Sample records for key metabolic enzyme

  1. Subcellular distribution of key enzymes of lipid metabolism during the euthermia-hibernation-arousal cycle

    PubMed Central

    Suozzi, Anna; Malatesta, Manuela; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian hibernation is a natural, fully reversible hypometabolic state characterized by a drastic reduction of body temperature and metabolic activity, which ensures survival to many species under adverse environmental conditions. During hibernation, many hibernators rely for energy supply almost exclusively on lipid reserves; the shift from carbohydrate to lipid metabolism implies profound rearrangement of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of energetic substrates. However, the structural counterpart of such adaptation is not known. In this study we investigated, by using immunoelectron microscopy, the fine intracellular distribution of two key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, namely, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and the long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL), in hepatocytes of euthermic, hibernating and arousing hazel dormice. Our results show that the two enzymes are differentially distributed in cellular compartments (cytoplasm, mitochondria and cell nuclei) of hepatocytes during euthermia. Quantitative redistribution of both enzymes among cellular compartments takes place during hibernation and arousal, in accordance with the physiological changes. Interestingly, this redistribution follows different seasonal patterns in cytoplasm, mitochondria and nuclei. In conclusion, our data represent the first quantitative morphological evidence of lipid enzyme distribution in a true hibernator throughout the year cycle, thus providing a structural framework to biochemical changes associated with the hypometabolism of hibernation. PMID:19538638

  2. Lactate Dehydrogenase Is the Key Enzyme for Pneumococcal Pyruvate Metabolism and Pneumococcal Survival in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A. Y.; Andrew, Peter W.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

  3. Inactivation of Key Metabolic Enzymes by Mixed-Function Oxidation Reactions: Possible Implication in Protein Turnover and Ageing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Fucci; Cynthia N. Oliver; Minor J. Coon; Earl R. Stadtman

    1983-01-01

    Several mixed-function oxidation systems catalyze the inactivation of Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase. Inactivation involves modification of a single histidine residue in each enzyme subunit and makes the enzyme susceptible to proteolytic degradation. We show here that 10 key enzymes in metabolism are inactivated by a bacterial NADH oxidase and by an oxidase system comprised of NADPH, cytochrome P-450 reductase, and

  4. Depletion of reduction potential and key energy generation metabolic enzymes underlies tellurite toxicity in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Anaganti, Narasimha; Basu, Bhakti; Gupta, Alka; Joseph, Daisy; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress resistant Deinococcus radiodurans surprisingly exhibited moderate sensitivity to tellurite induced oxidative stress (LD50 = 40 ?M tellurite, 40 min exposure). The organism reduced 70% of 40 ?M potassium tellurite within 5 h. Tellurite exposure significantly modulated cellular redox status. The level of ROS and protein carbonyl contents increased while the cellular reduction potential substantially decreased following tellurite exposure. Cellular thiols levels initially increased (within 30 min) of tellurite exposure but decreased at later time points. At proteome level, tellurite resistance proteins (TerB and TerD), tellurite reducing enzymes (pyruvate dehydrogense subunits E1 and E3), ROS detoxification enzymes (superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase), and protein folding chaperones (DnaK, EF-Ts, and PPIase) displayed increased abundance in tellurite-stressed cells. However, remarkably decreased levels of key metabolic enzymes (aconitase, transketolase, 3-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, electron transfer flavoprotein alpha, and beta) involved in carbon and energy metabolism were observed upon tellurite stress. The results demonstrate that depletion of reduction potential in intensive tellurite reduction with impaired energy metabolism lead to tellurite toxicity in D. radiodurans. PMID:25331933

  5. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of key enzymes of cysteine metabolism in rat liver in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bella, D L; Hirschberger, L L; Hosokawa, Y; Stipanuk, M H

    1999-02-01

    Little is known about mechanisms of regulation of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), and cysteine-sulfinate decarboxylase (CSDC) in response to diet. Enzyme activity and Western and Northern or dot blot analyses were conducted on liver samples from rats fed a basal low-protein diet or diets with graded levels of protein or methionine for 2 wk. Higher levels of CDO activity and CDO protein but not of CDO mRNA were observed in liver of rats fed methionine or protein-supplemented diets, indicating that CDO activity is regulated by changes in enzyme concentration. Lower concentrations of the heavy or catalytic subunit of GCS (GCS-HS) mRNA and protein, as well as a lower activity state of GCS-HS in rats fed methionine- or protein-supplemented diets, indicated that dietary regulation of GCS occurs by both pretranslational and posttranslational mechanisms. Lower CSDC activity, CSDC protein concentration, and CSDC mRNA concentration were found in rats fed the highest level of protein, and regulation appeared to involve changes in mRNA concentration. Regulation of key enzymes of cysteine metabolism in response to diet determines the use of cysteine for synthesis of its essential metabolites. PMID:9950793

  6. Comparative analysis on the key enzymes of the glycerol cycle metabolic pathway in Dunaliella salina under osmotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Lu, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    The glycerol metabolic pathway is a special cycle way; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh), glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase (G3pp), dihydroxyacetone reductase (Dhar), and dihydroxyacetone kinase (Dhak) are the key enzymes around the pathway. Glycerol is an important osmolyte for Dunaliella salina to resist osmotic stress. In this study, comparative activities of the four enzymes in D. salina and their activity changes under various salt stresses were investigated, from which glycerol metabolic flow direction in the glycerol metabolic pathway was estimated. Results showed that the salinity changes had different effects on the enzymes activities. NaCl could stimulate the activities of all the four enzymes in various degrees when D. salina was grown under continuous salt stress. When treated by hyperosmotic or hypoosmotic shock, only the activity of G3pdh in D. salina was significantly stimulated. It was speculated that, under osmotic stresses, the emergency response of the cycle pathway in D. salina was driven by G3pdh via its response to the osmotic stress. Subsequently, with the changes of salinity, other three enzymes started to respond to osmotic stress. Dhar played a role of balancing the cycle metabolic pathway by its forward and backward reactions. Through synergy, the four enzymes worked together for the effective flow of the cycle metabolic pathways to maintain the glycerol requirements of cells in order to adapt to osmotic stress environments. PMID:22675484

  7. Pyruvate decarboxylase: a key enzyme for the oxidative metabolism of lactic acid by Acetobacter pasteurianus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krishnan Chandra Raj; Lonnie O. Ingram; Julie A. Maupin-Furlow

    2001-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus, an obligately oxidative bacterium, is the first organism shown to utilize pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) as a central enzyme for oxidative metabolism. In plants, yeast, and other bacteria, PDC functions solely as part of the fermentative ethanol pathway. During the growth of A. pasteurianus on lactic acid, the central intermediate pyruvate is cleaved to acetaldehyde and CO2 by PDC.

  8. Caloric restriction alters the feeding response of key metabolic enzyme genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M Dhahbi; Patricia L Mote; John Wingo; Brian C Rowley; Shelley X Cao; Roy L Walford; Stephen R Spindler

    2001-01-01

    Differential ‘fuel usage’ has been proposed as a mechanism for life-span extension by caloric restriction (CR). Here, we report the effects of CR, initiated after weaning, on metabolic enzyme gene expression 0, 1.5, 5, and 12 h after feeding of 24-month-old mice. Plasma glucose and insulin were reduced by ?20 and 80%. Therefore, apparent insulin sensitivity, as judged by the

  9. Temperature effects on key metabolic enzymes in Littorina saxatilis and L. obtusata from different latitudes and shore levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Sokolova; H. Pörtner

    2001-01-01

    Effects of temperature on activities of key metabolic enzymes, citrate synthase (CS), NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), pyruvate kinase (PK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), were studied in high and low shore Littorina saxatilis and in low shore L. obtusata from the temperate North Sea and the sub-arctic White Sea. It was found that adaptation of L. saxatilis and

  10. Efficacy of coumarin on hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in chemical induced type 2 diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leelavinothan Pari; Narayanasamy Rajarajeswari

    2009-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of coumarin on carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes in control and streptozotocin (STZ)–nicotinamide (NA)-induced diabetic rats. On oral administration of coumarin at a dose of 100mg\\/kg body weight per day to diabetic rats for 45 days; resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and increase

  11. Efficacy of azelaic acid on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet induced type 2 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Muthulakshmi, Shanmugam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2013-06-01

    Azelaic acid (AzA), a C9 linear ?,?-dicarboxylic acid, is found in whole grains namely wheat, rye, barley, oat seeds and sorghum. The study was performed to investigate whether AzA exerts beneficial effect on hepatic key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in high fat diet (HFD) induced type 2 diabetic C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diet for 10 weeks and subjected to intragastric administration of various doses (20 mg, 40 mg and 80 mg/kg BW) of AzA daily for the subsequent 5 weeks. Rosiglitazone (RSG) was used as reference drug. Body weight, food intake, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, blood haemoglobin (Hb), blood glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), liver glycolytic enzyme (hexokinase), hepatic shunt enzyme (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), gluconeogenic enzymes(glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase), liver glycogen, plasma and liver triglycerides were examined in mice fed with normal standard diet (NC), high fat diet (HFD), HFD with AzA (HFD + AzA) and HFD with rosiglitazone (HFD + RSG). Among the three doses, 80 mg/kg BW of AzA was able to positively regulate plasma glucose, insulin, blood HbA1c and haemoglobin levels by significantly increasing the activity of hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and significantly decreasing the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase thereby increasing the glycogen content in the liver. From this study, we put forward that AzA could significantly restore the levels of plasma glucose, insulin, HbA1c, Hb, liver glycogen and carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes to near normal in diabetic mice and hence, AzA may be useful as a biomaterial in the development of therapeutic agents against high fat diet induced T2DM. PMID:23402910

  12. Sampling the Solution Space in Genome-Scale Metabolic Networks Reveals Transcriptional Regulation in Key Enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Bordel; Rasmus Agren; Jens Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Genome-scale metabolic models are available for an increasing number of organisms and can be used to define the region of feasible metabolic flux distributions. In this work we use as constraints a small set of experimental metabolic fluxes, which reduces the region of feasible metabolic states. Once the region of feasible flux distributions has been defined, a set of possible

  13. An alternative, arginase-independent pathway for arginine metabolism in Kluyveromyces lactis involves guanidinobutyrase as a key enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, G; Verhoeven, M D; Mans, R; Fleury Rey, Y; Bel-Rhlid, R; van den Broek, M; Maleki Seifar, R; Ten Pierick, A; Thompson, M; Müller, V; Wahl, S A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2014-01-01

    Most available knowledge on fungal arginine metabolism is derived from studies on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which arginine catabolism is initiated by releasing urea via the arginase reaction. Orthologues of the S. cerevisiae genes encoding the first three enzymes in the arginase pathway were cloned from Kluyveromyces lactis and shown to functionally complement the corresponding deletion in S. cerevisiae. Surprisingly, deletion of the single K. lactis arginase gene KlCAR1 did not completely abolish growth on arginine as nitrogen source. Growth rate of the deletion mutant strongly increased during serial transfer in shake-flask cultures. A combination of RNAseq-based transcriptome analysis and 13C-15N-based flux analysis was used to elucidate the arginase-independent pathway. Isotopic 13C15N-enrichment in ?-aminobutyrate revealed succinate as the entry point in the TCA cycle of the alternative pathway. Transcript analysis combined with enzyme activity measurements indicated increased expression in the Klcar1? mutant of a guanidinobutyrase (EC.3.5.3.7), a key enzyme in a new pathway for arginine degradation. Expression of the K. lactis KLLA0F27995g (renamed KlGBU1) encoding guanidinobutyrase enabled S. cerevisiae to use guanidinobutyrate as sole nitrogen source and its deletion in K. lactis almost completely abolish growth on this nitrogen source. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this enzyme activity is widespread in fungi. PMID:24912400

  14. Selective photoregulation of the activity of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, two key enzymes in glycogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Lobo, Mireia; Garcia-Amorós, Jaume; Fita, Ignacio; Velasco, Dolores; Guinovart, Joan J; Ferrer, Joan C

    2015-07-14

    Glycogen is a polymer of ?-1,4- and ?-1,6-linked glucose units that provides a readily available source of energy in living organisms. Glycogen synthase (GS) and glycogen phosphorylase (GP) are the two enzymes that control, respectively, the synthesis and degradation of this polysaccharide and constitute adequate pharmacological targets to modulate cellular glycogen levels, by means of inhibition of their catalytic activity. Here we report on the synthesis and biological evaluation of a selective inhibitor that consists of an azobenzene moiety glycosidically linked to the anomeric carbon of a glucose molecule. In the ground state, the more stable (E)-isomer of the azobenzene glucoside had a slight inhibitory effect on rat muscle GP (RMGP, IC50 = 4.9 mM) and Escherichia coli GS (EcGS, IC50 = 1.6 mM). After irradiation and subsequent conversion to the (Z)-form, the inhibitory potency of the azobenzene glucoside did not significantly change for RMGP (IC50 = 2.4 mM), while its effect on EcGS increased 50-fold (IC50 = 32 ?M). Sucrose synthase 4 from potatoes, a glycosyltransferase that does not operate on glycogen, was only slightly inhibited by the (E)-isomer (IC50 = 0.73 mM). These findings could be rationalized on the basis of kinetic and computer-aided docking analysis, which indicated that both isomers of the azobenzene glucoside mimic the EcGS acceptor substrate and exert their inhibitory effect by binding to the glycogen subsite in the active center of the enzyme. The ability to selectively photoregulate the catalytic activity of key enzymes of glycogen metabolism may represent a new approach for the treatment of glycogen metabolism disorders. PMID:26055498

  15. Inhibitory potential of Turbinaria ornata against key metabolic enzymes linked to diabetes.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, P S; Suthindhiran, K; Jayasri, M A

    2014-01-01

    One of the therapeutic approaches in treating diabetes is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting major carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. In the present study, crude extracts of marine seaweed, Turbinaria ornata, were tested for their antidiabetic potential using enzyme inhibitory assays (?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV). Among the tested extracts, methanol and acetone extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on ?-amylase (IC50 250.9 ?g/mL), ?-glucosidase (535.6 ?g/mL), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (55.2 ?g/mL), respectively. Free radical scavenging activity of these extracts was analyzed using DPPH assay (65%). Extracts were tested for in vitro toxicity using DNA fragmentation assay, haemolytic assay, and MTT assay. None of the extracts showed toxicity in tested models. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of lead extracts showed the presence of major compounds, hentriacontane, z, z-6, 28-heptatriactontadien-2-one, 8-heptadecene, and 1-heptacosanol. Our findings suggest that Turbinaria ornata can be used as a potential source for further in vivo studies in controlling hyperglycemia. PMID:25050371

