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Sample records for key metabolic enzyme

  1. Intracellular Localization of Some Key Enzymes of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Sedum praealtum.

    PubMed

    Spalding, M H; Schmitt, M R; Ku, S B; Edwards, G E

    1979-04-01

    The intracellular locations of six key enzymes of Crassulacean acid metabolism were determined using enzymically isolated mesophyll protoplasts of Sedum praealtum D.C. Data from isopycnic sucrose density gradient centrifugation established the chloroplastic location of pyruvate Pi dikinase, the mitochondrial location of NAD-linked malic enzyme, and exclusively nonparticulate (not associated with chloroplasts, peroxisomes, or mitochondria) locations of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NADP-linked malic enzyme, enolase, and phosphoglycerate mutase. The consequences of this enzyme distribution with respect to compartmentalization of the pathway and the transport of metabolites in Crassulacean acid metabolism are discussed. PMID:16660803

  2. Intracellular Localization of Some Key Enzymes of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism in Sedum praealtum1

    PubMed Central

    Spalding, Martin H.; Schmitt, Mark R.; Ku, S. B.; Edwards, Gerald E.

    1979-01-01

    The intracellular locations of six key enzymes of Crassulacean acid metabolism were determined using enzymically isolated mesophyll protoplasts of Sedum praealtum D.C. Data from isopycnic sucrose density gradient centrifugation established the chloroplastic location of pyruvate Pi dikinase, the mitochondrial location of NAD-linked malic enzyme, and exclusively nonparticulate (not associated with chloroplasts, peroxisomes, or mitochondria) locations of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NADP-linked malic enzyme, enolase, and phosphoglycerate mutase. The consequences of this enzyme distribution with respect to compartmentalization of the pathway and the transport of metabolites in Crassulacean acid metabolism are discussed. Images PMID:16660803

  3. Metabolism of aflatoxins: key enzymes and interindividual as well as interspecies differences.

    PubMed

    Dohnal, Vlastimil; Wu, Qinghua; Ku?a, Kamil

    2014-09-01

    Aflatoxins are potent hepatocarcinogen in animal models and suspected carcinogen in humans. The most important aflatoxin in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In this review, we mainly summarized the key metabolizing enzymes of AFB1 in animals and humans. Moreover, the interindividual and the interspecies differences in AFB1 metabolism are highly concerned. In human liver, CYP3A4 plays an important role in biotransforming AFB1 to the toxic product AFB1-8,9-epoxide. In human lung, CYP2A13 has a significant activity in metabolizing AFB1 to AFB1-8,9-epoxide and AFM1-8,9-epoxide. The epoxide of AFB1-8,9-epoxide could conjugate with glutathione to reduce the toxicity by glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In poultry species, CYP2A6, CYP3A37, CYP1A5, and CYP1A1 are responsible for bioactivation of AFB1. There are interindividual variations in the rate of activation of aflatoxins in various species, and there are also differences between children and adults. The age and living regions are important factors affecting resistance of species to AFB1. The rate of AFB1-8,9-epoxide formation and its conjugation with glutathione are key parameters in interspecies and interindividual differences in sensitivity to the toxic effect of AFB1. This review provides an important information for key metabolizing enzymes and the global metabolism of aflatoxins in different species. PMID:25027283

  4. Lactate Dehydrogenase Is the Key Enzyme for Pneumococcal Pyruvate Metabolism and Pneumococcal Survival in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A. Y.; Andrew, Peter W.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

  5. Regulation of sucrose metabolism in higher plants: localization and regulation of activity of key enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, H.; Huber, S. C.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Sucrose (Suc) plays a central role in plant growth and development. It is a major end product of photosynthesis and functions as a primary transport sugar and in some cases as a direct or indirect regulator of gene expression. Research during the last 2 decades has identified the pathways involved and which enzymes contribute to the control of flux. Availability of metabolites for Suc synthesis and 'demand' for products of sucrose degradation are important factors, but this review specifically focuses on the biosynthetic enzyme sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), and the degradative enzymes, sucrose synthase (SuSy), and the invertases. Recent progress has included the cloning of genes encoding these enzymes and the elucidation of posttranslational regulatory mechanisms. Protein phosphorylation is emerging as an important mechanism controlling SPS activity in response to various environmental and endogenous signals. In terms of Suc degradation, invertase-catalyzed hydrolysis generally has been associated with cell expansion, whereas SuSy-catalyzed metabolism has been linked with biosynthetic processes (e.g., cell wall or storage products). Recent results indicate that SuSy may be localized in multiple cellular compartments: (1) as a soluble enzyme in the cytosol (as traditionally assumed); (2) associated with the plasma membrane; and (3) associated with the actin cytoskeleton. Phosphorylation of SuSy has been shown to occur and may be one of the factors controlling localization of the enzyme. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of the recent developments relating to regulation of activity and localization of key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in plants.

  6. Depletion of reduction potential and key energy generation metabolic enzymes underlies tellurite toxicity in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Anaganti, Narasimha; Basu, Bhakti; Gupta, Alka; Joseph, Daisy; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress resistant Deinococcus radiodurans surprisingly exhibited moderate sensitivity to tellurite induced oxidative stress (LD50 = 40 ?M tellurite, 40 min exposure). The organism reduced 70% of 40 ?M potassium tellurite within 5 h. Tellurite exposure significantly modulated cellular redox status. The level of ROS and protein carbonyl contents increased while the cellular reduction potential substantially decreased following tellurite exposure. Cellular thiols levels initially increased (within 30 min) of tellurite exposure but decreased at later time points. At proteome level, tellurite resistance proteins (TerB and TerD), tellurite reducing enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogense subunits E1 and E3), ROS detoxification enzymes (superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase), and protein folding chaperones (DnaK, EF-Ts, and PPIase) displayed increased abundance in tellurite-stressed cells. However, remarkably decreased levels of key metabolic enzymes (aconitase, transketolase, 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein alpha, and beta) involved in carbon and energy metabolism were observed upon tellurite stress. The results demonstrate that depletion of reduction potential in intensive tellurite reduction with impaired energy metabolism lead to tellurite toxicity in D. radiodurans. PMID:25331933

  7. Neuron-astrocyte interaction enhance GABAergic synaptic transmission in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kaczor, Przemys?aw; Rakus, Dariusz; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma aminobutric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain and mechanisms of GABAergic inhibition have been intensely investigated in the past decades. Recent studies provided evidence for an important role of astrocytes in shaping GABAergic currents. One of the most obvious, but yet poorly understood, mechanisms of the cross-talk between GABAergic currents and astrocytes is metabolism including neurotransmitter homeostasis. In particular, how modulation of GABAergic currents by astrocytes depends on key enzymes involved in cellular metabolism remains largely unknown. To address this issue, we have considered two simple models of neuronal culture (NC): nominally astrocyte-free NC and neuronal-astrocytic co-cultures (ANCC). Miniature Inhibitory Postsynaptic Currents (mIPSCs) were recorded in control conditions and in the presence of different enzyme blockers. We report that enrichment of NC with astrocytes results in a marked increase in mIPSC frequency. This enhancement of GABAergic activity was accompanied by increased number of GAD65 and vGAT puncta, indicating that at least a part of the frequency enhancement was due to increased number of synaptic contacts. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (Glns) (with MSO) strongly reduced mIPSC frequency in ANCC but had no effect in NC. Moreover, treatment of ANCC with inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase (Gys) (BAYU6751) or with selective inhibitor of astrocytic Krebs cycle, fluoroacetate, resulted in a marked reduction of mIPSC frequency in ANCC having no effect in NC. We conclude that GABAergic synaptic transmission strongly depends on neuron-astrocyte interaction in a manner dependent on key metabolic enzymes as well as on the Krebs cycle. PMID:25914620

  8. KEY RESIDUES CONTROLLING PHENACETIN METABOLISM BY HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450 2A ENZYMES

    PubMed Central

    DeVore, Natasha M.; Smith, Brian D.; Urban, Michael J.; Scott, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s (CYP) metabolize a large number of diverse substrates with specific regio- and stereo-specificity. A number of compounds, including nicotine, cotinine, and aflatoxin B1, are metabolites of the 94% identical CYP2A13 and CYP2A6 enzymes but at different rates. Phenacetin and 4-aminobiphenyl were identified as substrates of human cytochromes P450 1A2 and 2A13, but not of CYP2A6. The purpose of this study is to identify active site amino acids that are responsible for CYP2A substrate specificity using phenacetin as a structural probe. Ten amino acid residues that differ in the CYP2A13 and CYP2A6 active sites were exchanged between the two enzymes. Phenacetin binding revealed that the six substitutions CYP2A13 S208I, A213S, F300I, A301G, M365V, and G369S decreased phenacetin affinity. While incorporation of individual CYP2A13 residues into CYP2A6 had little effect on this enzymes very low levels of phenacetin metabolism, the combination of double, triple, and quadruple substitutions at positions 208, 300, 301, and 369 increasingly endowed CYP2A6 with the ability to metabolize phenacetin. Enzyme kinetics revealed that the CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G mutant protein O-deethylated phenacetin with a Km of 10.3 ?M and a kcat of 2.9 min?1, which compare very favorably with CYP2A13 (Km 10.7 ?M, kcat 3.8 min?1). A 2.15 crystal structure of the mutant CYP2A6 I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G protein with phenacetin in the active site provided a structural rationale for the differences in phenacetin metabolism between CYP2A6 and CYP2A13. PMID:18779312

  9. Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C4 and CAM metabolism.

    PubMed

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Monica; Osborne, Colin P; Brutigam, Andrea; Sage, Rowan F; Hibberd, Julian M; Kelly, Steven; Covshoff, Sarah; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hancock, Lillian; Edwards, Erika J

    2014-07-01

    CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C4 phenotypes. PMID:24638902

  10. Shared origins of a key enzyme during the evolution of C4 and CAM metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Arakaki, Monica; Osborne, Colin P.; Bräutigam, Andrea; Sage, Rowan F.; Hibberd, Julian M.; Kelly, Steven; Covshoff, Sarah; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Hancock, Lillian; Edwards, Erika J.

    2014-01-01

    CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with analyses of RNA sequence data of Portulaca, the only plants known to perform both CAM and C4 photosynthesis. Three distinct gene lineages encoding PEPC exist in eudicots (namely ppc-1E1, ppc-1E2 and ppc-2), one of which (ppc-1E1) was recurrently recruited for use in both CAM and C4 photosynthesis within the Caryophyllales. This gene is present in multiple copies in the cacti and relatives, including Portulaca. The PEPC involved in the CAM and C4 cycles of Portulaca are encoded by closely related yet distinct genes. The CAM-specific gene is similar to genes from related CAM taxa, suggesting that CAM has evolved before C4 in these species. The similar origin of PEPC and other genes involved in the CAM and C4 cycles highlights the shared early steps of evolutionary trajectories towards CAM and C4, which probably diverged irreversibly only during the optimization of CAM and C4 phenotypes. PMID:24638902

  11. Efficacy of azelaic acid on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet induced type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Muthulakshmi, Shanmugam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2013-06-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA), a C9 linear ?,?-dicarboxylic acid, is found in whole grains namely wheat, rye, barley, oat seeds and sorghum. The study was performed to investigate whether AzA exerts beneficial effect on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet (HFD) induced type 2 diabetic C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diet for 10 weeks and subjected to intragastric administration of various doses (20 mg, 40 mg and 80 mg/kg BW) of AzA daily for the subsequent 5 weeks. Rosiglitazone (RSG) was used as reference drug. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, blood haemoglobin (Hb), blood glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), liver glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase), hepatic shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes(glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase), liver glycogen, plasma and liver triglycerides were examined in mice fed with normal standard diet (NC), high fat diet (HFD), HFD with AzA (HFD + AzA) and HFD with rosiglitazone (HFD + RSG). Among the three doses, 80 mg/kg BW of AzA was able to positively regulate plasma glucose, insulin, blood HbA1c and haemoglobin levels by significantly increasing the activity of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and significantly decreasing the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase thereby increasing the glycogen content in the liver. From this study, we put forward that AzA could significantly restore the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, Hb, liver glycogen and carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes to near normal in diabetic mice and hence, AzA may be useful as a biomaterial in the development of therapeutic agents against high fat diet induced T2DM. PMID:23402910

  12. The structure of vanin 1: a key enzyme linking metabolic disease and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Ykelien L; Newman, Janet; Adams, Timothy E; Cowieson, Nathan; Krippner, Guy; Bozaoglu, Kiymet; Peat, Thomas S

    2014-12-01

    Although part of the coenzyme A pathway, vanin 1 (also known as pantetheinase) sits on the cell surface of many cell types as an ectoenzyme, catalyzing the breakdown of pantetheine to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and cysteamine, a strong reducing agent. Vanin 1 was initially discovered as a protein involved in the homing of leukocytes to the thymus. Numerous studies have shown that vanin 1 is involved in inflammation, and more recent studies have shown a key role in metabolic disease. Here, the X-ray crystal structure of human vanin 1 at 2.25? resolution is presented, which is the first reported structure from the vanin family, as well as a crystal structure of vanin 1 bound to a specific inhibitor. These structures illuminate how vanin 1 can mediate its biological roles by way of both enzymatic activity and protein-protein interactions. Furthermore, it sheds light on how the enzymatic activity is regulated by a novel allosteric mechanism at a domain interface. PMID:25478849

  13. Key Residues Controlling Phenacetin Metabolism By Human Cytochrome P450 2A Enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVore, N.M.; Smith, B.D.; Urban, M.J.; Scott, E.E.

    2009-05-14

    Although the human lung cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) and its liver counterpart cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) are 94% identical in amino acid sequence, they metabolize a number of substrates with substantially different efficiencies. To determine differences in binding for a diverse set of cytochrome P450 2A ligands, we have measured the spectral binding affinities (K{sub D}) for nicotine, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), coumarin, 2{prime}-methoxyacetophenone (MAP), and 8-methoxypsoralen. The differences in the K{sub D} values for CYP2A6 versus CYP2A13 ranged from 74-fold for 2{prime}-methoxyacetophenone to 1.1-fold for coumarin, with CYP2A13 demonstrating the higher affinity. To identify active site amino acids responsible for the differences in binding of MAP, PEITC, and coumarin, 10 CYP2A13 mutant proteins were generated in which individual amino acids from the CYP2A6 active site were substituted into CYP2A13 at the corresponding position. Titrations revealed that substitutions at positions 208, 300, and 301 individually had the largest effects on ligand binding. The collective relevance of these amino acids to differential ligand selectivity was verified by evaluating binding to CYP2A6 mutant enzymes that incorporate several of the CYP2A13 amino acids at these positions. Inclusion of four CYP2A13 amino acids resulted in a CYP2A6 mutant protein (I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G) with binding affinities for MAP and PEITC much more similar to those observed for CYP2A13 than to those for CYP2A6 without altering coumarin binding. The structure-based quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis using COMBINE successfully modeled the observed mutant-ligand trends and emphasized steric roles for active site residues including four substituted amino acids and an adjacent conserved Leu{sup 370}.

  14. An alternative, arginase-independent pathway for arginine metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis involves guanidinobutyrase as a key enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, G; Verhoeven, M D; Mans, R; Fleury Rey, Y; Bel-Rhlid, R; van den Broek, M; Maleki Seifar, R; Ten Pierick, A; Thompson, M; Mller, V; Wahl, S A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2014-01-01

    Most available knowledge on fungal arginine metabolism is derived from studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which arginine catabolism is initiated by releasing urea via the arginase reaction. Orthologues of the S. cerevisiae genes encoding the first three enzymes in the arginase pathway were cloned from Kluyveromyces lactis and shown to functionally complement the corresponding deletion in S. cerevisiae. Surprisingly, deletion of the single K. lactis arginase gene KlCAR1 did not completely abolish growth on arginine as nitrogen source. Growth rate of the deletion mutant strongly increased during serial transfer in shake-flask cultures. A combination of RNAseq-based transcriptome analysis and 13C-15N-based flux analysis was used to elucidate the arginase-independent pathway. Isotopic 13C15N-enrichment in ?-aminobutyrate revealed succinate as the entry point in the TCA cycle of the alternative pathway. Transcript analysis combined with enzyme activity measurements indicated increased expression in the Klcar1? mutant of a guanidinobutyrase (EC.3.5.3.7), a key enzyme in a new pathway for arginine degradation. Expression of the K. lactis KLLA0F27995g (renamed KlGBU1) encoding guanidinobutyrase enabled S. cerevisiae to use guanidinobutyrate as sole nitrogen source and its deletion in K. lactis almost completely abolish growth on this nitrogen source. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this enzyme activity is widespread in fungi. PMID:24912400

  15. Trans-anethole, a terpenoid ameliorates hyperglycemia by regulating key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Bashir Ahmad; Pari, Leelavinothan; Rathinam, Ayyasamy; Chandramohan, Ramasamy

    2015-05-01

    Trans-anethole (TA), a terpenoid and a principle constituent of many essential oils from medicinal plants possess hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities. This study was undertaken to explore beneficial effects of TA on key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (40mg/kg BW). TA was administered to diabetic rats at a dose of 20, 40 and 80mg/kg BW for 45 days. However, the dose at 80mg/kg BW, resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and increase in the levels of insulin and haemoglobin (Hb). Upon administration of TA, the altered levels of liver glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase), hepatic shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and gluconeogenic enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase) in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats significantly reverted to near normal levels. In addition to this, TA also improved the hepatic and muscle glycogen content in diabetic rats. The histological studies showed the ameliorative effect of TA on the ?-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. The results were compared with glibenclamide, a standard oral hypoglycemic drug. These encouraging findings suggest that TA may be used as a propitious bioactive compound in the development of therapeutic agents against type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25708856

  16. Tyrosol, a phenolic compound, ameliorates hyperglycemia by regulating key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Ramasamy; Pari, Leelavinothan; Rathinam, Ayyasamy; Sheikh, Bashir Ahmad

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of tyrosol, a phenolic compound, on the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg body weight). Experimental rats were administered tyrosol 1 ml intra gastrically at the doses of 5, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight and glibenclamide 1 ml at a dose of 600 ?g/kg body weight once a day for 45 days. At the end of the experimental period, diabetic control rats exhibited significant (p<0.05) increase in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin with significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma insulin, total hemoglobin and body weight. The activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase were significantly (p<0.05) increased and the activities of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the liver and kidney of diabetic control rats. Further, antioxidants were lowered in diabetic control rats. A significant (p<0.05) decline in glycogen level in the liver and muscle and glycogen synthase activity in the liver and a significant (p<0.05) increase in the activity of liver glycogen phosphorylase were observed in diabetic control rats compared to normal control rats. Oral administration of tyrosol to diabetic rats reversed all the above mentioned biochemical parameters to near normal in a dose dependent manner. Tyrosol at a dose of 20mg/kg body weight showed the highest significant effect than the other two doses. Immunohistochemical staining of pancreas revealed that tyrosol treated diabetic rats showed increased insulin immunoreactive ?-cells, which confirmed the biochemical findings. The observed results were compared with glibenclamide, a standard oral hypoglycemic drug. The results of the present study suggest that tyrosol decreases hyperglycemia, by its antioxidant effect. PMID:25641191

  17. Inhibitory Potential of Turbinaria ornata against Key Metabolic Enzymes Linked to Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, P. S.; Suthindhiran, K.; Jayasri, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the therapeutic approaches in treating diabetes is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting major carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. In the present study, crude extracts of marine seaweed, Turbinaria ornata, were tested for their antidiabetic potential using enzyme inhibitory assays (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV). Among the tested extracts, methanol and acetone extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on α-amylase (IC50 250.9 μg/mL), α-glucosidase (535.6 μg/mL), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (55.2 μg/mL), respectively. Free radical scavenging activity of these extracts was analyzed using DPPH assay (65%). Extracts were tested for in vitro toxicity using DNA fragmentation assay, haemolytic assay, and MTT assay. None of the extracts showed toxicity in tested models. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of lead extracts showed the presence of major compounds, hentriacontane, z, z-6, 28-heptatriactontadien-2-one, 8-heptadecene, and 1-heptacosanol. Our findings suggest that Turbinaria ornata can be used as a potential source for further in vivo studies in controlling hyperglycemia. PMID:25050371

  18. Immunogold Localization of Key Metabolic Enzymes in the Anammoxosome and on the Tubule-Like Structures of Kuenenia stuttgartiensis

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Naomi M.; Neumann, Sarah; Mesman, Rob J.; Ferousi, Christina; Keltjens, Jan T.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; van Niftrik, Laura

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium with nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor to form dinitrogen gas in the absence of oxygen. Anammox bacteria have a compartmentalized cell plan with a central membrane-bound prokaryotic organelle called the anammoxosome. The anammoxosome occupies most of the cell volume, has a curved membrane, and contains conspicuous tubule-like structures of unknown identity and function. It was suggested previously that the catalytic reactions of the anammox pathway occur in the anammoxosome, and that proton motive force was established across its membrane. Here, we used antibodies raised against five key enzymes of the anammox catabolism to determine their cellular location. The antibodies were raised against purified native hydroxylamine oxidoreductase-like protein kustc0458 with its redox partner kustc0457, hydrazine dehydrogenase (HDH; kustc0694), hydroxylamine oxidase (HOX; kustc1061), nitrite oxidoreductase (NXR; kustd1700/03/04), and hydrazine synthase (HZS; kuste2859-61) of the anammox bacterium Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. We determined that all five protein complexes were exclusively located inside the anammoxosome matrix. Four of the protein complexes did not appear to form higher-order protein organizations. However, the present data indicated for the first time that NXR is part of the tubule-like structures, which may stretch the whole length of the anammoxosome. These findings support the anammoxosome as the locus of catabolic reactions of the anammox pathway. IMPORTANCE Anammox bacteria are environmentally relevant microorganisms that contribute significantly to the release of fixed nitrogen in nature. Furthermore, the anammox process is applied for nitrogen removal from wastewater as an environment-friendly and cost-effective technology. These microorganisms feature a unique cellular organelle, the anammoxosome, which was proposed to contain the energy metabolism of the cell and tubule-like structures with hitherto unknown function. Here, we purified five native enzymes catalyzing key reactions in the anammox metabolism and raised antibodies against these in order to localize them within the cell. We showed that all enzymes were located within the anammoxosome, and nitrite oxidoreductase was located exclusively at the tubule-like structures, providing the first insights into the function of these subcellular structures. PMID:25962914

  19. Metabolic Engineering in Nicotiana benthamiana Reveals Key Enzyme Functions in Arabidopsis Indole Glucosinolate Modification[W

    PubMed Central

    Pfalz, Marina; Mikkelsen, Michael Dalgaard; Bednarek, Pawe?; Olsen, Carl Erik; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Kroymann, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Indole glucosinolates, derived from the amino acid Trp, are plant secondary metabolites that mediate numerous biological interactions between cruciferous plants and their natural enemies, such as herbivorous insects, pathogens, and other pests. While the genes and enzymes involved in the Arabidopsis thaliana core biosynthetic pathway, leading to indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate (I3M), have been identified and characterized, the genes and gene products responsible for modification reactions of the indole ring are largely unknown. Here, we combine the analysis of Arabidopsis mutant lines with a bioengineering approach to clarify which genes are involved in the remaining biosynthetic steps in indole glucosinolate modification. We engineered the indole glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway into Nicotiana benthamiana, showing that it is possible to produce indole glucosinolates in a noncruciferous plant. Building upon this setup, we demonstrate that all members of a small gene subfamily of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, CYP81Fs, are capable of carrying out hydroxylation reactions of the glucosinolate indole ring, leading from I3M to 4-hydroxy-indol-3-yl-methyl and/or 1-hydroxy-indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate intermediates, and that these hydroxy intermediates are converted to 4-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl and 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolates by either of two family 2 O-methyltransferases, termed indole glucosinolate methyltransferase 1 (IGMT1) and IGMT2. PMID:21317374

  20. Metabolic engineering in Nicotiana benthamiana reveals key enzyme functions in Arabidopsis indole glucosinolate modification.

    PubMed

    Pfalz, Marina; Mikkelsen, Michael Dalgaard; Bednarek, Pawel; Olsen, Carl Erik; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Kroymann, Juergen

    2011-02-01

    Indole glucosinolates, derived from the amino acid Trp, are plant secondary metabolites that mediate numerous biological interactions between cruciferous plants and their natural enemies, such as herbivorous insects, pathogens, and other pests. While the genes and enzymes involved in the Arabidopsis thaliana core biosynthetic pathway, leading to indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate (I3M), have been identified and characterized, the genes and gene products responsible for modification reactions of the indole ring are largely unknown. Here, we combine the analysis of Arabidopsis mutant lines with a bioengineering approach to clarify which genes are involved in the remaining biosynthetic steps in indole glucosinolate modification. We engineered the indole glucosinolate biosynthesis pathway into Nicotiana benthamiana, showing that it is possible to produce indole glucosinolates in a noncruciferous plant. Building upon this setup, we demonstrate that all members of a small gene subfamily of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, CYP81Fs, are capable of carrying out hydroxylation reactions of the glucosinolate indole ring, leading from I3M to 4-hydroxy-indol-3-yl-methyl and/or 1-hydroxy-indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolate intermediates, and that these hydroxy intermediates are converted to 4-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl and 1-methoxy-indol-3-yl-methyl glucosinolates by either of two family 2 O-methyltransferases, termed indole glucosinolate methyltransferase 1 (IGMT1) and IGMT2. PMID:21317374

  1. Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Identified as a Key Enzyme in Erythrocytic Plasmodium falciparum Carbon Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chokkathukalam, Achuthanunni; Watson, David G.; Breitling, Rainer; Coombs, Graham H.; Müller, Sylke

    2014-01-01

    Phospoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is absent from humans but encoded in the Plasmodium falciparum genome, suggesting that PEPC has a parasite-specific function. To investigate its importance in P. falciparum, we generated a pepc null mutant (D10Δpepc), which was only achievable when malate, a reduction product of oxaloacetate, was added to the growth medium. D10Δpepc had a severe growth defect in vitro, which was partially reversed by addition of malate or fumarate, suggesting that pepc may be essential in vivo. Targeted metabolomics using 13C-U-D-glucose and 13C-bicarbonate showed that the conversion of glycolytically-derived PEP into malate, fumarate, aspartate and citrate was abolished in D10Δpepc and that pentose phosphate pathway metabolites and glycerol 3-phosphate were present at increased levels. In contrast, metabolism of the carbon skeleton of 13C,15N-U-glutamine was similar in both parasite lines, although the flux was lower in D10Δpepc; it also confirmed the operation of a complete forward TCA cycle in the wild type parasite. Overall, these data confirm the CO2 fixing activity of PEPC and suggest that it provides metabolites essential for TCA cycle anaplerosis and the maintenance of cytosolic and mitochondrial redox balance. Moreover, these findings imply that PEPC may be an exploitable target for future drug discovery. PMID:24453970

  2. Metabolic enzyme expression highlights a key role for MTHFD2 and the mitochondrial folate pathway in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit; Madhusudhan, Nikhil; Sheppard, Nina Gustafsson; Strittmatter, Laura; Kampf, Caroline; Huang, Jenny; Asplund, Anna; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic remodeling is now widely regarded as a hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. Here we compare messenger RNA profiles of 1,454 metabolic enzymes across 1,981 tumours spanning 19 cancer types to identify enzymes that are consistently differentially expressed. Our meta-analysis recovers established targets of some of the most widely used chemotherapeutics, including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase and ribonucleotide reductase, while also spotlighting new enzymes, such as the mitochondrial proline biosynthetic enzyme PYCR1. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and is centred on MTHFD2. MTHFD2 RNA and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. MTHFD2 is expressed in the developing embryo, but is absent in most healthy adult tissues, even those that are proliferating. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one-carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses. PMID:24451681

  3. Metabolic enzyme expression highlights a key role for MTHFD2 and the mitochondrial folate pathway in cancer.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit; Madhusudhan, Nikhil; Sheppard, Nina Gustafsson; Strittmatter, Laura; Kampf, Caroline; Huang, Jenny; Asplund, Anna; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic remodeling is now widely regarded as a hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. Here we compare messenger RNA profiles of 1,454 metabolic enzymes across 1,981 tumours spanning 19 cancer types to identify enzymes that are consistently differentially expressed. Our meta-analysis recovers established targets of some of the most widely used chemotherapeutics, including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase and ribonucleotide reductase, while also spotlighting new enzymes, such as the mitochondrial proline biosynthetic enzyme PYCR1. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and is centred on MTHFD2. MTHFD2 RNA and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. MTHFD2 is expressed in the developing embryo, but is absent in most healthy adult tissues, even those that are proliferating. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one-carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses. PMID:24451681

  4. Expressional regulation of key hepatic enzymes of intermediary metabolism in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) during food deprivation and refeeding.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Ivan; Caballero-Solares, Albert; Rito, Joo; Giralt, Marina; Pardal, Miguel A; Metn, Isidoro; Jones, John G; Baanante, Isabel V

    2014-08-01

    We hypothesized that the analysis of mRNA level and activity of key enzymes in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in a feeding/fasting/refeeding setting could improve our understanding of how a carnivorous fish, like the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), responds to changes in dietary intake at the hepatic level. To this end cDNA fragments encoding genes for cytosolic and mitochondrial alanine aminotransferase (cALT; mALT), pyruvate kinase (PK), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) were cloned and sequenced. Measurement of mRNA levels through quantitative real-time PCR performed in livers of fasted seabass revealed a significant increase in cALT (8.5-fold induction) while promoting a drastic 45-fold down-regulation of PK in relation to the levels found in fed seabass. These observations were corroborated by enzyme activity meaning that during food deprivation an increase in the capacity of pyruvate generation happened via alanine to offset the reduction in pyruvate derived via glycolysis. After a 3-day refeeding period cALT returned to control levels while PK was not able to rebound. No alterations were detected in the expression levels of G6PDH while 6PGDH was revealed to be more sensitive specially to fasting, as confirmed by a significant 5.7-fold decrease in mRNA levels with no recovery after refeeding. Our results indicate that in early stages of refeeding, the liver prioritized the restoration of systemic normoglycemia and replenishment of hepatic glycogen. In a later stage, once regular feeding is re-established, dietary fuel may then be channeled to glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis. PMID:24746983

  5. Mass Spectrometry-based Workflow for Accurate Quantification of Escherichia coli Enzymes: How Proteomics Can Play a Key Role in Metabolic Engineering*

    PubMed Central

    Trauchessec, Mathieu; Jaquinod, Michel; Bonvalot, Aline; Brun, Virginie; Bruley, Christophe; Ropers, Delphine; de Jong, Hidde; Garin, Jrme; Bestel-Corre, Gwenalle; Ferro, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic engineering aims to design high performance microbial strains producing compounds of interest. This requires systems-level understanding; genome-scale models have therefore been developed to predict metabolic fluxes. However, multi-omics data including genomics, transcriptomics, fluxomics, and proteomics may be required to model the metabolism of potential cell factories. Recent technological advances to quantitative proteomics have made mass spectrometry-based quantitative assays an interesting alternative to more traditional immuno-affinity based approaches. This has improved specificity and multiplexing capabilities. In this study, we developed a quantification workflow to analyze enzymes involved in central metabolism in Escherichia coli (E. coli). This workflow combined full-length isotopically labeled standards with selected reaction monitoring analysis. First, full-length 15N labeled standards were produced and calibrated to ensure accurate measurements. Liquid chromatography conditions were then optimized for reproducibility and multiplexing capabilities over a single 30-min liquid chromatography-MS analysis. This workflow was used to accurately quantify 22 enzymes involved in E. coli central metabolism in a wild-type reference strain and two derived strains, optimized for higher NADPH production. In combination with measurements of metabolic fluxes, proteomics data can be used to assess different levels of regulation, in particular enzyme abundance and catalytic rate. This provides information that can be used to design specific strains used in biotechnology. In addition, accurate measurement of absolute enzyme concentrations is key to the development of predictive kinetic models in the context of metabolic engineering. PMID:24482123

  6. Lysine acetylation is a common post-translational modification of key metabolic pathway enzymes of the anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed

    Butler, Catherine A; Veith, Paul D; Nieto, Matthew F; Dashper, Stuart G; Reynolds, Eric C

    2015-10-14

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobe considered to be a keystone pathogen in the development of the bacterial-associated inflammatory oral disease chronic periodontitis. Although post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are commonly found to modify protein function in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, PTMs such as lysine acetylation have not been examined in P. gingivalis. Lysine acetylation is the addition of an acetyl group to a lysine which removes this amino acid's positive charge and can induce changes in a protein's secondary structure and reactivity. A proteomics based approach combining immune-affinity enrichment with high sensitivity Orbitrap mass spectrometry identified 130 lysine acetylated peptides from 92 P. gingivalis proteins. The majority of these peptides (71) were attributed to 45 proteins with predicted metabolic activity; these proteins could be mapped to several P. gingivalis metabolic pathways where enzymes catalysing sequential reactions within the same pathway were often found acetylated. In particular, the catabolic pathways of complex anaerobic fermentation of amino acids to produce energy had 12 enzymes lysine acetylated. The results suggest that lysine acetylation may be an important mechanism in metabolic regulation in P. gingivalis, which is vital for P. gingivalis survival and adaptation of its metabolism throughout infection. Statement of significance. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth. The ability of the pathogen to induce dysbiosis and disease is related to an array of specific virulence factors and metabolic regulation that enables the bacterium to proliferate in an inflamed periodontal pocket. The mechanisms P. gingivalis uses to adapt to a changing and hostile environment are poorly understood and here we show, for the first time, that enzymes of critical metabolic pathways for energy production in this bacterium were acetylated on certain lysine residues. These enzymes were often found catalysing sequential reactions within the same catabolic pathway. The results suggest that lysine acetylation is an important mechanism of metabolic regulation in P. gingivalis vital for its adaptation and proliferation to produce disease. PMID:26341301

  7. Polyphenols rich fraction from Geoffroea decorticans fruits flour affects key enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress and inflammatory process.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Alberto, M R; Cuello, S; Torres, S; Pérez, J; Quispe, C; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-01-01

    Geoffroea decorticans (chañar), is widely distributed throughout Northwestern Argentina. Its fruit is consumed as flour, arrope or hydroalcoholic beverage. The chañar fruits flour was obtained and 39 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by HPLC-MS/MS(n). The compounds comprised caffeic acid glycosides, simple phenolics (protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid), a glycoside of vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid and its phenethyl ester as well as free and glycosylated flavonoids. The polyphenols enriched extract with and without gastroduodenal digestion inhibited enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome, including α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase and hydroxyl methyl glutaryl CoA reductase. The polyphenolic extract exhibited antioxidant activity by different mechanisms and inhibited the pro-inflammatory enzymes (ciclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2). The polyphenolic extract did not showed mutagenic effect by Ames test against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. These findings add evidence that chañar fruit flour may be considered a functional food with preventive properties against diseases associated with oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26212988

  8. Stereochemistry of a bifunctional dihydroceramide delta 4-desaturase/hydroxylase from Candida albicans; a key enzyme of sphingolipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Christoph; Rattke, Janine; Sperling, Petra; Heinz, Ernst; Boland, Wilhelm

    2003-07-21

    The stereochemical course of the dihydroceramide delta 4-(E)-desaturase from Candida albicans, cloned and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain sur2 delta, was determined using stereospecifically labelled (2R,3S)-[2,3,4,4-2H4]-palmitic acid as a metabolic probe. Mass spectrometric analysis of the dinitrophenyl-derivatives of the labelled long-chain bases revealed elimination of a single deuterium atom from C(4) (corresponding to the C(4)-HR) along with a hydrogen atom from C(5) (corresponding to the C(5)-HS). This finding is consistent with an overall syn-elimination of the two vicinal hydrogen atoms. Besides the desaturation product sphingosine (93%) minor amounts of a 4-hydroxylated product (phytosphinganine, 7%) were identified that classify the Candida enzyme as a bifunctional desaturase/hydroxylase. Both processes, desaturation and hydroxylation proceed with loss of C(4)-HR from the chiral precursor. This finding is in agreement with a two-step process involving activation of the substrate by removal of the C(4)-HR to give a C-centred radical or radicaloid followed by either disproportionation into an olefin, water and a reduced diiron complex, or to recombination of the primary reactive intermediate with an active site-bound oxygen to yield a secondary alcohol. This result demonstrates the close mechanistic relationship between desaturation and hydroxylation as two different reaction pathways of a single enzyme and strengthens the mechanistic relationship of desaturases from fatty acid metabolism and sphingolipids. PMID:12956060

  9. Characterization of a NADH-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase Mutant of Arabidopsis Demonstrates the Key Role of this Enzyme in Root Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism[W

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Jean-Xavier; Terc-Laforgue, Thrse; Armengaud, Patrick; Clment, Gilles; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Pelletier, Sandra; Catterou, Manuella; Azzopardi, Marianne; Gibon, Yves; Lea, Peter J.; Hirel, Bertrand; Dubois, Frdric

    2012-01-01

    The role of NADH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was investigated by studying the physiological impact of a complete lack of enzyme activity in an Arabidopsis thaliana plant deficient in three genes encoding the enzyme. This study was conducted following the discovery that a third GDH gene is expressed in the mitochondria of the root companion cells, where all three active GDH enzyme proteins were shown to be present. A gdh1-2-3 triple mutant was constructed and exhibited major differences from the wild type in gene transcription and metabolite concentrations, and these differences appeared to originate in the roots. By placing the gdh triple mutant under continuous darkness for several days and comparing it to the wild type, the evidence strongly suggested that the main physiological function of NADH-GDH is to provide 2-oxoglutarate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The differences in key metabolites of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in the triple mutant versus the wild type indicated that, through metabolic processes operating mainly in roots, there was a strong impact on amino acid accumulation, in particular alanine, ?-aminobutyrate, and aspartate in both roots and leaves. These results are discussed in relation to the possible signaling and physiological functions of the enzyme at the interface of carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:23054470

  10. Effects of myogenin on muscle fiber types and key metabolic enzymes in gene transfer mice and C2C12 myoblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin-Na; Ren, Yang; Chen, Jing-Qing; Wang, Yi-Zhen

    2013-12-15

    Skeletal muscle fiber type composition is one of the important factors influencing muscle growth and meat quality. As a member of the myogenic transcription factors, myogenin (MyoG) is required for embryonic myoblast differentiation, but the expression of MyoG continues in mature muscle tissue of adult animals, especially in oxidative metabolic muscle, which suggests that MyoG may play a more extended role. Therefore, using MyoG gene transfer mice and C2C12 myoblasts as in vivo and in vitro models, respectively, we elected to study the role of MyoG in muscle fiber types and oxidative metabolism by using overexpression and siRNA suppression strategies. The overexpression of MyoG by DNA electroporation in mouse gastrocnemius muscle had no significant effect on fiber type composition but upregulated the mRNA expression (P<0.01) and enzyme activity (P<0.05) of oxidative succinic dehydrogenase (SDH). In addition, downregulation of the activity of the glycolytic enzymes lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, P<0.05) and pyruvate kinase (PK, P<0.05) was observed in MyoG gene transfer mice. In vitro experiments verified the results obtained in mice. Stable MyoG-transfected differentiating C2C12 cells showed higher mRNA expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform IIX (P<0.01) and SDH (P<0.05), while the LDH mRNA was attenuated. The enzyme activities of SDH (P<0.01) and LDH (P<0.05) were similarly altered at the mRNA level. When MyoG was knocked down in C2C12 cells, MyHC IIX expression (P<0.05) was decreased, but the mRNA level (P<0.05) and the enzyme activity (P<0.05) of SDH were increased. Downregulating MyoG also increased the activity of the glycolytic enzymes PK (P<0.05) and hexokinase (HK, P<0.05). Based on those results, we concluded that MyoG barely changes the MyHC isoforms, except MyHC IIX, in differentiating myoblasts but probably influences the shift from glycolytic metabolism towards oxidative metabolism both in vivo and in vitro. These results contribute to further understand the role of MyoG in skeletal muscle energy metabolism and also help to explore the key genes that regulate meat quality. PMID:24055422

  11. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-01

    The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population.A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group).Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model.Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population. PMID:26717388

  12. Simple and robust determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes for physiological phenotyping in model and crop plants.

    PubMed

    Jammer, Alexandra; Gasperl, Anna; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Heyneke, Elmien; Chu, Hyosub; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Albacete, Alfonso A; Stabentheiner, Edith; Franzaring, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The analysis of physiological parameters is important to understand the link between plant phenotypes and their genetic bases, and therefore is needed as an important element in the analysis of model and crop plants. The activities of enzymes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism have been shown to be strongly associated with growth performance, crop yield, and quality, as well as stress responses. A simple, fast, and cost-effective method to determine activities for 13 key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism has been established, mainly based on coupled spectrophotometric kinetic assays. The comparison of extraction buffers and requirement for dialysis of crude protein extracts resulted in a universal protein extraction protocol, suitable for the preparation of protein extracts from different organs of various species. Individual published kinetic activity assays were optimized and adapted for a semi-high-throughput 96-well assay format. These assays proved to be robust and are thus suitable for physiological phenotyping, enabling the characterization and diagnosis of the physiological state. The potential of the determination of distinct enzyme activity signatures as part of a physiological fingerprint was shown for various organs and tissues from three monocot and five dicot model and crop species, including two case studies with external stimuli. Differential and specific enzyme activity signatures are apparent during inflorescence development and upon in vitro cold treatment of young inflorescences in the monocot ryegrass, related to conditions for doubled haploid formation. Likewise, treatment of dicot spring oilseed rape with elevated CO2 concentration resulted in distinct patterns of enzyme activity responses in leaves. PMID:26002973

  13. In vitro inhibitory potential of Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Angela; Sala, Filippo; Suter, Andy; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-01-15

    Boldocynara®, a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder. It was the aim of the present study to look from a different perspective at the product by investigating the in vitro potential of Boldocynara® as a combination product and its individual extracts on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. Peumus boldus extract exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on α-glucosidase (80% inhibition at 100 µg/ml, IC50: 17.56 µg/ml). Silybum marianum had moderate pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities (30% at 100 µg/ml) whereas Cynara scolymus showed moderate ACE inhibitory activity (31% at 100 µg/ml). The combination had moderate to weak effects on the tested enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate some moderate potential of the dietary supplement Boldocynara® and its single ingredients for the prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:25636882

  14. Effects of inhibitors of key enzymes of sphingolipid metabolism on insulin-induced glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in liver cells of old rats.

    PubMed

    Babenko, N A; Kharchenko, V S

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Ceramides are the most potent inhibitors of insulin signal transduction. Ceramides are generated in response to stress stimuli and in old age. In this work, we studied the possible contribution of different pathways of sphingolipid metabolism in age-dependent insulin resistance development in liver cells. Inhibition of key enzymes of sphingolipid synthesis (serine palmitoyl transferase, ceramide synthase) and degradation (neutral and acidic SMases) by means of specific inhibitors (myriocin, fumonisin B1, imipramine, and GW4869) was followed with the reduction of ceramide level and partly improved insulin regulation of glucose metabolism in "old" hepatocytes. Imipramine and GW4869 decreased significantly the acidic and neutral SMase activities, respectively. Treatment of "old" cells with myriocin or fumonisin B1 reduced the elevated in old age ceramide and SM synthesis. Ceramide and SM levels and glucose metabolism regulation by insulin could be improved with concerted action of all tested inhibitors of sphingolipid turnover on hepatocytes. The data demonstrate that not only newly synthesized ceramide and SM but also neutral and acidic SMase-dependent ceramide accumulation plays an important role in development of age-dependent insulin resistance. PMID:25754045

  15. Orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Watschinger, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R

    2013-01-01

    Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. They have important roles as membrane components of e.g. lens, brain and testis, and as mediators such as platelet-activating factor. The metabolic enzymes for biosynthesis and degradation have been investigated to some extent. As most involved enzymes are integral membrane proteins they are tricky to handle in biochemical protocols. The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. Defined enzymes without assigned sequence are known as orphan enzymes. One of these enzymes with uncharacterised sequence is plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of one of the most abundant phospholipids in our body, the plasmalogens. This review aims to briefly summarise known functions of ether lipids, give an overview on their metabolism including the most prominent members, platelet-activating factor and the plasmalogens. A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. Only one of these four was characterised by classical protein purification and sequencing, whereas the other three required alternative strategies such as bioinformatic candidate gene selection and recombinant expression or development of an inhibitor and multidimensional metabolic profiling. PMID:22771767

  16. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency on transcriptional regulation of genes encoding key enzymes of starch metabolism in duckweed (Landoltia punctata).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Shi, Hui-juan; Wang, Mao-lin; Cui, Long; Zhao, Hai; Zhao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The production of starch by plants influences their use as biofuels. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) regulate starch gene expression during plant growth and development, yet the role of key enzymes such as ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (E.C. 2.7.7.27 AGPase) in starch metabolism during N- and P-deficiency remains unknown. We investigated the effect of N- and P-deficiency on the expression of large (LeAPL1, LeAPL2, and LeAPL3) and small (LeAPS) subunits of AGPase in duckweed (Landoltia punctata) and their correlation with starch content. We first isolated the full-length cDNA encoding LeAPL1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ603244) and LeAPS (GenBank Accession No. KJ603243); they contained open reading frames of 1554 bp (57.7-kDa polypeptide of 517 amino acids) and 1578 bp (57.0 kDa polypeptide of 525 amino acids), respectively. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that LeAPL1 and LeAPL3 were highly expressed during early stages of N-deficiency, while LeAPL2 was only expressed during late stage. However, in response to P-deficiency, LeAPL1 and LeAPL2 were upregulated during early stages and LeAPL3 was primarily expressed in the late stage. Interestingly, LeAPS was highly expressed following N-deficiency during both stages, but was only upregulated in the early stage after P-deficiency. The activities of AGPase and soluble starch synthesis enzyme (SSS EC 2.4.1.21) were positively correlated with changes in starch content. Furthermore, LeAPL3 and LeSSS (SSS gene) were positively correlated with changes in starch content during N-deficiency, while LeAPS and LeSSS were correlated with starch content in response to P-deficiency. These results elevate current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying starch synthesis. PMID:25438139

  17. Chicken Cytochrome P450 1A5 Is the Key Enzyme for Metabolizing T-2 Toxin to 3?OH-T-2

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Shufeng; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Yiqun

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of T-2 toxin and its metabolites into the edible tissues of poultry has potential effects on human health. We report that T-2 toxin significantly induces CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 expression in chicken embryonic hepatocyte cells. The enzyme activity assays of CYP1A4 and CYP1A5 heterologously expressed in HeLa cells indicate that only CYP1A5 metabolizes T-2 to 3?OH-T-2 by the 3?-hydroxylation of isovaleryl groups. In vitro enzyme assays of recombinant CYP1A5 expressed in DH5? further confirm that CYP1A5 can convert T-2 into TC-1 (3?OH-T-2). Therefore, CYP1A5 is critical for the metabolism of trichothecene mycotoxin in chickens. PMID:23702848

  18. Enzymes of purine metabolism in cancer.

    PubMed

    Weber, G

    1983-02-01

    In cancer cells, a marked imbalance in the enzymic pattern of purine metabolism is linked with transformation and/or progression. In chemically-induced, transplantable hepatomas in rat, the specific activities of the anabolic enzymes, IMP dehydrogenase, GMP synthetase, adenylosuccinate synthetase, adenylosuccinase, AMP deaminase and amidophosphoribosyltransferase, increased to 13.5-, 3.7-, 3.1-, 1.8-, 5.5- and 2.8-fold, respectively, of those in normal liver. Activities of the catabolic enzymes, inosine phosphorylase, xanthine oxidase and uricase, decreased to 19, 10 and 4%, respectively. This enzymic imbalance was specific to hepatic neoplasia, since no similar pattern was observed in differentiating or regenerating liver. Most enzymic alterations were present also in chemically- and virus-induced animal tumors, in human kidney, liver and colon carcinomas, and in human colon carcinoma xenografts. The molecular correlation concept applies to purine biochemistry and an important segment of neoplastic gene expression was identified in the behavior of key purine-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:6861338

  19. Long-term feeding a plant-based diet devoid of marine ingredients strongly affects certain key metabolic enzymes in the rainbow trout liver.

    PubMed

    Véron, Vincent; Panserat, Stéphane; Le Boucher, Richard; Labbé, Laurent; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Incorporation of a plant blend in the diet can affect growth parameters and metabolism in carnivorous fish. We studied for the first time the long-term (1 year) metabolic response of rainbow trout fed from first feeding with a plant-based diet totally devoid of marine ingredients. Hepatic enzymes were analyzed at enzymatic and molecular levels, at 3, 8 and 24 h after the last meal to study both the short-term effects of the last meal and long-term effects of the diet. The results were compared with those of fish fed a control diet of fish meal and fish oil. Growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein retention were lower in the group fed the plant-based diet. Glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activity were lower in the livers of trout fed the plant-based diet which the proportion of starch was lower than in the control diet. Glutamate dehydrogenase was induced by the plant-based diet, suggesting an imbalance of amino acids and a possible link with the lower protein retention observed. Gene expression of delta 6 desaturase was higher in fish fed the plant-based diet, probably linked to a high dietary level of linolenic acid and the absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase expression was also induced by plant-based diet because of the low rate of cholesterol in the diet. Changes in regulation mechanisms already identified through short-term nutritional experiments (<12 weeks) suggest that metabolic responses are implemented at short term and remain in the long term. PMID:26746847

  20. Effects of different dwarfing interstocks on key enzyme activities and the expression of genes related to malic acid metabolism in Red Fuji apples.

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Li, F F; Ma, H; Li, Z Y; Xu, J Z

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, the test materials were 'Red Fuji' apple trees grafted onto three interstocks (No. 53, No. 111, and No. 236), which were chosen from SH40 seeding interstocks. The content of malic acid, the enzyme activities, and the expression of genes related to malic acid metabolism were determined during fruit development.The results showed that malic acid content in the ripe fruit on interstock No. 53 was higher than that in the interstock No. 111 fruit. The malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH) activity in apples on interstock No. 53 was highest on Day 30, Day 100, and Day 160 after bloom, and the malic enzyme (NADP-ME) activity in apples on interstock No. 111 was higher than in the interstock No. 53 fruit from Day 70 to Day 100 after bloom. The relative expression of NAD-MDH genes in interstock No. 53 fruit was higher than in No. 236 fruit on Day 100 after bloom, but the relative expression of NADP-ME in No. 236 interstock fruit was lower than in No. 53 fruit. The relative expression of NAD-MDH genes in No. 53 interstock fruit was highest on Day 160 after bloom. This might have been the main reason for the difference in the accumulation of malic acid in the ripe apples.There was a positive correlation between the relative expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and the malic acid content of the fruit, and the content of malic acid in the apples was affected by the PEPC activity during the early developmental stage. PMID:26782412

  1. Tyrosine metabolic enzymes from insects and mammals: a comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Vavricka, Christopher John; Han, Qian; Mehere, Prajwalini; Ding, Haizhen; Christensen, Bruce M; Li, Jianyong

    2014-02-01

    Differences in the metabolism of tyrosine between insects and mammals present an interesting example of molecular evolution. Both insects and mammals possess fine-tuned systems of enzymes to meet their specific demands for tyrosine metabolites; however, more homologous enzymes involved in tyrosine metabolism have emerged in many insect species. Without knowledge of modern genomics, one might suppose that mammals, which are generally more complex than insects and require tyrosine as a precursor for important catecholamine neurotransmitters and for melanin, should possess more enzymes to control tyrosine metabolism. Therefore, the question of why insects actually possess more tyrosine metabolic enzymes is quite interesting. It has long been known that insects rely heavily on tyrosine metabolism for cuticle hardening and for innate immune responses, and these evolutionary constraints are likely the key answers to this question. In terms of melanogenesis, mammals also possess a high level of regulation; yet mammalian systems possess more mechanisms for detoxification whereas insects accelerate pathways like melanogenesis and therefore must bear increased oxidative pressure. Our research group has had the opportunity to characterize the structure and function of many key proteins involved in tyrosine metabolism from both insects and mammals. In this mini review we will give a brief overview of our research on tyrosine metabolic enzymes in the scope of an evolutionary perspective of mammals in comparison to insects. PMID:23955993

  2. Enzyme clustering can induce metabolic channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellana, Michele

    2015-03-01

    Direct channeling of intermediates via a physical tunnel between enzyme active sites is an established mechanism to improve metabolic efficiency. In this talk, I will present a theoretical model that demonstrates that coclustering multiple enzymes into proximity can yield the full efficiency benefits of direct channeling. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with the spacing between coclusters in yeast and mammalian cells. The model also predicts that enzyme agglomerates can regulate steady-state flux division at metabolic branch points: we experimentally test this prediction for a fundamental branch point in Escherichia coli, and the results confirm that enzyme colocalization within an agglomerate can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation.

  3. Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment. PMID:22531028

  4. Histone Acetylation Enzymes Coordinate Metabolism and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yuan; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2015-10-01

    Histone lysine acetylation is well known for being important in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. Recent studies have uncovered a plethora of acetylated proteins involved in important metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis and respiration in plants. Enzymes involved in histone acetylation and deacetylation are being identified as regulators of acetylation of metabolic enzymes. Importantly, key metabolites, such as acetyl-CoA and NAD(+), are involved in protein acetylation and deacetylation processes, and their cellular levels may regulate the activity of histone acetyltransferases (HAT) and deacetylases (HDAC). Further research is required to determine whether and how HATs and HDACs sense cellular metabolite signals to control gene expression and metabolic enzyme activity through lysine acetylation and deacetylation. PMID:26440431

  5. Isolation and structural characterization of 2R, 3R taxifolin 3-O-rhamnoside from ethyl acetate extract of Hydnocarpus alpina and its hypoglycemic effect by attenuating hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Rangachari; Vendan, Subramanian Ezhil; Aravinthan, Adithan; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Hydnocarpus alpina Wt. (Flacourtiaceae) (H. alpina) is a large tree traditionally used to treat leprosy; it also posses antidiabetic property. The present study was undertaken to isolate, characterize and to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of 2R, 3R taxifolin 3-O-rhamnoside. (rhamnoside) and its impact on carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg). Oral administration of rhamnoside for 21 days significantly reduced food intake, calorie intake, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and improved plasma insulin levels. Administration of rhamnoside showed significant increase in the body weight, body composition (Lean body weight (LBW) and retro body fat), glycolytic hexokinase, glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase levels where as significant decrease was observed in the levels of glucose-6-phosphatase fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in diabetic treated rats. Further, administration of rhamnoside significantly improved the glycogen content, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, suggesting the antihyperglycemic potential of rhamnoside in diabetic rats. The results obtained were compared with glibenclamide a standard hypoglycaemic drug. Immunohistopathological study of pancreas revealed increased number of β-cells and insulin granules in diabetes-induced rats after treatment with rhamnoside for 21 days. Furthermore, Co-administration of rhamnoside (50 mg/kg) with nifedipine (13.6 mg/kg), a Ca(2+)ion channel blocker, or nicorandil (6.8 mg/kg), an ATP-sensitive K(+) ion channel opener, reveals the insulin secretion property of rhamnoside via a K(+)-ATP channels dependent pathway in diabetic rats. In conclusion, rhamnoside normalized blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, key hepatic enzymes and glycogen content by increasing insulin secretion via K(+)-ATP channels dependent signaling pathway. The results suggest that the rhamnoside from H. alpina could be used as a therapeutic agent to treat diabetes mellitus. PMID:25698613

  6. Enzyme kinetics in drug metabolism: fundamentals and applications.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Swati; Argikar, Upendra A; Tweedie, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are protein catalysts that lower the energy barrier for a reaction and speed the rate of a chemical change. The kinetics of reactions catalyzed by enzymes, as well as several mechanisms underlying the kinetics, have been comprehensively studied and written in textbooks (1, 2). The importance of quantitative evaluation of enzymatic processes has been recognized in many fields of study, including biochemistry, molecular biology, and pharmaceutical sciences to name a few. In pharmaceutical sciences, the applications of enzyme kinetics range from hit finding efforts for new chemical entities on a pharmacological target to concentration effect relationships to large-scale biosynthesis. The study of the science of drug metabolism has two principal concepts-rate and extent. While understanding disposition pathways and identification of metabolites provides an insight into the extent of metabolism, kinetics of depletion of substrates (endogenous or exogenous) and formation of metabolites deals with the rate of metabolism. The current textbook specifically focuses on kinetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes, detailing specific enzyme classes, and discusses kinetics as they apply to drug transporters. This textbook also outlines additional factors that contribute to the kinetics of reactions catalyzed by these proteins such as variability in isoforms (pharmacogenomics) and experimental factors including key concepts such as alterations of substrate concentrations due to binding. Applications of these approaches in predicting kinetic parameters and alternative approaches for enzymes (systems biology) and transporters are also discussed. The final section focuses on real-life examples (case studies) to try and exemplify the applications of enzyme kinetic principles. This chapter provides a brief overview outlining some key concepts within each of the sections and the chapters within this textbook. PMID:24523105

  7. Acetylation of metabolic enzymes coordinates carbon source utilization and metabolic flux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qijun; Zhang, Yakun; Yang, Chen; Xiong, Hui; Lin, Yan; Yao, Jun; Li, Hong; Xie, Lu; Zhao, Wei; Yao, Yufeng; Ning, Zhi-Bin; Zeng, Rong; Xiong, Yue; Guan, Kun-Liang; Zhao, Shimin; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2010-02-19

    Lysine acetylation regulates many eukaryotic cellular processes, but its function in prokaryotes is largely unknown. We demonstrated that central metabolism enzymes in Salmonella were acetylated extensively and differentially in response to different carbon sources, concomitantly with changes in cell growth and metabolic flux. The relative activities of key enzymes controlling the direction of glycolysis versus gluconeogenesis and the branching between citrate cycle and glyoxylate bypass were all regulated by acetylation. This modulation is mainly controlled by a pair of lysine acetyltransferase and deacetylase, whose expressions are coordinated with growth status. Reversible acetylation of metabolic enzymes ensure that cells respond environmental changes via promptly sensing cellular energy status and flexibly altering reaction rates or directions. It represents a metabolic regulatory mechanism conserved from bacteria to mammals. PMID:20167787

  8. Bifidobacterial enzymes involved in the metabolism of human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2012-05-01

    Intestinal colonization of bifidobacteria is important for the health of infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been identified as growth factors for bifidobacteria. Recently, a bifidobacterial enzymatic system to metabolize HMO was identified. 1,3-?-Galactosyl-N-acetylhexosamine phosphorylase (GLNBP, EC 2.4.1.211), which catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of galacto-N-biose (GNB) (Gal?1?3GalNAc)] and lacto-N-biose I (LNB) (Gal?1?3GlcNAc), is a key enzyme to explain the metabolism of HMO. Infant-type bifidobacteria possess the intracellular pathway to specifically metabolize GNB and LNB (GNB/LNB pathway). Bifidobacterium bifidum possesses extracellular enzymes to liberate LNB from HMO. However, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis imports intact HMO to be hydrolyzed by intracellular enzymes. Bifidobacterial enzymes related to the metabolism of HMO are useful tools for preparing compounds related to HMO. For instance, LNB and GNB were produced from sucrose and GlcNAc/GalNAc in 1 pot using 4 bifidobacterial enzymes, including GLNBP. LNB is expected to be a selective bifidus factor for infant-type strains. PMID:22585921

  9. BRENDA, enzyme data and metabolic information

    PubMed Central

    Schomburg, Ida; Chang, Antje; Schomburg, Dietmar

    2002-01-01

    BRENDA is a comprehensive relational database on functional and molecular information of enzymes, based on primary literature. The database contains information extracted and evaluated from approximately 46000 references, holding data of at least 40000 different enzymes from more than 6900 different organisms, classified in approximately 3900 EC numbers. BRENDA is an important tool for biochemical and medical research covering information on properties of all classified enzymes, including data on the occurrence, catalyzed reaction, kinetics, substrates/products, inhibitors, cofactors, activators, structure and stability. All data are connected to literature references which in turn are linked to PubMed. The data and information provide a fundamental tool for research of enzyme mechanisms, metabolic pathways, the evolution of metabolism and, furthermore, for medicinal diagnostics and pharmaceutical research. The database is a resource for data of enzymes, classified according to the EC system of the IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature Committee, and the entries are cross-referenced to other databases, i.e. organism classification, protein sequence, protein structure and literature references. BRENDA provides an academic web access at http://www.brenda.uni-koeln.de. PMID:11752250

  10. Enzyme mechanisms in the metabolism of nitrosamines.

    PubMed

    Yang, C S; Smith, T; Ishizaki, H; Hong, J Y

    1991-01-01

    Many nitrosamines are metabolized by cytochromes P450, one of which (P450IIE1) has received much attention because of its role in the metabolic activation of N-nitrosodimethylamine. This enzyme exists in man, rat, mouse, hamster and other animal species. It is inducible by fasting, diabetes and exposure to ethanol, acetone, isoniazid, benzene and other chemicals. P450IIE1 is responsible for the low Km form of N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase and is the major enzyme catalysing the metabolic activation of this carcinogen. In addition, P450IIE1 is the most active P450 species known in the metabolism of N-nitrosoethylmethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine. In the metabolism of N-nitrosobutylmethylamine, P450IIE1 preferentially oxidizes the methyl group over the butyl group, whereas P450IIB1 efficiently oxidizes both the methyl and butyl groups. P450IIB1 also catalyses the alpha-oxygenation of both the pentyl and methyl groups of N-nitrosopentylmethylamine, forming pentaldehyde and formaldehyde at a rate ratio of 2:1, as well as oxygenation at other carbons of the pentyl group. Many nitrosamines are effectively activated in nonhepatic target tissues. The metabolism of 4-(N-nitroso-methylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in lung and nasal microsomes is discussed. PMID:1855865

  11. Enzyme mechanisms in the metabolism of nitrosamines.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Yang CS; Smith T; Ishizaki H; Hong JY

    1991-01-01

    Many nitrosamines are metabolized by cytochromes P450, one of which (P450IIE1) has received much attention because of its role in the metabolic activation of N-nitrosodimethylamine. This enzyme exists in man, rat, mouse, hamster and other animal species. It is inducible by fasting, diabetes and exposure to ethanol, acetone, isoniazid, benzene and other chemicals. P450IIE1 is responsible for the low Km form of N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase and is the major enzyme catalysing the metabolic activation of this carcinogen. In addition, P450IIE1 is the most active P450 species known in the metabolism of N-nitrosoethylmethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine. In the metabolism of N-nitrosobutylmethylamine, P450IIE1 preferentially oxidizes the methyl group over the butyl group, whereas P450IIB1 efficiently oxidizes both the methyl and butyl groups. P450IIB1 also catalyses the alpha-oxygenation of both the pentyl and methyl groups of N-nitrosopentylmethylamine, forming pentaldehyde and formaldehyde at a rate ratio of 2:1, as well as oxygenation at other carbons of the pentyl group. Many nitrosamines are effectively activated in nonhepatic target tissues. The metabolism of 4-(N-nitroso-methylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone in lung and nasal microsomes is discussed.

  12. Modulating effects of hesperidin on key carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, lipid profile, and membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatases against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, N; Rengarajan, T; Balamurugan, A; Balasubramanian, M P

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to document the effect of hesperidin on the key enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, and membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast carcinogenesis. Hesperidin has been reported to have multiple biological properties. Breast cancer was induced by single dose of DMBA (20mg/kg body weight (bw)). The results revealed that there was a significant increase in the activities of hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, and aldolase and a concomitant decrease in the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase in cancer-induced animals. The activities of ATPases were found to be decreased both in erythrocyte membrane and in the liver of mammary cancer-bearing animals. The lipid profiles such as total cholesterol, free cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids significantly increased and in contrast the ester cholesterol in plasma was found to be decreased, whereas it was found to be elevated in the liver of cancer-bearing groups. The altered levels of the above-mentioned biochemical parameters in cancer-bearing animals were significantly ameliorated by the administration of hesperidin at the dosage of 30mg/kg bw for 45days. The histopathological analysis of breast and liver tissues were well supported the modulatory property of hesperidin, and this might be associated with normalizing the gluconeogenesis process, stabilization of cell membranes, and modulation of lipid biosynthesis. PMID:23690228

  13. Phosphoinositides: Key modulators of energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Dave; Saltiel, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Phosphoinositides are key players in many trafficking and signaling pathways. Recent advances regarding the synthesis, location and functions of these lipids have dramatically improved our understanding of how and when these lipids are generated and what their roles are in animal physiology. In particular, phosphoinositides play a central role in insulin signaling, and manipulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P?levels in particular, may be an important potential therapeutic target for the alleviation of insulin resistance associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome. In this article we review the metabolism, regulation and functional roles of phosphoinositides in insulin signaling and the regulation of energy metabolism. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. PMID:25463477

  14. Expression of Enzymes that Metabolize Medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Peters, C. P.

    2012-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. Clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result if the liver is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver.

  15. Mendelian disorders of PI metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Leopoldo; De Leo, Maria Giovanna; Persico, Maria; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta

    2015-06-01

    More than twenty different genetic diseases have been described that are caused by mutations in phosphoinositide metabolizing enzymes, mostly in phosphoinositide phosphatases. Although generally ubiquitously expressed, mutations in these enzymes, which are mainly loss-of-function, result in tissue-restricted clinical manifestations through mechanisms that are not completely understood. Here we analyze selected disorders of phosphoinositide metabolism grouped according to the principle tissue affected: the nervous system, muscle, kidney, the osteoskeletal system, the eye, and the immune system. We will highlight what has been learnt so far from the study of these disorders about not only the cellular and molecular pathways that are involved or are governed by phosphoinositides, but also the many gaps that remain to be filled to gain a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of this steadily growing class of diseases, most of which still remain orphan in terms of treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Phosphoinositides. PMID:25510381

  16. Molecular identification of pseudouridine-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Preumont, Alice; Snoussi, Karim; Stroobant, Vincent; Collet, Jean-Franois; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2008-09-12

    Pseudouridine, a non-classical nucleoside present in human urine as a degradation product of RNAs, is one of the few molecules that has a glycosidic C-C bond. Through a data base mining approach involving transcriptomic data, we have molecularly identified two enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of pseudouridine in uropathogenic Escherichia coli, the principal agent of urinary tract infections in humans. The first enzyme, coded by the gene yeiC, specifically phosphorylates pseudouridine to pseudouridine 5'-phosphate. Accordingly, yeiC(-) mutants are unable to metabolize pseudouridine, in contrast to wild-type E. coli UTI89. The second enzyme, encoded by the gene yeiN belonging to the same operon as yeiC, catalyzes the conversion of pseudouridine 5'-phosphate to uracil and ribose 5-phosphate in a divalent cation-dependent manner. Remarkably, the glycosidic C-C bond of pseudouridine is cleaved in the course of this reaction, indicating that YeiN is the first molecularly identified enzyme able to hydrolyze a glycosidic C-C bond. Though this reaction is easily reversible, the association of YeiN with pseudouridine kinase indicates that it serves physiologically to metabolize pseudouridine 5'-phosphate rather than to form it. YeiN is homologous to Thermotoga maritima IndA, a protein with a new fold, which we now show to act also as a pseudouridine-5'-phosphate glycosidase. Data base mining indicates that most eukaryotes possess homologues of pseudouridine kinase and pseudouridine-5'-phosphate glycosidase and that these are most often associated in a single bifunctional protein. The gene encoding this bifunctional protein is absent from the genomes of man and other mammals, indicating that the capacity for metabolizing pseudouridine has been lost late in evolution. PMID:18591240

  17. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid...

