humans to metabolize 2-NA and understanding which human cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are involved in its activation and/or detoxification are important to assess an individual's susceptibility to this environmental carcinogen. We compared the ability of hepatic microsomal samples from different species including human to metabolize 2-NA. Comparison between experimental animals and human P450 enzymes is essential for the extrapolation of animal carcinogenicity data to assess human health risk. Human hepatic microsomes generated a pattern of 2-NA metabolites, reproducing that formed by hepatic microsomes of rats and rabbits. An O-demethylated metabolite of 2-NA (2-nitrophenol) and two ring-oxidized derivatives of this metabolite (2,6-dihydroxynitrobenzene and 2,X-dihydroxynitrobenzene) were produced. No nitroreductive metabolism leading to the formation of o-anisidine was evident with hepatic microsomes of any species. Likewise, no DNA binding of 2-NA metabolite(s) measured with either tritium-labeled 2-NA or the (32)P-postlabeling technique was detectable in microsomes. Therefore, hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes participate in the detoxication reactions of this environmental carcinogen. Using hepatic microsomes of rabbits pretreated with specific P450 inducers, microsomes from Baculovirus transfected insect cells expressing recombinant human P450 enzymes, purified P450 enzymes, and selective P450 inhibitors, we found that human recombinant P450 2E1, 1A1, and 2B6, as well as orthologous rodent P450 enzymes, are the most efficient enzymes metabolizing 2-NA. The role of specific P450 enzymes in the metabolism of 2-NA in human hepatic microsomes was investigated by correlating specific P450-dependent reactions with the levels of 2-NA metabolites formed by the same microsomes and by examining the effects of specific inhibitors of P450 enzymes on 2-NA metabolism. On the basis of these studies, we attribute most of the 2-NA oxidation metabolism in human microsomes to P450 2E1. These results, the first report on the metabolism of 2-NA by human P450 enzymes, clearly demonstrate that P450 2E1 is the major human enzyme oxidizing this carcinogen in human liver. PMID:15144223

Miksanová, Markéta; Sulc, Miroslav; Rýdlová, Helena; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Frei, Eva; Stiborová, Marie

2004-05-01

217

The Catalytic Machinery of a Key Enzyme in Amino Acid Biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The aspartate pathway of amino acid biosynthesis is essential for all microbial life but is absent in mammals. Characterizing the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in this pathway can identify new protein targets for the development of antibiotics with unique modes of action. The enzyme aspartate {beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes an early branch point reaction in the aspartate pathway. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural studies of ASADH from various microbial species have been used to elucidate mechanistic details and to identify essential amino acids involved in substrate binding, catalysis, and enzyme regulation. Important structural and functional differences have been found between ASADHs isolated from these bacterial and fungal organisms, opening the possibility for developing species-specific antimicrobial agents that target this family of enzymes.

Viola, Ronald E.; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Blanco, Julio; Moore, Roger A.; Liu, Xuying; Arachea, Buenafe T.; Pavlovsky, Alexander G. (Toledo); (Yale); (Cold Spring); (NIH)

2013-02-28

218

Enzymes of Poly-(beta)-Hydroxybutyrate Metabolism in Soybean and Chickpea Bacteroids  

PubMed Central

The enzymatic capacity for metabolism of poly-(beta)-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has been examined in nitrogen-fixing symbioses of soybean (Glycine max L.) plants, which may accumulate substantial amounts of PHB, and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants, which contain little or no PHB. In the free-living state, both Bradyrhizobium japonicum CB 1809 and Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) CC 1192, which form nodules on soybean and chickpea plants, respectively, produced substantial amounts of PHB. To obtain information on why chickpea bacteroids do not accumulate PHB, the specific activities of enzymes of PHB metabolism (3-ketothiolase, acetoacetyl-coenzyme A reductase, PHB depolymerase, and 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase), the tricarboxylic acid cycle (malate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase), and related reactions (malic enzyme, pyruvate dehydrogenase, and glutamate:2-oxoglutarate transaminase) were compared in extracts from chickpea and soybean bacteroids and the respective free-living bacteria. Significant differences were noted between soybean and chickpea bacteroids and between the bacteroid and free-living forms of Rhizobium sp. (Cicer) CC 1192, with respect to the capacity for some of these reactions. It is suggested that a greater potential for oxidizing malate to oxaloacetate in chickpea bacteroids may be a factor that favors the utilization of acetyl-coenzyme A in the tricarboxylic acid cycle over PHB synthesis. PMID:16535445

Kim, S. A.; Copeland, L.

1996-01-01

219

Update on the Genetic Polymorphisms of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Antiepileptic Drug Therapy  

PubMed Central

Genetic polymorphisms in the genes that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes are implicated in the inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, the clinical impact of these polymorphisms on AED therapy still remains controversial. The defective alleles of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and/or CYP2C19 could affect not only the pharmacokinetics, but also the pharmacodynamics of phenytoin therapy. CYP2C19 deficient genotypes were associated with the higher serum concentration of an active metabolite of clobazam, N-desmethylclobazam, and with the higher clinical efficacy of clobazam therapy than the other CYP2C19 genotypes. The defective alleles of CYP2C9 and/or CYP2C19 were also found to have clinically significant effects on the inter-individual variabilities in the population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital, valproic acid and zonisamide. EPHX1 polymorphisms may be associated with the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine and the risk of phenytoin-induced congenital malformations. Similarly, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 genotype may affect the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine. Gluthatione S-transferase null genotypes are implicated in an increased risk of hepatotoxicity caused by carbamazepine and valproic acid. This article summarizes the state of research on the effects of mutations of drug-metabolizing enzymes on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AED therapies. Future directions for the dose-adjustment of AED are discussed.

Saruwatari, Junji; Ishitsu, Takateru; Nakagawa, Kazuko

2010-01-01

220

PAPER www.rsc.org/loc | Lab on a Chip Programmable assembly of a metabolic pathway enzyme in a pre-packaged  

E-print Network

PAPER www.rsc.org/loc | Lab on a Chip Programmable assembly of a metabolic pathway enzyme in a pre report a biofunctionalization strategy for the assembly of catalytically active enzymes within and temporally defined sites. The enzyme of a bacterial metabolic pathway, S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase

Rubloff, Gary W.

221

Effects of Oxygen Limitation on Xylose Fermentation, Intracellular Metabolites, and Key Enzymes of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602 were studied using batch cultures. The maximum yield of ethanol was 0.34 g/g at oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of 8.4 mmol/L·h. The maximum yield of xylitol was 0.33 g/g at OTR of 5.1 mmol/L·h. Oxygen limitation greatly affected mycelia growth and xylitol and ethanol productions. The specific growth rate (?) decreased 82% from 0.045 to 0.008 h-1 when OTR changed from 12.6 to 8.4 mmol/L·h. Intracellular metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were determined at various OTRs. Concentrations of most intracellular metabolites decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation. Intracellular enzyme activities of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase, the first three enzymes in xylose metabolic pathway, decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation, resulting in the decreased xylose uptake rate. Under all tested conditions, transaldolase and transketolase activities always maintained at low levels, indicating a great control on xylose metabolism. The enzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase played a major role in NADPH regeneration, and its activity decreased remarkably with the increase in oxygen limitation.

Zhang, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Jianqiang

222

Diabetes induces lysine acetylation of intermediary metabolism enzymes in the kidney.  

PubMed

Cells in which insulin is not required for glucose uptake are susceptible to the long-term complications of diabetes. Even in these tissues, however, the major perturbations that would otherwise be engendered by the greatly increased intracellular glucose concentration are mollified by adaptive changes in the enzymes of intermediary metabolism. These include allosteric regulation, product inhibition, and covalent modification as well as alterations in gene transcription. More recently, advances in proteomic technology have shown that reversible acetylation of the ?-amino group of lysine provides an additional means of modulating protein function and, in particular, enzyme activity. Here, we explored the extent of protein acetylation in an organ susceptible to the long-term complications of diabetes, examining the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and kidney cells exposed to high glucose. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with immunoaffinity enrichment, we identified 47 lysine-acetylated proteins in the kidneys of diabetic rats compared with 11 in control kidneys. Bioinformatic interrogation of the acetylome from diabetic animals showed a predominance of metabolic pathway involvement including the citrate acid cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and metabolism of branched chain amino acids. Increased lysine acetylation was also noted in mesangial and tubular cells exposed to 25 mmol/L compared with 5.6 mmol/L glucose. These findings highlight acetylation as a posttranslational modification affecting numerous proteins. Current drug discovery efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors and activators of various lysine acetylases and deacetylases offer a new potential strategy to reduce the likelihood of diabetes complications. PMID:24677711

Kosanam, Hari; Thai, Kerri; Zhang, Yanling; Advani, Andrew; Connelly, Kim A; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Gilbert, Richard E

2014-07-01

223

Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes  

PubMed Central

Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 ?M) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5–50 ?M) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1?-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. PMID:25395831

Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

2014-01-01

224

Discovery of new enzymes and metabolic pathways using structure and genome context  

PubMed Central

Assigning valid functions to proteins identified in genome projects is challenging, with over-prediction and database annotation errors major concerns1. We, and others2, are developing computation-guided strategies for functional discovery using “metabolite docking” to experimentally derived3 or homology-based4 three-dimensional structures. Bacterial metabolic pathways often are encoded by “genome neighborhoods” (gene clusters and/or operons), which can provide important clues for functional assignment. We recently demonstrated the synergy of docking and pathway context by “predicting” the intermediates in the glycolytic pathway in E. coli5. Metabolite docking to multiple binding proteins/enzymes in the same pathway increases the reliability of in silico predictions of substrate specificities because the pathway intermediates are structurally similar. We report that structure-guided approaches for predicting the substrate specificities of several enzymes encoded by a bacterial gene cluster allowed i) the correct prediction of the in vitro activity of a structurally characterized enzyme of unknown function (PDB 2PMQ), 2-epimerization of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline betaine (tHyp-B) and cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline betaine (cHyp-B), and ii) the correct identification of the catabolic pathway in which Hyp-B 2-epimerase participates. The substrate-liganded pose predicted by virtual library screening (docking) was confirmed experimentally. The enzymatic activities in the predicted pathway were confirmed by in vitro assays and genetic analyses; the intermediates were identified by metabolomics; and repression of the genes encoding the pathway by high salt was established by transcriptomics, confirming the osmolyte role of tHyp-B. This study establishes the utility of structure-guide functional predictions to enable the discovery of new metabolic pathways. PMID:24056934

Zhao, Suwen; Kumar, Ritesh; Sakai, Ayano; Vetting, Matthew W.; Wood, B. McKay; Brown, Shoshana; Bonanno, Jeffery B.; Hillerich, Brandan S.; Seidel, Ronald D.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Almo, Steven C.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Gerlt, John A.; Cronan, John E.; Jacobson, Matthew P.

2014-01-01

225

A combined computational-experimental analyses of selected metabolic enzymes in Pseudomonas species.  

PubMed

Comparative genomic analysis has revolutionized our ability to predict the metabolic subsystems that occur in newly sequenced genomes, and to explore the functional roles of the set of genes within each subsystem. These computational predictions can considerably reduce the volume of experimental studies required to assess basic metabolic properties of multiple bacterial species. However, experimental validations are still required to resolve the apparent inconsistencies in the predictions by multiple resources. Here, we present combined computational-experimental analyses on eight completely sequenced Pseudomonas species. Comparative pathway analyses reveal that several pathways within the Pseudomonas species show high plasticity and versatility. Potential bypasses in 11 metabolic pathways were identified. We further confirmed the presence of the enzyme O-acetyl homoserine (thiol) lyase (EC: 2.5.1.49) in P. syringae pv. tomato that revealed inconsistent annotations in KEGG and in the recently published SYSTOMONAS database. These analyses connect and integrate systematic data generation, computational data interpretation, and experimental validation and represent a synergistic and powerful means for conducting biological research. PMID:18802474

Perumal, Deepak; Lim, Chu Sing; Chow, Vincent T K; Sakharkar, Kishore R; Sakharkar, Meena K

2008-01-01

226

Saturated fatty acid metabolism is key link between cell division, cancer, and senescence in cellular and whole organism aging  

PubMed Central

Cellular senescence is an in vivo and in vitro phenomenon, accompanied by physiological changes including cessation of division and disturbances of organelle structure and function. Review of the literature was undertaken to determine whether there is evidence that whole organism aging and cell senescence share a common initiation pathway. In vivo aged cells of different lineages, including aged T lymphocytes, show high expression of the INK4A-p16 gene. In cell culture when telomeres are shortened past a key length or state, the Arf/Ink gene system (p16/p14 humans, p16/p19 mice) switches on and activates p53, which suppresses further cell division. The p53 gene is a key tumor suppressor and its deletion or mutation allows cancerous growth. The switching on of p53 also causes changes in fatty acid metabolism, especially down-regulation of both fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA (delta-9) desaturase. The co-suppression of these genes together with enhanced uptake of extracellular fatty acids, leads to raised levels of cellular palmitate and induction of either apoptosis or senescence. In senescent cells, the fatty acid composition of the cellular membranes alters and leads to changes in both structure and function of organelles, especially mitochondria. Animal models of accelerated aging exhibit repression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity while anti-aging calorie restriction stimulates the same enzyme system. It is concluded that aging in cells and whole organisms share a common initiation pathway and that cellular senescence is protective against cancer. Healthy longevity is likely to be most enhanced by factors that actively suppress excessive cell division. PMID:20431990

2010-01-01

227

Methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase, a critical enzyme for bacterial metabolism.  

PubMed

The importance of methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine (MTA/SAH) nucleosidase in bacteria has started to be appreciated only in the past decade. A comprehensive analysis of its various roles here demonstrates that it is an integral component of the activated methyl cycle, which recycles adenine and methionine through S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-mediated methylation reactions, and also produces the universal quorum-sensing signal, autoinducer-2 (AI-2). SAM is also essential for synthesis of polyamines, N-acylhomoserine lactone (autoinducer-1), and production of vitamins and other biomolecules formed by SAM radical reactions. MTA, SAH and 5'-deoxyadenosine (5'dADO) are product inhibitors of these reactions, and are substrates of MTA/SAH nucleosidase, underscoring its importance in a wide array of metabolic reactions. Inhibition of this enzyme by certain substrate analogues also limits synthesis of autoinducers and hence causes reduction in biofilm formation and may attenuate virulence. Interestingly, the inhibitors of MTA/SAH nucleosidase are very effective against the Lyme disease causing spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi, which uniquely expresses three homologous functional enzymes. These results indicate that inhibition of this enzyme can affect growth of different bacteria by affecting different mechanisms. Therefore, new inhibitors are currently being explored for development of potential novel broad-spectrum antimicrobials. PMID:21166890

Parveen, Nikhat; Cornell, Kenneth A

2011-01-01

228

Vitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo Cerebrum  

PubMed Central

Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. It forms an important component of our antioxidant system. The structure of Vitamin E makes it unique and indispensable in protecting cell membranes. ?-tocopherol, one of the forms of Vitamin E, is also known to regulate signal transduction pathways by mechanisms that are independent of its antioxidant properties. Vitamin E compounds reduce the production of inflammatory compounds such as prostaglandins. Swollen, dystrophic axons are considered as the hallmark of Vitamin E deficiency in the brains of rats, monkeys, and humans. The present work aimed to study the Vitamin E- (?-tochopherol acetate-) induced alterations of enzymes involved in metabolism of Glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis of cerebrum. Therefore, cytosolic and crude mitochondrial enzyme activities of glutamine synthetase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, GABA transaminase, succinic Semialdehyde dehydrogenase, glutamic dehydrogenase, and ?-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were analysed. Vitamin E induced significant changes in these enzymes thus altering the normal levels of glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis. Such changes are surely to disturb the expression and/or intensity of neurotransmitter signaling during critical periods of brain development. PMID:23984094

Dessai, Shanti N.; Pinto, Annaliza

2013-01-01

229

Reactive Intermediates Produced from Metabolism of the Vanilloid Ring of Capsaicinoids by P450 Enzymes  

PubMed Central

This study characterized electrophilic and radical products derived from metabolism of capsaicin by cytochrome P450 and peroxidase enzymes. Multiple glutathione and ?-mercaptoethanol conjugates (a.k.a., adducts), derived from trapping of quinone methide and quinone intermediates of capsaicin, its analogue nonivamide, and O-demethylated and aromatic hydroxylated metabolites thereof, were produced by human liver microsomes and individual recombinant human P450 enzymes. Conjugates derived from concomitant dehydrogenation of the alkyl terminus of capsaicin, were also characterized. Modifications to the 4-OH substituent of the vanilloid ring of capsaicinoids largely prevented the formation of electrophilic intermediates, consistent with the proposed structures and mechanisms of formation for the various conjugates. 5,5’-Dicapsaicin, presumably arising from bi-molecular coupling of free radical intermediates, was also characterized. Finally, the analysis of hepatic glutathione conjugates and urinary N-acetylcysteine conjugates from mice dosed with capsaicin confirmed the formation of glutathione conjugates of O-demethylated, quinone methide, and 5-OH-capsaicin in vivo. These data demonstrated that capsaicin and structurally similar analogues are converted to reactive intermediates by certain P450 enzymes, which may partially explain conflicting reports related to the cytotoxic, pro-carcinogenic, and chemoprotective effects of capsaicinoids in different cells and/or organ systems. PMID:23088752

Reilly, Christopher A.; Henion, Fred; Bugni, Tim S.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Stockmann, Chris; Pramanik, Kartick C.; Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Yost, Garold S.

2012-01-01

230

[Gene mining of sulfur-containing amino acid metabolic enzymes in soybean].  

PubMed

The genes of sulfur-containing amino acid synthetases in soybean are essential for the synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids. Gene mining of these enzymes is the basis for the molecular assistant breeding of high sulfur-containing amino acids in soybean. In this study, using software BioMercator2.1, 113 genes of sulfur-containing amino acid enzymes and 33 QTLs controlling the sulfur-containing amino acids content were mapped onto Consensus Map 4.0, which was integrated by genetic and physical maps of soybean. Sixteen candidate genes associated to the synthesis of sulfur-containing amino acids were screened based on the synteny between gene loci and QTLs, and the effect values of QTLs. Through a bioinformatic analysis of the copy number, SNP information, and expression profile of candidate genes, 12 related enzyme genes were identified and mapped on 8 linkage groups, such as D1a, M, A2, K, and G. The genes corresponding to QTL regions can explain 6%?38.5% genetic variation of sulfur-containing amino acids, and among them, the indirect effect values of 9 genes were more than 10%. These 12 genes were involved in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism and were highly expressed in the cotyledons and flowers, showing an abundance of SNPs. These genes can be used as candidate genes for the development of functional markers, and it will lay a foundation for molecular design breeding in soybean. PMID:25252311

Qiu, Hongmei; Hao, Wenyuan; Gao, Shuqin; Ma, Xiaoping; Zheng, Yuhong; Meng, Fanfan; Fan, Xuhong; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yueqiang; Wang, Shuming

2014-09-01

231

Isozymic forms of some energy metabolism enzymes during oncovirus-induced cell transformation.  

PubMed

Kinetic studies of changes in isozymic forms of hexokinase, lactate and malate dehydrogenase and in total hexokinase activity during viral carcinogenesis were carried out. The test systems were rat embryo fibroblasts infected with an oncogenic variant of human adenovirus type 12 and an infectious adenovirus type 6, intact REF cultures in different stages of growth (log and stationary phase), and hamster sarcoma A12 and rat reticulosarcoma 321-RRS cell cultures. Molecular isozymic forms of the stated enzymes and total hexokinase activity in the nuclear fraction and cytoplasm of cells in culture were investigated. It was shown that infectious and oncogenic viruses evoked a rearrangement in the spectrum of the energy metabolism enzymes in the nucleus and cytoplasm. The changes appeared in the first days of the contact of REF culture with the virus, and were more pronounced after the oncogenic rather than the infectious virus. The analysis of changes in isozymic forms of the enzymes under study in virus A12-infected REF cultures and in hamster sarcoma A12 and reticulosarcoma 321-RRS cells growing in vitro revealed that they had some features in common. The most pronounced changes were found with hexokinases. The changes described can serve as objective signs of cell transformation. PMID:658548

Ageenko, A I; Vitorgan, Y E; Gorozhanskaya, E G

1978-01-01

232

Midazolam metabolism in Cytochrome P450 3A knockout mice can be attributed to upregulated CYP2C enzymes  

PubMed Central

The cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes represent one of the most important drug-metabolizing systems in human. Recently, our group has generated cytochrome P450 3A knockout mice to study this drug-handling system in vivo. Here, we have characterized the Cyp3a knockout mice by studying the metabolism of midazolam, one of the most widely used probes to assess CYP3A activity. We expected that the midazolam metabolism would be severely reduced in the absence of CYP3A enzymes. We used hepatic and intestinal microsomal preparations from Cyp3a knockout and wild-type mice to assess the midazolam metabolism in vitro. In addition, in vivo metabolite formation was determined after intravenous administration of midazolam. Surprisingly, our results demonstrated that there is still marked midazolam metabolism in hepatic (but not intestinal) microsomes from Cyp3a knockout mice. Accordingly, we found comparable amounts of midazolam as well as its major metabolites in plasma after intravenous administration in Cyp3a knockout mice when compared to wild-type mice. These data suggested that other hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes could take over the midazolam metabolism in Cyp3a knockout mice. We provide evidence that CYP2C enzymes, which were found to be upregulated in Cyp3a knockout mice, are primarily responsible for this metabolism and that several but not all murine CYP2C enzymes are capable of metabolizing midazolam to its 1’-OH and/or 4-OH derivatives. These data illustrate interesting compensatory changes that may occur in Cyp3a knockout mice. Such flexible compensatory interplay between functionally related detoxifying systems is probably essential to their biological role in xenobiotic protection. PMID:18156313

van Waterschoot, Robert A.B.; van Herwaarden, Antonius E.; Lagas, Jurjen S.; Sparidans, Rolf W.; Wagenaar, Els; van der Kruijssen, Cornelia M.M.; Goldstein, Joyce A.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schinkel, Alfred H.

2008-01-01

233

Plastid Localization of the Key Carotenoid Enzyme Phytoene Synthase Is Altered by Isozyme, Allelic Variation, and Activity[W  

PubMed Central

Plant carotenoids have unique physiological roles related to specific plastid suborganellar locations. Carotenoid metabolic engineering could enhance plant adaptation to climate change and improve food security and nutritional value. However, lack of fundamental knowledge on carotenoid pathway localization limits targeted engineering. Phytoene synthase (PSY), a major rate-controlling carotenoid enzyme, is represented by multiple isozymes residing at unknown plastid sites. In maize (Zea mays), the three isozymes were transiently expressed and found either in plastoglobuli or in stroma and thylakoid membranes. PSY1, with one to two residue modifications of naturally occurring functional variants, exhibited altered localization, associated with distorted plastid shape and formation of a fibril phenotype. Mutating the active site of the enzyme reversed this phenotype. Discovery of differential PSY locations, linked with activity and isozyme type, advances the engineering potential for modifying carotenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23023170

Shumskaya, Maria; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Monaco, Regina R.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

2012-01-01

234

Crystal structure of a key enzyme in the agarolytic pathway, ?-neoagarobiose hydrolase from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40.  