  16. Inhibitory Potential of Turbinaria ornata against Key Metabolic Enzymes Linked to Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, P. S.; Suthindhiran, K.; Jayasri, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the therapeutic approaches in treating diabetes is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia by inhibiting major carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. In the present study, crude extracts of marine seaweed, Turbinaria ornata, were tested for their antidiabetic potential using enzyme inhibitory assays (?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV). Among the tested extracts, methanol and acetone extracts showed significant inhibitory effects on ?-amylase (IC50 250.9??g/mL), ?-glucosidase (535.6??g/mL), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (55.2??g/mL), respectively. Free radical scavenging activity of these extracts was analyzed using DPPH assay (65%). Extracts were tested for in vitro toxicity using DNA fragmentation assay, haemolytic assay, and MTT assay. None of the extracts showed toxicity in tested models. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis of lead extracts showed the presence of major compounds, hentriacontane, z, z-6, 28-heptatriactontadien-2-one, 8-heptadecene, and 1-heptacosanol. Our findings suggest that Turbinaria ornata can be used as a potential source for further in vivo studies in controlling hyperglycemia. PMID:25050371

  17. Effect of T. foenumgraecum on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Vats, V; Yadav, S P; Grover, J K

    2003-04-01

    The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Trigonella foenumgraecum (FG). In the present study, FG (1g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of FG led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 14.4 and 46.64% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body weight was significantly increased in diabetics (P<0.0005) versus normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (P<0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of FG. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10 folds while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls versus controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by FG. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35, 50 and 60% of the controls and FG partially corrected this alteration in PFK, HK and GK. PMID:12639747

  18. Metabolic enzyme expression highlights a key role for MTHFD2 and the mitochondrial folate pathway in cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit; Madhusudhan, Nikhil; Sheppard, Nina Gustafsson; Strittmatter, Laura; Kampf, Caroline; Huang, Jenny; Asplund, Anna; Mootha, Vamsi K.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic remodeling is now widely regarded as a hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. Here we compare messenger RNA profiles of 1,454 metabolic enzymes across 1,981 tumours spanning 19 cancer types to identify enzymes that are consistently differentially expressed. Our meta-analysis recovers established targets of some of the most widely used chemotherapeutics, including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase and ribonucleotide reductase, while also spotlighting new enzymes, such as the mitochondrial proline biosynthetic enzyme PYCR1. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and is centred on MTHFD2. MTHFD2 RNA and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. MTHFD2 is expressed in the developing embryo, but is absent in most healthy adult tissues, even those that are proliferating. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one-carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses.

  19. Metabolic enzyme expression highlights a key role for MTHFD2 and the mitochondrial folate pathway in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Roland; Jain, Mohit; Madhusudhan, Nikhil; Sheppard, Nina Gustafsson; Strittmatter, Laura; Kampf, Caroline; Huang, Jenny; Asplund, Anna; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic remodeling is now widely regarded as a hallmark of cancer, but it is not clear whether individual metabolic strategies are frequently exploited by many tumours. Here we compare messenger RNA profiles of 1,454 metabolic enzymes across 1,981 tumours spanning 19 cancer types to identify enzymes that are consistently differentially expressed. Our meta-analysis recovers established targets of some of the most widely used chemotherapeutics, including dihydrofolate reductase, thymidylate synthase and ribonucleotide reductase, while also spotlighting new enzymes, such as the mitochondrial proline biosynthetic enzyme PYCR1. The highest scoring pathway is mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism and is centred on MTHFD2. MTHFD2 RNA and protein are markedly elevated in many cancers and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. MTHFD2 is expressed in the developing embryo, but is absent in most healthy adult tissues, even those that are proliferating. Our study highlights the importance of mitochondrial compartmentalization of one-carbon metabolism in cancer and raises important therapeutic hypotheses. PMID:24451681

  20. Mass Spectrometry-based Workflow for Accurate Quantification of Escherichia coli Enzymes: How Proteomics Can Play a Key Role in Metabolic Engineering*

    PubMed Central

    Trauchessec, Mathieu; Jaquinod, Michel; Bonvalot, Aline; Brun, Virginie; Bruley, Christophe; Ropers, Delphine; de Jong, Hidde; Garin, Jérôme; Bestel-Corre, Gwenaëlle; Ferro, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic engineering aims to design high performance microbial strains producing compounds of interest. This requires systems-level understanding; genome-scale models have therefore been developed to predict metabolic fluxes. However, multi-omics data including genomics, transcriptomics, fluxomics, and proteomics may be required to model the metabolism of potential cell factories. Recent technological advances to quantitative proteomics have made mass spectrometry-based quantitative assays an interesting alternative to more traditional immuno-affinity based approaches. This has improved specificity and multiplexing capabilities. In this study, we developed a quantification workflow to analyze enzymes involved in central metabolism in Escherichia coli (E. coli). This workflow combined full-length isotopically labeled standards with selected reaction monitoring analysis. First, full-length 15N labeled standards were produced and calibrated to ensure accurate measurements. Liquid chromatography conditions were then optimized for reproducibility and multiplexing capabilities over a single 30-min liquid chromatography-MS analysis. This workflow was used to accurately quantify 22 enzymes involved in E. coli central metabolism in a wild-type reference strain and two derived strains, optimized for higher NADPH production. In combination with measurements of metabolic fluxes, proteomics data can be used to assess different levels of regulation, in particular enzyme abundance and catalytic rate. This provides information that can be used to design specific strains used in biotechnology. In addition, accurate measurement of absolute enzyme concentrations is key to the development of predictive kinetic models in the context of metabolic engineering. PMID:24482123

  1. In vitro inhibitory potential of Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Angela; Sala, Filippo; Suter, Andy; Butterweck, Veronika

    2015-01-15

    Boldocynara®, a proprietary dietary supplement product consisting of the plants Cynara scolymus, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, and Peumus boldus, used to promote functions of the liver and the gallbladder. It was the aim of the present study to look from a different perspective at the product by investigating the in vitro potential of Boldocynara® as a combination product and its individual extracts on key enzymes relevant to metabolic syndrome. Peumus boldus extract exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on ?-glucosidase (80% inhibition at 100 µg/ml, IC50: 17.56 µg/ml). Silybum marianum had moderate pancreatic lipase (PL) inhibitory activities (30% at 100 µg/ml) whereas Cynara scolymus showed moderate ACE inhibitory activity (31% at 100 µg/ml). The combination had moderate to weak effects on the tested enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate some moderate potential of the dietary supplement Boldocynara® and its single ingredients for the prevention of metabolic disorders. PMID:25636882

  2. Efficacy of asiatic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene on attenuating the key enzymes activities of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vinayagam; Saravanan, Ramalingam

    2013-02-15

    Asiatic acid (AA), a triterpenoid derivative of Centella asiatica, has shown significant biological effects of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Aim of this investigation was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of AA on the activities of hepatic enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats were injected with streptozotocin intraperitoneally at a single dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. Diabetic rats showed significant (p<0.05) increased in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and significant (p<0.05) decreased in circulating insulin and hemoglobin. The altered activities of key enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase of carbohydrate metabolism significantly (p<0.05) increased whereas hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen content significantly (p<0.05) decreased in the liver of diabetic rats and also increased activities of aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Oral administration of AA (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg b.w.) and glibenclamide (600 ?g/kg b.w.) to diabetic rats for 45 days prevented the above alteration and reverted to near normalcy. Protection of body weight loss of diabetic rats by AA was also observed. No significant effect was observed in normal rats treated with AA (20 mg/kg b.w.). In this search, AA found to be potential bioactive compound to regulate the carbohydrate metabolism by modulating the key regulatory enzymes in diabetic rats. These findings merit further research in this field. PMID:23102509

  3. Targeted omics analyses, and metabolic enzyme activity assays demonstrate maintenance of key mucociliary characteristics in long term cultures of reconstituted human airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Andrew; Thain, Simon; Banerjee, Anisha; Haswell, Linsey; Parmar, Aleesha; Phillips, Gary; Minet, Emmanuel

    2015-08-01

    3D reconstituted respiratory epithelia have emerged as better in?vitro models for toxicological testing compared to cell lines due to the conservation of key morphological features and functions. MucilAir™ is a commercially available human airway epithelia system that can potentially maintain functional attributes for up to a year, however, detailed mucociliary characteristics and xenobiotic metabolism relevant to inhaled pro-toxicant bioactivation is lacking. Here, we assessed in MucilAir™ some key biomarkers that are characteristic of the respiratory epithelia including morphology, function and xenobiotics metabolism. The end points that were measured included targeted proteomics using a panel of 243 airway surface liquid (ASL) proteins, cilia beat frequency (CBF), a qRT-PCR screen of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and CYP2A6/13, CYP1A1/1B1 activity. Comparison of ASL proteomics with human sputum identified key proteins common to both matrices, but present at different levels. Xenobiotic metabolism gene profiling demonstrated strong similarities with the normal human lung and did not reveal any consistent changes when assessed over a 6month period. Inducibility and activity of CYP1A1/1B1 and activity of CYP2A6/2A13 were present at one month in culture and maintained in one tested MucilAir™ donor for several months. In conclusion, MucilAir™ presented important morphological and metabolic characteristics of a mucociliary epithelium in short and long term culture. MucilAir™ is therefore a potentially useful model to test repeated sub-cytotoxic doses of toxicants. PMID:25863282

  4. [The differential expression of the genes of the key enzymes involved in phenolic compound metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under different nitrogen supply].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jun; Wang, Hai-Bin; Fang, Chang-Xun; Qiu, Long; Wu, Wen-Xiang; He, Hai-Bin; Lin, Wen-Xiong

    2007-10-01

    Differential expression of the key genes controlling phenolic metabolism in allelopathic and non-allelopathic rice accessions was investigated under two nitrogen supply levels (lower and normal) using fluorescence quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) (Figs.2, 3). The results indicated that 9 key enzyme genes concerned were mediated by lower nitrogen level (Table 2). All of the nine genes (Table 1, Fig.4), were up-regulated by 1.9-5.4 times of the relative gene expression amounts in allelopathic rice accession, 'PI312777' under the lower nitrogen condition compared with their controls, of which PAL gene showed the highest relative gene expression amount with 5.4 times of the relative gene expressions compared with the control, while in non-allelopathic rice Lemont, seven genes were down-regulated by 29%-72% under lower nitrogen supplies compared with their controls and only two genes, i.e., phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamoyl-CoA genes were up-regulated, which however were a decrease of 22% and 74% over those in allelopathic rice accession (Table 2). These findings strongly suggest that the increase of allelopathic potential induced by 1/4 nutrient stress was responsible for enhanced phenolic compound synthesis metabolism. PMID:17960041

  5. Effect of feeding aqueous extract of Pterocarpus marsupium on glycogen content of tissues and the key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grover, Jagdish Kumari; Vats, Vikrant; Yadav, Satyapal

    2002-12-01

    The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed plant therapies for diseases including diabetes mellitus called madhumeh in Sanskrit. One such plant mentioned in Ayurveda is Pterocarpus marsupium (PM). In the present study, aqueous extract of PM (1 g/kg PO) was assessed for its effect on glycogen levels of insulin dependent (skeletal muscle and liver), insulin-independent tissues (kidneys and brain) and enzymes such as glucokinase (GK), hexokinase (HK), and phosphofructokinase (PFK). Administration of PM led to decrease in blood glucose levels by 38 and 60% on 15th and 30th day of the experiment. Liver and 2-kidney weight expressed as percentage of body-weight was significantly increased in diabetics (p < 0.0005) vs. normal controls and this alteration in the renal weight (p < 0.0005) but not liver weight was normalized by feeding of PM extract. Renal glycogen content increased by over 10-fold while hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content decreased by 75 and 68% in diabetic controls vs. controls and these alteration in glycogen content was partly prevented by PM. Activity of HK, GK and PFK in diabetic controls was 35,50 and 60% of the controls and PM completely corrected this alteration in PFK and only partly in HK and GK. PMID:12482025

  6. S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine Hydrolase, Key Enzyme of Methylation Metabolism, Regulates Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis and Triacylglycerol Homeostasis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Malanovic, Nermina; Streith, Ingo; Wolinski, Heimo; Rechberger, Gerald; Kohlwein, Sepp D.; Tehlivets, Oksana

    2008-01-01

    In eukaryotes, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (Sah1) offers a single way for degradation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, a product and potent competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases. De novophosphatidylcholine(PC)synthesisrequiresthreeAdoMet-dependent methylation steps. Here we show that down-regulation of SAH1 expression in yeast leads to accumulation of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine and decreased de novo PC synthesis in vivo. This decrease is accompanied by an increase in triacylglycerol (TG) levels, demonstrating that Sah1-regulated methylation has a major impact on cellular lipid homeostasis. TG accumulation is also observed in cho2 and opi3 mutants defective in methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to PC, confirming that PC de novo synthesis and TG synthesis are metabolically coupled through the efficiency of the phospholipid methylation reaction. Indeed, because both types of lipids share phosphatidic acid as a precursor, we find in cells with down-regulated Sah1 activity major alterations in the expression of the INO1 gene as well as in the localization of Opi1, a negative regulatory factor of phospholipid synthesis, which binds and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by phosphatidic acid in conjunction with VAMP/synaptobrevin-associated protein, Scs2. The addition of homocysteine, by the reversal of the Sah1-catalyzed reaction, also leads to TG accumulation in yeast, providing an attractive model for the role of homocysteine as a risk factor of atherosclerosis in humans. PMID:18591246

  7. [Enzymes of intermediary metabolism in coryneform bacteria].