  19. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid...

  20. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid...

  1. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862... Test Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid...

  2. Truffles contain endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes and anandamide.

    PubMed

    Pacioni, Giovanni; Rapino, Cinzia; Zarivi, Osvaldo; Falconi, Anastasia; Leonardi, Marco; Battista, Natalia; Colafarina, Sabrina; Sergi, Manuel; Bonfigli, Antonella; Miranda, Michele; Barsacchi, Daniela; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    Truffles are the fruiting body of fungi, members of the Ascomycota phylum endowed with major gastronomic and commercial value. The development and maturation of their reproductive structure are dependent on melanin synthesis. Since anandamide, a prominent member of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), is responsible for melanin synthesis in normal human epidermal melanocytes, we thought that ECS might be present also in truffles. Here, we show the expression, at the transcriptional and translational levels, of most ECS components in the black truffle Tuber melanosporum Vittad. at maturation stage VI. Indeed, by means of molecular biology and immunochemical techniques, we found that truffles contain the major metabolic enzymes of the ECS, while they do not express the most relevant endocannabinoid-binding receptors. In addition, we measured anandamide content in truffles, at different maturation stages (from III to VI), through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, whereas the other relevant endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol was below the detection limit. Overall, our unprecedented results suggest that anandamide and ECS metabolic enzymes have evolved earlier than endocannabinoid-binding receptors, and that anandamide might be an ancient attractant to truffle eaters, that are well-equipped with endocannabinoid-binding receptors. PMID:25433633

  3. Enzyme recruitment and its role in metabolic expansion.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg, Cindy; Miller, Brian G

    2014-02-11

    Although more than 10(9) years have passed since the existence of the last universal common ancestor, proteins have yet to reach the limits of divergence. As a result, metabolic complexity is ever expanding. Identifying and understanding the mechanisms that drive and limit the divergence of protein sequence space impact not only evolutionary biologists investigating molecular evolution but also synthetic biologists seeking to design useful catalysts and engineer novel metabolic pathways. Investigations over the past 50 years indicate that the recruitment of enzymes for new functions is a key event in the acquisition of new metabolic capacity. In this review, we outline the genetic mechanisms that enable recruitment and summarize the present state of knowledge regarding the functional characteristics of extant catalysts that facilitate recruitment. We also highlight recent examples of enzyme recruitment, both from the historical record provided by phylogenetics and from enzyme evolution experiments. We conclude with a look to the future, which promises fruitful consequences from the convergence of molecular evolutionary theory, laboratory-directed evolution, and synthetic biology. PMID:24483367

  4. Enzyme Recruitment and Its Role in Metabolic Expansion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although more than 109 years have passed since the existence of the last universal common ancestor, proteins have yet to reach the limits of divergence. As a result, metabolic complexity is ever expanding. Identifying and understanding the mechanisms that drive and limit the divergence of protein sequence space impact not only evolutionary biologists investigating molecular evolution but also synthetic biologists seeking to design useful catalysts and engineer novel metabolic pathways. Investigations over the past 50 years indicate that the recruitment of enzymes for new functions is a key event in the acquisition of new metabolic capacity. In this review, we outline the genetic mechanisms that enable recruitment and summarize the present state of knowledge regarding the functional characteristics of extant catalysts that facilitate recruitment. We also highlight recent examples of enzyme recruitment, both from the historical record provided by phylogenetics and from enzyme evolution experiments. We conclude with a look to the future, which promises fruitful consequences from the convergence of molecular evolutionary theory, laboratory-directed evolution, and synthetic biology. PMID:24483367

  5. Identification of sensitive enzymes in the photosynthetic carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Umeton, Renato; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Papini, Alessio; Costanza, Jole; Li, Pietro; Nicosia, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and optimizing the CO(2) fixation process would allow human beings to address better current energy and biotechnology issues. We focused on modeling the C(3) photosynthetic Carbon metabolism pathway with the aim of identifying the minimal set of enzymes whose biotechnological alteration could allow a functional re-engineering of the pathway. To achieve this result we merged in a single powerful pipe-line Sensitivity Analysis (SA), Single- (SO) and Multi-Objective Optimization (MO), and Robustness Analysis (RA). By using our recently developed multipurpose optimization algorithms (PAO and PMO2) here we extend our work exploring a large combinatorial solution space and most importantly, here we present an important reduction of the problem search space. From the initial number of 23 enzymes we have identified 11 enzymes whose targeting in the C(3) photosynthetic Carbon metabolism would provide about 90% of the overall functional optimization. Both in terms of maximal CO(2) Uptake and minimal Nitrogen consumption, these 11 sensitive enzymes are confirmed to play a key role. Finally we present a RA to confirm our findings. PMID:22161345

  6. Mechanistic insights into the regulation of metabolic enzymes by acetylation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The activity of metabolic enzymes is controlled by three principle levels: the amount of enzyme, the catalytic activity, and the accessibility of substrates. Reversible lysine acetylation is emerging as a major regulatory mechanism in metabolism that is involved in all three levels of controlling metabolic enzymes and is altered frequently in human diseases. Acetylation rivals other common posttranslational modifications in cell regulation not only in the number of substrates it modifies, but also the variety of regulatory mechanisms it facilitates. PMID:22826120

  7. Expression of Enzymes that Metabolize Medications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.; Peters, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increased exposure to radiation is one physiological stressor associated with spaceflight and it is feasible to conduct ground experiments using known radiation exposures. The health of the liver, especially the activity rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. While radiation is known to alter normal physiological function, how radiation affects liver metabolism of administered medications is unclear. Crew health could be affected if the actions of medications used in spaceflight deviated from expectations formed during terrestrial medication use. This study is an effort to identify liver metabolic enzymes whose expression is altered by spaceflight or by radiation exposures that mimic features of the spaceflight environment. METHODS: Using procedures approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee, mice were exposed to either 137Cs (controls, 50 mGy, 6Gy, or 50 mGy + 6Gy separated by 24 hours) or 13 days of spaceflight on STS 135. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed at several time points (4 hours, 24 hours or 7 days) after their last radiation exposure, or within 6 hours of return to Earth for the STS 135 animals. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted, purified and quality-tested. Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used in RT-qPCR experiments to determine relative expression of a wide variety of genes involved in general metabolism and drug metabolism. RESULTS: Results of the ground radiation exposure experiments indicated 65 genes of the 190 tested were significantly affected by at least one of the radiation doses. Many of the affected genes are involved in the metabolism of drugs with hydrophobic or steroid-like structures, maintenance of redox homeostasis and repair of DNA damage. Most affected genes returned to near control expression levels by 7 days post-treatment. Not all recovered completely by the final time point tested: with 6 Gy exposure, metallothionein expression was 132-fold more than control at the 4 hr time point, and fell at each later time point (11-fold at 24 hrs, and 8-fold at 7 days). In contrast, there were other genes whose expression was altered and remained relatively constant through the 7 day period we tested. One examples is Cyp17a1, which showed a 4-fold elevation at 4 hrs after exposure and remained constant for 7 days after the last treatment. Spaceflight samples evaluated with similar methods and comparisons will be made between the radiation-treated groups and the spaceflight samples. CONCLUSION It seems likely that radiation exposure triggers homeostatic mechanisms, which could include alterations of gene expression. Better understanding of these pathways could aid in optimizing medications doses given to crewmembers who require treatment and eventually, to development of new countermeasures to ameliorate or prevent radiation-induced damage to cells and tissues.

  8. Enzymes of fructose metabolism in human liver

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Fritz; Lamprecht, Walther; Kirsch, Joachim

    1968-01-01

    The enzyme activities involved in fructose metabolism were measured in samples of human liver. On the basis of U/g of wet-weight the following results were found: ketohexokinase, 1.23; aldolase (substrate, fructose-1-phosphate), 2.08; aldolase (substrate, fructose-1,6-diphosphate), 3.46; triokinase, 2.07; aldehyde dehydrogenase (substrate, D-glyceraldehyde), 1.04; D-glycerate kinase, 0.13; alcohol dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [NAD]) substrate, D-glyceraldehyde), 3.1; alcohol dehydrogenase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NADP]) (substrate, D-glyceraldehyde), 3.6; and glycerol kinase, 0.62. Sorbitol dehydrogenases (25.0 U/g), hexosediphosphatase (4.06 U/g), hexokinase (0.23 U/g), and glucokinase (0.08 U/g) were also measured. Comparing these results with those of the rat liver it becomes clear that the activities of alcohol dehydrogenases (NAD and NADP) in rat liver are higher than those in human liver, and that the values of ketohexokinase, sorbitol dehydrogenases, and hexosediphosphatase in human liver are lower than those values found in rat liver. Human liver contains only traces of glycerate kinase. The rate of fructose uptake from the blood, as described by other investigators, can be based on the activity of ketohexokinase reported in the present paper. In human liver, ketohexokinase is present in a four-fold activity of glucokinase and hexokinase. This result may explain the well-known fact that fructose is metabolized faster than glucose. PMID:4385849

  9. Metabolic Enzymes Enjoying New Partnerships as RNA-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Castello, Alfredo; Hentze, Matthias W.; Preiss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In the past century, few areas of biology advanced as much as our understanding of the pathways of intermediary metabolism. Initially considered unimportant in terms of gene regulation, crucial cellular fate changes, cell differentiation, or malignant transformation are now known to involve ‘metabolic remodeling’ with profound changes in the expression of many metabolic enzyme genes. This review focuses on the recent identification of RNA-binding activity of numerous metabolic enzymes. We discuss possible roles of this unexpected second activity in feedback gene regulation (‘moonlighting’) and/or in the control of enzymatic function. We also consider how metabolism-driven post-translational modifications could regulate enzyme–RNA interactions. Thus, RNA emerges as a new partner of metabolic enzymes with far-reaching possible consequences to be unraveled in the future. PMID:26520658

  10. Enzyme clustering accelerates processing of intermediates through metabolic channeling

    PubMed Central

    Castellana, Michele; Wilson, Maxwell Z.; Xu, Yifan; Joshi, Preeti; Cristea, Ileana M.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Gitai, Zemer; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative model to demonstrate that coclustering multiple enzymes into compact agglomerates accelerates the processing of intermediates, yielding the same efficiency benefits as direct channeling, a well-known mechanism in which enzymes are funneled between enzyme active sites through a physical tunnel. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with previously reported spacings between coclusters in mammalian cells. For direct validation, we study a metabolic branch point in Escherichia coli and experimentally confirm the model prediction that enzyme agglomerates can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch, and thus regulate steady-state flux division. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation. PMID:25262299

  11. Key applications of plant metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lau, Warren; Fischbach, Michael A; Osbourn, Anne; Sattely, Elizabeth S

    2014-06-01

    Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field. PMID:24915445

  12. Key Applications of Plant Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Warren; Fischbach, Michael A.; Osbourn, Anne; Sattely, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Great strides have been made in plant metabolic engineering over the last two decades, with notable success stories including Golden rice. Here, we discuss the field's progress in addressing four long-standing challenges: creating plants that satisfy their own nitrogen requirement, so reducing or eliminating the need for nitrogen fertilizer; enhancing the nutrient content of crop plants; engineering biofuel feed stocks that harbor easy-to-access fermentable saccharides by incorporating self-destructing lignin; and increasing photosynthetic efficiency. We also look to the future at emerging areas of research in this field. PMID:24915445

  13. Key enzymes catalyzing glycerol to 1,3-propanediol.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Wang, Shizhen; Wang, Yuanpeng; Fang, Baishan

    2016-01-01

    Biodiesel can replace petroleum diesel as it is produced from animal fats and vegetable oils, and it produces about 10 % (w/w) glycerol, which is a promising new industrial microbial carbon, as a major by-product. One of the most potential applications of glycerol is its biotransformation to high value chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), dihydroxyacetone (DHA), succinic acid, etc., through microbial fermentation. Glycerol dehydratase, 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase (1,3-propanediol-oxydoreductase), and glycerol dehydrogenase, which were encoded, respectively, by dhaB, dhaT, and dhaD and with DHA kinase are encompassed by the dha regulon, are the three key enzymes in glycerol bioconversion into 1,3-PD and DHA, and these are discussed in this review article. The summary of the main research direction of these three key enzyme and methods of glycerol bioconversion into 1,3-PD and DHA indicates their potential application in future enzymatic research and industrial production, especially in biodiesel industry. PMID:26966462

  14. Characterizing metabolic inhibition using electrochemical enzyme/DNA biosensors.

    PubMed

    Hull, Dominic O; Bajrami, Besnik; Jansson, Ingela; Schenkman, John B; Rusling, James F

    2009-01-15

    Studies of metabolic enzyme inhibition are necessary in drug development and toxicity investigations as potential tools to limit or prevent appearance of deleterious metabolites formed, for example, by cytochrome (cyt) P450 enzymes. In this paper, we evaluate the use of enzyme/DNA toxicity biosensors as tools to investigate enzyme inhibition. We have examined DNA damage due to cyt P450cam metabolism of styrene using DNA/enzyme films on pyrolytic graphite (PG) electrodes monitored via Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-mediated DNA oxidation. Styrene metabolism initiated by hydrogen peroxide was evaluated with and without the inhibitors, imidazole, imidazole-4-acetic acid, and sulconazole (in micromolar range) to monitor DNA damage inhibition. The initial rates of DNA damage decreased with increased inhibitor concentrations. Linear and nonlinear fits of Michaelis-Menten inhibition models were used to determine apparent inhibition constants (K(I)*) for the inhibitors. Elucidation of the best fitting inhibition model was achieved by comparing correlation coefficients and the sum of the square of the errors (SSE) from each inhibition model. Results confirmed the utility of the enzyme/DNA biosensor for metabolic inhibition studies. A simple competitive inhibition model best approximated the data for imidazole, imidazole-4-acetic acid and sulconazole with K(I)* of 268.2, 142.3, and 204.2 microM, respectively. PMID:19099359

  15. Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes in Italian populations.

    PubMed

    Serpe, Loredana; Canaparo, Roberto; Scordo, Maria Gabriella; Spina, Edoardo

    2015-06-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a major role in the biotransformation and subsequent elimination of most drugs and xenobiotics from the body. Both phase I and phase II enzymes are highly polymorphic. Inter-individual differences in genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes are important for understanding variability in drug response and for individualization of drug prescription. The prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolism varies widely with ethnicity, and marked differences in the distribution of allelic variants of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes have been documented in populations of different racial origin. This review aimed to summarize the available studies on genetic polymorphisms associated with drug metabolism conducted in Italian populations and to compare the frequency of the various metabolizer phenotypes and most common variant alleles (and resulting genotypes) with corresponding values from other populations. Notably, published data are not extensive, and most studies were performed on relatively low numbers of individuals. In general, the frequency of polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes as well as in the investigated phase II enzymes in the Italian population was similar to values reported for other Caucasian populations. However, the prevalence of CYP2D6 gene duplication among Italians was found to be very high, confirming the higher frequency of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers in the Mediterranean area compared to Northern Europe. It is worth noting that a geographic gradient in the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 polymorphism distribution was also seen, the Italian population showing higher similarity to other Mediterranean populations than to North Europeans. PMID:25527811

  16. Review of aerobic glycolysis and its key enzymes new targets for lung cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-bing; Gu, Jun-dong; Zhou, Qing-hua

    2015-01-01

    Most tumor cells show different metabolic pathways than normal cells. Even under the conditions of sufficient oxygen, they produce energy by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in the cytosol, which is known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect. Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with one of the highest incidence and mortality rates in the world at present. However, the exact mechanisms underlying lung cancer development remain unclear. The three key enzymes of glycolysis are hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase. Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the transfer of pyruvate to lactate. All four enzymes have been reported to be overexpressed in tumors, including lung cancer, and can be regulated by many oncoproteins to promote tumor proliferation, migration, and metastasis with dependence or independence of glycolysis. The discovery of aerobic glycolysis in the 1920s has provided new means and potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer. PMID:26273330

  17. Enzyme Regulation& Catalysis in Carbon Fixation Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Henry M. Miziorko

    2004-12-14

    The overall long term goal of this program is the elucidation of molecular events in carbon assimilation. It has become axiomatic that control of flux through metabolic pathways is effectively imposed at irreversible reactions situated early in those pathways. The current focal point of this project is phosphoribulokinase (PRK), which catalyzes formation of the carbon dioxide acceptor, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. This reaction represents an early irreversible step unique to Calvin’s reductive pentose phosphate pathway. Predictably, the PRK reaction represents an important control point in carbon fixation, regulated by a light dependent thiol/disulfide exchange in eukaryotes and by allosteric effectors in prokaryotes. Characterization of naturally occurring mutants as well as gene knockout experiments substantiate the importance of PRK to in vivo control of carbon assimilation in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Thus, given the potential impact of enhancement or inhibition of PRK activity on energy (biomass/biofuel) production, elucidation of the molecular events that account for PRK activity is a significant scientific goal.

  18. Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 2; The Distribution of Selected Enzymes and Amino Acids in the Hippocampal Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O. H.; Krasnov, I.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Nemeth, P. M.; McDougal, D. B., Jr.; Choksi, R.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M. Y.; Manchester, J. K.; Pusateri, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Six key metabolic enzymes plus glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as glutamate, aspartate and GABA, were measured in 11 regions of the hippocampal formation of synchronous, flight and tail suspension rats. Major differences were observed in the normal distribution patterns of each enzyme and amino acid, but no substantive effects of either microgravity or tail suspension on these patterns were clearly demonstrated.

  19. How nutritional status signalling coordinates metabolism and lignocellulolytic enzyme secretion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Neil Andrew; Ries, Laure Nicolas Annick; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique

    2014-11-01

    The utilisation of lignocellulosic plant biomass as an abundant, renewable feedstock for green chemistries and biofuel production is inhibited by its recalcitrant nature. In the environment, lignocellulolytic fungi are naturally capable of breaking down plant biomass into utilisable saccharides. Nonetheless, within the industrial context, inefficiencies in the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes impede the implementation of green technologies. One of the primary causes of such inefficiencies is the tight transcriptional control of lignocellulolytic enzymes via carbon catabolite repression. Fungi coordinate metabolism, protein biosynthesis and secretion with cellular energetic status through the detection of intra- and extra-cellular nutritional signals. An enhanced understanding of the signals and signalling pathways involved in regulating the transcription, translation and secretion of lignocellulolytic enzymes is therefore of great biotechnological interest. This comparative review describes how nutrient sensing pathways regulate carbon catabolite repression, metabolism and the utilisation of alternative carbon sources in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ascomycete fungi. PMID:25011009

  20. Engineering of Metabolic Pathways by Artificial Enzyme Channels

    PubMed Central

    Pröschel, Marlene; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Application of industrial enzymes for production of valuable chemical compounds has greatly benefited from recent developments in Systems and Synthetic Biology. Both, in vivo and in vitro systems have been established, allowing conversion of simple into complex compounds. Metabolic engineering in living cells needs to be balanced which is achieved by controlling gene expression levels, translation, scaffolding, compartmentation, and flux control. In vitro applications are often hampered by limited protein stability/half-life and insufficient rates of substrate conversion. To improve stability and catalytic activity, proteins are post-translationally modified and arranged in artificial metabolic channels. Within the review article, we will first discuss the supramolecular organization of enzymes in living systems and second summarize current and future approaches to design artificial metabolic channels by additive manufacturing for the efficient production of desired products. PMID:26557643

  1. Bifidobacterial Enzymes Involved in the Metabolism of Human Milk Oligosaccharides123

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal colonization of bifidobacteria is important for the health of infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been identified as growth factors for bifidobacteria. Recently, a bifidobacterial enzymatic system to metabolize HMO was identified. 1,3-β-Galactosyl-N-acetylhexosamine phosphorylase (GLNBP, EC 2.4.1.211), which catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of galacto-N-biose (GNB) (Galβ1→3GalNAc)] and lacto-N-biose I (LNB) (Galβ1→3GlcNAc), is a key enzyme to explain the metabolism of HMO. Infant-type bifidobacteria possess the intracellular pathway to specifically metabolize GNB and LNB (GNB/LNB pathway). Bifidobacterium bifidum possesses extracellular enzymes to liberate LNB from HMO. However, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis imports intact HMO to be hydrolyzed by intracellular enzymes. Bifidobacterial enzymes related to the metabolism of HMO are useful tools for preparing compounds related to HMO. For instance, LNB and GNB were produced from sucrose and GlcNAc/GalNAc in 1 pot using 4 bifidobacterial enzymes, including GLNBP. LNB is expected to be a selective bifidus factor for infant-type strains. PMID:22585921

  2. 2D SMARTCyp reactivity-based site of metabolism prediction for major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruifeng; Liu, Jin; Tawa, Greg; Wallqvist, Anders

    2012-06-25

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, and 1A2 are the most important drug-metabolizing enzymes in the human liver. Knowledge of which parts of a drug molecule are subject to metabolic reactions catalyzed by these enzymes is crucial for rational drug design to mitigate ADME/toxicity issues. SMARTCyp, a recently developed 2D ligand structure-based method, is able to predict site-specific metabolic reactivity of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 substrates with an accuracy that rivals the best and more computationally demanding 3D structure-based methods. In this article, the SMARTCyp approach was extended to predict the metabolic hotspots for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP1A2 substrates. This was accomplished by taking into account the impact of a key substrate-receptor recognition feature of each enzyme as a correction term to the SMARTCyp reactivity. The corrected reactivity was then used to rank order the likely sites of CYP-mediated metabolic reactions. For 60 CYP1A2 substrates, the observed major sites of CYP1A2 catalyzed metabolic reactions were among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 positions in 67%, 80%, and 83% of the cases, respectively. The results were similar to those obtained by MetaSite and the reactivity + docking approach. For 70 CYP2C9 substrates, the observed sites of CYP2C9 metabolism were among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 positions in 66%, 86%, and 87% of the cases, respectively. These results were better than the corresponding results of StarDrop version 5.0, which were 61%, 73%, and 77%, respectively. For 36 compounds metabolized by CYP2C19, the observed sites of metabolism were found to be among the top-ranked 1, 2, and 3 sites in 78%, 89%, and 94% of the cases, respectively. The computational procedure was implemented as an extension to the program SMARTCyp 2.0. With the extension, the program can now predict the site of metabolism for all five major drug-metabolizing enzymes with an accuracy similar to or better than that achieved by the best 3D structure-based methods. Both the Java source code and the binary executable of the program are freely available to interested users. PMID:22631565

  3. Inhibitors of testosterone biosynthetic and metabolic activation enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Leping; Su, Zhi-Jian; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3) for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5?-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and 2 (SRD5A2) in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone) and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz) and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol). This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes. PMID:22138857

  4. Potential activities of androgen metabolizing enzymes in human prostate.

    PubMed

    Krieg, M; Weisser, H; Tunn, S

    1995-06-01

    The entire androgen metabolism of the human prostate is an integral part of the DHT mediated cellular processes, which eventually give rise to the androgen responsiveness of the prostate. Therefore, the potential activities of various androgen metabolizing enzymes were studied. Moreover, the impact of aging on the androgen metabolism and the inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase by finasteride were studied. In epithelium (E) and stroma (S) of normal (NPR) and hyperplastic human prostate (BPH), for each enzyme being involved in the conversion either of testosterone via DHT, 3 alpha- and 3 beta-diol to the C19O3-triols or from testosterone to androstenedione and vice versa, the amount (Vmax) and Michaelis constant (Km) were determined by Lineweaver-Burk plots. Furthermore, Vmax/Km quotients were calculated, which served as an index for the potential enzyme activity. 17 enzymes showed a mean Vmax/Km > or = 0.10. The top four were the 5 alpha-reductases in E and S of NPR and BPH. Among those, the highest activity was found in E of NPR (1.6 +/- 0.2). Moreover, in E a significant age-dependent decrease of 5 alpha-reductase activity occurred, whereas in stroma rather constant activities were found over the whole age range. Similar age-dependent alterations were found for the cellular DHT levels. Finally, the finasteride inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase (IC50;nM) was stronger in E (35 +/- 17) than in S (126 +/- 15). In conclusion, 5 alpha-reductase is: (a) the outstanding androgen metabolizing enzyme in NPR and BPH; (b) dictating the DHT enrichment in the prostate; (c) under the impact of aging; and (d) preferentially inhibited by finasteride in E. PMID:7542902

  5. Key Building Blocks via Enzyme-Mediated Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Thomas; Pietruszka, Jrg

    Biocatalytic approaches to valuable building blocks in organic synthesis have emerged as an important tool in the last few years. While first applications were mainly based on hydrolases, other enzyme classes such as oxidoreductases or lyases moved into the focus of research. Nowadays, a vast number of biotransformations can be found in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries delivering fine chemicals or drugs. The mild reaction conditions, high stereo-, regio-, and chemoselectivities, and the often shortened reaction pathways lead to economical and ecological advantages of enzymatic conversions. Due to the enormous number of enzyme-mediated syntheses, the present chapter is not meant to be a complete review, but to deliver comprehensive insights into well established enzymatic systems and recent advances in the application of enzymes in natural product synthesis. Furthermore, it is focused on the most frequently used enzymes or enzyme classes not covered elsewhere in the present volume.

  6. Dynamic Reorganization of Metabolic Enzymes into Intracellular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    OConnell, Jeremy D.; Zhao, Alice; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Both focused and large-scale cell biological and biochemical studies have revealed that hundreds of metabolic enzymes across diverse organisms form large intracellular bodies. These proteinaceous bodies range in form from fibers and intracellular focisuch as those formed by enzymes of nitrogen and carbon utilization and of nucleotide biosynthesisto high-density packings inside bacterial microcompartments and eukaryotic microbodies. Although many enzymes clearly form functional mega-assemblies, it is not yet clear for many recently discovered cases whether they represent functional entities, storage bodies, or aggregates. In this article, we survey intracellular protein bodies formed by metabolic enzymes, asking when and why such bodies form and what their formation implies for the functionalityand dysfunctionalityof the enzymes that comprise them. The panoply of intracellular protein bodies also raises interesting questions regarding their evolution and maintenance within cells. We speculate on models for how such structures form in the first place and why they may be inevitable. PMID:23057741

  7. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes in Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, V. E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Most administered pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver, and clinically-used medication doses are given with normal liver function in mind. A drug overdose can result in the case of a liver that is damaged and removing pharmaceuticals from the circulation at a rate slower than normal. Alternatively, if liver function is elevated and removing drugs from the system more quickly than usual, it would be as if too little drug had been given for effective treatment. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism, we want to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver and exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. Additionally, it has been previous noted that pre-exposure to small radiation doses seems to confer protection against later and larger radiation doses. This protective power of pre-exposure has been called a priming effect or radioadaptation. This study is an effort to examine the drug metabolizing effects of radioadaptation mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses.

  8. Radiation Exposure Alters Expression of Metabolic Enzyme Genes In Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wotring, Virginia E.; Mangala, L. S.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, H.

    2010-01-01

    Most pharmaceuticals are metabolized by the liver. The health of the liver, especially the rate of its metabolic enzymes, determines the concentration of circulating drugs as well as the duration of their efficacy. Because of the importance of the liver in drug metabolism it is important to understand the effects of spaceflight on the enzymes of the liver. Exposure to cosmic radiation is one aspect of spaceflight that can be modeled in ground experiments. This study is an effort to examine the effects of adaptive mechanisms that may be triggered by early exposure to low radiation doses. Using procedures approved by the JSC Animal Care & Use Committee, C57 male mice were exposed to Cs-137 in groups: controls, low dose (50 mGy), high dose (6Gy) and a fourth group that received both radiation doses separated by 24 hours. Animals were anesthetized and sacrificed 4 hours after their last radiation exposure. Livers were removed immediately and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tissue was homogenized, RNA extracted and purified (Absolutely RNA, Agilent). Quality of RNA samples was evaluated (Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100). Complementary DNA was prepared from high-quality RNA samples, and used to run RT-qPCR screening arrays for DNA Repair and Drug Metabolism (SuperArray, SABiosciences/Qiagen; BioRad Cfx96 qPCR System). Of 91 drug metabolism genes examined, expression of 7 was altered by at least one treatment condition. Genes that had elevated expression include those that metabolize promethazine and steroids (4-8-fold), many that reduce oxidation products, and one that reduces heavy metal exposure (greater than 200-fold). Of the 91 DNA repair and general metabolism genes examined, expression of 14 was altered by at least one treatment condition. These gene expression changes are likely homeostatic and could lead to development of new radioprotective countermeasures.

  9. Evaluation of drug-metabolizing enzyme hydroxylation phenotypes in Hispanic populations: the CEIBA cocktail.

    PubMed

    de Andrs, Fernando; Sosa-Macas, Martha; Lazalde-Ramos, Blanca P; Naranjo, Mara Eugenia G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Llerena, Adrin

    2013-01-01

    Interindividual differences in response to drug treatments are mainly caused by differences in drug metabolism, in which cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are involved. Genetic polymorphisms of these enzymes have a key role in this variability. However, environmental factors, endogenous metabolism and disease states also have a great influence on the actual drug metabolism rate (metabolic phenotype). Consequently, the genotype does not always correlate with the actual drug hydroxylation phenotype. In this sense, in vivo phenotyping strategies represent an alternative to evaluate the interindividual variability in drug metabolism. Therefore, the 'cocktail' approach is considered as an advantageous strategy to obtain actual and reliable information on several CYP activities in just one experiment. As reviewed, phenotyping studies on Latin-American populations, which comprise about 400 million people, are scarce, and only selective phenotyping methods were applied. Therefore, a novel cocktail approach is here proposed as a phenotyping tool to evaluate the relationship between genotype and phenotype of major CYP enzymes in Hispanic populations. This determination will allow adaptation of drug therapies to these populations and consequently to benefit from the application of pharmacogenetics in the reduction of drug adverse effects and in the improvement of therapeutic responses. PMID:23787463

  10. Role of Sphingolipids and Metabolizing Enzymes in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Makoto; Okazaki, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids such as ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingomyelin have been emerging as bioactive lipids since ceramide was reported to play a role in human leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation and death. Recently, it is well-known that ceramide acts as an inducer of cell death, that sphingomyelin works as a regulator for microdomain function of the cell membrane, and that sphingosine-1-phosphate plays a role in cell survival/proliferation. The lipids are metabolized by the specific enzymes, and each metabolite could be again returned to the original form by the reverse action of the different enzyme or after a long journey of many metabolizing/synthesizing pathways. In addition, the metabolites may serve as reciprocal bio-modulators like the rheostat between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Therefore, the change of lipid amount in the cells, the subcellular localization and the downstream signal in a specific subcellular organelle should be clarified to understand the pathobiological significance of sphingolipids when extracellular stimulation induces a diverse of cell functions such as cell death, proliferation and migration. In this review, we focus on how sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes cooperatively exert their function in proliferation, migration, autophagy and death of hematopoetic cells, and discuss the way developing a novel therapeutic device through the regulation of sphingolipids for effectively inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell death in hematological malignancies such as leukemia, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma. PMID:25997737

  11. Endoribonucleases--enzymes gaining spotlight in mRNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Wai Ming; Barnes, Tavish; Lee, Chow H

    2010-02-01

    The efficient turnover of messenger RNA represents an important mechanism that allows the cell to control gene expression. Until recently, the mechanism of mRNA decay was mainly attributed to exonucleases, comprising enzymes that degrade RNAs from the ends of the molecules. This article summarizes the endoribonucleases, comprising enzymes that cleave RNA molecules internally, which were identified in more recent years in eukaryotic mRNA metabolism. Endoribonucleases have received little attention in the past, based on the difficulty in their identification and a lack of understanding of their physiological significance. This review aims to compare the similarities and differences among this group of enzymes, as well as their known cellular functions. Despite the many differences in protein structure, and thus difficulties in identifying them based on amino acid sequence, most endoribonucleases possess essential cellular functions and have been shown to play an important role in mRNA turnover. PMID:19968858

  12. Modulatory Role of Shorea robusta Bark on Glucose-metabolizing Enzymes in Diethylnitrosamine Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalaiselvan, A.; Anand, T.; Gokulakrishnan, K.; Kamaraj, M. C.; Velavan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The modulations of glucose-metabolizing enzyme activities play a vital rolein the depletion of energy metabolism and leads to inhibition of cancer growth. Objective: To find the effect of shorearobusta bark extract on glucose-metbolizing enzymes in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma rats. Materials and Methods: Biochemical evaluation of glucose metabolizing enzyme were done in before and after shorearobusta bark extract (500mg/kg) treatment in DEN induced rats. Results: A significant increasein the activities of the key glycolytic enzymes viz., hexokinase and phosphoglucoisomerase, with a significant decrease in the gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatasewere observed in HCC bearing rats, when compared with the control. Administration of shorearobusta extract caused a significant decrease in theactivities of glycolytic enzymes and an increase in the gluconeogenic enzymes activities to near normal values. Conclusion: The current findings suggest that the S. robusta extract has a definite modulating role on the key enzymes ofglucose-metabolism in HCC. The modulatory effect may be due to the phytoactive constituents present in the extract of S. robusta. SUMMARY Administration of shorea robusta bark extract caused a significant decrease in the activities of glycolytic enzymes and an increase in the gluconeogenic enzymes activities to near normal values. The S. robusta extract has modulatory activity on the carbohydrate metabolism in DEN-induced HCC bearing rats through a mechanism that which does not provoke any acute biochemical disturbances in the metabolic pathways of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. The modulatory effect of S. robusta extract may be attributed to the presence of active compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids. Abbreviations used: HCC: Hepatocellular Carcinoma, SRBE: Shorearobusta bark extract; HEX: Hexokinase; PGI: Phosphoglucoisomerase; DEN: Diethylnitrosamine. PMID:26929587

  13. The effect of enzyme induction on diazepam metabolism in man.

    PubMed Central

    Ohnhaus, E E; Park, B K; Colombo, J P; Heizmann, P

    1979-01-01

    1 The elimination and metabolism of diazepam in man was investigated following the induction of the liver microsomal enzyme system by antipyrine. 2 Seven healthy volunteers were given 1200 mg antipyrine as an inducing agent for a period of 14 days. Before and after the induction period the elimination of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam was measured in the plasma by gaschromatography. As parameters of liver microsomal enzyme activity, antipyrine elimination and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase in the plasma, D-glucaric acid and 6-beta-hydroxycortisol urinary excretion were measured on both occasions. 3 Following the induction period most parameters of microsomal enzyme activity measured were significantly changed indicating an increase of the microsomal enzyme system. The elimination of diazepam was significantly altered having a half-life of 37 h before and 18 h afterwards combined with a significant increase in total body clearance after the induction period, although the volume of distribution remained unaltered. The formation of the main metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam was not changed, but its elimination was increased having a half-life of 139 or 58 h respectively. 4 The elimination of unchanged diazepam and desmethyldiazepam is significantly increased by the induction of the liver microsomal enzyme system using antipyrine as an inducing agent in healthy volunteers, which might be important under certain clinical conditions. PMID:42427

  14. CYP450 Enzyme-Mediated Metabolism of TCAS and Its Inhibitory and Induced Effects on Metabolized Enzymes in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guolin; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Lili; Li, Lei; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Haishan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the enzymes catalyzing the phase I metabolism of thiacalixarene (TCAS) based on in vitro system including cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes, human liver microsomes plus inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. In addition, the inhibitory potential of TCAS on major CYP450 drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) was assessed. The results showed that CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 mediated TCAS hydroxylation. IC50 values for TCAS in rat and human liver microsomes were greater than 50 M, and it demonstrated a weak inhibition of rat and human CYP450 enzymes. Finally, sandwiched hepatocytes were used to evaluate the induction of CYP1A and CYP3A to define the function of TCAS in vivo. The results showed that incubation of TCAS at different concentrations for 72 h failed to induce CYP1A and CYP3A. However, incubation of the cells with 50 and 100 M TCAS caused a profound decrease in the activities of CYP1A and CYP3A, which was probably due to cytotoxic effects, suggesting that exposure to TCAS might be a health concern. PMID:26404338

  15. CYP450 Enzyme-Mediated Metabolism of TCAS and Its Inhibitory and Induced Effects on Metabolized Enzymes in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guolin; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, Lili; Li, Lei; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the enzymes catalyzing the phase?metabolism of thiacalixarene (TCAS) based on in vitro system including cDNA-expressed P450 enzymes, human liver microsomes plus inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. In addition, the inhibitory potential of TCAS on major CYP450 drug metabolizing enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) was assessed. The results showed that CYP1A2 and CYP2C9 mediated TCAS hydroxylation. IC50 values for TCAS in rat and human liver microsomes were greater than 50 M, and it demonstrated a weak inhibition of rat and human CYP450 enzymes. Finally, sandwiched hepatocytes were used to evaluate the induction of CYP1A and CYP3A to define the function of TCAS in vivo. The results showed that incubation of TCAS at different concentrations for 72 h failed to induce CYP1A and CYP3A. However, incubation of the cells with 50 and 100 M TCAS caused a profound decrease in the activities of CYP1A and CYP3A, which was probably due to cytotoxic effects, suggesting that exposure to TCAS might be a health concern. PMID:26404338

  16. The transferome of metabolic genes explored: analysis of the horizontal transfer of enzyme encoding genes in unicellular eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, John W; McConkey, Glenn A; Westhead, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background Metabolic networks are responsible for many essential cellular processes, and exhibit a high level of evolutionary conservation from bacteria to eukaryotes. If genes encoding metabolic enzymes are horizontally transferred and are advantageous, they are likely to become fixed. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a key role in prokaryotic evolution and its importance in eukaryotes is increasingly evident. High levels of endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) accompanied the establishment of plastids and mitochondria, and more recent events have allowed further acquisition of bacterial genes. Here, we present the first comprehensive multi-species analysis of E/HGT of genes encoding metabolic enzymes from bacteria to unicellular eukaryotes. Results The phylogenetic trees of 2,257 metabolic enzymes were used to make E/HGT assertions in ten groups of unicellular eukaryotes, revealing the sources and metabolic processes of the transferred genes. Analyses revealed a preference for enzymes encoded by genes gained through horizontal and endosymbiotic transfers to be connected in the metabolic network. Enrichment in particular functional classes was particularly revealing: alongside plastid related processes and carbohydrate metabolism, this highlighted a number of pathways in eukaryotic parasites that are rich in enzymes encoded by transferred genes, and potentially key to pathogenicity. The plant parasites Phytophthora were discovered to have a potential pathway for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis of E/HGT origin not seen before in eukaryotes outside the Plantae. Conclusions The number of enzymes encoded by genes gained through E/HGT has been established, providing insight into functional gain during the evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. In eukaryotic parasites, genes encoding enzymes that have been gained through horizontal transfer may be attractive drug targets if they are part of processes not present in the host, or are significantly diverged from equivalent host enzymes. PMID:19368726

  17. Targeting drug-metabolizing enzymes for effective chemoprevention and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Hollie I; Njar, Vincent C O; Yu, Zhen; Castro, David J; Gonzalez, Frank J; Williams, David E; Huang, Ying; Kong, Ah-Ng T; Doloff, Joshua C; Ma, Jie; Waxman, David J; Scott, Emily E

    2010-04-01

    The primary focus of chemoprevention research is the prevention of cancer using pharmacological, biological, and nutritional interventions. Chemotherapeutic approaches that have been used successfully for both the prevention and treatment of a number of human malignancies have arisen from the identification of specific agents and appropriate molecular targets. Although drug-metabolizing enzymes have historically been targeted in attempts to block the initial, genotoxic events associated with the carcinogenic process, emerging evidence supports the idea that manipulating drug-metabolizing enzymes may also be an effective strategy to be used for treating tumor progression, invasion, and, perhaps, metastasis. This report summarizes a symposium that presents some recent progress in this area. One area of emphasis is the development of a CYP17 inhibitor for treatment of prostate cancer that may also have androgen-independent anticancer activity at higher concentrations. A second focus is the use of a mouse model to investigate the effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and Cyp1b1 status and chemopreventative agents on transplacental cancer. A third area of focus is the phytochemical manipulation of not only cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes but also phase II inflammatory and antioxidant enzymes via the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway to block tumor progression. A final highlight is the use of prodrugs activated by P450 enzymes to halt tumor growth and considerations of dosing schedule and targeted delivery of the P450 transgene to tumor tissue. In addition to highlighting recent successes in these areas, limitations and areas that should be targeted for further investigation are discussed. PMID:20233842

  18. Induction of Lipid Metabolic Enzymes during the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Karin J.; Su, Pei; Brglez, Irena; Boss, Wendy F.; Dewey, Ralph E.; Boston, Rebecca S.

    2001-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a signal transduction pathway activated by the perturbation of normal ER metabolism. We used the maize (Zea mays) floury-2 (fl2) mutant and soybean (Glycine max) suspension cultures treated with tunicamycin (Tm) to investigate the ER stress response as it relates to phospholipid metabolism in plants. Four key phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes, including DG kinase and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-phosphate 5-kinase were up-regulated in the fl2 mutant, specifically in protein body fractions where the mutation has its greatest effect. The third up-regulated enzyme, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, was regulated by fl2 gene dosage and developmental signals. Elevated accumulation of the fourth enzyme, PI 4-kinase, was observed in the fl2 endosperm and soybean cells treated with Tm. The activation of these phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes was accompanied by alterations in membrane lipid synthesis and accumulation. The fl2 mutant exhibited increased PI content in protein body membranes at 18 d after pollination and more than 3-fold higher triacylglycerol accumulation in the endosperm by 36 d after pollination. Incorporation of radiolabeled acetate into phospholipids in soybean culture cells increased by about 30% with Tm treatment. The coordinated regulation of ER stress related proteins and multiple components of phospholipid biosynthesis is consistent with signaling through a common pathway. We postulate that the plant ER stress response has an important role in general plant metabolism, and more specifically in integrating the synthesis of protein and lipid reserves to allow proper seed formation. PMID:11351090

  19. In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D. )

    1990-08-01

    Low-dose continuous infusions of (2H5)phenylalanine, (1-13C)propionate, and (1-13C)leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD.

  20. Altered drug metabolism during pregnancy: Hormonal regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2013-01-01

    Importance of the field Medication use during pregnancy is prevalent, but pharmacokinetic information of most drugs used during pregnancy is lacking in spite of known effects of pregnancy on drug disposition. Accurate pharmacokinetic information is essential for optimal drug therapy in mother and fetus. Thus, understanding how pregnancy influences drug disposition is important for better prediction of pharmacokinetic changes of drugs in pregnant women. Areas covered in this review Pregnancy is known to affect hepatic drug metabolism, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Physiological changes accompanying pregnancy are likely responsible for the reported alteration in drug metabolism during pregnancy. These include elevated concentrations of various hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, placental growth hormones and prolactin. This review covers how these hormones influence expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, thus potentially responsible for altered drug metabolism during pregnancy. What the reader will gain The reader will gain a greater understanding of the altered drug metabolism in pregnant women and the regulatory effects of pregnancy hormones on expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Take home message In-depth studies in hormonal regulatory mechanisms as well as confirmatory studies in pregnant women are warranted for systematic understanding and prediction of the changes in hepatic drug metabolism during pregnancy. PMID:20367533

  1. Alteration of drug metabolizing enzymes in sulphite oxidase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tutuncu, Begum; Kuukatay, Vural; Arslan, Sevki; Sahin, Barbaros; Semiz, Asli; Sen, Alaattin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of sulphite oxidase (SOX, E.C. 1.8.3.1) deficiency on xenobiotic metabolism. For this purpose, SOX deficiency was produced in rats by the administration of a low molybdenum diet with concurrent addition of 200ppm tungsten to their drinking water. First, hepatic SOX activity in deficient groups was measured to confirm SOX deficiency. Then, aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline 4-hydroxylase, aromatase, caffeine N-demethylase, cytochrome b5 reductase, erythromycin N-demethylase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, glutathione S-transferase, N-nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylase and penthoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities were determined to follow changes in the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes in SOX-deficient rats. Our results clearly demonstrated that SOX deficiency significantly elevated A4H, caffeine N-demethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase and N-nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylase activities while decreasing ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aromatase activities. These alterations in drug metabolizing enzymes can contribute to the varying susceptibility and response of sulphite-sensitive individuals to different drugs and/or therapeutics used for treatments. PMID:22798713

  2. Regulation of amino acid metabolic enzymes and transporters in plants.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Réjane; Pilot, Guillaume

    2014-10-01

    Amino acids play several critical roles in plants, from providing the building blocks of proteins to being essential metabolites interacting with many branches of metabolism. They are also important molecules that shuttle organic nitrogen through the plant. Because of this central role in nitrogen metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis, degradation, and transport are tightly regulated to meet demand in response to nitrogen and carbon availability. While much is known about the feedback regulation of the branched biosynthesis pathways by the amino acids themselves, the regulation mechanisms at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and protein levels remain to be identified. This review focuses mainly on the current state of our understanding of the regulation of the enzymes and transporters at the transcript level. Current results describing the effect of transcription factors and protein modifications lead to a fragmental picture that hints at multiple, complex levels of regulation that control and coordinate transport and enzyme activities. It also appears that amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, and stress signal integration can influence each other in a so-far unpredictable fashion. PMID:25114014

  3. PFK1 Glycosylation Is a Key Regulator of Cancer Cell Growth and Central Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wen; Clark, Peter M.; Mason, Daniel E.; Keenan, Marie C.; Hill, Collin; Goddard, William A.; Peters, Eric C.; Driggers, Edward M.; Hsieh-Wilson, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells need to meet the metabolic demands of rapid cell growth within a continually changing microenvironment. Genetic mechanisms for reprogramming cellular metabolism toward proliferative, pro-survival pathways are well-reported. However, post-translational mechanisms, which would enable more rapid, reversible adaptations of cellular metabolism in response to protein signaling or environmental sensing systems, are less well understood. Here we demonstrate that the post-translational modification O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is a key metabolic regulator of glucose metabolism. O-GlcNAc is dynamically induced at Ser529 of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) in response to hypoxia. Glycosylation inhibits PFK1 activity and redirects the flux of glucose from glycolysis through the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), thereby conferring a selective growth advantage to cancer cells. Blocking glycosylation of PFK1 at Ser529 reduced cancer cell proliferation in vitro and impaired tumor formation in vivo. These studies reveal an unexpected mechanism for the regulation of metabolic enzymes and pathways, and pinpoint a new therapeutic approach for combating cancer. PMID:22923583

  4. Enzymes of yeast polyphosphate metabolism: structure, enzymology and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Gerasimaitė, Rūta; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-02-15

    Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is found in all living organisms. The known polyP functions in eukaryotes range from osmoregulation and virulence in parasitic protozoa to modulating blood coagulation, inflammation, bone mineralization and cellular signalling in mammals. However mechanisms of regulation and even the identity of involved proteins in many cases remain obscure. Most of the insights obtained so far stem from studies in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we provide a short overview of the properties and functions of known yeast polyP metabolism enzymes and discuss future directions for polyP research. PMID:26862210

  5. Prolyl 4-hydroxylases, the key enzymes of collagen biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Myllyharju, Johanna

    2003-03-01

    The collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases (P4Hs), enzymes residing within the endoplasmic reticulum, have a central role in the biosynthesis of collagens. In addition, cytoplasmic P4Hs play a critical role in the regulation of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIFalpha. Collagen and HIF P4Hs constitute enzyme families as several isoenzymes have been identified. Two catalytic alpha subunit isoforms have been cloned and characterized for collagen P4Hs from vertebrates, both of them assembling into alpha(2)beta(2) P4H tetramers in which protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) acts as the beta subunit. The catalytic properties of the two isoenzymes are very similar, but distinct differences are found in the binding properties of peptide substrates and inhibitors, and major differences are seen in the expression patterns of the isoenzymes. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has five P4H alpha subunit isoforms, PHY1-PHY5. The C. elegans PHY1 and PHY2, together with PDI, are expressed in the collagen synthesizing hypodermal cells and three P4H forms are assembled from them, a PHY-1/PHY-2/PDI(2) mixed tetramer and PHY-1/PDI and PHY-2/PDI dimers. The mixed tetramer is the main P4H form in wild-type C. elegans. PHY-3 is much shorter than PHY-1 and PHY-2, has a unique expression pattern, and is most likely involved in the synthesis of collagens in early embryos. The genome of Drosophila melanogaster contains approximately 20 P4H alpha subunit-related genes, and that of Arabidopsis thaliana six. One A. thaliana P4H has been cloned and shown to be a soluble monomer with several unexpected properties. It effectively hydroxylates poly(L-proline), (Pro-Pro-Gly)(10) and many other proline-containing peptides. PMID:12714038

  6. Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes in US Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Duconge, Jorge; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2015-01-01

    Although the Hispanic population is continuously growing in the United States, they are underrepresented in pharmacogenetic studies. This review addresses the need for compiling available pharmacogenetic data in US Hispanics, discussing the prevalence of clinically relevant polymorphisms in pharmacogenes encoding for drug-metabolizing enzymes. CYP3A5*3 (0.245–0.867) showed the largest frequency in a US Hispanic population. A higher prevalence of CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*4, and UGT2B7 IVS1+985 A>Gwas observed in US Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic populations. We found interethnic and intraethnic variability in frequencies of genetic polymorphisms for metabolizing enzymes, which highlights the need to define the ancestries of participants in pharmacogenetic studies. New approaches should be integrated in experimental designs to gain knowledge about the clinical relevance of the unique combination of genetic variants occurring in this admixed population. Ethnic subgroups in the US Hispanic population may harbor variants that might be part of multiple causative loci or in linkage-disequilibrium with functional variants. Pharmacogenetic studies in Hispanics should not be limited to ascertain commonly studied polymorphisms that were originally identified in their parental populations. The success of the Personalized Medicine paradigm will depend on recognizing genetic diversity between and within US Hispanics and the uniqueness of their genetic backgrounds. PMID:25431893

  7. Enzymes metabolizing delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Herzfeld, A; Mezl, V A; Knox, W E

    1977-01-01

    The direction and capacity for the metabolism of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate in a number of rat tissues ere investigated by measuring the activities of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase and proline oxidase. Each of these enzymes catalyzed unidirectional reactions in which delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate was either the substrate or product. Delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase activities that were much higher than any previously reported were obtained by avoiding its inactivation in the cold. delta1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, previously said to act on both D- and L-isomers of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, acted only on the L-isomer. Proline oxidase could not be measured in two adult tissues, in which an inhibitor appeared after birth. The activity of delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase significantly paralleled that of ornithine aminotransferase in 23 tissues, showing a widespread potential for proline synthesis from ornithine. An independently distributed potential in fewer tissues for proline degradation to alpha-oxoglutarate was shown by the significantly similar tissue distributions of proline oxidase. Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase and glutamate dehydrogenase. Reverse metabolism of glutamate or proline to ornithine would be atypical in rat tissues with these distributions of unidirectional enzyme reactions. PMID:901423

  8. The effect of polymorphic metabolism enzymes on serum phenytoin level.

    PubMed

    Ozkaynakci, Aydan; Gulcebi, Medine Idrizoglu; Erge, Deniz; Ulucan, Korkut; Uzan, Mustafa; Ozkara, Cigdem; Guney, Ilter; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz

    2015-03-01

    Phenytoin has a widespread use in epilepsy treatment and is mainly metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP). We have investigated CYP2C9*2, CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 allelic variants in a Turkish population of patients on phenytoin therapy. Patients on phenytoin therapy (n = 102) for the prevention of epileptic seizures were included. Polymorphic alleles were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Serum concentrations of phenytoin were measured by fluorescence polarization immune assay method. The most frequent genotype was detected for CYP2C9 wild-type alleles (78.43 %), whereas CYP2C19*2/*2 (5.88 %) was the least frequent genotype group. According to the classification made with both enzyme polymorphisms, CYP2C9*1/*1-CYP2C19*1/*1 (G1: 41.17 %) genotype group was the most frequent whereas CYP2C9*1/*2-CYP2C19*1/*3 (G7: 0.98 %) was the least frequent one. The highest mean phenytoin level (27.95 1.85 g/ml) was detected in the G8 genotype group (CYP2C9*1/*3-CYP2C19*2/*3) and the G1 genotype group showed the lowest mean phenytoin level (7.43 0.73 g/ml). The mean serum concentration of phenytoin of the polymorphic patients with epilepsy was higher than that for the wild-type alleles both in the monotherapy and polytherapy patients. These results show the importance of the genetic polymorphism analysis of the main metabolizing enzyme groups of phenytoin for the dose adjustment. PMID:25311916

  9. Interplay of metabolizing enzymes and transporter of xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hwee Ying; Ho, Qin Shi; Wong, Kim Ping

    2016-01-01

    1.?Xenobiotics are metabolized and eliminated through the coordinated interplay of their metabolizing enzymes and transporters. However, these two activities in vitro are measured separately, with the addition of ATP as a pre-requisite. 2.?We propose a human renal cell-line model which integrates the sulfate and glutathione conjugation of xenobiotics with the efflux of their respective conjugates. Sulfation and glutathionylation represent two major Phase II detoxification of xenobiotics in man. The reactions are catalyzed, respectively, by phenolsulfotransferase and glutathione-S-transferase followed by extrusion of their respective conjugates. 3.?Using Ko-143, a specific inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, we identified this transporter to be responsible for the efflux of p-cresol sulfate, harmol sulfate and the glutathione conjugate of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. 4.?The conjugation-cum-efflux was inhibited by oligomycin and uncouplers, which highlights the role of cellular mitochondria in providing ATP for the biosynthesis of their conjugating agents, 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) and reduced glutathione as well as for the transport function of BCRP. 5.?The human 786-O renal cell-line provides a "3-in-1" system linking ATP biosynthesis to metabolism of xenobiotics and their ultimate transport and elimination by BCRP; this integrated system was not apparent in other human cell-lines examined. PMID:26226519

  10. Enzyme Regulation in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Photosynthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Steven W.; Buchanan, Bob B.

    1983-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (SBPase) were identified and purified from the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, Kalancho daigremontiana. FBPase and SBPase showed respective molecular weights of 180,000 and 76,000, and exhibited immunological cross-reactivity with their counterparts from chloroplasts of C3 (spinach) and C4 (corn) plants. Based on Western blot analysis, FBPase was composed of four identical 45,000-dalton subunits and SBPase of two identical 38,000-dalton subunits. Immunological evidence, together with physical properties, indicated that both enzymes were of chloroplast origin. Kalancho FBPase and SBPase could be activated by thioredoxin f reduced chemically by dithiothreitol or photochemically by a reconstituted Kalancho ferredoxin/thioredoxin system. Both enzymes were activated synergistically by reduced thioredoxin f and thier respective substrates. Kalancho FBPase could be partially activated by Mg2+ at concentrations greater than 10 millimolar; however, such activation was considerably less than that observed in the presence of reduced thioredoxin and Ca2+, especially in the pH range between 7.8 and 8.3. In contrast to FBPase, Kalancho SBPase exhibited an absolute requirement for a dithiol such as reduced thioredoxin irrespective of Mg2+ concentration. However, like FBPase, increased Mg2+ concentrations enhanced the thioredoxin-linked activation of this enzyme. In conjunction with these studies, an NADP-linked malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) was identified in cell-free preparations of Kalancho leaves which required reduced thioredoxin m for activity. These results indicate that Kalancho FBPase, SBPase, and NADP-MDH share physical and regulatory properties with their equivalents in C3 and C4 plants. In contrast to previous evidence, all three enzymes appear to have the capacity to be photoregulated in chloroplasts of CAM plants, thereby providing a means for the functional segregation of glucan synthesis and degradation. Images Fig. 2 PMID:16663102

  11. Fermentation, Respiration & Enzyme Specificity: A Simple Device & Key Experiments with Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinking, Larry N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using graphs and diagrams, the authors describe a simple fermentation chamber and provide key experiments that can be used in the classroom to give students meaningful insight into metabolic processes. (ZWH)

  12. Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Activity During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Activities of drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) are known to change throughout the course of physical and sexual maturation with the greatest variability noted during infancy and adolescence. The mechanisms responsible for developmental regulation of DME are currently unknown. However, the hormonal changes of puberty/adolescence provide a theoretical framework for understanding biochemical regulation of DME activity during growth and maturation. Important information regarding potential influences of growth and sex hormones can also be extrapolated from studies evaluating changes in activities of DMEs occurring as a consequence of physiologic, pathologic and/or pharmacologic hormonal fluctuations. Collectively, current data support the hypothesis that isoform-specific alterations in DME activity during adolescence are mediated via sex and/or growth hormones. Characterization of the underlying biochemical alterations responsible for developmental changes in DME activity will require additional studies in which relationships between DME and important hormonal axes are evaluated during the course of pubertal development. PMID:18971926

  13. Something Old, Something New: Conserved Enzymes and the Evolution of Novelty in Plant Specialized Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Moghe, Gaurav D; Last, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Plants produce hundreds of thousands of small molecules known as specialized metabolites, many of which are of economic and ecological importance. This remarkable variety is a consequence of the diversity and rapid evolution of specialized metabolic pathways. These novel biosynthetic pathways originate via gene duplication or by functional divergence of existing genes, and they subsequently evolve through selection and/or drift. Studies over the past two decades revealed that diverse specialized metabolic pathways have resulted from the incorporation of primary metabolic enzymes. We discuss examples of enzyme recruitment from primary metabolism and the variety of paths taken by duplicated primary metabolic enzymes toward integration into specialized metabolism. These examples provide insight into processes by which plant specialized metabolic pathways evolve and suggest approaches to discover enzymes of previously uncharacterized metabolic networks. PMID:26276843

  14. Maternal Smoking, Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Variants, and Gastroschisis Risk

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Mary M.; Reefhuis, Jennita; Gallagher, Margaret L.; Mulle, Jennifer G.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Koontz, Deborah A.; Sturchio, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Witte, John S.; Richter, Patricia; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is one proposed risk factor for gastroschisis, but reported associations have been modest, suggesting that differences in genetic susceptibility might play a role. We included 108 non-Hispanic white and 62 Hispanic families who had infants with gastroschisis, and 1147 non-Hispanic white and 337 Hispanic families who had liveborn infants with no major structural birth defects (controls) in these analyses. DNA was extracted from buccal cells collected from infants and mothers, and information on periconceptional smoking history was obtained from maternal interviews, as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We analyzed five polymorphisms in three genes that code for enzymes involved in metabolism of some cigarette smoke constituents (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and NAT2). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) independently for maternal smoking and maternal and infant gene variants, and to assess joint associations of maternal smoking and maternal or infant gene variants with gastroschisis. In analyses adjusted for maternal age at delivery and stratified by maternal race-ethnicity, we identified three suggestive associations among 30 potential associations with sufficient numbers to calculate ORs: CYP1A1*2A for non-Hispanic white mothers who smoked periconceptionally (aOR=0.38, 95% CI 0.15-0.98), and NAT2*6 for Hispanic non-smoking mothers (aOR=2.17, 95% CI 1.12-4.19) and their infants (aOR=2.11, 95% CI 1.00-4.48). This analysis does not support the occurrence of effect modification between periconceptional maternal smoking and most of the xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme gene variants assessed. PMID:24668907

  15. Enzyme databases.

    PubMed

    Schomburg, Dietmar; Schomburg, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes are catalysts for the chemical reactions in the metabolism of all organisms and play a key role in the regulation of metabolic steps within the cells, as drug targets, and in a wide range of biotechnological applications. With respect to reaction type, they are grouped into six classes, namely oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, and ligases. EC-Numbers are assigned by the IUBMB. Enzyme functional databases cover a wide range of properties and functions, such as occurrence, kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, structure, or metabolic function. BRENDA stores a large variety of different data for all classified enzymes whereas KEGG, MEROPS, MetaCyc, REBASE, CAzy, ESTHER, PeroxiBase, and KinBase specialize in either certain aspects of enzyme function or specific enzyme classes, organisms, or metabolic pathways. Databases covering enzyme nomenclature are ExplorEnz, SIB-ENZYME, and IntEnz. PMID:20221916

  16. Enzyme Regulation in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Photosynthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Steven W.; Buchanan, Bob B.

    1983-01-01

    Cell-free preparations of the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant, Kalancho daigremontiana, were analyzed for thioredoxins and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase. Three distinct forms of thioredoxin were identified in Kalancho leaves, two of which specifically activated fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (designated f1 and f2) and a third which activated NADP-malate dehydrogenase (thioredoxin m). The apparent molecular weight of both forms of thioredoxin f was 11,000 and that of thioredoxin m was 10,000. In parallel studies, ferredoxin and ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase were purified from Kalancho leaf preparations. Kalancho ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase was similar to that of C3 and C4 plants in molecular weight (31,000) and immunological cross-reactivity. Kalancho ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase exhibited an affinity for ferredoxin as demonstrated by its binding to an immobilized ferredoxin affinity column. The purified components of the Kalancho ferredoxin-thioredoxin system could be recombined to function in the photoregulation of chloroplast enzymes. The data suggest that the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system plays a role in enzyme regulation of all higher plants irrespective of whether they show C3, C4, or CAM photosynthesis. PMID:16663101

  17. Mercaptosuccinate Dioxygenase, a Cysteine Dioxygenase Homologue, from Variovorax paradoxus Strain B4 Is the Key Enzyme of Mercaptosuccinate Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Ulrike; Schrmann, Marc; Steinbchel, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The versatile thiol mercaptosuccinate has a wide range of applications, e.g. in quantum dot research or in bioimaging. Its metabolism is investigated in Variovorax paradoxus strain B4, which can utilize this compound as the sole source of carbon and sulfur. Proteomic studies of strain B4 resulted in the identification of a putative mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase, a cysteine dioxygenase homologue, possibly representing the key enzyme in the degradation of mercaptosuccinate. Therefore, the putative mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase was heterologously expressed, purified, and characterized in this study. The results clearly demonstrated that the enzyme utilizes mercaptosuccinate with concomitant consumption of oxygen. Thus, the enzyme is designated as mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase. Succinate and sulfite were verified as the final reaction products. The enzyme showed an apparent Km of 0.4 mm, and a specific activity (Vmax) of 20.0 ?mol min?1 mg?1 corresponding to a kcat of 7.7 s?1. Furthermore, the enzyme was highly specific for mercaptosuccinate, no activity was observed with cysteine, dithiothreitol, 2-mercaptoethanol, and 3-mercaptopropionate. These structurally related thiols did not have an inhibitory effect either. Fe(II) could clearly be identified as metal cofactor of the mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase with a content of 0.6 mol of Fe(II)/mol of enzyme. The recently proposed hypothesis for the degradation pathway of mercaptosuccinate based on proteome analyses could be strengthened in the present study. (i) Mercaptosuccinate is first converted to sulfinosuccinate by this mercaptosuccinate dioxygenase; (ii) sulfinosuccinate is spontaneously desulfinated to succinate and sulfite; and (iii) whereas succinate enters the central metabolism, sulfite is detoxified by the previously identified putative molybdopterin oxidoreductase. PMID:25228698

  18. Comprehensive Structural Characterization of the Bacterial Homospermidine Synthase–an Essential Enzyme of the Polyamine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Krossa, Sebastian; Faust, Annette; Ober, Dietrich; Scheidig, Axel J.

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved bacterial homospermidine synthase (HSS) is a key enzyme of the polyamine metabolism of many proteobacteria including pathogenic strains such as Legionella pneumophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; The unique usage of NAD(H) as a prosthetic group is a common feature of bacterial HSS, eukaryotic HSS and deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS). The structure of the bacterial enzyme does not possess a lysine residue in the active center and thus does not form an enzyme-substrate Schiff base intermediate as observed for the DHS. In contrast to the DHS the active site is not formed by the interface of two subunits but resides within one subunit of the bacterial HSS. Crystal structures of Blastochloris viridis HSS (BvHSS) reveal two distinct substrate binding sites, one of which is highly specific for putrescine. BvHSS features a side pocket in the direct vicinity of the active site formed by conserved amino acids and a potential substrate discrimination, guiding, and sensing mechanism. The proposed reaction steps for the catalysis of BvHSS emphasize cation-π interaction through a conserved Trp residue as a key stabilizer of high energetic transition states. PMID:26776105

  19. Characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in bovine small intestinal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Virkel, G; Carletti, M; Cantiello, M; Della Donna, L; Gardini, G; Girolami, F; Nebbia, C

    2010-06-01

    The intestinal mucosa plays a capital role in dictating the bioavailability of a large array of orally ingested drugs and toxicants. The activity and the expression of several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes were measured in subcellular fractions from the duodenal mucosa of male veal calves and beef cattle displaying a functional rumen but differing in both age (about 8 months vs. 18 to 24 months) and dietary regimens (i.e., milk replacer plus hay and straw vs. corn and concentrated meal). Intestinal microsomes showed cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B, 2C- and 3A-mediated activities and the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins, but no proof of CYP1A expression and/or functions could be provided. Intestinal microsomes were also active in performing reactions typically mediated by carboxylesterases (indophenylacetate hydrolysis), flavin-containing monooxygenases (methimazole S-oxidation), and uridindiphosphoglucuronyltransferases (1-naphthol glucuronidation), respectively. Cytosolic fractions displayed the glutathione S-transferase (GST)-dependent conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene; besides, the GST-mediated conjugation of ethacrinic acid (GSTpi) or cumene hydroperoxide (GSTalpha) was matched by the presence of the corresponding immunorelated proteins. Conversely, despite the lack of measurable activity with 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene, a protein cross reacting with anti-rat GSTmu antibodies could be clearly detected. Although, as detected by densitometry, CYPs and GST isoenzymes tended to be more expressed in beef cattle than in veal calf preparations, there was a general poor correlation with the rate of the in vitro metabolism of the selected diagnostic probes. PMID:20557447

  20. Life-history evolution and the microevolution of intermediary metabolism: activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in life-history morphs of a wing-dimorphic cricket.