PubMed

In agarolytic microorganisms, ?-neoagarobiose hydrolase (NABH) is an essential enzyme to metabolize agar because it converts ?-neoagarobiose (O-3,6-anhydro-alpha-l-galactopyranosyl-(1,3)-d-galactose) into fermentable monosaccharides (d-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose) in the agarolytic pathway. NABH can be divided into two biological classes by its cellular location. Here, we describe a structure and function of cytosolic NABH from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 in a native protein and d-galactose complex determined at 2.0 and 1.55 Ĺ, respectively. The overall fold is organized in an N-terminal helical extension and a C-terminal five-bladed ?-propeller catalytic domain. The structure of the enzyme-ligand (d-galactose) complex predicts a +1 subsite in the substrate binding pocket. The structural features may provide insights for the evolution and classification of NABH in agarolytic pathways. PMID:21810409

Ha, Sung Chul; Lee, Saeyoung; Lee, Jonas; Kim, Hee Taek; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

2011-08-26

235

Garlic Oil Attenuated Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis by Modulating the Metabolic Activation and Detoxification Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a potent carcinogen widely existing in the environment. Our previous study has demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) could prevent NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It has been well documented that the metabolic activation may play important roles in NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we designed the current study to explore the potential mechanisms by investigating the changes of hepatic phase ? enzymes (including cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) 2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP1A1) and phase ? enzymes (including glutathione S transferases (GSTs) and UDP- Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)) by using enzymatic methods, real-time PCR, and western blotting analysis. We found that NDEA treatment resulted in significant decreases of the activities of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu, UGTs and increases of the activities of CYP1A1 and GST pi. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu and UGT1A6 in the liver of NDEA-treated rats were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group rats, while the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A1 and GST pi were dramatically increased. Interestingly, all these adverse effects induced by NDEA were simultaneously and significantly suppressed by GO co-treatment. These data suggest that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis might be, at least partially, attributed to the modulation of phase I and phase II enzymes. PMID:23494807

Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

2013-01-01

236

Differential detection of key enzymes of polyaromatic-hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria using PCR and gene probes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria with ability to degrade polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), isolated from wastewater and soil samples, were investigated for their taxonomic, physiological and genetic diversity. Eighteen isolates able to metabolize naphthalene or phenanthrene as sole carbon source were taxonomically affiliated to different subclasses of the Proteobacteria (Sphingomonas spp., Acidovorax spp., Comamonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and to phyla of Gram-positive bacteria with

Svenja Meyer; Ralf Moser; Alexander Neef; U. Stahl; Peter Kampfer

1999-01-01

237

Experiment K-6-21. Effect of Microgravity on (1) Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers and on (2) Metabolic Enzymes, Neutransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Motor and Somatosensory Cerebral Cortex. Part 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Individual Muscle Fibers; Part 2: Metabolic Enzymes of Hippocampus and Spinal Cord.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The individual fibers of any individual muscle vary greatly in enzyme composition, a fact which is obscured when enzyme levels of a whole muscle are measured. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the changes due to weightless on the enzyme pa...

O. Lowry, D. McDougal, P. M. Nemeth, M. C. Maggie, M. Pusateri

1990-01-01

238

Molecular architecture of DesI: a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of desosamine.  

PubMed

Desosamine is a 3-(dimethylamino)-3,4,6-trideoxyhexose found, for example, in such macrolide antibiotics as erthyromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin. The efficacies of these macrolide antibiotics are markedly reduced in the absence of desosamine. In the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, six enzymes are required for the production of dTDP-desosamine. The focus of this X-ray crystallographic analysis is the third enzyme in the pathway, a PLP-dependent aminotransferase referred to as DesI. The structure of DesI was solved in complex with its product, dTDP-4-amino-4,6-dideoxyglucose, to a nominal resolution of 2.1 A. Each subunit of the dimeric enzyme contains 12 alpha-helices and 14 beta-strands. Three cis-peptides are observed in each subunit, Phe 330, Pro 332, and Pro 339. The two active sites of the enzyme are located in clefts at the subunit/subunit interface. Electron density corresponding to the bound product clearly demonstrates a covalent bond between the amino group of the product and C-4' of the PLP cofactor. Interestingly, there are no hydrogen-bonding interactions between the protein and the dideoxyglucosyl group of the product (within 3.2 A). The only other sugar-modifying aminotransferase whose structure is known in the presence of product is PseC from Helicobacter pylori. This enzyme, as opposed to DesI, catalyzes amino transfer to the axial position of the sugar. A superposition of the two active sites for these proteins reveals that the major differences in ligand binding occur in the orientations of the deoxyglucosyl and phosphoryl groups. Indeed, the nearly 180 degrees difference in hexose orientation explains the equatorial versus axial amino transfer exhibited by DesI and PseC, respectively. PMID:17630700

Burgie, E Sethe; Holden, Hazel M

2007-08-01

239

Cytochromes P450: Inhibition of CYP2A Enzymes Involved in Xenobiotic Metabolism and Generation of CYP26 Enzymes Involved in Retinoic Acid Metabolism  

E-print Network

and inhibitors specifically interact with the individual enzymes within these families. The functional enzymes of the human CYP2A family include CYP2A6 and CYP2A13. CYP2A6 is primarily a hepatic enzyme, while CYP2A13 is mainly expressed within the respiratory...

Stephens, Eva Susanne

2012-08-31

240

The effect of liver microsomal enzyme inducing and inhibiting drugs on insulin mediated glucose metabolism in man.  

PubMed

The effects of hepatic microsomal enzyme inducing (phenobarbitone and flumecinol), and inhibiting (cimetidine) drugs, and placebo treatment on insulin mediated glucose metabolism (M) were investigated in 29 healthy volunteers. Phenobarbitone (50 mg for 10 days) increased M (30%), metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCRg), and antipyrine clearance rate (33%). Fasting immunoreactive insulin (IRI) decreased while fasting blood glucose (BG) remained unaltered. Flumecinol, another inducer, tested in two doses (200 mg and 600 mg for 6 days), did not alter glucose or antipyrine metabolism. Fasting IRI reduced on treatment with 600 mg of flumecinol, but not with the smaller dose. Cimetidine (600 mg for 6 days) decreased M (19.5%), MCRg (26%), and antipyrine clearance rate (20%). The placebo did not alter glucose or antipyrine metabolism. The results indicate that the insulin mediated glucose disposal rate can be altered by drugs influencing hepatic microsomal enzyme activity. PMID:3511933

Lahtela, J T; Gachalyi, B; Eksymä, S; Hämäläinen, A; Sotaniemi, E A

1986-01-01

241

Changes in nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities of maize tassel in black soils region of northeast China  

PubMed Central

Two varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in fields in black soils of northeast China were tested to study the dynamic changes of nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize. Results showed that antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize increased first and then decreased with the growing of maize, and reached peak value at shedding period. Pattern of proline was consistent with antioxidant enzyme activity, showing that osmotic adjustment could protect many enzymes, which are important for cell metabolism. Continuous reduction of soluble protein content along with the growing of maize was observed in the study, which indicated that quantitative material and energy were provided for pollen formation. Besides, another major cause was that a large proportion of nitrogen was used for the composition of structural protein. Nitrate nitrogen concentrations of tassels were more variable than ammonium nitrogen, which showed that nitrate nitrogen was the favored nitrogen source for maize.

Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan; Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin

2014-01-01

242

Enzymatic analysis of Tet proteins: key enzymes in the metabolism of DNA methylation.  

PubMed

One of the most exciting recent advances in the epigenetic field is the discovery that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA can be iteratively oxidized by a family of proteins known as Tet proteins to generate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). These 5mC derivatives can be further processed by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) followed by base excision repair or by replication-dependent dilution leading to DNA demethylation. Given the similarity between 5mC and its oxidation derivatives, many of the conventional techniques used for 5mC analysis cannot distinguish between 5mC and 5hmC/5fC/5caC. Here, we describe 2D-TLC and mass spectrometry methods that we have successfully used in differentiating 5mC from its oxidative derivatives as well as in characterizing the enzymatic activity of Tet proteins both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22910204

Shen, Li; Zhang, Yi

2012-01-01

243

Effect of metanil yellow, orange II and their blend on hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

The effects of Metanil yellow, Orange II and their blend on hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes were compared. Parenteral administration of Metanil yellow and Orange II to rats at a dose of 80 mg/kg body weight for 3 days caused a significant induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (40-190%), aniline hydroxylase (27-92%), aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (50-62%) and aminopyrine N-demethylase (42-49%) activities. Metanil yellow and Orange II brought about a substantial increase in cytosolic quinone reductase (34-82%) and glutathione S-transferase (23-43%) activities and significant depletion of glutathione levels with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxide formation. A blend (1:1) of Metanil yellow and Orange II showed a synergistic or additive effect on these hepatic parameters, suggesting that the addition of these two prohibited dyes together in foodstuffs may give rise to more toxic effects than are produced by each dye individually. PMID:8045463

Ramchandani, S; Das, M; Khanna, S K

1994-06-01

244

Gene Expression Variability in Human Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters  

PubMed Central

Interindividual variability in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) in human liver may contribute to interindividual differences in drug efficacy and adverse reactions. Published studies that analyzed variability in the expression of DMET genes were limited by sample sizes and the number of genes profiled. We systematically analyzed the expression of 374 DMETs from a microarray data set consisting of gene expression profiles derived from 427 human liver samples. The standard deviation of interindividual expression for DMET genes was much higher than that for non-DMET genes. The 20 DMET genes with the largest variability in the expression provided examples of the interindividual variation. Gene expression data were also analyzed using network analysis methods, which delineates the similarities of biological functionalities and regulation mechanisms for these highly variable DMET genes. Expression variability of human hepatic DMET genes may affect drug-gene interactions and disease susceptibility, with concomitant clinical implications. PMID:23637747

Yang, Lun; Price, Elvin T.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Li, Yan; Huang, Ying; Guo, Li-Wu; Guo, Yongli; Kaput, Jim; Shi, Leming; Ning, Baitang

2013-01-01

245

Altered Constitutive Expression of Fatty Acid-metabolizing Enzymes in Mice Lacking the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor a (PPARa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a (PPARa )i s a member of the steroid\\/nuclear receptor superfamily and mediates the biological and toxicological effects of peroxi- some proliferators. To determine the physiological role of PPARa in fatty acid metabolism, levels of peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolizing enzymes were deter- mined in the PPARa null mouse. Constitutive liver b-oxida- tion of the long

Toshifumi Aoyama; Jeffrey M. Peters; Nobuko Iritanii; Tamie Nakajima; Kenichi Furihata; Takashi Hashimoto; Frank J. Gonzalez

1998-01-01

246

Enzyme Informatics  

PubMed Central

Over the last 50 years, sequencing, structural biology and bioinformatics have completely revolutionised biomolecular science, with millions of sequences and tens of thousands of three dimensional structures becoming available. The bioinformatics of enzymes is well served by, mostly free, online databases. BRENDA describes the chemistry, substrate specificity, kinetics, preparation and biological sources of enzymes, while KEGG is valuable for understanding enzymes and metabolic pathways. EzCatDB, SFLD and MACiE are key repositories for data on the chemical mechanisms by which enzymes operate. At the current rate of genome sequencing and manual annotation, human curation will never finish the functional annotation of the ever-expanding list of known enzymes. Hence there is an increasing need for automated annotation, though it is not yet widespread for enzyme data. In contrast, functional ontologies such as the Gene Ontology already profit from automation. Despite our growing understanding of enzyme structure and dynamics, we are only beginning to be able to design novel enzymes. One can now begin to trace the functional evolution of enzymes using phylogenetics. The ability of enzymes to perform secondary functions, albeit relatively inefficiently, gives clues as to how enzyme function evolves. Substrate promiscuity in enzymes is one example of imperfect specificity in protein-ligand interactions. Similarly, most drugs bind to more than one protein target. This may sometimes result in helpful polypharmacology as a drug modulates plural targets, but also often leads to adverse side-effects. Many cheminformatics approaches can be used to model the interactions between druglike molecules and proteins in silico. We can even use quantum chemical techniques like DFT and QM/MM to compute the structural and energetic course of enzyme catalysed chemical reaction mechanisms, including a full description of bond making and breaking. PMID:23116471

Alderson, Rosanna G.; Ferrari, Luna De; Mavridis, Lazaros; McDonagh, James L.; Mitchell, John B. O.; Nath, Neetika

2012-01-01

247

Expression pattern of glycoside hydrolase genes in Lutzomyia longipalpis reveals key enzymes involved in larval digestion.  

PubMed

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. Adults are phytophagous (males and females) or blood feeders (females only), and larvae feed on solid detritus. Digestion in sand fly larvae has scarcely been studied, but some glycosidase activities putatively involved in microorganism digestion were already described. Nevertheless, the molecular nature of these enzymes, as the corresponding genes and transcripts, were not explored yet. Catabolism of microbial carbohydrates in insects generally involves ?-1,3-glucanases, chitinases, and digestive lysozymes. In this work, the transcripts of digestive ?-1,3-glucanase and chitinases were identified in the L. longipalpis larvae throughout analysis of sequences and expression patterns of glycoside hydrolases families 16, 18, and 22. The activity of one i-type lysozyme was also registered. Interestingly, this lysozyme seems to play a role in immunity, rather than digestion. This is the first attempt to identify the molecular nature of sand fly larval digestive enzymes. PMID:25140153

Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Diaz-Albiter, Hector M; Faria, Maiara do Valle; Sant'Anna, Maurício R V; Dillon, Rod J; Genta, Fernando A

2014-01-01

248

Expression pattern of glycoside hydrolase genes in Lutzomyia longipalpis reveals key enzymes involved in larval digestion  

PubMed Central

The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. Adults are phytophagous (males and females) or blood feeders (females only), and larvae feed on solid detritus. Digestion in sand fly larvae has scarcely been studied, but some glycosidase activities putatively involved in microorganism digestion were already described. Nevertheless, the molecular nature of these enzymes, as the corresponding genes and transcripts, were not explored yet. Catabolism of microbial carbohydrates in insects generally involves ?-1,3-glucanases, chitinases, and digestive lysozymes. In this work, the transcripts of digestive ?-1,3-glucanase and chitinases were identified in the L. longipalpis larvae throughout analysis of sequences and expression patterns of glycoside hydrolases families 16, 18, and 22. The activity of one i-type lysozyme was also registered. Interestingly, this lysozyme seems to play a role in immunity, rather than digestion. This is the first attempt to identify the molecular nature of sand fly larval digestive enzymes. PMID:25140153

Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Diaz-Albiter, Hector M.; Faria, Maiara do Valle; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R. V.; Dillon, Rod J.; Genta, Fernando A.

2014-01-01

249

Age-related alteration of PKC, a key enzyme in memory processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain aging is characterized by a progressive decline of the cognitive and memory functions. It is becoming increasingly clear\\u000a that protein phosphorylation and, in particular, the activity of the calcium-phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PKC)\\u000a may be one of the fundamental cellular changes associated with memory function. PKC is a multigene family of enzymes highly\\u000a expressed in brain tissues. The activation

A. Pascale; S. Govoni; F. Battaini

1998-01-01

250

Effects of atorvastatin metabolites on induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters through human pregnane X receptor  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Atorvastatin metabolites differ in their potential for drug interaction because of differential inhibition of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. We here investigate whether they exert differential effects on the induction of these genes via activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ligand binding to PXR or CAR was analysed by mammalian two-hybrid assembly and promoter/reporter gene assays. Additionally, surface plasmon resonance was used to analyse ligand binding to CAR. Primary human hepatocytes were treated with atorvastatin metabolites, and mRNA and protein expression of PXR-regulated genes was measured. Two-hybrid co-activator interaction and co-repressor release assays were utilized to elucidate the molecular mechanism of PXR activation. KEY RESULTS All atorvastatin metabolites induced the assembly of PXR and activated CYP3A4 promoter activity. Ligand binding to CAR could not be proven. In primary human hepatocytes, the para-hydroxy metabolite markedly reduced or abolished induction of cytochrome P450 and transporter genes. While significant differences in co-activator recruitment were not observed, para-hydroxy atorvastatin demonstrated only 50% release of co-repressors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Atorvastatin metabolites are ligands of PXR but not of CAR. Atorvastatin metabolites demonstrate differential induction of PXR target genes, which results from impaired release of co-repressors. Consequently, the properties of drug metabolites have to be taken into account when analysing PXR-dependent induction of drug metabolism and transport. The drug interaction potential of the active metabolite, para-hydroxy atorvastatin, might be lower than that of the parent compound. PMID:21913896

Hoffart, E; Ghebreghiorghis, L; Nussler, AK; Thasler, WE; Weiss, TS; Schwab, M; Burk, O

2012-01-01

251

Alteration of Fatty-Acid-Metabolizing Enzymes Affects Mitochondrial Form and Function in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia  

PubMed Central

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A.M.; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S.; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M.; Durand, Christelle M.; Oteyza, Andres Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H.; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A.; Kabiraj, Mohammad M.; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z.; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-01-01

252

Alteration of fatty-acid-metabolizing enzymes affects mitochondrial form and function in hereditary spastic paraplegia.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, Mustafa A M; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, Maha S; Al Balwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, Filippo M; Durand, Christelle M; Oteyza, Andrés Caballero; El-Hachimi, Khalid H; Al Drees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, Salah A; Kabiraj, Mohammad M; Seidahmed, Mohammed Z; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, Joseph G; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

2012-12-01

253

Effect of ethyl choline mustard on choline dehydrogenase and other enzymes of choline metabolism.  

PubMed

The effect of ethyl choline mustard (ECMA), and effective irreversible inhibitor of choline transport, was investigated on the enzymes of choline metabolism. ECMA at concentrations of 50 microM hardly affected choline acetyltransferase and caused only a 20% inhibition of choline kinase at a concentration of 1 mM. However, the mustard was an extremely effective inhibitor of choline dehydrogenase, producing 50% inhibition at concentrations of 6 microM. The inhibition was prevented by incubation in the presence of choline or by prior reaction of the mustard with thiosulphate. Separation of the components of the ECMA solution on TLC suggested that only the compound with an aziridine ring was an effective inhibitor of choline dehydrogenase. The inhibition was resistant to the washing out of excess unreacted mustard. The rate constant of inhibition was 395 M-1 X S-1. By the use of [3H]ECMA a single polypeptide in the enzyme preparation having a MW of 67,000 was labelled. The labelling was thiosulphate-sensitive and prevented by incubation with choline. It is concluded that ECMA is an irreversible inhibitor of choline dehydrogenase. It is at least as effective an inhibitor of choline dehydrogenase as of the choline transport system, although it does not appreciably inhibit choline acetyltransferase or choline kinase in the micromolar range. PMID:6387054

Barlow, P; Marchbanks, R M

1984-12-01

254

Polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes: What is their clinical relevance and why do they exist?  

SciTech Connect

The beautiful report by Sachse in this issue of the journal represents the culmination of 2 decades of increasingly exciting work on the {open_quotes}debrisoquine oxidation polymorphism,{close_quotes} one of dozens of pharmacogenetic or ecogenetic polymorphisms that have been shown to have an important impact on innumerable clinical diseases. Pharmacogenetics is the study of the hereditary basis of the differences in responses to drugs. Ecogenetics is the broader field of interindividual differences in response to all environmental chemical and physical agents (e.g., heavy metals, insecticides, compounds formed during combustion, and UV radiation). It is now clear that each of us has his or her own {open_quotes}individual fingerprint{close_quotes} of unique alleles encoding the so-called drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and the receptors that regulate these enzymes. In this invited editorial, I first introduce the current thinking in the field of DME (and DME-receptor) research and how DMEs have evolved from animal-plant interactions. I then describe the debrisoquine oxidation polymorphism, as well as two other relevant DME polymorphisms; show the relationship between these polymorphisms and human disease; provide examples of synergistic effects caused by the combination of two DME polymorphisms; and discuss the ethical considerations of such research. Last, I speculate on why these allelic frequencies of the DME genes might exist in human populations in the first place. 35 refs.

Nebert, D.W. [Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (United States)

1997-02-01

255

'Chiral compartmentation' in metabolism: enzyme stereo-specificity yielding evolutionary options.  

PubMed

We introduce the concept of 'chiral compartmentation' in metabolism that emerges from the stereo-specificity of enzymes for their substrate(s). The fully differentiated mammalian erythrocyte has no sub-cellular organelles and yet it displays compartmentation of lactic acid that is generated either by glycolysis or the glyoxalase pathway. A form of 'operational compartmentation' exists, based not on the chemistry of the reactive groups in the molecules but their stereoisomerism. This we call 'chiral compartmentation', and the rationale for its 'natural selection' in the erythrocyte (and presumably in the cytoplasm of other cells) is discussed. Increasing awareness of the presence of d-amino acids in proteins in the otherwise dominant 'L-chiral biosphere', and of the preferential use of one enantiomer of a metabolite versus the other is largely due to recent developments in rapidly-applicable, analytical-chemical methods. We confirmed that the glyoxalase pathway yields D-lactic acid by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of stretched chiral hydrogels. The activities of the two lactate-producing pathways have been described by numerical integration of simultaneous non-linear differential equations, based on enzyme models like that introduced by Michaelis and Menten in 1913. PMID:23707419

Kuchel, Philip W; Pagčs, Guilhem; Naumann, Christoph

2013-09-01

256

Protective effect of p-methoxycinnamic acid, an active phenolic acid against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis: modulating biotransforming bacterial enzymes and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Objective of the study is to evaluate the modifying potential of p-methoxycinnamic acid (p-MCA), an active rice bran phenolic acid on biotransforming bacterial enzymes and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. 48 male albino wistar rats were divided into six groups. Group1 (control) received modified pellet diet and 0.1 % carboxymethylcellulose; group2 received modified pellet diet along with p-MCA (80 mg/kg b.wt. p.o.) everyday for 16 weeks; groups 3-6 received 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg b.wt.) subcutaneous injection once a week for the first 4 weeks, while groups 4-6 received p-MCA at three different doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg b.wt. p.o. everyday for 16 weeks. A significant increase in carcinogen-activating enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, cytochrome P4502E1, NADH-cytochrome-b5-reductase and NADPH-cytochrome-P450 reductase) with concomitant decrease in phaseII enzymes, DT-Diaphorase, glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyl-transferase and gamma glutamyltransferase were observed in group3 compared to control. DMH treatment significantly increased the activities of feacal and colonic bacterial enzymes (?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase, ?-glucuronidase, nitroreductase, sulphatase and mucinase). p-MCA supplementation (40 mg/kg b.wt) to carcinogen exposed rats inhibited these enzymes, which were near those of control rats. The formation of dysplastic aberrant crypt foci in the colon and the histopathological observations of the liver also supports our biochemical findings. p-MCA (40 mg/kg b.wt.) offers remarkable modulating efficacy of biotransforming bacterial and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24908112

Gunasekaran, Sivagami; Venkatachalam, Karthikkumar; Jeyavel, Kabalimoorthy; Namasivayam, Nalini

2014-09-01

257

Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in cells used for testing skin sensitization in vitro.  

PubMed

For ethical and regulatory reasons, in vitro tests for scoring potential toxicities of cosmetics are essential. A test strategy for investigating potential skin sensitization using two human keratinocytic and two human dendritic cell lines has been developed (Mehling et al. Arch Toxicol 86:1273–1295, 2012). Since prohaptens may be metabolically activated in the skin, information on xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) activities in these cell lines is of high interest. In this study, XME activity assays, monitoring metabolite or cofactor, showed the following: all three passages of keratinocytic (KeratinoSens® and LuSens) and dendritic (U937 und THP-1) cells displayed N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) activities (about 6–60 nmol/min/mg S9-protein for acetylation of para-aminobenzoic acid). This is relevant since reactive species of many cosmetics are metabolically controlled by cutaneous NAT1. Esterase activities of about 1–4 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein were observed in all passages of investigated keratinocytic and about 1 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein in dendritic cell lines. This is also of practical relevance since many esters and amides are detoxified and others activated by cutaneous esterases. In both keratinocytic cell lines, activities of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were observed (5–17 nmol product/min/mg cytosolic protein). ALDH is relevant for the detoxication of reactive aldehydes. Activities of several other XME were below detection, namely the investigated cytochrome P450-dependent alkylresorufin O-dealkylases 7-ethylresorufin O-deethylase, 7-benzylresorufin O-debenzylase and 7-pentylresorufin O-depentylase (while NADPH cytochrome c reductase activities were much above the limit of quantification), the flavin-containing monooxygenase, the alcohol dehydrogenase as well as the UDP glucuronosyl transferase activities. PMID:23958860

Fabian, E; Vogel, D; Blatz, V; Ramirez, T; Kolle, S; Eltze, T; van Ravenzwaay, B; Oesch, F; Landsiedel, R

2013-09-01

258

Structural Studies of Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase and Cinnamyl-Alcohol Dehydrogenase, Key Enzymes of Monolignol Biosynthesis.  