    PubMed

    Baryshnikova, L M; Reznik, G I; Golovlev, E L

    1979-01-01

    Enzymes of the intermediate metabolism were studied in ten strains of Corynebacterium-like organisms belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium and Nocardia. All of these were found to contain enzymes of the glycolytic pathway, and nine strains among ten had dehydrogenases of the pentose phosphate shunt. The activity of enzymes of the citric acid cycle was low: alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase was not found in Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium linens and Nocardia minima. Eight strains possessed the activity of the key enzyme of the gamma-aminobutyrate shunt, i.e. gamma-aminobutyrate aminotransferase. The activity of enzymes of the glyoxylate shunt was found in nine strains, and their level was rather high even during growth on glucose. Therefore, it is possible to study the taxonomic structure of this group of microorganisms by analyzing the composition and the level of enzymes involved in the intermediate metabolism. The competence of the Brevibacterium genus is corroborated by the typical species Brevibact. linens, as well as the reality of saprophytic representatives of the Corynebacterium genus, and a special taxonomic position of the group Brevibact. ammoniagenes--Brevibact. stationis. PMID:108525

  8. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency on transcriptional regulation of genes encoding key enzymes of starch metabolism in duckweed (Landoltia punctata).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Shi, Hui-juan; Wang, Mao-lin; Cui, Long; Zhao, Hai; Zhao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The production of starch by plants influences their use as biofuels. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) regulate starch gene expression during plant growth and development, yet the role of key enzymes such as ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (E.C. 2.7.7.27 AGPase) in starch metabolism during N- and P-deficiency remains unknown. We investigated the effect of N- and P-deficiency on the expression of large (LeAPL1, LeAPL2, and LeAPL3) and small (LeAPS) subunits of AGPase in duckweed (Landoltia punctata) and their correlation with starch content. We first isolated the full-length cDNA encoding LeAPL1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ603244) and LeAPS (GenBank Accession No. KJ603243); they contained open reading frames of 1554 bp (57.7-kDa polypeptide of 517 amino acids) and 1578 bp (57.0 kDa polypeptide of 525 amino acids), respectively. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that LeAPL1 and LeAPL3 were highly expressed during early stages of N-deficiency, while LeAPL2 was only expressed during late stage. However, in response to P-deficiency, LeAPL1 and LeAPL2 were upregulated during early stages and LeAPL3 was primarily expressed in the late stage. Interestingly, LeAPS was highly expressed following N-deficiency during both stages, but was only upregulated in the early stage after P-deficiency. The activities of AGPase and soluble starch synthesis enzyme (SSS EC 2.4.1.21) were positively correlated with changes in starch content. Furthermore, LeAPL3 and LeSSS (SSS gene) were positively correlated with changes in starch content during N-deficiency, while LeAPS and LeSSS were correlated with starch content in response to P-deficiency. These results elevate current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying starch synthesis. PMID:25438139

  9. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862.3360 Section...Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification . A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862.3360 Section...Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification. A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. 862.3360 Section...Systems § 862.3360 Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system. (a) Identification . A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device...

  12. [Metabolism enzyme controls cancer stemness].

    PubMed

    Konno, Masamitsu; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2015-05-01

    Cancer stem cells are known to influence survival, chemoresistance, relapse and metastasis. Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) maintains aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells and stimulates cell proliferation by controlling Warburg effect. In addition, PKM2 translocates to nucleus and up-regulates PDK1 expression by controlling its transcription. PKM2 confers malignant potential by controlling both metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Tumor invasion is initiated with the change of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cell. After EMT induction, in parallel with E-cadherin down-regulation and vimentin up-regulation, the expression of PKM2 was increased both in transcriptional and translational level and PKM2 translocated into nucleus. TGIF2 was identified which interacted with PKM2 in nucleus in response to EMT induction, which was considered to have a key role in controlling EMT induction. We performed immunohistochemical staining with specific antibody to PKM2 using clinical samples of colorectal cancers. Clinicopathological analysis showed that PKM2 positivity significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and distant organ metastasis. In conclusion, our data suggested that PKM2 nuclear function had a crucial role in controlling invasion and metastasis. PMID:25985625

  13. Benzoyl-coenzyme A reductase (dearomatizing), a key enzyme of anaerobic aromatic metabolism. ATP dependence of the reaction, purification and some properties of the enzyme from Thauera aromatica strain K172.

    PubMed

    Boll, M; Fuchs, G

    1995-12-15

    Anoxic metabolism of many aromatic compounds proceeds via the common intermediate benzoyl-CoA. Benzoyl-CoA is dearomatized by benzoyl-CoA reductase (dearomatizing) in a two-electron reduction step, possibly yielding cyclohex-1,5-diene-1-carboxyl-CoA. This process has to overcome a high activation energy and is considered a biological Birch reduction. The central, aromatic-ring-reducing enzyme was investigated for the first time in the denitrifying bacterium Thauera aromatica strain K172. A spectrophotometric assay was developed which was strictly dependent on MgATP, both with cell extract and with purified enzyme. The oxygen-sensitive new enzyme was purified 35-fold with 20% yield under anaerobic conditions in the presence of 0.25 mM dithionite. It had a native molecular mass of approximately 170 kDa and consisted of four subunits a,b,c,d of 48, 45, 38 and 32 kDa. The oligomer composition of the protein most likely is abcd. The ultraviolet/visible spectrum of the protein as isolated, but without dithionite, was characteristic for an iron-sulfur protein with an absorption maximum at 279 nm and a broad shoulder at 390 nm. The estimated molar absorption coefficient at 390 nm was 35,000 M-1 cm-1. Reduction of the enzyme by dithionite resulted in a decrease of absorbance at 390 nm, and the colour turned from greenish-brown to red-brown. The enzyme contained 10.8 +/- 1.5 mol Fe and 10.5 +/- 1.5 mol acid-labile sulfur/mol. Besides zinc (0.5 mol/mol protein) no other metals nor selenium could be detected in significant amounts. The enzyme preparation contained a flavin or flavin-like compound; the estimated content was 0.3 mol/mol enzyme. The enzyme reaction required MgATP and a strong reductant such as Ti(III). The reaction catalyzed is: benzoyl-CoA + 2 Ti(III) + n ATP-->non-aromatic acyl-CoA + 2 Ti(IV) + n ADP + n Pi. The estimated number n of ATP molecules hydrolyzed/two electrons transferred in benzoyl-CoA reduction is 2-4. In the absence of benzoyl-CoA the enzyme exhibited oxygen-sensitive ATPase activity. The enzyme was specific for Mg(2+)-ATP, other nucleoside triphosphates being inactive (< 1%). Mg2+ could be substituted to some extent by Mn2+, Fe2+ and less efficiently by Co2+. Benzoate was not reduced, whereas some fluoro, hydroxy, amino and methyl analogues of the activated benzoic acid were reduced, albeit at much lower rate; the products remain to be identified. The specific activity with reduced methyl viologen as the electron donor was 0.55 mumol min-1 mg-1 corresponding to a catalytic number of 1.6 s-1. The apparent Km values under the assay conditions (0.5 mM for both reduced and oxidized methyl viologen) of benzoyl-CoA and ATP were 15 microM and 0.6 mM, respectively. The enzyme was inactivated by ethylene, bipyridyl and, in higher concentrations, by acetylene. Benzoyl-CoA reductase also catalyzed the ATP-dependent two-electron reduction of hydroxylamine (Km 0.15 mM) and azide. Some of the properties of the enzyme are reminiscent of those of nitrogenase which similarly overcomes the high activation energy for dinitrogen reduction by coupling electron transfer to the hydrolysis of ATP. PMID:8575453

  14. Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase: crucial metabolic enzyme and attractive target for drug discovery

    E-print Network

    Tong, Liang

    on these enzymes could lead to the development of novel ther- apies against metabolic syndrome and other diseases. Key words. Metabolic syndrome; obesity; diabetes; structure-based drug design; fatty acid metabolism known as the metabolic syndrome, in- sulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X [5], has gener- ated

  15. Arthrobacter P 1, a fast growing versatile methylotroph with amine oxidase as a key enzyme in the metabolism of methylated amines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Levering; J. P. van Dijken; M. Veenhuis; W. Harder

    1981-01-01

    A facultative methylotrophic bacterium was isolated from enrichment cultures containing methylamine as the sole carbon source.\\u000a It was tentatively identified as an Arthrobacter species. Extracts of cells grown on methylamine or ethylamine contained high levels of amine oxidase (E.C. 1.4.3.) activity.\\u000a Glucose- or choline-grown cells lacked this enzyme. Oxidation of primary amines by the enzyme resulted in the formation of

  16. Tracing metabolic pathways from enzyme data.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Andrew G; Tipton, Keith F; Boyce, Sinéad

    2009-09-01

    The IUBMB Enzyme List is widely used by other databases as a source for avoiding ambiguity in the recognition of enzymes as catalytic entities. However, it was never designed for activities such as pathway tracing, which have become increasingly important in systems biology. This is because it often relies on generic or representative reactions to show the reactions catalysed by enzymes of wide specificity. It is necessary to go to databases such as BRENDA to find further, more detailed, information on what is known about the range of substrates for any particular enzyme. In order to provide a framework for tracing pathways involving any specific enzyme or metabolite, we have created a Reactions Database from the material in the Enzyme List. This allows reactions to be searched by substrate/product and pathways to be traced from any selected starting/seed substrate. An extensive synonym glossary allows searches by many of the alternative names, including accepted abbreviations, by which a chemical compound may be known. This database was necessary for the development of the application Reaction Explorer (http://www.reaction-explorer.org), which was written in REALbasic to search the Reactions Database and draw metabolic pathways from reactions selected by the user. Having input the name of the starting compound (the "seed"), the user is presented with a list of all reactions containing that compound and then selects the product of interest as the next point on the ensuing graph. The pathway diagram is then generated as the process iterates. A contextual menu is provided, which allows the user to (i) remove a compound from the graph, along with all associated links; (ii) search the reactions database again for additional reactions involving the compound and (iii) search for the compound within the Enzyme List. PMID:19563919

  17. Modulating effects of hesperidin on key carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, lipid profile, and membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatases against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nandakumar, N; Rengarajan, T; Balamurugan, A; Balasubramanian, M P

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to document the effect of hesperidin on the key enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, and membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast carcinogenesis. Hesperidin has been reported to have multiple biological properties. Breast cancer was induced by single dose of DMBA (20 mg/kg body weight (bw)). The results revealed that there was a significant increase in the activities of hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, and aldolase and a concomitant decrease in the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase in cancer-induced animals. The activities of ATPases were found to be decreased both in erythrocyte membrane and in the liver of mammary cancer-bearing animals. The lipid profiles such as total cholesterol, free cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and free fatty acids significantly increased and in contrast the ester cholesterol in plasma was found to be decreased, whereas it was found to be elevated in the liver of cancer-bearing groups. The altered levels of the above-mentioned biochemical parameters in cancer-bearing animals were significantly ameliorated by the administration of hesperidin at the dosage of 30 mg/kg bw for 45 days. The histopathological analysis of breast and liver tissues were well supported the modulatory property of hesperidin, and this might be associated with normalizing the gluconeogenesis process, stabilization of cell membranes, and modulation of lipid biosynthesis. PMID:23690228

  18. A core metabolic enzyme mediates resistance to phosphine gas.

    PubMed

    Schlipalius, David I; Valmas, Nicholas; Tuck, Andrew G; Jagadeesan, Rajeswaran; Ma, Li; Kaur, Ramandeep; Goldinger, Anita; Anderson, Cameron; Kuang, Jujiao; Zuryn, Steven; Mau, Yosep S; Cheng, Qiang; Collins, Patrick J; Nayak, Manoj K; Schirra, Horst Joachim; Hilliard, Massimo A; Ebert, Paul R

    2012-11-01

    Phosphine is a small redox-active gas that is used to protect global grain reserves, which are threatened by the emergence of phosphine resistance in pest insects. We find that polymorphisms responsible for genetic resistance cluster around the redox-active catalytic disulfide or the dimerization interface of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) in insects (Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum) and nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans). DLD is a core metabolic enzyme representing a new class of resistance factor for a redox-active metabolic toxin. It participates in four key steps of core metabolism, and metabolite profiles indicate that phosphine exposure in mutant and wild-type animals affects these steps differently. Mutation of DLD in C. elegans increases arsenite sensitivity. This specific vulnerability may be exploited to control phosphine-resistant insects and safeguard food security. PMID:23139334

  19. Metabolic profiling reveals key metabolic features of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Catchpole, Gareth; Platzer, Alexander; Weikert, Cornelia; Kempkensteffen, Carsten; Johannsen, Manfred; Krause, Hans; Jung, Klaus; Miller, Kurt; Willmitzer, Lothar; Selbig, Joachim; Weikert, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Recent evidence suggests that metabolic changes play a pivotal role in the biology of cancer and in particular renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, a global metabolite profiling approach was applied to characterize the metabolite pool of RCC and normal renal tissue. Advanced decision tree models were applied to characterize the metabolic signature of RCC and to explore features of metastasized tumours. The findings were validated in a second independent dataset. Vitamin E derivates and metabolites of glucose, fatty acid, and inositol phosphate metabolism determined the metabolic profile of RCC. ?-tocopherol, hippuric acid, myoinositol, fructose-1-phosphate and glucose-1-phosphate contributed most to the tumour/normal discrimination and all showed pronounced concentration changes in RCC. The identified metabolic profile was characterized by a low recognition error of only 5% for tumour versus normal samples. Data on metastasized tumours suggested a key role for metabolic pathways involving arachidonic acid, free fatty acids, proline, uracil and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. These results illustrate the potential of mass spectroscopy based metabolomics in conjunction with sophisticated data analysis methods to uncover the metabolic phenotype of cancer. Differentially regulated metabolites, such as vitamin E compounds, hippuric acid and myoinositol, provide leads for the characterization of novel pathways in RCC. PMID:19845817

  20. Enzyme Recruitment and Its Role in Metabolic Expansion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although more than 109 years have passed since the existence of the last universal common ancestor, proteins have yet to reach the limits of divergence. As a result, metabolic complexity is ever expanding. Identifying and understanding the mechanisms that drive and limit the divergence of protein sequence space impact not only evolutionary biologists investigating molecular evolution but also synthetic biologists seeking to design useful catalysts and engineer novel metabolic pathways. Investigations over the past 50 years indicate that the recruitment of enzymes for new functions is a key event in the acquisition of new metabolic capacity. In this review, we outline the genetic mechanisms that enable recruitment and summarize the present state of knowledge regarding the functional characteristics of extant catalysts that facilitate recruitment. We also highlight recent examples of enzyme recruitment, both from the historical record provided by phylogenetics and from enzyme evolution experiments. We conclude with a look to the future, which promises fruitful consequences from the convergence of molecular evolutionary theory, laboratory-directed evolution, and synthetic biology. PMID:24483367

  1. The enzymes of human diphosphoinositol polyphosphate metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mark P; Potter, Barry V L