    PubMed

    Zera, Anthony J; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2003-03-01

    Although a considerable amount of information is available on the ecology, genetics, and physiology of life-history traits, much more limited data are available on the biochemical and genetic correlates of life-history variation within species. Specific activities of five enzymes of lipid biosynthesis and two enzymes of amino acid catabolism were compared among lines selected for flight-capable (LW[f]) versus flightless (SW) morphs of the cricket Gryllus firmus. These morphs, which exist in natural populations, differ genetically in ovarian growth (100-400% higher in SW) and aspects of flight capability including the size of wings and flight muscles, and the concentration of triglyceride flight fuel (40% greater in LW[f]). Consistently higher activity of each enzyme in LW(f) versus SW-selected lines, and strong co-segregation between morph and enzyme activity, demonstrated genetically based co-variance between wing morph and enzyme activity. Developmental profiles of enzyme activities strongly paralleled profiles of triglyceride accumulation during adulthood and previous measures of in vivo lipid biosynthesis. These data strongly imply that genetically based elevation in activities of lipogenic enzymes, and enzymes controlling the conversion of amino acids into lipids, is an important cause underlying the elevated accumulation of triglyceride in the LW(f) morph, a key biochemical component of the trade-off between elevated early fecundity and flight capability. Global changes in lipid and amino-acid metabolism appear to have resulted from microevolutionary alteration of regulators of metabolism. Finally, strong genotype x environment (diet) interactions were observed for most enzyme activities. Future progress in understanding the functional causes of life-history evolution requires a more detailed synthesis of the fields of life-history evolution and metabolic biochemistry. Wing polymorphism is a powerful experimental model in such integrative studies. PMID:12703948

  1. Effect of Chromium(VI) Toxicity on Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism in Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sangwan, Punesh; Joshi, U. N.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are the intrinsic component of the environment with both essential and nonessential types. Their excessive levels pose a threat to plant growth and yield. Also, some heavy metals are toxic to plants even at very low concentrations. The present investigation (a pot experiment) was conducted to determine the affects of varying chromium(VI) levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg chromium(VI) kg−1 soil in the form of potassium dichromate) on the key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in clusterbean. Chromium treatment adversely affect nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate dehydrogenase in various plant organs at different growth stages as specific enzyme activity of these enzymes decreased with an increase in chromium(VI) levels from 0 to 2.0 mg chromium(VI) kg−1 soil and 4.0 mg chromium(VI) kg−1 soil was found to be lethal to clusterbean plants. In general, the enzyme activity increased with advancement of growth to reach maximum at flowering stage and thereafter decreased at grain filling stage. PMID:24744916

  2. Effect of Chromium(VI) Toxicity on Enzymes of Nitrogen Metabolism in Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.).

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Punesh; Kumar, Vinod; Joshi, U N

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are the intrinsic component of the environment with both essential and nonessential types. Their excessive levels pose a threat to plant growth and yield. Also, some heavy metals are toxic to plants even at very low concentrations. The present investigation (a pot experiment) was conducted to determine the affects of varying chromium(VI) levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg chromium(VI) kg(-1) soil in the form of potassium dichromate) on the key enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in clusterbean. Chromium treatment adversely affect nitrogenase, nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate dehydrogenase in various plant organs at different growth stages as specific enzyme activity of these enzymes decreased with an increase in chromium(VI) levels from 0 to 2.0 mg chromium(VI) kg(-1) soil and 4.0 mg chromium(VI) kg(-1) soil was found to be lethal to clusterbean plants. In general, the enzyme activity increased with advancement of growth to reach maximum at flowering stage and thereafter decreased at grain filling stage. PMID:24744916

  3. Effects of gas periodic stimulation on key enzyme activity in gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation (GDD-SSF).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongzhang; Shao, Meixue; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-03-01

    The heat and mass transfer have been proved to be the important factors in air pressure pulsation for cellulase production. However, as process of enzyme secretion, the cellulase formation has not been studied in the view of microorganism metabolism and metabolic key enzyme activity under air pressure pulsation condition. Two fermentation methods in ATPase activity, cellulase productivity, weight lose rate and membrane permeability were systematically compared. Results indicated that gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation had no obviously effect on cell membrane permeability. However, the relation between ATPase activity and weight loss rate was linearly dependent with r=0.9784. Meanwhile, the results also implied that gas periodic stimulation had apparently strengthened microbial metabolism through increasing ATPase activity during gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation, resulting in motivating the production of cellulase by Trichoderma reesei YG3. Therefore, the increase of ATPase activity would be another crucial factor to strengthen fermentation process for cellulase production under gas double-dynamic solid state fermentation. PMID:24564900

  4. Evidence for key enzymatic controls on metabolism of Arctic river organic matter.

    PubMed

    Mann, Paul J; Sobczak, William V; Larue, Madeleine M; Bulygina, Ekaterina; Davydova, Anna; Vonk, Jorien E; Schade, John; Davydov, Sergei; Zimov, Nikita; Holmes, Robert M; Spencer, Robert G M

    2014-04-01

    Permafrost thaw in the Arctic driven by climate change is mobilizing ancient terrigenous organic carbon (OC) into fluvial networks. Understanding the controls on metabolism of this OC is imperative for assessing its role with respect to climate feedbacks. In this study, we examined the effect of inorganic nutrient supply and dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition on aquatic extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) in waters draining the Kolyma River Basin (Siberia), including permafrost-derived OC. Reducing the phenolic content of the DOM pool resulted in dramatic increases in hydrolase EEAs (e.g., phosphatase activity increased >28-fold) supporting the idea that high concentrations of polyphenolic compounds in DOM (e.g., plant structural tissues) inhibit enzyme synthesis or activity, limiting OC degradation. EEAs were significantly more responsive to inorganic nutrient additions only after phenolic inhibition was experimentally removed. In controlled mixtures of modern OC and thawed permafrost endmember OC sources, respiration rates per unit dissolved OC were 1.3-1.6 times higher in waters containing ancient carbon, suggesting that permafrost-derived OC was more available for microbial mineralization. In addition, waters containing ancient permafrost-derived OC supported elevated phosphatase and glucosidase activities. Based on these combined results, we propose that both composition and nutrient availability regulate DOM metabolism in Arctic aquatic ecosystems. Our empirical findings are incorporated into a mechanistic conceptual model highlighting two key enzymatic processes in the mineralization of riverine OM: (i) the role of phenol oxidase activity in reducing inhibitory phenolic compounds and (ii) the role of phosphatase in mobilizing organic P. Permafrost-derived DOM degradation was less constrained by this initial 'phenolic-OM' inhibition; thus, informing reports of high biological availability of ancient, permafrost-derived DOM with clear ramifications for its metabolism in fluvial networks and feedbacks to climate. PMID:24115585

  5. A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  6. A QUANTITATIVE MODEL FOR XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING ENZYME (XME) INDUCTION REGULATED BY THE PREGNANE X RECEPTOR (PXR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor, PXR, is an integral part of the regulation of hepatic metabolism. It has been shown to regulate specific CYPs (phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes) as well as certain phase II drug metabolism activities, including UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT), sulfotran...

  7. De novo transcriptome characterization of Lilium 'Sorbonne' and key enzymes related to the flavonoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-fang; Jiang, Ling-min; Zhang, Dong-mei; Jia, Gui-xia

    2015-02-01

    Lily is an important cut-flower and bulb crop in the commercial market. Here, transcriptome profiling of Lilium 'Sorbonne' was conducted through de novo sequencing based on Illumina platform. This research aims at revealing basic information and data that can be used for applied purposes especially the molecular regulatory information on flower color formation in lily. In total, 36,920,680 short reads which corresponded to 3.32 GB of total nucleotides, were produced through transcriptome sequencing. These reads were assembled into 39,636 Unigenes, of which 30,986 were annotated in Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, GO databases. Based on the three public protein databases, a total of 32,601 coding sequences were obtained. Meanwhile, 19,242 Unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Those with the greatest representation by unique sequences were for ''metabolic pathways'' (5,406 counts, 28.09%). Our transcriptome revealed 156 Unigenes that encode key enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway including CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, DFR, etc. MISA software identified 2,762 simple sequence repeats, from which 1,975 primers pairs were designed. Over 2,762 motifs were identified, of which the most frequent was AG/CT (659, 23.86%), followed by A/T (615, 22.27%) and CCG/CGG (416, 15.06%). Based on the results, we believe that the color formation of the Lilium 'Sorbonne' flower was mainly controlled by the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Additionally, this research provides initial genetic resources that will be valuable to the lily community for other molecular biology research, and the SSRs will facilitate marker-assisted selection in lily breeding. PMID:25307066

  8. Establishing a herbicide-metabolizing enzyme library in Beckmannia syzigachne to identify genes associated with metabolic resistance.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lang; Gao, Haitao; Xia, Wenwen; Zhang, Teng; Dong, Liyao

    2016-04-01

    Non-target site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides is an increasing concern for weed control. Metabolic herbicide resistance is an important mechanism for NTSR. However, little is known about metabolic resistance at the genetic level. In this study, we have identified three fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant American sloughgrass (Beckmannia syzigachne Steud.) populations, in which the molecular basis for NTSR remains unclear. To reveal the mechanisms of metabolic resistance, the genes likely to be involved in herbicide metabolism (e.g. for cytochrome P450s, esterases, hydrolases, oxidases, peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, glycosyltransferases, and transporter proteins) were isolated using transcriptome sequencing, in combination with RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Consequently, we established a herbicide-metabolizing enzyme library containing at least 332 genes, and each of these genes was cloned and the sequence and the expression level compared between the fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant and susceptible populations. Fifteen metabolic enzyme genes were found to be possibly involved in fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance. In addition, we found five metabolizing enzyme genes that have a different gene sequence in plants of susceptible versus resistant B. syzigachne populations. These genes may be major candidates for herbicide metabolic resistance. This established metabolic enzyme library represents an important step forward towards a better understanding of herbicide metabolism and metabolic resistance in this and possibly other closely related weed species. This new information may help to understand weed metabolic resistance and to develop novel strategies of weed management. PMID:26739863

  9. Autophagy--a key player in cellular and body metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kook Hwan; Lee, Myung-Shik

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge gained over the past 10 years about the mechanisms that underpin autophagy has provided a universal framework for studies of diverse physiological and pathological processes. Of particular interest is the emerging role of autophagy in the maintenance of energy homeostasis, both at the cellular level and within the organism as a whole. Dysregulation of autophagy might contribute to the development of metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, obesity, atherosclerosis and osteoporosis. The authors of this Review highlight research findings on the regulation of cellular autophagy by nutrients. They also describe the role of autophagy in various tissues in the regulation of energy metabolism and the development of diseases related to altered metabolism. Finally, the potential of pharmacological modulation of autophagy as a treatment for human metabolic disorders is discussed. PMID:24663220

  10. Structure and function of human xylulokinase, an enzyme with important roles in carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Richard D; Bulloch, Esther M M; Dickson, James M J; Loomes, Kerry M; Baker, Edward N

    2013-01-18

    D-Xylulokinase (XK; EC 2.7.1.17) catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of d-xylulose (Xu) to produce xylulose 5-phosphate (Xu5P). In mammals, XK is the last enzyme in the glucuronate-xylulose pathway, active in the liver and kidneys, and is linked through its product Xu5P to the pentose-phosphate pathway. XK may play an important role in metabolic disease, given that Xu5P is a key regulator of glucose metabolism and lipogenesis. We have expressed the product of a putative human XK gene and identified it as the authentic human d-xylulokinase (hXK). NMR studies with a variety of sugars showed that hXK acts only on d-xylulose, and a coupled photometric assay established its key kinetic parameters as K(m)(Xu) = 24 3 ?m and k(cat) = 35 5 s(-1). Crystal structures were determined for hXK, on its own and in complexes with Xu, ADP, and a fluorinated inhibitor. These reveal that hXK has a two-domain fold characteristic of the sugar kinase/hsp70/actin superfamily, with glycerol kinase as its closest relative. Xu binds to domain-I and ADP to domain-II, but in this open form of hXK they are 10 ? apart, implying that a large scale conformational change is required for catalysis. Xu binds in its linear keto-form, sandwiched between a Trp side chain and polar side chains that provide exquisite hydrogen bonding recognition. The hXK structure provides a basis for the design of specific inhibitors with which to probe its roles in sugar metabolism and metabolic disease. PMID:23179721

  11. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Andrew W; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S; Conneely, Karen N; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z X; Baurley, James W; McClure, Jennifer B; Hall, Sharon M; Baker, Timothy B; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Swan, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  12. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S.; Conneely, Karen N.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Baurley, James W.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Hall, Sharon M.; Baker, Timothy B.; Conti, David V.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Swan, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  13. Application of a hierarchical enzyme classification method reveals the role of gut microbiome in human metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Enzymes are known as the molecular machines that drive the metabolism of an organism; hence identification of the full enzyme complement of an organism is essential to build the metabolic blueprint of that species as well as to understand the interplay of multiple species in an ecosystem. Experimental characterization of the enzymatic reactions of all enzymes in a genome is a tedious and expensive task. The problem is more pronounced in the metagenomic samples where even the species are not adequately cultured or characterized. Enzymes encoded by the gut microbiota play an essential role in the host metabolism; thus, warranting the need to accurately identify and annotate the full enzyme complements of species in the genomic and metagenomic projects. To fulfill this need, we develop and apply a method called ECemble, an ensemble approach to identify enzymes and enzyme classes and study the human gut metabolic pathways. Results ECemble method uses an ensemble of machine-learning methods to accurately model and predict enzymes from protein sequences and also identifies the enzyme classes and subclasses at the finest resolution. A tenfold cross-validation result shows accuracy between 97 and 99% at different levels in the hierarchy of enzyme classification, which is superior to comparable methods. We applied ECemble to predict the entire complements of enzymes from ten sequenced proteomes including the human proteome. We also applied this method to predict enzymes encoded by the human gut microbiome from gut metagenomic samples, and to study the role played by the microbe-derived enzymes in the human metabolism. After mapping the known and predicted enzymes to canonical human pathways, we identified 48 pathways that have at least one bacteria-encoded enzyme, which demonstrates the complementary role of gut microbiome in human gut metabolism. These pathways are primarily involved in metabolizing dietary nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, cofactors and vitamins. Conclusions The ECemble method is able to hierarchically assign high quality enzyme annotations to genomic and metagenomic data. This study demonstrated the real application of ECemble to understand the indispensable role played by microbe-encoded enzymes in the healthy functioning of human metabolic systems. PMID:26099921

  14. Discovery of a pyruvylated peptide-metabolizing enzyme using a fluorescent substrate-based protein discovery technique.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Kentaro; Komatsu, Toru; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Ueno, Tasuku; Terai, Takuya; Nagano, Tetsuo; Urano, Yasuteru

    2016-03-10

    We employed a fluorescent substrate-based target discovery approach to screen the enzymome for metabolic activity towards pyruvyl-amidated peptides, and identified an acylamino acid-releasing enzyme (APEH). Cells overexpressing APEH exhibited higher metabolic activity towards the probe, N-pyruvyl-leucyl-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (Pyr-Leu-AMC), while the selective APEH inhibitor AA74-1 blocked the reaction. Metabolism of various pyruvylated peptides in liver lysate was almost completely blocked by AA74-1. Pyruvyl peptides are synthesized in response to oxidative stress, but their biological role is poorly understood; identification of a key contributor to their metabolism should stimulate research on pathways leading from oxidative stress to protein modification and biological output. PMID:26925595

  15. Anandamide and decidual remodelling: COX-2 oxidative metabolism as a key regulator.

    PubMed

    Almada, M; Piscitelli, F; Fonseca, B M; Di Marzo, V; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N

    2015-11-01

    Recently, endocannabinoids have emerged as signalling mediators in reproduction. It is widely accepted that anandamide (AEA) levels must be tightly regulated, and that a disturbance in AEA levels may impact decidual stability and regression. We have previously characterized the endocannabinoid machinery in rat decidual tissue and reported the pro-apoptotic action of AEA on rat decidual cells. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that plays a crucial role in early pregnancy, and is also a key modulator in the crosstalk between endocannabinoids and prostaglandins. On the other hand, AEA-oxidative metabolism by COX-2 is not merely a mean to inactivate its action, but it yields the formation of a new class of mediators, named prostaglandin-ethanolamides, or prostamides. In this study we found that AEA-induced apoptosis in decidual cells involves COX-2 metabolic pathway. AEA induced COX-2 expression through p38 MAPK, resulting in the formation of prostamide E2 (PME2). Our findings also suggest that AEA-induced effect is associated with NF-kB activation. Finally, we describe the involvement of PME2 in the induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in rat decidual cells. Altogether, our findings highlight the role of COX-2 as a gatekeeper in the uterine environment and clarify the impact of the deregulation of AEA levels on the decidual remodelling process. PMID:26335727

  16. Enzyme and metabolic engineering for the production of novel biopolymers: crossover of biological and chemical processes.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Taguchi, Seiichi

    2013-12-01

    The development of synthetic biology has transformed microbes into useful factories for producing valuable polymers and/or their precursors from renewable biomass. Recent progress at the interface of chemistry and biology has enabled the production of a variety of new biopolymers with properties that substantially differ from their petroleum-derived counterparts. This review touches on recent trials and achievements in the field of biopolymer synthesis, including chemo-enzymatically synthesized aliphatic polyesters, wholly biosynthesized lactate-based polyesters, polyhydroxyalkanoates and other unusual bacterially synthesized polyesters. The expanding diversities in structure and the material properties of biopolymers are key for exploring practical applications. The enzyme and metabolic engineering approaches toward this goal are discussed by shedding light on the successful case studies. PMID:23545442

  17. Fungal colonization and enzyme-mediated metabolism of waste coal by Neosartorya fischeri strain ECCN 84.

    PubMed

    Sekhohola, Lerato Mary; Isaacs, Michelle Louise; Cowan, Ashton Keith

    2014-01-01

    Colonization and oxidative metabolism of South African low-rank discard coal by the fungal strain ECCN 84 previously isolated from a coal environment and identified as Neosartorya fischeri was investigated. Results show that waste coal supported fungal growth. Colonization of waste coal particles by N. fischeri ECCN 84 was associated with the formation of compact spherical pellets or sclerotia-like structures. Dissection of the pellets from liquid cultures revealed a nucleus of "engulfed" coal which when analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a time-dependent decline in weight percentage of elemental carbon and an increase in elemental oxygen. Proliferation of peroxisomes in hyphae attached to coal particles and increased extracellular laccase activity occurred after addition of waste coal to cultures of N. fischeri ECCN 84. These results support a role for oxidative enzyme action in the biodegradation of coal and suggest that extracellular laccase is a key component in this process. PMID:25273148

  18. Acute Liver Injury Induces Nucleocytoplasmic Redistribution of Hepatic Methionine Metabolism Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Miguel; Garrido, Francisco; Prez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Pacheco, Mara; Partearroyo, Teresa; Prez-Sala, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The discovery of methionine metabolism enzymes in the cell nucleus, together with their association with key nuclear processes, suggested a putative relationship between alterations in their subcellular distribution and disease. Results: Using the rat model of d-galactosamine intoxication, severe changes in hepatic steady-state mRNA levels were found; the largest decreases corresponded to enzymes exhibiting the highest expression in normal tissue. Cytoplasmic protein levels, activities, and metabolite concentrations suffered more moderate changes following a similar trend. Interestingly, galactosamine treatment induced hepatic nuclear accumulation of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) ?1 and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase tetramers, their active assemblies. In fact, galactosamine-treated livers showed enhanced nuclear MAT activity. Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication mimicked most galactosamine effects on hepatic MAT?1, including accumulation of nuclear tetramers. H35 cells that overexpress tagged-MAT?1 reproduced the subcellular distribution observed in liver, and the changes induced by galactosamine and APAP that were also observed upon glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine. The H35 nuclear accumulation of tagged-MAT?1 induced by these agents correlated with decreased glutathione reduced form/glutathione oxidized form ratios and was prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione ethyl ester. However, the changes in epigenetic modifications associated with tagged-MAT?1 nuclear accumulation were only prevented by NAC in galactosamine-treated cells. Innovation: Cytoplasmic and nuclear changes in proteins that regulate the methylation index follow opposite trends in acute liver injury, their nuclear accumulation showing potential as disease marker. Conclusion: Altogether these results demonstrate galactosamine- and APAP-induced nuclear accumulation of methionine metabolism enzymes as active oligomers and unveil the implication of redox-dependent mechanisms in the control of MAT?1 subcellular distribution. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 25412554. PMID:24124652

  19. Evolution of the key alkaloid enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase from spermidine synthase.

    PubMed

    Junker, Anne; Fischer, Juliane; Sichhart, Yvonne; Brandt, Wolfgang; Dräger, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) are the first specific enzymes of the biosynthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids. PMTs transfer a methyl group onto the diamine putrescine from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as coenzyme. PMT proteins have presumably evolved from spermidine synthases (SPDSs), which are ubiquitous enzymes of polyamine metabolism. SPDSs use decarboxylated SAM as coenzyme to transfer an aminopropyl group onto putrescine. In an attempt to identify possible and necessary steps in the evolution of PMT from SPDS, homology based modeling of Datura stramonium SPDS1 and PMT was employed to gain deeper insight in the preferred binding positions and conformations of the substrate and the alternative coenzymes. Based on predictions of amino acids responsible for the change of enzyme specificities, sites of mutagenesis were derived. PMT activity was generated in D. stramonium SPDS1 after few amino acid exchanges. Concordantly, Arabidopsis thaliana SPDS1 was mutated and yielded enzymes with both, PMT and SPDS activities. Kinetic parameters were measured for enzymatic characterization. The switch from aminopropyl to methyl transfer depends on conformational changes of the methionine part of the coenzyme in the binding cavity of the enzyme. The rapid generation of PMT activity in SPDS proteins and the wide-spread occurrence of putative products of N-methylputrescine suggest that PMT activity is present frequently in the plant kingdom. PMID:23908659

  20. Significance of reductive metabolism in human intestine and quantitative prediction of intestinal first-pass metabolism by cytosolic reductive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nishimuta, Haruka; Nakagawa, Tetsuya; Nomura, Naruaki; Yabuki, Masashi

    2013-05-01

    The number of new drug candidates that are cleared via non-cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes has increased. However, unlike oxidation by P450, the roles of reductive enzymes are less understood. The metabolism in intestine is especially not well known. The purposes of this study were to investigate the significance of reductive metabolism in human intestine, and to establish a quantitative prediction method of intestinal first-pass metabolism by cytosolic reductive enzymes, using haloperidol, mebendazole, and ziprasidone. First, we estimated the metabolic activities for these compounds in intestine and liver using subcellular fractions. Metabolic activities were detected in human intestinal cytosol (HIC) for all three compounds, and the intrinsic clearance values were higher than those in human liver cytosol for haloperidol and mebendazole. These metabolic activities in HIC were NADPH- and/or NADH-dependent. Furthermore, the metabolic activities for all three compounds in HIC were largely inhibited by menadione, which has been used as a carbonyl reductase (CBR)-selective chemical inhibitor. Therefore, considering subcellular location, cofactor requirement, and chemical inhibition, these compounds might be metabolized by CBRs in human intestine. Subsequently, we tried to quantitatively predict intestinal availability (F(g)) for these compounds using human intestinal S9 (HIS9). Our prediction model using apparent permeability of parallel artificial membrane permeability assay and metabolic activities in HIS9 could predict F(g) in humans for the three compounds well. In conclusion, CBRs might have higher metabolic activities in human intestine than in human liver. Furthermore, our prediction method of human F(g) using HIS9 is applicable to substrates of cytosolic reductive enzymes. PMID:23444387

  1. Heterologous expression and maturation of an NADP-dependent [NiFe]-hydrogenase: a key enzyme in biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junsong; Hopkins, Robert C; Jenney, Francis E; McTernan, Patrick M; Adams, Michael W W

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a major biofuel and is metabolized by a wide range of microorganisms. Microbial hydrogen production is catalyzed by hydrogenase, an extremely complex, air-sensitive enzyme that utilizes a binuclear nickel-iron [NiFe] catalytic site. Production and engineering of recombinant [NiFe]-hydrogenases in a genetically-tractable organism, as with metalloprotein complexes in general, has met with limited success due to the elaborate maturation process that is required, primarily in the absence of oxygen, to assemble the catalytic center and functional enzyme. We report here the successful production in Escherichia coli of the recombinant form of a cytoplasmic, NADP-dependent hydrogenase from Pyrococcus furiosus, an anaerobic hyperthermophile. This was achieved using novel expression vectors for the co-expression of thirteen P. furiosus genes (four structural genes encoding the hydrogenase and nine encoding maturation proteins). Remarkably, the native E. coli maturation machinery will also generate a functional hydrogenase when provided with only the genes encoding the hydrogenase subunits and a single protease from P. furiosus. Another novel feature is that their expression was induced by anaerobic conditions, whereby E. coli was grown aerobically and production of recombinant hydrogenase was achieved by simply changing the gas feed from air to an inert gas (N2). The recombinant enzyme was purified and shown to be functionally similar to the native enzyme purified from P. furiosus. The methodology to generate this key hydrogen-producing enzyme has dramatic implications for the production of hydrogen and NADPH as vehicles for energy storage and transport, for engineering hydrogenase to optimize production and catalysis, as well as for the general production of complex, oxygen-sensitive metalloproteins. PMID:20463892

  2. Key enzymes and proteins of crop insects as candidate for RNAi based gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Kola, Vijaya Sudhakara Rao; Renuka, P; Madhav, Maganti Sheshu; Mangrauthia, Satendra K

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of homology dependent gene silencing present in plants and animals. It operates through 21-24 nucleotides small RNAs which are processed through a set of core enzymatic machinery that involves Dicer and Argonaute proteins. In recent past, the technology has been well appreciated toward the control of plant pathogens and insects through suppression of key genes/proteins of infecting organisms. The genes encoding key enzymes/proteins with the great potential for developing an effective insect control by RNAi approach are actylcholinesterase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, amino peptidase N, allatostatin, allatotropin, tryptophan oxygenase, arginine kinase, vacuolar ATPase, chitin synthase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, trehalose phosphate synthase, vitellogenin, hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and hormone receptor genes. Through various studies, it is demonstrated that RNAi is a reliable molecular tool which offers great promises in meeting the challenges imposed by crop insects with careful selection of key enzymes/proteins. Utilization of RNAi tool to target some of these key proteins of crop insects through various approaches is described here. The major challenges of RNAi based insect control such as identifying potential targets, delivery methods of silencing trigger, off target effects, and complexity of insect biology are very well illustrated. Further, required efforts to address these challenges are also discussed. PMID:25954206

  3. Key enzymes and proteins of crop insects as candidate for RNAi based gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kola, Vijaya Sudhakara Rao; Renuka, P.; Madhav, Maganti Sheshu; Mangrauthia, Satendra K.

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism of homology dependent gene silencing present in plants and animals. It operates through 21–24 nucleotides small RNAs which are processed through a set of core enzymatic machinery that involves Dicer and Argonaute proteins. In recent past, the technology has been well appreciated toward the control of plant pathogens and insects through suppression of key genes/proteins of infecting organisms. The genes encoding key enzymes/proteins with the great potential for developing an effective insect control by RNAi approach are actylcholinesterase, cytochrome P450 enzymes, amino peptidase N, allatostatin, allatotropin, tryptophan oxygenase, arginine kinase, vacuolar ATPase, chitin synthase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, trehalose phosphate synthase, vitellogenin, hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and hormone receptor genes. Through various studies, it is demonstrated that RNAi is a reliable molecular tool which offers great promises in meeting the challenges imposed by crop insects with careful selection of key enzymes/proteins. Utilization of RNAi tool to target some of these key proteins of crop insects through various approaches is described here. The major challenges of RNAi based insect control such as identifying potential targets, delivery methods of silencing trigger, off target effects, and complexity of insect biology are very well illustrated. Further, required efforts to address these challenges are also discussed. PMID:25954206

  4. Articular cartilage chondrocytes express aromatase and use enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sex hormones, especially estrogens, have been implicated in articular cartilage metabolism and the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoarthritis. The conversion by aromatase (CYP19A1) of androstenedione into estrone (E1) and of testosterone into 17?-estradiol (E2) plays a key role in the endogenous synthesis of estrogens in tissue. Methods We analyzed the expression of aromatase (CYP19A1) in immortalized C-28/I2 and T/C-28a2 chondrocytes, as well as in cultured primary human articular chondrocytes and human articular cartilage tissue, by means of RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. By means of quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we also determined whether the aromatase inhibitor letrozole influences estrogen metabolism of cultured chondrocytes in immortalized C-28/I2 chondrocytes. Results Aromatase mRNA was detected in both immortalized chondrocyte cell lines, in cultured primary human chondrocytes, and in human articular cartilage tissue. By means of Western blot analysis, aromatase was detected at the protein level in articular cartilage taken from various patients of both sexes and different ages. Cultured primary human articular chondrocytes, C-28/I2 and T/C-28a2, and human articular cartilage tissue reacted with antibodies for aromatase. Incubation of C-28/I2 chondrocytes with 10?11M to 10?7M letrozole as an aromatase inhibitor revealed significantly increased amounts of the mRNAs of the enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1), which is involved in the catagen estrogen metabolism, and of the estrogen receptors ER-? and ER-?. Concomitantly, synthesis of estrone (E1) was significantly downregulated after incubation with letrozole. Conclusions We demonstrate that human articular cartilage expresses aromatase at the mRNA and protein levels. Blocking of estrone synthesis by the aromatase inhibitor letrozole is counteracted by an increase in ER-? and ER-?. In addition, CYP1A1, an enzyme involved in catabolic estrogen metabolism, is upregulated. This suggests that articular chondrocytes use ERs functionally. The role of endogenous synthesized estrogens in articular cartilage health remains to be elucidated. PMID:24725461

  5. Sensor potency of the moonlighting enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton: the cytoskeleton as a metabolic sensor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is extensive evidence for the interaction of metabolic enzymes with the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. The significance of these interactions is far from clear. Presentation of the hypothesis In the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis presented here, the cytoskeleton senses and integrates the general metabolic activity of the cell. This activity depends on the binding to the cytoskeleton of enzymes and, depending on the nature of the enzyme, this binding may occur if the enzyme is either active or inactive but not both. This enzyme-binding is further proposed to stabilize microtubules and microfilaments and to alter rates of GTP and ATP hydrolysis and their levels. Testing the hypothesis Evidence consistent with the cytoskeletal integrative sensor hypothesis is presented in the case of glycolysis. Several testable predictions are made. There should be a relationship between post-translational modifications of tubulin and of actin and their interaction with metabolic enzymes. Different conditions of cytoskeletal dynamics and enzyme-cytoskeleton binding should reveal significant differences in local and perhaps global levels and ratios of ATP and GTP. The different functions of moonlighting enzymes should depend on cytoskeletal binding. Implications of the hypothesis The physical and chemical effects arising from metabolic sensing by the cytoskeleton would have major consequences on cell shape, dynamics and cell cycle progression. The hypothesis provides a framework that helps the significance of the enzyme-decorated cytoskeleton be determined. PMID:23398642

  6. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. We report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis employing an exhaustive dataset of NAT-homologous sequences recovered through inspection of 2445 genomes. We describe ...

  7. Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites, key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Bin; Yang, Lin-Tong; Li, Yan; Xu, Jing; Liao, Tian-Tai; Chen, Yan-Bin; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-06-01

    Boron (B) deficiency is a widespread problem in many crops, including Citrus. The effects of B-deficiency on gas exchange, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, total soluble proteins and phenolics, and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves and roots were investigated. Boron-deficient leaves displayed excessive accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and much lower CO2 assimilation, demonstrating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. Dark respiration, concentrations of most organic acids [i.e., malate, citrate, oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate] and activities of enzymes [i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NAD-malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME), NADP-ME, pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase (PEPP), citrate synthase (CS), aconitase (ACO), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH) and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B-deficient leaves than in controls. Also, total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration and related enzyme [i.e., NADH-dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (NADH-GOGAT) and glutamate OAA transaminase (GOT)] activities were enhanced in B-deficient leaves. By contrast, respiration, concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids (malate, citrate and pyruvate), and activities of most enzymes [i.e., PEPC, NADP-ME, PK, PEPP, CS, ACO, NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADP-IDH and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction, as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes (i.e., nitrate reductase, NADH-GOGAT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase) were lower in B-deficient roots than in controls. Interestingly, leaf and root concentration of total phenolics increased, whereas that of total soluble protein decreased, in response to B-deficiency. In conclusion, respiration, organic acid (i.e., glycolysis and the TCA cycle) metabolism, the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B-deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to 'consume' the excessive carbon available, but downregulated in B-deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance. PMID:24957048

  8. Microbial responses to membrane cleaning using sodium hypochlorite in membrane bioreactors: Cell integrity, key enzymes and intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaomeng; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xueye; Zheng, Xiang; Ma, Jinxing; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) is a commonly used reagent for membrane cleaning in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), while it, being a kind of disinfectant (oxidant), may impair viability of microbes or even totally inactivate them upon its diffusion into mixed liquor during membrane cleaning. In this study, we systematically examine the effects of NaClO on microorganisms in terms of microbial cell integrity, metabolism behaviours (key enzymes), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) under various NaClO concentrations. Different proportions of microbial cells in activated sludge were damaged within several minutes dependent on NaClO dosages (5-50 mg/g-SS), and correspondingly organic matters were released to bulk solution. Inhibition of key enzymes involved in organic matter biodegradation, nitrification and denitrification was observed in the presence of NaClO above 1 mg/g-SS, and thus organic matter and nitrogen removal efficiencies were decreased. It was also demonstrated that intracellular ROS production was increased with the NaClO dosage higher than 1 mg/g-SS, which likely induced further damage to microbial cells. PMID:26512807

  9. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression in aging humans.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of foreign compounds, metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the livers ability to detoxify and eliminate these xenobiotics. This is accomplished, in part, by the expression of XMEs, which metabolize xenobiotics and determine whether exposure will...

  10. The mouse liver displays daily rhythms in the metabolism of phospholipids and in the activity of lipid synthesizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gorn, Lucas D; Acosta-Rodrguez, Victoria A; Pasquar, Susana J; Salvador, Gabriela A; Giusto, Norma M; Guido, Mario Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system involves central and peripheral oscillators regulating temporally biochemical processes including lipid metabolism; their disruption leads to severe metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes, etc). Here, we investigated the temporal regulation of glycerophospholipid (GPL) synthesis in mouse liver, a well-known peripheral oscillator. Mice were synchronized to a 12:12?h light-dark (LD) cycle and then released to constant darkness with food ad libitum. Livers collected at different times exhibited a daily rhythmicity in some individual GPL content with highest levels during the subjective day. The activity of GPL-synthesizing/remodeling enzymes: phosphatidate phosphohydrolase 1 (PAP-1/lipin) and lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) also displayed significant variations, with higher levels during the subjective day and at dusk. We evaluated the temporal regulation of expression and activity of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesizing enzymes. PC is mainly synthesized through the Kennedy pathway with Choline Kinase (ChoK) as a key regulatory enzyme or through the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway. The PC/PE content ratio exhibited a daily variation with lowest levels at night, while ChoK? and PEMT mRNA expression displayed maximal levels at nocturnal phases. Our results demonstrate that mouse liver GPL metabolism oscillates rhythmically with a precise temporal control in the expression and/or activity of specific enzymes. PMID:25140391

  11. Metabolism as a key to histone deacetylase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Praveen; Williams, David E.; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated in cancer and other human pathologies. Under this broad umbrella, modulators of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity have gained interest as both cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. Of the first generation, FDA-approved HDAC inhibitors to have progressed to clinical trials, vorinostat represents a “direct acting” compound with structural features suitable for docking into the HDAC pocket, whereas romidepsin can be considered a prodrug that undergoes reductive metabolism to generate the active intermediate (a zinc-binding thiol). It is now evident that other agents, including those in the human diet, can be converted by metabolism to intermediates that affect HDAC activity. Examples are cited of short-chain fatty acids, seleno-α-keto acids, small molecule thiols, mercapturic acid metabolites, indoles, and polyphenols. The findings are discussed in the context of putative endogenous HDAC inhibitors generated by intermediary metabolism (e.g. pyruvate), the yin–yang of HDAC inhibition versus HDAC activation, and the screening assays that might be most appropriate for discovery of novel HDAC inhibitors in the future. PMID:21599534

  12. Absolute quantitative profiling of the key metabolic pathways in slow and fast skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Rakus, Dariusz; Gizak, Agnieszka; Deshmukh, Atul; Wi?niewski, Jacek R

    2015-03-01

    Slow and fast skeletal muscles are composed of, respectively, mainly oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers, which are the basic cellular motor units of the motility apparatus. They largely differ in excitability, contraction mechanism, and metabolism. Because of their pivotal role in body motion and homeostasis, the skeletal muscles have been extensively studied using biochemical and molecular biology approaches. Here we describe a simple analytical and computational approach to estimate titers of enzymes of basic metabolic pathways and proteins of the contractile machinery in the skeletal muscles. Proteomic analysis of mouse slow and fast muscles allowed estimation of the titers of enzymes involved in the carbohydrate, lipid, and energy metabolism. Notably, we observed that differences observed between the two muscle types occur simultaneously for all proteins involved in a specific process such as glycolysis, free fatty acid catabolism, Krebs cycle, or oxidative phosphorylation. These differences are in a good agreement with the well-established biochemical picture of the muscle types. We show a correlation between maximal activity and the enzyme titer, suggesting that change in enzyme concentration is a good proxy for its catalytic potential in vivo. As a consequence, proteomic profiling of enzyme titers can be used to monitor metabolic changes in cells. Additionally, quantitative data of structural proteins allowed studying muscle type specific cell architecture and its remodeling. The presented proteomic approach can be applied to study metabolism in any other tissue or cell line. PMID:25597705

  13. Uniformity of metabolic enzymes within individual motor units.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, P M; Solanki, L; Gordon, D A; Hamm, T M; Reinking, R M; Stuart, D G

    1986-03-01

    Individual muscle fibers of 10 motor units from the tibialis posterior muscle of cat were identified by glycogen depletion techniques, characterized for histochemical type, diameter, and intramuscular locations, and analyzed by quantitative biochemical methods. Four enzymes, representing different energy-yielding pathways, were quantitatively assayed in muscle fibers belonging to motor units selected from each of the three major physiological types. All four enzymes demonstrated identical activities among fibers within a motor unit, while showing up to 11-fold differences among fibers belonging to different motor units. Moreover, fibers within a single motor unit, but of substantially different diameters, were nevertheless homogeneous in specific enzyme activities. PMID:3958798

  14. Proteolytic regulation of metabolic enzymes by E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes: lessons from yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakatsukasa, Kunio; Okumura, Fumihiko; Kamura, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms use diverse mechanisms to control metabolic rates in response to changes in the internal and/or external environment. Fine metabolic control is a highly responsive, energy-saving process that is mediated by allosteric inhibition/activation and/or reversible modification of preexisting metabolic enzymes. In contrast, coarse metabolic control is a relatively long-term and expensive process that involves modulating the level of metabolic enzymes. Coarse metabolic control can be achieved through the degradation of metabolic enzymes by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), in which substrates are specifically ubiquitinated by an E3 ubiquitin ligase and targeted for proteasomal degradation. Here, we review select multi-protein E3 ligase complexes that directly regulate metabolic enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The first part of the review focuses on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-associated Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ligase complexes. In addition to their primary roles in the ER-associated degradation pathway that eliminates misfolded proteins, recent quantitative proteomic analyses identified native substrates of Hrd1 and Doa10 in the sterol synthesis pathway. The second part focuses on the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) complex, an abundant prototypical multi-protein E3 ligase complex. While the best-known roles of the SCF complex are in the regulation of the cell cycle and transcription, accumulating evidence indicates that the SCF complex also modulates carbon metabolism pathways. The increasing number of metabolic enzymes whose stability is directly regulated by the UPS underscores the importance of the proteolytic regulation of metabolic processes for the acclimation of cells to environmental changes. PMID:26362128

  15. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage and formation reactions in drug metabolism and the role of metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bolleddula, Jayaprakasam; Chowdhury, Swapan K

    2015-11-01

    Elimination of xenobiotics from the human body is often facilitated by a transformation to highly water soluble and more ionizable molecules. In general, oxidation-reduction, hydrolysis, and conjugation reactions are common biotransformation reactions that are catalyzed by various metabolic enzymes including cytochrome P450s (CYPs), non-CYPs, and conjugative enzymes. Although carbon-carbon (C-C) bond formation and cleavage reactions are known to exist in plant secondary metabolism, these reactions are relatively rare in mammalian metabolism and are considered exceptions. However, various reactions such as demethylation, dealkylation, dearylation, reduction of alkyl chain, ring expansion, ring contraction, oxidative elimination of a nitrile through C-C bond cleavage, and dimerization, and glucuronidation through C-C bond formation have been reported for drug molecules. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage reactions for drug molecules are primarily catalyzed by CYP enzymes, dimerization is mediated by peroxidases, and C-glucuronidation is catalyzed by UGT1A9. This review provides an overview of C-C bond cleavage and formation reactions in drug metabolism and the metabolic enzymes associated with these reactions. PMID:26390887

  16. Mammalian alpha beta hydrolase domain (ABHD) proteins: lipid metabolizing enzymes at the interface of cell signaling and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of lipid metabolism underlies many chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, understanding enzymatic mechanisms controlling lipid synthesis and degradation is imperative for successful drug discovery for these human diseases. Genes encoding ?/? hydrolase fold domain (ABHD) proteins are present in virtually all reported genomes, and conserved structural motifs shared by these proteins predict common roles in lipid synthesis and degradation. However, the physiological substrates and products for these lipid metabolizing enzymes and their broader role in metabolic pathways remain largely uncharacterized. Recently, mutations in several members of the ABHD protein family have been implicated in inherited inborn errors of lipid metabolism. Furthermore, studies in cell and animal models have revealed important roles for ABHD proteins in lipid metabolism, lipid signal transduction, and metabolic disease. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary surrounding the current state of knowledge regarding mammalian ABHD protein family members. In particular, we will discuss how ABHD proteins are ideally suited to act at the interface of lipid metabolism and signal transduction. Although, the current state of knowledge regarding mammalian ABHD proteins is still in its infancy, this review highlights the potential for the ABHD enzymes as being attractive targets for novel therapies targeting metabolic disease. PMID:23328280

  17. The presence of amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase, a key enzyme in artemisinin production in ten Artemisia species

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, R.; Yazdani, N.; Garoosi, GA.

    2011-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Artemisinin is one of the most effective medicine against malaria, which is produced naturally by Artemisia annua in low yield. It is produced in a metabolic pathway, in which several genes and gene products are involved. One of the key genes in this pathway is am1, which encodes amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase (ADS), a key enzyme in artemisinin biosynthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of this gene in ten Artemisia species in order to increase the yield of production of Artemisinin. Methods The experiments were carried out using PCR. Specific primers were designed based on the published am1 gene sequence obtained from A. annua (NCBI, accession number AF327527). Results The amplification of this gene by the specific primers was considered as a positive sign for the potentiality of artemisinin production. Since the entire am1 gene was not amplified in any of the 10 species used, four parts of the gene, essential in ADS enzyme function, corresponding to a) pair site of Arg10-Pro12 in the first 100 amino acids, b) aspartate rich motif (DDXXD), c) active site final lid and d) active site including farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) ionization sites and catalytic site in the ADS enzyme, were investigated. Major conclusion The sequence corresponding to ADS active site was amplified only in A. annua, A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia. The negative results obtained with other species could be due to some sequence alteration, such as point mutations or INDELs. We propose A. aucheri and A. chamaemelifolia as two potential candidate species for further characterization, breeding and transferring am1 gene for artemisinin overproduction. PMID:22615678

  18. Metabolic engineering is key to a sustainable chemical industry.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Annabel C

    2011-08-01

    The depletion of fossil fuel stocks will prohibit their use as the main feedstock of future industrial processes. Biocatalysis is being increasingly used to reduce fossil fuel reliance and to improve the sustainability, efficiency and cost of chemical production. Even with their current small market share, biocatalyzed processes already generate approximately US$50 billion and it has been estimated that they could be used to produce up to 20% of fine chemicals by 2020. Until the advent of molecular biological technologies, the compounds that were readily accessible from renewable biomass were restricted to naturally-occurring metabolites. However, metabolic engineering has considerably broadened the range of compounds now accessible, providing access to compounds that cannot be otherwise reliably sourced, as well as replacing established chemical processes. This review presents the case for continued efforts to promote the adoption of biocatalyzed processes, highlighting successful examples of industrial chemical production from biomass and/or via biocatalyzed processes. A selection of emerging technologies that may further extend the potential and sustainability of biocatalysis are also presented. As the field matures, metabolic engineering will be increasingly crucial in maintaining our quality of life into a future where our current resources and feedstocks cannot be relied upon. PMID:21666928

  19. Axonal and dendritic localization of mRNAs for glycogen-metabolizing enzymes in cultured rodent neurons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Localization of mRNAs encoding cytoskeletal or signaling proteins to neuronal processes is known to contribute to axon growth, synaptic differentiation and plasticity. In addition, a still increasing spectrum of mRNAs has been demonstrated to be localized under different conditions and developing stages thus reflecting a highly regulated mechanism and a role of mRNA localization in a broad range of cellular processes. Results Applying fluorescence in-situ-hybridization with specific riboprobes on cultured neurons and nervous tissue sections, we investigated whether the mRNAs for two metabolic enzymes, namely glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP), the key enzymes of glycogen metabolism, may also be targeted to neuronal processes. If it were so, this might contribute to clarify the so far enigmatic role of neuronal glycogen. We found that the mRNAs for both enzymes are localized to axonal and dendritic processes in cultured lumbar spinal motoneurons, but not in cultured trigeminal neurons. In cultured cortical neurons which do not store glycogen but nevertheless express glycogen synthase, the GS mRNA is also subject to axonal and dendritic localization. In spinal motoneurons and trigeminal neurons in situ, however, the mRNAs could only be demonstrated in the neuronal somata but not in the nerves. Conclusions We could demonstrate that the mRNAs for major enzymes of neural energy metabolism can be localized to neuronal processes. The heterogeneous pattern of mRNA localization in different culture types and developmental stages stresses that mRNA localization is a versatile mechanism for the fine-tuning of cellular events. Our findings suggest that mRNA localization for enzymes of glycogen metabolism could allow adaptation to spatial and temporal energy demands in neuronal events like growth, repair and synaptic transmission. PMID:24898526

  20. Experiment K-6-21. Effect of microgravity on 1) metabolic enzymes of type 1 and type 2 muscle fibers and on 2) metabolic enzymes, neutransmitter amino acids, and neurotransmitter associated enzymes in motor and somatosensory cerebral cortex. Part 1: Metabolic enzymes of individual muscle fibers; part 2: metabolic enzymes of hippocampus and spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O.; Mcdougal, D., Jr.; Nemeth, Patti M.; Maggie, M.-Y. Chi; Pusateri, M.; Carter, J.; Manchester, J.; Norris, Beverly; Krasnov, I.

    1990-01-01

    The individual fibers of any individual muscle vary greatly in enzyme composition, a fact which is obscured when enzyme levels of a whole muscle are measured. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the changes due to weightless on the enzyme patterns composed by the individual fibers within the flight muscles. In spite of the limitation in numbers of muscles examined, it is apparent that: (1) that the size of individual fibers (i.e., their dry weight) was reduced about a third, (2) that this loss in dry mass was accompanied by changes in the eight enzymes studied, and (3) that these changes were different for the two muscles, and different for the two enzyme groups. In the soleus muscle the absolute amounts of the three enzymes of oxidative metabolism decreased about in proportion to the dry weight loss, so that their concentration in the atrophic fibers was almost unchanged. In contrast, there was little loss among the four enzymes of glycogenolysis - glycolysis so that their concentrations were substantially increased in the atrophic fibers. In the TA muscle, these seven enzymes were affected in just the opposite direction. There appeared to be no absolute loss among the oxidative enzymes, whereas the glycogenolytic enzymes were reduced by nearly half, so that the concentrations of the first metabolic group were increased within the atrophic fibers and the concentrations of the second group were only marginally decreased. The behavior of hexokinase was exceptional in that it did not decrease in absolute terms in either type of muscle and probably increased as much as 50 percent in soleus. Thus, their was a large increase in concentration of this enzyme in the atrophied fibers of both muscles. Another clear-cut finding was the large increase in the range of activities of the glycolytic enzymes among individual fibers of TA muscles. This was due to the emergence of TA fibers with activities for enzymes of this group extending down to levels as low as those found in control soleus muscles. It would be interesting to know if this represents a transition stage, and whether with prolonged weightlessness most of the fibers would be transformed into a low glycogenolytic type.

  1. Post-translational modifications as key regulators of bacterial metabolic fluxes.

    PubMed

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Patel, Nishaben M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    In order to survive and compete in natural settings, bacteria must excel at quickly adapting their metabolism to fluctuations in nutrient availability and other environmental variables. This necessitates fast-acting post-translational regulatory mechanisms, that is, allostery or covalent modification, to control metabolic flux. While allosteric regulation has long been a well-established strategy for regulating metabolic enzyme activity in bacteria, covalent post-translational modes of regulation, such as phosphorylation or acetylation, have previously been regarded as regulatory mechanisms employed primarily by eukaryotic organisms. Recent findings, however, have shifted this perception and point to a widespread role for covalent posttranslational modification in the regulation of metabolic enzymes and fluxes in bacteria. This review provides an outline of the exciting recent advances in this area. PMID:25597444

  2. Role of cytochrome P-450 and related enzymes in the pulmonary metabolism of xenobiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Philpot, R M; Smith, B R

    1984-01-01

    The lung metabolizes a wide variety of xenobiotics and, in the process, forms products that may be more or less toxic than the parent compound. The consequence of metabolism, activation or detoxication, is a function of the nature of the substrate and of the characteristics and concentrations of the enzymes involved. As a result, the biotransformation of xenobiotics can lead to their excretion or to the formation of reactive products that produce deleterious effects by binding covalently to tissue macromolecules. Among the enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics, those associated with the cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system are probably the most important. The route by which a given substrate is metabolized in a tissue or cell is, to a great extent, determined by the types and concentrations of cytochrome P-450 isozymes present. We are just beginning to understand the distribution of these enzymes in lung and to appreciate the species and cellular differences that exist. PMID:6376107

  3. Effects of bisphenol A on key enzymes in cellular respiration of soybean seedling roots.

    PubMed

    Nie, Lijun; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Qingqing; Wang, Shengman; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-10-01

    The environmental endocrine disrupter bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment, with potential toxic effects on plants. Previous studies have found a significant effect of BPA on levels of mineral nutrients in plant roots, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. To determine how BPA influences root mineral nutrients, the effects of BPA (1.5?mg?L(-1) , 3.0?mg?L(-1) , 6.0?mg?L(-1) , 12.0?mg?L(-1) , 24.0?mg?L(-1) , 48.0?mg?L(-1) , and 96.0?mg?L(-1) ) on activities of critical respiratory enzymes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase) were investigated in soybean seedling roots. After BPA exposure for 7 d, the low concentrations of BPA increased the activities of critical respiratory enzymes in roots, whereas opposite effects were observed in roots exposed to high concentrations of BPA, and the inhibitory effect was greater for higher BPA concentrations. In addition, evident morphological anomalies and decreases in root lengths and volumes were induced by high concentrations of BPA. Following withdrawal of BPA exposure after 7 d, the activities of respiratory enzymes and visible signs of toxicity recovered, and the extent of recovery depended on the type of enzyme and the BPA concentration. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that the disturbance by BPA to activities of respiratory enzymes, which led to interference in the energy metabolism in roots, might be an effect mechanism of BPA on mineral element accumulation in plant roots. PMID:26010676

  4. Metaproteomic Analysis of a Chemosynthetic Hydrothermal Vent Community Reveals Insights into Key-Metabolic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, I.; Stokke, R.; Lanzen, A.; Pedersen, R.; vres, L.; Urich, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2005 researchers at the Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, Norway, discovered two active vent fields at the southwestern Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The fields harbours both low-temperature iron deposits and high-temperature white smoker vents. Distinct microbial mats were abundantly present and located in close vicinity to the hydrothermal vent sites. Characteristics of the mat environment were steep physical and chemical gradients with temperatures ranging from 10C in the top layer to 90C at 10 cm bsf and high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methane. The work presented here focus on the In situ community activities, and is part of an integrated strategy combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics to in-depth characterise these newly discovered hydrothermal vent communities. Extracted proteins were separated via SDS-PAGE. Peptides extracted after In-gel tryptic digest was injected into an Ultimate 3000 nanoLC system connected to a linear quadropole ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) mass spectrometer equipped with a nanoelectrospray ion source. A custom database of open reading frames (ORFs) from the combined metatranscriptome and metagenome datasets was implemented and searched against using Mascot 2.2; the IRMa tool box [1] was used in peptide validation. Validated ORFs were subjected to a Blastp search against Refseq with an E-value cut-off of 0.001. A total of 1097 proteins with ? 2 peptides were identified of which 921 gave a hit against Refseq, containing 519 unique proteins. Key enzymes of the sulfur oxidation pathway (sox) were found, which were taxonomically affiliated to Epsilonproteobacteria. In addition, this group actively expressed hydrogenases and membrane proteins involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains. Enzymes of dissimilatory sulfate-reduction (APS-reductase, AprAB and DsrA2) were found with closest hit to members of the Deltaproteobacteria. These findings indicate an internal sulfur cycle within the community. The community contained expressed enzymes of a variety of carbon metabolism pathways. Key enzymes of the reverse TCA cycle for fixation of CO2 and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for oxidation of acetyl-CoA and / or the fixation of CO2 were found. Key enzymes of aerobic and anaerobic methane-oxidation pathways were identified as well, namely particulate methane monooxygenase and methyl-Coenzyme M reductase. Various house-keeping gene-products, like cold- and heat shock proteins as well as ribosomal proteins and ATP synthases were identified. This approach has a future potential of broadening our understanding of environmental complexity and regulation in response to geochemical constraints. [1] Dupierris, V., Masselon, C., Court, M., Kieffer-Jaquinod, S., and Bruley, C. (2009) A toolbox for validation of mass spectrometry peptides identification and generation of database: IRMa. Bioinformatics 25, 1980-1981.

  5. Computational Prediction of Metabolism: Sites, Products, SAR, P450 Enzyme Dynamics, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism of xenobiotics remains a central challenge for the discovery and development of drugs, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and agrochemicals. Metabolic transformations are frequently related to the incidence of toxic effects that may result from the emergence of reactive species, the systemic accumulation of metabolites, or by induction of metabolic pathways. Experimental investigation of the metabolism of small organic molecules is particularly resource demanding; hence, computational methods are of considerable interest to complement experimental approaches. This review provides a broad overview of structure- and ligand-based computational methods for the prediction of xenobiotic metabolism. Current computational approaches to address xenobiotic metabolism are discussed from three major perspectives: (i) prediction of sites of metabolism (SOMs), (ii) elucidation of potential metabolites and their chemical structures, and (iii) prediction of direct and indirect effects of xenobiotics on metabolizing enzymes, where the focus is on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of enzymes, the cardinal xenobiotics metabolizing enzymes. For each of these domains, a variety of approaches and their applications are systematically reviewed, including expert systems, data mining approaches, quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs), and machine learning-based methods, pharmacophore-based algorithms, shape-focused techniques, molecular interaction fields (MIFs), reactivity-focused techniques, protein–ligand docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and combinations of methods. Predictive metabolism is a developing area, and there is still enormous potential for improvement. However, it is clear that the combination of rapidly increasing amounts of available ligand- and structure-related experimental data (in particular, quantitative data) with novel and diverse simulation and modeling approaches is accelerating the development of effective tools for prediction of in vivo metabolism, which is reflected by the diverse and comprehensive data sources and methods for metabolism prediction reviewed here. This review attempts to survey the range and scope of computational methods applied to metabolism prediction and also to compare and contrast their applicability and performance. PMID:22339582

  6. Light Modulation of the Activity of Carbon Metabolism Enzymes in the Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Kalancho 1

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vimal K.; Anderson, Louise E.

    1978-01-01

    When intact Kalancho plants are illuminated NADP-linked malic dehydrogenase and three enzymes of the reductive pentose phosphate pathway, ribulose-5-phosphate kinase, NADP-linked glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and sedoheptulose-1,7-diphosphate phosphatase, are activated. In crude extracts these enzymes are activated by dithiothreitol treatment. Light or dithiothreitol treatment does not inactivate the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Likewise, neither light, in vivo, nor dithiothreitol, in vitro, affects fructose-1,6-diphosphate phosphatase. Apparently the potential for modulation of enzyme activity by the reductively activated light effect mediator system exists in Crassulacean acid metabolism plants, but some enzymes which are light-dark-modulated in the pea plant are not in Kalancho. PMID:16660316

  7. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Drre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.230.99?U mg?1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  8. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Drre, Peter

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23-0.99?U mg(-1) protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH? and NH?(+)-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH? and NH?(+)-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  9. Polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and susceptibility to cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, A

    1999-01-01

    The variation in individual responses to exogenous agents is exceptionally wide. It is because of this large diversity of responsiveness that risk factors to environmentally induced diseases have been difficult to pinpoint, particularly at low exposure levels. Opportunities now exist for studies of host factors in cancer or other diseases in which an environmental component can be presumed. Many of the studies have shown an elevated disease proneness for individuals carrying the potential at-risk alleles of metabolic genes, but a number of controversial results have also been reported. This article is an overview of the data published to date on metabolic genotypes related to individual susceptibility to cancer. PMID:10229705

  10. Key Roles of Glutamine Pathways in Reprogramming the Cancer Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Krzysztof Piotr; Maćkowska-Kędziora, Agnieszka; Sobolewski, Bogusław; Woźniak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine (GLN) is commonly known as an important metabolite used for the growth of cancer cells but the effects of its intake in cancer patients are still not clear. However, GLN is the main substrate for DNA and fatty acid synthesis. On the other hand, it reduces the oxidative stress by glutathione synthesis stimulation, stops the process of cancer cachexia, and nourishes the immunological system and the intestine epithelium, as well. The current paper deals with possible positive effects of GLN supplementation and conditions that should be fulfilled to obtain these effects. The analysis of GLN metabolism suggests that the separation of GLN and carbohydrates in the diet can minimize simultaneous supply of ATP (from glucose) and NADPH2 (from glutamine) to cancer cells. It should support to a larger extent the organism to fight against the cancer rather than the cancer cells. GLN cannot be considered the effective source of ATP for cancers with the impaired oxidative phosphorylation and pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition. GLN intake restores decreased levels of glutathione in the case of chemotherapy and radiotherapy; thus, it facilitates regeneration processes of the intestine epithelium and immunological system. PMID:26583064

  11. Pyruvate kinase and aspartate-glutamate carrier distributions reveal key metabolic links between neurons and glia in retina

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Ken J.; Du, Jianhai; Sloat, Stephanie R.; Contreras, Laura; Linton, Jonathan D.; Turner, Sally J.; Sadilek, Martin; Hurley, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships between neurons and glia must adapt to structures, functions, and metabolic roles of the tissues they are in. We show here that Mller glia in retinas have specific enzyme deficiencies that can enhance their ability to synthesize Gln. The metabolic cost of these deficiencies is that they impair the Mller cells ability to metabolize Glc. We show here that the cells can compensate for this deficiency by using metabolites produced by neurons. Mller glia are deficient for pyruvate kinase (PK) and for aspartate/glutamate carrier 1 (AGC1), a key component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. In contrast, photoreceptor neurons express AGC1 and the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase, which is commonly associated with aerobic glycolysis in tumors, proliferating cells, and some other cell types. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified type of metabolic relationship between neurons and glia. Mller glia compensate for their unique metabolic adaptations by using lactate and aspartate from neurons as surrogates for their missing PK and AGC1. PMID:25313047

  12. Entropy is key to the formation of pentacyclic terpenoids by enzyme-catalyzed polycyclization.

    PubMed

    Syrn, Per-Olof; Hammer, Stephan C; Claasen, Birgit; Hauer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclizations constitute a cornerstone of chemistry and biology. Multicyclic scaffolds are generated by terpene cyclase enzymes in nature through a carbocationic polycyclization cascade of a prefolded polyisoprene backbone, for which electrostatic stabilization of transient carbocationic species is believed to drive catalysis. Computational studies and site-directed mutagenesis were used to assess the contribution of entropy to the polycyclization cascade catalyzed by the triterpene cyclase from A. acidocaldarius. Our results show that entropy contributes significantly to the rate enhancement through the release of water molecules through specific channels. A single rational point mutation that results in the disruption of one of these water channels decreased the entropic contribution to catalysis by 60?kcal?mol(-1) . This work demonstrates that entropy is the key to enzyme-catalyzed polycyclizations, which are highly relevant in biology since 90?% of all natural products contain a cyclic subunit. PMID:24711227

  13. Hydrogenosome Metabolism Is the Key Target for Antiparasitic Activity of Resveratrol against Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Metronidazole (MDZ) and related 5-nitroimidazoles are the recommended drugs for treatment of trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. However, novel treatment options are needed, as recent reports have claimed resistance to these drugs in T. vaginalis isolates. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the in vitro effects of the natural polyphenol resveratrol (RESV) on T. vaginalis. At concentrations of between 25 and 100 μM, RESV inhibited the in vitro growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites; doses of 25 μM exerted a cytostatic effect, and higher doses exerted a cytotoxic effect. At these concentrations, RESV caused inhibition of the specific activity of a 120-kDa [Fe]-hydrogenase (Tvhyd). RESV did not affect Tvhyd gene expression and upregulated pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (a hydrogenosomal enzyme) gene expression only at a high dose (100 μM). At doses of 50 to 100 μM, RESV also caused overexpression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a protective protein found in the hydrogenosome of T. vaginalis. The results demonstrate the potential of RESV as an antiparasitic treatment for trichomoniasis and suggest that the mechanism of action involves induction of hydrogenosomal dysfunction. In view of the results, we propose hydrogenosomal metabolism as a key target in the design of novel antiparasitic drugs. PMID:23478970

  14. AMP-activated protein kinase: a cellular energy sensor with a key role in metabolic disorders and in cancer.

    PubMed

    Hardie, D Grahame

    2011-01-01

    It is essential to life that a balance is maintained between processes that produce ATP and those that consume it. An obvious way to do this would be to have systems that monitor the levels of ATP and ADP, although because of the adenylate kinase reaction (2ADP?ATP+AMP), AMP is actually a more sensitive indicator of energy stress than ADP. Following the discoveries that glycogen phosphorylase and phosphofructokinase were regulated by AMP and ATP, Daniel Atkinson proposed that all enzymes at branch points between biosynthesis and degradation would be regulated by adenine nucleotides. This turned out to be correct, but what Atkinson did not anticipate was that sensing of nucleotides would, in most cases, be performed not by the metabolic enzymes themselves, but by a signalling protein, AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). AMPK occurs in essentially all eukaryotes and consists of heterotrimeric complexes comprising catalytic ? subunits and regulatory ? and ? subunits, of which the latter carries the nucleotide-binding sites. Once activated by a metabolic stress, it phosphorylates numerous targets that alter enzyme activity and gene expression to initiate corrective responses. In lower eukaryotes, it is critically involved in the responses to starvation for a carbon source. Because of its ability to switch cellular metabolism from anabolic to catabolic mode, AMPK has become a key drug target to combat metabolic disorders associated with overnutrition such as Type2 diabetes, and some existing anti-diabetic drugs (e.g. metformin) and many 'nutraceuticals' work by activating AMPK, usually via inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production. AMPK activators also potentially have anticancer effects, and there is already evidence that metformin provides protection against the initiation of cancer. Whether AMPK activators can be used to treat existing cancer is less clear, because many tumour cells appear to have been selected for mutations that inactivate the AMPK system. However, if we can identify the various mechanisms by which this occurs, we may be able to find ways of overcoming it. PMID:21265739

  15. Metabolic and Bactericidal Effects of Targeted Suppression of NadD and NadE Enzymes in Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rodionova, Irina A.; Schuster, Brian M.; Guinn, Kristine M.; Sorci, Leonardo; Scott, David A.; Li, Xiaoqing; Kheterpal, Indu; Shoen, Carolyn; Cynamon, Michael; Locher, Christopher; Rubin, Eric J.; Osterman, Andrei L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of death due to the lack of treatment accessibility, HIV coinfection, and drug resistance. Development of new drugs targeting previously unexplored pathways is essential to shorten treatment time and eliminate persistent M. tuberculosis. A promising biochemical pathway which may be targeted to kill both replicating and nonreplicating M. tuberculosis is the biosynthesis of NAD(H), an essential cofactor in multiple reactions crucial for respiration, redox balance, and biosynthesis of major building blocks. NaMN adenylyltransferase (NadD) and NAD synthetase (NadE), the key enzymes of NAD biosynthesis, were selected as promising candidate drug targets for M. tuberculosis. Here we report for the first time kinetic characterization of the recombinant purified NadD enzyme, setting the stage for its structural analysis and inhibitor development. A protein knockdown approach was applied to validate bothNadD and NadE as target enzymes. Induced degradation of either target enzyme showed a strong bactericidal effect which coincided with anticipated changes in relative levels of NaMN and NaAD intermediates (substrates of NadD and NadE, respectively) and ultimate depletion of the NAD(H) pool. A metabolic catastrophe predicted as a likely result of NAD(H) deprivation of cellular metabolism was confirmed by 13C biosynthetic labeling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A sharp suppression of metabolic flux was observed in multiple NAD(P)(H)-dependent pathways, including synthesis of many amino acids (serine, proline, aromatic amino acids) and fatty acids. Overall, these results provide strong validation of the essential NAD biosynthetic enzymes, NadD and NadE, as antimycobacterial drug targets. PMID:24549842

  16. Novel TPP-riboswitch activators bypass metabolic enzyme dependency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Günter; Lünse, Christina; Suckling, Colin; Scott, Fraser

    2014-07-01

    Riboswitches are conserved regions within mRNA molecules that bind specific metabolites and regulate gene expression. TPP-riboswitches, which respond to thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), are involved in the regulation of thiamine metabolism in numerous bacteria. As these regulatory RNAs are often modulating essential biosynthesis pathways they have become increasingly interesting as promising antibacterial targets. Here, we describe thiamine analogs containing a central 1,2,3-triazole group to induce repression of thiM-riboswitch dependent gene expression in different E. coli strains. Additionally, we show that compound activation is dependent on proteins involved in the metabolic pathways of thiamine uptake and synthesis. The most promising molecule, triazolethiamine (TT), shows concentration dependent reporter gene repression that is dependent on the presence of thiamine kinase ThiK, whereas the effect of pyrithiamine (PT), a known TPP-riboswitch modulator, is ThiK independent. We further show that this dependence can be bypassed by triazolethiamine-derivatives that bear phosphate-mimicking moieties. As triazolethiamine reveals superior activity compared to pyrithiamine, it represents a very promising starting point for developing novel antibacterial compounds that target TPP-riboswitches. Riboswitch-targeting compounds engage diverse endogenous mechanisms to attain in vivo activity. These findings are of importance for the understanding of compounds that require metabolic activation to achieve effective riboswitch modulation and they enable the design of novel compound generations that are independent of endogenous activation mechanisms.