PubMed

The enzymes cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyze the two key reduction reactions in the conversion of cinnamic acid derivatives into monolignol building blocks for lignin polymers in plant cell walls. Here, we describe detailed functional and structural analyses of CCRs from Medicago truncatula and Petunia hybrida and of an atypical CAD (CAD2) from M. truncatula. These enzymes are closely related members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Our structural studies support a reaction mechanism involving a canonical SDR catalytic triad in both CCR and CAD2 and an important role for an auxiliary cysteine unique to CCR. Site-directed mutants of CAD2 (Phe226Ala and Tyr136Phe) that enlarge the phenolic binding site result in a 4- to 10-fold increase in activity with sinapaldehyde, which in comparison to the smaller coumaraldehyde and coniferaldehyde substrates is disfavored by wild-type CAD2. This finding demonstrates the potential exploitation of rationally engineered forms of CCR and CAD2 for the targeted modification of monolignol composition in transgenic plants. Thermal denaturation measurements and structural comparisons of various liganded and unliganded forms of CCR and CAD2 highlight substantial conformational flexibility of these SDR enzymes, which plays an important role in the establishment of catalytically productive complexes of the enzymes with their NADPH and phenolic substrates. PMID:25217505

Pan, Haiyun; Zhou, Rui; Louie, Gordon V; Mühlemann, Joëlle K; Bomati, Erin K; Bowman, Marianne E; Dudareva, Natalia; Dixon, Richard A; Noel, Joseph P; Wang, Xiaoqiang

2014-09-01

259

Epigenetic Regulation of Uterine Biology by Transcription Factor KLF11 via Posttranslational Histone Deacetylation of Cytochrome p450 Metabolic Enzymes.  

PubMed

Endocrine regulation of uterine biology is critical for embryo receptivity and human reproduction. Uterine endometrium depends on extrinsic sex steroid input and hence likely has mechanisms that enable adaptation to hormonal variation. Emerging evidence suggests that sex steroid bioavailability in the endometrium is determined by adjusting their metabolic rate and fate via regulation of cytochrome (CYP) p450 enzymes. The CYP enzymes are targeted by ubiquitously expressed Sp/Krüppel-like (Sp/KLF) transcription factors. Specifically, KLF11 is highly expressed in reproductive tissues, regulates an array of endocrine/metabolic pathways via epigenetic histone-based mechanisms and, when aberrantly expressed, is associated with diabetes and reproductive tract diseases, such as leiomyoma and endometriosis. Using KLF11 as a model to investigate epigenetic regulation of endometrial first-pass metabolism, we evaluated the expression of a comprehensive array of metabolic enzymes in Ishikawa cells. KLF11 repressed most endometrial CYP enzymes. To characterize KLF11-recruited epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, we focused on the estrogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. KLF11 expression declined in secretory phase endometrial epithelium associated with increased CYP3A4 expression. Additionally, KLF11 bound to CYP3A4 promoter GC elements and thereby repressed promoter, message, protein as well as enzymatic function. This repression was epigenetically mediated, because KLF11 colocalized with and recruited the corepressor SIN3A/histone deacetylase resulting in selective deacetylation of the CYP3A4 promoter. Repression was reversed by a mutation in KLF11 that abrogated cofactor recruitment and binding. This repression was also pharmacologically reversible with an histone deacetylase inhibitor. Pharmacological alteration of endometrial metabolism could have long-term translational implications on human reproduction and uterine disease. PMID:25076120

Zheng, Ye; Tabbaa, Zaid M; Khan, Zaraq; Schoolmeester, John K; El-Nashar, Sherif; Famuyide, Abimbola; Keeney, Gary L; Daftary, Gaurang S

2014-11-01

260

Identification of metabolic pathways involved in the biotransformation of tolperisone by human microsomal enzymes.  

PubMed

The in vitro metabolism of tolperisone, 1-(4-methyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-3-(1-piperidino)-1-propanone-hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, was examined in human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant enzymes. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements revealed methyl-hydroxylation (metabolite at m/z 261; M1) as the main metabolic route in HLM, however, metabolites of two mass units greater than the parent compound and the hydroxy-metabolite were also detected (m/z 247 and m/z 263, respectively). The latter was identified as carbonyl-reduced M1, the former was assumed to be the carbonyl-reduced parent compound. Isoform-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibitors, inhibitory antibodies, and experiments with recombinant P450s pointed to CYP2D6 as the prominent enzyme in tolperisone metabolism. CYP2C19, CYP2B6, and CYP1A2 are also involved to a smaller extent. Hydroxymethyl-tolperisone formation was mediated by CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, but not by CYP2B6. Tolperisone competitively inhibited dextromethorphan O-demethylation and bufuralol hydroxylation (K(i) = 17 and 30 microM, respectively). Tolperisone inhibited methyl p-tolyl sulfide oxidation (K(i) = 1200 microM) in recombinant flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) and resulted in a 3-fold (p < 0.01) higher turnover number using rFMO3 than that of control microsomes. Experiments using nonspecific P450 inhibitors-SKF-525A, 1-aminobenzotriazole, 1-benzylimidazole, and anti-NADPH-P450-reductase antibodies-resulted in 61, 47, 49, and 43% inhibition of intrinsic clearance in HLM, respectively, whereas hydroxymethyl-metabolite formation was inhibited completely by nonspecific chemical inhibitors and by 80% with antibodies. Therefore, it was concluded that tolperisone undergoes P450-dependent and P450-independent microsomal biotransformations to the same extent. On the basis of metabolites formed and indirect evidences of inhibition studies, a considerable involvement of a microsomal reductase is assumed. PMID:12695352

Dalmadi, Balázs; Leibinger, János; Szeberényi, Szabolcs; Borbás, Tímea; Farkas, Sándor; Szombathelyi, Zsolt; Tihanyi, Károly

2003-05-01

261

Pharmacogenomics of drug-metabolizing enzymes: a recent update on clinical implications and endogenous effects.  

PubMed

Interindividual differences in drug disposition are important causes for adverse drug reactions and lack of drug response. The majority of phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) are polymorphic and constitute essential factors for the outcome of drug therapy. Recently, both genome-wide association (GWA) studies with a focus on drug response, as well as more targeted studies of genes encoding DMEs have revealed in-depth information and provided additional information for variation in drug metabolism and drug response, resulting in increased knowledge that aids drug development and clinical practice. In addition, an increasing number of meta-analyses have been published based on several original and often conflicting pharmacogenetic studies. Here, we review data regarding the pharmacogenomics of DMEs, with particular emphasis on novelties. We conclude that recent studies have emphasized the importance of CYP2C19 polymorphism for the effects of clopidogrel, whereas the CYP2C9 polymorphism appears to have a role in anticoagulant treatment, although inferior to VKORC1. Furthermore, the analgesic and side effects of codeine in relation to CYP2D6 polymorphism are supported and the influence of CYP2D6 genotype on breast cancer recurrence during tamoxifen treatment appears relevant as based on three large studies. The influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the effect of antidepressants in a clinical setting is yet without any firm evidence, and the relation between CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers and suicide behavior warrants further studies. There is evidence for the influence of CYP3A5 polymorphism on tacrolimus dose, although the influence on response is less studied. Recent large GWA studies support a link between CYP1A2 polymorphism and blood pressure as well as coffee consumption, and between CYP2A6 polymorphism and cigarette consumption, which in turn appears to influence the lung cancer incidence. Regarding phase II enzyme polymorphism, the anticancer treatment with mercaptopurines and irinotecan is still considered important in relation to the polymorphism of TPMT and UGT1A1, respectively. There is a need for further clarification of the clinical importance and use of all these findings, but the recent research in the field that encompasses larger studies and a whole genome perspective, improves the possibilities be able to make firm and cost-effective recommendations for drug treatment in the future. PMID:23089672

Sim, S C; Kacevska, M; Ingelman-Sundberg, M

2013-02-01

262

Structural Insights into Maize Viviparous14, a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid W  

SciTech Connect

The key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a hormone central to the regulation of several important processes in plants, is the oxidative cleavage of the 11,12 double bond of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The enzyme viviparous14 (VP14) performs this cleavage in maize (Zea mays), making it a target for the rational design of novel chemical agents and genetic modifications that improve plant behavior through the modulation of ABA levels. The structure of VP14, determined to 3.2-{angstrom} resolution, provides both insight into the determinants of regio- and stereospecificity of this enzyme and suggests a possible mechanism for oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the distantly related CCD1 of maize shows how the VP14 structure represents a template for all plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). In addition, the structure suggests how VP14 associates with the membrane as a way of gaining access to its membrane soluble substrate.

Messing, S.; Gabelli, S; Echeverria, I; Vogel, J; Guan, J; Tan, B; Klee, H; McCarty, D; Amzela, M

2010-01-01

263

Structural insights into maize viviparous14, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid.  

PubMed

The key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a hormone central to the regulation of several important processes in plants, is the oxidative cleavage of the 11,12 double bond of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The enzyme viviparous14 (VP14) performs this cleavage in maize (Zea mays), making it a target for the rational design of novel chemical agents and genetic modifications that improve plant behavior through the modulation of ABA levels. The structure of VP14, determined to 3.2-Ĺ resolution, provides both insight into the determinants of regio- and stereospecificity of this enzyme and suggests a possible mechanism for oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the distantly related CCD1 of maize shows how the VP14 structure represents a template for all plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). In addition, the structure suggests how VP14 associates with the membrane as a way of gaining access to its membrane soluble substrate. PMID:20884803

Messing, Simon A J; Gabelli, Sandra B; Echeverria, Ignacia; Vogel, Jonathan T; Guan, Jiahn Chou; Tan, Bao Cai; Klee, Harry J; McCarty, Donald R; Amzel, L Mario

2010-09-01

264

Structural Insights into Maize Viviparous14, a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid  

SciTech Connect

The key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a hormone central to the regulation of several important processes in plants, is the oxidative cleavage of the 11,12 double bond of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The enzyme viviparous14 (VP14) performs this cleavage in maize (Zea mays), making it a target for the rational design of novel chemical agents and genetic modifications that improve plant behavior through the modulation of ABA levels. The structure of VP14, determined to 3.2-{angstrom} resolution, provides both insight into the determinants of regio- and stereospecificity of this enzyme and suggests a possible mechanism for oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the distantly related CCD1 of maize shows how the VP14 structure represents a template for all plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). In addition, the structure suggests how VP14 associates with the membrane as a way of gaining access to its membrane soluble substrate.

Messing, Simon A.J.; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Echeverria, Ignacia; Vogel, Jonathan T.; Guan, Jiahn Chou; Tan, Bao Cai; Klee, Harry J.; McCarty, Donald R.; Amzel, L. Mario (JHU); (Florida)

2011-09-06

265

Predicting Enzyme Functional Surfaces and Locating Key Residues Automatically from Structures  

E-print Network

and residue occurrence in active sites, we develop a method to identify functionally important surfaces on protein structures and to locate key residues. We discuss application of our methods to amylase.C.) numbers. However, in many cases there is no information about where the active site is located

Dai, Yang

266

Simultaneous modulation of transport and metabolism of acyclovir prodrugs across rabbit cornea: An approach involving enzyme inhibitors.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to identify the class of enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir (ACV) and to modulate transport and metabolism of amino acid and dipeptide prodrugs of acyclovir by enzyme inhibitors across rabbit cornea. l-Valine ester of acyclovir, valacyclovir (VACV) and l-glycine-valine ester of acyclovir, gly-val-acyclovir (GVACV) were used as model compounds. Hydrolysis studies of VACV and GVACV in corneal homogenate were conducted in presence of various enzyme inhibitors. IC(50) values were determined for the enzyme inhibitors. Transport studies were conducted with isolated rabbit corneas at 34 degrees C. Complete inhibition of VACV hydrolysis was observed in the presence of Pefabloc SC (4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl-fluoride) and PCMB (p-chloromercuribenzoic acid). Similar trend was also observed with GVACV in the presence of bestatin. IC(50) values of PCMB and bestatin for VACV and GVACV were found to be 3.81+/-0.94 and 0.34+/-0.08muM respectively. Eserine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate (TEPP) and diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) also produced significant inhibition of VACV hydrolysis. Transport of VACV and GVACV across cornea showed decreased metabolic rate and modulation of transport in presence of PCMB and bestain respectively. The principle enzyme classes responsible for the hydrolysis of VACV and GVACV were carboxylesterases and aminopeptidases respectively. Enzyme inhibitors modulated the transport and metabolism of prodrugs simultaneously even though their affinity towards prodrugs was distinct. In conclusion, utility of enzyme inhibitors to modulate transport and metabolism of prodrugs appears to be promising strategy for enhancing drug transport across cornea. PMID:16720085

Katragadda, Suresh; Talluri, Ravi S; Mitra, Ashim K

2006-08-31

267

Activities of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolizing enzymes from liver of mink ( Mustela vison) and preliminary observations on steady state kinetics of the enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity and some kinetic parameters of the key enzymes of the glycolysis, the gluconeogenesis and the amino acid catabolism from the liver of male and female mink have been determined and compared to the corresponding activities from rat and cat. The activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and pyruvate kinase are dependent on sex, both being higher in females. Except for pyruvate

P. G. Sorensen; I. M. Petersen; O. Sand

1995-01-01

268

Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver, spleen, and head kidney following experimental Listeria monocytogenes infection.  

PubMed

Infection of carp with Listeria monocytogenes 4b resulted in decreased liver, spleen, and head kidney enzyme activities, involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. After infection, cytochrome P-450 levels and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were decreased while conjugation enzymes remained unaffected. The maximum decrease for phase I enzymes occurred on d 3. This loss of monooxygenase levels and activity could not be directly correlated with an increase in the number of organisms, as consistently high bacterial counts were observed in all three organs during infection. The effect of L. monocytogenes infection was also measured in carp exposed to 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Cytochrome P-450 levels and EROD activity were significantly reduced, especially on d 3. A significant decreased activity of conjugation enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) was also observed for all days studied. Listeria infection inhibited MCA-induced increases in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities. These results indicate that infection may have deleterious effects on basal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase levels. Furthermore, MCA treatment aggravates the insult to xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes by L. monocytogenes infection, by impairing a number of detoxification enzymes. These findings could result in significant changes in the susceptibility of fish to pollutants. PMID:9973004

Chambras, C; Marionnet, D; Taysse, L; Deschaux, P; Moreau, J; Bosgiraud, C

1999-02-12

269

Crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis MenB, a key enzyme in vitamin K2 biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Bacterial enzymes of the menaquinone (Vitamin K2) pathway are potential drug targets because they lack human homologs. MenB, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA synthase, the fourth enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway leading from chorismate to menaquinone, catalyzes the conversion of O-succinylbenzoyl-CoA (OSB-CoA) to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-CoA (DHNA-CoA). Based on our interest in developing novel tuberculosis chemotherapeutics, we have solved the structures of MenB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its complex with acetoacetyl-coenzyme A at 1.8 and 2.3 A resolution, respectively. Like other members of the crotonase superfamily, MenB folds as an (alpha3)2 hexamer, but its fold is distinct in that the C terminus crosses the trimer-trimer interface, forming a flexible part of the active site within the opposing trimer. The highly conserved active site of MenB contains a deep pocket lined by Asp-192, Tyr-287, and hydrophobic residues. Mutagenesis shows that Asp-192 and Tyr-287 are essential for enzymatic catalysis. We postulate a catalytic mechanism in which MenB enables proton transfer within the substrate to yield an oxyanion as the initial step in catalysis. Knowledge of the active site geometry and characterization of the catalytic mechanism of MenB will aid in identifying new inhibitors for this potential drug target. PMID:12909628

Truglio, James J; Theis, Karsten; Feng, Yuguo; Gajda, Ramona; Machutta, Carl; Tonge, Peter J; Kisker, Caroline

2003-10-24

270

Inhibition of Key Digestive Enzymes Related to Diabetes and Hyperlipidemia and Protection of Liver-Kidney Functions by Trigonelline in Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Diabetes is a serious health problem and a source of risk for numerous severe complications such as obesity and hypertension. Treatment of diabetes and its related diseases can be achieved by inhibiting key digestive enzymes related to starch and lipid digestion. The findings revealed that the administration of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats helped to protect the pancreas ?-cells from death and damage. Additionally, the supplement of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats significantly decreased intestinal ?-amylase and maltase by 36 and 52%, respectively, which led to a significant decrease in the blood glucose rate by 46%. Moreover, the administration of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption such as lipase activity in the small intestine by 56%, which led to a notable decrease in serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) rates and an increase in the HDL cholesterol level. This treatment also improved glucose, maltase, starch, and lipid oral tolerance. Trigonelline was also observed to protect the liver-kidney functions efficiently, which was evidenced by the significant decrease in the serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and creatinine, albumin, and urea rates. The histological analysis of the pancreas, liver, and kidney tissues further established the positive effect of trigonelline. Overall, the findings presented in this study demonstrate that the administration of trigonelline to diabetic rats can make it a potentially strong candidate for industrial application as a pharmacological agent for the treatment of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and liver-kidney dysfunctions. PMID:23641341

Hamden, Khaled; Mnafgui, Kais; Amri, Zahra; Aloulou, Ahmed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

2013-01-01

271

A pangenomic analysis of the Nannochloropsis organellar genomes reveals novel genetic variations in key metabolic genes  

PubMed Central

Background Microalgae in the genus Nannochloropsis are photosynthetic marine Eustigmatophytes of significant interest to the bioenergy and aquaculture sectors due to their ability to efficiently accumulate biomass and lipids for utilization in renewable transportation fuels, aquaculture feed, and other useful bioproducts. To better understand the genetic complement that drives the metabolic processes of these organisms, we present the assembly and comparative pangenomic analysis of the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from Nannochloropsis salina CCMP1776. Results The chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of N. salina are 98.4% and 97% identical to their counterparts in Nannochloropsis gaditana. Comparison of the Nannochloropsis pangenome to other algae within and outside of the same phyla revealed regions of significant genetic divergence in key genes that encode proteins needed for regulation of branched chain amino synthesis (acetohydroxyacid synthase), carbon fixation (RuBisCO activase), energy conservation (ATP synthase), protein synthesis and homeostasis (Clp protease, ribosome). Conclusions Many organellar gene modifications in Nannochloropsis are unique and deviate from conserved orthologs found across the tree of life. Implementation of secondary and tertiary structure prediction was crucial to functionally characterize many proteins and therefore should be implemented in automated annotation pipelines. The exceptional similarity of the N. salina and N. gaditana organellar genomes suggests that N. gaditana be reclassified as a strain of N. salina. PMID:24646409

2014-01-01

272

Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by ToxCast Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

273

Modulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes by ToxCast Chemicals  

EPA Science Inventory

ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

274

Characterization of the Impact of Life Stage on Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Expression and Gene -Chemical Interactions in the Liver  

EPA Science Inventory

Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs thro...

275

Sesamol as an inhibitor of growth and lipid metabolism in Mucor circinelloides via its action on malic enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sesamol, a nonoil component of sesame seed oil, inhibited growth, fatty acid synthesis, and desaturation by Mucor circinelloides in vivo. Although sesamol also inhibited the growth of other fungi and yeasts, its effect on the lipid metabolism of M. circinelloides was exceptional. An enzymological study demonstrated that sesamol affected lipid synthesis primarily by the inhibition of\\u000a malic enzyme activity, thereby

James P. Wynn; Andrew Kendrick; Colin Ratledge

1997-01-01

276

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

1999-01-01

277

Archaeal Tetrathionate Hydrolase Goes Viral: Secretion of a Sulfur Metabolism Enzyme in the Form of Virus-Like Particles  

PubMed Central

In the course of screening for virus-host systems in extreme thermal environments, we have isolated a strain of the hyperthermophilic archaeaon Acidianus hospitalis producing unusual filamentous particles with a zipper-like appearance. The particles were shown to represent a secreted form of a genuine cellular enzyme, tetrathionate hydrolase, involved in sulfur metabolism. PMID:22636008

Krupovic, Mart; Peixeiro, Nuno; Bettstetter, Marcus; Rachel, Reinhard

2012-01-01

278

The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The carotenoid metabolic pathway is well characterised, and the genes and enzymes have been studied in a number of plants. The study of the 42 carotenoid pathway genes of grapevine showed that they share a high degree of similarity with other eudicots. Expression and pigment profiling of developing berries provided insights into the most complete grapevine carotenoid pathway representation. This study represents an important reference study for further characterisation of carotenoid biosynthesis and catabolism in grapevine. PMID:22702718

2012-01-01

279

Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes  

PubMed Central

Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), ?-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, were identified as Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4). The results demonstrated that different sponges extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Chemical characterizations of sponges SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Based on this study, marine sponges are considered as talented sources for production of diverse and multiple biologically active compounds. PMID:22898269

2012-01-01

280

Cloning of ?-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1  

PubMed Central

A ?-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of ?-primeverosides (6-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The ?-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The ?-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The ?-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to ?-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the ?-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze ?-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl ?-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the ?-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the ?-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the ?-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl ?-primeveroside by the ?-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the ?-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the ?-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100

Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

2002-01-01

281

Yucasin is a potent inhibitor of YUCCA, a key enzyme in auxin biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an auxin plant hormone, is biosynthesized from tryptophan. The indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) pathway, involving the tryptophan aminotransferase TAA1 and YUCCA (YUC) enzymes, was recently found to be a major IAA biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis. TAA1 catalyzes the conversion of tryptophan to IPyA, and YUC produces IAA from IPyA. Using a chemical biology approach with maize coleoptiles, we identified 5-(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (yucasin) as a potent inhibitor of IAA biosynthesis in YUC-expressing coleoptile tips. Enzymatic analysis of recombinant AtYUC1-His suggested that yucasin strongly inhibited YUC1-His activity against the substrate IPyA in a competitive manner. Phenotypic analysis of Arabidopsis YUC1 over-expression lines (35S::YUC1) demonstrated that yucasin acts in IAA biosynthesis catalyzed by YUC. In addition, 35S::YUC1 seedlings showed resistance to yucasin in terms of root growth. A loss-of-function mutant of TAA1, sav3-2, was hypersensitive to yucasin in terms of root growth and hypocotyl elongation of etiolated seedlings. Yucasin combined with the TAA1 inhibitor l-kynurenine acted additively in Arabidopsis seedlings, producing a phenotype similar to yucasin-treated sav3-2 seedlings, indicating the importance of IAA biosynthesis via the IPyA pathway in root growth and leaf vascular development. The present study showed that yucasin is a potent inhibitor of YUC enzymes that offers an effective tool for analyzing the contribution of IAA biosynthesis via the IPyA pathway to plant development and physiological processes. PMID:24299123

Nishimura, Takeshi; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Suzuki, Hiromi; Gyohda, Atsuko; Takaoka, Chihiro; Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Sachiko; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Tatsuya; Kato, Jun-Ichi; Kamiya, Yuji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

2014-02-01

282

Cadmium effect on microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in rat livers with respect to differences in age and sex  

SciTech Connect

The effect of cadmium on the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system was investigated. Cadmium chloride caused the conversion of cytochrome P-450 to P-420 in rat liver microsomes. The destruction of cytochrome P-450 by cadmium caused the reduction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity and prolonged the pentobarbital sleeping time. There is a sex-related difference in the ability of cadmium to inhibit the hepatic drug metabolism in rats: male rats are more sensitive to cadmium than females. The effective period when cadmium prolonged their sleep depended upon the age of rats; older rats were more sensitive to cadmium than younger ones. The maximum increase of sleeping time depended upon the dose level of cadium, and the rate constant of the equations seems to depend upon the age of the animals.

Ando, M.

1982-04-01

283

Metabolic enzyme microarray coupled with miniaturized cell-culture array technology for high-throughput toxicity screening.  