    2014-01-01

    Diphospho-myo-inositol polyphosphates have many roles to play, including roles in apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, the response of cells to stress, the regulation of telomere length and DNA damage repair, and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase Pho85 system that monitors phosphate levels. This review focuses on the three classes of enzymes involved in the metabolism of these compounds: inositol hexakisphosphate kinases, inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinases and diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolases. However, these enzymes have roles beyond being mere catalysts, and their interactions with other proteins have cellular consequences. Through their interactions, the three inositol hexakisphosphate kinases have roles in exocytosis, diabetes, the response to infection, and apoptosis. The two inositol hexakisphosphate and diphosphoinositol-pentakisphosphate kinases influence the cellular response to phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate and the migration of pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins to the plasma membrane. The five diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolases interact with ribosomal proteins and transcription factors, as well as proteins involved in membrane trafficking, exocytosis, ubiquitination and the proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Possible directions for future research aiming to determine the roles of these enzymes are highlighted. PMID:24152294

  2. Thermal sensitivity of metabolic enzymes in subarctic and temperate freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionoida)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hélčne Doucet-Beaupré; Caroline Dubé; Sophie Breton; Hans O. Pörtner; Pierre U. Blier

    2010-01-01

    Temperature has a major impact on the physiological processes of freshwater invertebrates. Despite the endangered status of many freshwater mussel species and the potential effect of global warming on North America’s northern aquatic habitats, thermal sensitivity of the metabolic apparatus of freshwater bivalves has received little attention. By examining the thermal sensitivity of 10 key metabolic enzymes and in situ

  3. [Effects of dietary fat level on the xenobiotic metabolism enzymes activity and antioxidant enzymes in rats].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, L V; Aksenov, I V; Trusov, N V; Guseva, G V; Avren'eva, L I

    2012-01-01

    Male Wistar rats received fat-free diet or diets containing 5, 10 and 30% of fat (sunflower oil + lard, 1:1) for 4 weeks. The direct relationship between dietary fat level and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP1A1, methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP1A2, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP2B1 and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A was found. Activities of key enzymes of phase II xenobiotic metabolism (total activity of glutathione transferase, activity of UDP-glucuronosyle transferase) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, paraoxonase-1 and heme oxygenase-1) also increased with higher dietary fat level. PMID:22642161

  4. BRENDA: a resource for enzyme data and metabolic information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ida Schomburg; Antje Chang; Oliver Hofmann; Christian Ebeling; Frank Ehrentreich; Dietmar Schomburg

    2002-01-01

    BRENDA (BRaunschweig ENzyme DAtabase), founded in 1987 by Dietmar Schomburg, is a comprehensive protein function database, containing enzymatic and metabolic information extracted from the primary literature. Presently, the database holds data on more than 40 000 enzymes and 4460 different organisms, and includes information about enzyme–ligand relationships with numerous chemical compounds. The collection of molecular and biochemical information in BRENDA

  5. 21 CFR 862.3360 - Drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Identification . A drug metabolizing enzyme genotyping system is a device intended for use in testing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from clinical samples to identify the presence or absence of human genotypic markers encoding a drug...

  6. [Progress in study on microbial enzymes for the metabolism of environmental refractory organic compounds].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ke; Pan, Renrui; Cai, Jingmin; Liu, Bin

    2009-12-01

    With the rapid development of socialization and industrialization, more and more pollutes were produced and discharged into natural environment. It is harmful to human health and life. These pollutes included refractory degradation organic compounds like PAHs, RDX, HMX, CL-20, PCBs and alkanes and their relative substances. Various compounds exist in nature with long life span. They are the most hazardous than other organics. The impact of pollutes can be treated by microorganisms. Results showed that it is an effective way for bioremediation of these pollutes with microbial metabolism or cometabolism. A few key enzymes, mainly oxidative and reductive enzymes, connected with the first step of initial degradation. Normally, enzymes grouped with other active fraction on the cell membrane are composed of one oxidative and reductive system for substrates oxidation. The metabolic intermediates can be used with TCA by microorganisms. The pathways of metabolism and the key enzymes were summarized. The further research topics should be focused on microorganism screen and its relative enzyme, pathway and mechanism of metabolism or cometabolism for such compounds degradation, and the result was hoped for the environmental protection. PMID:20352962

  7. Genetic Polymorphisms in Folate Metabolizing Enzymes and Risk of Gastroesophageal Cancers: A Potential Nutrient-Gene Interaction in Cancer Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lin; H. Li; W. Tan; X. Miao; L. Wang

    2007-01-01

    Folate deficiency has been associated with certain types of human cancer. We therefore investigated the effects of genetic polymorphisms in folate-metabolizing enzymes on the risk of developing gastroesophageal cancers in a Chinese population where folate deficiency is common. We found that functional polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS), two key enzymes involved in folate and methyl group

  8. Bedaquiline Metabolism: Enzymes and Novel Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Li, Feng; Lu, Jie; Liu, Shinlan; Dorko, Kenneth; Xie, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Bedaquiline is a recently approved drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Adverse cardiac and hepatic drug reactions to bedaquiline have been noted in clinical practice. The current study investigated bedaquiline metabolism in human hepatocytes using a metabolomic approach. Bedaquiline N-demethylation via CYP3A4 was confirmed as the major pathway in bedaquiline metabolism. In addition to CYP3A4, we found that both CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 contributed to bedaquiline N-demethylation. The Km values of CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 in bedaquiline N-demethylation were 13.1, 21.3, and 8.5 µM, respectively. We also identified a novel metabolic pathway of bedaquiline that produced an aldehyde intermediate. In summary, this study extended our knowledge of bedaquiline metabolism, which can be applied to predict and prevent drug–drug interactions and adverse drug reactions associated with bedaquiline. PMID:24513655

  9. Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 2; The Distribution of Selected Enzymes and Amino Acids in the Hippocampal Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O. H.; Krasnov, I.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Nemeth, P. M.; McDougal, D. B., Jr.; Choksi, R.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M. Y.; Manchester, J. K.; Pusateri, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Six key metabolic enzymes plus glutaminase and glutamate decarboxylase, as well as glutamate, aspartate and GABA, were measured in 11 regions of the hippocampal formation of synchronous, flight and tail suspension rats. Major differences were observed in the normal distribution patterns of each enzyme and amino acid, but no substantive effects of either microgravity or tail suspension on these patterns were clearly demonstrated.

  10. Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes in Italian populations.

    PubMed

    Serpe, Loredana; Canaparo, Roberto; Scordo, Maria Gabriella; Spina, Edoardo

    2015-06-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a major role in the biotransformation and subsequent elimination of most drugs and xenobiotics from the body. Both phase I and phase II enzymes are highly polymorphic. Inter-individual differences in genes coding for drug-metabolizing enzymes are important for understanding variability in drug response and for individualization of drug prescription. The prevalence of genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolism varies widely with ethnicity, and marked differences in the distribution of allelic variants of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes have been documented in populations of different racial origin. This review aimed to summarize the available studies on genetic polymorphisms associated with drug metabolism conducted in Italian populations and to compare the frequency of the various metabolizer phenotypes and most common variant alleles (and resulting genotypes) with corresponding values from other populations. Notably, published data are not extensive, and most studies were performed on relatively low numbers of individuals. In general, the frequency of polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes as well as in the investigated phase II enzymes in the Italian population was similar to values reported for other Caucasian populations. However, the prevalence of CYP2D6 gene duplication among Italians was found to be very high, confirming the higher frequency of CYP2D6 ultrarapid metabolizers in the Mediterranean area compared to Northern Europe. It is worth noting that a geographic gradient in the flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 polymorphism distribution was also seen, the Italian population showing higher similarity to other Mediterranean populations than to North Europeans. PMID:25527811

  11. Role of xenobiotic metabolic enzymes in cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhu S; Michael, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The cause of the majority of cancers is poorly understood albeit multifactorial. The ultimate consequence of etiological factors where defined is an alteration within the cellular genotype, which is manifested in the cells acquiring malignant phenotype. There are several environmental carcinogens that contribute to carcinogenesis. These carcinogens are metabolized by a large number of enzymes, including the cyto-chrome P 450 group, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), the uridine glucuronyl transferase (UGT) super-family, alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, sulphatases, etc. These enzymes can either inactivate carcinogens or in some cases generate reactive moieties that lead to carcinogenesis. This review summarises the available evidence regarding the role of xenobiotic metabolic enzymes and their role in cancer epidemiology. The available data and studies have identified correlates between expression of various metabolizing enzymes with risk of malignancies known to be induced by their substrates. The data may have relevance in one population but not for another for a specific malignancy and at times may be conflicting. We believe that with mature data in the future it may be possible to stratify patients by risk. PMID:19107436

  12. Key peptide processing enzymes are expressed by breast cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinlin Du; Brendan P. Keegan; William G. North

    2001-01-01

    The expression of the three key peptide processing enzyme families, represented by CPE, PAM, and PC1\\/3 plus PC2, were examined in MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cell lines. Both of these cell lines express vasopressin receptors as well as the vasopressin gene, but the processing of vasopressin gene-related proteins appears to be limited. Products of the expected size for, CPE,

  13. Bifidobacterial Enzymes Involved in the Metabolism of Human Milk Oligosaccharides123

    PubMed Central

    Kitaoka, Motomitsu

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal colonization of bifidobacteria is important for the health of infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been identified as growth factors for bifidobacteria. Recently, a bifidobacterial enzymatic system to metabolize HMO was identified. 1,3-?-Galactosyl-N-acetylhexosamine phosphorylase (GLNBP, EC 2.4.1.211), which catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of galacto-N-biose (GNB) (Gal?1?3GalNAc)] and lacto-N-biose I (LNB) (Gal?1?3GlcNAc), is a key enzyme to explain the metabolism of HMO. Infant-type bifidobacteria possess the intracellular pathway to specifically metabolize GNB and LNB (GNB/LNB pathway). Bifidobacterium bifidum possesses extracellular enzymes to liberate LNB from HMO. However, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis imports intact HMO to be hydrolyzed by intracellular enzymes. Bifidobacterial enzymes related to the metabolism of HMO are useful tools for preparing compounds related to HMO. For instance, LNB and GNB were produced from sucrose and GlcNAc/GalNAc in 1 pot using 4 bifidobacterial enzymes, including GLNBP. LNB is expected to be a selective bifidus factor for infant-type strains. PMID:22585921

  14. The metabolic pathway collection from EMP: the enzymes and metabolic pathways database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeni Selkov; Svetlana Basmanova; Terry Gaasterland; Igor Goryanin; Yuri Grechkin; Natalia Maltsev; Valeri Nenashev; Ross A. Overbeek; Elena Panyushkina; Lyudmila Pronevitch; Ilya Yunus

    1996-01-01

    The Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways database (EMP) is an encoding of the contents of over 10 000 original publications on the topics of enzymology and metab- olism. This large body of information has been transformed into a queryable database. An extraction of over 1800 pictorial representations of metabolic pathways from this collection is freely available on the World Wide Web.

  15. Maternal hypothyroxinemia disrupts neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes in developing brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I M Evans; A K Sinha; M R Pickard; P R Edwards; A J Leonard; R P Ekins

    1999-01-01

    Maternal thyroid status influences early brain development and, consequently, cognitive and motor function in humans and rats. The biochemical targets of maternal thyroid hormone (TH) action in fetal brain remain poorly defined. A partially thyroidectomized rat dam model was therefore used to investigate the influence of maternal hypothyroxinemia on the specific activities of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes in

  16. Filament formation by metabolic enzymes is a specific adaptation to an advanced state of cellular starvation

    PubMed Central

    Petrovska, Ivana; Nüske, Elisabeth; Munder, Matthias C; Kulasegaran, Gayathrie; Malinovska, Liliana; Kroschwald, Sonja; Richter, Doris; Fahmy, Karim; Gibson, Kimberley; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Simon

    2014-01-01

    One of the key questions in biology is how the metabolism of a cell responds to changes in the environment. In budding yeast, starvation causes a drop in intracellular pH, but the functional role of this pH change is not well understood. Here, we show that the enzyme glutamine synthetase (Gln1) forms filaments at low pH and that filament formation leads to enzymatic inactivation. Filament formation by Gln1 is a highly cooperative process, strongly dependent on macromolecular crowding, and involves back-to-back stacking of cylindrical homo-decamers into filaments that associate laterally to form higher order fibrils. Other metabolic enzymes also assemble into filaments at low pH. Hence, we propose that filament formation is a general mechanism to inactivate and store key metabolic enzymes during a state of advanced cellular starvation. These findings have broad implications for understanding the interplay between nutritional stress, the metabolism and the physical organization of a cell. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02409.001 PMID:24771766

  17. Filament formation by metabolic enzymes is a specific adaptation to an advanced state of cellular starvation.

    PubMed

    Petrovska, Ivana; Nüske, Elisabeth; Munder, Matthias C; Kulasegaran, Gayathrie; Malinovska, Liliana; Kroschwald, Sonja; Richter, Doris; Fahmy, Karim; Gibson, Kimberley; Verbavatz, Jean-Marc; Alberti, Simon

    2014-04-25

    One of the key questions in biology is how the metabolism of a cell responds to changes in the environment. In budding yeast, starvation causes a drop in intracellular pH, but the functional role of this pH change is not well understood. Here, we show that the enzyme glutamine synthetase (Gln1) forms filaments at low pH and that filament formation leads to enzymatic inactivation. Filament formation by Gln1 is a highly cooperative process, strongly dependent on macromolecular crowding, and involves back-to-back stacking of cylindrical homo-decamers into filaments that associate laterally to form higher order fibrils. Other metabolic enzymes also assemble into filaments at low pH. Hence, we propose that filament formation is a general mechanism to inactivate and store key metabolic enzymes during a state of advanced cellular starvation. These findings have broad implications for understanding the interplay between nutritional stress, the metabolism and the physical organization of a cell. PMID:24771766

  18. Inhibitors of testosterone biosynthetic and metabolic activation enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Leping; Su, Zhi-Jian; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2011-01-01

    The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17?-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3) for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5?-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and 2 (SRD5A2) in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone) and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz) and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol). This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes. PMID:22138857

  19. Dynamic Reorganization of Metabolic Enzymes into Intracellular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Jeremy D.; Zhao, Alice; Ellington, Andrew D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Both focused and large-scale cell biological and biochemical studies have revealed that hundreds of metabolic enzymes across diverse organisms form large intracellular bodies. These proteinaceous bodies range in form from fibers and intracellular foci—such as those formed by enzymes of nitrogen and carbon utilization and of nucleotide biosynthesis—to high-density packings inside bacterial microcompartments and eukaryotic microbodies. Although many enzymes clearly form functional mega-assemblies, it is not yet clear for many recently discovered cases whether they represent functional entities, storage bodies, or aggregates. In this article, we survey intracellular protein bodies formed by metabolic enzymes, asking when and why such bodies form and what their formation implies for the functionality—and dysfunctionality—of the enzymes that comprise them. The panoply of intracellular protein bodies also raises interesting questions regarding their evolution and maintenance within cells. We speculate on models for how such structures form in the first place and why they may be inevitable. PMID:23057741