  17. Oral cancer cells may rewire alternative metabolic pathways to survive from siRNA silencing of metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer cells may undergo metabolic adaptations that support their growth as well as drug resistance properties. The purpose of this study is to test if oral cancer cells can overcome the metabolic defects introduced by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down their expression of important metabolic enzymes. Methods UM1 and UM2 oral cancer cells were transfected with siRNA to transketolase (TKT) or siRNA to adenylate kinase (AK2), and Western blotting was used to confirm the knockdown. Cellular uptake of glucose and glutamine and production of lactate were compared between the cancer cells with either TKT or AK2 knockdown and those transfected with control siRNA. Statistical analysis was performed with student T-test. Results Despite the defect in the pentose phosphate pathway caused by siRNA knockdown of TKT, the survived UM1 or UM2 cells utilized more glucose and glutamine and secreted a significantly higher amount of lactate than the cells transferred with control siRNA. We also demonstrated that siRNA knockdown of AK2 constrained the proliferation of UM1 and UM2 cells but similarly led to an increased uptake of glucose/glutamine and production of lactate by the UM1 or UM2 cells survived from siRNA silencing of AK2. Conclusions Our results indicate that the metabolic defects introduced by siRNA silencing of metabolic enzymes TKT or AK2 may be compensated by alternative feedback metabolic mechanisms, suggesting that cancer cells may overcome single defective pathways through secondary metabolic network adaptations. The highly robust nature of oral cancer cell metabolism implies that a systematic medical approach targeting multiple metabolic pathways may be needed to accomplish the continued improvement of cancer treatment. PMID:24666435

  18. Sensitivity of bacterioplankton nitrogen metabolism to eutrophication in sub-tropical coastal waters of Key West, Florida.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Matthew P; Dillon, Kevin S; Coffin, Richard B; Cifuentes, Luis A

    2008-05-01

    Expression of intracellular ammonium assimilation enzymes were used to assess the response of nitrogen (N) metabolism in bacterioplankton to N-loading of sub-tropical coastal waters of Key West, Florida. Specific activities of glutamine synthetase (GS) and total glutamate dehydrogenase (GDHT) were measured on the bacterial size fraction (<0.8 microm) to assess N-deplete versus N-replete metabolic states, respectively. Enzyme results were compared to concentrations of dissolved organic matter and nutrients and to the biomass and production of phytoplankton and bacteria. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic N (DIN), dissolved organic N (DON), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) positively correlated with specific activities of GDHT and negatively correlated with that of GS. Total dissolved N (TDN) concentration explained 81% of variance in bacterioplankton GDHT:GS activity ratio. The GDHT:GS ratio, TDN, DOC, and bacterial parameters decreased in magnitude along a tidally dynamic trophic gradient from north of Key West to south at the reef tract, which is consistent with the combined effects of localized coastal eutrophication and tidal exchange of seawater from the Southwest Florida Shelf and Florida Strait. The N-replete bacterioplankton north of Key West can regenerate ammonium which sustains primary production transported south to the reef. The range in GDHT:GS ratios was 5-30 times greater than that for commonly used indicators of planktonic eutrophication, which emphasizes the sensitivity of bacterioplankton N-metabolism to changes in N-bioavailability caused by nutrient pollution in sub-tropical coastal waters and utility of GDHT:GS ratio as an bioindicator of N-replete conditions. PMID:18331746

  19. Organization of Enzyme Concentration across the Metabolic Network in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Madhukar, Neel S.; Warmoes, Marc O.; Locasale, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid advances in mass spectrometry have allowed for estimates of absolute concentrations across entire proteomes, permitting the interrogation of many important biological questions. Here, we focus on a quantitative aspect of human cancer cell metabolism that has been limited by a paucity of available data on the abundance of metabolic enzymes. We integrate data from recent measurements of absolute protein concentration to analyze the statistics of protein abundance across the human metabolic network. At a global level, we find that the enzymes in glycolysis comprise approximately half of the total amount of metabolic proteins and can constitute up to 10% of the entire proteome. We then use this analysis to investigate several outstanding problems in cancer metabolism, including the diversion of glycolytic flux for biosynthesis, the relative contribution of nitrogen assimilating pathways, and the origin of cellular redox potential. We find many consistencies with current models, identify several inconsistencies, and find generalities that extend beyond current understanding. Together our results demonstrate that a relatively simple analysis of the abundance of metabolic enzymes was able to reveal many insights into the organization of the human cancer cell metabolic network. PMID:25621879

  20. EnzDP: improved enzyme annotation for metabolic network reconstruction based on domain composition profiles.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nam-Ninh; Srihari, Sriganesh; Leong, Hon Wai; Chong, Ket-Fah

    2015-10-01

    Determining the entire complement of enzymes and their enzymatic functions is a fundamental step for reconstructing the metabolic network of cells. High quality enzyme annotation helps in enhancing metabolic networks reconstructed from the genome, especially by reducing gaps and increasing the enzyme coverage. Currently, structure-based and network-based approaches can only cover a limited number of enzyme families, and the accuracy of homology-based approaches can be further improved. Bottom-up homology-based approach improves the coverage by rebuilding Hidden Markov Model (HMM) profiles for all known enzymes. However, its clustering procedure relies firmly on BLAST similarity score, ignoring protein domains/patterns, and is sensitive to changes in cut-off thresholds. Here, we use functional domain architecture to score the association between domain families and enzyme families (Domain-Enzyme Association Scoring, DEAS). The DEAS score is used to calculate the similarity between proteins, which is then used in clustering procedure, instead of using sequence similarity score. We improve the enzyme annotation protocol using a stringent classification procedure, and by choosing optimal threshold settings and checking for active sites. Our analysis shows that our stringent protocol EnzDP can cover up to 90% of enzyme families available in Swiss-Prot. It achieves a high accuracy of 94.5% based on five-fold cross-validation. EnzDP outperforms existing methods across several testing scenarios. Thus, EnzDP serves as a reliable automated tool for enzyme annotation and metabolic network reconstruction. Available at: www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~nguyennn/EnzDP . PMID:26542446

  1. Molecular changes in mitochondrial respiratory activity and metabolic enzyme activity in muscle of four pig breeds with distinct metabolic types.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Trakooljul, Nares; Murni, Eduard; Krischek, Carsten; Schellander, Karl; Wicke, Michael; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2016-02-01

    Skeletal muscles are metabolically active and have market value in meat-producing farm animals. A better understanding of biological pathways affecting energy metabolism in skeletal muscle could advance the science of skeletal muscle. In this study, comparative pathway-focused gene expression profiling in conjunction with muscle fiber typing were analyzed in skeletal muscles from Duroc, Pietrain, and Duroc-Pietrain crossbred pigs. Each breed type displayed a distinct muscle fiber-type composition. Mitochondrial respiratory activity and glycolytic and oxidative enzyme activities were comparable among genotypes, except for significantly lower complex I activity in Pietrain pigs homozygous-positive for malignant hyperthermia syndrome. At the transcriptional level, lactate dehydrogenase B showed breed specificity, with significantly lower expression in Pietrain pigs homozygous-positive for malignant hyperthermia syndrome. A similar mRNA expression pattern was shown for several subunits of oxidative phosphorylation complexes, including complex I, complex II, complex IV, and ATP synthase. Significant correlations were observed between mRNA expression of genes in focused pathways and enzyme activities in a breed-dependent manner. Moreover, expression patterns of pathway-focused genes were well correlated with muscle fiber-type composition. These results stress the importance of regulation of transcriptional rate of genes related to oxidative and glycolytic pathways in the metabolic capacity of muscle fibers. Overall, the results further the breed-specific understanding of the molecular basis of metabolic enzyme activities, which directly impact meat quality. PMID:26759028

  2. Biotransformation of anthelmintics and the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the tapeworm Moniezia expansa.

    PubMed

    Prchal, Lukáš; Bártíková, Hana; Bečanová, Aneta; Jirásko, Robert; Vokřál, Ivan; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Skálová, Lenka; Kubíček, Vladimír; Lamka, Jiří; Trejtnar, František; Szotáková, Barbora

    2015-04-01

    The sheep tapeworm Moniezia expansa is very common parasite, which affects ruminants such as sheep, goats as well as other species. The benzimidazole anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ), flubendazole (FLU) and mebendazole (MBZ) are often used to treat the infection. The drug-metabolizing enzymes of helminths may alter the potency of anthelmintic treatment. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (ABZ, MBZ and FLU) in M. expansa. Activities of biotransformation enzymes were determined in subcellular fractions. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified using high performance liquid chromatography/ultra-violet/VIS/fluorescence or ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reduction of MBZ, FLU and oxidation of ABZ were proved as well as activities of various metabolizing enzymes. Despite the fact that the conjugation enzymes glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and UDP-glucosyl transferase were active in vitro, no conjugated metabolites of anthelmintics were identified either ex vivo or in vitro. The obtained results indicate that sheep tapeworm is able to deactivate the administered anthelmintics, and thus protects itself against their action. PMID:25373326

  3. Comparison of the Small Molecule Metabolic Enzymes of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Oliver; Gough, Julian; Chothia, Cyrus; Teichmann, Sarah A.

    2002-01-01

    The comparison of the small molecule metabolism pathways in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) shows that 271 enzymes are common to both organisms. These common enzymes involve 384 gene products in E. coli and 390 in yeast, which are between one half and two thirds of the gene products of small molecule metabolism in E. coli and yeast, respectively. The arrangement and family membership of the domains that form all or part of 374 E. coli sequences and 343 yeast sequences was determined. Of these, 70% consist entirely of homologous domains, and 20% have homologous domains linked to other domains that are unique to E. coli, yeast, or both. Over two thirds of the enzymes common to the two organisms have sequence identities between 30% and 50%. The remaining groups include 13 clear cases of nonorthologous displacement. Our calculations show that at most one half to two thirds of the gene products involved in small molecule metabolism are common to E. coli and yeast. We have shown that the common core of 271 enzymes has been largely conserved since the separation of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including modifications for regulatory purposes, such as gene fusion and changes in the number of isozymes in one of the two organisms. Only one fifth of the common enzymes have nonhomologous domains between the two organisms. Around the common core very different extensions have been made to small molecule metabolism in the two organisms. [Online supplementary material available a http://www.genome.org.] PMID:12045145

  4. Sulfatases and radical SAM enzymes: emerging themes in glycosaminoglycan metabolism and the human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Benjdia, Alhosna; Berteau, Olivier

    2016-02-15

    Humans live in a permanent association with bacterial populations collectively called the microbiota. In the last 10 years, major advances in our knowledge of the microbiota have shed light on its critical roles in human physiology. The microbiota has also been shown to be a major factor in numerous pathologies including obesity or inflammatory disorders. Despite tremendous progresses, our understanding of the key functions of the human microbiota and the molecular basis of its interactions with the host remain still poorly understood. Among the factors involved in host colonization, two enzymes families, sulfatases and radical S-adenosyl-L-methionine enzymes, have recently emerged as key enzymes. PMID:26862195

  5. A systems biology framework for modeling metabolic enzyme inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Xin; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2009-01-01

    Background Because metabolism is fundamental in sustaining microbial life, drugs that target pathogen-specific metabolic enzymes and pathways can be very effective. In particular, the metabolic challenges faced by intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, residing in the infected host provide novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Results We developed a mathematical framework to simulate the effects on the growth of a pathogen when enzymes in its metabolic pathways are inhibited. Combining detailed models of enzyme kinetics, a complete metabolic network description as modeled by flux balance analysis, and a dynamic cell population growth model, we quantitatively modeled and predicted the dose-response of the 3-nitropropionate inhibitor on the growth of M. tuberculosis in a medium whose carbon source was restricted to fatty acids, and that of the 5'-O-(N-salicylsulfamoyl) adenosine inhibitor in a medium with low-iron concentration. Conclusion The predicted results quantitatively reproduced the experimentally measured dose-response curves, ranging over three orders of magnitude in inhibitor concentration. Thus, by allowing for detailed specifications of the underlying enzymatic kinetics, metabolic reactions/constraints, and growth media, our model captured the essential chemical and biological factors that determine the effects of drug inhibition on in vitro growth of M. tuberculosis cells. PMID:19754970

  6. Increments and duplication events of enzymes and transcription factors influence metabolic and regulatory diversity in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Nez, Mario Alberto; Poot-Hernandez, Augusto Cesar; Rodrguez-Vzquez, Katya; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the content of enzymes and DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) in 794 non-redundant prokaryotic genomes was evaluated. The identification of enzymes was based on annotations deposited in the KEGG database as well as in databases of functional domains (COG and PFAM) and structural domains (Superfamily). For identifications of the TFs, hidden Markov profiles were constructed based on well-known transcriptional regulatory families. From these analyses, we obtained diverse and interesting results, such as the negative rate of incremental changes in the number of detected enzymes with respect to the genome size. On the contrary, for TFs the rate incremented as the complexity of genome increased. This inverse related performance shapes the diversity of metabolic and regulatory networks and impacts the availability of enzymes and TFs. Furthermore, the intersection of the derivatives between enzymes and TFs was identified at 9,659 genes, after this point, the regulatory complexity grows faster than metabolic complexity. In addition, TFs have a low number of duplications, in contrast to the apparent high number of duplications associated with enzymes. Despite the greater number of duplicated enzymes versus TFs, the increment by which duplicates appear is higher in TFs. A lower proportion of enzymes among archaeal genomes (22%) than in the bacterial ones (27%) was also found. This low proportion might be compensated by the interconnection between the metabolic pathways in Archaea. A similar proportion was also found for the archaeal TFs, for which the formation of regulatory complexes has been proposed. Finally, an enrichment of multifunctional enzymes in Bacteria, as a mechanism of ecological adaptation, was detected. PMID:23922780

  7. Increments and Duplication Events of Enzymes and Transcription Factors Influence Metabolic and Regulatory Diversity in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martnez-Nez, Mario Alberto; Poot-Hernandez, Augusto Cesar; Rodrguez-Vzquez, Katya; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the content of enzymes and DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) in 794 non-redundant prokaryotic genomes was evaluated. The identification of enzymes was based on annotations deposited in the KEGG database as well as in databases of functional domains (COG and PFAM) and structural domains (Superfamily). For identifications of the TFs, hidden Markov profiles were constructed based on well-known transcriptional regulatory families. From these analyses, we obtained diverse and interesting results, such as the negative rate of incremental changes in the number of detected enzymes with respect to the genome size. On the contrary, for TFs the rate incremented as the complexity of genome increased. This inverse related performance shapes the diversity of metabolic and regulatory networks and impacts the availability of enzymes and TFs. Furthermore, the intersection of the derivatives between enzymes and TFs was identified at 9,659 genes, after this point, the regulatory complexity grows faster than metabolic complexity. In addition, TFs have a low number of duplications, in contrast to the apparent high number of duplications associated with enzymes. Despite the greater number of duplicated enzymes versus TFs, the increment by which duplicates appear is higher in TFs. A lower proportion of enzymes among archaeal genomes (22%) than in the bacterial ones (27%) was also found. This low proportion might be compensated by the interconnection between the metabolic pathways in Archaea. A similar proportion was also found for the archaeal TFs, for which the formation of regulatory complexes has been proposed. Finally, an enrichment of multifunctional enzymes in Bacteria, as a mechanism of ecological adaptation, was detected. PMID:23922780

  8. Gene Expression of Glutamate Metabolizing Enzymes in the Hippocampal Formation in Human Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Tore; Lee, Tih-Shih W; Wang, Yue; Perz, Edgar; Drummond, Jana; Lauritzen, Fredrik; Bergersen, Linda H; Woodruff, James H Meador; Spencer, Dennis D; de Lanerolle, Nihal C; McCullumsmith, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Summary PURPOSE Increased interictal concentrations of extracellular hippocampal glutamate have been implicated in the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in humans. Recent studies suggest that perturbations of the glutamate metabolizing enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and phosphate activated glutaminase (PAG) may underlie the glutamate excess in TLE. However, the molecular mechanism of the enzyme perturbations remains unclear. A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of GS and PAG could facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutics for TLE. METHODS We used in situ hybridization on histological sections to assess the distribution and quantity of mRNA for GS and PAG in subfields of hippocampal formations from: (a) patients with TLE and concomitant hippocampal sclerosis, (b) patients with TLE and no hippocampal sclerosis, and (c) non-epilepsy autopsy subjects. KEY FINDINGS GS mRNA was increased by approximately 50% in the CA3 in TLE patients without hippocampal sclerosis vs. in TLE patients with sclerosis and in non-epilepsy subjects. PAG mRNA was increased by more than 100% in the subiculum in both TLE patient categories vs. in non-epilepsy subjects. PAG mRNA was also increased in the CA1, CA2, CA3 and dentate hilus in TLE without hippocampal sclerosis vs. in TLE with sclerosis. Finally, PAG mRNA was increased in the dentate gyrus in TLE with sclerosis vs. in non-epilepsy subjects, and also increased in the hilus in TLE without sclerosis vs. in TLE with sclerosis. SIGNIFICANCE These findings demonstrate complex changes in the expression of mRNAs for GS and PAG in the hippocampal formation in TLE, and raise the possibility that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms may underlie the regulation of GS and PAG proteins in the epileptic brain. PMID:23384343

  9. Controlled sumoylation of the mevalonate pathway enzyme HMGS-1 regulates metabolism during aging

    PubMed Central

    Sapir, Amir; Tsur, Assaf; Koorman, Thijs; Ching, Kaitlin; Mishra, Prashant; Bardenheier, Annabelle; Podolsky, Lisa; Bening-Abu-Shach, Ulrike; Boxem, Mike; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Broday, Limor; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Many metabolic pathways are critically regulated during development and aging but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. One key metabolic cascade in eukaryotes is the mevalonate pathway. It catalyzes the synthesis of sterol and nonsterol isoprenoids, such as cholesterol and ubiquinone, as well as other metabolites. In humans, an age-dependent decrease in ubiquinone levels and changes in cholesterol homeostasis suggest that mevalonate pathway activity changes with age. However, our knowledge of the mechanistic basis of these changes remains rudimentary. We have identified a regulatory circuit controlling the sumoylation state of Caenorhabditis elegans HMG-CoA synthase (HMGS-1). This protein is the ortholog of human HMGCS1 enzyme, which mediates the first committed step of the mevalonate pathway. In vivo, HMGS-1 undergoes an age-dependent sumoylation that is balanced by the activity of ULP-4 small ubiquitin-like modifier protease. ULP-4 exhibits an age-regulated expression pattern and a dynamic cytoplasm-to-mitochondria translocation. Thus, spatiotemporal ULP-4 activity controls the HMGS-1 sumoylation state in a mechanism that orchestrates mevalonate pathway activity with the age of the organism. To expand the HMGS-1 regulatory network, we combined proteomic analyses with knockout studies and found that the HMGS-1 level is also governed by the ubiquitinproteasome pathway. We propose that these conserved molecular circuits have evolved to govern the level of mevalonate pathway flux during aging, a flux whose dysregulation is associated with numerous age-dependent cardiovascular and cancer pathologies. PMID:25187565

  10. Some enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in Mesocestoides corti and Heterakis spumosa.

    PubMed

    Dubinsk, P; Ruscinov, B; Hetmanski, S L; Arme, C; Turcekov, L; Rybos, M

    1991-09-01

    The activities of selected enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism were measured in tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides corti and in adult females and males of Heterakis spumosa. When the species were compared, only lactate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities were considerably higher in M. corti. Activities of other enzymes were higher in H. spumosa, with malate dehydrogenase activity being considerably so. In H. spumosa, enzyme activity was higher, and succinate dehydrogenase markedly so in males, when compared with females. Tetrathyridia aged 170 and 210 days show relatively stable malate and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and mice of ICR and BALB/c strains are suitable for the maintenance of tetrathyridia. PMID:1940248

  11. Metabolic Diseases Downregulate the Majority of Histone Modification Enzymes, Making a Few Upregulated Enzymes Novel Therapeutic Targets-"Sand Out and Gold Stays".

    PubMed

    Shao, Ying; Chernaya, Valeria; Johnson, Candice; Yang, William Y; Cueto, Ramon; Sha, Xiaojin; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Xuebin; Sun, Jianxin; Choi, Eric T; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2016-02-01

    To determine whether the expression of histone modification enzymes is regulated in physiological and pathological conditions, we took an experimental database mining approach pioneered in our labs to determine a panoramic expression profile of 164 enzymes in 19 human and 17 murine tissues. We have made the following significant findings: (1) Histone enzymes are differentially expressed in cardiovascular, immune, and other tissues; (2) our new pyramid model showed that heart and T cells are among a few tissues in which histone acetylation/deacetylation, and histone methylation/demethylation are in the highest varieties; and (3) histone enzymes are more downregulated than upregulated in metabolic diseases and regulatory T cell (Treg) polarization/ differentiation, but not in tumors. These results have demonstrated a new working model of "Sand out and Gold stays," where more downregulation than upregulation of histone enzymes in metabolic diseases makes a few upregulated enzymes the potential novel therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases and Treg activity. PMID:26746407

  12. Phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase and the role of endobiotic metabolism enzymes in xenobiotic biotransformation.

    PubMed

    Steventon, Glyn B; Mitchell, Stephen C

    2009-10-01

    Phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase is the key enzyme in the sulfoxidation of the thioether drug S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine and its thioether metabolites, S-methyl-l-cysteine, N-acetyl-S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-methyl-l-cysteine in humans, and a number of other mammalian species. The kinetics constants of the sulfoxidation reaction (K(m), V(max) and CL(E)) have been investigated in cytosolic fractions derived from rat and human liver, in cytosolic fractions of HepG2 cells and using both human and mouse cDNA expressed phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase. Differences in K(m), V(max) and CL(E) of S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine have been seen in HepG2 cells and human and mouse cDNA expressed phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase when compared to both rat and human hepatic cytosolic fractions. The association of the genetic polymorphism in the sulfoxidation of S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine is highlighted with particular reference to this biotransformation reaction as being a biomarker of disease susceptibility in Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and motor neurone diseases and in rheumatoid arthritis. The possible underlying molecular genetics of the sulfoxidation polymorphism is also discussed in relation to the known allelic frequencies of phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase. Finally, the new found role phenylalanine 4-monooxygenase plays in xenobiotic metabolism is discussed. PMID:19653802

  13. Discovery of the curcumin metabolic pathway involving a unique enzyme in an intestinal microorganism

    PubMed Central

    Hassaninasab, Azam; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenol curcumin, a yellow pigment, derived from the rhizomes of a plant (Curcuma longa Linn) is a natural antioxidant exhibiting a variety of pharmacological activities and therapeutic properties. It has long been used as a traditional medicine and as a preservative and coloring agent in foods. Here, curcumin-converting microorganisms were isolated from human feces, the one exhibiting the highest activity being identified as Escherichia coli. We are thus unique in discovering that E. coli was able to act on curcumin. The curcumin-converting enzyme was purified from E. coli and characterized. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of about 82 kDa and consisted of two identical subunits. The enzyme has a narrow substrate spectrum, preferentially acting on curcumin. The microbial metabolism of curcumin by the purified enzyme was found to comprise a two-step reduction, curcumin being converted NADPH-dependently into an intermediate product, dihydrocurcumin, and then the end product, tetrahydrocurcumin. We named this enzyme NADPH-dependent curcumin/dihydrocurcumin reductase (CurA). The gene (curA) encoding this enzyme was also identified. A homology search with the BLAST program revealed that a unique enzyme involved in curcumin metabolism belongs to the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. PMID:21467222

  14. Dynamic Metabolic Footprinting Reveals the Key Components of Metabolic Network in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Chumnanpuen, Pramote; Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg; Smedsgaard, Jrn; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic footprinting offers a relatively easy approach to exploit the potentials of metabolomics for phenotypic characterization of microbial cells. To capture the highly dynamic nature of metabolites, we propose the use of dynamic metabolic footprinting instead of the traditional method which relies on analysis at a single time point. Using direct infusion-mass spectrometry (DI-MS), we could observe the dynamic metabolic footprinting in yeast S. cerevisiae BY4709 (wild type) cultured on 3 different C-sources (glucose, glycerol, and ethanol) and sampled along 10 time points with 5 biological replicates. In order to analyze the dynamic mass spectrometry data, we developed the novel analysis methods that allow us to perform correlation analysis to identify metabolites that significantly correlate over time during growth on the different carbon sources. Both positive and negative electrospray ionization (ESI) modes were performed to obtain the complete information about the metabolite content. Using sparse principal component analysis (Sparse PCA), we further identified those pairs of metabolites that significantly contribute to the separation. From the list of significant metabolite pairs, we reconstructed an interaction map that provides information of how different metabolic pathways have correlated patterns during growth on the different carbon sources. PMID:24616891

  15. In vivo co-localization of enzymes on RNA scaffolds increases metabolic production in a geometrically dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Gairik; Garg, Abhishek; Godding, David; Way, Jeffrey C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    Co-localization of biochemical processes plays a key role in the directional control of metabolic fluxes toward specific products in cells. Here, we employ in vivo scaffolds made of RNA that can bind engineered proteins fused to specific RNA binding domains. This allows proteins to be co-localized on RNA scaffolds inside living Escherichia coli. We assembled a library of eight aptamers and corresponding RNA binding domains fused to partial fragments of fluorescent proteins. New scaffold designs could co-localize split green fluorescent protein fragments to produce activity as measured by cell-based fluorescence. The scaffolds consisted of either single bivalent RNAs or RNAs designed to polymerize in one or two dimensions. The new scaffolds were used to increase metabolic output from a two-enzyme pentadecane production pathway that contains a fatty aldehyde intermediate, as well as three and four enzymes in the succinate production pathway. Pentadecane synthesis depended on the geometry of enzymes on the scaffold, as determined through systematic reorientation of the acyl-ACP reductase fusion by rotation via addition of base pairs to its cognate RNA aptamer. Together, these data suggest that intra-cellular scaffolding of enzymatic reactions may enhance the direct channeling of a variety of substrates. PMID:25034694

  16. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression Through the Life Stages of the Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been ca...

  17. Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and theophylline on hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S K; Poddar, M K

    1992-11-17

    Theophylline (Th) under in vitro conditions stimulated the activities of rat liver microsomal aniline hydroxylase, N-demethylase and O-demethylase, while delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC) inhibited the activities of these hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes under similar conditions. delta-9-THC-induced inhibition of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes was significantly reduced in the presence of Th. Analysis of Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that Th-induced stimulation of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes occurs due to an increase in substrate affinity (1/Km) and of Vmax. delta-9-THC-induced inhibition of N-demethylase and O-demethylase is probably due to competition of the drug with the substrates for a common intermediate in the microsomal electron transport chain. Non-competitive and mixed-type inhibition caused by delta-9-THC on aniline hydroxylation appears to be associated with a non-specific action of delta-9-THC. Blocking of delta-9-THC-induced inhibition or reduction of Th-induced stimulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes with Th or delta-9-THC was due to an increase or decrease in either Vmax, substrate affinity (1/Km) or both with respect to the corresponding Km and Vmax observed with delta-9-THC or Th alone. PMID:1333203

  18. Comparative investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and higher eukaryotes. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 gene of Gibberella moniliformis was the first NAT cloned and characterized from fun...

  19. IDENTIFICATION OF CHANGES IN XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM ENZYME EXPRESSION DURING AGING USING COMPREHENSIVE TRANSCRIPT PROFILING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging leads to changes in the expression of enzymes and transporters important in the metabolism and fate of xenobiotics in liver, kidney and intestine. Most notable are the changes in a number of CYP and xenobiotic transporter genes regulated by the nuclear receptors PXR, CAR an...

  20. Coordinated Changes in Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression in Aging Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to gain better insight on aging and susceptibility, we characterized the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) from the livers of rats to evaluate the change in capacity to respond to xenobiotics across the adult lifespan. Gene expression profiles for XMEs...

  1. Induction and regulation of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme CYP1A1 by marijuana smoke and delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Roth, M D; Marques-Magallanes, J A; Yuan, M; Sun, W; Tashkin, D P; Hankinson, O

    2001-03-01

    Induction of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is a key step in the development of tobacco-related cancers. To determine if marijuana smoke activates CYP1A1, a murine hepatoma cell line expressing an inducible CYP1A1 gene (Hepa-1) was exposed in vitro to tar extracts prepared from either tobacco, marijuana, or placebo marijuana cigarettes. Marijuana tar induced higher levels of CYP1A1 messenger RNA (mRNA) than did tobacco tar, yet resulted in much lower CYP1A1 enzyme activity. These differences between marijuana and tobacco were primarily due to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Here we show that Delta(9)-THC acts through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex to activate transcription of CYP1A1. A 2-microg/ml concentration of Delta(9)-THC produced an average 2.5-fold induction of CYP1A1 mRNA, whereas a 10- microg/ml concentration of Delta(9)-THC produced a 4.3-fold induction. No induction was observed in Hepa-1 mutants lacking functional aryl-hydrocarbon receptor or aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator genes. At the same time, Delta(9)-THC competitively inhibited the CYP1A1 enzyme, reducing its ability to metabolize other substrates. Spiking tobacco tar with Delta(9)-THC resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the ability to generate CYP1A1 enzyme activity as measured by the ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase (EROD) assay. This inhibitory effect was confirmed by Michaelis-Menton kinetic analyses using recombinant human CYP1A1 enzyme expressed in insect microsomes. This complex regulation of CYP1A1 by marijuana smoke and the Delta(9)-THC that it contains has implications for the role of marijuana as a cancer risk factor. PMID:11245634

  2. Sex-specific basal and hypoglycemic patterns of in vivo caudal dorsal vagal complex astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme protein expression.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, Pratistha; Shrestha, Prem; Briski, Karen P

    2014-10-24

    Astrocytes contribute to neurometabolic stability through uptake, catabolism, and storage of glucose. These cells maintain the major brain glycogen reservoir, which is a critical fuel supply to neurons during glucose deficiency and increased brain activity. We used a combinatory approach incorporating immunocytochemistry, laser microdissection, and Western blotting to investigate the hypothesis of divergent expression of key enzymes regulating glycogen metabolism and glycolysis during in vivo normo- and/or hypoglycemia in male versus female hindbrain astrocytes. Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) levels were both enhanced in dorsal vagal complex astrocytes from vehicle-injected female versus male controls, with incremental increase in GS exceeding GP. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) diminished GS and increased glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (GSK3?) expression in both sexes, but decreased phosphoprotein phosphatase-1 (PP1) levels only in males. Astrocyte GP content was elevated by IIH in male, but not female rats. Data reveal sex-dependent sensitivity of these enzyme proteins to lactate as caudal hindbrain repletion of this energy substrate fully or incompletely reversed hypoglycemic inhibition of GS and prevented hypoglycemic augmentation of GSK3? and GP in females and males, respectively. Sex dimorphic patterns of glycogen branching and debranching enzyme protein expression were also observed. Levels of the rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme, phosphofructokinase, were unaffected by IIH with or without lactate repletion. Current data demonstrating sex-dependent basal and hypoglycemic patterns of hindbrain astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme expression imply that glycogen volume and turnover during glucose sufficiency and shortage may vary accordingly. PMID:25152463

  3. Effects of grafting on key photosynthetic enzymes and gene expression in the citrus cultivar Huangguogan.

    PubMed

    Liao, L; Cao, S Y; Rong, Y; Wang, Z H

    2016-01-01

    Grafting influences scion photosynthetic capacity and fruit quality. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which strongly affects photosynthetic rate, and Rubisco activase (RCA), which regulates Rubisco activity, are two key photosynthetic enzymes. However, little information is available regarding the effect of grafting on the concentration and expression of Rubisco and RCA in the citrus cultivar Huangguogan. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of grafting Huangguogan plants onto trifoliate orange, tangerine, and orange on: 1) the concentration of Rubisco and RCA; 2) the mRNA levels of rbcL, rbcS, and rca; and 3) fruit quality. Overall, the results showed that when Huangguogan plants budded on tangerine and orange, they had better fruit quality, while on trifoliate orange they had higher Rubisco concentration. Tangerine and orange are probably the most suitable rootstocks for Huangguogan plants given the environmental conditions of Sichuan Province, China. PMID:26985941

  4. [Regulation of key enzymes of L-alanine biosynthesis by Brevibacterium flavum producer strains].

    PubMed

    Melkonian, L O; Avetisova, G E; Ambartsumian, A A; Chakhalian, A Kh; Sagian, A S

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of L-alanine overproduction by Brevibacterium flavum producer strains were studied. It was shown that beta-CI-L-alanine is an inhibitor of some key enzymes involved in the synthesis of L-alanine, including alanine transaminase and valine-pyruvate transaminase. Two highly active B. flavum GL1 and GL1 8 producer strains, which are resistant to the inhibitory effect of beta-Cl-L-alanine, were obtained using a parental B. flavum AA5 producer strain, characterized by a reduced activity of alanine racemase (>or=98%). It was demonstrated that the increased L-alanine synthesis efficiency observed in the producer strains developed in this work is associated with the absence of inhibition of alanine transaminase by the end product of the biosynthesis reaction, as well as with the effect of derepression of both alanine transaminase and valine-pyruvate transaminase synthesis by the studied compound. PMID:23795472

  5. Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stout, Stephen M; Cimino, Nina M

    2014-02-01

    Exogenous cannabinoids are structurally and pharmacologically diverse compounds that are widely used. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the data characterizing the potential for these compounds to act as substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes, with the aim of clarifying the significance of these properties in clinical care and drug interactions. In vitro data were identified that characterize cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) enzymes as potential significant contributors to the primary metabolism of several exogenous cannabinoids: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; CYPs 2C9, 3A4); cannabidiol (CBD; CYPs 2C19, 3A4); cannabinol (CBN; CYPs 2C9, 3A4); JWH-018 (CYPs 1A2, 2C9); and AM2201 (CYPs 1A2, 2C9). CYP-450 enzymes may also contribute to the secondary metabolism of THC, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases have been identified as capable of catalyzing both primary (CBD, CBN) and secondary (THC, JWH-018, JWH-073) cannabinoid metabolism. Clinical pharmacogenetic data further support CYP2C9 as a significant contributor to THC metabolism, and a pharmacokinetic interaction study using ketoconazole with oromucosal cannabis extract further supports CYP3A4 as a significant metabolic pathway for THC and CBD. However, the absence of interaction between CBD from oromucosal cannabis extract with omeprazole suggests a less significant role of CYP2C19 in CBD metabolism. Studies of THC, CBD, and CBN inhibition and induction of major human CYP-450 isoforms generally reflect a low risk of clinically significant drug interactions with most use, but specific human data are lacking. Smoked cannabis herb (marijuana) likely induces CYP1A2 mediated theophylline metabolism, although the role of cannabinoids specifically in eliciting this effect is questionable. PMID:24160757

  6. Characterisation of the cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of granisetron.

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, J C; Baldwin, S J; Smith, G J; Ayrton, A D; Clarke, S E; Chenery, R J

    1994-01-01

    1. The metabolism of granisetron was investigated in human liver microsomes to identify the specific forms of cytochrome P450 responsible. 2. 7-hydroxy and 9'-desmethyl granisetron were identified as the major products of metabolism following incubation of granisetron with human liver microsomes. At low, clinically relevant, concentrations of granisetron the 7-hydroxy metabolite predominated. Rates of granisetron 7-hydroxylation varied over 100-fold in the human livers investigated. 3. Enzyme kinetics demonstrated the involvement of at least two enzymes contributing to the 7-hydroxylation of granisetron, one of which was a high affinity component with a Km of 4 microM. A single, low affinity, enzyme was responsible for the 9'-desmethylation of granisetron. 4. Granisetron caused no inhibition of any of the cytochrome P450 activities investigated (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C9/8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A), at concentrations up to 250 microM. 5. Studies using chemical inhibitors selective for individual P450 enzymes indicated the involvement of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), both pathways of granisetron metabolism being very sensitive to ketoconazole inhibition. Correlation data were consistent with the role of CYP3A3/4 in granisetron 9'-desmethylation but indicated that a different enzyme was involved in the 7-hydroxylation. PMID:7888294

  7. Structural analysis of two enzymes catalysing reverse metabolic reactions implies common ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Mayans, Olga; Ivens, Andreas; Nissen, L.Johan; Kirschner, Kasper; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2002-01-01

    The crystal structure of the dimeric anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase (AnPRT) reveals a new category of phosphoribosyltransferases, designated as class III. The active site of this enzyme is located within the flexible hinge region of its two-domain structure. The pyrophosphate moiety of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate is co-ordinated by a metal ion and is bound by two conserved loop regions within this hinge region. With the structure of AnPRT available, structural analysis of all enzymatic activities of the tryptophan biosynthesis pathway is complete, thereby connecting the evolution of its enzyme members to the general development of metabolic processes. Its structure reveals it to have the same fold, topology, active site location and type of association as class II nucleoside phosphorylases. At the level of sequences, this relationship is mirrored by 13 structurally invariant residues common to both enzyme families. Taken together, these data imply common ancestry of enzymes catalysing reverse biological processes—the ribosylation and deribosylation of metabolic pathway intermediates. These relationships establish new links for enzymes involved in nucleotide and amino acid metabolism. PMID:12093726

  8. Catalase is a key enzyme in seed recovery from ageing during priming.

    PubMed

    Kibinza, Serge; Bazin, Jrmie; Bailly, Christophe; Farrant, Jill M; Corbineau, Franoise; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2011-09-01

    Ageing induces seed deterioration expressed as the loss of seed vigour and/or viability. Priming treatment, which consists in soaking of seeds in a solution of low water potential, has been shown to reinvigorate aged seeds. We investigate the importance of catalase in oxidation protection during accelerated ageing and repair during subsequent priming treatment of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. Seeds equilibrated to 0.29g H2Og(-1) dry matter (DM) were aged at 35C for different durations and then primed by incubation for 7 days at 15C in a solution of polyethylene glycol 8000 at -2MPa. Accelerated ageing affected seed germination and priming treatment reversed partially the ageing effect. The inhibition of catalase by the addition of aminotriazol during priming treatment reduced seed repair indicating that catalase plays a key role in protection and repair systems during ageing. Ageing was associated with H2O2 accumulation as showed by biochemical quantification and CeCl3 staining. Catalase was reduced at the level of gene expression, protein content and affinity. Interestingly, priming induced catalase synthesis by activating expression and translation of the enzyme. Immunocytolocalization of catalase showed that the enzyme co-localized with H2O2 in the cytosol. These results clearly indicate that priming induce the synthesis of catalase which is involved in seed recovery during priming. PMID:21763542

  9. Fumarate-Mediated Inhibition of Erythrose Reductase, a Key Enzyme for Erythritol Production by Torula corallina

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Kul; Koo, Bong-Seong; Kim, Sang-Yong

    2002-01-01

    Torula corallina, a strain presently being used for the industrial production of erythritol, has the highest erythritol yield ever reported for an erythritol-producing microorganism. The increased production of erythritol by Torula corallina with trace elements such as Cu2+ has been thoroughly reported, but the mechanism by which Cu2+ increases the production of erythritol has not been studied. This study demonstrated that supplemental Cu2+ enhanced the production of erythritol, while it significantly decreased the production of a major by-product that accumulates during erythritol fermentation, which was identified as fumarate by instrumental analyses. Erythrose reductase, a key enzyme that converts erythrose to erythritol in T. corallina, was purified to homogeneity by chromatographic methods, including ion-exchange and affinity chromatography. In vitro, purified erythrose reductase was significantly inhibited noncompetitively by increasing the fumarate concentration. In contrast, the enzyme activity remained almost constant regardless of Cu2+ concentration. This suggests that supplemental Cu2+ reduced the production of fumarate, a strong inhibitor of erythrose reductase, which led to less inhibition of erythrose reductase and a high yield of erythritol. This is the first report that suggests catabolite repression by a tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate in T. corallina. PMID:12200310

  10. Identification and functional analysis of delta-9 desaturase, a key enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, isolated from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera.

    PubMed

    Muto, Masaki; Kubota, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Satoh, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of ?9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 ?(9) desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative ?(9) acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical ?(9) desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these ?(9) desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (?ole1). All the putative ?(9) acyl-CoA desaturases showed ?(9) desaturation activity for C16?0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18?0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of ?(9) desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain. PMID:24039966

  11. Identification and Functional Analysis of Delta-9 Desaturase, a Key Enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, Isolated from the Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Masaki; Kubota, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Satoh, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of Δ9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 Δ9 desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative Δ9 acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical Δ9 desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these Δ9 desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (Δole1). All the putative Δ9 acyl-CoA desaturases showed Δ9 desaturation activity for C16∶0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18∶0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of Δ9 desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain. PMID:24039966

  12. Regional variation in muscle metabolic enzymes in individual American shad (Alosa sapidissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, J.B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the activity of metabolic enzymes is often used to asses metabolic capacity at the tissue level, but the amount of regional variability within a tissue in an individual fish of a given species is frequently unknown. The activities of four enzymes (citrate synthase (CS), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ??-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) were assayed in red and white muscle at 10 sites along the body of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Red and white muscle HOAD and white muscle CS and LDH varied significantly, generally increasing posteriorly. Maximal variation occurs in red muscle HOAD (~450%) and white muscle LDH (~60%) activity. Differences between the sexes also vary with sampling location. This study suggests that the variability in enzyme activity may be linked to functional differences in the muscle at different locations, and also provides guidelines for sample collection in this species.

  13. Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes: implications for a safer and more effective drug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus; Rodriguez-Antona, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    The majority of phase I- and phase II-dependent drug metabolism is carried out by polymorphic enzymes which can cause abolished, quantitatively or qualitatively decreased or enhanced drug metabolism. Several examples exist where subjects carrying certain alleles do not benefit from drug therapy due to ultrarapid metabolism caused by multiple genes or by induction of gene expression or, alternatively, suffer from adverse effects of the drug treatment due to the presence of defective alleles. It is likely that future predictive genotyping for such enzymes might benefit 1525% of drug treatments, and thereby allow prevention of adverse drug reactions and causalities, and thus improve the health of a significant fraction of the patients. However, it will take time before this will be a reality within the clinic. We describe some important aspects in the field with emphasis on cytochrome P450 and discuss also polymorphic aspects of foetal expression of CYP3A5 and CYP3A7. PMID:16096104

  14. Regulation of Key Enzymes of Sucrose Biosynthesis in Soybean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheikh, Nordine; Brenner, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    An important part in the understanding of the regulation of carbon partitioning within the leaf is to investigate the endogenous variations of parameters related to carbon metabolism. This study of diurnal changes in the activities of sucrose-synthesizing enzymes and levels of nonstructural carbohydrates in intact leaves of field-grown soybean plants (Glycine max [L.]) showed pronounced diurnal fluctuations in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity. However, there was no distinct diurnal change in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (F1,6BPase). SPS activity in leaves from plants grown in controlled environments presented two peaks during the light period. In contrast to field-grown plants, F1,6BPase activity in leaves from growth chamber-grown plants manifested one peak during the first half of the light period. In plants grown under both conditions, sucrose and starch accumulation rates were highest during early hours of the light period. By the end of the dark period, most of the starch was depleted. A pattern of diurnal fluctuations of abscisic acid (ABA) levels in leaves was also observed under all growing conditions. Either imposition of water stress or exogenous applications of ABA inhibited F1,6BPase activity. However, SPS-extractable activity increased following water deficit but did not change in response to ABA treatment. Gibberellin application to intact soybean leaves increased levels of both starch and sucrose. Both gibberellic acid (10?6m) and gibberellins 4 and 7 (10?5m) increased the activity of SPS but had an inconsistent effect on F1,6BPase. Correlation studies between the activities of SPS and F1,6BPase suggest that these two enzymes are coordinated in their function, but the factors that regulate them may be distinct because they respond differently to certain environmental and physiological changes. PMID:16653110

  15. Comparative metabolism as a key driver of wildlife species sensitivity to human and veterinary pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Madden, Judith C.; Naidoo, Vinny; Walker, Colin H.

    2014-01-01

    Human and veterinary drug development addresses absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicology (ADMET) of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) in the target species. Metabolism is an important factor in controlling circulating plasma and target tissue API concentrations and in generating metabolites which are more easily eliminated in bile, faeces and urine. The essential purpose of xenobiotic metabolism is to convert lipid-soluble, non-polar and non-excretable chemicals into water soluble, polar molecules that are readily excreted. Xenobiotic metabolism is classified into Phase I enzymatic reactions (which add or expose reactive functional groups on xenobiotic molecules), Phase II reactions (resulting in xenobiotic conjugation with large water-soluble, polar molecules) and Phase III cellular efflux transport processes. The human–fish plasma model provides a useful approach to understanding the pharmacokinetics of APIs (e.g. diclofenac, ibuprofen and propranolol) in freshwater fish, where gill and liver metabolism of APIs have been shown to be of importance. By contrast, wildlife species with low metabolic competency may exhibit zero-order metabolic (pharmacokinetic) profiles and thus high API toxicity, as in the case of diclofenac and the dramatic decline of vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent. A similar threat looms for African Cape Griffon vultures exposed to ketoprofen and meloxicam, recent studies indicating toxicity relates to zero-order metabolism (suggesting P450 Phase I enzyme system or Phase II glucuronidation deficiencies). While all aspects of ADMET are important in toxicity evaluations, these observations demonstrate the importance of methods for predicting API comparative metabolism as a central part of environmental risk assessment. PMID:25405970

  16. Comparative metabolism as a key driver of wildlife species sensitivity to human and veterinary pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Madden, Judith C; Naidoo, Vinny; Walker, Colin H

    2014-11-19

    Human and veterinary drug development addresses absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxicology (ADMET) of the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) in the target species. Metabolism is an important factor in controlling circulating plasma and target tissue API concentrations and in generating metabolites which are more easily eliminated in bile, faeces and urine. The essential purpose of xenobiotic metabolism is to convert lipid-soluble, non-polar and non-excretable chemicals into water soluble, polar molecules that are readily excreted. Xenobiotic metabolism is classified into Phase I enzymatic reactions (which add or expose reactive functional groups on xenobiotic molecules), Phase II reactions (resulting in xenobiotic conjugation with large water-soluble, polar molecules) and Phase III cellular efflux transport processes. The human-fish plasma model provides a useful approach to understanding the pharmacokinetics of APIs (e.g. diclofenac, ibuprofen and propranolol) in freshwater fish, where gill and liver metabolism of APIs have been shown to be of importance. By contrast, wildlife species with low metabolic competency may exhibit zero-order metabolic (pharmacokinetic) profiles and thus high API toxicity, as in the case of diclofenac and the dramatic decline of vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent. A similar threat looms for African Cape Griffon vultures exposed to ketoprofen and meloxicam, recent studies indicating toxicity relates to zero-order metabolism (suggesting P450 Phase I enzyme system or Phase II glucuronidation deficiencies). While all aspects of ADMET are important in toxicity evaluations, these observations demonstrate the importance of methods for predicting API comparative metabolism as a central part of environmental risk assessment. PMID:25405970

  17. Homologues of xenobiotic metabolizing N-acetyltransferases in plant-associated fungi: Novel functions for an old enzyme family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-pathogenic fungi and their hosts engage in chemical warfare, attacking each other with toxic products of secondary metabolism and defending themselves via an arsenal of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. One such enzyme is homologous to arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) and has been identified...

  18. Metabolic Pathways of Inhaled Glucocorticoids by the CYP3A Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Chad D.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Orton, Christopher R.; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Ward, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6?-hydroxylation and ?6-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of ?6-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatographymass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

  19. Fructose: A Key Factor in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome are becoming leading causes of death in the world. Identifying the etiology of diabetes is key to prevention. Despite the similarity in their structures, fructose and glucose are metabolized in different ways. Uric acid, a byproduct of uncontrolled fructose metabolism is known risk factor for hypertension. In the liver, fructose bypasses the two highly regulated steps in glycolysis, glucokinase and phosphofructokinase, both of which are inhibited by increasing concentrations of their byproducts. Fructose is metabolized by fructokinase (KHK). KHK has no negative feedback system, and ATP is used for phosphorylation. This results in intracellular phosphate depletion and the rapid generation of uric acid due to activation of AMP deaminase. Uric acid, a byproduct of this reaction, has been linked to endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and hypertension. We present possible mechanisms by which fructose causes insulin resistance and suggest actions based on this association that have therapeutic implications. PMID:23762544

  20. Purification and characterization of aspartate N-acetyltransferase: A critical enzyme in brain metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinzhe; Zhao, Mojun; Parungao, Gwenn G; Viola, Ronald E

    2016-03-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a neurological disorder caused by an interruption in the metabolism of N-acetylaspartate (NAA). Numerous mutations have been found in the enzyme that hydrolyzes NAA, and the catalytic activity of aspartoacylase is significantly impaired in CD patients. Recent studies have also supported an important role in CD for the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of NAA in the brain. However, previous attempts to study this enzyme had not succeeded in obtaining a soluble, stable and active form of this membrane-associated protein. We have now utilized fusion constructs with solubilizing protein partners to obtain an active and soluble form of aspartate N-acetyltransferase. Characterization of the properties of this enzyme has set the stage for the development of selective inhibitors that can lower the elevated levels of NAA that are observed in CD patients and potentially serve as a new treatment therapy. PMID:26550943

  1. Identification of multiple phosphorylation sites on maize endosperm starch branching enzyme IIb, a key enzyme in amylopectin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Makhmoudova, Amina; Williams, Declan; Brewer, Dyanne; Massey, Sarah; Patterson, Jenelle; Silva, Anjali; Vassall, Kenrick A; Liu, Fushan; Subedi, Sanjeena; Harauz, George; Siu, K W Michael; Tetlow, Ian J; Emes, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Starch branching enzyme IIb (SBEIIb) plays a crucial role in amylopectin biosynthesis in maize endosperm by defining the structural and functional properties of storage starch and is regulated by protein phosphorylation. Native and recombinant maize SBEIIb were used as substrates for amyloplast protein kinases to identify phosphorylation sites on the protein. A multidisciplinary approach involving bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry identified three phosphorylation sites at Ser residues: Ser(649), Ser(286), and Ser(297). Two Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase activities were partially purified from amyloplasts, termed K1, responsible for Ser(649) and Ser(286) phosphorylation, and K2, responsible for Ser(649) and Ser(297) phosphorylation. The Ser(286) and Ser(297) phosphorylation sites are conserved in all plant branching enzymes and are located at opposite openings of the 8-stranded parallel ?-barrel of the active site, which is involved with substrate binding and catalysis. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicates that phospho-Ser(297) forms a stable salt bridge with Arg(665), part of a conserved Cys-containing domain in plant branching enzymes. Ser(649) conservation appears confined to the enzyme in cereals and is not universal, and is presumably associated with functions specific to seed storage. The implications of SBEIIb phosphorylation are considered in terms of the role of the enzyme and the importance of starch biosynthesis for yield and biotechnological application. PMID:24550386

  2. Vitamin C Stimulates Epidermal Ceramide Production by Regulating Its Metabolic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Pyo; Shin, Kyong-Oh; Park, Kyungho; Yun, Hye Jeong; Mann, Shivtaj; Lee, Yong Moon; Cho, Yunhi

    2015-01-01

    Ceramide is the most abundant lipid in the epidermis and plays a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Overall ceramide content in keratinocyte increases in parallel with differentiation, which is initiated by supplementation of calcium and/or vitamin C. However, the role of metabolic enzymes responsible for ceramide generation in response to vitamin C is still unclear. Here, we investigated whether vitamin C alters epidermal ceramide content by regulating the expression and/or activity of its metabolic enzymes. When human keratinocytes were grown in 1.2 mM calcium with vitamin C (50 μg/ml) for 11 days, bulk ceramide content significantly increased in conjunction with terminal differentiation of keratinocytes as compared to vehicle controls (1.2 mM calcium alone). Synthesis of the ceramide fractions was enhanced by increased de novo ceramide synthesis pathway via serine palmitoyltransferase and ceramide synthase activations. Moreover, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) hydrolysis pathway by action of S1P phosphatase was also stimulated by vitamin C supplementation, contributing, in part, to enhanced ceramide production. However, activity of sphingomyelinase, a hydrolase enzyme that converts sphingomyelin to ceramide, remained unaltered. Taken together, we demonstrate that vitamin C stimulates ceramide production in keratinocytes by modulating ceramide metabolic-related enzymes, and as a result, could improve overall epidermal barrier function. PMID:26535077

  3. The role of carbonyl reducing enzymes in oxcarbazepine in vitro metabolism in man.

    PubMed

    Maltkov, Petra; Havlkov, Lucie; Wsl, Vladimr

    2014-09-01

    Oxcarbazepine, a second generation antiepileptic drug belonging to the family of dibenz[b,f]azepines, is subjected to a rapid and extensive biotransformation. Oxcarbazepine demonstrates a low potential for drug interactions because its biotransformation is mainly mediated by the reduction pathway instead of oxidative pathways, which are very susceptible to drug interactions. The reductive metabolism of oxcarbazepine yields a 10-monohydroxy derivative (10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxy-carbazepine), which is responsible for the pharmacological activity. The identity and localization of enzymes participating in the reduction of oxcarbazepine in response to this active metabolite have remained unknown until now. Thus, we investigated the reductive metabolism of oxcarbazepine in human liver subcellular fractions and using recombinant carbonyl reducing enzymes. The reduction of oxcarbazepine was shown to occur largely in the liver cytosol rather than liver microsomes. Furthermore, the activity and stereospecificity of cytosolic carbonyl reducing enzymes toward oxcarbazepine were assessed. Of the eight tested enzymes, six reductases were identified to contribute to the reduction of oxcarbazepine. The highest activities were demonstrated by AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, and AKR1C4. The contribution of CBR1 and CBR3 to the reduction of oxcarbazepine was also significant, although their role in oxcarbazepine metabolism in vivo is unclear. PMID:25063510

  4. Mcy protein, a potential antidiabetic agent: evaluation of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Marella, Saritha; Maddirela, Dilip Rajasekhar; Kumar, E G T V; Tilak, Thandaiah Krishna; Badri, Kameswara Rao; Chippada, Apparao

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study is to elucidate the long-term effects of anti-hyperglycemic active principle, Mcy protein (MCP), isolated from the fruits of Momordica cymbalaria on carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress in experimental diabetic rats. We used streptozotocin induced diabetic rats for the current studies. Our studies showed that MCP (2.5mg/kg.b.w) treatment significantly normalized the deranged activities of critical carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase. In addition MCP showed inhibitory activity on α-glucosidase and aldose reductase enzymes in in vitro assays. Further MCP treatment improved the antioxidant defensive mechanism by preventing deleterious oxidative products of cellular metabolism, which initiates the lipid peroxidation and by normalizing the antioxidant enzyme (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) activities. Additional structural studies using circular dichroism spectroscopy indicate that MCP contains majorly α-helix. Our findings suggest MCP regulates blood glucose and better manage diabetes mellitus associated complications by regulating carbohydrate metabolism and by protecting from the deleterious effects of oxidative stress. PMID:26826289

  5. Spatial modulation of key pathway enzymes by DNA-guided scaffold system and respiration chain engineering for improved N-acetylglucosamine production by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Zhu, Yanqiu; Ma, Wenlong; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Previously we constructed a Bacillus subtilis strain for efficient production of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) by engineering of GlcNAc synthetic and catabolic pathways. However, the further improvement of GlcNAc titer is limited by the intrinsic inefficiency of GlcNAc synthetic pathway and undesirable cellular properties including sporulation and high maintenance metabolism. In this work, we further improved GlcNAc titer through spatial modulation of key pathway enzymes and by blocking sporulation and decreasing maintenance metabolism. Specifically, a DNA-guided scaffold system was firstly used to modulate the activities of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase and GlcNAc-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase, increasing the GlcNAc titer from 1.83g/L to 4.55g/L in a shake flask. Next, sporulation was blocked by respectively deleting spo0A (gene encoding the initiation regulon of sporulation) and sigE (gene encoding RNA polymerase sporulation-specific sigma factor). Deletion of sigE more effectively blocked sporulation without altering cell growth or GlcNAc production. The respiration chain was then engineered to decrease the maintenance metabolism of recombinant B. subtilis by deleting cydB and cydC, genes encoding cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase (subunit II) and ATP-binding protein for the expression of cytochrome bd, respectively. The respiration-engineered B. subtilis produced 6.15g/L GlcNAc in a shake flask and 20.58g/L GlcNAc in a 3-L fed-batch bioreactor. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the modulation of pathway enzymes via a DNA-guided scaffold system in B. subtilis. The combination of spatial modulation of key pathway enzymes and optimization of cellular properties may be used to develop B. subtilis as a well-organized cell factory for the production of the other industrially useful chemicals. PMID:24815549

  6. Spore Germination and Carbon Metabolism in Fusarium solani V. Changes in Anaerobic Metabolism and Related Enzyme Activities during Development 1

    PubMed Central

    Cochrane, Vincent W.; Cochrane, Jean C.

    1966-01-01

    Macroconidia of Fusarium solani f. phascoli have no detectable capacity to respire glucose anaerobically; germinated spores and mycelium, on the other hand, ferment glucose, although slowly. Extracts of ungerminated spores contain hexokinase, phosphohexoisomerase, phosphofructokinase, aldolase, triose phosphate dehydrogenase, triose phosphate isomerase, phosphoglyceric kinase, enolase, phosphoglyceric mutase, pyruvate kinase, and pyruvate decarboxylase. It follows, therefore, that the appearance of fermentative capacity during spore germination cannot be ascribed to the de novo synthesis of any of these enzymes. During germination and mycelial development the specific activity of all of the enzymes named except phosphohexoisomerase and aldolase increases 2- to 8-fold. Specific activity of all of the enzymes is substantially higher than the fermentative capacity of intact cells, i.e., none is limiting to anaerobic respiration. The enzymatic assay data are consistent with a conclusion reached earlier on the basis of studies of aerobic glucose metabolism, that the process of germination involves an acceleration of pre-existing metabolic systems rather than an appearance of new pathways. PMID:16656324

  7. Liver enzymes and metabolic syndrome: a large-scale case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi; Zhang, Kejun; Zhang, Mengxuan; Li, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaolan; Xiong, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that elevated liver enzymes could be used as potential novel biomarkers of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its clinical outcomes, although the results were inconsistent and the conclusions were underpowered. A case-control study with 6,268 MetS subjects and 6,330 frequency-matched healthy controls was conducted to systematically evaluated levels of four liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT and ALP), both in overall populations and in subjects with normal liver enzymes, with MetS risk using both quartiles and continuous unit of liver enzymes. We found significant associations were detected for all above analyses. Compared with quartile 1 (Q1), other quartiles have significant higher MetS risk, with ORs ranging from 1.15 to 18.15. The highest effected was detected for GGT, for which the OR value for the highest versus lowest quartile was 18.15 (95% CI: 15.7-20.9). Mutual adjustment proved the independence of the relations for all four liver enzymes. Sensitivity analyses didnt materially changed the trend. To the best of our knowledge, this study should be the largest, which aimed at evaluating the association between liver enzymes measures and MetS risk. The results can better support that liver enzyme levels could be used as clinical predictors of MetS. PMID:26449189

  8. Liver enzymes and metabolic syndrome: a large-scale case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Ma, Xiangyu; Jiang, Zhi; Zhang, Kejun; Zhang, Mengxuan; Li, Yafei; Zhao, Xiaolan; Xiong, Hongyan

    2015-09-29

    Previous studies suggested that elevated liver enzymes could be used as potential novel biomarkers of Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its clinical outcomes, although the results were inconsistent and the conclusions were underpowered. A case-control study with 6,268 MetS subjects and 6,330 frequency-matched healthy controls was conducted to systematically evaluated levels of four liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT and ALP), both in overall populations and in subjects with normal liver enzymes, with MetS risk using both quartiles and continuous unit of liver enzymes. We found significant associations were detected for all above analyses. Compared with quartile 1 (Q1), other quartiles have significant higher MetS risk, with ORs ranging from 1.15 to 18.15. The highest effected was detected for GGT, for which the OR value for the highest versus lowest quartile was 18.15 (95% CI: 15.7-20.9). Mutual adjustment proved the independence of the relations for all four liver enzymes. Sensitivity analyses didn't materially changed the trend. To the best of our knowledge, this study should be the largest, which aimed at evaluating the association between liver enzymes measures and MetS risk. The results can better support that liver enzyme levels could be used as clinical predictors of MetS. PMID:26449189

  9. Increased oxygen radical-dependent inactivation of metabolic enzymes by liver microsomes after chronic ethanol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Dicker, E.; Cederbaum, A.I. )

    1988-10-01

    Enzymatic and nonenzymatic mixed-function oxidase systems have been shown to generate an oxidant that catalyzes the inactivation of glutamine synthetase and other metabolic enzymes. Recent studies have shown that microsomes isolated from rats chronically fed ethanol generate reactive oxygen intermediates at elevated rates compared with controls. Microsomes from rats fed ethanol were found to be more effective than control microsomes in catalyzing the inactivation of enzymes added to the incubation system. The enzymes studied were alcohol dehydrogenase, lactic dehydrogenase, and pyruvate kinase. The inactivation process by both types of microsomal preparations was sensitive to catalase and glutathione plus glutathione peroxidase, but was not affected by superoxide dismutase or hydroxyl radical scavengers. Iron was required for the inactivation of added enzymes; microsomes from the rats fed ethanol remained more effective than control microsomes in catalyzing the inactivation of enzymes in the absence or presence of several ferric complexes. The inactivation of enzymes was enhanced by the addition of menadione or paraquat to the microsomes, and rates of inactivation were higher with the microsomes from the ethanol-fed rats. The enhanced generation of reactive oxygen intermediates and increased inactivation of enzymes by microsomes may contribute toward the hepatotoxic effects associated with ethanol consumption.

  10. The enzymes of biotin dependent CO? metabolism: what structures reveal about their reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Grover L; Holden, Hazel M; St Maurice, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Biotin is the major cofactor involved in carbon dioxide metabolism. Indeed, biotin-dependent enzymes are ubiquitous in nature and are involved in a myriad of metabolic processes including fatty acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The cofactor, itself, is composed of a ureido ring, a tetrahydrothiophene ring, and a valeric acid side chain. It is the ureido ring that functions as the CO? carrier. A complete understanding of biotin-dependent enzymes is critically important for translational research in light of the fact that some of these enzymes serve as targets for anti-obesity agents, antibiotics, and herbicides. Prior to 1990, however, there was a dearth of information regarding the molecular architectures of biotin-dependent enzymes. In recent years there has been an explosion in the number of three-dimensional structures reported for these proteins. Here we review our current understanding of the structures and functions of biotin-dependent enzymes. In addition, we provide a critical analysis of what these structures have and have not revealed about biotin-dependent catalysis. PMID:22969052

  11. Localization of enzymes relating to C4 organic acid metabolisms in the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Kikutani, Sae; Mahardika, Anggara; Matsuda, Yusuke

    2014-09-01

    In the genome of the marine diatom-Thalassiosira pseudonana, there are several putative genes encoding enzymes potentially constitute a classical C4 type biochemical CO2-concentrating mechanism. Two genes encode a carboxylation enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC)1 and PEPC2; and another two encode decarboxylation enzymes, NAD(+)-dependent malic enzyme (NAD-ME) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). These genes were tagged by the enhanced-green fluorescence protein, egfp, ligated in the transformation vector, and transformed into the cells of T. pseudonana for localization of GFP fusion products. The PEPC1:GFP fusion was localized at the matrix of the periplastidal compartment, while the PEPC2:GFP fusion was localized at the mitochondria. The NAD-ME:GFP fusion was localized in the cytosol and the PEPCK:GFP fusion at the mitochondria. The transcripts level of NAD-ME was extremely low, and PEPCK transcript was significantly induced under the dark, suggesting that PEPCK is involved in the dark metabolism such as respiration and amino acid metabolism in the mitochondria. Treatments of low-CO2grown T. pseudonana cells with inhibitors for PEPCK and PEPC efficiently dissipated the maximum rate of photosynthesis while these treatments did not affect high-affinity photosynthesis. These data strongly suggest that classical C4 enzymes play little role in the CCM in T. pseudonana. PMID:24414292

  12. Stereochemical course, isotope effects, and enzyme inhibitor studies of glaucine metabolism in fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The microbial transformation of the aporphine alkaloid glaucine by the fungi Fusarium solani (ATCC 12823) and Aspergillus flavipes (ATCC 1030) proceeds with complete substrate stereoselectivity. The fungus F. solani metabolizes only S-(+)-glaucine (1) to dehydroglaucine (3), and A. flavipes metabolizes only R-(-)-glaucine (2) to dehydroglaucine. This facile microbiological reaction is useful in the destructive resolution of racemic mixtures of glaucine, and may provide a model for producing pure enantiomers (either R or S) of other aporphines from racemic mixtures. In order to extend the reaction to other aporphines and related alkaloids, the overall stereochemical course and enzyme(s) involved in the reaction, and the substrate requirements of the enzyme were investigated. The overall stereochemical course of the transformation was examined using C-7 methyl-blocked analogs of glaucine, cis- and trans-7-methylglaucine, as substrates for the fungi. Isolation and examination of residual substrates from semi-preparative scale incubations by MS, PMR, PMR with a chiral shift reagent, OR and ORD indicated that the transformation was enantioselective in the case of A. flavipes. However, only a 10% enrichment of 6aR,7R-cis-7-methylglaucine was observed in F. solani cultures. The oxidation of glaucine can be envisioned as proceeding through one of several mechanisms, each involving a different enzyme system. Deuterium isotope, induction and enzyme inhibitor experiments helped to distinguish between the three mechanisms.

  13. The enzymes of biotin dependent CO2 metabolism: What structures reveal about their reaction mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Waldrop, Grover L; Holden, Hazel M; Maurice, Martin St

    2012-01-01

    Biotin is the major cofactor involved in carbon dioxide metabolism. Indeed, biotin-dependent enzymes are ubiquitous in nature and are involved in a myriad of metabolic processes including fatty acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The cofactor, itself, is composed of a ureido ring, a tetrahydrothiophene ring, and a valeric acid side chain. It is the ureido ring that functions as the CO2 carrier. A complete understanding of biotin-dependent enzymes is critically important for translational research in light of the fact that some of these enzymes serve as targets for anti-obesity agents, antibiotics, and herbicides. Prior to 1990, however, there was a dearth of information regarding the molecular architectures of biotin-dependent enzymes. In recent years there has been an explosion in the number of three-dimensional structures reported for these proteins. Here we review our current understanding of the structures and functions of biotin-dependent enzymes. In addition, we provide a critical analysis of what these structures have and have not revealed about biotin-dependent catalysis. PMID:22969052

  14. Inhibition by Seeds of Phalaris canariensis Extracts of Key Enzymes Linked to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Madrigales Ahuatzi, Diana; Cruz Victoria, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Context Obesity and its associated diseases are an increasing problem around the world. One hyperglycemic remedy is reduction of glucose absorption performed by suppressing digestion of carbohydrates and lipids through the use of inhibitors. Phalaris canariensis (P canariensis) is a species belonging to the Graminaceae family and is used in traditional medicine in Mexico for treatment of diabetes and obesity. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different extracts of the seeds of P canariensis on enzymes metabolizing fat and carbohydrates, obtained using 3 solvents. Design The seeds of P canariensis were extracted using hexane (ALH), chloroform (ALC), and methanol (ALM) and were investigated for their antiobesity potential. Setting This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Research of Natural Products in the School of Chemical Engineering at the National Polytechnic Institute and in the Research Laboratory of Enzymology in the National School of Biological Sciences. Outcome Measures Different concentrations of the extracts were used to study the inhibition of enzymatic activity by porcine pancreatic ?-amylase, with carbose as a positive control. The inhibitory activity of ?-glucosidase was determined using the standard method with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Pancreatic lipase (PL) activity was measured by absorbance at 412 nm, and the data obtained were compared with orlistat. The PL activity was assessed using a second method measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was measured by released (3H)-oleic acid. Lipolytic activity in cultured, mouse, 3T3-Ll adipocytes was used as a measure of hormone-sensitive lipase activity. The inhibitory activity of rat intestinal sucrase was determined by measuring the glucose released. A Caco-2 cell assay determined the content of free glucose.Results The ALH extract of P canariensis showed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 2.13 and 1.25 mg/mL as compared with ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase, respectively, and produced inhibition in rat intestinal sucrose. Further, the ALM extract showed significantly inhibitory effects against PL, LPL, and lipolysis of 3T3-LI adipocytes. Conclusions The results provide evidence for the effects of the seeds of P canariensis for a retarded absorption of carbohydrates and lipids through the inhibition of enzymes that are related to obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:26773316

  15. Enzyme

    MedlinePLUS

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  16. Dual function of MIPS1 as a metabolic enzyme and transcriptional regulator.