PubMed

Due to poor drug candidate safety profiles that are often identified late in the drug development process, the clinical progression of new chemical entities to pharmaceuticals remains hindered, thus resulting in the high cost of drug discovery. To accelerate the identification of safer drug candidates and improve the clinical progression of drug candidates to pharmaceuticals, it is important to develop high-throughput tools that can provide early-stage predictive toxicology data. In particular, in vitro cell-based systems that can accurately mimic the human in vivo response and predict the impact of drug candidates on human toxicology are needed to accelerate the assessment of drug candidate toxicity and human metabolism earlier in the drug development process. The in vitro techniques that provide a high degree of human toxicity prediction will be perhaps more important in cosmetic and chemical industries in Europe, as animal toxicity testing is being phased out entirely in the immediate future.We have developed a metabolic enzyme microarray (the Metabolizing Enzyme Toxicology Assay Chip, or MetaChip) and a miniaturized three-dimensional (3D) cell-culture array (the Data Analysis Toxicology Assay Chip, or DataChip) for high-throughput toxicity screening of target compounds and their metabolic enzyme-generated products. The human or rat MetaChip contains an array of encapsulated metabolic enzymes that is designed to emulate the metabolic reactions in the human or rat liver. The human or rat DataChip contains an array of 3D human or rat cells encapsulated in alginate gels for cell-based toxicity screening. By combining the DataChip with the complementary MetaChip, in vitro toxicity results are obtained that correlate well with in vivo rat data. PMID:20217581

Lee, Moo-Yeal; Dordick, Jonathan S; Clark, Douglas S

2010-01-01

284

Toxicology in the Fast Lane: Application of High-Throughput Bioassays to Detect Modulation of Key Enzymes and Receptors  

PubMed Central

Background Legislation at state, federal, and international levels is requiring rapid evaluation of the toxicity of numerous chemicals. Whole-animal toxicologic studies cannot yield the necessary throughput in a cost-effective fashion, leading to a critical need for a faster and more cost-effective toxicologic evaluation of xenobiotics. Objectives We tested whether mechanistically based screening assays can rapidly provide information on the potential for compounds to affect key enzymes and receptor targets, thus identifying those compounds requiring further in-depth analysis. Methods A library of 176 synthetic chemicals was prepared and examined in a high-throughput screening (HTS) manner using nine enzyme-based and five receptor-based bioassays. Results All the assays have high Z? values, indicating good discrimination among compounds in a reliable fashion, and thus are suitable for HTS assays. On average, three positive hits were obtained per assay. Although we identified compounds that were previously shown to inhibit a particular enzyme class or receptor, we surprisingly discovered that triclosan, a microbiocide present in personal care products, inhibits carboxylesterases and that dichlone, a fungicide, strongly inhibits the ryanodine receptors. Conclusions Considering the need to rapidly screen tens of thousands of anthropogenic compounds, our study shows the feasibility of using combined HTS assays as a novel approach toward obtaining toxicologic data on numerous biological end points. The HTS assay approach is very useful to quickly identify potentially hazardous compounds and to prioritize them for further in-depth studies. PMID:20049205

Morisseau, Christophe; Merzlikin, Oleg; Lin, Amy; He, Guochun; Feng, Wei; Padilla, Isela; Denison, Michael S.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Hammock, Bruce D.

2009-01-01

285

Temperature during embryonic development has persistent effects on metabolic enzymes in the muscle of zebrafish.  

PubMed

Global warming is intensifying interest in the physiological consequences of temperature change in ectotherms, but we still have a relatively poor understanding of the effects of temperature on early life stages. This study determined how embryonic temperature (TE) affects development and the activity of metabolic enzymes in the swimming muscle of zebrafish. Embryos developed successfully to hatching (survival ? 88%) from 22 to 32°C, but suffered sharp increases in mortality outside of this range. Embryos that were incubated until hatching at a control TE (27°C) or near the extremes for successful development (22 or 32°C) were next raised to adulthood under control conditions at 27°C. Growth trajectories after hatching were altered in the 22°C and 32°C TE groups compared with 27°C TE controls, but growth slowed after 3 months of age in all groups. Maximal enzyme activities of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), citrate synthase (CS), hydroxyacyl-coA dehydrogenase (HOAD), pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured across a range of assay temperatures (22, 27, 32 and 36°C) in adults from each TE group that were acclimated to 27 or 32°C. Substrate affinities (Km) were also determined for COX and LDH. In adult fish acclimated to 27°C, COX and PK activities were higher in 22°C and 32°C TE groups than in 27°C TE controls, and the temperature optimum for COX activity was higher in the 32°C TE group than in the 22°C TE group. Warm acclimation reduced COX, CS and/or PK activities in the 22 and 32°C TE groups, possibly to compensate for thermal effects on molecular activity. This response did not occur in the 27°C TE controls, which instead increased LDH and HOAD activities. Warm acclimation also increased thermal sensitivity (Q10) of HOAD to cool temperatures across all TE groups. We conclude that the temperature experienced during early development can have a persistent impact on energy metabolism pathways and acclimation capacity in later life. PMID:24363419

Schnurr, Meghan E; Yin, Yi; Scott, Graham R

2014-04-15

286

Meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms in relation to colorectal polyp risk  

PubMed Central

Most colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps or certain hyperplastic polyps. Only a few studies have investigated potential genetic modifiers of the associations between meat intake and polyp risk, and results are inconsistent. Using data from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS), a large colonoscopy-based study including 1,002 polyp cases (557 adenoma only, 250 hyperplastic polyp only, 195 both polyps) and 1,493 polyp-free patients, we evaluated the association of colorectal polyp risk with carcinogen exposure from meat and genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in heterocyclic amine (HCA) metabolism including, N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Intake levels of meats by preparation methods, doneness preferences, and other lifestyle factors were obtained. Fourteen SNPs in the AhR, CYP1A2, NAT1 and NAT2 genes were evaluated. No clear association was found for any polymorphisms with polyp risk. However, apparent interactions were found for intake of meat and HCAs with AhR, NAT1, and NAT2 genotypes, and the interactions were statistically significant for the group with both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Dose-response relationships with meat or HCA intake were found only among those with the AhR GA/AA (rs2066853) genotype, NAT1 rapid, or NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylators, but not among those with other genotypes of these genes. This dose-response relationship was more evident among those with both AhR GA/AA and the NAT1 rapid acetylator than those without this genotype combination. These results provide strong evidence for a modifying effect of metabolizing genes on the association of meat intake and HCA exposure with colorectal polyp risk. PMID:18268115

Shin, Aesun; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Rice, Jeffrey M.; Cai, Qiuyin; Doll, Mark A.; Long, Jirong; Smalley, Walter E.; Shyr, Yu; Sinha, Rashmi; Ness, Reid M.; Hein, David W.; Zheng, Wei

2008-01-01

287

Effects of commonly consumed vegetables on hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the mouse.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of consuming a variety of common vegetables on the activities of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the mouse liver, male C57BL/6 mice were fed purified diets supplemented isocalorically with 20% freeze-dried powdered kidney bean, soya bean, alfalfa, cauliflower, mustard greens, carrot, kale, Brussels sprouts, beet, egg plant or onion or with 40% sweet potato. Hepatic ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECD) activity was increased significantly (P less than or equal to 0.05) over the controls in the mice fed diets containing kidney bean (1.5-fold), alfalfa (1.6-fold), cauliflower (2.2-fold), mustard greens (1.2-fold), carrots (1.2-fold) and kale (1.3-fold). No significant increases in ECD activity were seen in the other groups. Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity was assayed in the cauliflower and Brussels sprouts groups and was found to be unaffected by these diets. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and epoxide hydratase (EH) activities were increased (P less than or equal to 0.05) by soya bean (1.2- and 1.6-fold respectively), Brussels sprouts (2.0- and 1.6-fold), cauliflower (1.2- and 1.6-fold), alfalfa (1.3- and 2.0-fold) and onion (1.8- and 2.3-fold). No significant increases in GST or EH activities were seen in the other groups. Of the twelve vegetables investigated, only three (sweet potato, beet and egg plant) had no statistically significant effects on any of the xenobiotic-metabolizing parameters tested. However, the beet diet caused an apparent inhibition of ECD activity (74% of control) and the sweet potato diet caused an apparent increase (1.3-fold) in GST activity, although statistical significance could not be established at P less than or equal to 0.05. PMID:3877667

Bradfield, C A; Chang, Y; Bjeldanes, L F

1985-10-01

288

Lipid metabolism enzyme ACSVL3 supports glioblastoma stem cell maintenance and tumorigenicity  

PubMed Central

Background Targeting cell metabolism offers promising opportunities for the development of drugs to treat cancer. We previously found that the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase VL3 (ACSVL3) is elevated in malignant brain tumor tissues and involved in tumorigenesis. This study investigates the role of ACSVL3 in the maintenance of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cell self-renewal and the capacity of GBM stem cells to initiate tumor xenograft formation. Methods We examined ACSVL3 expression during differentiation of several GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures. To study the function of ACSVL3, we performed loss-of-function by using small interfering RNAs to target ACSVL3 and examined stem cell marker expression, neurosphere formation and tumor initiation properties. Results ACSVL3 expression levels were substantially increased in GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures and decreased after differentiation of the neurospheres. Down-regulating ACSVL3 with small inhibiting RNAs decreased the expression of markers and regulators associated with stem cell self-renewal, including CD133, ALDH, Musashi-1 and Sox-2. ACSVL3 knockdown in neurosphere cells led to increased expression of differentiation markers GFAP and Tuj1. Furthermore, ACSVL3 knockdown reduced anchorage-independent neurosphere cell growth, neurosphere-forming capacity as well as self-renewal of these GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures. In vivo studies revealed that ACSVL3 loss-of-function substantially inhibited the ability of neurosphere cells to propagate orthotopic tumor xenografts. A link between ACSVL3 and cancer stem cell phenotype was further established by the findings that ACSVL3 expression was regulated by receptor tyrosine kinase pathways that support GBM stem cell self-renewal and tumor initiation, including EGFR and HGF/c-Met pathways. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the lipid metabolism enzyme ACSVL3 is involved in GBM stem cell maintenance and the tumor-initiating capacity of GBM stem cell enriched-neurospheres in animals. PMID:24893952

2014-01-01

289

Intraspecific variation in aerobic metabolic rate of fish: relations with organ size and enzyme activity in brown trout.  

PubMed

Highly active animals require a high aerobic capacity (i.e., a high maximum metabolic rate [MMR]) to sustain such activity, and it has been speculated that a greater capacity for aerobic performance is reflected in larger organs, which serve as energy processors but are also expensive to maintain and which increase the minimal cost of living (i.e., the basal or standard metabolic rate [SMR]). In this study, we assessed the extent of intraspecific variation in metabolic rate within a group of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) and tested whether the observed variation in residual (body-mass-corrected) SMR, MMR, and absolute aerobic scope could be explained by variations in the residual size (mass) of metabolically active internal organs. Residual SMR was found to correlate positively with residual MMR, indicating a link between these two metabolic parameters, but no relationship between organ mass and metabolic rate was found for liver, heart, spleen, intestine, or stomach. Instead, activity in the liver of two aerobic mitochondrial enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and, to a lesser extent, citrate synthase, was found to correlate with whole-animal metabolic rate, indicating that causes for intraspecific variation in the metabolic rate of fish can be found at a lower organizational level than organ size. PMID:23099462

Norin, Tommy; Malte, Hans

2012-01-01

290

Polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzymes, fish intake, and risk of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Cooking fish at high temperature can produce potent carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of these carcinogens may undergo modification by the enzymes responsible for their detoxification and/or activation. In this study, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in nine carcinogen metabolism enzymes and their modifying effects on the association between white or dark fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk. We genotyped 497 localized and 936 advanced PCA cases and 760 controls from the California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Three polymorphisms, EPHX1 Tyr113His, CYP1B1 Leu432Val and GSTT1 null/present, were associated with localized PCA risk. The PTGS2 765 G/C polymorphism modified the association between white fish consumption and advanced PCA risk (interaction P 5 0.002), with high white fish consumption being positively associated with risk only among carriers of the C allele. This effect modification by PTGS2 genotype was stronger when restricted to consumption of well-done white fish (interaction P 5 0.021). These findings support the hypotheses that changes in white fish brought upon by high-temperature cooking methods, such as carcinogen accumulation and/or fatty acid composition changes, may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. However, the gene–diet interactions should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Thus, our findings require further validation with additional studies. Abbreviations: AA African American; BMI body mass index; CI confidence interval; CNV copy number variant; EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HCA heterocyclic amine; HCFA Health Care Financing Administration; LAC Los Angeles county; MAF minor allele frequency; NHW non-Hispanic White; OR odds ratio; PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PCA prostate cancer; PTGS2 prostaglandin- endoperoxide synthase 2; PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids; RDD random-digit dialing; SEER Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result; SES socio-economic status; SFBA San Francisco Bay Area; SNP single-nucleotide polymorphism PMID:22610071

Stern, Mariana C.

2012-01-01

291

Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12  

PubMed Central

The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of “zinc finger” proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ?3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

Maret, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

292

Inhibition of Key Digestive Enzymes by Cocoa Extracts 1 and Procyanidins  

PubMed Central

We determined the in vitro inhibitory effects of cocoa extracts and procyanidins against pancreatic ?-amylase (PA), pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and characterized the kinetics of such inhibition. Lavado, regular and Dutch-processed cocoa extracts as well as cocoa procyanidins (degree of polymerization (DP) = 2 to 10) were examined. Cocoa extracts and procyanidins dose-dependently inhibited PA, PL and PLA2. Lavado cocoa extract was the most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 8.5 – 47 ?g/mL). An inverse correlation between Log IC50 and DP (R2 > 0.93) was observed. Kinetic analysis suggested that regular cocoa extract, the pentamer and decamer inhibited PL activity in a mixed mode. The pentamer and decamer non-competitively inhibited PLA2 activity, whereas regular cocoa extract inhibited PLA2 competitively. Our study demonstrates that cocoa polyphenols can inhibit digestive enzymes in vitro, and may, in conjunction with a low calorie diet, play a role in body weight management. PMID:21495725

Gu, Yeyi; Hurst, William J.; Stuart, David A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

2011-01-01

293

[Antioxidative enzymes play key roles in cadmium tolerance of Phytolacca americana].  

PubMed

Phytolacca americana L. has the capacity to take up and accumulate to very high levels heavy metals such as Mn and Cd, and is used for phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soils. The role of antioxidative enzyme of Phytolacca americana in response to Cd stress is unknown. The 6-week-old seedlings of Phytolacca americana were exposed to half strength Hoagland solution with 200 micromol/L CdCl2 or 400 micromol/L CdCl2 for 4 days. The content of H2O2 and MDA, and electrolyte leakage increased, while the photosynthetic rate decreased, indicated that the oxidative damage induced by Cd stress in Phytolacca americana was one of the metal toxicity mechanism. The activities of SOD and POD increased rapidly with elevated Cd concentration and exposure time, CAT activity was stable in response to 200 micromol/L CdCl2 stress, and increased only at 3 d later upon 400 micromol/L CdCl2, treatment. Suggested that the enzymatic antioxidation capacity played important role in Cd tolerance of hyperaccumulator plant. PMID:21634194

Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Bo; Li, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jin-Guang; Li, Xia

2011-03-01

294

Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. II. Metabolic characteristics of the enzyme  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPG) has been shown to be a reversible reaction with the equilibrium away from ester formation and toward formation of IAA. The enzyme occurs primarily in the liquid endosperm of the corn kernel but some activity occurs in the embryo. It is relatively specific showing no glucose ester formation with oxindole-3-acetic acid or 7-hydroxy-oxindole-3-acetic acid, and low activity with phenylpropene acids, such as rho-coumaric acid. The enzyme is also specific for the nucleotide sugar showing no activity with UDPGalactose or UDPXylose. The enzyme is inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate, by phosphate esters and by phospholipids, particularly phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The enzyme is inhibited by zeatin, by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid, by IAA-myo-inositol and IAA-glucan, but not by zeatin riboside, and only weakly by gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and kinetin. The reaction is slightly stimulated by both calcium and calmodulin and, in some cases, by thiol compounds. The role of this enzyme in the homeostatic control of indole-3-acetic acid levels in Zea mays is discussed.

Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

1988-01-01

295

Determination of key residues for catalysis and RNA cleavage specificity: one mutation turns RNase II into a "SUPER-ENZYME".  

PubMed

RNase II is the prototype of a ubiquitous family of enzymes that are crucial for RNA metabolism. In Escherichia coli this protein is a single-stranded-specific 3'-exoribonuclease with a modular organization of four functional domains. In eukaryotes, the RNase II homologue Rrp44 (also known as Dis3) is the catalytic subunit of the exosome, an exoribonuclease complex essential for RNA processing and decay. In this work we have performed a functional characterization of several highly conserved residues located in the RNase II catalytic domain to address their precise role in the RNase II activity. We have constructed a number of RNase II mutants and compared their activity and RNA binding to the wild type using different single- or double-stranded substrates. The results presented in this study substantially improve the RNase II model for RNA degradation. We have identified the residues that are responsible for the discrimination of cleavage of RNA versus DNA. We also show that the Arg-500 residue present in the RNase II active site is crucial for activity but not for RNA binding. The most prominent finding presented is the extraordinary catalysis observed in the E542A mutant that turns RNase II into a "super-enzyme." PMID:19458082

Barbas, Ana; Matos, Rute G; Amblar, Mónica; López-Vińas, Eduardo; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Arraiano, Cecília M

2009-07-31

296

The ssu Locus Plays a Key Role in Organosulfur Metabolism in Pseudomonas putida S-313  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas putida S-313 can utilize a broad range of aromatic sulfonates as sulfur sources for growth in sulfate-free minimal medium. The sulfonates are cleaved monooxygenolytically to yield the corresponding phenols. miniTn5 mutants of strain S-313 which were no longer able to desulfurize arylsulfonates were isolated and were found to carry transposon insertions in the ssuEADCBF operon, which contained genes for an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter (ssuABC), a two-component reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent monooxygenase (ssuED) closely related to the Escherichia coli alkanesulfonatase, and a protein related to clostridial molybdopterin-binding proteins (ssuF). These mutants were also deficient in growth with a variety of other organosulfur sources, including aromatic and aliphatic sulfate esters, methionine, and aliphatic sulfonates other than the natural sulfonates taurine and cysteate. This pleiotropic phenotype was complemented by the ssu operon, confirming its key role in organosulfur metabolism in this species. Further complementation analysis revealed that the ssuF gene product was required for growth with all of the tested substrates except methionine and that the oxygenase encoded by ssuD was required for growth with sulfonates or methionine. The flavin reductase SsuE was not required for growth with aliphatic sulfonates or methionine but was needed for growth with arylsulfonates, suggesting that an alternative isozyme exists for the former compounds that is not active in transformation of the latter substrates. Aryl sulfate ester utilization was catalyzed by an arylsulfotransferase, and not by an arylsulfatase as in the related species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:10781557

Kahnert, Antje; Vermeij, Paul; Wietek, Claudia; James, Peter; Leisinger, Thomas; Kertesz, Michael A.

2000-01-01

297

Selegiline metabolism and cytochrome P450 enzymes: in vitro study in human liver microsomes.  

PubMed

Although being a drug therapeutically used for a long time, the enzymatic metabolism of selegiline has not been adequately studied. In the current work we have studied the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalyzed oxidative metabolism of selegiline to desmethylselegiline and 1-methamphetamine and the effects of selegiline, desmethylselegiline and 1-methamphetamine on hepatic CYP enzymes in human liver microsomes in vitro. The apparent Km values for desmethylselegiline and 1-methamphetamine formation were on an average 149 microM and 293 microM, and the apparent Vmax values, 243 pmol/min./mg and 1351 pmol/min./mg, respectively. Furafylline and ketoconazole, the known reference inhibitors for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, respectively, inhibited the formation of desmethylselegiline with Ki value of 1.7 microM and 15 microM. Ketoconazole inhibited also the formation of 1-methamphetamine with Ki of 18 microM. Fluvoxamine, an inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, inhibited the formation of desmethylselegiline and 1-methamphetamine with Ki values of 9 and 25 microM, respectively. On the basis of these results we suggest that CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 contribute to the formation of desmethylselegiline and that CYP3A4 participates in the formation of 1-methamphetamine. In studies with CYP-specific model activities, both selegiline and desmethylselegiline inhibited the CYP2C19-mediated S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation with average IC50 values of 21 microM and 26 microM, respectively. The Ki for selegiline was determined to be around 7 microM. Selegiline inhibited CYP1A2-mediated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation with a Ki value of 76 microM. Inhibitory potencies of selegiline, desmethylselegiline and 1-methamphetamine towards other CYP-model activities were much lower. On this basis, selegiline and desmethylselegiline were shown to have a relatively high affinity for CYP2C19, but no evidence about selegiline metabolism by CYP2C19 was obtained. PMID:10862503

Taavitsainen, P; Anttila, M; Nyman, L; Karnani, H; Salonen, J S; Pelkonen, O

2000-05-01

298

High muscle lipid content in obesity is not due to enhanced activation of key triglyceride esterification enzymes or the suppression of lipolytic proteins.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying alterations in muscle lipid metabolism in obesity are poorly understood. The primary aim of this study was to compare the abundance and/or activities of key proteins that regulate intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) concentration in the skeletal muscle obtained from obese (OB; n = 8, BMI 38 ± 1 kg/m(2)) and nonobese (NOB; n = 9, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m(2)) women. IMTG concentration was nearly twofold greater in OB vs. NOB subjects (75 ± 15 vs. 40 ± 8 ?mol/g dry wt, P < 0.05). In contrast, the activity and protein abundance of key enzymes that regulate the esterification of IMTG (i.e., glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase) were not elevated. We also found no differences between groups in muscle adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein abundance and no differences in phosphorylation of specific sites known to affect HSL activity. However, we did find the elevated IMTG in obesity to be accompanied by a greater abundance of the fatty acid transporter FAT/CD36 in the membrane fraction of muscle from OB vs. NOB subjects (P < 0.05), suggestive of an elevated fatty acid transport capacity. Additionally, protein abundance of the lipid-trafficking protein perilipin 3 was lower (P < 0.05) in muscle from OB vs. NOB when expressed relative to IMTG content. Our findings indicate that the elevated IMTG content found in obese women was not due to an upregulation of key lipogenic proteins or to the suppression of lipolytic proteins. The impact of a low perilipin protein abundance relative to the amount of IMTG in obesity remains to be clarified. PMID:21285405

Li, Minghua; Paran, Christopher; Wolins, Nathan E; Horowitz, Jeffrey F

2011-04-01

299

Comparison of liver enzymes in osmerid fishes: key differences between a glycerol accumulating species, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and a species that does not accumulate glycerol, capelin (Mallotus villosus).  

PubMed

Activities of enzymes associated with glycerol synthesis were compared in the liver of two osmerid fishes, the smelt (Osmerus mordax), which can accumulate high (400 mM) levels of glycerol and capelin (Mallotus villosus) that does not accumulate glycerol. Animals were sampled at approximately the same time of year and temperature thus negating potential seasonal effects. These species are closely related, reducing interpretative issues involving comparison between unrelated species. We found that key enzyme activities were elevated in the smelt relative to the non-glycerol accumulating capelin, namely enzymes involved with glycolysis (phosphofructose kinase-1 and aldolase), amino acid metabolism (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and glycerol synthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase). The enzyme profiles strongly support the hypothesis that smelt can synthesize glycerol by utilizing glycogen and amino acids as the carbon source and that they have increased capacity for metabolic flux through loci required for synthesis of the three carbon intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate and subsequently glycerol synthesis. PMID:12020659

Treberg, J R; Lewis, J M; Driedzic, W R

2002-06-01

300

[Comparative efficacy and safety of contemporary Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors moexipril and spirapril in women with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome].  

PubMed

Moexipril (7.4-15 mg/day) was given to 34, spirapril (3-6 mg/day) -- to 18 postmenopausal women with hypertension and metabolic syndrome for 16 weeks. Hydrochlorthiazide was added when therapy was not sufficiently effective. Both angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors had similar hypotensive activity: blood pressure normalized in 71 and 61% of moexipril and spirapril treated women, respectively. Both drugs promoted normalization of metabolism of lipid (lowering of levels of cholesterol, atherogenic lipoproteins and triglycerides) and carbohydrates (lowering of hyperinsulinemia). Patients with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome had elevation of leptin level up to 27.5+/-5.5 pg/ml. Moexipril and spirapril caused lowering of elevated levels of leptin. These drugs did not affect levels of sex hormones. They exerted vasoprotective (normalization of endothelium dependent and independent vasodilatation) and nephroprotective (attenuation and normalization of microalbuminuria) effects. Thus spirapril and moexipril are effective in treatment of hypertension in patients with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome. PMID:16474309

Leonova, M V; Demidova, M A; Tarasov, A V; Belousov, Iu B

2006-01-01

301

Genome-wide identification of gibberellins metabolic enzyme genes and expression profiling analysis during seed germination in maize.  