  20. Chemoprotective activity of boldine: modulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kubínová, R; Machala, M; Minksová, K; Neca, J; Suchý, V

    2001-03-01

    Possible chemoprotective effects of the naturally occurring alkaloid boldine, a major alkaloid of boldo (Peumus boldus Mol.) leaves and bark, including in vitro modulations of drug-metabolizing enzymes in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1 cell line and mouse hepatic microsomes, were investigated. Boldine manifested inhibition activity on hepatic microsomal CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase activities and stimulated glutathione S-transferase activity in Hepa-1 cells. In addition to the known antioxidant activity, boldine could decrease the metabolic activation of other xenobiotics including chemical mutagens. PMID:11265593

  1. The transferome of metabolic genes explored: analysis of the horizontal transfer of enzyme encoding genes in unicellular eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, John W; McConkey, Glenn A; Westhead, David R

    2009-01-01

    Background Metabolic networks are responsible for many essential cellular processes, and exhibit a high level of evolutionary conservation from bacteria to eukaryotes. If genes encoding metabolic enzymes are horizontally transferred and are advantageous, they are likely to become fixed. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a key role in prokaryotic evolution and its importance in eukaryotes is increasingly evident. High levels of endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) accompanied the establishment of plastids and mitochondria, and more recent events have allowed further acquisition of bacterial genes. Here, we present the first comprehensive multi-species analysis of E/HGT of genes encoding metabolic enzymes from bacteria to unicellular eukaryotes. Results The phylogenetic trees of 2,257 metabolic enzymes were used to make E/HGT assertions in ten groups of unicellular eukaryotes, revealing the sources and metabolic processes of the transferred genes. Analyses revealed a preference for enzymes encoded by genes gained through horizontal and endosymbiotic transfers to be connected in the metabolic network. Enrichment in particular functional classes was particularly revealing: alongside plastid related processes and carbohydrate metabolism, this highlighted a number of pathways in eukaryotic parasites that are rich in enzymes encoded by transferred genes, and potentially key to pathogenicity. The plant parasites Phytophthora were discovered to have a potential pathway for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis of E/HGT origin not seen before in eukaryotes outside the Plantae. Conclusions The number of enzymes encoded by genes gained through E/HGT has been established, providing insight into functional gain during the evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. In eukaryotic parasites, genes encoding enzymes that have been gained through horizontal transfer may be attractive drug targets if they are part of processes not present in the host, or are significantly diverged from equivalent host enzymes. PMID:19368726

  2. Effects of lignans on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuk Hyun Shin; Won Sick Woo; Jung Yun Lee; Yong Bong Han

    1990-01-01

    The effects of lignans, related to macelignan, on hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme (DME) activity were evaluated\\u000a to elucidate the structure-activity relationship in mice and rats. The compounds carrying the methylenedioxyphenyl nucleus\\u000a were found to be the most potent among compounds tested; which not only produced a marked inhibition of DME with a single\\u000a dose but a significant induction with repeated

  3. Role of Sphingolipids and Metabolizing Enzymes in Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kitatani, Kazuyuki; Taniguchi, Makoto; Okazaki, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids such as ceramide, sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingomyelin have been emerging as bioactive lipids since ceramide was reported to play a role in human leukemia HL-60 cell differentiation and death. Recently, it is well-known that ceramide acts as an inducer of cell death, that sphingomyelin works as a regulator for microdomain function of the cell membrane, and that sphingosine-1-phosphate plays a role in cell survival/proliferation. The lipids are metabolized by the specific enzymes, and each metabolite could be again returned to the original form by the reverse action of the different enzyme or after a long journey of many metabolizing/synthesizing pathways. In addition, the metabolites may serve as reciprocal bio-modulators like the rheostat between ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate. Therefore, the change of lipid amount in the cells, the subcellular localization and the downstream signal in a specific subcellular organelle should be clarified to understand the pathobiological significance of sphingolipids when extracellular stimulation induces a diverse of cell functions such as cell death, proliferation and migration. In this review, we focus on how sphingolipids and their metabolizing enzymes cooperatively exert their function in proliferation, migration, autophagy and death of hematopoetic cells, and discuss the way developing a novel therapeutic device through the regulation of sphingolipids for effectively inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing cell death in hematological malignancies such as leukemia, malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma. PMID:25997737

  4. Endoribonucleases--enzymes gaining spotlight in mRNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Wai Ming; Barnes, Tavish; Lee, Chow H

    2010-02-01

    The efficient turnover of messenger RNA represents an important mechanism that allows the cell to control gene expression. Until recently, the mechanism of mRNA decay was mainly attributed to exonucleases, comprising enzymes that degrade RNAs from the ends of the molecules. This article summarizes the endoribonucleases, comprising enzymes that cleave RNA molecules internally, which were identified in more recent years in eukaryotic mRNA metabolism. Endoribonucleases have received little attention in the past, based on the difficulty in their identification and a lack of understanding of their physiological significance. This review aims to compare the similarities and differences among this group of enzymes, as well as their known cellular functions. Despite the many differences in protein structure, and thus difficulties in identifying them based on amino acid sequence, most endoribonucleases possess essential cellular functions and have been shown to play an important role in mRNA turnover. PMID:19968858

  5. Elucidation of metabolic pathways from enzyme classification data.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Andrew G; Tipton, Keith F

    2014-01-01

    The IUBMB Enzyme List is widely used by other databases as a source for avoiding ambiguity in the recognition of enzymes as catalytic entities. However, it was not designed for metabolic pathway tracing, which has become increasingly important in systems biology. A Reactions Database has been created from the material in the Enzyme List to allow reactions to be searched by substrate/product, and pathways to be traced from any selected starting/seed substrate. An extensive synonym glossary allows searches by many of the alternative names, including accepted abbreviations, by which a chemical compound may be known. This database was necessary for the development of the application Reaction Explorer ( http://www.reaction-explorer.org ), which was written in Real Studio ( http://www.realsoftware.com/realstudio/ ) to search the Reactions Database and draw metabolic pathways from reactions selected by the user. Having input the name of the starting compound (the "seed"), the user is presented with a list of all reactions containing that compound and then selects the product of interest as the next point on the ensuing graph. The pathway diagram is then generated as the process iterates. A contextual menu is provided, which allows the user: (1) to remove a compound from the graph, along with all associated links; (2) to search the reactions database again for additional reactions involving the compound; (3) to search for the compound within the Enzyme List. PMID:24218216

  6. Induction of Lipid Metabolic Enzymes during the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Karin J.; Su, Pei; Brglez, Irena; Boss, Wendy F.; Dewey, Ralph E.; Boston, Rebecca S.

    2001-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a signal transduction pathway activated by the perturbation of normal ER metabolism. We used the maize (Zea mays) floury-2 (fl2) mutant and soybean (Glycine max) suspension cultures treated with tunicamycin (Tm) to investigate the ER stress response as it relates to phospholipid metabolism in plants. Four key phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes, including DG kinase and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-phosphate 5-kinase were up-regulated in the fl2 mutant, specifically in protein body fractions where the mutation has its greatest effect. The third up-regulated enzyme, choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, was regulated by fl2 gene dosage and developmental signals. Elevated accumulation of the fourth enzyme, PI 4-kinase, was observed in the fl2 endosperm and soybean cells treated with Tm. The activation of these phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes was accompanied by alterations in membrane lipid synthesis and accumulation. The fl2 mutant exhibited increased PI content in protein body membranes at 18 d after pollination and more than 3-fold higher triacylglycerol accumulation in the endosperm by 36 d after pollination. Incorporation of radiolabeled acetate into phospholipids in soybean culture cells increased by about 30% with Tm treatment. The coordinated regulation of ER stress related proteins and multiple components of phospholipid biosynthesis is consistent with signaling through a common pathway. We postulate that the plant ER stress response has an important role in general plant metabolism, and more specifically in integrating the synthesis of protein and lipid reserves to allow proper seed formation. PMID:11351090

  7. Effect of dietary lipid on drug-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Wade, A E; Norred, W P

    1976-11-01

    Male rats fed diet containing 3% corn oil for 3 weeks metabolized hexobarbital, aniline and heptachlor significantly faster than those fed fat-free diet. Half-maximal changes in aniline hydroxylation occurred in rats fed corn oil at approximately 0.1% of calories, whereas half-maximal changes in hexobarbital oxidase and heptachlor epoxidase occurred in rats fed corn oil at 1 to 1.5% of calories. Kinetic measurements of the drug-metabolizing enzyme system in washed microsomes revealed that maximal rate of aniline and ethylmorphine metabolism in male rats occurred with 3% corn oil diet, whereas maximal rate for hexobarbital occurred with 10% corn oil diet. In female rats maximal aniline hydroxylation occurred in rats receiving 10% corn oil diet. No alterations in Km for these reactions were observed in male or female rats fed 3% corn oil but were increased in rats fed 10% corn oil for those substrates whose maximal rate of metabolism was also increased (i.e., hexobarbital in males and aniline in females). Thus qualitative changes in microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes may occur in rats ingesting diets containing 10% corn oil. Associated with the increased drug metabolism in corn oil-fed rats were increases in concentration of cytochrome P-450 in male and female rats, decreased sleeping time in male rats, and decreased glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity of male and female rats. No change in NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity was observed. Spectral binding measurements revealed increases in substrate binding associated with increased metabolism, most of which could be ascribed to the increases in cytochrome P-450. The spectral dissociation constant for these interactions between drug and oxidized cytochrome P-450 was unaltered with the exception that it was decreased in female rats fed 10% corn oil diet. Evidence of qualitative changes in the enzymes of endoplasmic reticulum was limited to those associated with an altered fatty acid composition of phospholipid and changes in the ethylisocyanide difference spectrum of reduced microsomes. PMID:824158

  8. The effect of enzyme induction on diazepam metabolism in man.

    PubMed Central

    Ohnhaus, E E; Park, B K; Colombo, J P; Heizmann, P

    1979-01-01

    1 The elimination and metabolism of diazepam in man was investigated following the induction of the liver microsomal enzyme system by antipyrine. 2 Seven healthy volunteers were given 1200 mg antipyrine as an inducing agent for a period of 14 days. Before and after the induction period the elimination of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam was measured in the plasma by gaschromatography. As parameters of liver microsomal enzyme activity, antipyrine elimination and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase in the plasma, D-glucaric acid and 6-beta-hydroxycortisol urinary excretion were measured on both occasions. 3 Following the induction period most parameters of microsomal enzyme activity measured were significantly changed indicating an increase of the microsomal enzyme system. The elimination of diazepam was significantly altered having a half-life of 37 h before and 18 h afterwards combined with a significant increase in total body clearance after the induction period, although the volume of distribution remained unaltered. The formation of the main metabolite N-desmethyldiazepam was not changed, but its elimination was increased having a half-life of 139 or 58 h respectively. 4 The elimination of unchanged diazepam and desmethyldiazepam is significantly increased by the induction of the liver microsomal enzyme system using antipyrine as an inducing agent in healthy volunteers, which might be important under certain clinical conditions. PMID:42427

  9. Characterization of Key Glycolytic and Oxidative Enzymes in Steinernema carpocapsae

    PubMed Central

    Shih, J. M. M.; Platzer, E. G.; Thompson, S. N.; Carroll, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    The enzyme activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH, NADP-specific), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and fructose-l,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) were studied in the third-stage juveniles of Steinernema carpocapsae. Reaction requirements, pH optima, substrate and cofactor kinetic constants were similar to those reported previously from other parasitic helminths with the exception of LDH, which was unstable and could not be characterized for specific activity and kinetic constants. The respective pH optima were 7.5 for ICDH, 8.8 for MDH, 6.5 for PEPCK, 7.3 for PFK, 7.2 for PK, and 7.5 for FBPase. The specific activities for ICDH, MDH, PEPCK, PFK, PK, and FBPase at pH 7.5 were 4.8, 1,300, 22, 25, 35, and 6.8 (nmoles substrate ? min?ą ? mg protein?ą), respectively. In summary, the infective juveniles of S. carpocapsae display the metabolism typical of a facultative aerobe. PMID:19277161

  10. [Genes and enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens].