    PubMed

    Latrasse, David; Jégu, Teddy; Meng, Pin-Hong; Mazubert, Christelle; Hudik, Elodie; Delarue, Marianne; Charon, Céline; Crespi, Martin; Hirt, Heribert; Raynaud, Cécile; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa

    2013-03-01

    Because regulation of its activity is instrumental either to support cell proliferation and growth or to promote cell death, the universal myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS), responsible for myo-inositol biosynthesis, is a critical enzyme of primary metabolism. Surprisingly, we found this enzyme to be imported in the nucleus and to interact with the histone methyltransferases ATXR5 and ATXR6, raising the question of whether MIPS1 has a function in transcriptional regulation. Here, we demonstrate that MIPS1 binds directly to its promoter to stimulate its own expression by locally inhibiting the spreading of ATXR5/6-dependent heterochromatin marks coming from a transposable element. Furthermore, on activation of pathogen response, MIPS1 expression is reduced epigenetically, providing evidence for a complex regulatory mechanism acting at the transcriptional level. Thus, in plants, MIPS1 appears to have evolved as a protein that connects cellular metabolism, pathogen response and chromatin remodeling. PMID:23341037

  17. A comparative study of some more important experimental animal peroxide metabolism enzymes.

    PubMed

    Matkovics, B; Novk, R; Hanh, H D; Szab, L; Varga, S I

    1977-01-01

    1. We have studied and compared the peroxide metabolism enzymes (SOD, P and C) of the main organs of fresh-water mollusc, chicken, mouse, guinea-pig, rabbit, cat and dog. 2. The liver exhibited the highest SOD activity. The enzymatic activities of the organ homogenates of the guinea-pig stand out in comparison with the values for the other homogenates examined. 3. The liver, kidney and total brain homogenates of the chicken and the vertebrates display no, or only a very low P activity. The highest P activities were measured in the haemolysates. 4. The C and SOD values exhibit a certain parallelism. 5. The peroxide metabolism enzyme activities calculated by utilizing the protein measurements permit the establishment of a more realistic enzymatic activity. PMID:233784

  18. Identification of the human cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the in vitro metabolism of artemisinin

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, U S H; Ashton, M

    1999-01-01

    Aims The study aimed to identify the specific human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of artemisinin. Methods Microsomes from human B-lymphoblastoid cell lines transformed with individual CYP450 cDNAs were investigated for their capacity to metabolize artemisinin. The effect on artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by chemical inhibitors selective for individual forms of CYP450 was investigated. The relative contribution of individual CYP450 isoenzymes to artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes was evaluated with a tree-based regression model of artemisinin disappearance rate and specific CYP450 activities. Results The involvement of CYP2B6 in artemisinin metabolism was demonstrated by metabolism of artemisinin by recombinant CYP2B6, inhibition of artemisinin disappearance in human liver microsomes by orphenadrine (76%) and primary inclusion of CYP2B6 in the tree-based regression model. Recombinant CYP3A4 was catalytically competent in metabolizing artemisinin, although the rate was 10% of that for recombinant CYP2B6. The tree-based regression model suggested CYP3A4 to be of importance in individuals with low CYP2B6 expression. Even though ketoconazole inhibited artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by 46%, incubation with ketoconazole together with orphenadrine did not increase the inhibition of artemisinin metabolism compared to orphenadrine alone. Troleandomycin failed to inhibit artemisinin metabolism. The rate of artemisinin metabolism in recombinant CYP2A6 was 15% of that for recombinant CYP2B6. The inhibition of artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes by 8-methoxypsoralen (a CYP2A6 inhibitor) was 82% but CYP2A6 activity was not included in the regression tree. Conclusions Artemisinin metabolism in human liver microsomes is mediated primarily by CYP2B6 with probable secondary contribution of CYP3A4 in individuals with low CYP2B6 expression. The contribution of CYP2A6 to artemisinin metabolism is likely of minor importance. PMID:10583023

  19. Fructan metabolism and expression of genes coding fructan metabolic enzymes during cold acclimation and overwintering in timothy (Phleum pratense).

    PubMed

    Tamura, Ken-ichi; Sanada, Yasuharu; Tase, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Midori

    2014-07-01

    Metabolism of fructans in temperate grasses dynamically fluctuates before and during winter and is involved in the overwintering activity of plants. We monitored three candidate factors that may be involved in seasonal fructan metabolism in timothy (Phleum pratense): transcription levels of two fructosyltransferase (PpFT1 and PpFT2) genes and one fructan exohydrolase (Pp6-FEH1) gene during fall and winter and under artificially cold conditions. Functional analysis using a recombinant enzyme for PpFT2, a novel fructosyltransferase cDNA, revealed that it encoded sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase, with enzymatic properties different from previously characterized PpFT1. PpFT1 transcripts decreased from September to December as the amount of fructans increased, whereas PpFT2 transcripts increased in timothy crowns. PpFT2 was transcriptionally more induced than PpFT1 in response to cold and sucrose in timothy seedlings. A rapid increase in Pp6-FEH1 transcripts and increased monosaccharide content were observed in timothy crowns when air temperature was continuously below 0C and plants were not covered by snow. Transcriptional induction of Pp6-FEH1 by exposure to -3C was also observed in seedlings. These findings suggest Pp6-FEH1 involvement in the second phase of hardening. PpFT1 and PpFT2 transcription levels decreased under snow cover, whereas Pp6-FEH1 transcription levels were constant, which corresponded with the fluctuation of fructosyltransferase and fructan exohydrolase activities. Inoculation with snow mold fungi (Typhula ishikariensis) increased Pp6-FEH1 transcription levels and accelerated hydrolysis of fructans. These results suggest that transcriptional regulation of genes coding fructan metabolizing enzymes is partially involved in the fluctuation of fructan metabolism during cold acclimation and overwintering. PMID:24913052

  20. mTOR, AMPK, and Sirt1: Key Players in Metabolic Stress Management.

    PubMed

    Cetrullo, Silvia; D'Adamo, Stefania; Tantini, Benedetta; Borzi, Rosa Maria; Flamigni, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Cells adapt their metabolism and activities in response to signals from their surroundings, and this ability is essential for their survival in the face of environmental changes. In mammalian tissues a deficit of these mechanisms is commonly associated with cellular aging and degenerative diseases related to aging, such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, immune system decline, and neurological pathologies. Several proteins have been identified as able to respond directly to energy, nutrient, and growth factor levels and stress stimuli in order to mediate adaptations in the cell. Many of these proteins are enzymes that positively or negatively modulate the autophagic process. This review focuses on biochemical mechanisms involving enzymes--specifically, mTOR, AMPK, and Sirt1--that are currently considered important for these adaptive responses, providing an overview of the interactions of the main players in this process. PMID:25955819

  1. Symposium overview: Characterization of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme function using heterologous expression systems.

    PubMed

    Townsend, A J; Kiningham, K K; St Clair, D; Tephly, T R; Morrow, C S; Guengerich, F P

    1999-04-01

    Genetically modified cell lines can be very useful models for assessing the toxicologic effects of modulation of expression of individual gene products in comparison to their isogenic parental control cell lines. This symposium begins with an overview of general issues related to development and utilization of model systems created by transfection of cell lines to induce elevated expression of metabolic enzymes of toxicologic relevance. Selected studies that illustrate the heterologous expression rationale and various approaches to transgenic-cell model construction are represented. Results to date with cells engineered to express specific transfected genes are discussed, with emphasis on the effects of expression of selected phase I or phase II enzymes on cellular sensitivity to several toxic end-points. The individual sections highlight the utility of these model cell lines for examining the role of enzyme catalysis and function in metabolism of biologically active xenobiotic or endobiotic compounds of interest in toxicology. Both activating and detoxifying enzymes are discussed, with principal emphasis on the latter. This symposium includes talks on transfected cells that express aldehyde dehydrogenases, superoxide dismutase, UDP-glycosyltransferases, glutathione transferases, and cytochrome P450 isozymes. In addition to the general toxicologic utility and advantages of these genetically engineered cell lines, this overview emphasizes their particular contributions to the insights obtained to date with the specific model cell lines. PMID:10353304

  2. Intermediary metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum: levels of enzymes involved in the formation of acetate and butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmanis, M.G.N.; Gatenbeck, S.

    1984-06-01

    The levels of seven intermediary enzymes involved in acetate and butyrate formation from acetyl coenzyme A in the saccharolytic anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum were investigated as a function of time in solvent-producing batch fermentations. Phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, which are known to form acetate from acetyl coenzyme A, both showed a decrease in specific activity when the organism reached the solvent formation stage. The three consecutive enzymes thiolase, beta-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and crotonase exhibited a coordinate expression and a maximal activity after growth had ceased. Only low levels of butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity were found. Phosphate butyryltransferase activity rapidly decreased after 20 h from 5 to 11 U/mg of protein to below the detection limit (1 mU/mg). Butyrate no longer can be formed, and the metabolic flux may be diverted to butanol. Butyrate kinase showed a 2.5- to 10-fold increase in specific activity after phosphate butyryltransferase activity no longer could be detected. These results suggest that the uptake of acetate and butyrate during solvent formation can not proceed via a complete reversal of the phosphate transferase and kinase reactions. The activities of all enzymes investigated as a function of time in vitro are much higher than the metabolic fluxes through them in vivo. This indicates that none of the maximal activities of the enzymes assayed is rate limiting in C. acetobutylicum. (Refs. 46).

  3. Pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: focus on drug metabolic enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qiang; Liu, Kexin

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used for thousands of years, and now are gaining continued popularity worldwide as a complementary or alternative treatment for a variety of diseases, rehabilitation and health care. Since herbal medicines contain more than one pharmacologically active ingredient and are commonly used with many prescribed drugs, there are potential herb-drug interactions. A variety of reported herb-drug interactions are of pharmacokinetic origin, arising from the effects of herbal medicines on metabolic enzymes and/or transporters. Such an alteration in metabolism or transport can result in changes in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (e.g., induction or inhibition of metabolic enzymes, and modulation of uptake and efflux transporters), leading to changed pharmacokinetics of the concomitantly prescribed drugs. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions have more clinical significance as pharmacokinetic parameters such as the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) or the elimination half-life (t1/2) of the concomitant drug alter. This review summarizes the mechanism underlying herb-drug interactions and the approaches to identify the interactions, and discusses pharmacokinetic interactions of eight widely used herbal medicines (Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, garlic, black cohosh, Echinacea, milk thistle, kava, and St. John's wort) with conventional drugs, using various in vitro, animal in vivo, and clinical studies. The increasing understanding of pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions will make health care professionals and patients pay more attention to the potential interactions. PMID:25705905

  4. Metabolomic strategies for the identification of new enzyme functions and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Gareth A; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro S

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in accurate mass spectrometry and data analysis have revolutionized metabolomics experimentation. Activity-based and global metabolomic profiling methods allow simultaneous and rapid screening of hundreds of metabolites from a variety of chemical classes, making them useful tools for the discovery of novel enzymatic activities and metabolic pathways. By using the metabolome of the relevant organism or close species, these methods capitalize on biological relevance, avoiding the assignment of artificial and non-physiological functions. This review discusses state-of-the-art metabolomic approaches and highlights recent examples of their use for enzyme annotation, discovery of new metabolic pathways, and gene assignment of orphan metabolic activities across diverse biological sources. PMID:24829223

  5. Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in transport tissues and adjacent sink structures in developing citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Lowell, C A; Tomlinson, P T; Koch, K E

    1989-08-01

    Juice tissues of citrus lack phloem; therefore, photosynthates enroute to juice sacs exit the vascular system on the surface of each segment. Areas of extensive phloem unloading and transport (vascular bundles + segment epidermis) can thus be separated from those of assimilate storage (juice sacs) and adjacent tissues where both processes occur (peel). Sugar composition, dry weight accumulation, and activities of four sucrose-metabolizing enzymes (soluble and cell-wall-bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase, sucrose synthase, and sucrose phosphate synthase) were measured in these transport and sink tissues of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to determine more clearly whether a given enzyme appeared to be more directly associated with assimilate transport versus deposition or utilization. Results were compared at three developmental stages. Activity of sucrose (per gram fresh weight and per milligram protein) extracted from zones of extensive phloem unloading and transport was significantly greater than from adjacent sink tissues during the stages (II and III) when juice sacs grow most rapidly. In stage II fruit, activity of sucrose synthase also significantly surpassed that of all other sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in extracts from the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). In contrast, sucrose phosphate synthase and alkaline invertase at this stage of growth were the most active enzymes from adjacent, rapidly growing, phloem-free sink tissues (juice sacs). Activity of these two enzymes in extracts from juice sacs was significantly greater than that form the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). Soluble acid invertase was the most active enzyme in extracts from all tissues of very young fruit (stage I), including nonvascular regions, but nearly disappeared prior to the onset of juice sac sugar accumulation. The physiological function of high sucrose synthase activity in the transport tissues during rapid sucrose import remains to be determined. PMID:16666942

  6. Drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in monosodium L-glutamate obese mice.

    PubMed

    Matoukov, Petra; Brtkov, Hana; Bouov, Iva; Levorov, Lucie; Szotkov, Barbora; Sklov, Lenka

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing across the world. Physiologic alterations associated with obesity are known to alter enzyme expression and/or activities. As drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes serve as defense system against potentially toxic compounds, their modulation might have serious consequences. In this work, we studied selected antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes (DME) in monosodium glutamate-mouse model of obesity. Specific activities, protein, and mRNA expressions of these enzymes in liver as well as in small intestine were compared in obese male mice and in their lean counterparts. Furthermore, expression of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its relation to obesity were tested. Obtained results showed that obesity affects expression and/or activities of some DME and antioxidant enzymes. In obese mice, upregulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A (UGT1A), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), nuclear transcription factor Nrf2, and downregulation of some isoforms of glutathione S-transferases (GST) were observed. Most of these changes were tissue and/or isoform specific. NQO1 seems to be regulated transcriptionally via Nrf2, but other enzymes might be regulated post-transcriptionally and/or post-translationally. Enhanced expression of Nrf2 in livers of obese mice is expected to play a role in protective adaptation. In contrast, elevated activities of NQO1 and UGT1A may cause alterations in drug pharmacokinetics in obese individuals. Moreover, decreased capacity of GST in obese animals indicates potentially reduced antioxidant defense and weaker chemoprotection. PMID:25473020

  7. Dose of Phenobarbital and Age of Treatment at Early Life are Two Key Factors for the Persistent Induction of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Adult Mouse Liver.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yun-Chen; Liu, Ke; Pope, Chad; Wang, Pengcheng; Ma, Xiaochao; Zhong, Xiao-bo

    2015-12-01

    Drug treatment of neonates and infants and its long-term consequences on drug responses have emerged in recent years as a major challenge for health care professionals. In the current study, we use phenobarbital as a model drug and mouse as an in vivo model to demonstrate that the dose of phenobarbital and age of treatment are two key factors for the persistent induction of gene expression and consequential increases of enzyme activities of Cyp2b, Cyp2c, and Cyp3a in adult livers. We show that phenobarbital treatment at early life of day 5 after birth with a low dose (<100 mg/kg) does not change expression and enzyme activities of Cyp2b, Cyp2c, and Cyp3a in adult mouse liver, whereas phenobarbital treatment with a high dose (>200 mg/kg) significantly increases expression and enzyme activities of these P450s in adult liver. We also demonstrate that phenobarbital treatment before day 10 after birth, but not at later ages, significantly increases mRNAs, proteins, and enzyme activities of the tested P450s. Such persistent induction of P450 gene expression and enzyme activities in adult livers by phenobarbital treatment only occurs within a sensitive age window early in life. The persistent induction in gene expression and enzyme activities is higher in female mice than in male mice for Cyp2b10 but not for Cyp2c29 and Cyp3a11. These results will stimulate studies to evaluate the long-term impacts of drug treatment with different doses at neonatal and infant ages on drug metabolism, therapeutic efficacy, and drug-induced toxicity throughout the rest of life. PMID:26400395

  8. Effect of urethane, dimethylnitrosamine, paraquat, and butylated hydroxytoluene on the activities of glycolytic key enzymes in mouse lung

    SciTech Connect

    Arany, I.; Rady, P.; Bojan, I.; Kertai, P.

    1981-12-01

    Effects of carcinogens and noncarcinogenic pulmonary toxicants on the activities of glycolytic key enzymes in the mouse lung were investigated. The carcinogens urethane (URTH) and dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) permanently enhanced, and the noncarcinogenic pulmonary toxicants paraquat (PAR) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) temporarily, enhanced the activities of hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the lungs of mice.

  9. Polymorphisms in Genes of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Key Enzymes Are Associated with Early Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xingchun; Chen, Yibing; An, Jiaze; Yu, Xiaohe; Zhang, Huiqing; Yang, Hushan; Xing, Jinliang

    2015-01-01

    Alterations of activity and expression in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle key enzymes have been indicated in several malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). They play an important role in the progression of cancer. However, the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding these key enzymes on the recurrence of HCC has not been investigated. In this study, we genotyped 17 SNPs in genes encoding TCA cycle key enzymes and analyzed their association with recurrence-free survival (RFS) in a cohort of 492 Chinese HCC patients by Cox proportional hazard model and survival tree analysis. We identified 7 SNPs in SDHC, SDHD, FH, and IDH2 genes to be significantly associated with the RFS of HCC patients. Moreover, all these SNPs were associated with the early recurrence (within 2 years after surgery) risk of diseases. Cumulative effect analysis showed that these SNPs exhibited a dose-dependent effect on the overall and early recurrence. Further stratified analysis suggested that number of risk genotypes modified the protective effect on HCC recurrence conferred by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization treatment. Finally, the survival tree analysis revealed that SNP rs10789859 in SDHD gene was the primary factor contributing to HCC recurrence in our population. To the best of our knowledge, we for the first time observed the association between SNPs in genes encoding TCA cycle key enzymes and HCC recurrence risk. Further observational and functional studies are needed to validate our findings and generalize its clinical usage. PMID:25894340

  10. Evolution of Domain Architectures and Catalytic Functions of Enzymes in Metabolic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Summit; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Domain architectures and catalytic functions of enzymes constitute the centerpieces of a metabolic network. These types of information are formulated as a two-layered network consisting of domains, proteins, and reactionsa domainproteinreaction (DPR) network. We propose an algorithm to reconstruct the evolutionary history of DPR networks across multiple species and categorize the mechanisms of metabolic systems evolution in terms of network changes. The reconstructed history reveals distinct patterns of evolutionary mechanisms between prokaryotic and eukaryotic networks. Although the evolutionary mechanisms in early ancestors of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are quite similar, more novel and duplicated domain compositions with identical catalytic functions arise along the eukaryotic lineage. In contrast, prokaryotic enzymes become more versatile by catalyzing multiple reactions with similar chemical operations. Moreover, different metabolic pathways are enriched with distinct network evolution mechanisms. For instance, although the pathways of steroid biosynthesis, protein kinases, and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis all constitute prominent features of animal-specific physiology, their evolution of domain architectures and catalytic functions follows distinct patterns. Steroid biosynthesis is enriched with reaction creations but retains a relatively conserved repertoire of domain compositions and proteins. Protein kinases retain conserved reactions but possess many novel domains and proteins. In contrast, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis has high rates of reaction/protein creations and domain recruitments. Finally, we elicit and validate two general principles underlying the evolution of DPR networks: 1) duplicated enzyme proteins possess similar catalytic functions and 2) the majority of novel domains arise to catalyze novel reactions. These results shed new lights on the evolution of metabolic systems. PMID:22936075

  11. Patterns of enzyme activities and gene expressions in sucrose metabolism in relation to sugar accumulation and composition in the aril of Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhuanying; Wang, Tengduan; Wang, Huicong; Huang, Xuming; Qin, Yonghua; Hu, Guibing

    2013-05-15

    Sucrose metabolism enzymes, including invertase (EC 3.2.1.26), sucrose synthase (SS, EC 2.4.1.13), and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14), are key factors that determine fruit sugar accumulation and composition. Sugar concentration and sugar composition in the arils of 42 litchi cultivars were determined at maturity. The cultivars were grouped into three types according to their hexose/sucrose ratio. Five cultivars of each type were selected to monitor the activities and gene expressions of enzymes related to sucrose metabolism. Pattern changes in the arils of four cultivars with different sugar concentrations and compositions were traced from around 40 d after anthesis to full maturity. Highly significant positive correlations were observed between hexose/sucrose ratios and the activities and expression levels of soluble acid invertase (SAI) and SS among the 15 cultivars tested. The increase in hexose/sucrose ratio was accompanied by enhanced acid invertase (AI) and SS activities and the expression of their genes in Feizixiao (FZX) and Heiye (HY). By contrast, no significant correlation was observed between hexose/sucrose ratio and SPS. These results indicate that the sugar composition in litchi aril depends mainly on the sucrose cleavage enzymes AI and SS and not on the sucrose synthetic enzyme SPS. The cultivar Nuomici, which had the highest sugar content among the cultivars studied, displayed significantly lower activities of cell wall acid invertase, SAI, neutral invertase, and SS and lower expression levels of SAI and SS compared with HY, the cultivar with the lowest sugar content. The inconsistent patterns of sugar accumulation and activities and expressions of sucrose metabolism enzymes suggest that these sucrose metabolism enzymes are not necessarily related to sugar accumulation. PMID:23499454

  12. Reduction of nuclear encoded enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Edith E.; Mayr, Johannes A.; Zimmermann, Franz A.; Feichtinger, Rene G.; Stanger, Olaf; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities in HEK293 cells devoid of mtDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzymes partially encoded by mtDNA show reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also the entirely nuclear encoded complex II and citrate synthase exhibit reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of mtDNA induces a feedback mechanism that downregulates complex II and citrate synthase. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are generally associated with reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes that contain subunits encoded by mtDNA. Conversely, entirely nuclear encoded mitochondrial enzymes in these syndromes, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and OXPHOS complex II, usually exhibit normal or compensatory enhanced activities. Here we report that a human cell line devoid of mtDNA (HEK293 {rho}{sup 0} cells) has diminished activities of both complex II and CS. This finding indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism in {rho}{sup 0} cells that downregulates the expression of entirely nuclear encoded components of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  13. Targeting enzymes to the right compartment: metabolic engineering for itaconic acid production by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Blumhoff, Marzena L; Steiger, Matthias G; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block. It can be microbially produced from some Aspergillus species, such as Aspergillus itaconicus and Aspergillus terreus. However, the achieved titers are significantly lower as compared to the citric acid production by A. niger. Heterologous expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase in A. niger leads to the accumulation of small amounts of itaconic acid. Additional expression of aconitase, the second enzyme metabolically linking citric acid and itaconic acid improves productivity. However, proper organelle targeting of the enzymes appears to be an important point to consider. Here we compare the mitochondrial expression with the cytosolic expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase or aconitase in A. niger. Heterologous expression of both enzymes in the mitochondria doubles the productivity compared to strains which express the enzymes in the cytosol. It is essential to target enzymes to the correct compartment in order to establish a proper flux through a compartmentalized pathway. PMID:23727192

  14. The Impact of Non-Enzymatic Reactions and Enzyme Promiscuity on Cellular Metabolism during (Oxidative) Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piedrafita, Gabriel; Keller, Markus A; Ralser, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Cellular metabolism assembles in a structurally highly conserved, but functionally dynamic system, known as the metabolic network. This network involves highly active, enzyme-catalyzed metabolic pathways that provide the building blocks for cell growth. In parallel, however, chemical reactivity of metabolites and unspecific enzyme function give rise to a number of side products that are not part of canonical metabolic pathways. It is increasingly acknowledged that these molecules are important for the evolution of metabolism, affect metabolic efficiency, and that they play a potential role in human disease—age-related disorders and cancer in particular. In this review we discuss the impact of oxidative and other cellular stressors on the formation of metabolic side products, which originate as a consequence of: (i) chemical reactivity or modification of regular metabolites; (ii) through modifications in substrate specificity of damaged enzymes; and (iii) through altered metabolic flux that protects cells in stress conditions. In particular, oxidative and heat stress conditions are causative of metabolite and enzymatic damage and thus promote the non-canonical metabolic activity of the cells through an increased repertoire of side products. On the basis of selected examples, we discuss the consequences of non-canonical metabolic reactivity on evolution, function and repair of the metabolic network. PMID:26378592

  15. The Stabilisation of Enzymes a Key Factor in the Practical Application of Biocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinek, K.; Berezin, I. B.

    1980-05-01

    The present state of the problem of the practical application of biocatalysis is examined and physicochemical approaches whereby the denaturation of enzymes under the influence of elevated temperatures, extreme pH values, and organic solvents can be suppressed are analysed. The general principles of the stabilisation of enzymes are formulated. The bibliography includes 225 references.

  16. Effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on blood lipid metabolism enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liang; Yan, Jingna; Luo, Liyong; Zhang, Dongying

    2015-06-01

    Disorders of blood lipid metabolism are the primary risk factors for many diseases. Recently, the effect of Pu-erh tea on blood lipid metabolism has received increasing attention. However, the mechanism underlying its ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism is unclear. We set out to study this through assessing the effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on the central enzymes of blood lipid metabolism, including lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and pancreatic lipase (PL). We find that the Lp-PLA2, HMRG and PL activities are inhibited by PTAE in a dose-dependent manner and that the LCAT activity tends to increase with increasing PTAE concentrations. Lineweaver-Burk plot analyses reveal that PTAE acts as a competitive inhibitor for HMGR and PL and as a noncompetitive inhibitor for Lp-PLA2. Moreover, we determine that its active ingredients include catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, free amino acids, and soluble sugar. However, the effect of each ingredient and whether any of them have synergistic effects are still unknown. The results suggest that Pu-erh tea has a potent ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism and knowledge of the mechanisms provides insights into its potential therapeutic application as an alternative hypolipidemic drug. PMID:26018873

  17. Effect of acute and repeated chlordimeform treatment on rat hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Budris, D M; Yim, G K; Carlson, G P; Schnell, R C

    1983-08-01

    The effect of chlordimeform (CDM) treatment on the hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes was examined in male and female rats following either acute or repeated treatment. After acute administration of chlordimeform (100 mg/kg, i.p., 1 hour before killing) differential effects were observed in various parameters of the hepatic microsomal mixed function oxidase system with significant decreases in ethylmorphine metabolism, cytochrome P-450 content, NADPH cytochrome c reductase, and in the spectral binding of hexobarbital and aniline while no changes were found in the metabolism of aniline or p-nitroanisole. Durations of zoxazolamine-induced paralysis and pentobarbital-induced hypnosis were increased significantly after acute CDM administration. Following repeated administration of CDM (75 mg/kg, i.p., for 4 days) to adult male rats, a decrease was observed in zoxazolamine-induced paralysis time while pentobarbital-induced hypnosis was not altered. Metabolism studies using isolated hepatic microsomal fractions showed a decreased rate of biotransformation of ethylmorphine and aniline while the activity of p-nitroanisole O-demethylase was not changed. No differences were found in cytochrome P-450 levels whereas microsomal spectral binding of hexobarbital was reduced while that of aniline was not affected. Following acute or repeated administration of CDM to adult female rats, decreases in the hepatic microsomal metabolism of aniline, but not ethylmorphine or p-nitroanisole, were observed. Addition of CDM to microsomal suspensions yielded a Type I binding curve. PMID:6623550

  18. Disturbances to neurotransmitter levels and their metabolic enzyme activity in a freshwater planarian exposed to cadmium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jui-Pin; Li, Mei-Hui; Chen, Jhih-Sheng; Chung, Szu-Yao; Lee, Hui-Ling

    2015-03-01

    Using specific neurobehaviors as endpoints, previous studies suggested that planarian neurotransmission systems could be targets of Cd neurotoxicity. However, direct evidence for disturbed neurotransmission systems by Cd in treated planarians is still lacking. In planarians, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) play critical roles in neuromuscular function, but little is known about their metabolic degradation. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to determine the appearances of DA, 5-HT, and their metabolic products in the freshwater planarian Dugesia japonica, characterize the activity of enzymes involved in their metabolism, and investigate the effects of Cd on planarian 5-HTergic and DAergic neurotransmission systems. Only DA, 5-HT, and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) were found in planarian tissues. Further enzymatic study revealed the activity of planarian monoamine oxidase (MAO) but not catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT). These findings suggest that planarian MAO catalyzes the metabolism of 5-HT into 5-HIAA. However, DA metabolites from the MAO-involved metabolic pathway were not found, which might be due to a lack of COMT activity. Finally, in Cd-treated planarians, tissue levels of 5-HT and DA were decreased and MAO activity altered, suggesting that planarian neurotransmission systems are disturbed following Cd treatment. PMID:25644215

  19. Reconstruction of Ancestral Metabolic Enzymes Reveals Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Evolutionary Innovation through Gene Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Vanneste, Kevin; van der Zande, Elisa; Voet, Arnout; Maere, Steven; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplications are believed to facilitate evolutionary innovation. However, the mechanisms shaping the fate of duplicated genes remain heavily debated because the molecular processes and evolutionary forces involved are difficult to reconstruct. Here, we study a large family of fungal glucosidase genes that underwent several duplication events. We reconstruct all key ancestral enzymes and show that the very first preduplication enzyme was primarily active on maltose-like substrates, with trace activity for isomaltose-like sugars. Structural analysis and activity measurements on resurrected and present-day enzymes suggest that both activities cannot be fully optimized in a single enzyme. However, gene duplications repeatedly spawned daughter genes in which mutations optimized either isomaltase or maltase activity. Interestingly, similar shifts in enzyme activity were reached multiple times via different evolutionary routes. Together, our results provide a detailed picture of the molecular mechanisms that drove divergence of these duplicated enzymes and show that whereas the classic models of dosage, sub-, and neofunctionalization are helpful to conceptualize the implications of gene duplication, the three mechanisms co-occur and intertwine. PMID:23239941

  20. Analysis of ATP-citrate lyase and malic enzyme mutants of Yarrowia lipolytica points out the importance of mannitol metabolism in fatty acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dulermo, Thierry; Lazar, Zbigniew; Dulermo, Rmi; Rakicka, Magdalena; Haddouche, Ramedane; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    The role of the two key enzymes of fatty acid (FA) synthesis, ATP-citrate lyase (Acl) and malic enzyme (Mae), was analyzed in the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. In most oleaginous yeasts, Acl and Mae are proposed to provide, respectively, acetyl-CoA and NADPH for FA synthesis. Acl was mainly studied at the biochemical level but no strain depleted for this enzyme was analyzed in oleaginous microorganisms. On the other hand the role of Mae in FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica remains unclear since it was proposed to be a mitochondrial NAD(H)-dependent enzyme and not a cytosolic NADP(H)-dependent enzyme. In this study, we analyzed for the first time strains inactivated for corresponding genes. Inactivation of ACL1 decreases FA synthesis by 60 to 80%, confirming its essential role in FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. Conversely, inactivation of MAE1 has no effects on FA synthesis, except in a FA overaccumulating strain where it improves FA synthesis by 35%. This result definitively excludes Mae as a major key enzyme for FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. During the analysis of both mutants, we observed a negative correlation between FA and mannitol level. As mannitol and FA pathways may compete for carbon storage, we inactivated YlSDR, encoding a mannitol dehydrogenase converting fructose and NADPH into mannitol and NADP+. The FA content of the resulting mutant was improved by 60% during growth on fructose, demonstrating that mannitol metabolism may modulate FA synthesis in Y. lipolytica. PMID:25959598

  1. Pharmacogenetic profile of xenobiotic enzyme metabolism in survivors of the Spanish toxic oil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ladona, M G; Izquierdo-Martinez, M; Posada de la Paz, M P; de la Torre, R; Ampurdans, C; Segura, J; Sanz, E J

    2001-04-01

    In 1981, the Spanish toxic oil syndrome (TOS) affected more than 20,000 people, and over 300 deaths were registered. Assessment of genetic polymorphisms on xenobiotic metabolism would indicate the potential metabolic capacity of the victims at the time of the disaster. Thus, impaired metabolic pathways may have contributed to the clearance of the toxicant(s) leading to a low detoxification or accumulation of toxic metabolites contributing to the disease. We conducted a matched case-control study using 72 cases (54 females, 18 males) registered in the Official Census of Affected Patients maintained by the Spanish government. Controls were nonaffected siblings (n =72) living in the same household in 1981 and nonaffected nonrelatives (n = 70) living in the neighborhood at that time, with no ties to TOS. Genotype analyses were performed to assess the metabolic capacity of phase I [cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), CYP2D6] and phase II [arylamine N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2), GSTM1 (glutathione S-transferase M1) and GSTT1] enzyme polymorphisms. The degree of association of the five metabolic pathways was estimated by calculating their odds ratios (ORs) using conditional logistic regression analysis. In the final model, cases compared with siblings (72 pairs) showed no differences either in CYP2D6 or CYP1A1 polymorphisms, or in conjugation enzyme polymorphisms, whereas cases compared with the unrelated controls (70 pairs) showed an increase in NAT2 defective alleles [OR = 6.96, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46-33.20] adjusted by age and sex. Glutathione transferase genetic polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1) showed no association with cases compared with their siblings or unrelated controls. These findings suggest a possible role of impaired acetylation mediating susceptibility in TOS. PMID:11335185

  2. Design of metabolic and enzymic machinery to fit lifestyle and environment.

    PubMed

    Hochachka, P W

    1976-01-01

    Biochemical theory, spectacular as its growth has been in the last half-century, finds its experimental basis in a remarkably few organisms. The rat, the ox, the pig, the hen plus a few micro-organisms consitute the primary source of biochemistry's experimental material, while, by contrast, modern systematics estimates a bewildering and often overlooked diversity of over 10(6) animal species. As a result of this highly limited 'sampling' of nature, classical biochemistry has supplied an equally limited insight into how far biochemical mechanisms can be extended or adapted for (1) allowing an organism's exploitation of its environment and (2) accommodating environmental change. The situation has improved in more recent years, so that it is now possible to decipher at least the broad strategic outlines of biochemical adaptation to the environment. This essay focuses particular attention on the influence of O2 availability on muscle metabolic organization and control. By drawing examples of muscle metabolism spanning a range from obligate-anaerobic to obligate-aerobic organization, it is possible to demonstrate that certain kinds of metabolic features are highly conserved, whereas others are changed time and time again, in different combinations and permutations. The latter properties constitute the 'raw material' for adapting metabolism to specific O2 regimes, and include (1) the kinds and amounts of enzymes present in muscle, (2) the fine regulatory circuitry allowing for controlled transition from low to high work loads and (3) compensation mechanisms for the adjustment of enzyme reactions with respect to such external parameters as temperature, pressure, salinity and so forth. Within the inescapable limitations of phylogenetic origins and the time available for responding to specific environmental conditions, adequate adaptations of the fundamental design of muscle metabolism have evolved to exploit environments differing greatly in O2 availability and to accommodate a wide range of muscle functions. PMID:788718

  3. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  4. Metabolism of halogenated alkanes by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Aerobic oxidation versus anaerobic reduction.

    PubMed

    Ji, Li; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Weiping; de Visser, Sam P

    2014-04-01

    The cytochromes P450 are a large class of heme-containing enzymes that catalyze a broad range of chemical reactions in biosystems, mainly through oxygen-atom transfer to substrates. A relatively unknown reaction catalyzed by the P450s, but very important for human health, is the activation of halogenated substrates, which may lead to toxicity problems. However, its catalytic mechanism is currently unknown and, therefore, we performed a detailed computational study. To gain insight into the metabolism of halogenated compounds by P450 enzymes, we have investigated the oxidative and reductive P450-mediated activation of tetra- and trichloromethane as halogenated models with density functional theory (DFT) methods. We propose an oxidative halosylation mechanism for CCl4 under aerobic conditions by Compound?I of P450, which follows the typical Groves-type rebound mechanism. By contrast, the metabolism of CHCl3 occurs preferentially via an initial hydrogen-atom abstraction rather than halosylation. Kinetic isotope effect studies should, therefore, be able to distinguish the mechanistic pathways of CCl4 versus CHCl3 . We find a novel mechanism that is different from the well accepted P450 substrate activation mechanisms reported previously. Moreover, the studies highlight the substrate specific activation pathways by P450 enzymes leading to different products. These reactivity differences are rationalized using Marcus theory equations, which reproduce experimental product distributions. PMID:24501011

  5. Botanicals as medicinal food and their effects on drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Ponnusankar, S; Pandit, Subrata; Hazam, Praksh K; Ahmmed, Milan; Mukherjee, Kakali

    2011-12-01

    Botanicals fall under different regulations in different countries and are mostly consumed without the consultation of the healthcare professional. Over the last decade, utilization of herbal therapies has been extensively documented. The findings indicate the possibility of potential herb-drug interactions due to the concomitant administration of herbal extracts and prescription/over-the-counter drugs. Simultaneously, with the increasing public awareness and search for safer herbal remedies, the study on herbal-drug interactions has gained momentum through the study of drug metabolizing enzymes. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition or induction is probably the most common mechanism for the pharmacokinetic interactions of herbs and drugs. Any inhibition of CYP enzymes by herbal extracts may result in enhanced plasma and tissue concentration of drugs, leading to toxicity, while induction results in reduced drug concentration leading to decreased drug efficacy and treatment failure. Considering the rapidly growing herbal markets, these types of clinical interactions remain under-reported and unclear. With the increasing consumption of herbal extracts along with prescription medicines, the safety of herbs has become a concern. This article reviews the potential for drug interactions by herbal extracts through drug metabolizing enzymes. PMID:21959528

  6. Flubendazole metabolism and biotransformation enzymes activities in healthy sheep and sheep with haemonchosis.

    PubMed

    Brtkov, H; Krzov, V; Lamka, J; Kubcek, V; Sklov, L; Szotkov, B

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this project was to study the influence of haemonchosis, a common parasitic infection of small ruminants caused by Haemonchus contortus, on the activity of biotransformation enzymes and on in vitro flubendazole (FLU) biotransformation in liver and small intestine of lambs (Ovis aries). Twelve lambs were divided into three groups: non-infected animals, animals orally infected with larvae of H. contortus ISE strain for 7 weeks and for 11 weeks. At the end of the experiment, hepatic and intestinal subcellular fractions were prepared and used for assays of biotransformation enzymes activities and FLU metabolism testing. The activities of hepatic cytochromes P450, flavine monooxygenases and carbonyl-reducing enzymes were decreased in infected animals. UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity was significantly lower (by 35%) in 11 weeks infected animals than that in control animals. When in vitro metabolism of FLU was compared in control and infected animals, significantly lower velocity of FLU reduction was found in infected animals. Slower FLU reduction may be beneficial for the haemonchosis treatment using FLU, because FLU will remain longer in the organism and could cause longer contact of parasites with FLU. PMID:20444026

  7. Bladder cancer risk from the perspective of genetic polymorphisms in the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Antonova, Olga; Toncheva, Draga; Grigorov, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a socially significant healthcare problem. A diverse array of aromatic and heterocyclic amines, derived from the chemical and transport industry, diet, and cigarette smoke are considered carcinogens for the bladder. To exert their carcinogenic effect and to initiate the carcinogenic response, the arylamines require a metabolic activation by the host enzymes to chemically reactive compounds. The aim of this article was to review the latest and basic research developments on the role of the polymorphisms in the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes N-acetyltransferase (NAT), Glutathione S-transferases (GST), and Soluble sulfotransferases (SULT), with emphasis on the susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer. A PubMed search was conducted to identify original and review articles containing information about these polymophic variants in different populations and according to their prevalence in bladder cancer patients. We noticed that some genotypes were found to be predisposing and some protective for bladder cancer development. The NAT2 slow genotype, together with GSTM1 null genotype facilitated the development of bladder cancer in almost all ethnic groups. The 213His allele of the SULT1A1 gene which is associated with lower enzyme activity and decreased mutagen activation was reported to protect from bladder cancer in almost all studies. PMID:26854433

  8. Seasonal changes in thermal environment and metabolic enzyme activity in the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin).

    PubMed

    Williard, Amanda Southwood; Harden, Leigh Anne

    2011-04-01

    Diamondback terrapins experience broad fluctuations in temperature on both a daily and seasonal basis in their estuarine environment. We measured metabolic enzyme activity in terrapin muscle tissue to assess thermal dependence and the role of temperature in seasonal metabolic downregulation in this species. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PK), citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) was assayed at 10, 20, 30, and 40 C for tissue collected during summer and winter. The Q(10) for enzyme activity varied between 1.31 and 2.11 within the temperature range at which terrapins were active (20-40 C). The Q(10) for LDH, CS, and CCO varied between 1.39 and 1.76 and between 10 and 20 C, but PK exhibited heightened thermal sensitivity within this lower temperature range, with a Q(10) of 2.90 for summer-collected tissue and 5.55 for winter-collected tissue. There was no significant effect of season on activity of LDH or PK, but activity of CS and CCO was significantly lower in winter-collected tissue compared with summer-collected tissue. Results indicate that temperature effects contribute to seasonal metabolic downregulation and dormancy in terrapins, but other environmental factors (i.e. oxygen availability), as well as seasonal shifts in blood biochemistry and circulating hormones may also play an important role. PMID:21147242

  9. Structural Phylogenomics Reveals Gradual Evolutionary Replacement of Abiotic Chemistries by Protein Enzymes in Purine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    The origin of metabolism has been linked to abiotic chemistries that existed in our planet at the beginning of life. While plausible chemical pathways have been proposed, including the synthesis of nucleobases, ribose and ribonucleotides, the cooption of these reactions by modern enzymes remains shrouded in mystery. Here we study the emergence of purine metabolism. The ages of protein domains derived from a census of fold family structure in hundreds of genomes were mapped onto enzymes in metabolic diagrams. We find that the origin of the nucleotide interconversion pathway benefited most parsimoniously from the prebiotic formation of adenine nucleosides. In turn, pathways of nucleotide biosynthesis, catabolism and salvage originated ∼300 million years later by concerted enzymatic recruitments and gradual replacement of abiotic chemistries. Remarkably, this process led to the emergence of the fully enzymatic biosynthetic pathway ∼3 billion years ago, concurrently with the appearance of a functional ribosome. The simultaneous appearance of purine biosynthesis and the ribosome probably fulfilled the expanding matter-energy and processing needs of genomic information. PMID:23516625

  10. Heterogeneous composition of key metabolic gene clusters in a vent mussel symbiont population.

    PubMed

    Ikuta, Tetsuro; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Nagai, Yukiko; Shimamura, Shigeru; Tsuda, Miwako; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Aoki, Yui; Inoue, Koji; Teruya, Morimi; Satou, Kazuhito; Teruya, Kuniko; Shimoji, Makiko; Tamotsu, Hinako; Hirano, Takashi; Maruyama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Chemosynthetic symbiosis is one of the successful systems for adapting to a wide range of habitats including extreme environments, and the metabolic capabilities of symbionts enable host organisms to expand their habitat ranges. However, our understanding of the adaptive strategies that enable symbiotic organisms to expand their habitats is still fragmentary. Here, we report that a single-ribotype endosymbiont population in an individual of the host vent mussel, Bathymodiolus septemdierum has heterogeneous genomes with regard to the composition of key metabolic gene clusters for hydrogen oxidation and nitrate reduction. The host individual harbours heterogeneous symbiont subpopulations that either possess or lack the gene clusters encoding hydrogenase or nitrate reductase. The proportions of the different symbiont subpopulations in a host appeared to vary with the environment or with the host's development. Furthermore, the symbiont subpopulations were distributed in patches to form a mosaic pattern in the gill. Genomic heterogeneity in an endosymbiont population may enable differential utilization of diverse substrates and confer metabolic flexibility. Our findings open a new chapter in our understanding of how symbiotic organisms alter their metabolic capabilities and expand their range of habitats. PMID:26418631

  11. Model of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate metabolism in the human erythrocyte based on detailed enzyme kinetic equations: equations and parameter refinement.

    PubMed Central

    Mulquiney, P J; Kuchel, P W

    1999-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, several mathematical models of erythrocyte metabolism have been developed. Although these models have identified the key features in the regulation and control of erythrocyte metabolism, many important aspects remain unexplained. In particular, none of these models have satisfactorily accounted for 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) metabolism. 2,3-BPG is an important modulator of haemoglobin oxygen affinity, and hence an understanding of the regulation of 2,3-BPG concentration is important for understanding blood oxygen transport. A detailed, comprehensive, and hence realistic mathematical model of erythrocyte metabolism is presented that can explain the regulation and control of 2,3-BPG concentration and turnover. The model is restricted to the core metabolic pathways, namely glycolysis, the 2,3-BPG shunt and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and includes membrane transport of metabolites, the binding of metabolites to haemoglobin and Mg(2+), as well as pH effects on key enzymic reactions and binding processes. The model is necessarily complex, since it is intended to describe the regulation and control of 2,3-BPG metabolism under a wide variety of physiological and experimental conditions. In addition, since H(+) and blood oxygen tension are important external effectors of 2,3-BPG concentration, it was important that the model take into account the large array of kinetic and binding phenomena that result from changes in these effectors. Through an iterative loop of experimental and simulation analysis many values of enzyme-kinetic parameters of the model were refined to yield close conformity between model simulations and 'real' experimental data. This iterative process enabled a single set of parameters to be found which described well the metabolic behaviour of the erythrocyte under a wide variety of conditions. PMID:10477269

  12. Efficient production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste at ambient temperature by regulating key enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Yinguang; Zhao, Shu; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xiong; Luo, Jinyang; Liu, Yanan

    2015-03-01

    Bio-production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste has attracted much interest as it can treat organic wastes with simultaneous recovery of valuable by-products. However, the yield of L-lactic acid was very low and no optically pure L-lactic acid was produced in the literature due to (1) the lower activity of enzymes involved in hydrolysis and L-lactic acid generation, and (2) the participation of other enzymes related to D-lactic acid and acetic and propionic acids production. In this paper, a new strategy was reported for effective production of optically pure L-lactic acid from food waste at ambient temperature, i.e. via regulating key enzyme activity by sewage sludge supplement and intermittent alkaline fermentation. It was found that not only optically pure L-lactic acid was produced, but the yield was enhanced by 2.89-fold. The mechanism study showed that the activities of enzymes relevant to food waste hydrolysis and lactic acid production were enhanced, and the key enzymes related to volatile fatty acids and D-lactic acid generations were severally decreased or inhibited. Also, the microbes responsible for L-lactic acid production were selectively proliferated. Finally, the pilot-scale continuous experiment was conducted to testify the feasibility of this new technique. PMID:25528545

  13. A network-based approach for predicting key enzymes explaining metabolite abundance alterations in a disease phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The study of metabolism has attracted much attention during the last years due to its relevance in various diseases. The advance in metabolomics platforms allows us to detect an increasing number of metabolites in abnormal high/low concentration in a disease phenotype. Finding a mechanistic interpretation for these alterations is important to understand pathophysiological processes, however it is not an easy task. The availability of genome scale metabolic networks and Systems Biology techniques open new avenues to address this question. Results In this article we present a novel mathematical framework to find enzymes whose malfunction explains the accumulation/depletion of a given metabolite in a disease phenotype. Our approach is based on a recently introduced pathway concept termed Carbon Flux Paths (CFPs), which extends classical topological definition by including network stoichiometry. Using CFPs, we determine the Connectivity Curve of an altered metabolite, which allows us to quantify changes in its pathway structure when a certain enzyme is removed. The influence of enzyme removal is then ranked and used to explain the accumulation/depletion of such metabolite. For illustration, we center our study in the accumulation of two metabolites (L-Cystine and Homocysteine) found in high concentration in the brain of patients with mental disorders. Our results were discussed based on literature and found a good agreement with previously reported mechanisms. In addition, we hypothesize a novel role of several enzymes for the accumulation of these metabolites, which opens new strategies to understand the metabolic processes underlying these diseases. Conclusions With personalized medicine on the horizon, metabolomic platforms are providing us with a vast amount of experimental data for a number of complex diseases. Our approach provides a novel apparatus to rationally investigate and understand metabolite alterations under disease phenotypes. This work contributes to the development of Systems Medicine, whose objective is to answer clinical questions based on theoretical methods and high-throughput “omics” data. PMID:23870038

  14. The Catalytic Machinery of a Key Enzyme in Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Ronald E.; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Blanco, Julio; Moore, Roger A.; Liu, Xuying; Arachea, Buenafe T.; Pavlovsky, Alexander G.

    2011-01-01

    The aspartate pathway of amino acid biosynthesis is essential for all microbial life but is absent in mammals. Characterizing the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in this pathway can identify new protein targets for the development of antibiotics with unique modes of action. The enzyme aspartate ?-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes an early branch point reaction in the aspartate pathway. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural studies of ASADH from various microbial species have been used to elucidate mechanistic details and to identify essential amino acids involved in substrate binding, catalysis, and enzyme regulation. Important structural and functional differences have been found between ASADHs isolated from these bacterial and fungal organisms, opening the possibility for developing species-specific antimicrobial agents that target this family of enzymes. PMID:22332000

  15. The Catalytic Machinery of a Key Enzyme in Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, Ronald E.; Faehnle, Christopher R.; Blanco, Julio; Moore, Roger A.; Liu, Xuying; Arachea, Buenafe T.; Pavlovsky, Alexander G.

    2013-02-28

    The aspartate pathway of amino acid biosynthesis is essential for all microbial life but is absent in mammals. Characterizing the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in this pathway can identify new protein targets for the development of antibiotics with unique modes of action. The enzyme aspartate {beta}-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ASADH) catalyzes an early branch point reaction in the aspartate pathway. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural studies of ASADH from various microbial species have been used to elucidate mechanistic details and to identify essential amino acids involved in substrate binding, catalysis, and enzyme regulation. Important structural and functional differences have been found between ASADHs isolated from these bacterial and fungal organisms, opening the possibility for developing species-specific antimicrobial agents that target this family of enzymes.

  16. Structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, an essential monotopic membrane enzyme involved in respiration and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Chinte, Unmesh; Du, Shoucheng

    2008-04-02

    Sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GlpD) is an essential membrane enzyme, functioning at the central junction of respiration, glycolysis, and phospholipid biosynthesis. Its critical role is indicated by the multitiered regulatory mechanisms that stringently controls its expression and function. Once expressed, GlpD activity is regulated through lipid-enzyme interactions in Escherichia coli. Here, we report seven previously undescribed structures of the fully active E. coli GlpD, up to 1.75 {angstrom} resolution. In addition to elucidating the structure of the native enzyme, we have determined the structures of GlpD complexed with substrate analogues phosphoenolpyruvate, glyceric acid 2-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and product, dihydroxyacetone phosphate. These structural results reveal conformational states of the enzyme, delineating the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the glycerol-3-phosphate site. Two probable mechanisms for catalyzing the dehydrogenation of glycerol-3-phosphate are envisioned, based on the conformational states of the complexes. To further correlate catalytic dehydrogenation to respiration, we have additionally determined the structures of GlpD bound with ubiquinone analogues menadione and 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, identifying a hydrophobic plateau that is likely the ubiquinone-binding site. These structures illuminate probable mechanisms of catalysis and suggest how GlpD shuttles electrons into the respiratory pathway. Glycerol metabolism has been implicated in insulin signaling and perturbations in glycerol uptake and catabolism are linked to obesity in humans. Homologs of GlpD are found in practically all organisms, from prokaryotes to humans, with >45% consensus protein sequences, signifying that these structural results on the prokaryotic enzyme may be readily applied to the eukaryotic GlpD enzymes.

  17. Identification of a Metabolizing Enzyme in Human Kidney by Proteomic Correlation Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hidetaka; Kubota, Kazuishi; Inaba, Shin-ichi; Takanaka, Kaoru; Shinagawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Molecular identification of endogenous enzymes and biologically active substances from complex biological sources remains a challenging task, and although traditional biochemical purification is sometimes regarded as outdated, it remains one of the most powerful methodologies for this purpose. While biochemical purification usually requires large amounts of starting material and many separation steps, we developed an advanced method named “proteomic correlation profiling” in our previous study. In proteomic correlation profiling, we first fractionated biological material by column chromatography, and then calculated each protein's correlation coefficient between the enzyme activity profile and protein abundance profile determined by proteomics technology toward fractions. Thereafter, we could choose possible candidates for the enzyme among proteins with a high correlation value by domain predictions using informatics tools. Ultimately, this streamlined procedure requires fewer purification steps and reduces starting materials dramatically due to low required purity compared with conventional approaches. To demonstrate the generality of this approach, we have now applied an improved workflow of proteomic correlation profiling to a drug metabolizing enzyme and successfully identified alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme (ALPL) as a phosphatase of CS-0777 phosphate (CS-0777-P), a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator with potential benefits in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, from human kidney extract. We identified ALPL as a candidate protein only by the 200-fold purification and only from 1 g of human kidney. The identification of ALPL as CS-0777-P phosphatase was strongly supported by a recombinant protein, and contribution of the enzyme in human kidney extract was validated by immunodepletion and a specific inhibitor. This approach can be applied to any kind of enzyme class and biologically active substance; therefore, we believe that we have provided a fast and practical option by combination of traditional biochemistry and state-of-the-art proteomic technology. PMID:23674616

  18. Comparisons of different muscle metabolic enzymes and muscle fiber types in Jinhua and Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Guo, J; Shan, T; Wu, T; Zhu, L N; Ren, Y; An, S; Wang, Y

    2011-01-01

    Western and indigenous Chinese pig breeds show obvious differences in muscle growth and meat quality, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the breed-specific mechanisms controlling meat quality and postmortem muscle metabolism. The specific purpose was to investigate the variations in meat quality, muscle fiber type, and enzyme activity between local Jinhua and exotic Landrace pigs at the same age (180 d of age), as well as the same BW of 64 kg, respectively. We compared differentially expressed muscle fiber types such as types I and IIa (oxidative), type IIb (glycolytic), as well as type IIx (intermediate) fibers in LM and soleus muscles of Jinhua and Landrace pigs using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Furthermore, the metabolic enzyme activities of lactate dehydrogenase, as well as succinic dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase, were used as markers of glycolytic and oxidative capacities, respectively. Results showed that Jinhua pigs exhibited greater intramuscular fat content and less drip loss compared with the Landrace (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the mRNA abundance of oxidative and intermediate fibers was increased in Jinhua pigs, whereas the glycolytic fibers were more highly expressed in the Landrace (P < 0.01). In addition, Jinhua pigs possessed greater oxidative capacity than that of the Landrace (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the increased expression of the oxidative and intermediate fibers and greater activities of oxidative enzymes in Jinhua pigs were related to meat quality as indicated by a greater intramuscular fat and reduced drip loss. Based on these results, we conclude that muscle fiber composition and postmortem muscle metabolism can explain, in part, the variation of meat quality in Jinhua and Landrace pigs. These results may provide valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanism responsible for breed specific differences in growth performance and meat quality. PMID:20889683

  19. Effects of sexually dimorphic growth hormone secretory patterns on arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes in rodent heart.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Furong; Yu, Xuming; He, Chunyan; Ouyang, Xiufang; Wu, Jinhua; Li, Jie; Zhang, Junjie; Duan, Xuejiao; Wan, Yu; Yue, Jiang

    2015-12-15

    The arachidonic acid (AA) metabolizing enzymes are the potential therapeutic targets of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As sex differences have been shown in the risk and outcome of CVDs, we investigated the regulation of heart AA metabolizing enzymes (COXs, LOXs, and CYPs) by sex-dependent growth hormone (GH) secretory patterns. The pulsatile (masculine) GH secretion at a physiological concentration decreased CYP1A1 and CYP2J3 mRNA levels more efficiently in the H9c2 cells compared with the constant (feminine) GH secretion; however, CYP1B1 mRNA levels were higher following the pulsatile GH secretion. Sex differences in CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2J11 mRNA levels were observed in both the wild-type and GHR deficient mice. No sex differences in the mRNA levels of COXs, LOXs, or CYP2E1 were observed in the wild-type mice. The constant GH infusion induced heart CYP1A1 and CYP2J11, and decreased CYP1B1 in the male C57/B6 mice constantly infused with GH (0.4 μg/h, 7 days). The activity of rat Cyp2j3 promoter was inhibited by the STAT5B protein, but was activated by C/EBPα (CEBPA). Compared with the constant GH administration, the levels of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein and its binding to the rat Cyp2j3 promoter were higher following the pulsatile GH administration. The constant GH infusion decreased the binding of the nuclear phosphorylated STAT5B protein to the mouse Cyp2j11 promoter. The data suggest the sexually dimorphic transcription of heart AA metabolizing enzymes, which might alter the risk and outcome of CVDs. GHR-STAT5B signal transduction pathway may be involved in the sex difference in heart CYP2J levels. PMID:26493931

  20. Calcium-regulated nuclear enzymes: potential mediators of phytochrome-induced changes in nuclear metabolism?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium ions have been proposed to serve as important regulatory elements in stimulus-response coupling for phytochrome responses. An important test of this hypothesis will be to identify specific targets of calcium action that are required for some growth or development process induced by the photoactivated form of phytochrome (Pfr). Initial studies have revealed that there are at least two enzymes in pea nuclei that are stimulated by Pfr in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, a calmodulin-regulated nucleoside triphosphatase and a calmodulin-independent but Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. The nucleoside triphosphatase appears to be associated with the nuclear envelope, while the protein kinase co-purifies with a nuclear fraction highly enriched for chromatin. This short review summarizes the latest findings on these enzymes and relates them to what is known about Pfr-regulated nuclear metabolism.

  1. Genetic diversity in proteolytic enzymes and amino acid metabolism among Lactobacillus helveticus strains.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, J R; Cai, H; Larsen, R L; Hughes, J E; Welker, D L; De Carvalho, V G; Tompkins, T A; Ardö, Y; Vogensen, F; De Lorentiis, A; Gatti, M; Neviani, E; Steele, J L

    2011-09-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32 is recognized for its ability to decrease bitterness and accelerate flavor development in cheese, and has also been shown to release bioactive peptides in milk. Similar capabilities have been documented in other strains of Lb. helveticus, but the ability of different strains to affect these characteristics can vary widely. Because these attributes are associated with enzymes involved in proteolysis or AA catabolism, we performed comparative genome hybridizations to a CNRZ 32 microarray to explore the distribution of genes encoding such enzymes across a bank of 38 Lb. helveticus strains, including 2 archival samples of CNRZ 32. Genes for peptidases and AA metabolism were highly conserved across the species, whereas those for cell envelope-associated proteinases varied widely. Some of the genetic differences that were detected may help explain the variability that has been noted among Lb. helveticus strains in regard to their functionality in cheese and fermented milk. PMID:21854904

  2. The effects of benzopyrene and safrole on biphenyl 2-hydroxylase and other drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, F J; Bridges, J W; Parke, D V

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of the nature and specificity of the increase in biphenyl 2-hydroxylase activity after preincubation of liver microsomal preparations with various carcinogens in vitro. This enhancement of enzyme activity in vitro was investigated in mouse, hamster and rat, and although the rat appears to be atypical in the variation of the pattern of 2- and 4-hydroxylation with age, similar enhancements were detectable in each species examined. An increase in biphenyl 2-hydroxylase activity was apparent 2h after intraperitoneal administration of safrole or benzopyrene to mature Wistar albino rats and appeared to be similar in nature to that observed after preincubation of liver microsomal preparations with the same chemical in vitro. Investigation of other drug-metabolizing enzyme systems suggests that the enhancing effects of carcinogens in vitro are specific for biphenyl 2-hydroxylase. No correlation between the enhancement of biphenyl 2-hydroxylase and inhibtion of biphenyl 4-hydroxylase was apparent. PMID:821473

  3. In vivo cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzyme characterization using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfang; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Cameron, Brent D.

    2003-07-01

    The development of a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate in vivo phenotyping methodology for characterizing drug-metabolizing phenotypes with reference to the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes would be very beneficial. In terms of application, in the wake of the human genome project, considerable interest is focused on the development of new drugs whose uses will be tailored to specific genetic polymorphisms, and on the individualization of dosing regimens that are also tailored to meet individual patient needs depending upon genotype. In this investigation, chemical probes for CYP450 enzymes were characterized and identified with Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, gold-based metal colloid clusters were utilized to generate surface enhanced Raman spectra for each of the chemical probes. Results will be presented demonstrating the ability of SERS to identify minute quantities of these probes on the order needed for in vivo application.

  4. DHN melanin biosynthesis in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is based on two developmentally regulated key enzyme (PKS)-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of gray mold disease in various plant species and produces grayish macroconidia and/or black sclerotia at the end of the infection cycle. It has been suggested that the pigmentation is due to the accumulation of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin. To unravel its basis and regulation, the putative melanogenic and regulatory genes were identified and functionally characterized. Unlike other DHN melanin-producing fungi, B. cinerea and other Leotiomycetes contain two key enzyme (PKS)-encoding enzymes. Bcpks12 and bcpks13 are developmentally regulated and are required for melanogenesis in sclerotia and conidia respectively. BcYGH1 converts the BcPKS13 product and contributes thereby to conidial melanogenesis. In contrast, enzymes acting downstream in conversion of the PKS products (BcBRN2, BcSCD1 and BcBRN1) are required for both, sclerotial and conidial melanogenesis, suggesting that DHN melanogenesis in B. cinerea follows a non-linear pathway that is rather unusual for secondary metabolic pathways. Regulation of the melanogenic genes involves three pathway-specific transcription factors (TFs) that are clustered with bcpks12 or bcpks13 and other developmental regulators such as light-responsive TFs. Melanogenic genes are dispensable in vegetative mycelia for proper growth and virulence. However, DHN melanin is considered to contribute to the longevity of the reproduction structures. PMID:26514268

  5. The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang K.; Novak, Raymond F.

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Alterations of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes gene and protein expression, observed in diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants, and therapeutic agents and may also impact the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, as well as result in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the mitogen activated protein kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, mTOR, and the p70S6 kinase. Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how chronic disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control. PMID:17097148

  6. Effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection and treatment on drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ebeid, F A; Seif el-Din, S H; Ezzat, A R

    2000-09-01

    The effect of Schistosoma mansoni infection on drug-metabolizing enzymes was investigated before and after treatment of S. mansoni-infected male albino mice with the antibilharzial drug praziquantel (CAS 55268-74-1). The drug was given in a total dose of 1000 mg/kg, and was administered at 500 mg/kg of body weight for two consecutive days each of 500 mg/kg of body weight. The drug was given 49 days after infection with 80 Egyptian strains of S. mansoni cercariae/mouse. The hepatic content of cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b-5 and NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase were determined at 4, 8, 24, 72 h, one and two weeks after the second dose of treatment. The enzymes were determined in the microsomal fraction after homogenization and ultracentrifugation at 105,000 x g. The results indicate a marked decrease of most enzymes in the infected groups compared to normal controls. Two weeks after treatment there was an improvement of the level of most enzymes towards the normal values. The levels of liver function tests were also improved. Concerning the oogram pattern, there was a rapid change even after 8 h after the second dose of treatment. It was concluded that the antibilharzial drug could be considered as a safe drug with a rapid onset of action. PMID:11050708

  7. Metabolic sources of heat and power in tuna muscles. II. Enzyme and metabolite profiles.

    PubMed

    Guppy, M; Hulbert, W C; Hochachka, P W

    1979-10-01

    Tuna appear able to maintain their muscles at 5-10 degrees C above ambient by balancing heat produced in situ and conserved by a counter-current heat exchanger with heat lost to the sea. Metabolite profiles under three different activity states (rest, burst swimming, and steady state swimming during feeding frenzies at sea) were used to identify which metabolic processes in white and red muscles could account for observed excess temperatures. During burst swimming, transient changes in metabolite levels indicate that the metabolism of both red and white muscle contributes to powering burst swimming; red muscle work is sustained mainly by oxidative metabolism while white muscle work depends upon an intense anaerobic glycolysis. The rate of metabolism in red muscle is easily high enough to account for the measured (10 degrees C) increase in temperature at this time. However, in white muscle, anaerobic glycolysis can account for only about a 2 degrees C maximum rise in temperature. The highest sustained swimming speeds and the highest muscle temperatures in skipjack are found during feeding frenzies at sea. As in burst swimming, during steady-state swimming red muscle temperatures can be accounted for by oxidative metabolism. In the case of white muscle, the lactate measurements indicate that anaerobic glycolysis could only lead to a 0.3 degree C temperature rise. However, if the fraction of utilized glycogen that is not fermented (about 60%) is assumed to be fully oxidized, enough heat is generated to raise white muscle temperatures by over 10 degrees C. The observed excess temperature at this time is about 8-10 degrees C, showing that anarerobic carbohydrate metabolism in white muscle is probably the major heat source during feeding frenzies. These interpretations are fully consistent with enzyme profiles of red and white muscles in tuna. They do not, however, explain why tuna have warm muscles. The latter problem is briefly discussed. PMID:11799687

  8. Differential Expression of Enzymes Associated with Serine/Glycine Metabolism in Different Breast Cancer Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Kyum; Jung, Woo Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Glycine and serine are well-known, classic metabolites of glycolysis. Here, we profiled the expression of enzymes associated with serine/glycine metabolism in different molecular subtypes of breast cancer and discuss their potential clinical implications. Methods We used western blotting and immunohistochemistry to examine five serine-/glycine-metabolismassociated proteins (PHGDH, PSAT, PSPH, SHMT, and GLDC) in six breast cancer cell lines and 709 breast cancer cases using tissue microarray (TMA). Results PHGDH and PSPH, associated with serine metabolism, were highly expressed in the TNBC cells. GLDC, associated with glycine metabolism, was highly expressed in HER-2-positive MDA-MB-453 and TNBC-related MDA-MB-435S. TMA showed that the TNBC-type breast cancer tissues highly expressed PHGDH, PSPH, and SHMT1, but not the luminal-A-type tissues (p<0.001). PSPH and SHMT1 expression in the tumor stroma of HER-2-type cancers was the highest, but the luminal-A tissues showed the lowest expression (p<0.001). GLDC was most frequently expressed in cancer cells and stroma of the HER-2-positive cancers and least frequently in TNBC (p<0.001). By Cox multivariate analysis, tumor PSPH positivity (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.068, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0494.079, p?=?0.036), stromal PSPH positivity (HR: 2.152, 95% CI: 1.1074.184, p?=?0.024), and stromal SHMT1 negativity (HR: 2.142, 95% CI: 1.2193.764, p?=?0.008) were associated with short overall survival. Conclusions Expression of serine-metabolismassociated proteins was increased in TNBC and decreased in the luminal-A cancers. Expression of glycine-metabolismassociated proteins was high in the tumor and stroma of HER-2-positive cancers. PMID:24979213

  9. A robust and efficient method for estimating enzyme complex abundance and metabolic flux from expression data.

    PubMed

    Barker, Brandon E; Sadagopan, Narayanan; Wang, Yiping; Smallbone, Kieran; Myers, Christopher R; Xi, Hongwei; Locasale, Jason W; Gu, Zhenglong

    2015-12-01

    A major theme in constraint-based modeling is unifying experimental data, such as biochemical information about the reactions that can occur in a system or the composition and localization of enzyme complexes, with high-throughput data including expression data, metabolomics, or DNA sequencing. The desired result is to increase predictive capability and improve our understanding of metabolism. The approach typically employed when only gene (or protein) intensities are available is the creation of tissue-specific models, which reduces the available reactions in an organism model, and does not provide an objective function for the estimation of fluxes. We develop a method, flux assignment with LAD (least absolute deviation) convex objectives and normalization (FALCON), that employs metabolic network reconstructions along with expression data to estimate fluxes. In order to use such a method, accurate measures of enzyme complex abundance are needed, so we first present an algorithm that addresses quantification of complex abundance. Our extensions to prior techniques include the capability to work with large models and significantly improved run-time performance even for smaller models, an improved analysis of enzyme complex formation, the ability to handle large enzyme complex rules that may incorporate multiple isoforms, and either maintained or significantly improved correlation with experimentally measured fluxes. FALCON has been implemented in MATLAB and ATS, and can be downloaded from: https://github.com/bbarker/FALCON. ATS is not required to compile the software, as intermediate C source code is available. FALCON requires use of the COBRA Toolbox, also implemented in MATLAB. PMID:26381164

  10. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    We have examined, in the livers of rats carried aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite, the activities of about 30 enzymes concerned with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition to the enzyme studies, the levels of glycogen and of the individual fatty acids in hepatic lipids were determined. Livers from flight and ground control rats at recovery (R0) and 25 days after recovery (R25) were used for these analyses. For all parameters measured, the most meaningful comparisons are those made between flight stationary (FS) and flight centrifuged (FC) animals at R0. When these two groups of flight rats were compared at R0, statistically significant decreases in the activity levels of glycogen phosphorylase, ?-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in the palmitoyl CoA desaturase were noted in the weightless group (FS). The significance of these findings was strengthened by the fact that all enzyme activities showing alterations at R0 returned to normal 25 days postflight. When liver glycogen and total fatty acids of the two sets of flight animals were determined, significant differences that could be attributed to reduced gravity were observed. The weightless group (FS) at R0 contained, on the average, more than twice the amount of glycogen than did the centrifuged controls (FC) and a remarkable shift in the ratio of palmitate to palmitoleate was noted. These metabolic alterations, both in enzyme levels and in hepatic constituents, appear to be characteristic of the weightless condition. Our data seem to justify the conclusion that centrifugation during flight is equivalent to terrestrial gravity.