PubMed

Gibberellin (GA) is an essential phytohormone that controls many aspects of plant development. To enhance our understanding of GA metabolism in maize, we intensively screened and identified 27 candidate genes encoding the seven GA metabolic enzymes including ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox), using all available public maize databases. The results indicate that maize genome contains three CPS, four KS, two KO and one KAO genes, and most of them are arranged separately on the maize genome, which differs from that in rice. In addition, the enzymes catalyzing the later steps (ZmGA20ox, ZmGA3ox and ZmGA2ox) are also encoded by gene families in maize, but GA3ox enzyme is likely to be encoded by single gene. Expression profiling analysis exhibited that transcripts of 15 GA metabolic genes could be detected during maize seed germination, which provides further evidence for the notion that increased synthesis of active GA in the embryo is required for triggering germination events. Moreover, a variety of temporal genes expression patterns of GA metabolic genes were detected, which revealed the complexity of underlying mechanism for GA regulated seed germination. PMID:21640170

Song, Jian; Guo, Baojian; Song, Fangwei; Peng, Huiru; Yao, Yingyin; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

2011-08-15

302

[Effects of exogenous NO3- on cherry root function and enzyme activities related to nitrogen metabolism under hypoxia stress].  

PubMed

A water culture experiment with controlled dissolved oxygen concentration was conducted to explore the effects of exogenous NO3- on the root function and enzyme activities related to nitrogen metabolism of cherry (Prunun cerasus x P. canescens) seedlings under hypoxia stress. Comparing with the control (7.5 mmol NO3- x L(-1)), treatments 15 and 22.5 mmol NO3- x L(-1) made the materials for plant metabolism abundant, ensured the synthesis of enzyme proteins, increased root activity, maintained root respiration, improved the activities of enzymes related to nitrogen metabolism, such as nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthethase (GS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH) in roots, and thereby, supplied enough energy for root respiration and NAD+ to glycolytic pathway, ensured electron transfer, and avoid ammonium toxicity under hypoxia stress. As a result, the injury of hypoxia stress to cherry plant was alleviated. Applying NO3- at the concentration of 22.5 mmol x L(-1) was more advisable. However, NO3- deficiency (0 mmol x L(-1)) showed opposite results. The above results suggested that applying exogenous NO3- to growth medium could regulate cherry root function and nitrogen metabolism, and antagonize the damage of hypoxia stress on cherry roots. PMID:21443020

Feng, Li-guo; Sheng, Li-xi; Shu, Huai-rui

2010-12-01

303

Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase overexpression in Escherichia coli resulted in high ethanol production and rewired metabolic enzyme networks.  

PubMed

Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase are efficient enzymes for ethanol production in Zymomonas mobilis. These two enzymes were over-expressed in Escherichia coli, a promising candidate for industrial ethanol production, resulting in high ethanol production in the engineered E. coli. To investigate the intracellular changes to the enzyme overexpression for homoethanol production, 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were performed. More than 1,000 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the gel by image analysis. Compared to the wild-type, 99 protein spots showed significant changes in abundance in the recombinant E. coli, in which 46 were down-regulated and 53 were up-regulated. Most proteins related to tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycerol metabolism and other energy metabolism were up-regulated, whereas proteins involved in glycolysis and glyoxylate pathway were down-regulated, indicating the rewired metabolism in the engineered E. coli. As glycolysis is the main pathway for ethanol production, and it was inhibited significantly in engineered E. coli, further efforts should be directed at minimizing the repression of glycolysis to optimize metabolism network for higher yields of ethanol production. PMID:25217026

Yang, Mingfeng; Li, Xuefeng; Bu, Chunya; Wang, Hui; Shi, Guanglu; Yang, Xiushan; Hu, Yong; Wang, Xiaoqin

2014-11-01

304

The conserved Rieske oxygenase DAF-36/Neverland is a novel cholesterol-metabolizing enzyme.  

PubMed

Steroid hormones play essential roles in a wide variety of biological processes in multicellular organisms. The principal steroid hormones in nematodes and arthropods are dafachronic acids and ecdysteroids, respectively, both of which are synthesized from cholesterol as an indispensable precursor. The first critical catalytic step in the biosynthesis of these ecdysozoan steroids is the conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol. However, the enzymes responsible for cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenation remain unclear at the molecular level. Here we report that the Rieske oxygenase DAF-36/Neverland (Nvd) is a cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenase. The daf-36/nvd genes are evolutionarily conserved, not only in nematodes and insects but also in deuterostome species that do not produce dafachronic acids or ecdysteroids, including the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis, the fish Danio rerio, and the frog Xenopus laevis. An in vitro enzymatic assay system reveals that all DAF-36/Nvd proteins cloned so far have the ability to convert cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol. Moreover, the lethality of loss of nvd function in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is rescued by the expression of daf-36/nvd genes from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the insect Bombyx mori, or the vertebrates D. rerio and X. laevis. These data suggest that daf-36/nvd genes are functionally orthologous across the bilaterian phylogeny. We propose that the daf-36/nvd family of proteins is a novel conserved player in cholesterol metabolism across the animal phyla. PMID:21632547

Yoshiyama-Yanagawa, Takuji; Enya, Sora; Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Matsuya, Takeshi; Shiomi, Kensuke; Sasakura, Yasunori; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Niwa, Ryusuke

2011-07-22

305

Inhibitory effects of kale ingestion on metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala DC) is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. There are any reports about the effects of kale ingestion on the chemoprevention function and mechanism, but the interactions between kale and drugs have not been researched. We investigated the effects of kale intake on cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism by using cocktail probe drugs, including midazolam (for CYP3A4), caffeine (for CYP1A2), dextromethorphan (for CYP2D6), tolbutamide (for CYP2C9), omeprazole (for CYP2C19), and chlorzoxazone (for CYP2E1). Cocktail drugs were administered into rats treated with kale and cabbage (2000 mg/kg) for a week. The results showed that kale intake induced a significant increase in plasma levels and the AUC of midazolam, caffeine, and dextromethorphan. In addition, the plasma concentration and AUC of omeprazole tended to increase. Additionally, no almost differences in the mRNA expression levels of CYP enzymes in the liver were observed. In conclusion, kale ingestion was considered to have an inhibitory effect on the activities of CYP3A4, 1A2, 2D6, and 2C19 for a reason competitive inhibition than inhibitory changes in the mRNA expressions. PMID:22975634

Yamasaki, Izumi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Teramoto, Sachiyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

306

Hydroxylated PAHs in bile of deep-sea fish. Relationship with xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes  

SciTech Connect

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in deep-sea environments has been assessed by measuring bile PAH metabolites in deep-sea fish. Five species from the NW Mediterranean were selected for the study: Coryphaenoides guentheri, Lepidion lepidion, Mora moro, Bathypterois mediterraneus, and Alepocephalus rostratus. Bile crude samples were directly analyzed by HPLC-fluorescence at the excitation/emission wavelengths of benzo[a]pyrene. Differences among sampling sites were recorded, which suggests that coastal discharges of contaminants may reach these remote areas. Subsequently, a number of bile samples were hydrolyzed and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of individual PAHs. 1-Pyrenol and 2-phenylphenol were among the most abundant compounds detected. The results obtained confirm the long-range transport of PAHs to deep-sea environments, subsequent exposure of fish inhabiting those remote areas, and its ability to metabolize and excrete them through the bile. The data also describe hepatic enzymes (cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferases) that appear to be as catalytically efficient as those in shallow water species.

Escartin, E.; Porte, C. [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Environmental Chemistry Dept.] [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Environmental Chemistry Dept.

1999-08-15

307

A moonlighting enzyme links Escherichia coli cell size with central metabolism.  

PubMed

Growth rate and nutrient availability are the primary determinants of size in single-celled organisms: rapidly growing Escherichia coli cells are more than twice as large as their slow growing counterparts. Here we report the identification of the glucosyltransferase OpgH as a nutrient-dependent regulator of E. coli cell size. During growth under nutrient-rich conditions, OpgH localizes to the nascent septal site, where it antagonizes assembly of the tubulin-like cell division protein FtsZ, delaying division and increasing cell size. Biochemical analysis is consistent with OpgH sequestering FtsZ from growing polymers. OpgH is functionally analogous to UgtP, a Bacillus subtilis glucosyltransferase that inhibits cell division in a growth rate-dependent fashion. In a striking example of convergent evolution, OpgH and UgtP share no homology, have distinct enzymatic activities, and appear to inhibit FtsZ assembly through different mechanisms. Comparative analysis of E. coli and B. subtilis reveals conserved aspects of growth rate regulation and cell size control that are likely to be broadly applicable. These include the conservation of uridine diphosphate glucose as a proxy for nutrient status and the use of moonlighting enzymes to couple growth rate-dependent phenomena to central metabolism. PMID:23935518

Hill, Norbert S; Buske, Paul J; Shi, Yue; Levin, Petra Anne

2013-01-01

308

Neuroanatomical distribution of testosterone-metabolizing enzymes in the Japanese quail.  

PubMed

We describe a very sensitive and precise assay which allows one to study the metabolism of testosterone (T) in small brain nuclei dissected out according to the method of Palkovits and Brownstein. With this method, the neuroanatomical distributions of aromatase, and 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductase activities were studied in adult male quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). The different enzymes show different neuroanatomical distributions. Production of estradiol-17 beta (E2) was highest in the sexually dimorphic nucleus preopticus medialis (POM). We showed previously that the preoptic aromatase activity is higher in male than in female quail. As the POM is a central and very large structure within the preoptic area, the present results suggest a relationship between the neuroanatomical and the biochemical sex differences. By contrast, the production of 5 alpha-DHT was highest in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHY), the bed nucleus of the pallial commissure (BPC) and the lateral septum (SL). The 5 beta-reductase activity was highest in the lateral septum and in the ventral part of the archistriatum (AV). Moreover, there was a rostral to caudal decrease in 5 beta-reductase activity in the hypothalamus. PMID:3676776

Schumacher, M; Balthazart, J

1987-09-29

309

A metabolic enzyme as a primary virulence factor of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony.  

PubMed

During evolution, pathogenic bacteria have developed complex interactions with their hosts. This has frequently involved the acquisition of virulence factors on pathogenicity islands, plasmids, transposons, or prophages, allowing them to colonize, survive, and replicate within the host. In contrast, Mycoplasma species, the smallest self-replicating organisms, have regressively evolved from gram-positive bacteria by reduction of the genome to a minimal size, with the consequence that they have economized their genetic resources. Hence, pathogenic Mycoplasma species lack typical primary virulence factors such as toxins, cytolysins, and invasins. Consequently, little is known how pathogenic Mycoplasma species cause host cell damage, inflammation, and disease. Here we identify a novel primary virulence determinant in Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides Small Colony (SC), which causes host cell injury. This virulence factor, released in significant amounts in the presence of glycerol in the growth medium, consists of toxic by-products such as H2O2 formed by l-alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase (GlpO), a membrane-located enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of glycerol. When embryonic calf nasal epithelial cells are infected with M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC in the presence of physiological amounts of glycerol, H2O2 is released inside the cells prior to cell death. This process can be inhibited with monospecific anti-GlpO antibodies. PMID:16166545

Pilo, Paola; Vilei, Edy M; Peterhans, Ernst; Bonvin-Klotz, Laetitia; Stoffel, Michael H; Dobbelaere, Dirk; Frey, Joachim

2005-10-01

310

The Conserved Rieske Oxygenase DAF-36/Neverland Is a Novel Cholesterol-metabolizing Enzyme*  

PubMed Central

Steroid hormones play essential roles in a wide variety of biological processes in multicellular organisms. The principal steroid hormones in nematodes and arthropods are dafachronic acids and ecdysteroids, respectively, both of which are synthesized from cholesterol as an indispensable precursor. The first critical catalytic step in the biosynthesis of these ecdysozoan steroids is the conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol. However, the enzymes responsible for cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenation remain unclear at the molecular level. Here we report that the Rieske oxygenase DAF-36/Neverland (Nvd) is a cholesterol 7,8-dehydrogenase. The daf-36/nvd genes are evolutionarily conserved, not only in nematodes and insects but also in deuterostome species that do not produce dafachronic acids or ecdysteroids, including the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus, the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis, the fish Danio rerio, and the frog Xenopus laevis. An in vitro enzymatic assay system reveals that all DAF-36/Nvd proteins cloned so far have the ability to convert cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol. Moreover, the lethality of loss of nvd function in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is rescued by the expression of daf-36/nvd genes from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the insect Bombyx mori, or the vertebrates D. rerio and X. laevis. These data suggest that daf-36/nvd genes are functionally orthologous across the bilaterian phylogeny. We propose that the daf-36/nvd family of proteins is a novel conserved player in cholesterol metabolism across the animal phyla. PMID:21632547

Yoshiyama-Yanagawa, Takuji; Enya, Sora; Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Haramoto, Yoshikazu; Matsuya, Takeshi; Shiomi, Kensuke; Sasakura, Yasunori; Takahashi, Shuji; Asashima, Makoto; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Niwa, Ryusuke

2011-01-01

311

A Model of Oxidative Stress Management: Moderation of Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes in SOD1-Null Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The response to oxidative stress involves numerous genes and mutations in these genes often manifest in pleiotropic ways that presumably reflect perturbations in ROS-mediated physiology. The Drosophila melanogaster SOD1-null allele (cSODn108) is proposed to result in oxidative stress by preventing superoxide breakdown. In SOD1-null flies, oxidative stress management is thought to be reliant on the glutathione-dependent antioxidants that utilize NADPH to cycle between reduced and oxidized form. Previous studies suggest that SOD1-null Drosophila rely on lipid catabolism for energy rather than carbohydrate metabolism. We tested these connections by comparing the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, lipid and triglyceride concentration, and steady state NADPH:NADP+ in SOD1-null and control transgenic rescue flies. We find a negative shift in the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in SOD1-nulls and the NADP+-reducing enzymes were found to have significantly lower activity than the other enzymes assayed. Little evidence for the catabolism of lipids as preferential energy source was found, as the concentration of lipids and triglycerides were not significantly lower in SOD1-nulls compared with controls. Using a starvation assay to impact lipids and triglycerides, we found that lipids were indeed depleted in both genotypes when under starvation stress, suggesting that oxidative damage was not preventing the catabolism of lipids in SOD1-null flies. Remarkably, SOD1-nulls were also found to be relatively resistant to starvation. Age profiles of enzyme activity, triglyceride and lipid concentration indicates that the trends observed are consistent over the average lifespan of the SOD1-nulls. Based on our results, we propose a model of physiological response in which organisms under oxidative stress limit the production of ROS through the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in order to moderate the products exiting the electron transport chain. PMID:21909438

Bernard, Kristine E.; Parkes, Tony L.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.

2011-01-01

312

Intracellular lipid content is a key intrinsic determinant for hepatocyte viability and metabolic and inflammatory states in mice.  

PubMed

The liver is an essential metabolic organ. In addition to metabolizing glucose and lipids, hepatocytes also secrete various cytokines that modulate both hepatocyte metabolism and liver inflammation. Hepatocyte injury and death and liver inflammation are the major contributors to liver diseases, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Anatomic locations have a profound effect on hepatocyte metabolism, and liver zonation describes the metabolic heterogeneity of hepatocytes along the portovenous axis. However, it is unclear whether hepatocyte heterogeneity is affected by intrinsic factors and whether dietary fat, a risk factor for NASH, has distinct detrimental effects on different hepatocyte subpopulations. Here, we showed that mouse livers contained both high-lipid and low-lipid subpopulations of hepatocytes. The high-lipid subpopulation was more susceptible to injury and apoptosis and produced more proinflamatrory cytokines after treatment with endotoxin and saturated fatty acids. Dietary fat consumption further increased fatty acid uptake, intracellular lipid levels, hepatocyte injury and death, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the high-lipid subpopulation. In contrast, dietary fat slightly increased lipid levels, cell death, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the low-lipid subpopulation. The low-lipid subpopulation produced more glucose. Fat consumption further activated the gluconeogenic program in the low-lipid, but not the high-lipid, subpopulations. These data suggest that intracellular lipid content is a key intrinsic determinant for hepatocyte heterogeneity of metabolic, inflammatory, and survival states. PMID:23982157

Sheng, Liang; Jiang, Bijie; Rui, Liangyou

2013-11-01

313

Identification of Enzymes and Quantification of Metabolic Fluxes in the Wild Type and in a Recombinant Aspergillus oryzae Strain  

PubMed Central

Two ?-amylase-producing strains of Aspergillus oryzae, a wild-type strain and a recombinant containing additional copies of the ?-amylase gene, were characterized with respect to enzyme activities, localization of enzymes to the mitochondria or cytosol, macromolecular composition, and metabolic fluxes through the central metabolism during glucose-limited chemostat cultivations. Citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD) activities were found only in the mitochondria, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP) activities were found only in the cytosol, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, malate dehydrogenase, and glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD) activities were found in both the mitochondria and the cytosol. The measured biomass components and ash could account for 95% (wt/wt) of the biomass. The protein and RNA contents increased linearly with increasing specific growth rate, but the carbohydrate and chitin contents decreased. A metabolic model consisting of 69 fluxes and 59 intracellular metabolites was used to calculate the metabolic fluxes through the central metabolism at several specific growth rates, with ammonia or nitrate as the nitrogen source. The flux through the pentose phosphate pathway increased with increasing specific growth rate. The fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway were 15 to 26% higher for the recombinant strain than for the wild-type strain. PMID:9872753

Pedersen, Henrik; Carlsen, Morten; Nielsen, Jens

1999-01-01

314

Histopathological findings of the pancreas, liver, and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in STZ-induced diabetic rats improved by administration of myrtenal.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of myrtenal, a natural monoterpene, for its antihyperglycemic effects and ? cell protective properties in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of myrtenal at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg body weight to diabetic rats for 28 days resulted in a significant reduction (P?key metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, and ALP levels of diabetic rats were significantly improved by the administration of myrtenal in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Moreover, myrtenal treatment improved hepatic and muscle glycogen content in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies further revealed that the reduced islet cells were restored to near-normal conditions on treatment with myrtenal in STZ-induced diabetic rats. An alteration in liver architecture was also prevented by myrtenal treatment. Our results suggest that myrtenal possess antihyperglycemic and ? cell protective effects. Hence, myrtenal could be considered as a potent phytochemical for development as a new antidiabetic agent. PMID:25292424

Rathinam, Ayyasamy; Pari, Leelavinothan; Chandramohan, Ramasamy; Sheikh, Bashir Ahmad

2014-12-01

315

Body composition in gene knockouts of sulfur amino acid-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Plasma concentrations of several amino acids are elevated in human obesity and insulin resistance, but there is no conclusive evidence on whether the amino acid alterations are causal. Dietary restriction of the essential SAA methionine (MR) in rats produces a hypermetabolic phenotype, with an integrated set of transcriptional changes in lipid enzymes in liver and adipose tissue. MR also induces an array of changes in methionine metabolites, including elevated plasma homocysteine and decreased cystathionine, cysteine, glutathione, and taurine. Several knockouts of enzymes acting downstream of methionine recapitulate the phenotypic results of MR, suggesting that the MR phenotype may be driven by changes distal to methionine. Here we review the changes in SAA and body composition in seven relevant knockout mouse models. All seven models feature decreased body weight, which in five of these have been further explored and shown to result from predominantly decreased fat mass. Common to several models is increased energy expenditure, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and protection against dietary obesity, as occurs in MR. A decrease in plasma total cysteine concentrations is also seen in most models. The lean phenotype could often be reversed by dietary supplementation of cysteine or choline, but not taurine, betaine or a H2S donor. Importantly, the plasma concentrations of both cysteine and choline are positively associated with fat mass in large populations studies, while taurine, betaine, and H2S are not. Collectively, the emerging data from dietary and knockout models are in harmony with human epidemiologic data, suggesting that the availability of key nutrients in the SAA pathway regulates fat storage pathways. PMID:24952018

Elshorbagy, Amany K

2014-10-01

316

Variation in Sulfur and Selenium Accumulation Is Controlled by Naturally Occurring Isoforms of the Key Sulfur Assimilation Enzyme ADENOSINE 5'-PHOSPHOSULFATE REDUCTASE2 across the Arabidopsis Species Range.  

PubMed

Natural variation allows the investigation of both the fundamental functions of genes and their role in local adaptation. As one of the essential macronutrients, sulfur is vital for plant growth and development and also for crop yield and quality. Selenium and sulfur are assimilated by the same process, and although plants do not require selenium, plant-based selenium is an important source of this essential element for animals. Here, we report the use of linkage mapping in synthetic F2 populations and complementation to investigate the genetic architecture of variation in total leaf sulfur and selenium concentrations in a diverse set of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions. We identify in accessions collected from Sweden and the Czech Republic two variants of the enzyme ADENOSINE 5'-PHOSPHOSULFATE REDUCTASE2 (APR2) with strongly diminished catalytic capacity. APR2 is a key enzyme in both sulfate and selenate reduction, and its reduced activity in the loss-of-function allele apr2-1 and the two Arabidopsis accessions Hodonín and Shahdara leads to a lowering of sulfur flux from sulfate into the reduced sulfur compounds, cysteine and glutathione, and into proteins, concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of sulfate in leaves. We conclude from our observation, and the previously identified weak allele of APR2 from the Shahdara accession collected in Tadjikistan, that the catalytic capacity of APR2 varies by 4 orders of magnitude across the Arabidopsis species range, driving significant differences in sulfur and selenium metabolism. The selective benefit, if any, of this large variation remains to be explored. PMID:25245030

Chao, Dai-Yin; Baraniecka, Patrycja; Danku, John; Koprivova, Anna; Lahner, Brett; Luo, Hongbing; Yakubova, Elena; Dilkes, Brian; Kopriva, Stanislav; Salt, David E

2014-11-01

317

Influence of certain essential oils on carcinogen?metabolizing enzymes and acid?soluble sulfhydryls in mouse liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of essential oils from naturally occurring plant dietary items such as cardamom, celery seed, cumin seed, coriander, ginger, nutmeg, and zanthoxylum on the activities of hepatic carcinogen?metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, and glu?tathione S?transferase) and acid?soluble sulfhydryl level was investigated in Swiss albino mice. Each oil was fed by gavage at 10 ?l\\/day for 14 days,

Sanjeev Banerjee; Roopa Sharma; Raosaheb K. Kale; A. Ramesha Rao

1994-01-01

318

Gene Polymorphisms of Homocysteine Metabolism-Related Enzymes in Chinese Patients with Occlusive Coronary Artery or Cerebral Vascular Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutations in homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism-related enzyme genes including methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) 844ins68, and methionine synthase (MS) A2756G have been identified as genetic risk factors for thromboembolic events. It has been noticed that these gene mutations have heterogeneous distributions among different ethnic groups or geographic areas. The data on the prevalence of the gene mutations in

Guangsen Zhang; Chongwen Dai

2001-01-01

319

Effects of Long-Term Hypoxia on Enzymes of Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Gulf Killifish, Fundulus grandis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the current study was to generate a comprehensive, multi-tissue perspective of the effects of chronic hypoxic exposure on carbohydrate metabolism in the Gulf killifish Fundulus grandis. Fish were held at approximately 1.3 mg l(-1) dissolved oxygen (approximately 3.6 kPa) for 4 weeks, after which maximal activities were measured for all glycolytic enzymes in four tissues (white skeletal

Bernard Rees

2006-01-01

320

Indole acetic acid mimics the effect of salt stress in relation to enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in chickpea seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of addition of indole acetic acid (3 µM) andNaCl (75 mM) on growth and enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism inchickpea seedlings was compared. In comparison with control seedlings, theseedlings growing in the presence of indole acetic acid (IAA) had reducedamylase activity in cotyledons and enhanced sucrose synthase (SS) and sucrosephosphate synthase (SPS) activities in cotyledons and shoots at all

Satvir Kaur; Anil K. Gupta; Narinder Kaur

2003-01-01

321

Enzymes of Adenylate Metabolism and Their Role in Hibernation of the White-Tailed Prairie Dog, Cynomys leucurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMP deaminase (AMPD) and adenylate kinase (AK) were purified from skeletal muscle of the white-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus leucurus, and enzyme properties were assayed at temperatures characteristic of euthermia (37°C) and hibernation (5°C) to analyze their role in adenylate metabolism during hibernation. Total adenylates decreased in muscle of torpid individuals from 6.97 ± 0.31 to 4.66 ± 0.58 ?mol\\/g of

Tamara E. English; Kenneth B. Storey

2000-01-01

322

Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C.\\u000a In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to\\u000a enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline\\u000a (10 ?M) at

Neeru Kaushal; Kriti Gupta; Kalpna Bhandhari; Sanjeev Kumar; Prince Thakur; Harsh Nayyar

2011-01-01

323

Total solids content: a key parameter of metabolic pathways in dry anaerobic digestion  

PubMed Central

Background In solid-state anaerobic digestion (AD) bioprocesses, hydrolytic and acidogenic microbial metabolisms have not yet been clarified. Since these stages are particularly important for the establishment of the biological reaction, better knowledge could optimize the process performances by process parameters adjustment. Results This study demonstrated the effect of total solids (TS) content on microbial fermentation of wheat straw with six different TS contents ranging from wet to dry conditions (10 to 33% TS). Three groups of metabolic behaviors were distinguished based on wheat straw conversion rates with 2,200, 1,600, and 1,400 mmol.kgVS-1 of fermentative products under wet (10 and 14% TS), dry (19 to 28% TS), and highly dry (28 to 33% TS) conditions, respectively. Furthermore, both wet and dry fermentations showed acetic and butyric acid metabolisms, whereas a mainly butyric acid metabolism occurred in highly dry fermentation. Conclusion Substrate conversion was reduced with no changes of the metabolic pathways until a clear limit at 28% TS content, which corresponded to the threshold value of free water content of wheat straw. This study suggested that metabolic pathways present a limit of TS content for high-solid AD. PMID:24261971

2013-01-01

324

Apolipoprotein B RNA editing enzyme-deficient mice are viable despite alterations in lipoprotein metabolism.  