    PubMed

    Trédaniel, J; Zalcman, G; Douriez, E

    1995-01-01

    Most chemical carcinogens are not by themselves reactive. They are in fact procarcinogens and, before becoming toxic, they must undergo some metabolic transformations, directed by enzymatic systems under genetic control. Because of this system of defence, xenobiotics undergo in vivo a more or less sophisticated metabolic process that usually involved at least two phases: after activation phase (or "functionalization"), then a conjugation phase that allows elimination of the processed molecule. The initial step is in most cases on oxidation by P450 cytochroms. The conjugation step may involve a molecule of sulfate (sulfotransferase), of glucuronate (glucuronyltransferase) or of glutathione (glutathione-S-transferase). In man, large interindividual variations in the the expression in these enzymes have been demonstrated, probably depending on a genetic polymorphism. They are responsible for variations in individual susceptibility to carcinogens. PMID:7626862

  11. Metabolic modeling of muscle metabolism identifies key reactions linked to insulin resistance phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Nogiec, Christopher; Burkart, Alison; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M.; Lerin, Carles; Kasif, Simon; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dysregulated muscle metabolism is a cardinal feature of human insulin resistance (IR) and associated diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, specific reactions contributing to abnormal energetics and metabolic inflexibility in IR are unknown. Methods We utilize flux balance computational modeling to develop the first systems-level analysis of IR metabolism in fasted and fed states, and varying nutrient conditions. We systematically perturb the metabolic network to identify reactions that reproduce key features of IR-linked metabolism. Results While reduced glucose uptake is a major hallmark of IR, model-based reductions in either extracellular glucose availability or uptake do not alter metabolic flexibility, and thus are not sufficient to fully recapitulate IR-linked metabolism. Moreover, experimentally-reduced flux through single reactions does not reproduce key features of IR-linked metabolism. However, dual knockdowns of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), in combination with reduced lipid uptake or lipid/amino acid oxidation (ETFDH), does reduce ATP synthesis, TCA cycle flux, and metabolic flexibility. Experimental validation demonstrates robust impact of dual knockdowns in PDH/ETFDH on cellular energetics and TCA cycle flux in cultured myocytes. Parallel analysis of transcriptomic and metabolomics data in humans with IR and T2D demonstrates downregulation of PDH subunits and upregulation of its inhibitory kinase PDK4, both of which would be predicted to decrease PDH flux, concordant with the model. Conclusions Our results indicate that complex interactions between multiple biochemical reactions contribute to metabolic perturbations observed in human IR, and that the PDH complex plays a key role in these metabolic phenotypes. PMID:25737951

  12. The enzymes of biotin dependent CO2 metabolism: What structures reveal about

    E-print Network

    Holden, Hazel

    REVIEW The enzymes of biotin dependent CO2 metabolism: What structures reveal about their reaction cofactor involved in carbon dioxide metabolism. Indeed, biotin- dependent enzymes are ubiquitous in nature. It is the ureido ring that functions as the CO2 carrier. A complete understanding of biotin-dependent enzymes

  13. Evolution of Domain Architectures and Catalytic Functions of Enzymes in Metabolic Systems

    E-print Network

    Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    Evolution of Domain Architectures and Catalytic Functions of Enzymes in Metabolic Systems Summit architectures and catalytic functions of enzymes constitute the centerpieces of a metabolic network. These types. In contrast, prokaryotic enzymes become more versatile by catalyzing multiple reactions with similar chemical

  14. The RNA world and the origin of metabolic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ralser, Markus

    2014-08-01

    An RNA world has been placed centre stage for explaining the origin of life. Indeed, RNA is the most plausible molecule able to form both a (self)-replicator and to inherit information, necessities for initiating genetics. However, in parallel with self-replication, the proto-organism had to obtain the ability to catalyse supply of its chemical constituents, including the ribonucleotide metabolites required to replicate RNA. Although the possibility of an RNA-catalysed metabolic network has been considered, it is to be questioned whether RNA molecules, at least on their own, possess the required catalytic capacities. An alternative scenario for the origin of metabolism involves chemical reactions that are based on environmental catalysts. Recently, we described a non-enzymatic glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway-like reactions catalysed by metal ions [mainly Fe(II)] and phosphate, simple inorganic molecules abundantly found in Archaean sediments. While the RNA world can serve to explain the origin of genetics, the origin of the metabolic network might thus date back to constraints of environmental chemistry. Interestingly, considering a metal-catalysed origin of metabolism gives rise to an attractive hypothesis about how the first enzymes could have formed: simple RNA or (poly)peptide molecules could have bound the metal ions, and thus increased their solubility, concentration and accessibility. In a second step, this would have allowed substrate specificity to evolve. PMID:25109990

  15. Carbohydrate-active enzymes exemplify entropic principles in metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kartal, Önder; Mahlow, Sebastian; Skupin, Alexander; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Glycans comprise ubiquitous and essential biopolymers, which usually occur as highly diverse mixtures. The myriad different structures are generated by a limited number of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes), which are unusual in that they catalyze multiple reactions by being relatively unspecific with respect to substrate size. Existing experimental and theoretical descriptions of CAZyme-mediated reaction systems neither comprehensively explain observed action patterns nor suggest biological functions of polydisperse pools in metabolism. Here, we overcome these limitations with a novel theoretical description of this important class of biological systems in which the mixing entropy of polydisperse pools emerges as an important system variable. In vitro assays of three CAZymes essential for central carbon metabolism confirm the power of our approach to predict equilibrium distributions and non-equilibrium dynamics. A computational study of the turnover of the soluble heteroglycan pool exemplifies how entropy-driven reactions establish a metabolic buffer in vivo that attenuates fluctuations in carbohydrate availability. We argue that this interplay between energy- and entropy-driven processes represents an important regulatory design principle of metabolic systems. PMID:22027553

  16. Tea consumption modulates hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Maliakal, P P; Coville, P F; Wanwimolruk, S

    2001-04-01

    The antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities of green tea and its polyphenols have been reported. As bioactivation of the precarcinogens and detoxification of ultimate carcinogens are mainly carried out by hepatic metabolizing enzymes, we have investigated the modulation of these enzyme activities subsequent to tea consumption in rats. Female Wistar rats were divided into eight groups (n = 5). Six groups were given aqueous solutions (2%, w/v) of six different teas (New Zealand green tea, Australian green tea, Java green tea, Dragon green tea, Gunpowder green tea or English Breakfast black tea) as the sole source of fluid. One group was given a standard green tea extract (0.5%, w/v) while the control group had free access to water. At the end of four-weeks treatment, different cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoform and phase II enzyme activities were determined by incubation of the liver microsomes or cytosols with appropriate substrates. CYP 1A2 activity was markedly increased in all the tea treatment groups (P < 0.05). CYP 1A1 activity was increased significantly in most of the groups except for the Madura, Gunpowder, and Java green tea-treatment groups. Cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase activity was significantly increased (P< 0.05) in the New Zealand, Gunpowder, and Java green tea-treatment groups. The microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity remained unchanged or was moderately increased in most of the groups. The balance between the phase I carcinogen-activating enzymes and the phase II detoxifying enzymes could be important in determining the risk of developing chemically-induced cancer. PMID:11341376

  17. Pharmacogenetics of drug-metabolizing enzymes in US Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Duconge, Jorge; Cadilla, Carmen L.; Ruańo, Gualberto

    2015-01-01

    Although the Hispanic population is continuously growing in the United States, they are underrepresented in pharmacogenetic studies. This review addresses the need for compiling available pharmacogenetic data in US Hispanics, discussing the prevalence of clinically relevant polymorphisms in pharmacogenes encoding for drug-metabolizing enzymes. CYP3A5*3 (0.245–0.867) showed the largest frequency in a US Hispanic population. A higher prevalence of CYP2C9*3, CYP2C19*4, and UGT2B7 IVS1+985 A>Gwas observed in US Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic populations. We found interethnic and intraethnic variability in frequencies of genetic polymorphisms for metabolizing enzymes, which highlights the need to define the ancestries of participants in pharmacogenetic studies. New approaches should be integrated in experimental designs to gain knowledge about the clinical relevance of the unique combination of genetic variants occurring in this admixed population. Ethnic subgroups in the US Hispanic population may harbor variants that might be part of multiple causative loci or in linkage-disequilibrium with functional variants. Pharmacogenetic studies in Hispanics should not be limited to ascertain commonly studied polymorphisms that were originally identified in their parental populations. The success of the Personalized Medicine paradigm will depend on recognizing genetic diversity between and within US Hispanics and the uniqueness of their genetic backgrounds. PMID:25431893

  18. Flavanone 3beta-hydroxylases from rice: key enzymes for favonol and anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Ho; Lee, Yoon Jung; Kim, Bong Gyu; Lim, Yoongho; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2008-04-30

    Flavanone 3beta-hydroxylases (F3H) are key enzymes in the synthesis of flavonol and anthocyanin. In this study, three F3H cDNAs from Oryza sativa (OsF3H-1 approximately 3) were cloned by RT-PCR and expressed in E. coli as gluthatione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins. The purified recombinant OsF3Hs used flavanone, naringenin and eriodictyol as substrates. The reaction products with naringen and eriodictyol were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to be dihydrokaempferol and taxifolin, respectively. OsF3H-1 had the highest enzymatic activity whereas the overall expression of OsF3H-2 was highest in all tissues except seeds. Flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase could be a useful target for flavonoid metabolic engineering in rice. PMID:18413994

  19. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the canine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Maier, K L; Wippermann, U; Leuschel, L; Josten, M; Pflugmacher, S; Schröder, P; Sandermann, H; Takenaka, S; Ziesenis, A; Heyder, J

    1999-01-01

    Airway epithelial surface is the primary target of airborne pollutants. To estimate the distribution of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the respiratory tract of dogs, epithelia from different airway sites of four animals were analyzed for metabolism of sulfite (sulfite oxidase) and formaldehyde (formaldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase). In addition, glutathione S-transferases were assayed using several model substrates. Enzyme activities were compared with those found in liver parenchyma. The activity of sulfite oxidase was found to be comparable in nose, trachea, and proximal and medium bronchi, but appeared to be lower in lung parenchyma of most animals. In contrast, hepatic sulfite oxidase activity of these animals was substantially higher compared to that in airway epithelia. The activity of glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) appeared to be highest in nose and lowest in distal bronchi, lung, and liver parenchyma. The distribution pattern of the glutathione-independent aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldDH) in the respiratory tract was different from that of FDH. Levels of AldDH were about 5- to 10-fold lower than those of FDH, suggesting that AldDH is of minor importance for pulmonary formaldehyde detoxification. With regard to ethanol detoxification by a class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), no measurable enzyme activity could be detected at most respiratory sites contrary to the high activity found in liver parenchyma. Regarding glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), different distributions of enzyme activities were found in the large and small airways when using three substrates. The 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB)-related activities in the cytosolic fraction of the upper (nose, trachea) and lower airways (proximal, medium and distal bronchi) were higher than those in the microsomal fraction. Interestingly, there was no difference between CDNB-related activities in the cytosolic and microsomal fraction of the liver. Highest cytosolic activities were found in the nose, and were comparable to those detected in the liver parenchyma. The cytosolic 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB)-related activities in the nose, proximal bronchi, and lung parenchyma were appeared to be markedly higher than those in trachea and medium and distal bronchi, while the microsomal activities were not detectable at most respiratory sites. In contrast, distinctly higher activities were measured in both fractions of liver tissue. Cytosolic 1, 2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)-propane (EPNP)-related activities were present in upper and lower airways including lung parenchyma at comparable levels, while in liver tissue the mean activities were distinctly lower. No EPNP-related activities were found in the microsomal fractions. In conclusion, most xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes investigated in this study could be detected in epithelia of various respiratory sites. The most outstanding result revealed higher levels of FDH activity in the nose and downstream to the medium bronchi in comparison to those found in the small airways, lung, and liver tissue. Similarly, the EPNP-related GST exhibited a distinctly higher activity at all respiratory sites compared to the activity in liver tissue, suggesting a different regulation of this enzyme in lung and liver. PMID:10380157

  20. Balancing mitochondrial redox signaling: a key point in metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Leloup, Corinne; Casteilla, Louis; Carričre, Audrey; Galinier, Anne; Benani, Alexandre; Carneiro, Lionel; Pénicaud, Luc

    2011-02-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) have emerged as signaling molecules in physiology primarily as a result of studies of uncoupling mechanisms in mitochondrial respiration. The discovery that this mechanism negatively regulates mROS generation in many cell types has drawn the attention of the scientific community to the pathological consequences of excess mROS production. From reports of the energetic fluxes in cells grown under normal conditions, the hypothesis that mROS are an integrated physiological signal of the metabolic status of the cell has emerged. Here, we consider recent studies that support this point of view in two key nutrient sensors of the body, beta cells and the hypothalamus, which are the main coordinators of endocrine and nervous controls of energy metabolism and adipose tissue, which is of paramount importance in controlling body weight and, therefore, the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this context, finely balanced mROS production may be at the core of proper metabolic maintenance, and unbalanced mROS production, which is largely documented, might be an important trigger of metabolic disorders. PMID:20977349

  1. Purification, Overproduction, and Partial Characterization of  -RFAP Synthase, a Key Enzyme in the Methanopterin Biosynthesis Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W. Scott; Madeline E. Rasche

    2002-01-01

    Methanopterin is a folate analog involved in the C1 metabolism of methanogenic archaea, sulfate-reducing archaea, and methylotrophic bacteria. Although a pathway for methanopterin biosynthesis has been described in methanogens, little is known about the enzymes and genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme -ribofuranosylaminobenzene 5-phosphate synthase (-RFAP synthase) catalyzes the first unique step to be identified in the pathway

  2. Approaches to biosynthesis of salidroside and its key metabolic enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling-ling Shi; Li Wang; Yan-xia Zhang; Yu-jun Liu

    2007-01-01

    As a main component of efficiency in Rhodiola plants, salidroside is a promising environmental acclamation medicine and possesses specific medical properties against symptoms\\u000a of fatigue, old age, microwave radiation, viral infections and tumors. Salidroside plays important roles, especially in military,\\u000a aerospace, sport and healthcare medicine and has, therefore, recently, drawn more and closer attention. This article probes\\u000a mainly into the

  3. Herb-drug interactions: focus on metabolic enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Hee; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Yoon Gyoon

    2011-11-01

    As the uses of herbal medicines from traditional natural products are increased, the need for pharmacokinetic studies and relevant data are also increased for safe pharmacotherapy. The market entry for the traditional herbal medicine is easier compared with that for synthetic drugs because of a lower regulatory barrier. Thus, the exact mechanisms for the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of active components in herbal medicines and the potential herb-drug interactions are not always fully understood. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in pharmacokinetic studies of herbal remedies and relevant data of commonly used herbal remedies are accumulating in this field. In this review, the effects of nine botanicals (ginkgo, green tea, grapes, licorice, saw palmetto, garlic milk thistle, ginseng and St. John's wort) on metabolic enzymes and transporters affecting absorption and disposition of herbal products are summarized. The source of samples (extracts and individual components), the species (human and animal) and in vivo and in vitro systems were separately reviewed for a better understanding of herb-drug interactions. PMID:22139685

  4. Carbohydrate Content and Enzyme Metabolism in Developing Canola Siliques.

    PubMed Central

    King, S. P.; Lunn, J. E.; Furbank, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Little biochemical information is available on carbohydrate metabolism in developing canola (Brassica napus L.) silique (pod) wall and seed tissues. This research examines the carbohydrate contents and sucrose (Suc) metabolic enzyme activities in different aged silique wall and seed tissues during oil filling. The silique wall partitioned photosynthate into Suc over starch and predominantly accumulated hexose. The silique wall hexose content and soluble acid invertase activity rapidly fell as embryos progressed from the early- to late-cotyledon developmental stages. A similar trend was not evident for alkaline invertase, Suc synthase (SuSy), and Suc-phosphate synthase. Silique wall SuSy activities were much higher than source leaves at all times and may serve to supply the substrate for secondary cell wall thickening. In young seeds starch was the predominant accumulated carbohydrate over the sampled developmental range. Seed hexose levels dropped as embryos developed from the early- to midcotyledon stage. Hexose and starch were localized to the testa or liquid endosperm, whereas Suc was evenly distributed among seed components. With the switch to oil accumulation, seed SuSy activity increased by 3.6-fold and soluble acid invertase activity decreased by 76%. These data provide valuable baseline knowledge for the genetic manipulation of canola seed carbon partitioning. PMID:12223695