  11. Variability in drug metabolizing enzyme activity in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kevin C.; Werner, Rebecca E.; Gotzkowsky, Karl; Gaedigk, Andrea; Blake, Mike; Hein, David W.; van der Horst, Charles; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To evaluate variability in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, CYP2D6, CYP3A, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in HIV-infected patients and compare this with data from uninfected, healthy volunteers. Methods Ten HIV-infected men and seven women on medication affecting CYP enzyme activity were phenotyped four times over 2 months using caffeine, dextromethorphan, and midazolam. Urinary caffeine and dextromethorphan metabolite ratios were used to phenotype CYP1A2, NAT2, XO, and CYP2D6 activity and midazolam plasma clearance was used to phenotype CYP3A activity. Plasma and urine samples were analyzed by validated LC/UV or LC/MS methods for midazolam, caffeine, and dextromethorphan. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetics and nonparametric statistical analyses were performed, and the data compared with those of healthy volunteer historic controls. Results Compared with age and sex-matched healthy volunteers, HIV-infected subjects had 18% lower hepatic CYP3A4 activity, 90% lower CYP2D6 activity, 53% lower NAT2 activity, and 22% higher XO activity. No significant difference was found in CYP1A2 activity. Additionally, 25% genotype–phenotype discordance in CYP2D6 activity was noted in HIV-infected subjects. Intraindividual variability in enzyme activity increased by 42–62% in HIV-infected patients for CYP1A2, NAT2, and XO, and decreased by 33% for CYP2D6. Interindividual variability in enzyme activity increased by 27–63% in HIV-infected subjects for CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and XO, and decreased by 38% for NAT2. Higher plasma TNFα concentrations correlated with lower CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Conclusions Infection with HIV or stage of HIV infection may alter Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzyme activity. HIV infection was related to an increase in variability of these drug-metabolizing enzymes. Altered metabolism may be a consequence of immune activation and cytokine exposure. PMID:20084375

  12. Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Heather E. Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni, John

    2008-10-15

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have diverse activities in terms of inducing various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes based on their chemical structure.

  13. Effects of Oxygen Limitation on Xylose Fermentation, Intracellular Metabolites, and Key Enzymes of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Jianqiang

    The effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602 were studied using batch cultures. The maximum yield of ethanol was 0.34 g/g at oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of 8.4 mmol/Lh. The maximum yield of xylitol was 0.33 g/g at OTR of 5.1 mmol/Lh. Oxygen limitation greatly affected mycelia growth and xylitol and ethanol productions. The specific growth rate (?) decreased 82% from 0.045 to 0.008 h-1 when OTR changed from 12.6 to 8.4 mmol/Lh. Intracellular metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were determined at various OTRs. Concentrations of most intracellular metabolites decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation. Intracellular enzyme activities of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase, the first three enzymes in xylose metabolic pathway, decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation, resulting in the decreased xylose uptake rate. Under all tested conditions, transaldolase and transketolase activities always maintained at low levels, indicating a great control on xylose metabolism. The enzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase played a major role in NADPH regeneration, and its activity decreased remarkably with the increase in oxygen limitation.

  14. Normal liver enzymes are correlated with severity of metabolic syndrome in a large population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kälsch, Julia; Bechmann, Lars P.; Heider, Dominik; Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Kälsch, Hagen; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Moebus, Susanne; Slomiany, Uta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Gerken, Guido; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Key features of the metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and diabetes. The liver as central metabolic organ is not only affected by the metabolic syndrome as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but may contribute to insulin resistance and metabolic alterations. We aimed to identify potential associations between liver injury markers and diabetes in the population-based Heinz Nixdorf RECALL Study. Demographic and laboratory data were analyzed in participants (n = 4814, age 45 to 75y). ALT and AST values were significantly higher in males than in females. Mean BMI was 27.9 kg/m2 and type-2-diabetes (known and unkown) was present in 656 participants (13.7%). Adiponectin and vitamin D both correlated inversely with BMI. ALT, AST, and GGT correlated with BMI, CRP and HbA1c and inversely correlated with adiponectin levels. Logistic regression models using HbA1c and adiponectin or HbA1c and BMI were able to predict diabetes with high accuracy. Transaminase levels within normal ranges were closely associated with the BMI and diabetes risk. Transaminase levels and adiponectin were inversely associated. Re-assessment of current normal range limits should be considered, to provide a more exact indicator for chronic metabolic liver injury, in particular to reflect the situation in diabetic or obese individuals. PMID:26269425

  15. Bottom-up Metabolic Reconstruction of Arabidopsis and Its Application to Determining the Metabolic Costs of Enzyme Production[W

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Anne; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale modeling of plant metabolism provides the possibility to compare and contrast different cellular and environmental scenarios with the ultimate aim of identifying the components underlying the respective plant behavior. The existing models of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) are top-down assembled, whereby the starting point is the annotated genome, in particular, the metabolic genes. Hence, dead-end metabolites and blocked reactions can arise that are subsequently addressed by using gap-filling algorithms in combination with species-unspecific genes. Here, we present a bottom-up-assembled, large-scale model that relies solely on Arabidopsis-specific annotations and results in the inclusion of only manually curated reactions. While the existing models are largely condition unspecific by employing a single biomass reaction, we provide three biomass compositions that pertain to realistic and frequently examined scenarios: carbon-limiting, nitrogen-limiting, and optimal growth conditions. The comparative analysis indicates that the proposed Arabidopsis core model exhibits comparable efficiency in carbon utilization and flexibility to the existing network alternatives. Moreover, the model is utilized to quantify the energy demand of amino acid and enzyme de novo synthesis in photoautotrophic growth conditions. Illustrated by the case of the most abundant protein in the world, Rubisco, we determine its synthesis cost in terms of ATP requirements. This, in turn, allows us to explore the tradeoff between protein synthesis and growth in Arabidopsis. Altogether, the model provides a solid basis for completely species-specific integration of high-throughput data, such as gene expression levels, and for condition-specific investigations of in silico metabolic engineering strategies. PMID:24808102

  16. Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on α-amylase, α-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH∗, NO∗, and ABTS∗ and chelated Fe2+. α-Pinene, β-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of α-glucosidase than α-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

  17. Plastid Localization of the Key Carotenoid Enzyme Phytoene Synthase Is Altered by Isozyme, Allelic Variation, and Activity[W

    PubMed Central

    Shumskaya, Maria; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Monaco, Regina R.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2012-01-01

    Plant carotenoids have unique physiological roles related to specific plastid suborganellar locations. Carotenoid metabolic engineering could enhance plant adaptation to climate change and improve food security and nutritional value. However, lack of fundamental knowledge on carotenoid pathway localization limits targeted engineering. Phytoene synthase (PSY), a major rate-controlling carotenoid enzyme, is represented by multiple isozymes residing at unknown plastid sites. In maize (Zea mays), the three isozymes were transiently expressed and found either in plastoglobuli or in stroma and thylakoid membranes. PSY1, with one to two residue modifications of naturally occurring functional variants, exhibited altered localization, associated with distorted plastid shape and formation of a fibril phenotype. Mutating the active site of the enzyme reversed this phenotype. Discovery of differential PSY locations, linked with activity and isozyme type, advances the engineering potential for modifying carotenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23023170

  18. Suppression of liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in adult female rats pretreated with cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, S; Watanabe, K; Matsunaga, T; Yamamoto, I; Imaoka, S; Funae, Y; Yoshimura, H

    1993-04-01

    The suppression by cannabidiol (CBD) of the liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in female rats was demonstrated and its mechanism was examined. Pretreatment of rats with CBD (10 mg/kg, i.p.) caused temporary decreases in contents of cytochrome P450 (P450) and b5 and NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase activity compared with values from the vehicle control group. p-Nitroanisole O-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, d-benzphetamine N-demethylase and delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol 11-hydroxylase were also decreased by the CBD pretreatment. The latter two activities took a longer time to return to control levels than the former two. However, the CBD pretreatment, which reduced the protein level of P450 UT-2 (CYP2C11) in adult male rats, did not decrease the protein level of P450 F-1 (CYP2C6) or F-2 (CYP2C12) in liver microsomes from female rats. These results suggest that the mechanisms by which CBD suppresses liver microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities are different in male and female rats. PMID:8395282

  19. Dose-related effect of aflatoxin B1 on liver drug metabolizing enzymes in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Guerre, P; Eeckhoutte, C; Larrieu, G; Burgat, V; Galtier, P

    1996-04-15

    The effects of chronic administration of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on liver drug metabolism enzymes were measured in New Zealand rabbits divided into three groups of 5 animals, each receiving over 5 days either arabic gum or AFB1 in arabic gum at a daily oral dose of 0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg. These treatments did not lead to any lethality in any of the treated groups, but the body weight gain was altered. Biochemical exploration of plasma components revealed a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity characterized by cytolysis and cholestasis. At 0.10 mg/kd/day of AFB1, significant decreases were observed in total liver microsomal cytochrome P450, several P450-dependent monooxygenase activities, all individual P450 isoenzymes levels analysed by Western-blotting and glutathione S-transferase activities. By contrast, at 0.05 mg/kg/day of AFB1, even though total cytochrome P450 was decreased by 30%, only P450 1A1 and 3A6 isoenzymes, and aniline hydroxylation, pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation, aminopyrine, erythromycin, ethylmorphine and dimethylnitrosamine N-demethylations were affected. In the same animal group, the only glutathione S-transferase accepting CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) as substrate was decreased by 22%. UDP-glucuronyltransferase accepting p-nitrophenol as substrate was increased in both groups of animals (33-62%). The mechanisms that could contribute to the observed changes in drug metabolizing enzymes are discussed. PMID:8644116

  20. Induction and inhibition of cytochrome P450 and drug-metabolizing enzymes by climbazole.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yasuna; Suzuki, Michiya; Ohshiro, Naomi; Sunagawa, Takashi; Sasaki, Tadanori; Oguro, Takiko; Tokuyama, Shogo; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Yoshida, Takemi

    2002-01-01

    To determine the effect of climbazole on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (P450) and drug-metabolizing enzymes, four different P450 isoforms (CYP2B1, 3A2, 2E1, and 2C12) were examined in female Long-Evans rats. Treatment of rats with climbazole resulted in the induction of P450 content. Climbazole both induced and inhibited aminopyrine N-demethylase activity, but not erythromycin N-demethylase activity. Uridine 5'-phosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyl transferase and glutathione S-transferase activities were also increased with climbazole treatment. Immunoblot analyses revealed that climbazole induces CYP2B1 and CYP3A2 at the lower dose examined, but it failed to increase CYP2B1 at the higher dose. Northern blot analysis revealed that climbazole markedly increases P450 2B1 mRNA. These results indicate that climbazole induces and inhibits P450-dependent drug-metabolizing enzymes in vivo and may have the dose-differential effect on CYP2B1 in rat liver. PMID:11824557

  1. Low salinity acclimation and thyroid hormone metabolizing enzymes in gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus).

    PubMed

    Klaren, Peter H M; Guzmn, Jos M; Reutelingsperger, Sjoerd J; Mancera, Juan M; Flik, Gert

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of acclimation to low salinity water of gilthead seabream (Sparus auratus), a euryhaline seawater teleost, on the activities of thyroid hormone-metabolizing enzymes in gills, kidney, and liver. Following acclimation to low salinity water, the plasma free thyroxine (T(4)) concentration increases 2.5-fold, and outer ring deiodination activities towards T(4), 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (reverse T(3), rT(3)) in the gills are reduced by 20-32%. Conjugation (catalyzed by sulfotransferase and UDP-glucuronyltransferase) and deconjugation pathways (arylsulfatase, beta-glucuronidase) play a role in the biological activity of native and conjugated thyroid hormones. Branchial, renal, and hepatic activities of the enzymes involved in these metabolic pathways respond differentially to low salinity conditions. The results substantiate that thyroid hormones are involved in S. auratus osmoregulation, and that the gills are well equipped to play an important role in the modulation of plasma hormone titers. PMID:17382943

  2. Natural allelic variations of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes affect sexual dimorphism in Oryzias latipes

    PubMed Central

    Katsumura, Takafumi; Oda, Shoji; Nakagome, Shigeki; Hanihara, Tsunehiko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Mitani, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Shoji; Oota, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphisms, which are phenotypic differences between males and females, are driven by sexual selection. Interestingly, sexually selected traits show geographical variations within species despite strong directional selective pressures. This paradox has eluded many evolutionary biologists for some time, and several models have been proposed (e.g. indicator model and trade-off model). However, disentangling which of these theories explains empirical patterns remains difficult, because genetic polymorphisms that cause variation in sexual differences are still unknown. In this study, we show that polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1B1, which encodes a xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme, are associated with geographical differences in sexual dimorphism in the anal fin morphology of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). Biochemical assays and genetic cross experiments show that high- and low-activity CYP1B1 alleles enhanced and declined sex differences in anal fin shapes, respectively. Behavioural and phylogenetic analyses suggest maintenance of the high-activity allele by sexual selection, whereas the low-activity allele possibly has experienced positive selection due to by-product effects of CYP1B1 in inferred ancestral populations. The present data can elucidate evolutionary mechanisms behind genetic variations in sexual dimorphism and indicate trade-off interactions between two distinct mechanisms acting on the two alleles with pleiotropic effects of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:25377463

  3. A stochastic automaton shows how enzyme assemblies may contribute to metabolic efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Amar, Patrick; Legent, Guillaume; Thellier, Michel; Ripoll, Camille; Bernot, Gilles; Nystrom, Thomas; Saier, Milton H; Norris, Vic

    2008-01-01

    Background The advantages of grouping enzymes into metabolons and into higher order structures have long been debated. To quantify these advantages, we have developed a stochastic automaton that allows experiments to be performed in a virtual bacterium with both a membrane and a cytoplasm. We have investigated the general case of transport and metabolism as inspired by the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) for glucose importation and by glycolysis. Results We show that PTS and glycolytic metabolons can increase production of pyruvate eightfold at low concentrations of phosphoenolpyruvate. A fourfold increase in the numbers of enzyme EI led to a 40% increase in pyruvate production, similar to that observed in vivo in the presence of glucose. Although little improvement resulted from the assembly of metabolons into a hyperstructure, such assembly can generate gradients of metabolites and signaling molecules. Conclusion in silico experiments may be performed successfully using stochastic automata such as HSIM (Hyperstructure Simulator) to help answer fundamental questions in metabolism about the properties of molecular assemblies and to devise strategies to modify such assemblies for biotechnological ends. PMID:18366733

  4. Protein Acetylation Microarray Reveals NuA4 Controls Key Metabolic Target Regulating Gluconeogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-yi; Lu, Jin-ying; Zhang, Junmei; Walter, Wendy; Dang, Weiwei; Wan, Jun; Tao, Sheng-Ce; Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Yingming; Boeke, Jef D.; Berger, Shelley L.; Zhu, Heng

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) conduct many critical functions through nonhistone substrates in metazoans, but only chromatin-associated nonhistone substrates are known in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using yeast proteome microarrays, we identified and validated many nonchromatin substrates of the essential nucleosome acetyltransferase of H4 (NuA4) complex. Among these, acetylation sites (Lys 19 and 514) of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1p) were determined by tandem mass spectrometry. Acetylation at Lys 514 was crucial for enzymatic activity and the ability of yeast cells to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources. Loss of Pck1p activity blocked the extension of yeast chronological life span caused by water starvation. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, human Pck1 acetylation and glucose production was dependent on TIP60, the human homolog of ESA1. Our results demonstrate a novel regulatory function for the NuA4 complex in glucose metabolism and life span by acetylating a critical metabolic enzyme. PMID:19303850

  5. Structural and Functional Insights into (S)-Ureidoglycine Aminohydrolase, Key Enzyme of Purine Catabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana*

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Inchul; Percudani, Riccardo; Rhee, Sangkee

    2012-01-01

    The ureide pathway has recently been identified as the metabolic route of purine catabolism in plants and some bacteria. In this pathway, uric acid, which is a major product of the early stage of purine catabolism, is degraded into glyoxylate and ammonia via stepwise reactions of seven different enzymes. Therefore, the pathway has a possible physiological role in mobilization of purine ring nitrogen for further assimilation. (S)-Ureidoglycine aminohydrolase enzyme converts (S)-ureidoglycine into (S)-ureidoglycolate and ammonia, providing the final substrate to the pathway. Here, we report a structural and functional analysis of this enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtUGlyAH). The crystal structure of AtUGlyAH in the ligand-free form shows a monomer structure in the bicupin fold of the ?-barrel and an octameric functional unit as well as a Mn2+ ion binding site. The structure of AtUGlyAH in complex with (S)-ureidoglycine revealed that the Mn2+ ion acts as a molecular anchor to bind (S)-ureidoglycine, and its binding mode dictates the enantioselectivity of the reaction. Further kinetic analysis characterized the functional roles of the active site residues, including the Mn2+ ion binding site and residues in the vicinity of (S)-ureidoglycine. These analyses provide molecular insights into the structure of the enzyme and its possible catalytic mechanism. PMID:22493446

  6. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Archaea: Current Insights into Unusual Enzymes and Pathways and Their Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Dominik; Rauch, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The metabolism of Archaea, the third domain of life, resembles in its complexity those of Bacteria and lower Eukarya. However, this metabolic complexity in Archaea is accompanied by the absence of many “classical” pathways, particularly in central carbohydrate metabolism. Instead, Archaea are characterized by the presence of unique, modified variants of classical pathways such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is only partly present (if at all), and pentose degradation also significantly differs from that known for bacterial model organisms. These modifications are accompanied by the invention of “new,” unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric regulation sites well established in Bacteria and Eukarya are lost. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of central carbohydrate metabolic pathways and their regulation in Archaea. In order to give an overview of their complexity, pathway modifications are discussed with respect to unusual archaeal biocatalysts, their structural and mechanistic characteristics, and their regulatory properties in comparison to their classic counterparts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, an overview focusing on hexose metabolic, i.e., glycolytic as well as gluconeogenic, pathways identified in archaeal model organisms is given. Their energy gain is discussed, and new insights into different levels of regulation that have been observed so far, including the transcript and protein levels (e.g., gene regulation, known transcription regulators, and posttranslational modification via reversible protein phosphorylation), are presented. PMID:24600042

  7. Metabolism of angiotensin-(1-7) by angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    PubMed

    Chappell, M C; Pirro, N T; Sykes, A; Ferrario, C M

    1998-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors augment circulating levels of the vasodilator peptide angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] in man and animals. Increased concentrations of the peptide may contribute to the antihypertensive effects associated with ACE inhibitors. The rise in Ang-(1-7) following ACE inhibition may result from increased production of the peptide or inhibition of the metabolism of Ang-(1-7)-similar to that observed for bradykinin. To address the latter possibility, we determined whether Ang-(1-7) is a substrate for ACE in vitro. In a pulmonary membrane preparation, the ACE inhibitor lisinopril attenuated the metabolism of low concentrations of 125I-Ang-(1-7). The primary product of 125I-Ang-(1-7) metabolism was identified as Ang-(1-5). Using affinity-purified ACE from canine lung, HPLC separation and amino acid analysis revealed that ACE functioned as a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase cleaving Ang-(1-7) to the pentapeptide Ang-(1-5). The ACE inhibitors lisinopril and enalaprilat (1 micromol/L), as well as the chelating agents EDTA, o-phenanthroline, and DTT (0.1-1 mmol/L) abolished the generation of Ang-(1-5) and did not yield other metabolic products. Ang-(1-5) was not further hydrolyzed by ACE. Kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis of Ang-(1-7) by ACE revealed a substrate affinity of 0.81 micromol/L and maximal velocity of 0.65 micromols min(-1) mg(-1). The calculated turnover constant for the peptide was 1.8 sec(-1) with a catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) of 2200 sec(-1) mmol/L(-1). These findings suggest that increased levels of Ang-(1-7) following ACE inhibition may be due, in part, to decreased metabolism of the peptide. PMID:9453329

  8. Muscle Transcriptional Profile Based on Muscle Fiber, Mitochondrial Respiratory Activity, and Metabolic Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuan; Du, Yang; Trakooljul, Nares; Brand, Bodo; Murni, Eduard; Krischek, Carsten; Wicke, Michael; Schwerin, Manfred; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly metabolically active tissue that both stores and consumes energy. Important biological pathways that affect energy metabolism and metabolic fiber type in muscle cells may be identified through transcriptomic profiling of the muscle, especially ante mortem. Here, gene expression was investigated in malignant hyperthermia syndrome (MHS)-negative Duroc and Pietrian (PiNN) pigs significantly differing for the muscle fiber types slow-twitch-oxidative fiber (STO) and fast-twitch-oxidative fiber (FTO) as well as mitochondrial activity (succinate-dependent state 3 respiration rate). Longissimus muscle samples were obtained 24 h before slaughter and profiled using cDNA microarrays. Differential gene expression between Duroc and PiNN muscle samples were associated with protein ubiquitination, stem cell pluripotency, amyloid processing, and 3-phosphoinositide biosynthesis and degradation pathways. In addition, weighted gene co-expression network analysis within both breeds identified several co-expression modules that were associated with the proportion of different fiber types, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and ATP metabolism. In particular, Duroc results revealed strong correlations between mitochondrion-associated co-expression modules and STO (r = 0.78), fast-twitch glycolytic fiber (r = -0.98), complex I (r=0.72) and COX activity (r = 0.86). Other pathways in the protein-kinase-activity enriched module were positively correlated with STO (r=0.93), while negatively correlated with FTO (r = -0.72). In contrast to PiNN, co-expression modules enriched in macromolecule catabolic process, actin cytoskeleton, and transcription activator activity were associated with fiber types, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and metabolic enzyme activities. Our results highlight the importance of mitochondria for the oxidative capacity of porcine muscle and for breed-dependent molecular pathways in muscle cell fibers. PMID:26681915

  9. Muscle Transcriptional Profile Based on Muscle Fiber, Mitochondrial Respiratory Activity, and Metabolic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Du, Yang; Trakooljul, Nares; Brand, Bodo; Muráni, Eduard; Krischek, Carsten; Wicke, Michael; Schwerin, Manfred; Wimmers, Klaus; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly metabolically active tissue that both stores and consumes energy. Important biological pathways that affect energy metabolism and metabolic fiber type in muscle cells may be identified through transcriptomic profiling of the muscle, especially ante mortem. Here, gene expression was investigated in malignant hyperthermia syndrome (MHS)-negative Duroc and Pietrian (PiNN) pigs significantly differing for the muscle fiber types slow-twitch-oxidative fiber (STO) and fast-twitch-oxidative fiber (FTO) as well as mitochondrial activity (succinate-dependent state 3 respiration rate). Longissimus muscle samples were obtained 24 h before slaughter and profiled using cDNA microarrays. Differential gene expression between Duroc and PiNN muscle samples were associated with protein ubiquitination, stem cell pluripotency, amyloid processing, and 3-phosphoinositide biosynthesis and degradation pathways. In addition, weighted gene co-expression network analysis within both breeds identified several co-expression modules that were associated with the proportion of different fiber types, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and ATP metabolism. In particular, Duroc results revealed strong correlations between mitochondrion-associated co-expression modules and STO (r = 0.78), fast-twitch glycolytic fiber (r = -0.98), complex I (r=0.72) and COX activity (r = 0.86). Other pathways in the protein-kinase-activity enriched module were positively correlated with STO (r=0.93), while negatively correlated with FTO (r = -0.72). In contrast to PiNN, co-expression modules enriched in macromolecule catabolic process, actin cytoskeleton, and transcription activator activity were associated with fiber types, mitochondrial respiratory activity, and metabolic enzyme activities. Our results highlight the importance of mitochondria for the oxidative capacity of porcine muscle and for breed-dependent molecular pathways in muscle cell fibers. PMID:26681915

  10. Mechanism and inhibition of human UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, the key enzyme in sialic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Chia; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lai, Shu-Jung; Yang, Chia Shin; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Lin, Ching-Heng; Fu, Pin-Kuei; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Yeh

    2016-01-01

    The bifunctional enzyme UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE) plays a key role in sialic acid production. It is different from the non-hydrolyzing enzymes for bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, and it is feed-back inhibited by the downstream product CMP-Neu5Ac. Here the complex crystal structure of the N-terminal epimerase part of human GNE shows a tetramer in which UDP binds to the active site and CMP-Neu5Ac binds to the dimer-dimer interface. The enzyme is locked in a tightly closed conformation. By comparing the UDP-binding modes of the non-hydrolyzing and hydrolyzing UDP-GlcNAc epimerases, we propose a possible explanation for the mechanistic difference. While the epimerization reactions of both enzymes are similar, Arg113 and Ser302 of GNE are likely involved in product hydrolysis. On the other hand, the CMP-Neu5Ac binding mode clearly elucidates why mutations in Arg263 and Arg266 can cause sialuria. Moreover, full-length modelling suggests a channel for ManNAc trafficking within the bifunctional enzyme. PMID:26980148

  11. Acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase of Rauwolfia serpentina cells: the key enzyme in biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, H; Esaki, N; Nakai, S; Hashimoto, K; Uesato, S; Soda, K; Fujita, T

    1991-02-01

    Acyclic monoterpene primary alcohol:NADP+ oxidoreductase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monoterpene alcohols in plants, is unstable and has been only poorly characterized. However we have established conditions which stabilize the enzyme from Rauwolfia serpentina cells, and then purified it to homogeneity. It is a monomer with a molecular weight of about 44,000 and contains zinc ions. Various branched-chain allylic primary alcohols such as nerol, geraniol, and 10-hydroxygeraniol were substrates, but ethanol was inert. The enzyme exclusively requires NADP+ or NADPH as the cofactor. Steady-state kinetic studies showed that the nerol dehydrogenation proceeds by an ordered Bi-Bi mechanism. NADP+ binds the enzyme first and then NADPH is the second product released from it. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the reaction products showed that 10-hydroxygeraniol undergoes a reversible dehydrogenation to produce 10-oxogeraniol or 10-hydroxygeranial, which are oxidized further to give 10-oxogeranial, the direct precursor of iridodial. The enzyme has been found to exclusively transfer the pro-R hydrogen of NADPH to neral. The N-terminal sequence of the first 21 amino acids revealed no significant homology with those of various other proteins including the NAD(P)(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases registered in a protein data bank. PMID:1864846

  12. Mechanism and inhibition of human UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase, the key enzyme in sialic acid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng-Chia; Huang, Chi-Hung; Lai, Shu-Jung; Yang, Chia Shin; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Lin, Ching-Heng; Fu, Pin-Kuei; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Yeh

    2016-01-01

    The bifunctional enzyme UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc kinase (GNE) plays a key role in sialic acid production. It is different from the non-hydrolyzing enzymes for bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, and it is feed-back inhibited by the downstream product CMP-Neu5Ac. Here the complex crystal structure of the N-terminal epimerase part of human GNE shows a tetramer in which UDP binds to the active site and CMP-Neu5Ac binds to the dimer-dimer interface. The enzyme is locked in a tightly closed conformation. By comparing the UDP-binding modes of the non-hydrolyzing and hydrolyzing UDP-GlcNAc epimerases, we propose a possible explanation for the mechanistic difference. While the epimerization reactions of both enzymes are similar, Arg113 and Ser302 of GNE are likely involved in product hydrolysis. On the other hand, the CMP-Neu5Ac binding mode clearly elucidates why mutations in Arg263 and Arg266 can cause sialuria. Moreover, full-length modelling suggests a channel for ManNAc trafficking within the bifunctional enzyme. PMID:26980148

  13. Identification of metabolic pathways and enzyme systems involved in the in vitro human hepatic metabolism of dronedarone, a potent new oral antiarrhythmic drug

    PubMed Central

    Klieber, Sylvie; Arabeyre-Fabre, Catherine; Moliner, Patricia; Marti, Eric; Mandray, Martine; Ngo, Robert; Ollier, Cline; Brun, Priscilla; Fabre, Grard

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro metabolism of dronedarone and its major metabolites has been studied in human liver microsomes and cryopreserved hepatocytes in primary culture through the use of specific or total cytochrome P450 (CYP) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. The identification of the main metabolites and enzymes participating in their metabolism was also elucidated by using rhCYP, rhMAO, flavin monooxygenases (rhFMO) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (rhUGT) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) analysis. Dronedarone was extensively metabolized in human hepatocytes with a metabolic clearance being almost completely inhibited (98 2%) by 1-aminobenzotriazole. Ketoconazole also inhibited dronedarone metabolism by 89 7%, demonstrating the crucial role of CYP3A in its metabolism. CYP3A isoforms mostly contributed to N-debutylation while hydroxylation on the butyl-benzofuran moiety was catalyzed by CYP2D6. However, hydroxylation on the dibutylamine moiety did not appear to be CYP-dependent. N-debutyl-dronedarone was less rapidly metabolized than dronedarone, the major metabolic pathway being catalyzed by MAO-A to form propanoic acid-dronedarone and phenol-dronedarone. Propanoic acid-dronedarone was metabolized at a similar rate to that of N-debutyl-dronedarone and was predominantly hydroxylated by CYP2C8 and CYP1A1. Phenol-dronedarone was extensively glucuronidated while C-dealkyl-dronedarone was metabolized at a slow rate. The evaluation of the systemic clearance of each metabolic process together with the identification of both the major metabolites and predominant enzyme systems and isoforms involved in the formation and subsequent metabolism of these metabolites has enhanced the overall understanding of metabolism of dronedarone in humans. PMID:25505590

  14. Identification of metabolic pathways and enzyme systems involved in the in vitro human hepatic metabolism of dronedarone, a potent new oral antiarrhythmic drug.

    PubMed

    Klieber, Sylvie; Arabeyre-Fabre, Catherine; Moliner, Patricia; Marti, Eric; Mandray, Martine; Ngo, Robert; Ollier, Cline; Brun, Priscilla; Fabre, Grard

    2014-06-01

    The in vitro metabolism of dronedarone and its major metabolites has been studied in human liver microsomes and cryopreserved hepatocytes in primary culture through the use of specific or total cytochrome P450 (CYP) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. The identification of the main metabolites and enzymes participating in their metabolism was also elucidated by using rhCYP, rhMAO, flavin monooxygenases (rhFMO) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (rhUGT) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) analysis. Dronedarone was extensively metabolized in human hepatocytes with a metabolic clearance being almost completely inhibited (98 2%) by 1-aminobenzotriazole. Ketoconazole also inhibited dronedarone metabolism by 89 7%, demonstrating the crucial role of CYP3A in its metabolism. CYP3A isoforms mostly contributed to N-debutylation while hydroxylation on the butyl-benzofuran moiety was catalyzed by CYP2D6. However, hydroxylation on the dibutylamine moiety did not appear to be CYP-dependent. N-debutyl-dronedarone was less rapidly metabolized than dronedarone, the major metabolic pathway being catalyzed by MAO-A to form propanoic acid-dronedarone and phenol-dronedarone. Propanoic acid-dronedarone was metabolized at a similar rate to that of N-debutyl-dronedarone and was predominantly hydroxylated by CYP2C8 and CYP1A1. Phenol-dronedarone was extensively glucuronidated while C-dealkyl-dronedarone was metabolized at a slow rate. The evaluation of the systemic clearance of each metabolic process together with the identification of both the major metabolites and predominant enzyme systems and isoforms involved in the formation and subsequent metabolism of these metabolites has enhanced the overall understanding of metabolism of dronedarone in humans. PMID:25505590

  15. Metabolism of Oral Turinabol by Human Steroid Hormone-Synthesizing Cytochrome P450 Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Lina; Brixius-Anderko, Simone; Hannemann, Frank; Zapp, Josef; Neunzig, Jens; Thevis, Mario; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-02-01

    The human mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP11A1, CYP11B1, and CYP11B2 are involved in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. CYP11A1 catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of cholesterol, and CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 catalyze the final steps in the biosynthesis of gluco- and mineralocorticoids, respectively. This study reveals their additional capability to metabolize the xenobiotic steroid oral turinabol (OT; 4-chlor-17?-hydroxy-17?-methylandrosta-1,4-dien-3-on), which is a common doping agent. By contrast, microsomal steroid hydroxylases did not convert OT. Spectroscopic binding assays revealed dissociation constants of 17.7 M and 5.4 M for CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, respectively, whereas no observable binding spectra emerged for CYP11A1. Catalytic efficiencies of OT conversion were determined to be 46 min(-1) mM(-1) for CYP11A1, 741 min(-1) mM(-1) for CYP11B1, and 3338 min(-1) mM(-1) for CYP11B2, which is in the same order of magnitude as for the natural substrates but shows a preference of CYP11B2 for OT conversion. Products of OT metabolism by the CYP11B subfamily members were produced at a milligram scale with a recombinant Escherichia coli-based whole-cell system. They were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be 11?-OH-OT for both CYP11B isoforms, whereby CYP11B2 additionally formed 11?,18-diOH-OT and 11?-OH-OT-18-al, which rearranges to its tautomeric form 11?,18-expoxy-18-OH-OT. CYP11A1 produces six metabolites, which are proposed to include 2-OH-OT, 16-OH-OT, and 2,16-diOH-OT based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses. All three enzymes are shown to be inhibited by OT in their natural function. The extent of inhibition thereby depends on the affinity of the enzyme for OT and the strongest effect was demonstrated for CYP11B2. These findings suggest that steroidogenic cytochrome P450 enzymes can contribute to drug metabolism and should be considered in drug design and toxicity studies. PMID:26658226

  16. Genetically Modeled Mice with Mutations in Mitochondrial Metabolic Enzymes for the Study of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Piruat, José I.; Millán-Uclés, África

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been implicated in progression of cancer. As a paradigm, the “Warburg effect,” which by means of a switch toward anaerobic metabolism enables cancer cells to proliferate in oxygen limiting conditions, is well established. Besides this metabolic transformation of tumors, it has been discovered that mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial proteins are the etiological factors in different types of cancer. This confers to mitochondrial dysfunction a causative role, rather than resultant, in tumor genesis beyond its role in tumor progression and development. Mitochondrial proteins encoded by tumor-suppressor genes are part of the succinate-dehydrogenase, the fumarate-hydratase, and the mitochondrial isocitrate-dehydrogenase enzymes, all of them participating in the Krebs cycle. The spectrum of tumors associated with mutations in these genes is becoming larger and varies between each enzyme. Several mechanisms of tumorigenesis have been proposed for the different enzymatic defects, most of them based on studies using cellular and animal models. Regarding the molecular pathways implicated in the oncogenic transformation, one of the first accepted theories was based on the constitutive expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) at normal oxygen tension, a theory referred to as “pseudo-hypoxic drive.” This mechanism has been linked to the three types of mutations, thus suggesting a central role in cancer. However, other alternative molecular processes, such as oxidative stress or altered chromatin remodeling, have been also proposed to play an onco-pathogenic role. In the recent years, the role of oncometabolites, a new concept emerged from biochemical studies upon these tumors, has acquired relevance as responsible for tumor formation. Nevertheless, the actual contribution of each of these mechanisms has not been definitively established. In this review, we summarize the results obtained from mouse strains genetically modified in the three different enzymes. PMID:25126540

  17. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-01-01

    Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 μM) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5–50 μM) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1′-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. PMID:25395831

  18. Overview of chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta: Identification, domain organization, phylogenetic analysis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Jiang, Haobo; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomaterials in nature. The biosynthesis and degradation of chitin in insects are complex and dynamically regulated to cope with insect growth and development. Chitin metabolism in insects is known to involve numerous enzymes, including chitin synthases (synthesis of chitin), chitin deacetylases (modification of chitin by deacetylation) and chitinases (degradation of chitin by hydrolysis). In this study, we conducted a genome-wide search and analysis of genes encoding these chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta. Our analysis confirmed that only two chitin synthases are present in M. sexta as in most other arthropods. Eleven chitin deacetylases (encoded by nine genes) were identified, with at least one representative in each of the five phylogenetic groups that have been described for chitin deacetylases to date. Eleven genes encoding for family 18 chitinases (GH18) were found in the M. sexta genome. Based on the presence of conserved sequence motifs in the catalytic sequences and phylogenetic relationships, two of the M. sexta chitinases did not cluster with any of the current eight phylogenetic groups of chitinases: two new groups were created (groups IX and X) and their characteristics are described. The result of the analysis of the Lepidoptera-specific chitinase-h (group h) is consistent with its proposed bacterial origin. By analyzing chitinases from fourteen species that belong to seven different phylogenetic groups, we reveal that the chitinase genes appear to have evolved sequentially in the arthropod lineage to achieve the current high level of diversity observed in M. sexta. Based on the sequence conservation of the catalytic domains and on their developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression, we propose putative functions for each group in each category of enzymes. PMID:25616108

  19. Human DHRS7, promising enzyme in metabolism of steroids and retinoids?

    PubMed

    tambergov, Hana; Zemanov, Lucie; Lundov, Tereza; Mal?ekov, Beata; Skarka, Adam; afr, Miroslav; Wsl, Vladimr

    2016-01-01

    The metabolism of steroids and retinoids has been studied in detail for a long time, as these compounds are involved in a broad spectrum of physiological processes. Many enzymes participating in the conversion of such compounds are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Despite great effort, there still remain a number of poorly characterized SDR proteins. According to various bioinformatics predictions, many of these proteins may play a role in the metabolism of steroids and retinoids. Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7 (DHRS7) is one such protein. In a previous study, we determined DHRS7 to be an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum facing the lumen which has shown at least in vitro NADPH-dependent reducing activity toward several eobiotics and xenobiotics bearing a carbonyl moiety. In the present paper pure DHRS7 was used for a more detailed study of both substrate screening and an analysis of kinetics parameters of the physiologically important substrates androstene-3,17-dione, cortisone and all-trans-retinal. Expression patterns of DHRS7 at the mRNA as well as protein level were determined in a panel of various human tissue samples, a procedure that has enabled the first estimation of the possible biological function of this enzyme. DHRS7 is expressed in tissues such as prostate, adrenal glands, liver or intestine, where its activity could be well exploited. Preliminary indications show that DHRS7 exhibits dual substrate specificity recognizing not only steroids but also retinoids as potential substrates and could be important in the metabolism of these signalling molecules. PMID:26466768

  20. Dorsomedial hindbrain catecholamine regulation of hypothalamic astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme protein expression: Impact of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, P; Shrestha, P K; Briski, K P

    2015-04-30

    The brain astrocyte glycogen reservoir is a vital energy reserve and, in the cerebral cortex, subject among other factors to noradrenergic control. The ovarian steroid estradiol potently stimulates nerve cell aerobic respiration, but its role in glial glycogen metabolism during energy homeostasis or mismatched substrate supply/demand is unclear. This study examined the premise that estradiol regulates hypothalamic astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme protein expression during normo- and hypoglycemia in vivo through dorsomedial hindbrain catecholamine (CA)-dependent mechanisms. Individual astrocytes identified in situ by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunolabeling were laser-microdissected from the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH), arcuate hypothalamic (ARH), and paraventricular hypothalamic (PVH) nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of estradiol (E)- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized (OVX) rats after insulin or vehicle injection, and pooled within each site. Stimulation [VMH, LHA] or suppression [PVH, ARH] of basal glycogen synthase (GS) protein expression by E was reversed in the former three sites by caudal fourth ventricular pretreatment with the CA neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). E diminished glycogen phosphorylase (GP) protein profiles by CA-dependent [VMH, PVH] or -independent mechanisms [LHA]. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) increased GS expression in the PVH in OVX+E, but reduced this protein in the PVH, ARH, and LHA in OVX+O. Moreover, IIH augmented GP expression in the VMH, LHA, and ARH in OVX+E and in the ARH in OVX+O, responses that normalized by 6-OHDA. Results demonstrate site-specific effects of E on astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme expression in the female rat hypothalamus, and identify locations where dorsomedial hindbrain CA input is required for such action. Evidence that E correspondingly increases and reduces basal GS and GP in the VMH and LHA, but augments the latter protein during IIH suggests that E regulates glycogen content and turnover in these structures during glucose sufficiency and shortage. PMID:25701713

  1. Regulation of Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Germ-Free Mice by Conventionalization and Probiotics.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Felcy Pavithra; Cheng, Sunny Lihua; Klaassen, Curtis D; Cui, Julia Yue

    2016-02-01

    Little is known regarding the effect of intestinal microbiota modifiers, such as probiotics and conventionalization with exogenous bacteria, on host hepatic drug metabolism. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of these modifiers on the expression of various drug-metabolizing enzymes of the host liver. VSL3 is a probiotic that contains eight live strains of bacteria. Five groups of mice were used: 1) conventional mice (CV), 2) conventional mice treated with VSL3 in drinking water, 3) germ-free (GF) mice, 4) GF mice treated with VSL3, and 5) GF mice exposed to the conventional environment for 2 months. All mice were 3 months old at tissue collection. GF conditions markedly downregulated the cytochrome P450 (P450) 3a gene cluster, but upregulated the Cyp4a cluster, whereas conventionalization normalized their expression to conventional levels [reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot]. Changes in the Cyp3a and 4a gene expression correlated with alterations in the pregnane X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-DNA binding, respectively (chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR). VSL3 increased each bacterial component in the large intestinal content of the CV mice, and increased these bacteria even more in GF mice, likely due to less competition for growth in the GF environment. VSL3 given to conventional mice increased the mRNAs of Cyp4v3, alcohol dehydrogenase 1, and carboxyesterase 2a, but decreased the mRNAs of multiple phase II glutathione-S-transferases. VSL3 given to germ-free mice decreased the mRNAs of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1a9 and 2a3. In conclusion, conventionalization and VSL3 alter the expression of many drug-metabolizing enzyme s in the liver, suggesting the importance of considering "bacteria-drug" interactions for various adverse drug reactions in patients. PMID:26586378

  2. Diabetes induces lysine acetylation of intermediary metabolism enzymes in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Kosanam, Hari; Thai, Kerri; Zhang, Yanling; Advani, Andrew; Connelly, Kim A; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Gilbert, Richard E

    2014-07-01

    Cells in which insulin is not required for glucose uptake are susceptible to the long-term complications of diabetes. Even in these tissues, however, the major perturbations that would otherwise be engendered by the greatly increased intracellular glucose concentration are mollified by adaptive changes in the enzymes of intermediary metabolism. These include allosteric regulation, product inhibition, and covalent modification as well as alterations in gene transcription. More recently, advances in proteomic technology have shown that reversible acetylation of the ε-amino group of lysine provides an additional means of modulating protein function and, in particular, enzyme activity. Here, we explored the extent of protein acetylation in an organ susceptible to the long-term complications of diabetes, examining the kidneys of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and kidney cells exposed to high glucose. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with immunoaffinity enrichment, we identified 47 lysine-acetylated proteins in the kidneys of diabetic rats compared with 11 in control kidneys. Bioinformatic interrogation of the acetylome from diabetic animals showed a predominance of metabolic pathway involvement including the citrate acid cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, and metabolism of branched chain amino acids. Increased lysine acetylation was also noted in mesangial and tubular cells exposed to 25 mmol/L compared with 5.6 mmol/L glucose. These findings highlight acetylation as a posttranslational modification affecting numerous proteins. Current drug discovery efforts to develop small molecule inhibitors and activators of various lysine acetylases and deacetylases offer a new potential strategy to reduce the likelihood of diabetes complications. PMID:24677711

  3. Correlating Structure and Function of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes: Progress and Ongoing Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric F.; Connick, J. Patrick; Reed, James R.; Backes, Wayne L.; Desai, Manoj C.; Xu, Lianhong; Estrada, D. Fernando; Laurence, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes a symposium sponsored by the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics at Experimental Biology held April 20-24 in Boston, MA. Presentations discussed the status of cytochrome P450 (P450) knowledge, emphasizing advances and challenges in relating structure with function and in applying this information to drug design. First, at least one structure of most major human drug-metabolizing P450 enzymes is known. However, the flexibility of these active sites can limit the predictive value of one structure for other ligands. A second limitation is our coarse-grain understanding of P450 interactions with membranes, other P450 enzymes, NADPHcytochrome P450 reductase, and cytochrome b5. Recent work has examined differential P450 interactions with reductase in mixed P450 systems and P450:P450 complexes in reconstituted systems and cells, suggesting another level of functional control. In addition, protein nuclear magnetic resonance is a new approach to probe these protein/protein interactions, identifying interacting b5 and P450 surfaces, showing that b5 and reductase binding are mutually exclusive, and demonstrating ligand modulation of CYP17A1/b5 interactions. One desired outcome is the application of such information to control drug metabolism and/or design selective P450 inhibitors. A final presentation highlighted development of a CYP3A4 inhibitor that slows clearance of human immunodeficiency virus drugs otherwise rapidly metabolized by CYP3A4. Although understanding P450 structure/function relationships is an ongoing challenge, translational advances will benefit from continued integration of existing and new biophysical approaches. PMID:24130370

  4. Correlation of Homocysteine Metabolic Enzymes Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Xinjiang Uygur Population

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Mei; Ji, Huihui; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liang, Jie; Zou, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphisms in the homocysteine (HCY) metabolic enzymes in the Xinjiang Uygur population who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Material/Methods Based on the epidemiological investigation, 129 cases of diagnosed Uygur MCI patients and a matched control group with 131 cases were enrolled for analyzing the association between the polymorphisms in the HCY metabolism related genes (C677T, A1298C, and G1968A polymorphisms in MTHFR, as well as the A2756G polymorphism in MS) and MCI by using the SNaPshot method. We then determined the homocysteine level in patients. Results In Xinjiang Uygur subjects, the A1298C polymorphisms in MTHFR and the A2756G polymorphisms in the MS gene in the MCI group were different from those in the control group. However, the C677T and G1968A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in MCI patients were not different from those in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression showed that, in addition to the well-known risk factors, such as low education level, high cholesterol level, high level of low-density lipoprotein, and high homocysteine levels, the A>G mutation in the MS gene at the rs1805087 locus was another independent risk factor for MCI in the Uyghur MCI population. The risk of MCI in G allele carriers was 2.265 times higher than that in matched control individuals (95% CI: 1.205~4.256, P<0.05). Conclusions The genetic polymorphism of HCY metabolizing enzymes is correlated to the occurrence of MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. The A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene could be an independent risk factor for MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. PMID:25625218

  5. Inhibitors of endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes reduce precipitated withdrawal responses in THC-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Schlosburg, Joel E; Carlson, Brittany L A; Ramesh, Divya; Abdullah, Rehab A; Long, Jonathan Z; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2009-06-01

    Abstinence symptoms in cannabis-dependent individuals are believed to contribute to the maintenance of regular marijuana use. However, there are currently no medications approved by the FDA to treat cannabis-related disorders. The only treatment currently shown consistently to alleviate cannabinoid withdrawal in both animals and humans is substitution therapy using the psychoactive constituent of marijuana, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, new genetic and pharmacological tools are available to increase endocannabinoid levels by targeting fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the enzymes responsible for the degradation of the endogenous cannabinoid ligands anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, respectively. In the present study, we investigated whether increasing endogenous cannabinoids levels, through the use of FAAH (-/-) mice as well as the FAAH inhibitor URB597 or the MAGL inhibitor JZL184, would reduce the intensity of withdrawal signs precipitated by the CB(1) receptor antagonist rimonabant in THC-dependent mice. Strikingly, acute administration of either URB597 or JZL184 significantly attenuated rimonabant-precipitated withdrawal signs in THC-dependent mice. In contrast, FAAH (-/-) mice showed identical withdrawal responses as wild-type mice under a variety of conditions, suggesting that the absence of this enzyme across the development of dependence and during rimonabant challenge does not affect withdrawal responses. Of importance, subchronic administration of URB597 did not lead to cannabinoid dependence and neither URB597 nor JZL184 impaired rotarod motor coordination. These results support the concept of targeting endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes as a promising treatment for cannabis withdrawal. PMID:19430909

  6. Vitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo Cerebrum

    PubMed Central

    Dessai, Shanti N.; Pinto, Annaliza

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. It forms an important component of our antioxidant system. The structure of Vitamin E makes it unique and indispensable in protecting cell membranes. α-tocopherol, one of the forms of Vitamin E, is also known to regulate signal transduction pathways by mechanisms that are independent of its antioxidant properties. Vitamin E compounds reduce the production of inflammatory compounds such as prostaglandins. Swollen, dystrophic axons are considered as the hallmark of Vitamin E deficiency in the brains of rats, monkeys, and humans. The present work aimed to study the Vitamin E- (α-tochopherol acetate-) induced alterations of enzymes involved in metabolism of Glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis of cerebrum. Therefore, cytosolic and crude mitochondrial enzyme activities of glutamine synthetase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, GABA transaminase, succinic Semialdehyde dehydrogenase, glutamic dehydrogenase, and α-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were analysed. Vitamin E induced significant changes in these enzymes thus altering the normal levels of glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis. Such changes are surely to disturb the expression and/or intensity of neurotransmitter signaling during critical periods of brain development. PMID:23984094

  7. Glutathione metabolic enzyme activities in diabetic platelets as a function of glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Muruganandam, A; Drouillard, C; Thibert, R J; Cheung, R M; Draisey, T F; Mutus, B

    1992-08-15

    Type 1 diabetic subjects categorized on the basis of the glycated haemoglobin content of their blood (low less than 7%; medium, greater than 7% and less than 11%; high, greater than 11%) were analyzed for total intraplatelet GSH as well as for the steady-state kinetic parameters (apparent KM and apparent Vmax) of some glutathione metabolic enzymes including glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, gamma-glutamyltrans-peptidase and glutathione-S-transferase. This study indicates that intraplatelet GSH content of subjects with low glycated-haemoglobin is approximately 2-fold higher than those with medium glycated-haemoglobin. There was no further decrease in intraplatelet-GSH in subjects with high glycated-haemoglobin. The kinetic parameters of the platelet-enzymes studied (glutathione reductase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and glutathione-S-transferase) were essentially independent of the glycation state of the subject. However, the apparent KM of glutathione peroxidase was approximately 4-fold higher in the subjects with high glycated-haemoglobin, in comparison to low subjects. This decrease in affinity could possibly result from the susceptibility of this enzyme to non-enzymatic glucosylation as purified samples of glutathione peroxidase incubated in vitro with glucose showed similar increases in apparent KM. These results are discussed in terms of the potential contribution of glutathione peroxidase impairment, to the hyperaggregability of the diabetic platelet. PMID:1357772

  8. Vitamin E-Induced Changes in Glutamate and GABA Metabolizing Enzymes of Chick Embryo Cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ivy; Dessai, Shanti N; Pinto, Annaliza

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin E exists in eight different forms, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. It forms an important component of our antioxidant system. The structure of Vitamin E makes it unique and indispensable in protecting cell membranes. α -tocopherol, one of the forms of Vitamin E, is also known to regulate signal transduction pathways by mechanisms that are independent of its antioxidant properties. Vitamin E compounds reduce the production of inflammatory compounds such as prostaglandins. Swollen, dystrophic axons are considered as the hallmark of Vitamin E deficiency in the brains of rats, monkeys, and humans. The present work aimed to study the Vitamin E- ( α -tochopherol acetate-) induced alterations of enzymes involved in metabolism of Glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis of cerebrum. Therefore, cytosolic and crude mitochondrial enzyme activities of glutamine synthetase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, GABA transaminase, succinic Semialdehyde dehydrogenase, glutamic dehydrogenase, and α -Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were analysed. Vitamin E induced significant changes in these enzymes thus altering the normal levels of glutamate and GABA during developmental neurogenesis. Such changes are surely to disturb the expression and/or intensity of neurotransmitter signaling during critical periods of brain development. PMID:23984094

  9. Reactive Intermediates Produced from Metabolism of the Vanilloid Ring of Capsaicinoids by P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Christopher A.; Henion, Fred; Bugni, Tim S.; Ethirajan, Manivannan; Stockmann, Chris; Pramanik, Kartick C.; Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Yost, Garold S.

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized electrophilic and radical products derived from metabolism of capsaicin by cytochrome P450 and peroxidase enzymes. Multiple glutathione and ?-mercaptoethanol conjugates (a.k.a., adducts), derived from trapping of quinone methide and quinone intermediates of capsaicin, its analogue nonivamide, and O-demethylated and aromatic hydroxylated metabolites thereof, were produced by human liver microsomes and individual recombinant human P450 enzymes. Conjugates derived from concomitant dehydrogenation of the alkyl terminus of capsaicin, were also characterized. Modifications to the 4-OH substituent of the vanilloid ring of capsaicinoids largely prevented the formation of electrophilic intermediates, consistent with the proposed structures and mechanisms of formation for the various conjugates. 5,5-Dicapsaicin, presumably arising from bi-molecular coupling of free radical intermediates, was also characterized. Finally, the analysis of hepatic glutathione conjugates and urinary N-acetylcysteine conjugates from mice dosed with capsaicin confirmed the formation of glutathione conjugates of O-demethylated, quinone methide, and 5-OH-capsaicin in vivo. These data demonstrated that capsaicin and structurally similar analogues are converted to reactive intermediates by certain P450 enzymes, which may partially explain conflicting reports related to the cytotoxic, pro-carcinogenic, and chemoprotective effects of capsaicinoids in different cells and/or organ systems. PMID:23088752

  10. Responses of digestive enzymes of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) to dietary cornstarch changes and metabolic inferences.

    PubMed

    Corra, Cristina Ferro; de Aguiar, Lcia Helena; Lundstedt, Lcia Maria; Moraes, Gilberto

    2007-08-01

    Digestive enzyme responses plus metabolic implications were studied in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fed isoproteic diets containing 28% crude protein, 3300 kcal of gross energy/kg and different amounts of cornstarch (30, 40 and 50%). Amylase, maltase, acid protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin from the alimentary tract were assayed. Plasma, liver and white muscle metabolites were gauged to profile metabolism of the fish. The alimentary tract of tambaqui is compartmentalized morphologically and enzymatically. Amylase was present through the gut; acid protease was detected in stomach; maltase, trypsin and chymotrypsin were found in pyloric caeca and proximal and distal intestine sections. Increase of cornstarch levels from 40 to 50% in the diet resulted in an increase in amylase and maltase. Trypsin and chymotrypsin were unresponsive to starch levels. Acid protease follows the protein/carbohydrate ratio decrease. The increase of dietary cornstarch resulted in liver glycogenesis and the increase in plasma triglycerides is suggestive of lipogenesis. Digestive biochemical responses of tambaqui correlated with changes of feeding plus the analyses of metabolic profile are assumed as a tool for optimizing diet formulation and are a clue to other feeding optimizations for freshwater tropical species. PMID:17490905

  11. The activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes and the biotransformation of selected anthelmintics in the model tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Brtkov, Hana; Vok?l, Ivan; Sklov, Lenka; Kub?ek, Vladimr; Firbasov, Jana; Briestensk, David; Lamka, Ji?; Szotkov, Barbora

    2012-05-01

    The drug-metabolizing enzymes of some helminths can deactivate anthelmintics and therefore partially protect helminths against these drugs' toxic effect. The aim of our study was to assess the activity of the main drug-metabolizing enzymes and evaluate the metabolism of selected anthelmintics (albendazole, flubendazole, mebendazole) in the rat tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, a species often used as a model tapeworm. In vitro and ex vivo experiments were performed. Metabolites of the anthelmintics were detected and identified by HPLC with spectrofluorometric or mass-spectrometric detection. The enzymes of H. diminuta are able to reduce the carbonyl group of flubendazole, mebendazole and several other xenobiotics. Although the activity of a number of oxidation enzymes was determined, no oxidative metabolites of albendazole were detected. Regarding conjugation enzymes, a high activity of glutathione S-transferase was observed. A methyl derivative of reduced flubendazole was the only conjugation metabolite identified in ex vivo incubations of H. diminuta with anthelmintics. The results revealed that H. diminuta metabolized flubendazole and mebendazole, but not albendazole. The biotransformation pathways found in H. diminuta differ from those described in Moniezia expanza and suggest the interspecies differences in drug metabolism not only among classes of helminths, but even among tapeworms. PMID:22309895

  12. Posttranslational Peptide-Modification Enzymes in Action: Key Roles for Leaders and Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Montalbán-López, Manuel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Cell Chemical Biology, Ortega et al. (2016) determine the structure of another lantibiotic dehydratase with a tRNA(Glu)-dependent mechanism of modification. Moreover, they identify a common recognition motif involved in leader peptide binding in a number of different peptide-modification enzymes. These findings open up new mining possibilities and allow novel approaches in peptide engineering. PMID:26991100

  13. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase: a key enzyme in the assimilation of starch by the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Vanesa; Esclapez, Julia; Pérez-Pomares, Francisco; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María; Camacho, Mónica; Bonete, María José

    2012-01-01

    A cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase, EC 2.4.1.19) was successfully isolated and characterized from the halophilic archaeon Haloferax mediterranei. The enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 77 kDa and optimum activity at 55°C, pH 7.5 and 1.5 M NaCl. The enzyme displayed many activities related to the degradation and transformation of starch. Cyclization was found to be the predominant activity, yielding a mixture of cyclodextrins, mainly α-CD, followed by hydrolysis and to a lesser extent coupling and disproportionation activities. Gene encoding H. mediterranei CGTase was cloned and heterologously overexpressed. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 2142 bp that encodes a protein of 713 amino acids. The amino acid sequence displayed high homology with those belonging to the α-amylase family. The CGTase is secreted to the extracellular medium by the Tat pathway. Upstream of the CGTase gene, four maltose ABC transporter genes have been sequenced (malE, malF, malG, malK). The expression of the CGTase gene yielded a fully active CGTase with similar kinetic behavior to the wild-type enzyme. The H. mediterranei CGTase is the first halophilic archaeal CGTase characterized, sequenced and expressed. PMID:22134680

  14. Garlic Oil Attenuated Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis by Modulating the Metabolic Activation and Detoxification Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a potent carcinogen widely existing in the environment. Our previous study has demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) could prevent NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It has been well documented that the metabolic activation may play important roles in NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we designed the current study to explore the potential mechanisms by investigating the changes of hepatic phase ? enzymes (including cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) 2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP1A1) and phase ? enzymes (including glutathione S transferases (GSTs) and UDP- Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)) by using enzymatic methods, real-time PCR, and western blotting analysis. We found that NDEA treatment resulted in significant decreases of the activities of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu, UGTs and increases of the activities of CYP1A1 and GST pi. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu and UGT1A6 in the liver of NDEA-treated rats were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group rats, while the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A1 and GST pi were dramatically increased. Interestingly, all these adverse effects induced by NDEA were simultaneously and significantly suppressed by GO co-treatment. These data suggest that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis might be, at least partially, attributed to the modulation of phase I and phase II enzymes. PMID:23494807

  15. Variation in the Activity of Some Enzymes of Photorespiratory Metabolism in C4 Grasses

    PubMed Central

    UENO, OSAMU; YOSHIMURA, YASUYUKI; SENTOKU, NAOKI

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Photorespiration occurs in C4 plants, although rates are small compared with C3 plants. The amount of glycine decarboxylase in the bundle sheath (BS) varies among C4 grasses and is positively correlated with the granal index (ratio of the length of appressed thylakoid membranes to the total length of all thylakoid membranes) of the BS chloroplasts: C4 grasses with high granal index contained more glycine decarboxylase per unit leaf area than those with low granal index, probably reflecting the differences in O2 production from photosystem II and the potential photorespiratory capacity. Thus, it is hypothesized that the activities of peroxisomal enzymes involved in photorespiration are also correlated with the granal development. • Methods The granal development in BS chloroplasts was investigated and activities of the photorespiratory enzymes assayed in 28 C4 grasses and seven C3 grasses. • Key Results The NADP–malic enzyme grasses were divided into two groups: one with low granal index and the other with relatively high granal index in the BS chloroplasts. Both the NAD–malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase grasses had high granal index in the BS chloroplasts. No statistically significant differences were found in activity of hydroxypyruvate reductase between the C3 and C4 grasses, or between the C4 subtypes. The activity of glycolate oxidase and catalase were smaller in the C4 grasses than in the C3 grasses. Among the C4 subtypes, glycolate oxidase activities were significantly smaller in the NADP–malic enzyme grasses with low granal index in the BS chloroplasts, compared with in the C4 grasses with substantial grana in the BS chloroplasts. • Conclusions There is interspecies variation in glycolate oxidase activity associated with the granal development in the BS chloroplasts and the O2 production from photosystem II, which suggests different potential photorespiration capacities among C4 grasses. PMID:16100226

  16. Quercetin-metabolizing CYP6AS enzymes of the pollinator Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    PubMed

    Mao, Wenfu; Rupasinghe, Sanjeewa G; Johnson, Reed M; Zangerl, Arthur R; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2009-12-01

    Although the honey bee (Apis mellifera) genome contains far fewer cytochrome P450 genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism than other insect genomes sequenced to date, the CYP6AS subfamily, apparently unique to hymenopterans, has undergone an expansion relative to the genome of the jewel wasp (Nasonia vitripennis). The relative dominance of this family in the honey bee genome is suggestive of a role in processing phytochemicals encountered by honey bees in their relatively unusual diet of honey (comprising concentrated processed nectar of many plant species) and bee bread (a mixture of honey and pollen from many plant species). In this study, quercetin was initially suggested as a shared substrate for CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, and CYP6AS4, by its presence in honey, extracts of which induce transcription of these three genes, and by in silico substrate predictions based on a molecular model of CYP6AS3. Biochemical assays with heterologously expressed CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 enzymes subsequently confirmed their activity toward this substrate. CYP6AS1, CYP6AS3, CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 metabolize quercetin at rates of 0.5+/-0.1, 0.5+/-0.1, 0.2+/-0.1, and 0.2+/-0.1 pmol quercetin/ pmol P450/min, respectively. Substrate dockings and sequence alignments revealed that the positively charged amino acids His107 and Lys217 and the carbonyl group of the backbone between Leu302 and Ala303 are essential for quercetin orientation in the CYP6AS3 catalytic site and its efficient metabolism. Multiple replacements in the catalytic site of CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 and repositioning of the quercetin molecule likely account for the lower metabolic activities of CYP6AS4 and CYP6AS10 compared to CYP6AS1 and CYP6AS3. PMID:19737624

  17. Enzymatic analysis of Tet proteins: key enzymes in the metabolism of DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Zhang, Yi

    2012-01-01

    One of the most exciting recent advances in the epigenetic field is the discovery that 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in DNA can be iteratively oxidized by a family of proteins known as Tet proteins to generate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). These 5mC derivatives can be further processed by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) followed by base excision repair or by replication-dependent dilution leading to DNA demethylation. Given the similarity between 5mC and its oxidation derivatives, many of the conventional techniques used for 5mC analysis cannot distinguish between 5mC and 5hmC/5fC/5caC. Here, we describe 2D-TLC and mass spectrometry methods that we have successfully used in differentiating 5mC from its oxidative derivatives as well as in characterizing the enzymatic activity of Tet proteins both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22910204

  18. Enzyme Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, Rosanna G.; Ferrari, Luna De; Mavridis, Lazaros; McDonagh, James L.; Mitchell, John B. O.; Nath, Neetika

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, sequencing, structural biology and bioinformatics have completely revolutionised biomolecular science, with millions of sequences and tens of thousands of three dimensional structures becoming available. The bioinformatics of enzymes is well served by, mostly free, online databases. BRENDA describes the chemistry, substrate specificity, kinetics, preparation and biological sources of enzymes, while KEGG is valuable for understanding enzymes and metabolic pathways. EzCatDB, SFLD and MACiE are key repositories for data on the chemical mechanisms by which enzymes operate. At the current rate of genome sequencing and manual annotation, human curation will never finish the functional annotation of the ever-expanding list of known enzymes. Hence there is an increasing need for automated annotation, though it is not yet widespread for enzyme data. In contrast, functional ontologies such as the Gene Ontology already profit from automation. Despite our growing understanding of enzyme structure and dynamics, we are only beginning to be able to design novel enzymes. One can now begin to trace the functional evolution of enzymes using phylogenetics. The ability of enzymes to perform secondary functions, albeit relatively inefficiently, gives clues as to how enzyme function evolves. Substrate promiscuity in enzymes is one example of imperfect specificity in protein-ligand interactions. Similarly, most drugs bind to more than one protein target. This may sometimes result in helpful polypharmacology as a drug modulates plural targets, but also often leads to adverse side-effects. Many cheminformatics approaches can be used to model the interactions between druglike molecules and proteins in silico. We can even use quantum chemical techniques like DFT and QM/MM to compute the structural and energetic course of enzyme catalysed chemical reaction mechanisms, including a full description of bond making and breaking. PMID:23116471

  19. The Subcellular Compartmentalization of Arginine Metabolizing Enzymes and Their Role in Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Feng; Lucas, Rudolf; Fulton, David

    2013-01-01

    The endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) mediates endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and restrains vascular inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and platelet aggregation. Impaired production of NO is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and promotes the development of cardiovascular disease. In endothelial cells, NO is generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through the conversion of its substrate, l-arginine to l-citrulline. Reduced access to l-arginine has been proposed as a major mechanism underlying reduced eNOS activity and NO production in cardiovascular disease. The arginases (Arg1 and Arg2) metabolize l-arginine to generate l-ornithine and urea and increased expression of arginase has been proposed as a mechanism of reduced eNOS activity secondary to the depletion of l-arginine. Indeed, supplemental l-arginine and suppression of arginase activity has been shown to improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and ameliorate cardiovascular disease. However, this simple relationship is complicated by observations that l-arginine concentrations in endothelial cells remain sufficiently high to support NO synthesis. Accordingly, the subcellular compartmentalization of intracellular l-arginine into poorly interchangeable pools has been proposed to allow for the local depletion of pools or pockets of l-arginine. In agreement with this, there is considerable evidence supporting the importance of the subcellular localization of l-arginine metabolizing enzymes. In endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo, eNOS is found in discrete intracellular locations and the capacity to generate NO is heavily influenced by its localization inside the cell. Arg1 and Arg2 also reside in different subcellular environments and are thought to differentially influence endothelial function. The plasma membrane solute transporter, CAT-1 and the arginine recycling enzyme, arginosuccinate lyase, co-localize with eNOS and facilitate NO release. Herein, we highlight the importance of the subcellular location of eNOS and arginine transporting and metabolizing enzymes to NO release and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23847624

  20. NaCl stress impact on the key enzymes in glycolysis from Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Sun, Jinwei; Qi, Xiaoxi; Liu, Libo

    2015-12-01

    The viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p < 0.05) survival rate during freeze-drying when subjected to a pre-stressed period under the conditions of 2% (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. The main energy source for the life activity of lactic acid bacteria is related to the glycolytic pathway. To investigate the phenomenon of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, the activities and corresponding genes of key enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. NaCl stress significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) glucose utilization. The activities of glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. However, a transcriptional analysis of the corresponding genes suggested that the effect of NaCl stress on the expression of the pfk2 gene was not obvious. The increased survival of freeze-dried cells of L. bulgaricus under NaCl stress might be due to changes in only the activity or translation level of these enzymes in different environmental conditions but have no relation to their mRNA transcription level. PMID:26691481

  1. Structural studies of cinnamoyl-CoA reductase and cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, key enzymes of monolignol biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiyun; Zhou, Rui; Louie, Gordon V; Mühlemann, Joëlle K; Bomati, Erin K; Bowman, Marianne E; Dudareva, Natalia; Dixon, Richard A; Noel, Joseph P; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2014-09-01

    The enzymes cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyze the two key reduction reactions in the conversion of cinnamic acid derivatives into monolignol building blocks for lignin polymers in plant cell walls. Here, we describe detailed functional and structural analyses of CCRs from Medicago truncatula and Petunia hybrida and of an atypical CAD (CAD2) from M. truncatula. These enzymes are closely related members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Our structural studies support a reaction mechanism involving a canonical SDR catalytic triad in both CCR and CAD2 and an important role for an auxiliary cysteine unique to CCR. Site-directed mutants of CAD2 (Phe226Ala and Tyr136Phe) that enlarge the phenolic binding site result in a 4- to 10-fold increase in activity with sinapaldehyde, which in comparison to the smaller coumaraldehyde and coniferaldehyde substrates is disfavored by wild-type CAD2. This finding demonstrates the potential exploitation of rationally engineered forms of CCR and CAD2 for the targeted modification of monolignol composition in transgenic plants. Thermal denaturation measurements and structural comparisons of various liganded and unliganded forms of CCR and CAD2 highlight substantial conformational flexibility of these SDR enzymes, which plays an important role in the establishment of catalytically productive complexes of the enzymes with their NADPH and phenolic substrates. PMID:25217505

  2. NaCl stress impact on the key enzymes in glycolysis from Lactobacillus bulgaricus during freeze-drying

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Sun, Jinwei; Qi, Xiaoxi; Liu, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus in freeze-drying is of significant commercial interest to dairy industries. In the study, L.bulgaricus demonstrated a significantly improved (p < 0.05) survival rate during freeze-drying when subjected to a pre-stressed period under the conditions of 2% (w/v) NaCl for 2 h in the late growth phase. The main energy source for the life activity of lactic acid bacteria is related to the glycolytic pathway. To investigate the phenomenon of this stress-related viability improvement in L. bulgaricus, the activities and corresponding genes of key enzymes in glycolysis during 2% NaCl stress were studied. NaCl stress significantly enhanced (p < 0.05) glucose utilization. The activities of glycolytic enzymes (phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase) decreased during freeze-drying, and NaCl stress were found to improve activities of these enzymes before and after freeze-drying. However, a transcriptional analysis of the corresponding genes suggested that the effect of NaCl stress on the expression of the pfk2 gene was not obvious. The increased survival of freeze-dried cells of L. bulgaricus under NaCl stress might be due to changes in only the activity or translation level of these enzymes in different environmental conditions but have no relation to their mRNA transcription level. PMID:26691481

  3. Rooting depth: a key trait connecting water and carbon metabolism of trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Tadeja; Dal Borgo, Anna; Casolo, Valentino; Bressan, Alice; Stenni, Barbara; Zini, Luca; Bertoncin, Paolo; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Drought episodes accompanied by heat waves are thought to be the main cause of increasing rates of tree decline and mortality in several biomes with consequent ecological/economical consequences. Three possible and not mutually exclusive mechanisms have been proposed to be the drivers of this phenomenon: hydraulic failure caused by massive xylem cavitation and leading to strong reduction of root-to-leaf water transport, carbon starvation caused by prolonged stomatal closure and leading to impairment of primary and secondary metabolism, and finally attacks of biotic agents. The different mechanisms have been reported to have different relevance in the different species. We analyzed the seasonal changes of water relations, xylem sap isotopic composition, and concentration of non-structural carbohydrates in four different woody species co-occurring in the same habitat during a summer drought. Analysis of rain and deep soil water isotopic composition were also performed. Different species showed differential access to deep water sources which influences the gas exchanges and the concentration of non structural carbohydrates (NSC) during the dry season. Species with access to deeper water maintained higher NSC content and were also able to better preserve the integrity of the water transport pathway. On the basis of our results, we propose that rooting depth is a key trait connecting water and carbon plant metabolism, thus mediating the likelihood of hydraulic failure vs carbon starvation in trees subjected to global warming.