PubMed Central

RNA editing in the nucleus of higher eukaryotes results in subtle changes to the RNA sequence, with the ability to effect dramatic changes in biological function. The first example to be described and among the best characterized, is the cytidine-to-uridine editing of apolipoprotein B (apo-B) RNA. The editing of apo-B RNA is mediated by a novel cytidine deaminase, apobec-1, which has acquired the ability to bind RNA. The stop translation codon generated by the editing of apo-B RNA truncates the full-length apo-B100 to form apo-B48. The recent observations of tumor formation in Apobec-1 transgenic animals, together with the fact that Apobec-1 is expressed in numerous tissues lacking apo-B, raises the issue of whether this enzyme is essential for a variety of posttranscriptional editing events. To directly test this, mice were created with a null mutation in Apobec-1 using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. Mice, homozygous for this mutation, were viable and made apo-B100 but not apo-B48. The null animals were fertile, and a variety of histological, behavioral, and morphological analyses revealed no phenotype other than abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism, which included an increased low density lipoprotein fraction and a reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. These studies demonstrate that neither apobec-1 nor apo-B48 is essential for viability and suggest that the major role of apobec-1 may be confined to the modulation of lipid transport. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8692961

Morrison, J R; Pászty, C; Stevens, M E; Hughes, S D; Forte, T; Scott, J; Rubin, E M

1996-01-01

325

Effects of tin-protoporphyrin administration on hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the juvenile rat  

SciTech Connect

The heme analogue tin-protoporphyrin IX (SnP) is a potent inhibitor of microsomal heme oxygenase. Administration of SnP to neonatal rats can prevent hyperbilirubinemia by blocking the postnatal increase of heme oxygenase activity. Apparently innocuous at therapeutic doses, it is of potential clinical value for chemoprevention of neonatal jaundice. We found that when 50-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated daily with 50 mumol of SnP/kg sc for 6 days, hepatic microsomal cytochromes b5 and P-450 were significantly diminished. Cytochrome P-450 reductase, two P-450-dependent monooxygenases, aminopyrine demethylase and benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase, and catalase, a peroxisomal hemoprotein, were also significantly diminished. These results suggested that SnP might significantly affect the metabolism of other xenobiotics. This possibility was confirmed by the finding that hexobarbital-induced sleep lasted 4 times longer in SnP-treated rats than in controls. Inhibition of protein synthesis by SnP was ruled out as the cause of hemoprotein loss when administration of (/sup 3/H)leucine to SnP-treated and control rats demonstrated that proteins of the microsomal, cytosolic, and plasma membrane fractions of the livers from both groups incorporated similar levels of leucine. When /sup 55/FeCl/sub 3/ and (2-/sup 14/C)glycine were administered to measure heme synthesis, heme extract from the livers of SnP-treated rats contained 4 times more label from iron and glycine than did heme from control livers. Despite the apparent increased rate of heme synthesis in SnP-treated rats, each of the three cell fractions demonstrated a significant loss of heme but contained sizable amounts of SnP. These findings suggest that SnP causes a decrease of functional hemoprotein and partial loss of enzymic activity by displacing intracellular heme.

Stout, D.L.; Becker, F.F.

1988-01-01

326

Transcription factor nrf1 negatively regulates the cystine/glutamate transporter and lipid-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Liver-specific Nrf1 (NF-E2-p45-related factor 1) knockout mice develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To identify postnatal mechanisms responsible for this phenotype, we generated an inducible liver-specific Nrf1 knockout mouse line using animals harboring an Nrf1(flox) allele and a rat CYP1A1-Cre transgene (Nrf1(flox/flox)::CYP1A1-Cre mice). Administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) to these mice (Nrf1(flox/flox)::CYP1A1-Cre+3MC mice) resulted in loss of hepatic Nrf1 expression. The livers of mice lacking Nrf1 accumulated lipid, and the hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition in such animals differed significantly from that in the Nrf1(flox/flox)::CYP1A1-Cre control. This change was provoked by upregulation of several FA metabolism genes. Unexpectedly, we also found that the level of glutathione was increased dramatically in livers of Nrf1(flox/flox)::CYP1A1-Cre+3MC mice. While expression of glutathione biosynthetic enzymes was unchanged, xCT, a component of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc (-), was significantly upregulated in livers of Nrf1(flox/flox)::CYP1A1-Cre+3MC mice, suggesting that Nrf1 normally suppresses xCT. Thus, stress-inducible expression of xCT is a two-step process: under homeostatic conditions, Nrf1 effectively suppresses nonspecific transactivation of xCT, but when cells encounter severe oxidative/electrophilic stress, Nrf1 is displaced from an antioxidant response element (ARE) in the gene promoter while Nrf2 is recruited to the ARE. Thus, Nrf1 controls both the FA and the cystine/cysteine content of hepatocytes by participating in an elaborate regulatory network. PMID:25092871

Tsujita, Tadayuki; Peirce, Vivian; Baird, Liam; Matsuyama, Yuka; Takaku, Misaki; Walsh, Shawn V; Griffin, Julian L; Uruno, Akira; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Hayes, John D

2014-10-15

327

Transcription Factor Nrf1 Negatively Regulates the Cystine/Glutamate Transporter and Lipid-Metabolizing Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Liver-specific Nrf1 (NF-E2-p45-related factor 1) knockout mice develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To identify postnatal mechanisms responsible for this phenotype, we generated an inducible liver-specific Nrf1 knockout mouse line using animals harboring an Nrf1flox allele and a rat CYP1A1-Cre transgene (Nrf1flox/flox::CYP1A1-Cre mice). Administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) to these mice (Nrf1flox/flox::CYP1A1-Cre+3MC mice) resulted in loss of hepatic Nrf1 expression. The livers of mice lacking Nrf1 accumulated lipid, and the hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition in such animals differed significantly from that in the Nrf1flox/flox::CYP1A1-Cre control. This change was provoked by upregulation of several FA metabolism genes. Unexpectedly, we also found that the level of glutathione was increased dramatically in livers of Nrf1flox/flox::CYP1A1-Cre+3MC mice. While expression of glutathione biosynthetic enzymes was unchanged, xCT, a component of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc?, was significantly upregulated in livers of Nrf1flox/flox::CYP1A1-Cre+3MC mice, suggesting that Nrf1 normally suppresses xCT. Thus, stress-inducible expression of xCT is a two-step process: under homeostatic conditions, Nrf1 effectively suppresses nonspecific transactivation of xCT, but when cells encounter severe oxidative/electrophilic stress, Nrf1 is displaced from an antioxidant response element (ARE) in the gene promoter while Nrf2 is recruited to the ARE. Thus, Nrf1 controls both the FA and the cystine/cysteine content of hepatocytes by participating in an elaborate regulatory network. PMID:25092871

Tsujita, Tadayuki; Peirce, Vivian; Baird, Liam; Matsuyama, Yuka; Takaku, Misaki; Walsh, Shawn V.; Griffin, Julian L.; Uruno, Akira

2014-01-01

328

Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: crucial metabolic enzyme and attractive target for drug discovery  

E-print Network

-coenzymeA carboxylases (ACCs) have crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism in most living or- ganisms. Mice deficient known as the metabolic syndrome, in- sulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X [5], has gener- ated has critical roles in fatty acid metabolism, and represents an attractive target for therapeutic

Tong, Liang

329

The action of antidiabetic plants of the canadian james bay cree traditional pharmacopeia on key enzymes of hepatic glucose homeostasis.  

PubMed

We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada) to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and glycogen synthase (GS) activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) were probed by Western blot. Seven of the seventeen plant extracts significantly decreased G6Pase activity, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca, exerting an effect similar to insulin. This action involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, several plant extracts activated GS, Larix laricina and A. balsamea, far exceeding the action of insulin. We also found a significant correlation between GS stimulation and GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by plant extract treatments. In summary, three Cree plants stand out for marked effects on hepatic glucose homeostasis. P. glauca affects glucose production whereas L. laricina rather acts on glucose storage. However, A. balsamea has the most promising profile, simultaneously and powerfully reducing G6Pase and stimulating GS. Our studies thus confirm that the reduction of hepatic glucose production likely contributes to the therapeutic potential of several antidiabetic Cree traditional medicines. PMID:23864882

Nachar, Abir; Vallerand, Diane; Musallam, Lina; Lavoie, Louis; Badawi, Alaa; Arnason, John; Haddad, Pierre S

2013-01-01

330

[Investigation of metabolic kinetics and reaction phenotyping of ligustrazin by using liver microsomes and recombinant human enzymes].  

PubMed

The metabolic characteristics of ligustrazin (TMPz) in liver microsomes were investigated in the present study. The reaction phenotyping of TMPz metabolism was also identified by in vitro assessment using recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) and UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGT). TMPz was incubated at 37 degrees C with human (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM) in the presence of different co-factors. The metabolic stability and enzyme kinetics of TMPz were studied by determining its remaining concentrations with a LC-MS/MS method. TMPz was only metabolically eliminated in the microsomes with NADPH or NADPH+UDPGA. In the HLM and RLM with NADPH+UDPGA, t1/2, K(m) and V(max) of TMPz were 94.24 +/- 4.53 and 105.07 +/- 9.44 min, 22.74 +/- 1.89 and 33.09 +/- 2.74 micromol x L(-1), 253.50 +/- 10.06 and 190.40 +/- 8.35 nmol x min(-1) x mg(-1) (protein), respectively. TMPz showed a slightly higher metabolic rate in HLM than that in RLM. Its primary oxidative metabolites, 2-hydroxymethyl-3, 5, 6-trimethylpyrazine (HTMP), could undergo glucuronide conjugation. The CYP reaction phenotyping of TMPz metabolism was identified using a panel of recombinant CYP isoforms (rCYP) and specific CYP inhibitors in HLM. CYP1A2, 2C9 and 3A4 were found to be the major CYP isoforms involved in TMPz metabolism. Their individual contributions were assessed b) using the method of the total normalized rate to be 19.32%, 27.79% and 52.90%, respectively. It was observed that these CYP isoforms mediated the formation of HTMP in rCYP incubation. The UGT reaction phenotyping of HTMP glucuronidation was also investigated preliminarily by using a panel of 6 UGT isoforms (rUGT). UGT1A1, 1A4 and 1A6 were the predominant isoforms mediated the HTMP glucuronidation. The results above indicate that the metabolism of TMPz involves multiple enzymes mediated phase I and phase II reactions. PMID:24961110

Tan, Yan; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Shen, Guo-Lin; Li, Hua; Gao, Yue

2014-03-01

331

Remarkable Reproducibility of Enzyme Activity Profiles in Tomato Fruits Grown under Contrasting Environments Provides a Roadmap for Studies of Fruit Metabolism1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

To assess the influence of the environment on fruit metabolism, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’) plants were grown under contrasting conditions (optimal for commercial, water limited, or shaded production) and locations. Samples were harvested at nine stages of development, and 36 enzyme activities of central metabolism were measured as well as protein, starch, and major metabolites, such as hexoses, sucrose, organic acids, and amino acids. The most remarkable result was the high reproducibility of enzyme activities throughout development, irrespective of conditions or location. Hierarchical clustering of enzyme activities also revealed tight relationships between metabolic pathways and phases of development. Thus, cell division was characterized by high activities of fructokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, indicating ATP production as a priority, whereas cell expansion was characterized by enzymes involved in the lower part of glycolysis, suggesting a metabolic reprogramming to anaplerosis. As expected, enzymes involved in the accumulation of sugars, citrate, and glutamate were strongly increased during ripening. However, a group of enzymes involved in ATP production, which is probably fueled by starch degradation, was also increased. Metabolites levels seemed more sensitive than enzymes to the environment, although such differences tended to decrease at ripening. The integration of enzyme and metabolite data obtained under contrasting growth conditions using principal component analysis suggests that, with the exceptions of alanine amino transferase and glutamate and malate dehydrogenase and malate, there are no links between single enzyme activities and metabolite time courses or levels. PMID:24474652

Biais, Benoit; Benard, Camille; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Colombie, Sophie; Prodhomme, Duyen; Menard, Guillaume; Bernillon, Stephane; Gehl, Bernadette; Gautier, Helene; Ballias, Patricia; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Sweetlove, Lee; Genard, Michel; Gibon, Yves

2014-01-01

332

Mitochondrial dysfunction in obesity: potential benefit and mechanism of Co-enzyme Q10 supplementation in metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Co-enzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) is an essential component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Most cells are sensitive to co-enzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) deficiency. This deficiency has been implicated in several clinical disorders such as heart failure, hypertension, Parkinson’s disease and obesity. The lipid lowering drug statin inhibits conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate and lowers plasma Co-Q10 concentrations. However, supplementation with Co-Q10 improves the pathophysiological condition of statin therapy. Recent evidence suggests that Co-Q10 supplementation may be useful for the treatment of obesity, oxidative stress and the inflammatory process in metabolic syndrome. The anti-inflammatory response and lipid metabolizing effect of Co-Q10 is probably mediated by transcriptional regulation of inflammation and lipid metabolism. This paper reviews the evidence showing beneficial role of Co-Q10 supplementation and its potential mechanism of action on contributing factors of metabolic and cardiovascular complications. PMID:24932457

2014-01-01

333

High Sensitivity of Nrf2 Knockout Mice to Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity Associated with Decreased Expression of ARE- Regulated Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Antioxidant Genes  

E-print Network

Nrf2, which belongs to the basic leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor family, has been implicated as a key molecule involved in antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-mediated gene expression. In order to examine the role of Nrf2 in protection against xenobiotic toxicity, the sensitivity of nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen (N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (APAP)) was analyzed. The saturation of detoxification pathways after high levels of exposure to APAP is known to induce hepatotoxicity. Two factors important in its detoxification are UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), an ARE-regulated phase-II drug-metabolizing enzyme, and glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant molecule whose synthesis depends on ARE-regulated ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?GCS). Two- to 4-month-old male mice were orally administered a single dose of APAP at 0, 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg. Doses of 300 mg/kg APAP or greater caused death in the homozygous knockout mice

Takanori Harada; Masayuki Yamamoto

334

Fructoselysine 3-epimerase, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the unusual Amadori compound psicoselysine in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The frl (fructoselysine) operon encodes fructoselysine 6-kinase and fructoselysine 6-phosphate deglycase, allowing the conversion of fructoselysine into glucose 6-phosphate and lysine. We now show that a third enzyme encoded by this operon catalyses the metal-dependent reversible interconversion of fructoselysine with its C-3 epimer, psicoselysine. The enzyme can be easily assayed through the formation of tritiated water from [3-3H]fructoselysine. Psicoselysine supports the growth of Escherichia coli, causing the induction of the three enzymes of the frl operon. No growth on fructoselysine or psicoselysine was observed with Tn5 mutants in which the putative transporter (FrlA) or fructoselysine 6-phosphate deglycase (FrlB) had been inactivated, indicating the importance of the frl operon for the metabolism of both substrates. The ability of E. coli to grow on psicoselysine suggests the occurrence of this unusual Amadori compound in Nature. PMID:14641112

Wiame, Elsa; Van Schaftingen, Emile

2004-01-01

335

Requirement of a specific group of sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme for growth of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under impaired metabolism of glycerophospholipids.  

PubMed

Sphingolipids play critical roles in many physiologically important events in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we screened for yeast mutants showing high sensitivity to Aureobasidin A, an inhibitor of inositol phosphorylceramide synthase, and found that a lack of SAC1 encoding phosphoinositides phosphatase causes high sensitivity to the inhibitor. Double mutation analysis involving the SAC1 and non-essential sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme genes revealed that csg1?, csg2?, ipt1? or scs7? causes synthetic lethality with deletion of SAC1. As previously reported, SAC1-repressed cells exhibited a reduced cellular phosphatidylserine (PS) level, and overexpression of PSS1 encoding PS synthase complemented the growth defects of scs7?, csg1? and ipt1? cells under SAC1-repressive conditions. Furthermore, repression of PSS1 expression resulted in synthetic growth defect with the deletion of CSG1, IPT1 or SCS7. The growth defects of scs7?, csg1? and ipt1? cells under SAC1- or PSS1-repressive conditions were also complemented by overexpression of Arf-GAP AGE1, which encodes a protein related to membrane trafficking. Under SAC1-repressive conditions, scs7?, csg1? and ipt1? cells showed defects in vacuolar morphology, which were complemented by overexpression of each of PSS1 and AGE1. These results suggested that a specific group of sphingolipid-metabolizing enzyme is required for yeast cell growth under impaired metabolism of glycerophospholipids. PMID:20979339

Tani, Motohiro; Kuge, Osamu

2010-10-01

336

Red meat intake, doneness, polymorphisms in genes that encode carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and colorectal cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Colorectal cancer literature regarding the interaction between polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and red meat intake/doneness is inconsistent. A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between red meat consumption, doneness and polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes. Colorectal cancer cases diagnosed 1997-2000, aged 20-74 years, were identified through the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry and recruited by the Ontario Family Colorectal Cancer Registry (OFCCR). Controls were sex- and age-group matched random sample of Ontario population. Epidemiologic and food questionnaires were completed by 1095 cases and 1890 controls; blood was provided by 842 and 1251, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates. Increased red meat intake was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk [OR (>5 servings/week vs. ?2 servings/week) =1.67 (1.36, 2.05)]. Colorectal cancer risk also increased significantly with well-done meat intake [OR (>2 servings/week well-done vs. ? 2 servings/week rare-regular) = 1.57 (1.27, 1.93)]. We evaluated interactions between genetic variants in 15 enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens in overcooked meat (CYPs, GSTs, UGTs, SULT, NATs, mEH, AHR). CYP2C9 and NAT2 variants were associated with colorectal cancer risk. Red meat intake was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, regardless of genotypes; however, CYP1B1 combined variant and SULT1A1-638G>A variant significantly modified the association between red meat doneness intake and colorectal cancer risk. In conclusion, well-done red meat intake was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer regardless of carcinogen-metabolizing genotype, although our data suggests persons with CYP1B1 and SULT1A1 variants had the highest colorectal cancer risk. PMID:18990750

Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Manno, Michael; Gallinger, Steven; Okey, Allan B.; Harper, Patricia A.

2009-01-01

337

Metabolism of diosbulbin B in vitro and in vivo in rats: formation of reactive metabolites and human enzymes involved.  

PubMed

Diosbulbin B (DB), a major constituent of the furano-norditerpenes in Dioscorea bulbifera Linn, exhibits potential antineoplasmic activity and hepatotoxicity. The metabolism and reactive metabolites of DB in vitro (with human and animal liver microsomes) and in vivo in rats were investigated. The human enzymes involved in DB metabolism were identified. DB was first catalyzed into reactive metabolites of 2-butene-1,4-dial derivatives dependent on NADPH and then trapped by Tris base or oxidized to hemiacetal lactones (M12 and M13) in microsomal incubations. Tris base was used as buffer constituent and as a trapping agent for aldehyde. Methoxylamine and glutathione (GSH) were also used as trapping agents. DB metabolism in vivo in rats after oral administration was consistent with that in vitro. The structures of M12 and M13, as well as mono-GSH conjugates of DB (M31), were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the chemically synthesized products. The bioactivation enzymes of DB were identified as CYP3A4/5, 2C9, and 2C19. CYP3A4 was found to be the primary enzyme using human recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes, specific inhibitory studies, and a relative activity factor approach for pooled human liver microsomes. Michaelis-Menten constants K(m) and V(max) were determined by the formation of M31. The reactive metabolites may be related to the hepatotoxicity of DB. The gender difference in CYP3A expression in mice and rats contributed to the gender-related liver injury and pharmacokinetics in mice and rats, respectively. PMID:25053620

Yang, Baohua; Liu, Wei; Chen, Kaixian; Wang, Zhengtao; Wang, Changhong

2014-10-01

338

The protein kinase Sch9 is a key regulator of sphingolipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Sch9 is an in vitro and in vivo effector of sphingolipid signaling. This study examines the link between Sch9 and sphingolipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae in vivo based on the observation that the sch9? mutant displays altered sensitivity to different inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolism, namely myriocin and aureobasidin A. Sphingolipid profiling indicates that sch9? cells have increased levels of long-chain bases and long-chain base-1 phosphates, decreased levels of several species of (phyto)ceramides, and altered ratios of complex sphingolipids. We show that the target of rapamycin complex 1–Sch9 signaling pathway functions to repress the expression of the ceramidase genes YDC1 and YPC1, thereby revealing, for the first time in yeast, a nutrient-dependent transcriptional mechanism involved in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism. In addition, we establish that Sch9 affects the activity of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C, Isc1, which is required for ceramide production by hydrolysis of complex sphingolipids. Given that sphingolipid metabolites play a crucial role in the regulation of stress tolerance and longevity of yeast cells, our data provide a model in which Sch9 regulates the latter phenotypes by acting not only as an effector but also as a regulator of sphingolipid metabolism. PMID:24196832

Swinnen, Erwin; Wilms, Tobias; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jolanta; Smets, Bart; De Snijder, Pepijn; Accardo, Sabina; Ghillebert, Ruben; Thevissen, Karin; Cammue, Bruno; De Vos, Dirk; Bielawski, Jacek; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Winderickx, Joris

2014-01-01

339

The protein kinase Sch9 is a key regulator of sphingolipid metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase Sch9 is an in vitro and in vivo effector of sphingolipid signaling. This study examines the link between Sch9 and sphingolipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae in vivo based on the observation that the sch9? mutant displays altered sensitivity to different inhibitors of sphingolipid metabolism, namely myriocin and aureobasidin A. Sphingolipid profiling indicates that sch9? cells have increased levels of long-chain bases and long-chain base-1 phosphates, decreased levels of several species of (phyto)ceramides, and altered ratios of complex sphingolipids. We show that the target of rapamycin complex 1-Sch9 signaling pathway functions to repress the expression of the ceramidase genes YDC1 and YPC1, thereby revealing, for the first time in yeast, a nutrient-dependent transcriptional mechanism involved in the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism. In addition, we establish that Sch9 affects the activity of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C, Isc1, which is required for ceramide production by hydrolysis of complex sphingolipids. Given that sphingolipid metabolites play a crucial role in the regulation of stress tolerance and longevity of yeast cells, our data provide a model in which Sch9 regulates the latter phenotypes by acting not only as an effector but also as a regulator of sphingolipid metabolism. PMID:24196832