  5. Ammonium Metabolism Enzymes Aid Helicobacter pylori Acid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Erica F.

    2014-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori possesses a highly active urease to support acid tolerance. Urea hydrolysis occurs inside the cytoplasm, resulting in the production of NH3 that is immediately protonated to form NH4+. This ammonium must be metabolized or effluxed because its presence within the cell is counterproductive to the goal of raising pH while maintaining a viable proton motive force (PMF). Two compatible hypotheses for mitigating intracellular ammonium toxicity include (i) the exit of protonated ammonium outward via the UreI permease, which was shown to facilitate diffusion of both urea and ammonium, and/or (ii) the assimilation of this ammonium, which is supported by evidence that H. pylori assimilates urea nitrogen into its amino acid pools. We investigated the second hypothesis by constructing strains with altered expression of the ammonium-assimilating enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and the ammonium-evolving periplasmic enzymes glutaminase (Ggt) and asparaginase (AsnB). H. pylori strains expressing elevated levels of either GS or GDH are more acid tolerant than the wild type, exhibit enhanced ammonium production, and are able to alkalize the medium faster than the wild type. Strains lacking the genes for either Ggt or AsnB are acid sensitive, have 8-fold-lower urea-dependent ammonium production, and are more acid sensitive than the parent. Additionally, we found that purified H. pylori GS produces glutamine in the presence of Mg2+ at a rate similar to that of unadenylated Escherichia coli GS. These data reveal that all four enzymes contribute to whole-cell acid resistance in H. pylori and are likely important for assimilation and/or efflux of urea-derived ammonium. PMID:24936052

  6. Genetic Polymorphism of Folate and Methionine Metabolizing Enzymes and their Susceptibility to Malignant Lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EMMAD EZZAT HABIB; MONA AZIZ; MAGD KOTB

    2005-01-01

    Background: Folate and methionine metabolism is involved in DNA synthesis and methylation. Polymor- phisms in the genes of folate metabolism enzymes have been associated with some forms of cancer. In the present study, 2 polymorphisms were evaluated for a folate met- abolic enzyme, methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and one was evaluated for methionine synthase (MS). The 2 polymorphisms MTHFR 677 C?T

  7. Comparison of the Small Molecule Metabolic Enzymes of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Jardine; Julian Gough; Cyrus Chothia; Sarah A. Teichmann

    2002-01-01

    The comparison of the small molecule metabolism pathways in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) shows that 271 enzymes are common to both organisms. These common enzymes involve 384 gene products in E. coli and 390 in yeast, which are between one half and two thirds of the gene products of small molecule metabolism in E. coli and yeast, respectively.

  8. Monitoring the Metabolic Status of Geobacter Species in Contaminated Groundwater by Quantifying Key Metabolic Proteins with Geobacter-Specific Antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jiae; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Miletto, Marzia; Lovley, Derek R.

    2011-01-01

    Simple and inexpensive methods for assessing the metabolic status and bioremediation activities of subsurface microorganisms are required before bioremediation practitioners will adopt molecular diagnosis of the bioremediation community as a routine practice for guiding the development of bioremediation strategies. Quantifying gene transcripts can diagnose important aspects of microbial physiology during bioremediation but is technically challenging and does not account for the impact of translational modifications on protein abundance. An alternative strategy is to directly quantify the abundance of key proteins that might be diagnostic of physiological state. To evaluate this strategy, an antibody-based quantification approach was developed to investigate subsurface Geobacter communities. The abundance of citrate synthase corresponded with rates of metabolism of Geobacter bemidjiensis in chemostat cultures. During in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater the quantity of Geobacter citrate synthase increased with the addition of acetate to the groundwater and decreased when acetate amendments stopped. The abundance of the nitrogen-fixation protein, NifD, increased as ammonium became less available in the groundwater and then declined when ammonium concentrations increased. In a petroleum-contaminated aquifer, the abundance of BamB, an enzyme subunit involved in the anaerobic degradation of mono-aromatic compounds by Geobacter species, increased in zones in which Geobacter were expected to play an important role in aromatic hydrocarbon degradation. These results suggest that antibody-based detection of key metabolic proteins, which should be readily adaptable to standardized kits, may be a feasible method for diagnosing the metabolic state of microbial communities responsible for bioremediation, aiding in the rational design of bioremediation strategies. PMID:21551286

  9. Comparative metabolic profiling reveals the key role of amino acids metabolism in the rapamycin overproduction by Streptomyces hygroscopicus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baohua; Liu, Jiao; Liu, Huanhuan; Huang, Di; Wen, Jianping

    2015-06-01

    Rapamycin is an important natural macrolide antibiotic with antifungal, immunosuppressive and anticancer activity produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. In this study, a mutant strain obtained by ultraviolet mutagenesis displayed higher rapamycin production capacity compared to the wild-type S. hygroscopicus ATCC 29253. To gain insights into the mechanism of rapamycin overproduction, comparative metabolic profiling between the wild-type and mutant strain was performed. A total of 86 metabolites were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Pattern recognition methods, including principal component analysis, partial least squares and partial least squares discriminant analysis, were employed to determine the key biomarkers. The results showed that 22 potential biomarkers were closely associated with the increase of rapamycin production and the tremendous metabolic difference was observed between the two strains. Furthermore, metabolic pathway analysis revealed that amino acids metabolism played an important role in the synthesis of rapamycin, especially lysine, valine, tryptophan, isoleucine, glutamate, arginine and ornithine. The inadequate supply of amino acids, or namely "nitrogen starvation" occurred in the mutant strain. Subsequently, the exogenous addition of amino acids into the fermentation medium of the mutant strain confirmed the above conclusion, and rapamycin production of the mutant strain increased to 426.7 mg/L after adding lysine, approximately 5.8-fold of that in the wild-type strain. Finally, the results of real-time PCR and enzyme activity assays demonstrated that dihydrodipicolinate synthase involved with lysine metabolism played vital role in the biosynthesis of rapamycin. These findings will provide a theoretical basis for further improving production of rapamycin. PMID:25840873

  10. Microbial enzymes involved in lactone compound metabolism and their biotechnological applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michihiko Kataoka; Kohsuke Honda; Keiji Sakamoto; Sakayu Shimizu

    2007-01-01

    Lactone compounds are widely distributed in nature and play important roles in organisms. These compounds are synthesized\\u000a and metabolized enzymatically in vivo; however, detailed investigation of these enzymes lags behind that of other common enzymes.\\u000a In this paper, recent work on the enzymes involved in the metabolism of lactone compounds will be reviewed. In particular,\\u000a fundamental and application studies on

  11. Molecular characterization of genes encoding enzymes of the metabolic pathways in Neocallimastix frontalis.

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Molecular characterization of genes encoding enzymes of the metabolic pathways in Neocallimastix. Enzyme activities leading to the formation of succinate, lactate, formate and ethanol are associated with the cytoplasmic fraction, while the enzymes leading to the formation of the main fermentation products H2, C02

  12. Extraction and study of enzymes linked to malate metabolism in tree leaves

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Extraction and study of enzymes linked to malate metabolism in tree leaves D. Gerant, A. Citerne, C, 1984). Enzymes implicated in synthesis and catabolism of this substrate are widely distributed in the cellular compartments. If these enzymes have become well known in herbaceous plants (Macrae, 1971; Davis

  13. A QUANTITATIVE MODEL FOR XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING ENZYME (XME) INDUCTION REGULATED BY THE PREGNANE X RECEPTOR (PXR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor, PXR, is an integral part of the regulation of hepatic metabolism. It has been shown to regulate specific CYPs (phase I drug-metabolizing enzymes) as well as certain phase II drug metabolism activities, including UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT), sulfotran...

  14. A multiscale approach to modelling drug metabolism by membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, Richard; Rouse, Sarah L; Sansom, Mark S P; Mulholland, Adrian J

    2014-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  15. A Multiscale Approach to Modelling Drug Metabolism by Membrane-Bound Cytochrome P450 Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sansom, Mark S. P.; Mulholland, Adrian J.

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are found in all life forms. P450s play an important role in drug metabolism, and have potential uses as biocatalysts. Human P450s are membrane-bound proteins. However, the interactions between P450s and their membrane environment are not well-understood. To date, all P450 crystal structures have been obtained from engineered proteins, from which the transmembrane helix was absent. A significant number of computational studies have been performed on P450s, but the majority of these have been performed on the solubilised forms of P450s. Here we present a multiscale approach for modelling P450s, spanning from coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to reaction modelling using hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. To our knowledge, this is the first application of such an integrated multiscale approach to modelling of a membrane-bound enzyme. We have applied this protocol to a key human P450 involved in drug metabolism: CYP3A4. A biologically realistic model of CYP3A4, complete with its transmembrane helix and a membrane, has been constructed and characterised. The dynamics of this complex have been studied, and the oxidation of the anticoagulant R-warfarin has been modelled in the active site. Calculations have also been performed on the soluble form of the enzyme in aqueous solution. Important differences are observed between the membrane and solution systems, most notably for the gating residues and channels that control access to the active site. The protocol that we describe here is applicable to other membrane-bound enzymes. PMID:25033460

  16. Application of a hierarchical enzyme classification method reveals the role of gut microbiome in human metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Enzymes are known as the molecular machines that drive the metabolism of an organism; hence identification of the full enzyme complement of an organism is essential to build the metabolic blueprint of that species as well as to understand the interplay of multiple species in an ecosystem. Experimental characterization of the enzymatic reactions of all enzymes in a genome is a tedious and expensive task. The problem is more pronounced in the metagenomic samples where even the species are not adequately cultured or characterized. Enzymes encoded by the gut microbiota play an essential role in the host metabolism; thus, warranting the need to accurately identify and annotate the full enzyme complements of species in the genomic and metagenomic projects. To fulfill this need, we develop and apply a method called ECemble, an ensemble approach to identify enzymes and enzyme classes and study the human gut metabolic pathways. Results ECemble method uses an ensemble of machine-learning methods to accurately model and predict enzymes from protein sequences and also identifies the enzyme classes and subclasses at the finest resolution. A tenfold cross-validation result shows accuracy between 97 and 99% at different levels in the hierarchy of enzyme classification, which is superior to comparable methods. We applied ECemble to predict the entire complements of enzymes from ten sequenced proteomes including the human proteome. We also applied this method to predict enzymes encoded by the human gut microbiome from gut metagenomic samples, and to study the role played by the microbe-derived enzymes in the human metabolism. After mapping the known and predicted enzymes to canonical human pathways, we identified 48 pathways that have at least one bacteria-encoded enzyme, which demonstrates the complementary role of gut microbiome in human gut metabolism. These pathways are primarily involved in metabolizing dietary nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, cofactors and vitamins. Conclusions The ECemble method is able to hierarchically assign high quality enzyme annotations to genomic and metagenomic data. This study demonstrated the real application of ECemble to understand the indispensable role played by microbe-encoded enzymes in the healthy functioning of human metabolic systems. PMID:26099921

  17. Fermentation, Respiration & Enzyme Specificity: A Simple Device & Key Experiments with Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinking, Larry N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using graphs and diagrams, the authors describe a simple fermentation chamber and provide key experiments that can be used in the classroom to give students meaningful insight into metabolic processes. (ZWH)

  18. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Andrew W.; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S.; Conneely, Karen N.; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z. X.; Baurley, James W.; McClure, Jennifer B.; Hall, Sharon M.; Baker, Timothy B.; Conti, David V.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Swan, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3’-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  19. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Andrew W; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S; Conneely, Karen N; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z X; Baurley, James W; McClure, Jennifer B; Hall, Sharon M; Baker, Timothy B; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Swan, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis. PMID:26132489

  20. In vitro metabolism and identification of human enzymes involved in the metabolism of methylnaltrexone.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zeen; Chandrasekaran, Appavu; Li, Hongshan; Rotshteyn, Yakov; Erve, John C L; Demaio, William; Talaat, Rasmy; Hultin, Theresa; Scatina, JoAnn

    2010-05-01

    Methylnaltrexone (MNTX) is a peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonist and is currently indicated for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation in patients with advanced illness who are receiving palliative care, when response to laxative therapy has not been sufficient. Sulfation to MNTX-3-sulfate (M2) and carbonyl reduction to methyl-6alpha-naltrexol (M4) and methyl-6beta-naltrexol (M5) are the primary metabolic pathways for MNTX in humans. The objectives of this study were to investigate MNTX in vitro metabolism in human and nonclinical species and to identify the human enzymes involved in MNTX metabolism. Of the five commercially available sulfotransferases investigated, only SULT2A1 and SULT1E1 catalyzed M2 formation. Formation of M4 and M5 was catalyzed by NADPH-dependent hepatic cytosolic enzymes, which were identified using selective chemical inhibitors (10 and 100 microM) for aldo-keto reductase (AKR) isoforms, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase including carbonyl reductase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and quinone oxidoreductase. The results were then compared with the effects of the same inhibitors on 6beta-naltrexol formation from naltrexone, a structural analog of MNTX, which is catalyzed mainly by AKR1C4. The AKR1C inhibitor phenolphthalein inhibited MNTX and naltrexone reduction up to 98%. 5beta-Cholanic acid 3alpha,7alpha-diol, the AKR1C2 inhibitor, and medroxyprogesterone acetate, an inhibitor of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, and AKR1C4, inhibited MNTX reduction up to 67%. Other inhibitors were less potent. In conclusion, the carbonyl reduction of MNTX to M4 and M5 in hepatic cytosol was consistent with previous in vivo observations. AKR1C4 appeared to play a major role in the carbonyl reduction of MNTX, although multiple enzymes in the AKR1C subfamily may be involved. Human SULT2A1 and SULT1E1 were involved in MNTX sulfation. PMID:20173089

  1. Fungal colonization and enzyme-mediated metabolism of waste coal by Neosartorya fischeri strain ECCN 84.

    PubMed

    Sekhohola, Lerato Mary; Isaacs, Michelle Louise; Cowan, Ashton Keith

    2014-01-01

    Colonization and oxidative metabolism of South African low-rank discard coal by the fungal strain ECCN 84 previously isolated from a coal environment and identified as Neosartorya fischeri was investigated. Results show that waste coal supported fungal growth. Colonization of waste coal particles by N. fischeri ECCN 84 was associated with the formation of compact spherical pellets or sclerotia-like structures. Dissection of the pellets from liquid cultures revealed a nucleus of "engulfed" coal which when analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy showed a time-dependent decline in weight percentage of elemental carbon and an increase in elemental oxygen. Proliferation of peroxisomes in hyphae attached to coal particles and increased extracellular laccase activity occurred after addition of waste coal to cultures of N. fischeri ECCN 84. These results support a role for oxidative enzyme action in the biodegradation of coal and suggest that extracellular laccase is a key component in this process. PMID:25273148