  4. Hexokinase is a key regulator of energy metabolism and ROS activity in insect lifespan extension

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xian-Wu; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Developmental arrest (diapause) is a ‘non-aging’ state that is similar to the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer stage and Drosophila lifespan extension. Diapause results in low metabolic activity and a profound extension of insect lifespan. Here, we cloned the Helicoverpa armigera Hexokinase (HK) gene, a gene that is critical for the developmental arrest of this species. HK expression and activity levels were significantly increased in nondiapause-destined pupae compared with those of diapause-destined pupae. Downregulation of HK activity reduced cell viability and delayed pupal development by reducing metabolic activity and increasing ROS activity, which suggests that HK is a key regulator of insect development. We then identified the transcription factors Har-CREB, -c-Myc, and -POU as specifically binding the Har-HK promoter and regulating its activity. Intriguingly, Har-POU and -c-Myc are specific transcription factors for HK expression, whereas Har-CREB is nonspecific. Furthermore, Har-POU and -c-Myc could respond to ecdysone, which is an upstream hormone. Therefore, low ecdysone levels in diapause-destined individuals lead to low Har-POU and -c-Myc expression levels, ultimately repressing Har-HK expression and inducing entry into diapause or lifespan extension. PMID:26852422

  5. Metabolomic profiles reveal key metabolic changes in heat stress-treated mouse Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Chen, Minjian; Ji, Xiaoli; Yao, Mengmeng; Mao, Zhilei; Zhou, Kun; Xia, Yankai; Han, Xiao; Tang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Heat stress (HS) is a potential harmful factor for male reproduction. However, the effect of HS on Sertoli cells is largely unknown. In this study, the metabolic changes in Sertoli cell line were analyzed after HS treatment. Metabolomic analysis revealed that carnitine, 2-hydroxy palmitic acid, nicotinic acid, niacinamide, adenosine monophosphate, glutamine and creatine were the key changed metabolites. We found the expression levels of BTB factors (Connexin43, ZO-1, Vimentin, Claudin1, Claudin5) were disrupted in TM-4 cells after HS treatment, which were recovered by the addition of carnitine. RT-PCR indicated that the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6) were increased after HS treatment, and their related miRNAs (miR-132, miR-431, miR-543) levels were decreased. Our metabolomic data provided a novel understanding of metabolic changes in male reproductive cells after HS treatment and revealed that HS-induced changes of BTB factors and inflammatory status might be caused by the decreased carnitine after HS treatment. PMID:26165742

  6. Expression pattern of glycoside hydrolase genes in Lutzomyia longipalpis reveals key enzymes involved in larval digestion

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Diaz-Albiter, Hector M.; Faria, Maiara do Valle; Sant'Anna, Maurício R. V.; Dillon, Rod J.; Genta, Fernando A.

    2014-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. Adults are phytophagous (males and females) or blood feeders (females only), and larvae feed on solid detritus. Digestion in sand fly larvae has scarcely been studied, but some glycosidase activities putatively involved in microorganism digestion were already described. Nevertheless, the molecular nature of these enzymes, as the corresponding genes and transcripts, were not explored yet. Catabolism of microbial carbohydrates in insects generally involves β-1,3-glucanases, chitinases, and digestive lysozymes. In this work, the transcripts of digestive β-1,3-glucanase and chitinases were identified in the L. longipalpis larvae throughout analysis of sequences and expression patterns of glycoside hydrolases families 16, 18, and 22. The activity of one i-type lysozyme was also registered. Interestingly, this lysozyme seems to play a role in immunity, rather than digestion. This is the first attempt to identify the molecular nature of sand fly larval digestive enzymes. PMID:25140153

  7. The histone demethylase enzyme KDM3A is a key estrogen receptor regulator in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wade, Mark A; Jones, Dominic; Wilson, Laura; Stockley, Jacqueline; Coffey, Kelly; Robson, Craig N; Gaughan, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine therapy has successfully been used to treat estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, but this invariably fails with cancers becoming refractory to treatment. Emerging evidence has suggested that fluctuations in ER co-regulatory protein expression may facilitate resistance to therapy and be involved in breast cancer progression. To date, a small number of enzymes that control methylation status of histones have been identified as co-regulators of ER signalling. We have identified the histone H3 lysine 9 mono- and di-methyl demethylase enzyme KDM3A as a positive regulator of ER activity. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of KDM3A by RNAi abrogates the recruitment of the ER to cis-regulatory elements within target gene promoters, thereby inhibiting estrogen-induced gene expression changes. Global gene expression analysis of KDM3A-depleted cells identified gene clusters associated with cell growth. Consistent with this, we show that knockdown of KDM3A reduces ER-positive cell proliferation and demonstrate that KDM3A is required for growth in a model of endocrine therapy-resistant disease. Crucially, we show that KDM3A catalytic activity is required for both ER-target gene expression and cell growth, demonstrating that developing compounds which target demethylase enzymatic activity may be efficacious in treating both ER-positive and endocrine therapy-resistant disease. PMID:25488809

  8. The histone demethylase enzyme KDM3A is a key estrogen receptor regulator in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Mark A.; Jones, Dominic; Wilson, Laura; Stockley, Jacqueline; Coffey, Kelly; Robson, Craig N.; Gaughan, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine therapy has successfully been used to treat estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer, but this invariably fails with cancers becoming refractory to treatment. Emerging evidence has suggested that fluctuations in ER co-regulatory protein expression may facilitate resistance to therapy and be involved in breast cancer progression. To date, a small number of enzymes that control methylation status of histones have been identified as co-regulators of ER signalling. We have identified the histone H3 lysine 9 mono- and di-methyl demethylase enzyme KDM3A as a positive regulator of ER activity. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of KDM3A by RNAi abrogates the recruitment of the ER to cis-regulatory elements within target gene promoters, thereby inhibiting estrogen-induced gene expression changes. Global gene expression analysis of KDM3A-depleted cells identified gene clusters associated with cell growth. Consistent with this, we show that knockdown of KDM3A reduces ER-positive cell proliferation and demonstrate that KDM3A is required for growth in a model of endocrine therapy-resistant disease. Crucially, we show that KDM3A catalytic activity is required for both ER-target gene expression and cell growth, demonstrating that developing compounds which target demethylase enzymatic activity may be efficacious in treating both ER-positive and endocrine therapy-resistant disease. PMID:25488809

  9. Structural Insights into Maize Viviparous14, a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid W

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, S.; Gabelli, S; Echeverria, I; Vogel, J; Guan, J; Tan, B; Klee, H; McCarty, D; Amzela, M

    2010-01-01

    The key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a hormone central to the regulation of several important processes in plants, is the oxidative cleavage of the 11,12 double bond of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The enzyme viviparous14 (VP14) performs this cleavage in maize (Zea mays), making it a target for the rational design of novel chemical agents and genetic modifications that improve plant behavior through the modulation of ABA levels. The structure of VP14, determined to 3.2-{angstrom} resolution, provides both insight into the determinants of regio- and stereospecificity of this enzyme and suggests a possible mechanism for oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the distantly related CCD1 of maize shows how the VP14 structure represents a template for all plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). In addition, the structure suggests how VP14 associates with the membrane as a way of gaining access to its membrane soluble substrate.

  10. Structural Insights into Maize Viviparous14, a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, Simon A.J.; Gabelli, Sandra B.; Echeverria, Ignacia; Vogel, Jonathan T.; Guan, Jiahn Chou; Tan, Bao Cai; Klee, Harry J.; McCarty, Donald R.; Amzel, L. Mario

    2011-09-06

    The key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a hormone central to the regulation of several important processes in plants, is the oxidative cleavage of the 11,12 double bond of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The enzyme viviparous14 (VP14) performs this cleavage in maize (Zea mays), making it a target for the rational design of novel chemical agents and genetic modifications that improve plant behavior through the modulation of ABA levels. The structure of VP14, determined to 3.2-{angstrom} resolution, provides both insight into the determinants of regio- and stereospecificity of this enzyme and suggests a possible mechanism for oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the distantly related CCD1 of maize shows how the VP14 structure represents a template for all plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). In addition, the structure suggests how VP14 associates with the membrane as a way of gaining access to its membrane soluble substrate.

  11. Changes in nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activities of maize tassel in black soils region of northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwen; Lu, Yan; Xie, Zhiming; Song, Fengbin

    2014-01-01

    Two varieties of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in fields in black soils of northeast China were tested to study the dynamic changes of nitrogen metabolism and antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize. Results showed that antioxidant enzyme activity in tassels of maize increased first and then decreased with the growing of maize, and reached peak value at shedding period. Pattern of proline was consistent with antioxidant enzyme activity, showing that osmotic adjustment could protect many enzymes, which are important for cell metabolism. Continuous reduction of soluble protein content along with the growing of maize was observed in the study, which indicated that quantitative material and energy were provided for pollen formation. Besides, another major cause was that a large proportion of nitrogen was used for the composition of structural protein. Nitrate nitrogen concentrations of tassels were more variable than ammonium nitrogen, which showed that nitrate nitrogen was the favored nitrogen source for maize. PMID:25324855

  12. Non-Viral Gene Transfer as a Tool for Studying Transcription Regulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Bonamassa, Barbara; Liu, Dexi

    2010-01-01

    Numerous xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes are regulated by nuclear receptors at transcriptional level. The challenge we currently face is to understand how a given nuclear receptor interacts with its xenobiotics, migrates into nucleus, binds to the xenobiotic response element of a target gene, and regulates transcription. Toward this end, new methods have been developed to introduce the nuclear receptor gene into appropriate cells and study its activity in activating reporter gene expression under the control of a promoter containing xenobiotic response elements. The goal of this review is to critically examine the gene transfer methods currently available. We concentrate on the gene transfer mechanism, advantages and limitations of each method when employed for nuclear receptor-mediated gene regulation studies. It is our hope that the information provided highlights the importance of gene transfer in studying the mechanisms by which our body eliminates the potentially harmful substances and maintains the homeostasis. PMID:20713102

  13. Modeling the role of covalent enzyme modification in Escherichia coli nitrogen metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Philip B.; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2010-03-01

    In the bacterium Escherichia coli, the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) converts ammonium into the amino acid glutamine. GS is principally active when the cell is experiencing nitrogen limitation, and its activity is regulated by a bicyclic covalent modification cascade. The advantages of this bicyclic-cascade architecture are poorly understood. We analyze a simple model of the GS cascade in comparison to other regulatory schemes and conclude that the bicyclic cascade is suboptimal for maintaining metabolic homeostasis of the free glutamine pool. Instead, we argue that the lag inherent in the covalent modification of GS slows the response to an ammonium shock and thereby allows GS to transiently detoxify the cell, while maintaining homeostasis over longer times.

  14. Gene Expression Variability in Human Hepatic Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lun; Price, Elvin T.; Chang, Ching-Wei; Li, Yan; Huang, Ying; Guo, Li-Wu; Guo, Yongli; Kaput, Jim; Shi, Leming; Ning, Baitang

    2013-01-01

    Interindividual variability in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) in human liver may contribute to interindividual differences in drug efficacy and adverse reactions. Published studies that analyzed variability in the expression of DMET genes were limited by sample sizes and the number of genes profiled. We systematically analyzed the expression of 374 DMETs from a microarray data set consisting of gene expression profiles derived from 427 human liver samples. The standard deviation of interindividual expression for DMET genes was much higher than that for non-DMET genes. The 20 DMET genes with the largest variability in the expression provided examples of the interindividual variation. Gene expression data were also analyzed using network analysis methods, which delineates the similarities of biological functionalities and regulation mechanisms for these highly variable DMET genes. Expression variability of human hepatic DMET genes may affect drug-gene interactions and disease susceptibility, with concomitant clinical implications. PMID:23637747

  15. Genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator increasing succinate excretion from unicellular cyanobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Osanai, Takashi; Shirai, Tomokazu; Iijima, Hiroko; Nakaya, Yuka; Okamoto, Mami; Kondo, Akihiko; Hirai, Masami Y.

    2015-01-01

    Succinate is a building block compound that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has declared as important in biorefineries, and it is widely used as a commodity chemical. Here, we identified the two genes increasing succinate production of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Succinate was excreted under dark, anaerobic conditions, and its production level increased by knocking out ackA, which encodes an acetate kinase, and by overexpressing sigE, which encodes an RNA polymerase sigma factor. Glycogen catabolism and organic acid biosynthesis were enhanced in the mutant lacking ackA and overexpressing sigE, leading to an increase in succinate production reaching five times of the wild-type levels. Our genetic and metabolomic analyses thus demonstrated the effect of genetic manipulation of a metabolic enzyme and a transcriptional regulator on succinate excretion from this cyanobacterium with the data based on metabolomic technique. PMID:26500619

  16. Novel role of TLR4 in NAFLD development: Modulation of metabolic enzymes expression.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Darkiane Fernandes; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Prist, Iryna Hirata; Ariga, Suely Kubo; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; de Lima, Thais Martins

    2015-10-01

    The rise in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome turned NAFLD as the most common cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide. Although the role of toll like receptors, especially TLR4, as activators of inflammatory pathways in liver diseases is well established, our goal was to investigate if TLR4 activation could modulate metabolic lipid pathways and alter the onset of NAFLD. We used LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLrKO) fed with an atherogenic diet as a model. The role of TLR4 activation was evaluated by crossing LDLrKO mice with the TLR4 knockout mice. Animals were fed for 12weeks with high-fat high-cholesterol diet (HFD) containing 18% saturated fat and 1.25% cholesterol. TLR4/LDLr KO mice presented lower triacylglyceride (TAG) plasma levels when compared to LDLrKO, despite the type of diet ingested. HFD induced TAG and cholesterol accumulation in the liver of all mice genotypes studied, but TLR4/LDLr KO presented lower TAG accumulation than LDLrKO mice. Gene expression of TAG synthesis enzymes (ApoB100, MTTP, GPAT1 and GPAT4) was not differentially altered in TLR4/LDLr KO and LDLrKO mice. On the other hand, TLR4 deficiency enhanced the expression of several enzymes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids, as follows: ACOX, CPT-1, MTPa, MTBb, PBE and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. Acyl-carnitine plasma profile showed an increase in C0 and C2 concentration in TLR4/LDLr KO group, corroborating the hypothesis of increased fat oxidation. Our results indicate that TLR4 may have an important role in the onset of steatosis, once its depletion enhances fatty acid oxidation in the liver of mice, preventing triglyceride accumulation. PMID:26172853

  17. An overview of gibberellin metabolism enzyme genes and their related mutants in rice.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Miura, Koutarou; Itoh, Hironori; Tatsumi, Tomoko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Ishiyama, Kanako; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Takeda, Shin; Abe, Kiyomi; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2004-04-01

    To enhance our understanding of GA metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa), we intensively screened and identified 29 candidate genes encoding the following GA metabolic enzymes using all available rice DNA databases: ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox). In contrast to the Arabidopsis genome, multiple CPS-like, KS-like, and KO-like genes were identified in the rice genome, most of which are contiguously arranged. We also identified 18 GA-deficient rice mutants at six different loci from rice mutant collections. Based on the mutant and expression analyses, we demonstrated that the enzymes catalyzing the early steps in the GA biosynthetic pathway (i.e. CPS, KS, KO, and KAO) are mainly encoded by single genes, while those for later steps (i.e. GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox) are encoded by gene families. The remaining CPS-like, KS-like, and KO-like genes were likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of diterpene phytoalexins rather than GAs because the expression of two CPS-like and three KS-like genes (OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKS4, OsKS7, and OsKS8) were increased by UV irradiation, and four of these genes (OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKS4, and OsKS7) were also induced by an elicitor treatment. PMID:15075394

  18. An Overview of Gibberellin Metabolism Enzyme Genes and Their Related Mutants in Rice1[w

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Miura, Koutarou; Itoh, Hironori; Tatsumi, Tomoko; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Ishiyama, Kanako; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Agrawal, Ganesh K.; Takeda, Shin; Abe, Kiyomi; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    To enhance our understanding of GA metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa), we intensively screened and identified 29 candidate genes encoding the following GA metabolic enzymes using all available rice DNA databases: ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox). In contrast to the Arabidopsis genome, multiple CPS-like, KS-like, and KO-like genes were identified in the rice genome, most of which are contiguously arranged. We also identified 18 GA-deficient rice mutants at six different loci from rice mutant collections. Based on the mutant and expression analyses, we demonstrated that the enzymes catalyzing the early steps in the GA biosynthetic pathway (i.e. CPS, KS, KO, and KAO) are mainly encoded by single genes, while those for later steps (i.e. GA20ox, GA3ox, and GA2ox) are encoded by gene families. The remaining CPS-like, KS-like, and KO-like genes were likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of diterpene phytoalexins rather than GAs because the expression of two CPS-like and three KS-like genes (OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKS4, OsKS7, and OsKS8) were increased by UV irradiation, and four of these genes (OsCPS2, OsCPS4, OsKS4, and OsKS7) were also induced by an elicitor treatment. PMID:15075394

  19. Evolution of a new chlorophyll metabolic pathway driven by the dynamic changes in enzyme promiscuous activity.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2014-03-01

    Organisms generate an enormous number of metabolites; however, the mechanisms by which a new metabolic pathway is acquired are unknown. To elucidate the importance of promiscuous enzyme activity for pathway evolution, the catalytic and substrate specificities of Chl biosynthetic enzymes were examined. In green plants, Chl a and Chl b are interconverted by the Chl cycle: Chl a is hydroxylated to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a followed by the conversion to Chl b, and both reactions are catalyzed by chlorophyllide a oxygenase. Chl b is reduced to 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a by Chl b reductase and then converted to Chl a by 7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase (HCAR). A phylogenetic analysis indicated that HCAR evolved from cyanobacterial 3,8-divinyl chlorophyllide reductase (DVR), which is responsible for the reduction of an 8-vinyl group in the Chl biosynthetic pathway. In addition to vinyl reductase activity, cyanobacterial DVR also has Chl b reductase and HCAR activities; consequently, three of the four reactions of the Chl cycle already existed in cyanobacteria, the progenitor of the chloroplast. During the evolution of cyanobacterial DVR to HCAR, the HCAR activity, a promiscuous reaction of cyanobacterial DVR, became the primary reaction. Moreover, the primary reaction (vinyl reductase activity) and some disadvantageous reactions were lost, but the neutral promiscuous reaction (NADH dehydrogenase) was retained in both DVR and HCAR. We also show that a portion of the Chl c biosynthetic pathway already existed in cyanobacteria. We discuss the importance of dynamic changes in promiscuous activity and of the latent pathways for metabolic evolution. PMID:24399236

  20. Metabolic variation among alpha-motoneurons innervating different muscle-fiber types. I. Oxidative enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Sickles, D W; Oblak, T G

    1984-03-01

    We have examined the oxidative metabolism of rat alpha-motoneurons innervating muscles composed predominantly of one muscle-fiber type. Intramuscular injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the tensor fasciae latae (TFL) (approximately 94% fast-twitch glycolytic fibers, FG), tibialis anterior (TA) (approximately 66% fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic, FOG; 32% FG), and soleus (SOL) (approximately 84% slow-twitch oxidative, SO) muscles permitted identification of motoneurons innervating these muscles. gamma-Motoneurons (less than 25-micron average soma diameter) were eliminated from the sampling. The alpha-motoneurons innervating the TFL were considered as FG, those innervating the tibialis anterior as FOG, and those of the soleus as SO. Alternate 5-micron serial cryostat sections were processed for HRP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-diapharase (NADH-D) (oxidative enzyme) activities. Controls were included to assure reliability of reaction product quantitation. Motoneuron pools of each muscle were characterized by their shape and location within the ventral horn. Cells identified on HRP sections as innervating each of the muscles were located on sections processed for NADH-D activity. The optical density of motoneurons in sections processed for NADH-D activity was measured with a Zeiss Zonax MPM 03 microdensitometer. The mean relative NADH-D activities (optical density) of alpha-motoneurons innervating the TFL (FG), TA (FOG), and SOL(SO) muscles were 0.261, 0.305, and 0.447, respectively. Although some overlap in distribution of enzyme activities was observed, statistical analysis indicated significant differences between the NADH-D activities of each type of alpha-motoneuron. This is the first report of any metabolic difference in alpha-motoneurons belonging to different motor-unit types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6546583

  1. Optimal response of key enzymes and uncoupling protein to cold in BAT depends on local T/sub 3/ generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, A.C.; Silva, J.E.

    1987-09-01

    The authors have examined the activity of three lipogenic enzymes (malic enzyme (ME), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase), the activity of the mitochondrial FAD-dependent ..cap alpha..-glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase (..cap alpha..-GPD), and the mitochondrial concentration of uncoupling protein (UCP) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of euthyroid and hypothyroid rats, both at room temperature and in response to acute cold stress. These enzymes and UCP are important for the thermogenic response of BAT in adaptation to cold. The basal level of the lipogenic enzymes was normal or slightly elevated in hypothyroid rats maintained at 23/sup 0/C, but the levels of ..cap alpha..-GPD and UCP were markedly reduced. Forty-eight hours at 4/sup 0/C resulted in an increase in the activity of G-6-PD, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and ..cap alpha..-GPD and in the concentration of UCP both in euthyroid and hypothyroid animals, but the levels reached were invariably less in hypothyroid animals, indicating that thyroid hormone is necessary for a full metabolic response of BAT under maximal demands. Of all variables measured, the most affected was UCP followed by ..cap alpha..-GDP. Dose-response relationship analysis of the UCP response to T/sub 3/ indicated that the normalization of the response to cold requires saturation of the nuclear T/sub 3/ receptors. They concluded, therefore, that the activation of the BAT 5'-deiodinase induced by cold exposure is essential to provide the high levels of nuclear T/sub 3/ required for the full expression of BAT thermogenic potential.

  2. Protective effect of p-methoxycinnamic acid, an active phenolic acid against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis: modulating biotransforming bacterial enzymes and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Sivagami; Venkatachalam, Karthikkumar; Jeyavel, Kabalimoorthy; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2014-09-01

    Objective of the study is to evaluate the modifying potential of p-methoxycinnamic acid (p-MCA), an active rice bran phenolic acid on biotransforming bacterial enzymes and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. 48 male albino wistar rats were divided into six groups. Group1 (control) received modified pellet diet and 0.1 % carboxymethylcellulose; group2 received modified pellet diet along with p-MCA (80 mg/kg b.wt. p.o.) everyday for 16 weeks; groups 3-6 received 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) (20 mg/kg b.wt.) subcutaneous injection once a week for the first 4 weeks, while groups 4-6 received p-MCA at three different doses of 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg b.wt. p.o. everyday for 16 weeks. A significant increase in carcinogen-activating enzymes (cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, cytochrome P4502E1, NADH-cytochrome-b5-reductase and NADPH-cytochrome-P450 reductase) with concomitant decrease in phaseII enzymes, DT-Diaphorase, glutathione S-transferase, UDP-glucuronyl-transferase and gamma glutamyltransferase were observed in group3 compared to control. DMH treatment significantly increased the activities of feacal and colonic bacterial enzymes (β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase, nitroreductase, sulphatase and mucinase). p-MCA supplementation (40 mg/kg b.wt) to carcinogen exposed rats inhibited these enzymes, which were near those of control rats. The formation of dysplastic aberrant crypt foci in the colon and the histopathological observations of the liver also supports our biochemical findings. p-MCA (40 mg/kg b.wt.) offers remarkable modulating efficacy of biotransforming bacterial and xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24908112

  3. Identification and expression of isoflavone synthase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of isoflavones in legumes.

    PubMed

    Jung, W; Yu, O; Lau, S M; O'Keefe, D P; Odell, J; Fader, G; McGonigle, B

    2000-02-01

    Isoflavones have drawn much attention because of their benefits to human health. These compounds, which are produced almost exclusively in legumes, have natural roles in plant defense and root nodulation. Isoflavone synthase catalyzes the first committed step of isoflavone biosynthesis, a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we used a yeast expression assay to screen soybean ESTs encoding cytochrome P450 proteins. We identified two soybean genes encoding isoflavone synthase, and used them to isolate homologous genes from other leguminous species including red clover, white clover, hairy vetch, mung bean, alfalfa, lentil, snow pea, and lupine, as well as from the nonleguminous sugarbeet. We expressed soybean isoflavone synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana, which led to production of the isoflavone genistein in this nonlegume plant. Identification of the isoflavone synthase gene should allow manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway for agronomic and nutritional purposes. PMID:10657130

  4. Cloning of β-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-01-01

    A β-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of β-primeverosides (6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The β-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The β-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The β-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to β-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the β-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze β-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the β-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the β-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the β-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl β-primeveroside by the β-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the β-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the β-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100

  5. 'Chiral compartmentation' in metabolism: enzyme stereo-specificity yielding evolutionary options.

    PubMed

    Kuchel, Philip W; Pags, Guilhem; Naumann, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    We introduce the concept of 'chiral compartmentation' in metabolism that emerges from the stereo-specificity of enzymes for their substrate(s). The fully differentiated mammalian erythrocyte has no sub-cellular organelles and yet it displays compartmentation of lactic acid that is generated either by glycolysis or the glyoxalase pathway. A form of 'operational compartmentation' exists, based not on the chemistry of the reactive groups in the molecules but their stereoisomerism. This we call 'chiral compartmentation', and the rationale for its 'natural selection' in the erythrocyte (and presumably in the cytoplasm of other cells) is discussed. Increasing awareness of the presence of d-amino acids in proteins in the otherwise dominant 'L-chiral biosphere', and of the preferential use of one enantiomer of a metabolite versus the other is largely due to recent developments in rapidly-applicable, analytical-chemical methods. We confirmed that the glyoxalase pathway yields D-lactic acid by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of stretched chiral hydrogels. The activities of the two lactate-producing pathways have been described by numerical integration of simultaneous non-linear differential equations, based on enzyme models like that introduced by Michaelis and Menten in 1913. PMID:23707419

  6. Involvement of glutathione and glutathione metabolizing enzymes in human colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum Daseul; Zhang, Rui; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Piao, Mei Jing; Maeng, Young Hee; Chang, Weon Young; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-09-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an abundant tripeptide present in the majority of cell types. GSH is highly reactive and is often conjugated to other molecules, via its sulfhydryl moiety. GSH is synthesized from glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine via two sequential ATP?consuming steps, which are catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and GSH synthetase (GSS). However, the role of GSH in cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the levels of GSH and GSH synthetic enzymes in human colorectal cancer. The mRNA and protein expression levels of GSH, the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLC) and GSS were significantly higher in the following five colon cancer cell lines: Caco?2, SNU?407, SNU?1033, HCT?116, and HT?29, as compared with the normal colon cell line, FHC. Similarly, in 9 out of 15 patients with colon cancer, GSH expression levels were higher in tumor tissue, as compared with adjacent normal tissue. In addition, the protein expression levels of GCLC and GSS were higher in the tumor tissue of 8 out of 15, and 10 out of 15 patients with colon cancer respectively, as compared with adjacent normal tissue. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that GCLC and GSS were expressed at higher levels in colon cancer tissue, as compared with normal mucosa. Since GSH and GSH metabolizing enzymes are present at elevated levels in colonic tumors, they may serve as clinically useful biomarkers of colon cancer, and/or targets for anti-colon cancer drugs. PMID:26059756

  7. Effect of fasting on energy metabolism and tenderizing enzymes in chicken breast muscle early postmortem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sidang; Li, Chunbao; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2013-04-01

    Pre-slaughter fasting is a very important practice in the meat industry. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of fasting on energy metabolism and tenderizing enzymes in chicken muscle early postmortem. A total of 30 Yellow-feathered chickens were deprived of feed for 0 h, 12 h and 24 h before slaughter (n=10 each group). Breast muscles were removed and cut into 3 parts and stored at 0°C for 0 h, 3 h and 10 h. Samples were used for analyses of zymography, cathepsins, pH, glycogen/ATP/ADP/AMP, hormones and ultrastructure. Fasting caused the accelerated depletion (p<0.05) of glycogen, ATP and ADP before or immediately after slaughter, but no difference existed in ATP at 3 and 10 h (p>0.05). Fasting resulted in greater ultimate pH (p<0.05). Zymography indicated that fasting delayed the activation of μ/m-calpain (p<0.05), however, it accelerated the release of lysosomal enzymes (p<0.05). Fasting for 24 h resulted in greater ultrastructural changes and plasma corticosterone levels than fasting for 12 h and control groups. Therefore, fasting for no more than 12 h is acceptable in practice. PMID:23313973

  8. Sterol composition of yeast organelle membranes and subcellular distribution of enzymes involved in sterol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Zinser, E; Paltauf, F; Daum, G

    1993-01-01

    Organelles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated and analyzed for sterol composition and the activity of three enzymes involved in sterol metabolism. The plasma membrane and secretory vesicles, the fractions with the highest sterol contents, contain ergosterol as the major sterol. In other subcellular membranes, which exhibit lower sterol contents, intermediates of the sterol biosynthetic pathway were found at higher percentages. Lipid particles contain, in addition to ergosterol, large amounts of zymosterol, fecosterol, and episterol. These sterols are present esterified with long-chain fatty acids in this subcellular compartment, which also harbors practically all of the triacylglycerols present in the cell but very little phospholipids and proteins. Sterol delta 24-methyltransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes one of the late steps in sterol biosynthesis, was localized almost exclusively in lipid particles. Steryl ester formation is a microsomal process, whereas steryl ester hydrolysis occurs in the plasma membrane and in secretory vesicles. The fact that synthesis, storage, and hydrolysis of steryl esters occur in different subcellular compartments gives rise to the view that ergosteryl esters of lipid particles might serve as intermediates for the supply of ergosterol from internal membranes to the plasma membrane. PMID:8491706

  9. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Andriotis, Vasilios M. E.; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D.; Svensson, Birte; Smith, Alison M.; Field, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Starch is a major energy store in plants. It provides most of the calories in the human diet and, as a bulk commodity, it is used across broad industry sectors. Starch synthesis and degradation are not fully understood, owing to challenging biochemistry at the liquid/solid interface and relatively limited knowledge about the nature and control of starch degradation in plants. Increased societal and commercial demand for enhanced yield and quality in starch crops requires a better understanding of starch metabolism as a whole. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of carbohydrate-active enzymes in starch degradation in cereal grains through complementary chemical and molecular genetics. These approaches have allowed us to start dissecting aspects of starch degradation and the interplay with cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolysis during germination. With a view to improving and diversifying the properties and uses of cereal grains, it is possible that starch degradation may be amenable to manipulation through genetic or chemical intervention at the level of cell wall metabolism, rather than simply in the starch degradation pathway per se. PMID:26862201

  10. Iminosugar inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes that underpin cereal grain germination and endosperm metabolism.

    PubMed

    Andriotis, Vasilios M E; Rejzek, Martin; Rugen, Michael D; Svensson, Birte; Smith, Alison M; Field, Robert A

    2016-02-15

    Starch is a major energy store in plants. It provides most of the calories in the human diet and, as a bulk commodity, it is used across broad industry sectors. Starch synthesis and degradation are not fully understood, owing to challenging biochemistry at the liquid/solid interface and relatively limited knowledge about the nature and control of starch degradation in plants. Increased societal and commercial demand for enhanced yield and quality in starch crops requires a better understanding of starch metabolism as a whole. Here we review recent advances in understanding the roles of carbohydrate-active enzymes in starch degradation in cereal grains through complementary chemical and molecular genetics. These approaches have allowed us to start dissecting aspects of starch degradation and the interplay with cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolysis during germination. With a view to improving and diversifying the properties and uses of cereal grains, it is possible that starch degradation may be amenable to manipulation through genetic or chemical intervention at the level of cell wall metabolism, rather than simply in the starch degradation pathway per se. PMID:26862201

  11. Alteration of Fatty-Acid-Metabolizing Enzymes Affects Mitochondrial Form and Function in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Tesson, Christelle; Nawara, Magdalena; Salih, MustafaA.M.; Rossignol, Rodrigue; Zaki, MahaS.; AlBalwi, Mohammed; Schule, Rebecca; Mignot, Cyril; Obre, Emilie; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Santorelli, FilippoM.; Durand, ChristelleM.; Oteyza, AndrsCaballero; El-Hachimi, KhalidH.; AlDrees, Abdulmajeed; Bouslam, Naima; Lamari, Foudil; Elmalik, SalahA.; Kabiraj, MohammadM.; Seidahmed, MohammedZ.; Esteves, Typhaine; Gaussen, Marion; Monin, Marie-Lorraine; Gyapay, Gabor; Lechner, Doris; Gonzalez, Michael; Depienne, Christel; Mochel, Fanny; Lavie, Julie; Schols, Ludger; Lacombe, Didier; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; AlAbdulkareem, Ibrahim; Zuchner, Stephan; Yamashita, Atsushi; Benomar, Ali; Goizet, Cyril; Durr, Alexandra; Gleeson, JosephG.; Darios, Frederic; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is considered one of the most heterogeneous groups of neurological disorders, both clinically and genetically. The disease comprises pure and complex forms that clinically include slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of the corticospinal tract. At least 48 loci accounting for these diseases have been mapped to date, and mutations have been identified in 22 genes, most of which play a role in intracellular trafficking. Here, we identified mutations in two functionally related genes (DDHD1 and CYP2U1) in individuals with autosomal-recessive forms of HSP by using either the classical positional cloning or a combination of whole-genome linkage mapping and next-generation sequencing. Interestingly, three subjects with CYP2U1 mutations presented with a thin corpus callosum, white-matter abnormalities, and/or calcification of the basal ganglia. These genes code for two enzymes involved in fatty-acid metabolism, and we have demonstrated in human cells that the HSP pathophysiology includes alteration of mitochondrial architecture and bioenergetics with increased oxidative stress. Our combined results focus attention on lipid metabolism as a critical HSP pathway with a deleterious impact on mitochondrial bioenergetic function. PMID:23176821

  12. Rice Debranching Enzyme Isoamylase3 Facilitates Starch Metabolism and Affects Plastid Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Min-Soo; Umemoto, Takayuki; Kawagoe, Yasushi

    2011-01-01

    Debranching enzymes, which hydrolyze ?-1 and 6-glucosidic linkages in ?-polyglucans, play a dual role in the synthesis and degradation of starch in plants. A transposon-inserted rice mutant of isoamylase3 (isa3) contained an increased amount of starch in the leaf blade at the end of the night, indicating that ISA3 plays a role in the degradation of transitory starch during the night. An epitope-tagged ISA3 expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited hydrolytic activity on ?-limit dextrin and amylopectin. We investigated whether ISA3 plays a role in amyloplast development and starch metabolism in the developing endosperm. ISA3green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein expressed under the control of the rice ISA3 promoter was targeted to the amyloplast stroma in the endosperm. Overexpression of ISA3 in the sugary1 mutant, which is deficient in ISA1 activity, did not convert water-soluble phytoglycogen to starch granules, indicating that ISA1 and ISA3 are not functionally redundant. Both overexpression and loss of function of ISA3 in the endosperm generated pleomorphic amyloplasts and starch granules. Furthermore, chloroplasts in the leaf blade of isa3 seedlings were large and pleomorphic. These results suggest that ISA3 facilitates starch metabolism and affects morphological characteristics of plastids in rice. PMID:21551159

  13. A cross-kingdom Nudix enzyme that pre-empts damage in thiamin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Goyer, Aymeric; Hasnain, Ghulam; Frelin, Ocane; Ralat, Maria A; Gregory, Jesse F; Hanson, Andrew D

    2013-09-15

    Genes specifying the thiamin monophosphate phosphatase and adenylated thiazole diphosphatase steps in fungal and plant thiamin biosynthesis remain unknown, as do genes for ThDP (thiamin diphosphate) hydrolysis in thiamin metabolism. A distinctive Nudix domain fused to Tnr3 (thiamin diphosphokinase) in Schizosaccharomyces pombe was evaluated as a candidate for these functions. Comparative genomic analysis predicted a role in thiamin metabolism, not biosynthesis, because free-standing homologues of this Nudix domain occur not only in fungi and plants, but also in proteobacteria (whose thiamin biosynthesis pathway has no adenylated thiazole or thiamin monophosphate hydrolysis steps) and animals (which do not make thiamin). Supporting this prediction, recombinant Tnr3 and its Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis and maize Nudix homologues lacked thiamin monophosphate phosphatase activity, but were active against ThDP, and up to 60-fold more active against diphosphates of the toxic thiamin degradation products oxy- and oxo-thiamin. Deleting the S. cerevisiae Nudix gene (YJR142W) lowered oxythiamin resistance, overexpressing it raised resistance, and expressing its plant or bacterial counterparts restored resistance to the YJR142W deletant. By converting the diphosphates of damaged forms of thiamin into monophosphates, the Tnr3 Nudix domain and its homologues can pre-empt the misincorporation of damaged diphosphates into ThDP-dependent enzymes, and the resulting toxicity. PMID:23834287

  14. The glycolytic enzyme PKM2 bridges metabolic and inflammatory dysfunction in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Nazarewicz, Rafal R; Wallis, Barbara B; Yanes, Rolando E; Watanabe, Ryu; Hilhorst, Marc; Tian, Lu; Harrison, David G; Giacomini, John C; Assimes, Themistocles L; Goronzy, Jrg J; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal glucose metabolism and enhanced oxidative stress accelerate cardiovascular disease, a chronic inflammatory condition causing high morbidity and mortality. Here, we report that in monocytes and macrophages of patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD), overutilization of glucose promotes excessive and prolonged production of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-1?, driving systemic and tissue inflammation. In patient-derived monocytes and macrophages, increased glucose uptake and glycolytic flux fuel the generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, which in turn promote dimerization of the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and enable its nuclear translocation. Nuclear PKM2 functions as a protein kinase that phosphorylates the transcription factor STAT3, thus boosting IL-6 and IL-1? production. Reducing glycolysis, scavenging superoxide and enforcing PKM2 tetramerization correct the proinflammatory phenotype of CAD macrophages. In essence, PKM2 serves a previously unidentified role as a molecular integrator of metabolic dysfunction, oxidative stress and tissue inflammation and represents a novel therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. PMID:26926996

  15. Regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes by xenobiotic receptors: PXR and CAR?

    PubMed Central

    Tolson, Antonia H.; Wang, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters play pivotal roles in the disposition and detoxification of numerous foreign and endogenous chemicals. To accommodate chemical challenges, the expression of many DMEs and transporters is up-regulated by a group of ligand-activated transcription factors namely nuclear receptors (NRs). The importance of NRs in xenobiotic metabolism and clearance is best exemplified by the most promiscuous xenobiotic receptors: pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane/activated receptor (CAR, NR1I3). Together, these two receptors govern the inductive expression of a largely overlapping array of target genes encoding phase I and II DMEs, and drug transporters. Moreover, PXR and CAR also represent two distinctive mechanisms of NR activation, whereby CAR demonstrates both constitutive and ligand-independent activation. In this review, recent advances in our understanding of PXR and CAR as xenosensors are discussed with emphasis placed on the differences rather than similarities of these two xenobiotic receptors in ligand recognition and target gene regulation. PMID:20727377

  16. Agonist-induced calcium flux, phosphoinositide metabolism, aggregation and enzyme secretion in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A G; McMillan, R M; MacIntyre, D E

    1988-07-01

    Formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), platelet activating factor (PAF) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are potent activators of human neutrophils. Using human neutrophils prelabelled with the fluorescent indicator dye, Quin 2, or with [32P]-orthophosphate, we examined the effects of these stimuli on intracellular free calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, and on various indices of phosphoinositide metabolism, including [32P]-phosphatidic acid (PtdA) formation. The concentration-dependence of the observed changed in [Ca2+]i or [32P]-PtdA were then compared to stimulus-induced aggregation and enzyme release (beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) and lysozyme). FMLP, PAF and LTB4 caused a concentration-dependent elevation of [Ca2+]i, aggregation and enzyme release. However, unlike FMLP and PAF, LTB4 (less than or equal to 2.5 microM) did not cause significant formation of [32P]-PtdA. The concentration response curves for agonist-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i lie to the left of those for aggregation and enzyme release. FMLP and PAF also caused an elevation of [Ca2+]i at concentrations lower than those required to elicit [32P]-PtdA formation. These observations suggest that [Ca2+]i elevation per se cannot mediate human neutrophil functional responses to FMLP, PAF and LTB4. Consequently there may exist other mediator(s) that act in concert with [Ca2+]i or are triggered by [Ca2+]i elevation to promote human neutrophil activation. Both the elevation of [Ca2+]i and the formation of these putative mediator(s) in response to LTB4 apparently occur independently of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. PMID:2845744

  17. Investigations on three genes in Ralstonia eutropha H16 encoding putative cyanophycin metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Adames, Katja; Euting, Karina; Brker, Anna; Steinbchel, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The genome sequence of the facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 exhibited two coding sequences with high homologies to cyanophycin synthetases (CphA) as well as one gene coding for a putative cyanophycinase (CphB). To investigate whether or not the genes cphA H16 (H16_A0774), cphA'H16 (H16_A0775) and cphB H16 (H16_B1013) encode active cyanophycin (CGP) metabolism proteins, several functional analyses were performed. Extensive in silico analysis revealed that all characteristic motifs are conserved within CphAH16, whereas CphA'H16 misses a large part of the so-called J-loop present in other active cyanophycin synthetases. Although transcription of both genes was demonstrated by RT-PCR, and heterologously expressed cphA genes led to light-scattering inclusions in recombinant cells of Escherichia coli, no CGP could be isolated from the cells or detected by HPLC analysis. For all enzyme assay experiments carried out, significant enzyme activities were determined for CphA and CphA' in recombinant E. coli cells if crude cell extracts were applied. Homologous expression of cphA genes in cells of R. eutropha H16?phaC1 did not result in the formation of light-scattering inclusions, and no CGP could be isolated from the cells or detected by HPLC analysis. No transcription of cphB encoding a putative cyanophycinase could be detected by RT-PCR analysis and no overexpression was achieved in several strains of E. coli. Furthermore, no enzyme activity was detected by using CGP overlay agar plates. PMID:23224585

  18. The effect of aspartame on rat brain xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Vences-Meja, A; Labra-Ruz, N; Hernndez-Martnez, N; Dorado-Gonzlez, V; Gmez-Garduo, J; Prez-Lpez, I; Nosti-Palacios, R; Camacho Carranza, R; Espinosa-Aguirre, J J

    2006-08-01

    This study demonstrates that chronic aspartame (ASP) consumption leads to an increase of phase I metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450 (CYP)) in rat brain. Wistar rats were treated by gavage with ASP at daily doses of 75 and 125 mg/kg body weight for 30 days. Cerebrum and cerebellum were used to obtain microsomal fractions to analyse activity and protein levels of seven cytochrome P450 enzymes. Increases in activity were consistently found with the 75 mg/kg dose both in cerebrum and cerebellum for all seven enzymes, although not at the same levels: CYP 2E1-associated 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase (4-NPH) activity was increased 1.5-fold in cerebrum and 25-fold in cerebellum; likewise, CYP2B1-associated penthoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD) activity increased 2.9- and 1.7-fold respectively, CYP2B2-associated benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD) 4.5- and 1.1-fold, CYP3A-associated erythromycin N-demethylase (END) 1.4- and 3.3-fold, CYP1A1-associated ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) 5.5- and 2.8-fold, and CYP1A2-associated methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) 3.7- and 1.3-fold. Furthermore, the pattern of induction of CYP immunoreactive proteins by ASP paralleled that of 4-NHP-, PROD-, BROD-, END-, EROD- and MROD-related activities only in the cerebellum. Conversely, no differences in CYP concentration and activity were detected in hepatic microsomes of treated animals with respect to the controls, suggesting a brain-specific response to ASP treatment. PMID:16937917

  19. The effects of T-2 toxin exposure on liver drug metabolizing enzymes in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Guerre, P; Eeckhoutte, C; Burgat, V; Galtier, P

    2000-12-01

    High doses of T-2 toxin are known to decrease protein synthesis and mono-oxygenase activities in rat liver. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether exposure at a low dose could alter the normal metabolism of the xenobiotic by the liver. Three doses of T-2 toxin, dissolved in olive oil, were orally and daily administered to New Zealand white rabbits for five days. At 0.5 mg/kg, three of the five animals died, whereas only a weak decrease in body weight gain and moderate signs of toxicity occurred in rabbits receiving 0.25 mg/kg/day, and the body weight increased without signs of toxicity at 0.1 mg/kg/day. At 0.25 mg/kg/day, total liver microsomal P450 content, and the activities of aminopyrine and benzphetamine N-demethylases, pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase, glutathione S-transferases accepting 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene as substrates, were decreased. By contrast, ethylmorphine and erythromycin N-demethylases, ethoxyresorufin and methoxyresorufin O-dealkylases, aniline hydroxylase, and UDP-glucuronyltransferase accepting p-nitrophenol as substrate, were unaffected. The expression of P450 1A1, 1A2, 2A1, and 2B4, but not P450 2C3 and 3A6, were also decreased, whereas microsomal conjugated dienes, fluorescent substances, and malondialdehyde contents were increased. At 0.1 mg/kg/day, neither significant effects on drug metabolizing enzymes nor microsomal oxidative damages were obtained. Taken together, these results suggest that a short exposure time to the mycotoxin would not be associated with significant changes in the normal metabolism of xenobiotics by the liver. PMID:11271836

  20. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Zelieann R.; Leslie, Traci C.; Hatfield, Kimberly P.; Gupta, Rupesh K.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2010-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 {mu}g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 {mu}g/mL) decreased E{sub 2} (DMSO: 3009.72 {+-} 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1679.66 {+-} 461.99 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 1752.72 {+-} 532.41 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 45.89 {+-} 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 {+-} 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 17.17 {+-} 4.71 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 13.64 {+-} 3.53 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 1.29 {+-} 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 {+-} 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1.49 {+-} 0.43 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 0.64 {+-} 0.31 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 0.12 {+-} 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 {+-} 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 26.77 {+-} 4.41 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 20.90 {+-} 3.75 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 9.44 {+-} 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  1. Diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, and their metabolic enzymes in synaptic vesicle recycling

    PubMed Central

    Tu-Sekine, Becky; Goldschmidt, Hana; Raben, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    The synaptic vesicle (SV) cycle includes exocytosis of vesicles loaded with a neurotransmitter such as glutamate, coordinated recovery of SVs by endocytosis, refilling of vesicles, and subsequent release of the refilled vesicles from the presynaptic bouton. SV exocytosis is tightly linked with endocytosis, and variations in the number of vesicles, and/or defects in the refilling of SVs, will affect the amount of neurotransmitter available for release (Sudhof, 2004). There is increasing interest in the roles synaptic vesicle lipids and lipid metabolizing enzymes play in this recycling. Initial emphasis was placed on the role of polyphosphoinositides in SV cycling as outlined in a number of reviews (Lim and Wenk, 2009; Martin, 2012; Puchkov and Haucke, 2013; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005). Other lipids are now recognized to also play critical roles. For example, PLD1 (Humeau et al., 2001; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005) and some DGKs (Miller et al., 1999; Nurrish et al., 1999) play roles in neurotransmission which is consistent with the critical roles for phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the regulation of SV exo/endocytosis (Cremona et al., 1999; Exton, 1994; Huttner and Schmidt, 2000; Lim and Wenk, 2009; Puchkov and Haucke, 2013; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005). PLD generates phosphatidic acid by catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) and in some systems this PtdOH is dephosphorylated to generate DAG. In contrast, DGK catalyzes the phosphorylation of DAG thereby converting it into PtdOH. While both enzymes are poised to regulate the levels of DAG and PtdOH, therefore, they both lead to the generation of PtdOH and could have opposite effects on DAG levels. This is particularly important for SV cycling as PtdOH and DAG are both needed for evoked exocytosis (Lim and Wenk, 2009; Puchkov and Haucke, 2013; Rohrbough and Broadie, 2005). Two lipids and their involved metabolic enzymes, two sphingolipids have also been implicated in exocytosis: sphingosine (Camoletto et al., 2009; Chan et al., 2012; Chan and Sieburth, 2012; Darios et al., 2009; Kanno et al., 2010; Rohrbough et al., 2004) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (Chan, Hu, 2012; Chan and Sieburth, 2012; Kanno et al., 2010). Finally a number of reports have focused on the somewhat less well studies roles of sphingolipids and cholesterol in SV cycling. In this report, we review the recent understanding of the roles PLDs, DGKs, and DAG lipases, as well as sphingolipids and cholesterol play in synaptic vesicle cycling. PMID:25446883

  2. Epigenetic Silencing of the Key Antioxidant Enzyme Catalase in Karyotypically Abnormal Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Konki, Mikko; Pasumarthy, Kalyan; Malonzo, Maia; Sainio, Annele; Valensisi, Cristina; Söderström, Mirva; Emani, Maheswara Reddy; Stubb, Aki; Närvä, Elisa; Ghimire, Bishwa; Laiho, Asta; Järveläinen, Hannu; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Hawkins, R. David; Lund, Riikka J.

    2016-01-01

    Epigenomic regulation is likely to be important in the maintenance of genomic integrity of human pluripotent stem cells, however, the mechanisms are unknown. We explored the epigenomes and transcriptomes of human pluripotent stem cells before and after spontaneous transformation to abnormal karyotypes and in correlation to cancer cells. Our results reveal epigenetic silencing of Catalase, a key regulator of oxidative stress and DNA damage control in abnormal cells. Our findings provide novel insight into the mechanisms associated with spontaneous transformation of human pluripotent stem cells towards malignant fate. The same mechanisms may control the genomic stability of cells in somatic tissues. PMID:26911679

  3. Epigenetic Silencing of the Key Antioxidant Enzyme Catalase in Karyotypically Abnormal Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Konki, Mikko; Pasumarthy, Kalyan; Malonzo, Maia; Sainio, Annele; Valensisi, Cristina; Sderstrm, Mirva; Emani, Maheswara Reddy; Stubb, Aki; Nrv, Elisa; Ghimire, Bishwa; Laiho, Asta; Jrvelinen, Hannu; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Lhdesmki, Harri; Hawkins, R David; Lund, Riikka J

    2016-01-01

    Epigenomic regulation is likely to be important in the maintenance of genomic integrity of human pluripotent stem cells, however, the mechanisms are unknown. We explored the epigenomes and transcriptomes of human pluripotent stem cells before and after spontaneous transformation to abnormal karyotypes and in correlation to cancer cells. Our results reveal epigenetic silencing of Catalase, a key regulator of oxidative stress and DNA damage control in abnormal cells. Our findings provide novel insight into the mechanisms associated with spontaneous transformation of human pluripotent stem cells towards malignant fate. The same mechanisms may control the genomic stability of cells in somatic tissues. PMID:26911679

  4. Effects of sex and site on amino acid metabolism enzyme gene expression and activity in rat white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Arriarán, Sofía; Agnelli, Silvia; Remesar, Xavier; Fernández-López, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. White adipose tissue (WAT) shows marked sex- and diet-dependent differences. However, our metabolic knowledge of WAT, especially on amino acid metabolism, is considerably limited. In the present study, we compared the influence of sex on the amino acid metabolism profile of the four main WAT sites, focused on the paths related to ammonium handling and the urea cycle, as a way to estimate the extent of WAT implication on body amino-nitrogen metabolism. Experimental Design. Adult female and male rats were maintained, undisturbed, under standard conditions for one month. After killing them under isoflurane anesthesia. WAT sites were dissected and weighed. Subcutaneous, perigonadal, retroperitoneal and mesenteric WAT were analyzed for amino acid metabolism gene expression and enzyme activities. Results. There was a considerable stability of the urea cycle activities and expressions, irrespective of sex, and with only limited influence of site. Urea cycle was more resilient to change than other site-specialized metabolic pathways. The control of WAT urea cycle was probably related to the provision of arginine/citrulline, as deduced from the enzyme activity profiles. These data support a generalized role of WAT in overall amino-N handling. In contrast, sex markedly affected WAT ammonium-centered amino acid metabolism in a site-related way, with relatively higher emphasis in males’ subcutaneous WAT. Conclusions. We found that WAT has an active amino acid metabolism. Its gene expressions were lower than those of glucose-lipid interactions, but the differences were quantitatively less important than usually reported. The effects of sex on urea cycle enzymes expression and activity were limited, in contrast with the wider variations observed in other metabolic pathways. The results agree with a centralized control of urea cycle operation affecting the adipose organ as a whole. PMID:26587356

  5. Inducibility of drug-metabolizing enzymes by xenobiotics in mice with liver-specific knockout of Ctnnb1.

    PubMed

    Braeuning, Albert; Sanna, Riccardo; Huelsken, Joerg; Schwarz, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Basal as well as xenobiotic-induced expression of the main enzymes from phase I and phase II of drug metabolism is confined to the perivenous areas of the mammalian liver lobule. Whereas signal transduction pathways that govern xenobiotic-induced expression of these enzymes via ligand-activated transcription factors such as constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) or the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) have been intensively studied, the mechanisms regulating zone-specific basal expression of genes related to drug metabolism and preferential response of perivenous hepatocytes to xenobiotic inducers are still largely unknown. Recent publications by our and other groups point to an important role for the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in the maintenance of the perivenous hepatocyte gene expression profile including the main hepatic detoxification enzymes, and beta-catenin signaling was recently implicated in the expression of several cytochrome P450 isoenzymes. To analyze, whether the beta-catenin pathway would also affect inducible expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes, mice with liver-specific knockout of the Ctnnb1 gene (encoding beta-catenin) were treated with different model inducers of xenobiotic metabolism. Knockout of beta-catenin led to alterations in basal expression of most drug metabolism-related genes analyzed and resulted in strongly diminished responses to agonists of CAR-, AhR-, and nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2-dependent transcription. Taken together, the data presented in this study indicate that beta-catenin not only regulates basal expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes but also determines the magnitude and hepatic localization of response to xenobiotic inducers in vivo. PMID:19237511

  6. Zinc Biochemistry: From a Single Zinc Enzyme to a Key Element of Life12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional essentiality of zinc for the growth of living organisms had been recognized long before zinc biochemistry began with the discovery of zinc in carbonic anhydrase in 1939. Painstaking analytical work then demonstrated the presence of zinc as a catalytic and structural cofactor in a few hundred enzymes. In the 1980s, the field again gained momentum with the new principle of zinc finger proteins, in which zinc has structural functions in domains that interact with other biomolecules. Advances in structural biology and a rapid increase in the availability of gene/protein databases now made it possible to predict zinc-binding sites from metal-binding motifs detected in sequences. This procedure resulted in the definition of zinc proteomes and the remarkable estimate that the human genome encodes ?3000 zinc proteins. More recent developments focus on the regulatory functions of zinc(II) ions in intra- and intercellular information transfer and have tantalizing implications for yet additional functions of zinc in signal transduction and cellular control. At least three dozen proteins homeostatically control the vesicular storage and subcellular distribution of zinc and the concentrations of zinc(II) ions. Novel principles emerge from quantitative investigations on how strongly zinc interacts with proteins and how it is buffered to control the remarkably low cellular and subcellular concentrations of free zinc(II) ions. It is fair to conclude that the impact of zinc for health and disease will be at least as far-reaching as that of iron. PMID:23319127

  7. Inhibition of Key Digestive Enzymes by Cocoa Extracts 1 and Procyanidins

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yeyi; Hurst, William J.; Stuart, David A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2011-01-01

    We determined the in vitro inhibitory effects of cocoa extracts and procyanidins against pancreatic ?-amylase (PA), pancreatic lipase (PL) and secreted phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and characterized the kinetics of such inhibition. Lavado, regular and Dutch-processed cocoa extracts as well as cocoa procyanidins (degree of polymerization (DP) = 2 to 10) were examined. Cocoa extracts and procyanidins dose-dependently inhibited PA, PL and PLA2. Lavado cocoa extract was the most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 8.5 47 ?g/mL). An inverse correlation between Log IC50 and DP (R2 > 0.93) was observed. Kinetic analysis suggested that regular cocoa extract, the pentamer and decamer inhibited PL activity in a mixed mode. The pentamer and decamer non-competitively inhibited PLA2 activity, whereas regular cocoa extract inhibited PLA2 competitively. Our study demonstrates that cocoa polyphenols can inhibit digestive enzymes in vitro, and may, in conjunction with a low calorie diet, play a role in body weight management. PMID:21495725

  8. Correlations among antral follicular echotexture, apoptosis and expression of key steroidogenic enzymes in sheep

    PubMed Central

    VANDUZER, Taylor; DUGGAVATHI, Raj; MURAWSKI, Maciej; ZIEBA, Dorota A.; SROKA, Patrycja; BARTLEWSKI, Pawel M.

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen cycling ewes underwent transrectal ultrasonography of ovaries followed by ovariectomies during the growth phase of the first follicular wave of the interovulatory interval or the proestrus/estrus phase of the cycle. Quantitative ultrasonographic characteristics of the antrum and follicular wall in a total of forty-three ovine antral follicles were examined for correlations with the protein expression of three steroidogenic enzymes (cytochrome P450 17?-hydroxylase, CYP17; cytochrome P450 aromatase, CYP19; and 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3?-HSD) determined by densitometric analysis of immunohistochemical slides, follicular dimensions, granulosa layer thickness and the percentage of apoptotic granulosa cells. Significant correlations were found between echotextural attributes of ovine antral follicles and the percentage of apoptotic granulosa cells, CYP17 expression (theca), CYP19 expression (granulosa) and 3?-HSD expression (theca cells). Computer-aided analyses of ultrasonographic images can be beneficial to the development of assisted reproductive technologies and diagnosis of hormonal imbalances without the need for ovarian biopsies or hormone assays. PMID:25109269

  9. Protective effect of bioflavonoid myricetin enhances carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and insulin signaling molecules in streptozotocin–cadmium induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kandasamy, Neelamegam; Ashokkumar, Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of myricetin by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, insulin signaling molecules and renal function markers in streptozotocin (STZ)–cadmium (Cd) induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. After myricetin treatment schedule, blood and tissue samples were collected to determine plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin and renal function markers, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver and insulin signaling molecules in the pancreas and skeletal muscle. A significant increase of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary albumin, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and a significant decrease of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen and glycogen synthase with insulin signaling molecule expression were found in the STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. The administration of myricetin significantly normalizes the carbohydrate metabolic products like glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes and renal function markers with increase insulin, glycogen, glycogen synthase and insulin signaling molecule expression like glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor-2 (IRS-2) and protein kinase B (PKB). Based on the data, the protective effect of myricetin was confirmed by its histological annotation of the pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. These findings suggest that myricetin improved carbohydrate metabolism which subsequently enhances glucose utilization and renal function in STZ–Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. - Highlights: • Diabetic rats are more susceptible to cadmium nephrotoxicity. • Cadmium plays as a cumulative nephrotoxicant whether ingested or inhaled. • Myricetin enhances insulin secretion from the damaged pancreatic β-cells. • Myricetin can eliminate metals and scavenge chemical induced free radicals. • Myricetin enhances the glucose uptake by regulating insulin signaling pathway.

  10. Protective effect of bioflavonoid myricetin enhances carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and insulin signaling molecules in streptozotocin-cadmium induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Neelamegam; Ashokkumar, Natarajan

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the kidney disease that occurs as a result of diabetes. The present study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of myricetin by assaying the activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, insulin signaling molecules and renal function markers in streptozotocin (STZ)-cadmium (Cd) induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. After myricetin treatment schedule, blood and tissue samples were collected to determine plasma glucose, insulin, hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin and renal function markers, carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in the liver and insulin signaling molecules in the pancreas and skeletal muscle. A significant increase of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), urinary albumin, glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and a significant decrease of plasma insulin, hemoglobin, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen and glycogen synthase with insulin signaling molecule expression were found in the STZ-Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. The administration of myricetin significantly normalizes the carbohydrate metabolic products like glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes and renal function markers with increase insulin, glycogen, glycogen synthase and insulin signaling molecule expression like glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor-2 (IRS-2) and protein kinase B (PKB). Based on the data, the protective effect of myricetin was confirmed by its histological annotation of the pancreas, liver and kidney tissues. These findings suggest that myricetin improved carbohydrate metabolism which subsequently enhances glucose utilization and renal function in STZ-Cd induced diabetic nephrotoxic rats. PMID:24923654

  11. Effect of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on efflux of intracellular enzymes from skeletal muscle following experimental damage.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, M J; Wagenmakers, A J; Edwards, R H

    1987-01-01

    The role of arachidonic acid metabolism in the efflux of intracellular enzymes from damaged skeletal muscle has been examined in vitro using inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. Damage to skeletal muscle induced by either calcium ionophore A23187 (25 microM) or dinitrophenol (1 mM) caused an increase in the efflux of prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha together with a large efflux of intracellular creatine kinase. Use of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor completely prevented the efflux of prostaglandins, but had no effect on creatine kinase efflux. However, several agents having the ability to inhibit lipoxygenase enzymes dramatically reduced creatine kinase efflux following damage. These data suggest that a product or products of lipoxygenase enzymes may be mediators of the changes in plasma membrane integrity which permit efflux of intracellular enzymes as a consequence of skeletal muscle damage. PMID:3109374

  12. Effect of inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism on efflux of intracellular enzymes from skeletal muscle following experimental damage.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M J; Wagenmakers, A J; Edwards, R H

    1987-01-15

    The role of arachidonic acid metabolism in the efflux of intracellular enzymes from damaged skeletal muscle has been examined in vitro using inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes. Damage to skeletal muscle induced by either calcium ionophore A23187 (25 microM) or dinitrophenol (1 mM) caused an increase in the efflux of prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha together with a large efflux of intracellular creatine kinase. Use of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor completely prevented the efflux of prostaglandins, but had no effect on creatine kinase efflux. However, several agents having the ability to inhibit lipoxygenase enzymes dramatically reduced creatine kinase efflux following damage. These data suggest that a product or products of lipoxygenase enzymes may be mediators of the changes in plasma membrane integrity which permit efflux of intracellular enzymes as a consequence of skeletal muscle damage. PMID:3109374

  13. TM6SF2 and MAC30, new enzyme homologs in sterol metabolism and common metabolic disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Ponting, Chris P.