Swinnen, Erwin; Wilms, Tobias; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jolanta; Smets, Bart; De Snijder, Pepijn; Accardo, Sabina; Ghillebert, Ruben; Thevissen, Karin; Cammue, Bruno; De Vos, Dirk; Bielawski, Jacek; Hannun, Yusuf A; Winderickx, Joris

2014-01-01

340

Caffeine as a metabolic probe: Exploration of the enzyme-inducing effect of cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been realized recently that the primary metabolism of caffeine in humans is catalyzed by P-450IA2 and that the rate of caffeine metabolism can be estimated from a metabolic ratio in a single urine sample. A population of 178 students including 19 smokers were subjected to this caffeine test to establish their P-450IA2 index. Both stated numbers of cigarettes

Werner Kalow; Bing-Kou Tang

1991-01-01

341

Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cannabidiol (CBD) and ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) interact with transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of 11 pure cannabinoids and botanical extracts [botanical drug substance (BDS)] from Cannabis varieties selected to contain a more abundant cannabinoid, on TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1, human recombinant diacylglycerol lipase ? (DAGL?), rat brain fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), COS cell monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), human recombinant N-acylethanolamine acid amide hydrolase (NAAA) and anandamide cellular uptake (ACU) by RBL-2H3 cells, were studied using fluorescence-based calcium assays in transfected cells and radiolabelled substrate-based enzymatic assays. Cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), the acids (CBDA, CBGA, THCA) and propyl homologues (CBDV, CBGV, THCV) of CBD, cannabigerol (CBG) and THC, and tetrahydrocannabivarin acid (THCVA) were also tested. KEY RESULTS CBD, CBG, CBGV and THCV stimulated and desensitized human TRPV1. CBC, CBD and CBN were potent rat TRPA1 agonists and desensitizers, but THCV-BDS was the most potent compound at this target. CBG-BDS and THCV-BDS were the most potent rat TRPM8 antagonists. All non-acid cannabinoids, except CBC and CBN, potently activated and desensitized rat TRPV2. CBDV and all the acids inhibited DAGL?. Some BDS, but not the pure compounds, inhibited MAGL. CBD was the only compound to inhibit FAAH, whereas the BDS of CBC > CBG > CBGV inhibited NAAA. CBC = CBG > CBD inhibited ACU, as did the BDS of THCVA, CBGV, CBDA and THCA, but the latter extracts were more potent inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results are relevant to the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids and Cannabis extracts. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.163.issue-7 PMID:21175579

De Petrocellis, Luciano; Ligresti, Alessia; Moriello, Aniello Schiano; Allara, Marco; Bisogno, Tiziana; Petrosino, Stefania; Stott, Colin G; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

2011-01-01

342

Metabolic Enzymes from Psychrophilic Bacteria: Challenge of Adaptation to Low Temperatures in Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase from Moritellaabyssi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTCase) of Moritella abyssi (OTCaseMab), a new, strictly psychrophilic and piezophilic bacterial species, was purified. OTCaseMab displays maximal activity at rather low temperatures (23 to 25°C) compared to other cold-active enzymes and is much less thermoresistant than its homologues from Escherichia coli or thermophilic procaryotes. In vitro the enzyme is in equilibrium between a trimeric state

Ying Xu; Georges Feller; Charles Gerday; Nicolas Glansdorff

2003-01-01

343

Combined effects of cadmium and nickel on testicular xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rats.  

PubMed

When male rats were given a single dose of cadmium (Cd) (3.58 mg CdCl2 x H2O/kg, i.p.) 72 hr prior to sacrifice, the testicular 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities toward the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), ethacrynic acid (EAA), 1,2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)-propane (EPNP), and cumene hydroperoxide (CHPx) decreased significantly as compared to controls. Cd also inhibited reduced glutathione (GSH) level while increasing the lipid peroxidation (LP) level significantly. When the animals were given a single dose of nickel (Ni) (59.5 mg NiCl2 x 6H2O/kg, i.p.) 16 hr prior to sacrifice, significant decreases were observed in EROD and GST activities toward CDNB, EAA, EPNP, and CHPx, and GSH level. No significant alterations were noted in DCNB GST activity and LP level by Ni. For the combined treatment, rats received the single dose of Ni 56 hr after the single dose of Cd and were killed 16 hr later. In these animals, lesser depressions were observed on EROD activity and LP level than those of Cd alone. The combination of metals significantly inhibited GST activities and GSH level but not to a greater degree than noted by Cd or Ni alone. Plasma testosterone levels of Cd-, Ni-, and combination-treated rats decreased significantly compared to controls. The strongest depression was achieved by Cd alone. Cd, both alone and in combination with Ni, increased the tissue Ni uptake significantly. Ni, however, did not produce such an effect on the tissue uptake of Cd in either case. Cd treatment caused interstitial edema and coagulation necrosis in seminiferous tubules and also caused fibrinoidal necrosis in vascular endothelium. Ni treatment did not produce any pathological testicular alterations compared to controls. Combined treatment produced fewer pathological alterations (i.e., only interstitial edema) than that of Cd treatment. These results reveal that the combination of Cd and Ni does nothave a synergistic effect on testicular xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and in contrast, Ni has an ameliorating effect on pathological disturbances caused by Cd alone in the rat testis. PMID:12449241

I?can, Mümtaz; Ada, Ahmet O; Coban, Tülay; Kapucuo?lu, Nilgün; Aydin, Ahmet; Isimer, A?kin

2002-11-01

344

Toxicological studies of a leachable stabilizer di-n-butyltin dilaurate(DBTL): effects on hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme activities.  

PubMed

Toxicological studies of a leachable stabilizer Di-n-butyltin dilaurate (DBTL) were undertaken. Effects of DBTL after 15 days oral exposure to rats were studied on brain and liver enzyme activities. A significant decrease in body weight gain of DBTL exposed rats were observed. No effect was observed in the activities of brain enzymes, succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase, acetylcholine esterase and monoamine oxidase. In liver, DBTL treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the activities of microsomal enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase, aminopyrine-N-demethylase, benzphetamine-N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase and also on cytochrome P-450 content, whereas no difference in the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, succinic dehydrogenase, Mg2+-adenosine triphosphatase as well as in the activity of lysosomal enzyme acid phosphatase was observed. Duration of exposure dependent increase in pentabarbital induced sleeping time was also observed. DBTL treatment produced an induction in heme oxygenase activity whereas the activity of -aminolevulinic acid synthetase remained unaltered. The results demonstrate that DBTL significantly affects the biotransformation mechanism and heme metabolism of hepatocytes. PMID:7261948

Mushtaq, M; Mukhtar, H; Datta, K K; Tandon, S G; Seth, P K

1981-01-01

345

Cis - and trans -1,2-diphenylaziridines: induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver and mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium  

Microsoft Academic Search

trans-Stilbene imine (trans-1,2-diphenylaziridine) is the nitrogen analog of trans-stilbene oxide, a potent inducer of several microsomal and cytosolic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Although the acute toxicity of cis- and trans-stilbene imines prevents their application at the usual dose for trans-stilbene oxide (400 mg\\/kg\\/day), it is apparent that the imines nevertheless potently induce several xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. The IP administration of

H. R. Glatt; L. W. Robertson; M. Arand; P. Rauch; H. Schramm; F. Setiabudi; P. Pöchlauer; E. P. Müller; F. Oesch

1986-01-01

346

Study of 'Redhaven' peach and its white-fleshed mutant suggests a key role of CCD4 carotenoid dioxygenase in carotenoid and norisoprenoid volatile metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Carotenoids are plant metabolites which are not only essential in photosynthesis but also important quality factors in determining the pigmentation and aroma of flowers and fruits. To investigate the regulation of carotenoid metabolism, as related to norisoprenoids and other volatile compounds in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch.), and the role of carotenoid dioxygenases in determining differences in flesh color phenotype and volatile composition, the expression patterns of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were studied during fruit development along with volatile compound content. Two contrasted cultivars, the yellow-fleshed 'Redhaven' (RH) and its white-fleshed mutant 'Redhaven Bianca' (RHB) were examined. Results The two genotypes displayed marked differences in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in mesocarp tissues. Lower carotenoid levels and higher levels of norisoprenoid volatiles were observed in RHB, which might be explained by differential activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) enzymes. In fact, the ccd4 transcript levels were dramatically higher at late ripening stages in RHB with respect to RH. The two genotypes also showed differences in the expression patterns of several carotenoid and isoprenoid transcripts, compatible with a feed-back regulation of these transcripts. Abamine SG - an inhibitor of CCD enzymes - decreased the levels of both isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid volatiles in RHB fruits, indicating a complex regulation of volatile production. Conclusions Differential expression of ccd4 is likely to be the major determinant in the accumulation of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived volatiles in peach fruit flesh. More in general, dioxygenases appear to be key factors controlling volatile composition in peach fruit, since abamine SG-treated 'Redhaven Bianca' fruits had strongly reduced levels of norisoprenoids and other volatile classes. Comparative functional studies of peach carotenoid cleavage enzymes are required to fully elucidate their role in peach fruit pigmentation and aroma. PMID:21269483

2011-01-01

347

Characterization of arachidonic acid metabolism by rat cytochrome P450 enzymes: the involvement of CYP1As.  

PubMed

Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes mediate arachidonic acid (AA) oxidation to several biologically active metabolites. Our aims in this study were to characterize AA metabolism by different recombinant rat P450 enzymes and to identify new targets for modulating P450-AA metabolism in vivo. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous measurements of AA and 15 of its P450 metabolites. CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2C6, and CYP2C11 were found to metabolize AA with high catalytic activity, and CYP2A1, CYP2C13, CYP2D1, CYP2E1, and CYP3A1 had lower activity. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 produced ?-1?4 hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) as 88.7 and 62.7%, respectively, of the total metabolites formed. CYP2C11 produced epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) as 61.3%, and CYP2C6 produced midchain HETEs and EETs as 48.3 and 29.4%, respectively, of the total metabolites formed. The formation of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2C6, and CYP2C11 major metabolites followed an atypical kinetic profile of substrate inhibition. CYP1As inhibition by ?-naphthoflavone or anti-CYP1As antibodies significantly reduced ?-1?4 HETE formation in the lungs and liver, whereas CYP1As induction by 3-methylcholanthrene resulted in a significant increase in ?-1?4 HETEs formation in the heart, lungs, kidney, and livers by 370, 646, 532, and 848%, respectively. In conclusion, our results suggest that CYP1As and CYP2Cs are major players in the metabolism of AA. The significant contribution of CYP1As to AA metabolism and their strong inducibility suggest their possible use as targets for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. PMID:24969701

El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; El-Kadi, Ayman O S

2014-09-01

348

Comparative analysis of genes encoding key steroid core oxidation enzymes in fast-growing Mycobacterium spp. strains.  

PubMed

A comparative genome analysis of Mycobacterium spp. VKM Ac-1815D, 1816D and 1817D strains used for efficient production of key steroid intermediates (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, AD, androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, ADD, 9?-hydroxy androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, 9-OH-AD) from phytosterol has been carried out by deep sequencing. The assembled contig sequences were analyzed for the presence putative genes of steroid catabolism pathways. Since 3-ketosteroid-9?-hydroxylases (KSH) and 3-ketosteroid-?(1)-dehydrogenase (?(1) KSTD) play key role in steroid core oxidation, special attention was paid to the genes encoding these enzymes. At least three genes of ?(1) KSTD (kstD), five genes of KSH subunit A (kshA), and one gene of KSH subunit B of 3-ketosteroid-9?-hydroxylases (kshB) have been found in Mycobacterium sp. VKM Ac-1817D. Strains of Mycobacterium spp. VKM Ac-1815D and 1816D were found to possess at least one kstD, one kshB and two kshA genes. The assembled genome sequence of Mycobacterium sp. VKM Ac-1817D differs from those of 1815D and 1816D strains, whereas these last two are nearly identical, differing by 13 single nucleotide substitutions (SNPs). One of these SNPs is located in the coding region of a kstD gene and corresponds to an amino acid substitution Lys (135) in 1816D for Ser (135) in 1815D. The findings may be useful for targeted genetic engineering of the biocatalysts for biotechnological application. PMID:23474435

Bragin, E Yu; Shtratnikova, V Yu; Dovbnya, D V; Schelkunov, M I; Pekov, Yu A; Malakho, S G; Egorova, O V; Ivashina, T V; Sokolov, S L; Ashapkin, V V; Donova, M V

2013-11-01

349

The MetaCyc Database of metabolic pathways and enzymes and the BioCyc collection of Pathway/Genome Databases  

PubMed Central

MetaCyc (MetaCyc.org) is a universal database of metabolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life. The pathways in MetaCyc are curated from the primary scientific literature, and are experimentally determined small-molecule metabolic pathways. Each reaction in a MetaCyc pathway is annotated with one or more well-characterized enzymes. Because MetaCyc contains only experimentally elucidated knowledge, it provides a uniquely high-quality resource for metabolic pathways and enzymes. BioCyc (BioCyc.org) is a collection of more than 350 organism-specific Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs). Each BioCyc PGDB contains the predicted metabolic network of one organism, including metabolic pathways, enzymes, metabolites and reactions predicted by the Pathway Tools software using MetaCyc as a reference database. BioCyc PGDBs also contain predicted operons and predicted pathway hole fillers—predictions of which enzymes may catalyze pathway reactions that have not been assigned to an enzyme. The BioCyc website offers many tools for computational analysis of PGDBs, including comparative analysis and analysis of omics data in a pathway context. The BioCyc PGDBs generated by SRI are offered for adoption by any interested party for the ongoing integration of metabolic and genome-related information about an organism. PMID:17965431

Caspi, Ron; Foerster, Hartmut; Fulcher, Carol A.; Kaipa, Pallavi; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Paley, Suzanne; Rhee, Seung Y.; Shearer, Alexander G.; Tissier, Christophe; Walk, Thomas C.; Zhang, Peifen; Karp, Peter D.

2008-01-01

350

A combined computational-experimental analyses of selected metabolic enzymes in Pseudomonas species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative genomic analysis has revolutionized our ability to predict the metabolic subsystems that occur in newly sequenced genomes, and to explore the functional roles of the set of genes within each subsystem. These computational predictions can considerably reduce the volume of experimental studies required to assess basic metabolic properties of multiple bacterial species. However, experimental validations are still required to

Deepak Perumal; Chu Sing Lim; Vincent T. K. Chow; Kishore R. Sakharkar; Meena K. Sakharkar

351

Enzyme Basis for pH Regulation of Citrate and Pyruvate Metabolism by Leuconostoc oenos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Citrate and pyruvate metabolism by nongrowing cells of Leuconostoc oenos was investigated. 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to elucidate the pathway of citrate breakdown and to probe citrate or pyruvate utilization, noninvasively, in living cell suspensions. The utilization of isotopically enriched substrates allowed us to account for the end products derived from the metabolism of endogenous reserves.

Ana Ramos; Juke S. Lolkema; Wil N. Konings; Helena Santos

1995-01-01

352

Effects of Ospemifene on Drug Metabolism Mediated by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Humans in Vitro and in Vivo  

PubMed Central

The objective of these investigations was to determine the possible effects of the novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, ospemifene, on cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated drug metabolism. Ospemifene underwent testing for possible effects on CYP enzyme activity in human liver microsomes and in isolated human hepatocytes. Based on the results obtained in vitro, three Phase 1 crossover pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in healthy postmenopausal women to assess the in vivo effects of ospemifene on CYP-mediated drug metabolism. Ospemifene and its main metabolites 4-hydroxyospemifene and 4?-hydroxyospemifene weakly inhibited a number of CYPs (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, and CYP2D6) in vitro. However, only CYP2C9 activity was inhibited by 4-hydroxyospemifene at clinically relevant concentrations. Induction of CYPs by ospemifene in cultured human hepatocytes was 2.4-fold or less. The in vivo studies showed that ospemifene did not have significant effects on the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves of the tested CYP substrates warfarin (CYP2C9), bupropion (CYP2B6) and omeprazole (CYP2C19), demonstrating that pretreatment with ospemifene did not alter their metabolism. Therefore, the risk that ospemifene will affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates for CYP enzymes is low. PMID:23880855

Turpeinen, Miia; Uusitalo, Jouko; Lehtinen, Terhi; Kailajarvi, Marita; Pelkonen, Olavi; Vuorinen, Jouni; Tapanainen, Pasi; Stjernschantz, Camilla; Lammintausta, Risto; Scheinin, Mika

2013-01-01

353

Functional Conservation of Plant Secondary Metabolic Enzymes Revealed by Complementation of Arabidopsis Flavonoid Mutants with Maize Genes1  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the transparent testa (tt) loci abolish pigment production in Arabidopsis seed coats. The TT4, TT5, and TT3 loci encode chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, respectively, which are essential for anthocyanin accumulation and may form a macromolecular complex. Here, we show that the products of the maize (Zea mays) C2, CHI1, and A1 genes complement Arabidopsis tt4, tt5, and tt3 mutants, restoring the ability of these mutants to accumulate pigments in seed coats and seedlings. Overexpression of the maize genes in wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings does not result in increased anthocyanin accumulation, suggesting that the steps catalyzed by these enzymes are not rate limiting in the conditions assayed. The expression of the maize A1 gene in the flavonoid 3? hydroxylase Arabidopsis tt7 mutant resulted in an increased accumulation of pelargonidin. We conclude that enzymes involved in secondary metabolism can be functionally exchangeable between plants separated by large evolutionary distances. This is in sharp contrast to the notion that the more relaxed selective constrains to which secondary metabolic pathways are subjected is responsible for the rapid divergence of the corresponding enzymes. PMID:11553733

Dong, Xiaoyun; Braun, Edward L.; Grotewold, Erich

2001-01-01

354

Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-3 Is a Key Inhibitor of Inflammation in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Visceral obesity is associated with the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Low-grade chronic inflammation and oxidative stress synergize in obesity and obesity-induced disorders. Objective We searched a cluster of molecules that support interactions between these stress conditions in monocytes. Methods RNA expressions in blood monocytes of two independent cohorts comprising 21 and 102 obese persons and 46 age-matched controls were determined by microarray and independently validated by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The effect of three-month weight loss after bariatric surgery was determined. The effect of RNA silencing on inflammation and oxidative stress was studied in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Results Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-3 (IRAK3), key inhibitor of IRAK/NF?B-mediated chronic inflammation, is downregulated in monocytes of obese persons. Low IRAK3 was associated with high superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), a marker of mitochondrial oxidative stress. A comparable expression profile was also detected in visceral adipose tissue of the same obese subjects. Low IRAK3 and high SOD2 was associated with a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio: 9.3; sensitivity: 91%; specificity: 77%). By comparison, the odds ratio of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a widely used marker of systemic inflammation, was 4.3 (sensitivity: 69%; specificity: 66%). Weight loss was associated with an increase in IRAK3 and a decrease in SOD2, in association with a lowering of systemic inflammation and a decreasing number of metabolic syndrome components. We identified the increase in reactive oxygen species in combination with obesity-associated low adiponectin and high glucose and interleukin-6 as cause of the decrease in IRAK3 in THP-1 cells in vitro. Conclusion IRAK3 is a key inhibitor of inflammation in association with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our data warrant further evaluation of IRAK3 as a diagnostic and prognostic marker, and as a target for intervention. PMID:22272346

De Keyzer, Dieuwke; Mertens, Ann; Lannoo, Matthias; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoylaerts, Marc; Benhabiles, Nora; Tsatsanis, Christos; Mathieu, Chantal; Holvoet, Paul

2012-01-01

355

Keeping the engine primed: HIF factors as key regulators of cardiac metabolism and angiogenesis during ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myocardial ischemia, the most common cause of cardiac hypoxia in clinical medicine, occurs when oxygen delivery cannot meet\\u000a myocardial metabolic requirements in the heart. This deficiency can result from either a reduced supply of oxygen (decreased\\u000a coronary bloodflow) or an increased myocardial demand for oxygen (increased wall stress or afterload). Patients with stable\\u000a coronary artery disease as well as patients

Ralph V. Shohet; Joseph A. Garcia

2007-01-01

356

Metabolic responses of CHO cells to limitation of key amino acids.  

PubMed

Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the predominant host for production of therapeutic glycoproteins. In particular, the glutamine-synthetase (GS) expression system has been widely used in the biopharmaceutical industry for efficient selection of high-yielding clones. However, much remains unclear on how metabolic wiring affects culture performance. For instance, asparagine and serine have been observed to be the largest nitrogen sources taken up by GS-CHO cells, but their roles in biosynthesis and energy generation are poorly understood. In this work, a comprehensive profiling of extracellular metabolites coupled with an analysis of intracellular label distributions after 1-(13) C-pyruvate supplementation were used to trace metabolic rearrangements in different scenarios of asparagine and serine availability. The absence of asparagine in the medium caused growth arrest, and was associated with a dramatic increase in pyruvate uptake, a higher ratio of pyruvate carboxylation to dehydrogenation and an inability for de novo asparagine synthesis. The release of ammonia and amino acids such as aspartate, glutamate, and alanine were deeply impacted. This confirms asparagine to be essential for these GS-CHO cells as the main source of intracellular nitrogen as well as having an important anaplerotic role in TCA cycle activity. In turn, serine unavailability also negatively affected culture growth while triggering its de novo synthesis, confirmed by label incorporation coming from pyruvate, and reduced glycine and formate secretion congruent with its role as a precursor in the metabolism of one-carbon units. Overall, these results unfold important insights into GS-CHO cells metabolism that lay a clearer basis for fine-tuning bioprocess optimization. PMID:24771076

Duarte, Tiago M; Carinhas, Nuno; Barreiro, Laura C; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M; Teixeira, Ana P

2014-10-01

357

The Terminal Enzymes of Sialic Acid Metabolism: Acylneuraminate Pyruvate-Lyases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acylneuraminate pyruvate-lyase gene from Clostridium perfringens was sequenced and found to be most similar to the lyase gene from Haemophilus influenzae. Both the recombinant clostridial enzyme and the native enzyme from pig kidney were purified in larger amounts and characterized. The properties of the porcine lyase are similar to the microbial ones. However, the much higher degree of similarity

Roland Schauer; Ulf Sommer; Dorothea Krüger; Henrieke van Unen; Christina Traving

1999-01-01

358

Identification and subcellular localization of starch-metabolizing enzymes in the green alga Dunaliella marina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymes of starch synthesis and degradation were identified in crude extracts of the unicellular green alga Dunaliella marina (Volvocales). By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and specific staining for enzyme activities, 4 multiple forms of starch synthase, 2 amylases, and at least 2 forms of a-glucan phosphorylase were visible. Using specific a-glucans incorporated into the gel before electrophoresis we have tentatively correlated

Erich Kombrink; Günter Wöber

1980-01-01

359

Myostatin is a key mediator between energy metabolism and endurance capacity of skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Myostatin (Mstn) participates in the regulation of skeletal muscle size and has emerged as a regulator of muscle metabolism. Here, we hypothesized that lack of myostatin profoundly depresses oxidative phosphorylation-dependent muscle function. Toward this end, we explored Mstn(-/-) mice as a model for the constitutive absence of myostatin and AAV-mediated overexpression of myostatin propeptide as a model of myostatin blockade in adult wild-type mice. We show that muscles from Mstn(-/-) mice, although larger and stronger, fatigue extremely rapidly. Myostatin deficiency shifts muscle from aerobic toward anaerobic energy metabolism, as evidenced by decreased mitochondrial respiration, reduced expression of PPAR transcriptional regulators, increased enolase activity, and exercise-induced lactic acidosis. As a consequence, constitutively reduced myostatin signaling diminishes exercise capacity, while the hypermuscular state of Mstn(-/-) mice increases oxygen consumption and the energy cost of running. We wondered whether these results are the mere consequence of the congenital fiber-type switch toward a glycolytic phenotype of constitutive Mstn(-/-) mice. Hence, we overexpressed myostatin propeptide in adult mice, which did not affect fiber-type distribution, while nonetheless causing increased muscle fatigability, diminished exercise capacity, and decreased Pparb/d and Pgc1a expression. In conclusion, our results suggest that myostatin endows skeletal muscle with high oxidative capacity and low fatigability, thus regulating the delicate balance between muscle mass, muscle force, energy metabolism, and endurance capacity. PMID:24965795

Mouisel, Etienne; Relizani, Karima; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Denis, Raphaël; Hourdé, Christophe; Agbulut, Onnik; Patel, Ketan; Arandel, Ludovic; Morales-Gonzalez, Susanne; Vignaud, Alban; Garcia, Luis; Ferry, Arnaud; Luquet, Serge; Billat, Véronique; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Schuelke, Markus; Amthor, Helge

2014-08-15

360

COMPARISON OF IN VIVO AND IN VITRO METHODS FOR ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF PHENOBARBITAL ON THE HEPATIC DRUG-METABOLIZING ENZYME SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of daily i.p. injections of 0, 1, 10 and 80 mg/kg phenobarbital for 1 week on the activity of the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme system was measured in the rat by a model substrate assay employing lindane and by a battery of in vitro enzyme assays. Comparison of the ...