    2014-01-01

    Carriers of the Glu167Lys coding variant in the TM6SF2 gene have recently been identified as being more susceptible to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), yet exhibit lower levels of circulating lipids and hence are protected against cardiovascular disease. Despite the physiological importance of these observations, the molecular function of TM6SF2 remains unknown, and no sequence similarity with functionally characterized proteins has been identified. In order to trace its evolutionary history and to identify functional domains, we embarked on a computational protein sequence analysis of TM6SF2. We identified a new domain, the EXPERA domain, which is conserved among TM6SF, MAC30/TMEM97 and EBP (D8, D7 sterol isomerase) protein families. EBP mutations are the cause of chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant (CDPX2), also known as Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, a defective cholesterol biosynthesis disorder. Our analysis of evolutionary conservation among EXPERA domain-containing families and the previously suggested catalytic mechanism for the EBP enzyme, indicate that TM6SF and MAC30/TMEM97 families are both highly likely to possess, as for the EBP family, catalytic activity as sterol isomerases. This unexpected prediction of enzymatic functions for TM6SF and MAC30/TMEM97 is important because it now permits detailed experiments to investigate the function of these key proteins in various human pathologies, from cardiovascular disease to cancer. PMID:25566323

  14. Acetate and other Volatile Fatty Acids - Key Intermediates in marine sediment metabolism - Thermodynamic and kinetic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glombitza, C.; Jaussi, M.; Røy, H.; Jørgensen, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) play important roles as key intermediates in the anaerobic metabolism of subsurface microbial communities. Usually they are present in marine sediment pore water in low concentrations as a result of balanced production and consumption, both occurring in the same sediment zone. Thus their low concentrations represent a steady state condition regulated by either thermodynamics or kinetics. We have developed a novel analytical approach for the parallel measurement of several VFAs directly from marine pore water without any sample pretreatment by the use of a 2-dimensional ion chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. In a first study we analyzed acetate, formate, and propionate in pore water from sediment cores retrieved from 5 different stations within and offshore of the Godhåbsfjord (Greenland). The sediment cores represent different sedimentological conditions, ranging from a typical marine sedimentation site to a glacier/freshwater dominated site. In addition to VFA concentrations, we measured sulfate concentrations, sulfate reduction rates, and cell abundances. We calculated the Gibbs free energy (ΔG) available for sulfate reduction (SR), as well as the VFA turnover times by the in-situ SR rates. The turnover time for acetate by SR ranged from several hours to days in the top cm of sediment and increased to several hundred years at the bottom of the SR zone. From the associated cell abundances we calculated that the VFA turnover times were significantly longer than the diffusion times of the VFA between individual cells. This shows that VFA consumption in the SR zone, and concomitantly the observed pore water concentrations, are not constrained by diffusion. DG values for SR using acetate were >36 kJ/mol which is significantly above the lower limit for anaerobic microbial energy metabolism. It thus remains unclear what controls the VFA concentrations in the sediment.

  15. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), ?-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, were identified as Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4). The results demonstrated that different sponges extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Chemical characterizations of sponges SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Based on this study, marine sponges are considered as talented sources for production of diverse and multiple biologically active compounds. PMID:22898269

  16. Oxidation of Monolignols by Members of the Berberine Bridge Enzyme Family Suggests a Role in Plant Cell Wall Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Bastian; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steiner, Barbara; Dordic, Andela; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Sensen, Christoph W; van der Graaff, Eric; Wallner, Silvia; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2015-07-24

    Plant genomes contain a large number of genes encoding for berberine bridge enzyme (BBE)-like enzymes. Despite the widespread occurrence and abundance of this protein family in the plant kingdom, the biochemical function remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have expressed two members of the BBE-like enzyme family from Arabidopsis thaliana in the host organism Komagataella pastoris. The two proteins, termed AtBBE-like 13 and AtBBE-like 15, were purified, and their catalytic properties were determined. In addition, AtBBE-like 15 was crystallized and structurally characterized by x-ray crystallography. Here, we show that the enzymes catalyze the oxidation of aromatic allylic alcohols, such as coumaryl, sinapyl, and coniferyl alcohol, to the corresponding aldehydes and that AtBBE-like 15 adopts the same fold as vanillyl alcohol oxidase as reported previously for berberine bridge enzyme and other FAD-dependent oxidoreductases. Further analysis of the substrate range identified coniferin, the glycosylated storage form of coniferyl alcohol, as a substrate of the enzymes, whereas other glycosylated monolignols were rather poor substrates. A detailed analysis of the motifs present in the active sites of the BBE-like enzymes in A. thaliana suggested that 14 out of 28 members of the family might catalyze similar reactions. Based on these findings, we propose a novel role of BBE-like enzymes in monolignol metabolism that was previously not recognized for this enzyme family. PMID:26037923

  17. Oxidation of Monolignols by Members of the Berberine Bridge Enzyme Family Suggests a Role in Plant Cell Wall Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Bastian; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Steiner, Barbara; Dordic, Andela; Gutmann, Alexander; Nidetzky, Bernd; Sensen, Christoph W.; van der Graaff, Eric; Wallner, Silvia; Gruber, Karl; Macheroux, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Plant genomes contain a large number of genes encoding for berberine bridge enzyme (BBE)-like enzymes. Despite the widespread occurrence and abundance of this protein family in the plant kingdom, the biochemical function remains largely unexplored. In this study, we have expressed two members of the BBE-like enzyme family from Arabidopsis thaliana in the host organism Komagataella pastoris. The two proteins, termed AtBBE-like 13 and AtBBE-like 15, were purified, and their catalytic properties were determined. In addition, AtBBE-like 15 was crystallized and structurally characterized by x-ray crystallography. Here, we show that the enzymes catalyze the oxidation of aromatic allylic alcohols, such as coumaryl, sinapyl, and coniferyl alcohol, to the corresponding aldehydes and that AtBBE-like 15 adopts the same fold as vanillyl alcohol oxidase as reported previously for berberine bridge enzyme and other FAD-dependent oxidoreductases. Further analysis of the substrate range identified coniferin, the glycosylated storage form of coniferyl alcohol, as a substrate of the enzymes, whereas other glycosylated monolignols were rather poor substrates. A detailed analysis of the motifs present in the active sites of the BBE-like enzymes in A. thaliana suggested that 14 out of 28 members of the family might catalyze similar reactions. Based on these findings, we propose a novel role of BBE-like enzymes in monolignol metabolism that was previously not recognized for this enzyme family. PMID:26037923

  18. Carbonic anhydrase: a key regulatory and detoxifying enzyme for Karst plants.

    PubMed

    Mller, Werner E G; Qiang, Li; Schrder, Heinz C; Hnig, Natalie; Yuan, Daoxian; Grebenjuk, Vlad A; Mussino, Francesca; Giovine, Marco; Wang, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Karstification is a rapid process during which calcidic stones/limestones undergo dissolution with the consequence of a desertification of karst regions. A slow-down of those dissolution processes of Ca-carbonate can be approached by a reforestation program using karst-resistant plants that can resist alkaline pH and higher bicarbonate (HCO??) concentrations in the soil. Carbonic anhydrases (CA) are enzymes that mediate a rapid and reversible interconversion of CO? and HCO??. In the present study, the steady-state expression of a CA gene, encoding for the plant carbonic anhydrase from the parsley Petroselinum crispum, is monitored. The studies were primarily been performed during germination of the seeds up to the 12/14-day-old embryos. The CA cDNA was cloned. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed that the gene expression level of the P. crispum CA is strongly and significantly affected at more alkaline pH in the growth medium (pH 8.3). This abolishing effect is counteracted both by addition of HCO?? and by addition of polyphosphate (polyP) to the culture medium. In response to polyP, the increased pH in the vacuoles of the growing plants is normalized. The effect of polyP let us to propose that this polymer acts as a buffer system that facilitates the adjustment of the pH in the cytoplasm. In addition, it is proposed that polyP has the potential to act, especially in the karst, as a fertilizer that allows the karstic plants to cope with the adverse pH and HCO?? condition in the soil. PMID:24385198

  19. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism Modifies Exercise-Induced Muscle Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, David; Brogioli, Michael; Maier, Thomas; White, Andy; Waldron, Sarah; Rittweger, Jörn; Toigo, Marco; Wettstein, Jessica; Laczko, Endre; Flück, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective A silencer region (I-allele) within intron 16 of the gene for the regulator of vascular perfusion, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is implicated in phenotypic variation of aerobic fitness and the development of type II diabetes. We hypothesised that the reportedly lower aerobic performance in non-carriers compared to carriers of the ACE I-allele, i.e. ACE-DD vs. ACE-ID/ACE-II genotype, is associated with alterations in activity-induced glucose metabolism and capillarisation in exercise muscle. Methods Fifty-three, not-specifically trained Caucasian men carried out a one-legged bout of cycling exercise to exhaustion and/or participated in a marathon, the aim being to identify and validate genotype effects on exercise metabolism. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER), serum glucose and lipid concentration, glycogen, and metabolite content in vastus lateralis muscle based on ultra-performance lipid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), were assessed before and after the cycling exercise in thirty-three participants. Serum metabolites were measured in forty subjects that completed the marathon. Genotype effects were assessed post-hoc. Results Cycling exercise reduced muscle glycogen concentration and this tended to be affected by the ACE I-allele (p = 0.09). The ACE-DD genotype showed a lower maximal RER and a selective increase in serum glucose concentration after exercise compared to ACE-ID and ACE-II genotypes (+24% vs. +2% and –3%, respectively). Major metabolites of mitochondrial metabolism (i.e. phosphoenol pyruvate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, L-Aspartic acid, glutathione) were selectively affected in vastus lateralis muscle by exercise in the ACE-DD genotype. Capillary-to-fibre ratio was 24%-lower in the ACE-DD genotype. Individuals with the ACE-DD genotype demonstrated an abnormal increase in serum glucose to 7.7 mM after the marathon. Conclusion The observations imply a genetically modulated role for ACE in control of glucose import and oxidation in working skeletal muscle. ACE-DD genotypes thereby transit into a pre-diabetic state with exhaustive exercise, which relates to a lowered muscle capillarisation, and deregulation of mitochondria-associated metabolism. PMID:26982073

  20. Determination of key residues for catalysis and RNA cleavage specificity: one mutation turns RNase II into a "SUPER-ENZYME".

    PubMed

    Barbas, Ana; Matos, Rute G; Amblar, Mnica; Lpez-Vias, Eduardo; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Arraiano, Ceclia M

    2009-07-31

    RNase II is the prototype of a ubiquitous family of enzymes that are crucial for RNA metabolism. In Escherichia coli this protein is a single-stranded-specific 3'-exoribonuclease with a modular organization of four functional domains. In eukaryotes, the RNase II homologue Rrp44 (also known as Dis3) is the catalytic subunit of the exosome, an exoribonuclease complex essential for RNA processing and decay. In this work we have performed a functional characterization of several highly conserved residues located in the RNase II catalytic domain to address their precise role in the RNase II activity. We have constructed a number of RNase II mutants and compared their activity and RNA binding to the wild type using different single- or double-stranded substrates. The results presented in this study substantially improve the RNase II model for RNA degradation. We have identified the residues that are responsible for the discrimination of cleavage of RNA versus DNA. We also show that the Arg-500 residue present in the RNase II active site is crucial for activity but not for RNA binding. The most prominent finding presented is the extraordinary catalysis observed in the E542A mutant that turns RNase II into a "super-enzyme." PMID:19458082

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Thermoactinomyces vulgaris R-47 maltooligosaccharide-metabolizing enzyme homologous to glucoamylase

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Tonozuka, Takashi; Mizuno, Masahiro; Tanabe, Yoshihiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Sakano, Yoshiyuki

    2005-03-01

    A maltooligosaccharide-metabolizing enzyme from T. vulgaris R-47 (TGA) homologous to glucoamylase degrades maltooligosaccharides more efficiently than starch, unlike fungal glucoamylases. TGA was crystallized and the state of the protein in solution was analyzed by gel-filtration chromatography.

  2. Modulation of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes by ToxCast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

  3. Characterization of the Impact of Life Stage on Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Expression and Gene -Chemical Interactions in the Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs thro...

  4. Comparative genomic, phylogenetic, and functional investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and higher eukaryotes. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated (Glenn and Bacon, 2009; Glenn et al., 2010). The NAT1 gene of Gibberella moniliformis was the...

  5. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  6. Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Human Hepatocytes Modulated by ToxCast Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast chemicals were assessed for induction or suppression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme and transporter gene expression using primary human hepatocytes. The mRNA levels of 14 target and 2 control genes were measured: ABCB1, ABCB11, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, C...

  7. Novel Systems Modeling Methodology in Comparative Microbial Metabolomics: Identifying Key Enzymes and Metabolites Implicated in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Heberling, Colin; Dhurjati, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a group of mental illnesses highly correlated with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Recent studies have shown that there may be one or more microbial “fingerprints” in terms of the composition characterizing individuals with autism, which could be used for diagnostic purposes. This paper proposes a computational approach whereby metagenomes characteristic of “healthy” and autistic individuals are artificially constructed via genomic information, analyzed for the enzymes coded within, and then these enzymes are compared in detail. This is a text mining application. A custom-designed online application was built and used for the comparative metabolomics study and made publically available. Several of the enzyme-catalyzing reactions involved with the amino acid glutamate were curiously missing from the “autism” microbiome and were coded within almost every organism included in the “control” microbiome. Interestingly, there exists a leading hypothesis regarding autism and glutamate involving a neurological excitation/inhibition imbalance; but the association with this study is unclear. The results included data on the transsulfuration and transmethylation pathways, involved with oxidative stress, also of importance to autism. The results from this study are in alignment with leading hypotheses in the field, which is impressive, considering the purely in silico nature of this study. The present study provides new insight into the complex metabolic interactions underlying autism, and this novel methodology has potential to be useful for developing new hypotheses. However, limitations include sparse genome data availability and conflicting literature experimental data. We believe our software tool and methodology has potential for having great utility as data become more available, comprehensive and reliable. PMID:25913376

  8. Expression level, cellular compartment and metabolic network position all influence the average selective constraint on mammalian enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A gene's position in regulatory, protein interaction or metabolic networks can be predictive of the strength of purifying selection acting on it, but these relationships are neither universal nor invariably strong. Following work in bacteria, fungi and invertebrate animals, we explore the relationship between selective constraint and metabolic function in mammals. Results We measure the association between selective constraint, estimated by the ratio of nonsynonymous (Ka) to synonymous (Ks) substitutions, and several, primarily metabolic, measures of gene function. We find significant differences between the selective constraints acting on enzyme-coding genes from different cellular compartments, with the nucleus showing higher constraint than genes from either the cytoplasm or the mitochondria. Among metabolic genes, the centrality of an enzyme in the metabolic network is significantly correlated with Ka/Ks. In contrast to yeasts, gene expression magnitude does not appear to be the primary predictor of selective constraint in these organisms. Conclusions Our results imply that the relationship between selective constraint and enzyme centrality is complex: the strength of selective constraint acting on mammalian genes is quite variable and does not appear to exclusively follow patterns seen in other organisms. PMID:21470417

  9. Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. II. Metabolic characteristics of the enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPG) has been shown to be a reversible reaction with the equilibrium away from ester formation and toward formation of IAA. The enzyme occurs primarily in the liquid endosperm of the corn kernel but some activity occurs in the embryo. It is relatively specific showing no glucose ester formation with oxindole-3-acetic acid or 7-hydroxy-oxindole-3-acetic acid, and low activity with phenylpropene acids, such as rho-coumaric acid. The enzyme is also specific for the nucleotide sugar showing no activity with UDPGalactose or UDPXylose. The enzyme is inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate, by phosphate esters and by phospholipids, particularly phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The enzyme is inhibited by zeatin, by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid, by IAA-myo-inositol and IAA-glucan, but not by zeatin riboside, and only weakly by gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and kinetin. The reaction is slightly stimulated by both calcium and calmodulin and, in some cases, by thiol compounds. The role of this enzyme in the homeostatic control of indole-3-acetic acid levels in Zea mays is discussed.

  10. Impact of Limited Solvent Capacity on Metabolic Rate, Enzyme Activities, and Metabolite Concentrations of S. cerevisiae Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Alexei; de Menezes, Marcio A.; Barabsi, Albert-Lszl; Oltvai, Zoltan N.

    2008-01-01

    The cell's cytoplasm is crowded by its various molecular components, resulting in a limited solvent capacity for the allocation of new proteins, thus constraining various cellular processes such as metabolism. Here we study the impact of the limited solvent capacity constraint on the metabolic rate, enzyme activities, and metabolite concentrations using a computational model of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycolysis as a case study. We show that given the limited solvent capacity constraint, the optimal enzyme activities and the metabolite concentrations necessary to achieve a maximum rate of glycolysis are in agreement with their experimentally measured values. Furthermore, the predicted maximum glycolytic rate determined by the solvent capacity constraint is close to that measured in vivo. These results indicate that the limited solvent capacity is a relevant constraint acting on S. cerevisiae at physiological growth conditions, and that a full kinetic model together with the limited solvent capacity constraint can be used to predict both metabolite concentrations and enzyme activities in vivo. PMID:18846199

  11. Phenotypic knockouts of selected metabolic pathways by targeting enzymes with camel-derived nanobodies (V(HH)s).

    PubMed

    Jimnez, Jos I; Fraile, Sofa; Zafra, Olga; de Lorenzo, Vctor

    2015-07-01

    Surveying the dynamics of metabolic networks of Gram-negative bacteria often requires the conditional shutdown of enzymatic activities once the corresponding proteins have been produced. We show that given biochemical functions can be entirely suppressed in vivo with camel antibodies (VHHs, nanobodies) that target active sites of cognate enzymes expressed in the cytoplasm. As a proof of principle, we raised VHHs against 2,5-dihydroxypyridine dioxygenase (NicX) of Pseudomonas putida, involved in nicotinic acid metabolism. Once fused to a thioredoxin domain, the corresponding nanobodies inhibited the enzyme both in Escherichia coli and in P. putida cells, which then accumulated the metabolic substrate of NicX. VHHs were further engineered to track the antigen in vivo by C-terminal fusion to a fluorescent protein. Conditional expression of the resulting VHHs allows simultaneously to track and target proteins of interest and enables the design of transient phenotypes without mutating the genetic complement of the bacteria under study. PMID:25887637

  12. Cadmium effect on microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in rat livers with respect to differences in age and sex

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, M.

    1982-04-01

    The effect of cadmium on the hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme system was investigated. Cadmium chloride caused the conversion of cytochrome P-450 to P-420 in rat liver microsomes. The destruction of cytochrome P-450 by cadmium caused the reduction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activity and prolonged the pentobarbital sleeping time. There is a sex-related difference in the ability of cadmium to inhibit the hepatic drug metabolism in rats: male rats are more sensitive to cadmium than females. The effective period when cadmium prolonged their sleep depended upon the age of rats; older rats were more sensitive to cadmium than younger ones. The maximum increase of sleeping time depended upon the dose level of cadium, and the rate constant of the equations seems to depend upon the age of the animals.

  13. A pangenomic analysis of the Nannochloropsis organellar genomes reveals novel genetic variations in key metabolic genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microalgae in the genus Nannochloropsis are photosynthetic marine Eustigmatophytes of significant interest to the bioenergy and aquaculture sectors due to their ability to efficiently accumulate biomass and lipids for utilization in renewable transportation fuels, aquaculture feed, and other useful bioproducts. To better understand the genetic complement that drives the metabolic processes of these organisms, we present the assembly and comparative pangenomic analysis of the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes from Nannochloropsis salina CCMP1776. Results The chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of N. salina are 98.4% and 97% identical to their counterparts in Nannochloropsis gaditana. Comparison of the Nannochloropsis pangenome to other algae within and outside of the same phyla revealed regions of significant genetic divergence in key genes that encode proteins needed for regulation of branched chain amino synthesis (acetohydroxyacid synthase), carbon fixation (RuBisCO activase), energy conservation (ATP synthase), protein synthesis and homeostasis (Clp protease, ribosome). Conclusions Many organellar gene modifications in Nannochloropsis are unique and deviate from conserved orthologs found across the tree of life. Implementation of secondary and tertiary structure prediction was crucial to functionally characterize many proteins and therefore should be implemented in automated annotation pipelines. The exceptional similarity of the N. salina and N. gaditana organellar genomes suggests that N. gaditana be reclassified as a strain of N. salina. PMID:24646409

  14. Effects of cannabis and tobacco on the enzymes of alcohol metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marselos, M; Vasiliou, V; Malamas, M; Alikaridis, F; Kefalas, T

    1991-01-01

    The effects of cannabis and tobacco on the enzymes of ethanol metabolism were studied in the Wistar rat. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH) were measured in the liver and the brain, after treatment with an extract of cannabis resin, with an extract of tobacco leaves, or with nicotine. A condensate of cannabis resin extract was collected in a smoking machine, using a tobacco cigarette as the vehicle. Unsmoked or smoked cannabis extracts were dissolved in olive oil and were given i.p. (twice daily, for 7 days). In both cases, a similar dose level was used in terms of starting material (raw cannabis resin), estimated at about 100 mg/kg body weight. Control animals were treated either with olive oil, or with the same amount of smoked condensate obtained from a reference cigarette. Nicotine was dissolved in olive oil and it was given i.p. (10 micrograms/kg, twice daily for 7 days). An extract of unsmoked tobacco was dissolved in olive oil and was given with the same schedule, at a dose which was estimated to correspond to about 10 micrograms nicotine/kg b.w. All groups of animals received an additional i.p. injection on day 8, one hour before sacrifice. Our results showed that unsmoked cannabis inhibited the hepatic activities of the microchondrial AlDH (low-Km and high-Km), the hepatic low-Km cytosolic AlDH (p less than 0.001), and the low-Km mitochondrial AlDH of the brain (p less than 0.001). Administration of smoked cannabis to the animals inhibited the hepatic mitochondrial low-Km AlDH (p less than 0.001), but it did not influence the brain enzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1957048

  15. Comparative Studies of Enzymes Related to Serine Metabolism in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Geoffrey P.; Rosenblum, I. Y.; Sallach, H. J.

    1968-01-01

    The following enzymes related to serine metabolism in higher plants have been investigated: 1) d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, 2) phosphohydroxypyruvate:l-glutamate transaminase, 3) d-glycerate dehydrogenase, and 4) hydroxypyruvate:l-alanine transaminase. Comparative studies on the distribution of the 2 dehydrogenases in seeds and leaves from various plants revealed that d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is widely distributed in seeds in contrast to d-glycerate dehydrogenase, which is either absent or present at low levels, and that the reverse pattern is observed in green leaves. The levels of activity of the 4 enzymes listed above were followed in different tissues of the developing pea (Pisum sativum, var. Alaska). In the leaf, from the tenth to seventeenth day of germination, the specific activity of d-glycerate dehydrogenase increased markedly and was much higher than d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase which remained relatively constant during this time period. Etiolation resulted in a decrease in d-glycerate dehydrogenase and an increase in d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activities. In apical meristem, on the other hand, the level of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase exceeded that of d-glycerate dehydrogenase at all time periods studied. Low and decreasing levels of both dehydrogenases were found in epicotyl and cotyledon. The specific activities of the 2 transaminases remained relatively constant during development in both leaf and apical meristem. In general, however, the levels of phosphohydroxypyruvate:l-glutamate transaminase were comparable to those of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase in a given tissue as were those for hydroxypyruvate: l-alanine transaminase and d-glycerate dehydrogenase. PMID:5699148

  16. Lipid metabolism enzyme ACSVL3 supports glioblastoma stem cell maintenance and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Targeting cell metabolism offers promising opportunities for the development of drugs to treat cancer. We previously found that the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase VL3 (ACSVL3) is elevated in malignant brain tumor tissues and involved in tumorigenesis. This study investigates the role of ACSVL3 in the maintenance of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stem cell self-renewal and the capacity of GBM stem cells to initiate tumor xenograft formation. Methods We examined ACSVL3 expression during differentiation of several GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures. To study the function of ACSVL3, we performed loss-of-function by using small interfering RNAs to target ACSVL3 and examined stem cell marker expression, neurosphere formation and tumor initiation properties. Results ACSVL3 expression levels were substantially increased in GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures and decreased after differentiation of the neurospheres. Down-regulating ACSVL3 with small inhibiting RNAs decreased the expression of markers and regulators associated with stem cell self-renewal, including CD133, ALDH, Musashi-1 and Sox-2. ACSVL3 knockdown in neurosphere cells led to increased expression of differentiation markers GFAP and Tuj1. Furthermore, ACSVL3 knockdown reduced anchorage-independent neurosphere cell growth, neurosphere-forming capacity as well as self-renewal of these GBM stem cell enriched neurosphere cultures. In vivo studies revealed that ACSVL3 loss-of-function substantially inhibited the ability of neurosphere cells to propagate orthotopic tumor xenografts. A link between ACSVL3 and cancer stem cell phenotype was further established by the findings that ACSVL3 expression was regulated by receptor tyrosine kinase pathways that support GBM stem cell self-renewal and tumor initiation, including EGFR and HGF/c-Met pathways. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the lipid metabolism enzyme ACSVL3 is involved in GBM stem cell maintenance and the tumor-initiating capacity of GBM stem cell enriched-neurospheres in animals. PMID:24893952

  17. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Expression through the Life Stages of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Janice S.; Ward, William O.; Liu, Jie; Ren, Hongzu; Vallanat, Beena; Delker, Don; Corton, J. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been carried out through life stages in any species. Results Using full-genome arrays, the mRNA expression of all XMETs and their regulatory proteins was examined during fetal (gestation day (GD) 19), neonatal (postnatal day (PND) 7), prepubescent (PND32), middle age (12 months), and old age (18 and 24 months) in the C57BL/6J (C57) mouse liver and compared to adults. Fetal and neonatal life stages exhibited dramatic differences in XMET mRNA expression compared to the relatively minor effects of old age. The total number of XMET probe sets that differed from adults was 636, 500, 84, 5, 43, and 102 for GD19, PND7, PND32, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, respectively. At all life stages except PND32, under-expressed genes outnumbered over-expressed genes. The altered XMETs included those in all of the major metabolic and transport phases including introduction of reactive or polar groups (Phase I), conjugation (Phase II) and excretion (Phase III). In the fetus and neonate, parallel increases in expression were noted in the dioxin receptor, Nrf2 components and their regulated genes while nuclear receptors and regulated genes were generally down-regulated. Suppression of male-specific XMETs was observed at early (GD19, PND7) and to a lesser extent, later life stages (18 and 24 months). A number of female-specific XMETs exhibited a spike in expression centered at PND7. Conclusions The analysis revealed dramatic differences in the expression of the XMETs, especially in the fetus and neonate that are partially dependent on gender-dependent factors. XMET expression can be used to predict life stage-specific responses to environmental chemicals and drugs. PMID:21931700

  18. Meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms in relation to colorectal polyp risk

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Aesun; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Rice, Jeffrey M.; Cai, Qiuyin; Doll, Mark A.; Long, Jirong; Smalley, Walter E.; Shyr, Yu; Sinha, Rashmi; Ness, Reid M.; Hein, David W.; Zheng, Wei

    2008-01-01

    Most colorectal cancers arise from adenomatous polyps or certain hyperplastic polyps. Only a few studies have investigated potential genetic modifiers of the associations between meat intake and polyp risk, and results are inconsistent. Using data from the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study (TCPS), a large colonoscopy-based study including 1,002 polyp cases (557 adenoma only, 250 hyperplastic polyp only, 195 both polyps) and 1,493 polyp-free patients, we evaluated the association of colorectal polyp risk with carcinogen exposure from meat and genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in heterocyclic amine (HCA) metabolism including, N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Intake levels of meats by preparation methods, doneness preferences, and other lifestyle factors were obtained. Fourteen SNPs in the AhR, CYP1A2, NAT1 and NAT2 genes were evaluated. No clear association was found for any polymorphisms with polyp risk. However, apparent interactions were found for intake of meat and HCAs with AhR, NAT1, and NAT2 genotypes, and the interactions were statistically significant for the group with both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Dose-response relationships with meat or HCA intake were found only among those with the AhR GA/AA (rs2066853) genotype, NAT1 rapid, or NAT2 rapid/intermediate acetylators, but not among those with other genotypes of these genes. This dose-response relationship was more evident among those with both AhR GA/AA and the NAT1 rapid acetylator than those without this genotype combination. These results provide strong evidence for a modifying effect of metabolizing genes on the association of meat intake and HCA exposure with colorectal polyp risk. PMID:18268115

  19. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M.; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E.; Gardner, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3′-5′ exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner. PMID:26365239

  20. Adapting capillary gel electrophoresis as a sensitive, high-throughput method to accelerate characterization of nucleic acid metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Greenough, Lucia; Schermerhorn, Kelly M; Mazzola, Laurie; Bybee, Joanna; Rivizzigno, Danielle; Cantin, Elizabeth; Slatko, Barton E; Gardner, Andrew F

    2016-01-29

    Detailed biochemical characterization of nucleic acid enzymes is fundamental to understanding nucleic acid metabolism, genome replication and repair. We report the development of a rapid, high-throughput fluorescence capillary gel electrophoresis method as an alternative to traditional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to characterize nucleic acid metabolic enzymes. The principles of assay design described here can be applied to nearly any enzyme system that acts on a fluorescently labeled oligonucleotide substrate. Herein, we describe several assays using this core capillary gel electrophoresis methodology to accelerate study of nucleic acid enzymes. First, assays were designed to examine DNA polymerase activities including nucleotide incorporation kinetics, strand displacement synthesis and 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Next, DNA repair activities of DNA ligase, flap endonuclease and RNase H2 were monitored. In addition, a multicolor assay that uses four different fluorescently labeled substrates in a single reaction was implemented to characterize GAN nuclease specificity. Finally, a dual-color fluorescence assay to monitor coupled enzyme reactions during Okazaki fragment maturation is described. These assays serve as a template to guide further technical development for enzyme characterization or nucleoside and non-nucleoside inhibitor screening in a high-throughput manner. PMID:26365239

  1. Control of glucose metabolism by enzyme IIGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ruyter, G J; Postma, P W; van Dam, K

    1991-01-01

    The quantitative effects of variations in the amount of enzyme IIGlc of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS) on glucose metabolism in Escherichia coli were studied. The level of enzyme IIGlc could be adjusted in vivo to between 20 and 600% of the wild-type chromosomal level by using the expression vector pTSG11. On this plasmid, expression of the structural gene for enzyme IIGlc, ptsG, is controlled by the tac promoter. As expected, the control coefficient (i.e., the relative increase in pathway flux, divided by the relative increase in amount of enzyme) of enzyme IIGlc decreased in magnitude if a more extensive pathway was considered. Thus, at the wild-type level of enzyme IIGlc activity, the control coefficient of this enzyme on the growth rate on glucose and on the rate of glucose oxidation was low, while the control coefficient on uptake and phosphorylation of methyl alpha-glucopyranoside (an enzyme IIGlc-specific, nonmetabolizable glucose analog) was relatively high (0.55 to 0.65). The implications of our findings for PTS-mediated regulation, i.e., inhibition of growth on non-PTS compounds by glucose, are discussed. PMID:1917852

  2. Distinct patterns of dysregulated expression of enzymes involved in androgen synthesis and metabolism in metastatic prostate cancer tumors.

    PubMed

    Mitsiades, Nicholas; Sung, Clifford C; Schultz, Nikolaus; Danila, Daniel C; He, Bin; Eedunuri, Vijay Kumar; Fleisher, Martin; Sander, Chris; Sawyers, Charles L; Scher, Howard I

    2012-12-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling persists in castration-resistant prostate carcinomas (CRPC), because of several mechanisms that include increased AR expression and intratumoral androgen metabolism. We investigated the mechanisms underlying aberrant expression of transcripts involved in androgen metabolism in CRPC. We compared gene expression profiles and DNA copy number alteration (CNA) data from 29 normal prostate tissue samples, 127 primary prostate carcinomas (PCa), and 19 metastatic PCas. Steroidogenic enzyme transcripts were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR in PCa cell lines and circulating tumor cells (CTC) from CRPC patients. Metastatic PCas expressed higher transcript levels for AR and several steroidogenic enzymes, including SRD5A1, SRD5A3, and AKR1C3, whereas expression of SRD5A2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7 was decreased. This aberrant expression was rarely associated with CNAs. Instead, our data suggest distinct patterns of coordinated aberrant enzyme expression. Inhibition of AR activity by itself stimulated AKR1C3 expression. The aberrant expression of the steroidogenic enzyme transcripts was detected in CTCs from CRPC patients. In conclusion, our findings identify substantial interpatient heterogeneity and distinct patterns of dysregulated expression of enzymes involved in intratumoral androgen metabolism in PCa. These steroidogenic enzymes represent targets for complete suppression of systemic and intratumoral androgen levels, an objective that is supported by the clinical efficacy of the CYP17 inhibitor abiraterone. A comprehensive AR axis-targeting approach via simultaneous, frontline enzymatic blockade, and/or transcriptional repression of several steroidogenic enzymes, in combination with GnRH analogs and potent antiandrogens, would represent a powerful future strategy for PCa management. PMID:22971343

  3. Stereoselective Formation and Metabolism of 4-Hydroxy-Retinoic Acid Enantiomers by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Roberts, Arthur G.; Scian, Michele; Topletz, Ariel R.; Blankert, Sean A.; Halpert, James R.; Nelson, Wendel L.; Isoherranen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the major active metabolite of vitamin A, plays a role in many biological processes, including maintenance of epithelia, immunity, and fertility and regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation. atRA is metabolized mainly by CYP26A1, but other P450 enzymes such as CYP2C8 and CYP3As also contribute to atRA 4-hydroxylation. Although the primary metabolite of atRA, 4-OH-RA, possesses a chiral center, the stereochemical course of atRA 4-hydroxylation has not been studied previously. (4S)- and (4R)-OH-RA enantiomers were synthesized and separated by chiral column HPLC. CYP26A1 was found to form predominantly (4S)-OH-RA. This stereoselectivity was rationalized via docking of atRA in the active site of a CYP26A1 homology model. The docked structure showed a well defined niche for atRA within the active site and a specific orientation of the ?-ionone ring above the plane of the heme consistent with stereoselective abstraction of the hydrogen atom from the pro-(S)-position. In contrast to CYP26A1, CYP3A4 formed the 4-OH-RA enantiomers in a 1:1 ratio and CYP3A5 preferentially formed (4R)-OH-RA. Interestingly, CYP3A7 and CYP2C8 preferentially formed (4S)-OH-RA from atRA. Both (4S)- and (4R)-OH-RA were substrates of CYP26A1 but (4S)-OH-RA was cleared 3-fold faster than (4R)-OH-RA. In addition, 4-oxo-RA was formed from (4R)-OH-RA but not from (4S)-OH-RA by CYP26A1. Overall, these findings show that (4S)-OH-RA is preferred over (4R)-OH-RA by the enzymes regulating atRA homeostasis. The stereoselectivity observed in CYP26A1 function will aid in better understanding of the active site features of the enzyme and the disposition of biologically active retinoids. PMID:23071109

  4. Sequence and organization of genes encoding enzymes involved in pyruvate metabolism in Mycoplasma capricolum.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, P. P.; Peterkofsky, A.

    1996-01-01

    The region of the genome of Mycoplasma capricolum upstream of the portion encompassing the genes for Enzymes I and IIAglc of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) was cloned and sequenced. Examination of the sequence revealed open reading frames corresponding to numerous genes involved with the oxidation of pyruvate. The deduced gene organization is naox (encoding NADH oxidase)-lplA (encoding lipoate-protein ligase)-odpA (encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase EI alpha)-odpB (encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase EI beta)-odp2(encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase EII)-dldH (encoding dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase)-pta (encoding phosphotransacetylase)-ack (encoding acetate kinase)-orfA (an unknown open reading frame)-kdtB-ptsI-crr. Analysis of the DNA sequence suggests that the naox and lplA genes are part of a single operon, odpA and odpB constitute an additional operon, odp2 and dldH a third operon, and pta and ack an additional transcription unit. Phylogenetic analyses of the protein products of the odpA and odpB genes indicate that they are most similar to the corresponding proteins from Mycoplasma genitalium, Acholeplasma laidlawii, and Gram-positive organisms. The product of the odp2 gene contains a single lipoyl domain, as is the case with the corresponding proteins from M. genitalium and numerous other organisms. An evolutionary tree places the M. capricolum odp2 gene product in close relationship to the corresponding proteins from A. laidlawii and M.genitalium. The dldH gene encodes an unusual form of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase that contains an aminoterminal extension corresponding to a lipoyl domain, a property shared by the corresponding proteins from Alcaligenes eutrophus and Clostridium magnum. Aside from that feature, the protein is related phylogenetically to the corresponding proteins from A. laidlawii and M. genitalium. The phosphotransacetylase from M. capricolum is related most closely to the corresponding protein from M. genitalium and is distinguished easily from the enzymes from Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae by the absence of the characteristic amino-terminal extension. The acetate kinase from M. capricolum is related evolutionarily to the homologous enzyme from M. genitalium. Map position comparisons of genes encoding proteins involved with pyruvate metabolism show that, whereas all the genes are clustered in M. capricolum, they are scattered in M. genitalium. PMID:8844861

  5. Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Liver Enzymes Level at Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Music, Miralem; Dervisevic, Amela; Pepic, Esad; Lepara, Orhan; Fajkic, Almir; Ascic-Buturovic, Belma; Tuna, Enes

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate liver function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with and without metabolic syndrome (MS) by determining serum levels of gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). We also investigated correlation between levels of liver enzymes and some components of MS in both groups of patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 96 patients (age 47–83 years) with T2DM. All patients were divided according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) in two groups: 50 patients with T2 DM and MS (T2DM-MS) and 46 patients with T2DM without MS (T2DM-Non MS). The analysis included blood pressure monitoring and laboratory tests: fasting blood glucose (FBG), total lipoprotein cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), fibrinogen and liver enzymes: GGT, ALT and AST. T2DM-MS group included patients which had FBG ≥ 6,1 mmol/L, TG ≥ 1,7 mmol/L and blood pressure ≥ 130/85 mm Hg. Results: T2DM-MS patients had significant higher values of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and medium arterial pressure compared to T2DM-Non MS patients. Serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and FBG were significantly higher in the T2DM-MS group compared to the T2DM-Non MS group. Serum fibrinogen level and GGT level were significantly higher in patients with T2DM-MS compared to the serum fibrinogen level and GGT level in T2DM-Non MS patients. Mean serum AST and ALT level were higher, but not significantly, in patients with T2DM and MS compared to the patients with T2DM without MS. Significant negative correlations were observed between TC and AST (r= -0,28, p<0,05), as well as between TC and ALT level (r= -0,29, p<0,05) in T2DM-MS group of patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that patients with T2DM and MS have markedly elevated liver enzymes. T2DM and MS probably play a role in increasing the risk of liver injury. PMID:26543313

  6. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Locher, L; Hussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenz, ; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dnicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 24333.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas the extent of phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase was consistently decreasing by the high-concentrate diet. Overcondition in nonpregnant, nonlactating dairy cows changed the expression of key regulator proteins of AT metabolism and circulation accompanied by impaired insulin sensitivity, which might increase the risk for metabolic disorders. PMID:25497790

  7. Comparison of liver enzymes in osmerid fishes: key differences between a glycerol accumulating species, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and a species that does not accumulate glycerol, capelin (Mallotus villosus).

    PubMed

    Treberg, J R; Lewis, J M; Driedzic, W R

    2002-06-01

    Activities of enzymes associated with glycerol synthesis were compared in the liver of two osmerid fishes, the smelt (Osmerus mordax), which can accumulate high (400 mM) levels of glycerol and capelin (Mallotus villosus) that does not accumulate glycerol. Animals were sampled at approximately the same time of year and temperature thus negating potential seasonal effects. These species are closely related, reducing interpretative issues involving comparison between unrelated species. We found that key enzyme activities were elevated in the smelt relative to the non-glycerol accumulating capelin, namely enzymes involved with glycolysis (phosphofructose kinase-1 and aldolase), amino acid metabolism (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and glycerol synthesis (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase). The enzyme profiles strongly support the hypothesis that smelt can synthesize glycerol by utilizing glycogen and amino acids as the carbon source and that they have increased capacity for metabolic flux through loci required for synthesis of the three carbon intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate and subsequently glycerol synthesis. PMID:12020659

  8. [Polymorphic genes of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes associated with bronchial asthma in genetically predisposed children].

    PubMed

    Vavilin, V A; Makarova, S I; Liakhovich, V V; Gavalov, S M

    2002-04-01

    The frequencies of the CYP1A1 valine allele, homozygous deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1, and two point mutations of the NAT2 gene, (C481-->T) and S2 (G590-->A), were compared in healthy children and children having bronchial asthma. The S1 mutation was associated with resistance, and all of the other traits, with predisposition to the disease. In families of patients with diseased progenitors and in those with healthy progenitors, the estimates of the asthma risk were similar. In both groups, parameters of the trait association with the disease depended on passive smoking. At passive smoking, a trend to an overrepresentation (high odds ratio, OR) of the GSTM1 null genotype and S2 mutation of the NAT2 gene was observed, whereas the odds ratio of the GSTT1 null genotype decreased, and those of the CYP1A1 and S1 mutation of the NAT2 gene remained unchanged. The highest OR = 36.25 (P < 0.01) was characteristic of the GSTT1 null genotype in nonsmoking hereditary burdened patients. The results obtained suggest an important role of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in development of bronchial asthma. PMID:12018173

  9. Alterations of metabolic enzymes in Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, after exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Gagnon, M M; Nugegoda, D

    2005-08-01

    Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata were exposed to the water-accommodated fraction of Bass Strait crude oil, dispersed crude oil, or burnt crude oil to assess sublethal effects of oil spill remediation techniques on fish. Fish were exposed to these treatments for 16 days either through the water column or by way of a pre-exposed diet of amphipod Allorchestes compressa. Fish gills, liver, and white muscle were sampled and cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities quantified. In all treatments containing fish exposed by way of the water column, aerobic activity increased in the gills, whereas a decrease of this enzymic activity was observed in the liver and white muscle. Exposures by way of the food pathway indicated similar trends. Anaerobic (LDH) activity increased in the gills, liver, and white muscle after waterborne exposures. Stimulation in anaerobic activity also occurred in the liver and white muscle of fish after exposure to contaminated food. CCO activity in the gills was the most sensitive biomarker when monitoring waterborne exposures to petroleum hydrocarbons. In the gills, the dispersed oil treatment resulted in the most pronounced biological response, suggesting that in the short term the use of dispersants on an oil slick might cause the most perturbations to fish metabolism. PMID:16001154

  10. Heparin and related polysaccharides: synthesis using recombinant enzymes and metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Suflita, Matthew; Fu, Li; He, Wenqin; Koffas, Mattheos; Linhardt, Robert J

    2015-09-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are linear anionic polysaccharides that exhibit a number of important biological and pharmacological activities. The two most prominent members of this class of polysaccharides are heparin/heparan sulfate and the chondroitin sulfates (including dermatan sulfate). These polysaccharides, having complex structures and polydispersity, are biosynthesized in the Golgi of most animal cells. The chemical synthesis of these glycosaminoglycans is precluded by their structural complexity. Today, we depend on food animal tissues for their isolation and commercial production. Ton quantities of these glycosaminoglycans are used annually as pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. The variability of animal-sourced glycosaminoglycans, their inherent impurities, the limited availability of source tissues, the poor control of these source materials, and their manufacturing processes suggest a need for new approaches for their production. Over the past decade, there have been major efforts in the biotechnological production of these glycosaminoglycans. This mini-review focuses on the use of recombinant enzymes and metabolic engineering for the production of heparin and chondroitin sulfates. PMID:26219501

  11. Hydroxylated PAHs in bile of deep-sea fish. Relationship with xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Escartin, E.; Porte, C.

    1999-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in deep-sea environments has been assessed by measuring bile PAH metabolites in deep-sea fish. Five species from the NW Mediterranean were selected for the study: Coryphaenoides guentheri, Lepidion lepidion, Mora moro, Bathypterois mediterraneus, and Alepocephalus rostratus. Bile crude samples were directly analyzed by HPLC-fluorescence at the excitation/emission wavelengths of benzo[a]pyrene. Differences among sampling sites were recorded, which suggests that coastal discharges of contaminants may reach these remote areas. Subsequently, a number of bile samples were hydrolyzed and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of individual PAHs. 1-Pyrenol and 2-phenylphenol were among the most abundant compounds detected. The results obtained confirm the long-range transport of PAHs to deep-sea environments, subsequent exposure of fish inhabiting those remote areas, and its ability to metabolize and excrete them through the bile. The data also describe hepatic enzymes (cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferases) that appear to be as catalytically efficient as those in shallow water species.

  12. Azospirillum brasilense Produces the Auxin-Like Phenylacetic Acid by Using the Key Enzyme for Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Somers, E.; Ptacek, D.; Gysegom, P.; Srinivasan, M.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2005-01-01

    An antimicrobial compound was isolated from Azospirillum brasilense culture extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the auxin-like molecule, phenylacetic acid (PAA). PAA synthesis was found to be mediated by the indole-3-pyruvate decarboxylase, previously identified as a key enzyme in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in A. brasilense. In minimal growth medium, PAA biosynthesis by A. brasilense was only observed in the presence of phenylalanine (or precursors thereof). This observation suggests deamination of phenylalanine, decarboxylation of phenylpyruvate, and subsequent oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde as the most likely pathway for PAA synthesis. Expression analysis revealed that transcription of the ipdC gene is upregulated by PAA, as was previously described for IAA and synthetic auxins, indicating a positive feedback regulation. The synthesis of PAA by A. brasilense is discussed in relation to previously reported biocontrol properties of A. brasilense. PMID:15812004

  13. Key elements of plant-based diets associated with reduced risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Harris, Metria

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20 %-25 % of adults worldwide have metabolic syndrome. Vegetarian and vegan diets have demonstrated effectiveness in improving body weight, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk factors, as compared with conventional therapeutic approaches, and are potentially useful in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. This article consists of two steps: (1) a review of the literature on studies examining vegetarian and vegan diets and metabolic syndrome and (2) a review of foods and nutrients that are protective against or associated with metabolic syndromes that may help to explain the beneficial effects of plant-based dietary approaches for metabolic syndrome. The present review found eight observational research studies, and no intervention studies, examining the association of plant-based dietary approaches with metabolic syndrome. These studies, conducted mostly in Asian populations, yielded varying results. The majority, however, found better metabolic risk factors and lowered risk of metabolic syndrome among individuals following plant-based diets, as compared with omnivores. Some dietary components that are lower in the diets of vegetarians, such as energy intake, saturated fat, heme iron, and red and processed meat, may influence metabolic syndrome risk. In addition, plant-based diets are higher in fruits, vegetables, and fiber, which are protective against the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:25084991

  14. Tyrosine-kinases in bacteria: from a matter of controversy to the status of key regulatory enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bechet, Emmanuelle; Guiral, Sbastien; Torres, Sophie; Mijakovic, Ivan; Cozzone, Alain-Jean; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2009-09-01

    When considering protein phosphorylation in bacteria, phosphorylation of aspartic acid and histidine residues mediated by the two-component systems is the first to spring to mind. And yet other phosphorylation systems have been described in bacteria in the past 20 years including eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases and more recently tyrosine-kinases. Among the latter, a peculiar type is widespread among bacteria, but not in higher organisms. These enzymes possess unique structural features defining thus a new family of enzymes termed Bacterial tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases). BY-kinases have been shown to be mainly involved in polysaccharide production, but their ability to phosphorylate endogenous substrates indicates that they participate in the regulation of other functions of the bacterial cell. Recent advances in mass spectrometry based phosphoproteomics provided lists of many new phosphotyrosine-proteins, indicating that BY-kinases may be involved in regulating a large array of other cellular functions. One may expect that in a near future, tyrosine phosphorylation will turn out to be one of the key regulatory processes in the bacterial cell and will yield new insights into the understanding of its physiology. PMID:19189200

  15. Intracellular Localization of Enzymes of Carbon Metabolism in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum Exhibiting C3 Photosynthetic Characteristics or Performing Crassulacean Acid Metabolism 1

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Klaus; Foster, Joyce G.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Holtum, Joseph A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, a halophilic, inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species, was grown at NaCl concentrations of 20 and 400 millimolar in the rooting medium. Plants from the low salinity treatment showed exclusively C3-photosynthetic net CO2 fixation, whereas plants exposed to the high salinity level exhibited net CO2 dark fixation involving CAM. Mesophyll protoplasts, isolated from both tissues, were gently ruptured, and the intracellular localization of enzymes was studied following differential centrifugation and Percoll density gradient centrifugation of protoplast extracts. Both centrifugation techniques resulted in the separation of intact chloroplasts, with up to 90% yield, from other organelles and the nonparticulate fraction of cells. Enzymes were identified by determination of activity and by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of enzyme protein. Experiments established the extraorganellar (cytoplasmic) location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, enolase, phosphoglyceromutase, and NADP-malic enzyme; the mitochondrial location of NAD-malic enzyme; and the chloroplastic location of pyruvate, Pi dikinase. NAD-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphohexose isomerase, and phosphoglycerate kinase were associated with both cytoplasm and chloroplasts. NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase activity was found in both the chloroplastic and extrachloroplastic fractions; the activity in the chloroplast showed an optimum at pH 8.0 and was dependent upon preincubation of enzyme with dithiothreitol. The extrachloroplastic activity showed an optimum at pH 6.5 and was independent of pretreatment with dithiothreitol. Protoplast extracts of M. crystallinum performing CAM exhibited higher activities (expressed per mg chlorophyll per min) of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate, Pi dikinase, NADP-malic enzyme, NAD-malic enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, enolase, phosphoglyceromutase, NAD-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and phosphohexose isomerase than protoplast extracts from M. crystallinum not exhibiting CAM. The increase in total activity of the latter three enzymes following exposure of plants to 400 millimolar NaCl and the development of CAM was due to specific increases in the levels of activity in the cytoplasm. PMID:16662197

  16. Effect of uranyl nitrate on enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism and brush border membrane in different kidney tissues.

    PubMed

    Banday, Anees A; Priyamvada, Shubha; Farooq, Neelam; Yusufi, Ahad Noor Khan; Khan, Farah

    2008-06-01

    Uranium, the heaviest of the naturally occurring elements is widely present as environmental contaminant from natural deposits, industrial emissions and most importantly from modern weapons. Histopathological examinations revealed that uranyl nitrate (UN) exposure caused severe damage to pars recta of renal proximal tubule. However, biochemical events involved in cellular response to renal injury are not completely elucidated. We hypothesized that UN exposure would severely damage kidney tissues and alter their metabolic functions. Rats were treated with a single nephrotoxic dose of UN (0.5mg/kg body weight) i.p. After 5d, effect of UN was studied on the activities of various enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM) and oxidative stress in different kidney tissues. Activity of lactate dehydrogenase increased whereas activities of isocitrate, succinate and malate dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase significantly decreased by UN exposure. Activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase decreased whereas that of NADP-malic enzyme increased. The activities of BBM enzymes were significantly lowered and after dissociation from BBM excreted in urine. Lipid peroxidation and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase increased whereas catalase activity decreased by UN. UN treatment caused specific alterations in the activities of metabolic and membrane enzymes and perturbed antioxidant defenses. PMID:18343012

  17. Genome-wide identification of gibberellins metabolic enzyme genes and expression profiling analysis during seed germination in maize.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Guo, Baojian; Song, Fangwei; Peng, Huiru; Yao, Yingyin; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2011-08-15

    Gibberellin (GA) is an essential phytohormone that controls many aspects of plant development. To enhance our understanding of GA metabolism in maize, we intensively screened and identified 27 candidate genes encoding the seven GA metabolic enzymes including ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox), using all available public maize databases. The results indicate that maize genome contains three CPS, four KS, two KO and one KAO genes, and most of them are arranged separately on the maize genome, which differs from that in rice. In addition, the enzymes catalyzing the later steps (ZmGA20ox, ZmGA3ox and ZmGA2ox) are also encoded by gene families in maize, but GA3ox enzyme is likely to be encoded by single gene. Expression profiling analysis exhibited that transcripts of 15 GA metabolic genes could be detected during maize seed germination, which provides further evidence for the notion that increased synthesis of active GA in the embryo is required for triggering germination events. Moreover, a variety of temporal genes expression patterns of GA metabolic genes were detected, which revealed the complexity of underlying mechanism for GA regulated seed germination. PMID:21640170

  18. Purple rice bran extract attenuates the aflatoxin B1-induced initiation stage of hepatocarcinogenesis by alteration of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Suwannakul, Nattawan; Punvittayagul, Charatda; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented rice bran has been suggested to be a valuable source of beneficial phytochemicals. We investigated genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects of purple rice bran extract (PRBE) in rats using a liver micronucleus assay. Purple rice bran was extracted with methanol, obtaining large amounts of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and small amounts of gamma-oryzanol. The experimental protocols were divided into two sets. Male rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 was a negative control, while Groups 2 and 3 were fed with 100 and 500 mg/kg bw of PRBE, respectively, for 28 days. PRBE had no effect on micronucleus formation or xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. Experiments concerning the effect of PRBE on AFB1 showed that PRBE significantly lessened the amount of micronucleated hepatocytes in AFB1 treated rats. Furthermore, it modulated metabolic activation of AFB1 metabolism in the liver by suppressing activity and protein expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A and CYP 450 reductase, and enhancing phase II enzymes including GST and UGT. Overall, purple rice bran extract was not genotoxic in rats. It exhibited anti-genotoxicity by modulation some xenobiotic enzymes active in AFB1 metabolism. PMID:25921147

  19. [Effects of exogenous NO3- on cherry root function and enzyme activities related to nitrogen metabolism under hypoxia stress].

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-guo; Sheng, Li-xi; Shu, Huai-rui

    2010-12-01

    A water culture experiment with controlled dissolved oxygen concentration was conducted to explore the effects of exogenous NO3- on the root function and enzyme activities related to nitrogen metabolism of cherry (Prunun cerasus x P. canescens) seedlings under hypoxia stress. Comparing with the control (7.5 mmol NO3- x L(-1)), treatments 15 and 22.5 mmol NO3- x L(-1) made the materials for plant metabolism abundant, ensured the synthesis of enzyme proteins, increased root activity, maintained root respiration, improved the activities of enzymes related to nitrogen metabolism, such as nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthethase (GS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (NADH-GDH) in roots, and thereby, supplied enough energy for root respiration and NAD+ to glycolytic pathway, ensured electron transfer, and avoid ammonium toxicity under hypoxia stress. As a result, the injury of hypoxia stress to cherry plant was alleviated. Applying NO3- at the concentration of 22.5 mmol x L(-1) was more advisable. However, NO3- deficiency (0 mmol x L(-1)) showed opposite results. The above results suggested that applying exogenous NO3- to growth medium could regulate cherry root function and nitrogen metabolism, and antagonize the damage of hypoxia stress on cherry roots. PMID:21443020

  20. Sarcolipin Is a Key Determinant of the Basal Metabolic Rate, and Its Overexpression Enhances Energy Expenditure and Resistance against Diet-induced Obesity.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Santosh K; Bal, Naresh C; Sopariwala, Danesh H; Pant, Meghna; Rowland, Leslie A; Shaikh, Sana A; Periasamy, Muthu

    2015-04-24

    Sarcolipin (SLN) is a novel regulator of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) in muscle. SLN binding to SERCA uncouples Ca(2+) transport from ATP hydrolysis. By this mechanism, SLN promotes the futile cycling of SERCA, contributing to muscle heat production. We recently showed that SLN plays an important role in cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis. However, the detailed mechanism of how SLN regulates muscle metabolism remains unclear. In this study, we used both SLN knockout (Sln(-/-)) and skeletal muscle-specific SLN overexpression (Sln(OE)) mice to explore energy metabolism by pair feeding (fixed calories) and high-fat diet feeding (ad libitum). Our results show that, upon pair feeding, Sln(OE) mice lost weight compared with the WT, but Sln(-/-) mice gained weight. Interestingly, when fed with a high-fat diet, Sln(OE) mice consumed more calories but gained less weight and maintained a normal metabolic profile in comparison with WT and Sln(-/-) mice. We found that oxygen consumption and fatty acid oxidation were increased markedly in Sln(OE) mice. There was also an increase in both mitochondrial number and size in Sln(OE) muscle, together with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and PPAR ? coactivator 1 ? (PGC1?), key transcriptional activators of mitochondrial biogenesis and enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism. These results, taken together, establish an important role for SLN in muscle metabolism and energy expenditure. On the basis of these data we propose that SLN is a novel target for enhancing whole-body energy expenditure. PMID:25713078

  1. Variation in sulfur and selenium accumulation is controlled by naturally occurring isoforms of the key sulfur assimilation enzyme ADENOSINE 5'-PHOSPHOSULFATE REDUCTASE2 across the Arabidopsis species range.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dai-Yin; Baraniecka, Patrycja; Danku, John; Koprivova, Anna; Lahner, Brett; Luo, Hongbing; Yakubova, Elena; Dilkes, Brian; Kopriva, Stanislav; Salt, David E

    2014-11-01

    Natural variation allows the investigation of both the fundamental functions of genes and their role in local adaptation. As one of the essential macronutrients, sulfur is vital for plant growth and development and also for crop yield and quality. Selenium and sulfur are assimilated by the same process, and although plants do not require selenium, plant-based selenium is an important source of this essential element for animals. Here, we report the use of linkage mapping in synthetic F2 populations and complementation to investigate the genetic architecture of variation in total leaf sulfur and selenium concentrations in a diverse set of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions. We identify in accessions collected from Sweden and the Czech Republic two variants of the enzyme ADENOSINE 5'-PHOSPHOSULFATE REDUCTASE2 (APR2) with strongly diminished catalytic capacity. APR2 is a key enzyme in both sulfate and selenate reduction, and its reduced activity in the loss-of-function allele apr2-1 and the two Arabidopsis accessions Hodonn and Shahdara leads to a lowering of sulfur flux from sulfate into the reduced sulfur compounds, cysteine and glutathione, and into proteins, concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of sulfate in leaves. We conclude from our observation, and the previously identified weak allele of APR2 from the Shahdara accession collected in Tadjikistan, that the catalytic capacity of APR2 varies by 4 orders of magnitude across the Arabidopsis species range, driving significant differences in sulfur and selenium metabolism. The selective benefit, if any, of this large variation remains to be explored. PMID:25245030

  2. A Model of Oxidative Stress Management: Moderation of Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes in SOD1-Null Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Kristine E.; Parkes, Tony L.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.

    2011-01-01

    The response to oxidative stress involves numerous genes and mutations in these genes often manifest in pleiotropic ways that presumably reflect perturbations in ROS-mediated physiology. The Drosophila melanogaster SOD1-null allele (cSODn108) is proposed to result in oxidative stress by preventing superoxide breakdown. In SOD1-null flies, oxidative stress management is thought to be reliant on the glutathione-dependent antioxidants that utilize NADPH to cycle between reduced and oxidized form. Previous studies suggest that SOD1-null Drosophila rely on lipid catabolism for energy rather than carbohydrate metabolism. We tested these connections by comparing the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, lipid and triglyceride concentration, and steady state NADPH:NADP+ in SOD1-null and control transgenic rescue flies. We find a negative shift in the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in SOD1-nulls and the NADP+-reducing enzymes were found to have significantly lower activity than the other enzymes assayed. Little evidence for the catabolism of lipids as preferential energy source was found, as the concentration of lipids and triglycerides were not significantly lower in SOD1-nulls compared with controls. Using a starvation assay to impact lipids and triglycerides, we found that lipids were indeed depleted in both genotypes when under starvation stress, suggesting that oxidative damage was not preventing the catabolism of lipids in SOD1-null flies. Remarkably, SOD1-nulls were also found to be relatively resistant to starvation. Age profiles of enzyme activity, triglyceride and lipid concentration indicates that the trends observed are consistent over the average lifespan of the SOD1-nulls. Based on our results, we propose a model of physiological response in which organisms under oxidative stress limit the production of ROS through the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in order to moderate the products exiting the electron transport chain. PMID:21909438

  3. 6-gingerol protects against nutritional steatohepatitis by regulating key genes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), appears to be increasingly common worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 6-gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone), a bioactive ingredient of plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, on experimental models of NASH. In HepG2 cells, 6-gingerol (100 μmol/L) treatment inhibited free fatty acids mixture (0.33 mmol/L palmitate and 0.66 mmol/L oleate)-induced triglyceride and inflammatory marker accumulations. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet to induce steatohepatitis. After four weeks of MCD diet feeding, the mice were dosed orally with 6-gingerol (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day) once daily for another four weeks. 6-Gingerol (100 mg/kg/day) attenuated liver steatosis and necro-inflammation in MCD diet-fed mice. The expressions of inflammatory cytokine genes, including those for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, and nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB), which were increased in the livers of MCD diet-fed mice, were attenuated by 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol possesses a repressive property on hepatic steatosis, which is associated with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Our study demonstrated the protective role of 6-gingerol in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. The effect was mediated through regulating key genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammation. PMID:25658238

  4. 6-Gingerol Protects against Nutritional Steatohepatitis by Regulating Key Genes Related to Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), appears to be increasingly common worldwide. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 6-gingerol ((S)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-decanone), a bioactive ingredient of plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family, on experimental models of NASH. In HepG2 cells, 6-gingerol (100 ?mol/L) treatment inhibited free fatty acids mixture (0.33 mmol/L palmitate and 0.66 mmol/L oleate)-induced triglyceride and inflammatory marker accumulations. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet to induce steatohepatitis. After four weeks of MCD diet feeding, the mice were dosed orally with 6-gingerol (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day) once daily for another four weeks. 6-Gingerol (100 mg/kg/day) attenuated liver steatosis and necro-inflammation in MCD diet-fed mice. The expressions of inflammatory cytokine genes, including those for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-6, and nuclear transcription factor (NF-?B), which were increased in the livers of MCD diet-fed mice, were attenuated by 6-gingerol. 6-Gingerol possesses a repressive property on hepatic steatosis, which is associated with induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?. Our study demonstrated the protective role of 6-gingerol in ameliorating nutritional steatohepatitis. The effect was mediated through regulating key genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammation. PMID:25658238

  5. Diterpene synthesis in Stevia rebaudiana: recruitment and up-regulation of key enzymes from the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    Richman, A S; Gijzen, M; Starratt, A N; Yang, Z; Brandle, J E

    1999-08-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves accumulate a mixture of at least eight different glycosides derived from the tetracyclic diterpene steviol. These natural products taste intensely sweet and have similar biosynthetic origins to those of gibberellic acid (GA). The initial steps leading to the formation of GA result from the two-step cyclization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to (-)-kaurene via the action of two terpene cyclases (-)-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) and (-)-kaurene synthase (KS). Steviol biosynthesis probably uses the same mechanism although the genes and enzymes from S. rebaudiana that are involved in the cyclization of GGDP have not been characterized. We have isolated both the CPS and KS genes from S. rebaudiana and found that recombinant CPS and KS were catalytically active, suggesting that the CPS and KS genes participate in steviol biosynthesis. The genes coding for CPS and KS are usually present in single copies in most plant species and their expression is normally low and limited to rapidly growing tissues. The KS gene has been duplicated in the S. rebaudiana genome and both the KS and CPS genes are highly expressed in mature leaves, a pattern opposite to that found with GA biosynthesis. This pattern may, at least in part, lead to temporal and spatial separation of GA and steviol biosynthesis and probably helps to prevent over-expression from interfering with normal GA metabolism. Our results show that CPS and KS are part of the steviol glycoside biosynthetic pathway and that Stevia rebaudiana has recruited two genes to secondary metabolism from a highly regulated pathway involved in hormone biosynthesis. PMID:10504563

  6. Body composition in gene knockouts of sulfur amino acid-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Amany K

    2014-10-01

    Plasma concentrations of several amino acids are elevated in human obesity and insulin resistance, but there is no conclusive evidence on whether the amino acid alterations are causal. Dietary restriction of the essential SAA methionine (MR) in rats produces a hypermetabolic phenotype, with an integrated set of transcriptional changes in lipid enzymes in liver and adipose tissue. MR also induces an array of changes in methionine metabolites, including elevated plasma homocysteine and decreased cystathionine, cysteine, glutathione, and taurine. Several knockouts of enzymes acting downstream of methionine recapitulate the phenotypic results of MR, suggesting that the MR phenotype may be driven by changes distal to methionine. Here we review the changes in SAA and body composition in seven relevant knockout mouse models. All seven models feature decreased body weight, which in five of these have been further explored and shown to result from predominantly decreased fat mass. Common to several models is increased energy expenditure, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and protection against dietary obesity, as occurs in MR. A decrease in plasma total cysteine concentrations is also seen in most models. The lean phenotype could often be reversed by dietary supplementation of cysteine or choline, but not taurine, betaine or a H2S donor. Importantly, the plasma concentrations of both cysteine and choline are positively associated with fat mass in large populations studies, while taurine, betaine, and H2S are not. Collectively, the emerging data from dietary and knockout models are in harmony with human epidemiologic data, suggesting that the availability of key nutrients in the SAA pathway regulates fat storage pathways. PMID:24952018

  7. The Action of Antidiabetic Plants of the Canadian James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia on Key Enzymes of Hepatic Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nachar, Abir; Vallerand, Diane; Musallam, Lina; Lavoie, Louis; Arnason, John; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada) to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and glycogen synthase (GS) activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) were probed by Western blot. Seven of the seventeen plant extracts significantly decreased G6Pase activity, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca, exerting an effect similar to insulin. This action involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, several plant extracts activated GS, Larix laricina and A. balsamea, far exceeding the action of insulin. We also found a significant correlation between GS stimulation and GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by plant extract treatments. In summary, three Cree plants stand out for marked effects on hepatic glucose homeostasis. P. glauca affects glucose production whereas L. laricina rather acts on glucose storage. However, A. balsamea has the most promising profile, simultaneously and powerfully reducing G6Pase and stimulating GS. Our studies thus confirm that the reduction of hepatic glucose production likely contributes to the therapeutic potential of several antidiabetic Cree traditional medicines. PMID:23864882

  8. Crystal Structure of Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase MtmOIV, the Key Enzyme of the Mithramycin Biosynthetic Pathway