361

Human cytochrome-P450 enzymes metabolize N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine, a metabolite of the carcinogens o-anisidine and o-nitroanisole, thereby dictating its genotoxicity.  

PubMed

N-(2-Methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine is a component in the human metabolism of two industrial and environmental pollutants and bladder carcinogens, viz. 2-methoxyaniline (o-anisidine) and 2-methoxynitrobenzene (o-nitroanisole), and it is responsible for their genotoxicity. Besides its capability to form three deoxyguanosine adducts in DNA, N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-hydroxylamine is also further metabolized by hepatic microsomal enzymes. To investigate its metabolism by human hepatic microsomes and to identify the major microsomal enzymes involved in this process are the aims of this study. N-(2-Methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine is metabolized by human hepatic microsomes predominantly to o-anisidine, one of the parent carcinogens from which N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine is formed, while o-aminophenol and two N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine metabolites, whose exact structures have not been identified as yet, are minor products. Selective inhibitors of microsomal CYPs, NADPH:CYP reductase and NADH:cytochrome-b(5) reductase were used to characterize human liver microsomal enzymes reducing N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine to o-anisidine. Based on these studies, we attribute the main activity for this metabolic step in human liver to CYP3A4, 2E1 and 2C (more than 90%). The enzymes CYP2D6 and 2A6 also partake in this N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine metabolism in human liver, but only to ?6%. Among the human recombinant CYP enzymes tested in this study, human CYP2E1, followed by CYP3A4, 1A2, 2B6 and 2D6, were the most efficient enzymes metabolizing N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine to o-anisidine. The results found in this study indicate that genotoxicity of N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine is dictated by its spontaneous decomposition to nitrenium/carbenium ions generating DNA adducts, and by its susceptibility to metabolism by CYP enzymes. PMID:21946300

Naiman, Karel; Martínková, Markéta; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Frei, Eva; Stiborová, Marie

2011-12-24

362

Human cytochrome-P450 enzymes metabolize N-(2-methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine, a metabolite of the carcinogens o-anisidine and o-nitroanisole, thereby dictating its genotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-(2-Methoxyphenyl)hydroxylamine is a component in the human metabolism of two industrial and environmental pollutants and bladder carcinogens, viz. 2-methoxyaniline (o-anisidine) and 2-methoxynitrobenzene (o-nitroanisole), and it is responsible for their genotoxicity. Besides its capability to form three deoxyguanosine adducts in DNA, N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-hydroxylamine is also further metabolized by hepatic microsomal enzymes. To investigate its metabolism by human hepatic microsomes and to identify

Karel Naiman; Markéta Martínková; Heinz H. Schmeiser; Eva Frei; Marie Stiborová

2011-01-01

363

Effects of a water-soluble extract of rosemary and its purified component rosmarinic acid on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a water-soluble extract (WSE) of rosemary and its purified antioxidant rosmarinic acid (RA) on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) were studied in rat liver after dietary administration. The modulation of phase I enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A, 2B, 2E1, 3A, and phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), quinone reductase (QR) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) was

P Debersac; M.-F Vernevaut; M.-J Amiot; M Suschetet; M.-H Siess

2001-01-01

364

Characterization of nuciferine metabolism by P450 enzymes and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases in liver microsomes from humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Aim: To characterize the metabolism of nuciferine by P450 enzymes and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) in liver microsomes from humans and several other animals including rats, mice, dogs, rabbits and monkeys. Methods: Nuciferine was incubated with both human and animal liver microsomal fractions containing P450 or UGT reaction components. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify nuciferine metabolites. Chemical inhibition was used to identify the involved isozymes. Species difference of nuciferine metabolism in human and various animals were investigated in the liver microsomal incubation system. Results: Among the nuciferine metabolites detected and identified, seven were catalyzed by P450 and one by UGT. Ketoconazole inhibited the formation of M292, M294 and M312. Furafylline, 8-methoxypsoralen and quercetin inhibited the formation of M282. Hecogenin showed a significant inhibitory effect on nuciferine glucuronidation. While the P450-catalyzed metabolites showed no species differences, the glucuronidation product was only detected in microsomes from humans and rabbits. Conclusion: The isozymes UGT 1A4, CYP 3A4, 1A2, 2A6 and 2C8 participated in the hepatic metabolism of nuciferine. Based on the observed species-specific hepatic metabolism of nuciferine, rats, mice, dogs and even monkeys are not suitable models for the pharmacokinetics of nuciferine in humans. PMID:21127497

Lu, Yan-liu; He, Yu-qi; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Li; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-tao; Ji, Guang

2010-01-01

365

Metabolic enzyme activities, metabolism-related genes expression and bioaccumulation in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on metabolic detoxification system and bioaccumulation of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed for 21 days at four different concentrations of 0, 0.03, 0.3 and 3?g/L. Detoxification enzyme activities of phase I (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH)) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT), uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UGT)) were determined, and results showed that all the detoxification enzyme activities increased in a dose-dependent manner except for the low BaP exposure. Transcription of genes was detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day six BaP increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, GST, SULT visa aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of BaP that disrupt the detoxification system. The consistency of their responses to BaP exposure implies that AhR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation. Additionally, BaP bioaccumulation increased rapidly first and showed an incoming plateau. Besides, the enzyme activities and bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas were higher than those in the gills. These results will not only provide information on BaP metabolic mechanism for this species, but also scientific data for pollution monitoring. PMID:24636950

Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

2014-06-01

366

Novel roles for the polyphenol oxidase enzyme in secondary metabolism and the regulation of cell death in walnut.  

PubMed

The enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds into highly reactive quinones. Polymerization of PPO-derived quinones causes the postharvest browning of cut or bruised fruit, but the native physiological functions of PPOs in undamaged, intact plant cells are not well understood. Walnut (Juglans regia) produces a rich array of phenolic compounds and possesses a single PPO enzyme, rendering it an ideal model to study PPO. We generated a series of PPO-silenced transgenic walnut lines that display less than 5% of wild-type PPO activity. Strikingly, the PPO-silenced plants developed spontaneous necrotic lesions on their leaves in the absence of pathogen challenge (i.e. a lesion mimic phenotype). To gain a clearer perspective on the potential functions of PPO and its possible connection to cell death, we compared the leaf transcriptomes and metabolomes of wild-type and PPO-silenced plants. Silencing of PPO caused major alterations in the metabolism of phenolic compounds and their derivatives (e.g. coumaric acid and catechin) and in the expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. Several observed metabolic changes point to a direct role for PPO in the metabolism of tyrosine and in the biosynthesis of the hydroxycoumarin esculetin in vivo. In addition, PPO-silenced plants displayed massive (9-fold) increases in the tyrosine-derived metabolite tyramine, whose exogenous application elicits cell death in walnut and several other plant species. Overall, these results suggest that PPO plays a novel and fundamental role in secondary metabolism and acts as an indirect regulator of cell death in walnut. PMID:24449710

Araji, Soha; Grammer, Theresa A; Gertzen, Ross; Anderson, Stephen D; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Veberic, Robert; Phu, My L; Solar, Anita; Leslie, Charles A; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Escobar, Matthew A

2014-03-01

367

Functional Morphology and Biochemical Indices of Performance: Is there a Correlation Between Metabolic Enzyme Activity and Swimming Performance?  

PubMed

Comparative physiologists and ecologists have searched for a specific morphological, physiological or biochemical parameter that could be easily measured in a captive, frozen, or preserved animal, and that would accurately predict the routine behavior or performance of that species in the wild. Many investigators have measured the activity of specific enzymes in the locomotor musculature of marine fishes, generally assuming that high specific activities of enzymes involved in aerobic metabolism are indicators of high levels of sustained swimming performance and that high activities of anaerobic metabolic enzymes indicate high levels of burst swimming performance. We review the data that support this hypothesis and describe two recent studies we have conducted that specifically test the hypothesis that biochemical indices of anaerobic or aerobic capacity in fish myotomal muscle correlate with direct measures of swimming performance. First, we determined that the maximum speed during escapes (C-starts) for individual larval and juvenile California halibut did not correlate with the activity of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, an index of anaerobic capacity, in the myotomal muscle, when the effects of fish size are factored out using residuals analysis. Second, we found that none of three aerobic capacity indices (citrate synthase activity, 3-hydroxy-o-acylCoA dehydrogenase activity, and myoglobin concentration) measured in the slow, oxidative muscle of juvenile scombrid fishes correlated significantly with maximum sustained speed. Thus, there was little correspondence between specific biochemical characteristics of the locomotor muscle of individual fish and whole animal swimming performance. However, it may be possible to identify biochemical indices that are accurate predictors of animal performance in phylogenetically based studies designed to separate out the effects of body size, temperature, and ontogenetic stage. PMID:21708711

Gibb, Alice C; Dickson, Kathryn A

2002-04-01

368

Metabolic types of muscle in the sheep: I. Myosin ATPase, gloycolytic, and mitochondrial enzyme activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The metabolic characteristics of 12 skeletal muscles of the sheep were studied.Glycolytic activities (hexokinase, glycogen synthetase I and D, phosphorylase a and b, phosphofructokinase) were measured. Myofibrillar ATPase activity was evaluated. Oxygen consumption, respiratory control and carnitine palmity1 transferase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activities were measured in isolated mitochondria.Three metabolic types could be distinguished;(1) \\u000aessentially oxidative slow

M. Briand; A Talmant; Y. Briand; G. Monin; R. Durand

1981-01-01

369

High sensitivity of Nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity associated with decreased expression of ARE-regulated drug metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant genes.  

PubMed

Nrf2, which belongs to the basic leucine zipper (bZip) transcription factor family, has been implicated as a key molecule involved in antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-mediated gene expression. In order to examine the role of Nrf2 in protection against xenobiotic toxicity, the sensitivity of nrf2 knockout mice to acetaminophen (N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (APAP)) was analyzed. The saturation of detoxification pathways after high levels of exposure to APAP is known to induce hepatotoxicity. Two factors important in its detoxification are UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDP-GT), an ARE-regulated phase-II drug-metabolizing enzyme, and glutathione (GSH), an antioxidant molecule whose synthesis depends on ARE-regulated gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gammaGCS). Two- to 4-month-old male mice were orally administered a single dose of APAP at 0, 150, 300, or 600 mg/kg. Doses of 300 mg/kg APAP or greater caused death in the homozygous knockout mice only, and those that survived showed a greater severity in hepatic damage than the wild-type mice, as demonstrated by increased plasma alanine aminotransferase activity, decreased hepatic non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) content, and centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis. The high sensitivity of Nrf2-deficient mice was confirmed from observations made at 0, 2, 8, and 24 h after dosing with 300 mg/kg APAP; increased anti-APAP immunoreactivity was also noted in their livers at 2 h. Untreated homozygous knockout mice showed both a lower UDP-GT activity and NPSH content, which corresponded to decreased mRNA levels of UDP-GT (Ugt1a6) and the heavy chain of gammaGCS, respectively. These results show that Nrf2 plays a protective role against APAP hepatotoxicity by regulating both drug metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant genes through the ARE. PMID:11134556

Enomoto, A; Itoh, K; Nagayoshi, E; Haruta, J; Kimura, T; O'Connor, T; Harada, T; Yamamoto, M

2001-01-01

370

The evolution of new enzyme function: lessons from xenobiotic metabolizing bacteria versus insecticide-resistant insects  

PubMed Central

Here, we compare the evolutionary routes by which bacteria and insects have evolved enzymatic processes for the degradation of four classes of synthetic chemical insecticide. For insects, the selective advantage of such degradative activities is survival on exposure to the insecticide, whereas for the bacteria the advantage is simply a matter of access to additional sources of nutrients. Nevertheless, bacteria have evolved highly efficient enzymes from a wide variety of enzyme families, whereas insects have relied upon generalist esterase-, cytochrome P450- and glutathione-S-transferase-dependent detoxification systems. Moreover, the mutant insect enzymes are less efficient kinetically and less diverged in sequence from their putative ancestors than their bacterial counterparts. This presumably reflects several advantages that bacteria have over insects in the acquisition of new enzymatic functions, such as a broad biochemical repertoire from which new functions can be evolved, large population sizes, high effective mutation rates, very short generation times and access to genetic diversity through horizontal gene transfer. Both the insect and bacterial systems support recent theory proposing that new biochemical functions often evolve from ‘promiscuous’ activities in existing enzymes, with subsequent mutations then enhancing those activities. Study of the insect enzymes will help in resistance management, while the bacterial enzymes are potential bioremediants of insecticide residues in a range of contaminated environments.

Russell, Robyn J; Scott, Colin; Jackson, Colin J; Pandey, Rinku; Pandey, Gunjan; Taylor, Matthew C; Coppin, Christopher W; Liu, Jian-Wei; Oakeshott, John G

2011-01-01

371

Formation of oxylipins by CYP74 enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid peroxidation is common to all biological systems, both appearing in developmentally and environmentally regulated processes. Products are hydroperoxy polyunsaturated fatty acids and metabolites derived there from collectively named oxylipins. They may either originate from chemical oxidation or are synthesized by the action of various enzymes, such as lipoxygenases. Cloning of many lipoxygenases and other key enzymes metabolizing oxylipins revealed

Michael Stumpe; Ivo Feussner

2006-01-01

372

Glutamate and GABA-metabolizing enzymes in post-mortem cerebellum in Alzheimer's disease: phosphate-activated glutaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase.  

PubMed

Enzymes of glutamate and GABA metabolism in postmortem cerebellum from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been comprehensively studied. The present work reports results of original comparative study on levels of phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) and glutamic acid decarboxylase isoenzymes (GAD65/67) in autopsied cerebellum samples from AD patients and matched controls (13 cases in each group) as well as summarizes published evidence for altered levels of PAG and GAD65/67 in AD brain. Altered (decreased) levels of these enzymes and changes in links between amounts of these enzymes and other glutamate-metabolizing enzymes (such as glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase-like protein) in AD cerebella suggest significantly impaired glutamate and GABA metabolism in this brain region, which was previously regarded as not substantially involved in AD pathogenesis. PMID:24950944

Burbaeva, G Sh; Boksha, I S; Tereshkina, E B; Savushkina, O K; Prokhorova, T A; Vorobyeva, E A

2014-10-01

373

Identification of key components in the energy metabolism of the hyperthermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus by transcriptome analyses  

PubMed Central

Energy conservation via the pathway of dissimilatory sulfate reduction is present in a diverse group of prokaryotes, but is most comprehensively studied in Deltaproteobacteria. In this study, whole-genome microarray analyses were used to provide a model of the energy metabolism of the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, based on comparative analysis of litoautotrophic growth with H2/CO2 and thiosulfate, and heterotrophic growth on lactate with sulfate or thiosulfate. Only 72 genes were expressed differentially between the cultures utilizing sulfate or thiosulfate, whereas 269 genes were affected by a shift in energy source. We identified co-located gene cluster encoding putative lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs; lldD, dld, lldEFG), also present in sulfate-reducing bacteria. These enzymes may take part in energy conservation in A. fulgidus by specifically linking lactate oxidation with APS reduction via the Qmo complex. High transcriptional levels of Fqo confirm an important role of F420H2, as well as a menaquinone-mediated electron transport chain, during heterotrophic growth. A putative periplasmic thiosulfate reductase was identified by specific up-regulation. Also, putative genes for transport of sulfate and sulfite are discussed. We present a model for hydrogen metabolism, based on the probable bifurcation reaction of the Mvh:Hdl hydrogenase, which may inhibit the utilization of Fdred for energy conservation. Energy conservation is probably facilitated via menaquinone to multiple membrane-bound heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr) complexes and the DsrC protein—linking periplasmic hydrogenase (Vht) to the cytoplasmic reduction of sulfite. The ambiguous roles of genes corresponding to fatty acid metabolism induced during growth with H2 are discussed. Putative co-assimilation of organic acids is favored over a homologous secondary carbon fixation pathway, although both mechanisms may contribute to conserve the amount of Fdred needed during autotrophic growth with H2. PMID:24672515

Hocking, William P.; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Steen, Ida H.

2014-01-01

374

Inhibitory Effects of Palm Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction Supplementation on Bilirubin-Metabolizing Enzymes in Hyperbilirubinemic Adult Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Phenylhydrazine, a hemolytic agent, is widely used as a model of experimental hyperbilirubinemia. Palm tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) was shown to exert beneficial effects in hyperbilirubinemic rat neonates. Aim To investigate the effects of palm TRF supplementation on hepatic bilirubin-metabolizing enzymes and ocidative stress status in rats administered phenylhydrazine. Methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into two groups; one group was intraperitoneally injected with palm TRF at the dose of 30 mg/kg/day, while another group was only given vehicle (control) (vitamin E-free palm oil) for 14 days. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, each group was further subdivided into another two groups. One group was administered phenylhydrazine (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) and another group was administered normal saline. Twenty-four hours later, blood and liver were collected for biochemical parameter measurements. Results Phenylhydrazine increased plasma total bilirubin level and oxidative stress in the erythrocytes as well as in the liver, which were reduced by the pretreatment of palm TRF. Palm TRF also prevented the increases in hepatic heme oxygenase, biliverdin reductase and UDP-glucuronyltransferase activities induced by phenylhydrazine. Conclusion Palm tocotrienol-rich fraction was able to afford protection against phenylhydrazine-induced hyperbilirubinemia, possibly by reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting bilirubin-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. PMID:24586630

Kamisah, Yusof; Lim, Jing Jye; Lim, Chew-Lian; Asmadi, Ahmad Y.

2014-01-01

375

Effect of geraniol, a plant derived monoterpene on lipids and lipid metabolizing enzymes in experimental hyperlipidemic hamsters.  

PubMed

Hyperlipidemia is a major, modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we have focused on the effect of different doses of geraniol (GOH) on the lipid profile and lipid metabolizing enzymes in atherogenic diet (AD) fed hamsters. Male Syrian hamsters were grouped into seven: group 1 were control animals; group 2 were animals fed GOH alone (200 mg/kg b.w); group 3 were animals fed AD (10 % coconut oil, 0.25 % cholesterol, and 0.25 % cholic acid); group 4 were animals fed AD + corn oil (2.5 ml/kg b.w); and groups 5, 6, and 7 were fed AD as in group 3 + different doses of GOH (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg b.w), respectively, for 12 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and various assays were performed in the plasma and tissues. The AD hamsters showed marked changes in lipid profile and lipid metabolizing enzymes. However, supplementation with GOH counteracted the hyperlipidemia by inhibiting HMG CoA reductase and suppressing lipogenesis. The antihyperlipidemic efficacy of GOH was found to be effective at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. This study illustrates that GOH is effective in lowering the risk of hyperlipidemia in AD fed hamsters. PMID:25218494

Jayachandran, Muthukumaran; Chandrasekaran, Balaji; Namasivayam, Nalini

2015-01-01

376

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? and C/EBP? Synergistically Activate Key Metabolic Adipocyte Genes by Assisted Loading  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) are key activators of adipogenesis. They mutually induce the expression of each other and have been reported to cooperate in activation of a few adipocyte genes. Recently, genome-wide profiling revealed a high degree of overlap between PPAR? and C/EBP? binding in adipocytes, suggesting that cooperativeness could be mediated through common binding sites. To directly investigate the interplay between PPAR? and C/EBP? at shared binding sites, we established a fibroblastic model system in which PPAR? and C/EBP? can be independently expressed. Using RNA sequencing, we demonstrate that coexpression of PPAR? and C/EBP? leads to synergistic activation of many key metabolic adipocyte genes. This is associated with extensive C/EBP?-mediated reprogramming of PPAR? binding and vice versa in the vicinity of these genes, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with deep sequencing. Our results indicate that this is at least partly mediated by assisted loading involving chromatin remodeling directed by the leading factor. In conclusion, we report a novel mechanism by which the key adipogenic transcription factors, PPAR? and C/EBP?, cooperate in activation of the adipocyte gene program. PMID:24379442

Madsen, Maria Stahl; Siersbaek, Rasmus; Boergesen, Michael; Nielsen, Ronni

2014-01-01

377

The metabolism of flubendazole and the activities of selected biotransformation enzymes in Haemonchus contortus strains susceptible and resistant to anthelmintics.  

PubMed

Haemonchus contortus is one of the most pathogenic parasites of small ruminants (e.g. sheep and goat). The treatment of haemonchosis is complicated because of recurrent resistance of H. contortus to common anthelmintics. The aim of this study was to compare the metabolism of the anthelmintic drug flubendazole (FLU) and the activities of selected biotransformation enzymes towards model xenobiotics in 4 different strains of H. contortus: the ISE strain (susceptible to common anthelmintics), ISE-S (resistant to ivermectin), the BR strain (resistant to benzimidazole anthelmintics) and the WR strain (resistant to all common anthelmintics). H. contortus adults were collected from the abomasums from experimentally infected lambs. The in vitro as well as ex vivo experiments were performed and analysed using HPLC with spectrofluorimetric and mass-spectrometric detection. In all H. contortus strains, 4 different FLU metabolites were detected: FLU with a reduced carbonyl group (FLU-R), glucose conjugate of FLU-R and 2 glucose conjugates of FLU. In the resistant strains, the ex vivo formation of all FLU metabolites was significantly higher than in the susceptible ISE strain. The multi-resistant WR strain formed approximately 5 times more conjugates of FLU than the susceptible ISE strain. The in vitro data also showed significant differences in FLU metabolism, in the activities of UDP-glucosyltransferase and several carbonyl-reducing enzymes between the susceptible and resistant H. contortus strains. The altered activities of certain detoxifying enzymes might protect the parasites against the toxic effect of the drugs as well as contribute to drug-resistance in these parasites. PMID:22717022

Vok?ál, Ivan; Bártíková, Hana; Prchal, Lukáš; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Skálová, Lenka; Szotáková, Barbora; Lamka, Ji?í; Várady, Marián; Kubí?ek, Vladimír

2012-09-01

378

Cytochrome P450 enzyme functionalized-quantum dots as photocatalysts for drug metabolism.  

PubMed

On the basis of the photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from CdTe quantum dots (QDs) to cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9), a light-controlled drug metabolism system was successfully designed by using CYP2C9 functionalized-CdTe QDs as photocatalysts. PMID:24821498

Xu, Xuan; Qian, Jing; Yu, Jiachao; Zhang, Yuanjian; Liu, Songqin

2014-07-21

379

Enzyme Relationships in a Sorbitol Pathway That Bypasses Glycolysis and Pentose Phosphates in Glucose Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pathway from glucose via sorbitol bypasses the control points of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase in glucose metabolism. It also may produce glycerol, linking the bypass to lipid synthesis. Utilization of this bypass is favored by a plentiful supply of glucose--hence, conditions under which glycolysis also is active. The bypass further involves oxidation of NADPH, so the pentose phosphate pathway and

Jonathan Jeffery; Hans Jornvall

1983-01-01