  2. Acute Liver Injury Induces Nucleocytoplasmic Redistribution of Hepatic Methionine Metabolism Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Miguel; Garrido, Francisco; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Pacheco, María; Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The discovery of methionine metabolism enzymes in the cell nucleus, together with their association with key nuclear processes, suggested a putative relationship between alterations in their subcellular distribution and disease. Results: Using the rat model of d-galactosamine intoxication, severe changes in hepatic steady-state mRNA levels were found; the largest decreases corresponded to enzymes exhibiting the highest expression in normal tissue. Cytoplasmic protein levels, activities, and metabolite concentrations suffered more moderate changes following a similar trend. Interestingly, galactosamine treatment induced hepatic nuclear accumulation of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) ?1 and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase tetramers, their active assemblies. In fact, galactosamine-treated livers showed enhanced nuclear MAT activity. Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication mimicked most galactosamine effects on hepatic MAT?1, including accumulation of nuclear tetramers. H35 cells that overexpress tagged-MAT?1 reproduced the subcellular distribution observed in liver, and the changes induced by galactosamine and APAP that were also observed upon glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine. The H35 nuclear accumulation of tagged-MAT?1 induced by these agents correlated with decreased glutathione reduced form/glutathione oxidized form ratios and was prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione ethyl ester. However, the changes in epigenetic modifications associated with tagged-MAT?1 nuclear accumulation were only prevented by NAC in galactosamine-treated cells. Innovation: Cytoplasmic and nuclear changes in proteins that regulate the methylation index follow opposite trends in acute liver injury, their nuclear accumulation showing potential as disease marker. Conclusion: Altogether these results demonstrate galactosamine- and APAP-induced nuclear accumulation of methionine metabolism enzymes as active oligomers and unveil the implication of redox-dependent mechanisms in the control of MAT?1 subcellular distribution. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 2541–2554. PMID:24124652

  3. Effect of oxytocin on serum biochemistry, liver enzymes, and metabolic hormones in lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Zafar; ur Rahman, Zia; Muhammad, Faqir; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Khaliq, Tanweer; Nasir, Amar; Nadeem, Muhammad; Khan, Kinza; Arshad, Hafiz Muhammad; Basit, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Studies reporting the effects of oxytocin on the health of lactating animals are lacking and still no such data is available on Nili Ravi buffalo, the most prominent Asian buffalo breed. The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of oxytocin on physiological and metabolic parameters of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes. Healthy lactating buffaloes (n?=?40) of recent calving were selected from a commercial dairy farm situated in the peri-urban area of district Faisalabad, Pakistan. These buffaloes were randomly allocated to two equal groups viz experimental and control, comprising 20 animals each. Twice-a-day (morning and evening) milking practice was followed. The experimental and control buffaloes were administered subcutaneously with 3 mL of oxytocin (10 IU/mL) and normal saline respectively, prior to each milking. Serum biochemical profile including glucose, total cholesterol (tChol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total proteins (TP), C-reactive protein (CRP), liver enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and metabolic hormones triiodothyronine (T?) and thyroxine (T?) were studied. Results revealed significantly higher (P???0.01) levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, total proteins, and C-reactive protein in experimental (oxytocin-injected) lactating buffaloes compared to control group. Liver enzymes AST and ALT as well as serum T? concentration was significantly higher (P???0.01) in oxytocin-injected lactating buffaloes as compared to control animals. It was concluded that oxytocin had the key role in increasing the metabolic parameters and hormones, resulting in the optimization of production. But, at the same time, it may pose a threat to the animal health. PMID:25281211

  4. Multi-objective optimization of enzyme manipulations in metabolic networks considering resilience effects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Improving the synthesis rate of desired metabolites in metabolic systems is one of the main tasks in metabolic engineering. In the last decade, metabolic engineering approaches based on the mathematical optimization have been used extensively for the analysis and manipulation of metabolic networks. Experimental evidence shows that mutants reflect resilience phenomena against gene alterations. Although researchers have published many studies on the design of metabolic systems based on kinetic models and optimization strategies, almost no studies discuss the multi-objective optimization problem for enzyme manipulations in metabolic networks considering resilience phenomenon. Results This study proposes a generalized fuzzy multi-objective optimization approach to formulate the enzyme intervention problem for metabolic networks considering resilience phenomena and cell viability. This approach is a general framework that can be applied to any metabolic networks to investigate the influence of resilience phenomena on gene intervention strategies and maximum target synthesis rates. This study evaluates the performance of the proposed approach by applying it to two metabolic systems: S. cerevisiae and E. coli. Results show that the maximum synthesis rates of target products by genetic interventions are always over-estimated in metabolic networks that do not consider the resilience effects. Conclusions Considering the resilience phenomena in metabolic networks can improve the predictions of gene intervention and maximum synthesis rates in metabolic engineering. The proposed generalized fuzzy multi-objective optimization approach has the potential to be a good and practical framework in the design of metabolic networks. PMID:21929795

  5. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. We report a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis employing an exhaustive dataset of NAT-homologous sequences recovered through inspection of 2445 genomes. We describe ...

  6. Reference: Bid. Bull. 187: 84-98. (August, 1994) Oxygen Consumption Rates and Metabolic Enzyme

    E-print Network

    Thuesen, Erik V.

    Reference: Bid. Bull. 187: 84-98. (August, 1994) Oxygen Consumption Rates and Metabolic Enzyme in Krebs cycle enzyme activities. LDH activities, on the other hand, in- creased with increasing wet weight, with increasing depth of occurrence, beyond the declines caused by the decrease in temperature with depth

  7. Polymorphism of genes encoding homocysteine metabolism–related enzymes and risk for cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Malinowska; Agata Chmurzynska

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a general overview of the relationships among homocysteine metabolism, polymorphism of the genes encoding homocysteine metabolism–related enzymes, and the nutrients influencing the plasma homocysteine level. Combining these factors creates a profile of an individual's susceptibility to complex diseases associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteine is an amino acid derived from the demethylation of methionine.

  8. The Influence of Genetic Polymorphisms on Population Variability in Six Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Ginsberg; Susan Smolenski; Patricia Neafsey; Dale Hattis; Katy Walker; Kathryn Z. Guyton; Douglas O. Johns; Babasaheb Sonawane

    2009-01-01

    This review provides variability statistics for polymorphic enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Six enzymes were evaluated: cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2D6, CYP2E1, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), paraoxonase (PON1), glutathione transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1), and N-acetyltransferases (NAT1 and NAT2). The polymorphisms were characterized with respect to (1) number and type of variants, (2) effects of polymorphisms on enzyme

  9. Comparative studies of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in different fish species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Förlin; Philippe Lemaire; David R. Livingstone

    1995-01-01

    Seven marine and five freshwater fish species were compared in terms of their activities of eight liver xenobiotic and oxyradical metabolizing enzymes namely those of the mammalian [Ah] gene battery, viz. cytochrome P450 1A (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase-EROD), glutathione S-transferase, UDP glucuronosyl transferase, DT-diaphorase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and Superoxide dismutase. A number of these enzyme activities are

  10. MetaCyc: a multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Caspi; Hartmut Foerster; Carol A. Fulcher; Rebecca Hopkinson; John Ingraham; Pallavi Kaipa; Markus Krummenacker; Suzanne M. Paley; John Pick; Seung Yon Rhee; Christophe Tissier; Peifen Zhang; Peter D. Karp

    2006-01-01

    MetaCyc is a database of metabolic pathways and enzymes located at http:\\/\\/MetaCyc.org\\/. Its goal is to serve as a metabolic encyclopedia, containing a collection of non-redundant pathways central to 15 small molecule metabolism, which have been reported in the experimental literature. Most of the pathways in MetaCyc occur in microorganisms and plants, although animal pathways are also repre- sented. MetaCyc

  11. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression in aging humans.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the presence of foreign compounds, metabolic homeostasis of the organism is maintained by the liver?s ability to detoxify and eliminate these xenobiotics. This is accomplished, in part, by the expression of XMEs, which metabolize xenobiotics and determine whether exposure will...

  12. METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN SETTING: CENTRAL OBESITY MAY BE THE KEY DETERMINANT

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN SETTING: CENTRAL OBESITY MAY BE THE KEY DETERMINANT Short running title: Metabolic syndrome in Sub-Saharan Africa Leopold Fezeu,a,b,c Beverley Balkau: Metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, central obesity, Sub Saharan Africa, urbanisation, Cameroon

  13. Problems and perspectives of phenotyping for drug-metabolizing enzymes in man.

    PubMed

    Zaigler, M; Tantcheva-Poór, I; Fuhr, U

    2000-01-01

    Pronounced interindividual differences in drug disposition are mainly caused by differences in the activity of liver drug-metabolizing enzymes. These depend on known and unknown covariates, including genetic as well as environmental factors. Phenotyping, i.e. assessment of enzyme activities in vivo after administration of a test dose, seems to be a promising tool for determining actual metabolic capacities. Although it is a well-established experimental approach, phenotyping has not yet found its way into clinical practice. Main reasons for this are lack of validation for many probes and assays used, complicated procedures, invasiveness, semi-quantitative test results, non-compliance on behalf of the subjects tested, high costs, and lack of prospective clinical studies to assess the benefit of phenotyping for patients. Problems and perspectives of phenotyping are exemplified for the cytochrome P-450 enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, two major human drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:10667830

  14. Computational Prediction of Metabolism: Sites, Products, SAR, P450 Enzyme Dynamics, and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism of xenobiotics remains a central challenge for the discovery and development of drugs, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and agrochemicals. Metabolic transformations are frequently related to the incidence of toxic effects that may result from the emergence of reactive species, the systemic accumulation of metabolites, or by induction of metabolic pathways. Experimental investigation of the metabolism of small organic molecules is particularly resource demanding; hence, computational methods are of considerable interest to complement experimental approaches. This review provides a broad overview of structure- and ligand-based computational methods for the prediction of xenobiotic metabolism. Current computational approaches to address xenobiotic metabolism are discussed from three major perspectives: (i) prediction of sites of metabolism (SOMs), (ii) elucidation of potential metabolites and their chemical structures, and (iii) prediction of direct and indirect effects of xenobiotics on metabolizing enzymes, where the focus is on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily of enzymes, the cardinal xenobiotics metabolizing enzymes. For each of these domains, a variety of approaches and their applications are systematically reviewed, including expert systems, data mining approaches, quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs), and machine learning-based methods, pharmacophore-based algorithms, shape-focused techniques, molecular interaction fields (MIFs), reactivity-focused techniques, protein–ligand docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and combinations of methods. Predictive metabolism is a developing area, and there is still enormous potential for improvement. However, it is clear that the combination of rapidly increasing amounts of available ligand- and structure-related experimental data (in particular, quantitative data) with novel and diverse simulation and modeling approaches is accelerating the development of effective tools for prediction of in vivo metabolism, which is reflected by the diverse and comprehensive data sources and methods for metabolism prediction reviewed here. This review attempts to survey the range and scope of computational methods applied to metabolism prediction and also to compare and contrast their applicability and performance. PMID:22339582

  15. Metabolic cold adaptation in fishes occurs at the level of whole animal, mitochondria and enzyme

    PubMed Central

    White, Craig R.; Alton, Lesley A.; Frappell, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic cold adaptation (MCA), the hypothesis that species from cold climates have relatively higher metabolic rates than those from warm climates, was first proposed nearly 100 years ago and remains one of the most controversial hypotheses in physiological ecology. In the present study, we test the MCA hypothesis in fishes at the level of whole animal, mitochondria and enzyme. In support of the MCA hypothesis, we find that when normalized to a common temperature, species with ranges that extend to high latitude (cooler climates) have high aerobic enzyme (citrate synthase) activity, high rates of mitochondrial respiration and high standard metabolic rates. Metabolic compensation for the global temperature gradient is not complete however, so when measured at their habitat temperature species from high latitude have lower absolute rates of metabolism than species from low latitudes. Evolutionary adaptation and thermal plasticity are therefore insufficient to completely overcome the acute thermodynamic effects of temperature, at least in fishes. PMID:22158960

  16. Enzyme allocation problems in kinetic metabolic networks: optimal solutions are elementary flux modes.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, Georg; Steuer, Ralf

    2014-04-21

    The survival and proliferation of cells and organisms require a highly coordinated allocation of cellular resources to ensure the efficient synthesis of cellular components. In particular, the total enzymatic capacity for cellular metabolism is limited by finite resources that are shared between all enzymes, such as cytosolic space, energy expenditure for amino-acid synthesis, or micro-nutrients. While extensive work has been done to study constrained optimization problems based only on stoichiometric information, mathematical results that characterize the optimal flux in kinetic metabolic networks are still scarce. Here, we study constrained enzyme allocation problems with general kinetics, using the theory of oriented matroids. We give a rigorous proof for the fact that optimal solutions of the non-linear optimization problem are elementary flux modes. This finding has significant consequences for our understanding of optimality in metabolic networks as well as for the identification of metabolic switches and the computation of optimal flux distributions in kinetic metabolic networks. PMID:24295962

  17. Predicting enzyme targets for cancer drugs by profiling human Metabolic reactions in NCI-60 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Drugs can influence the whole metabolic system by targeting enzymes which catalyze metabolic reactions. The existence of interactions between drugs and metabolic reactions suggests a potential way to discover drug targets. Results In this paper, we present a computational method to predict new targets for approved anti-cancer drugs by exploring drug-reaction interactions. We construct a Drug-Reaction Network to provide a global view of drug-reaction interactions and drug-pathway interactions. The recent reconstruction of the human metabolic network and development of flux analysis approaches make it possible to predict each metabolic reaction's cell line-specific flux state based on the cell line-specific gene expressions. We first profile each reaction by its flux states in NCI-60 cancer cell lines, and then propose a kernel k-nearest neighbor model to predict related metabolic reactions and enzyme targets for approved cancer drugs. We also integrate the target structure data with reaction flux profiles to predict drug targets and the area under curves can reach 0.92. Conclusions The cross validations using the methods with and without metabolic network indicate that the former method is significantly better than the latter. Further experiments show the synergism of reaction flux profiles and target structure for drug target prediction. It also implies the significant contribution of metabolic network to predict drug targets. Finally, we apply our method to predict new reactions and possible enzyme targets for cancer drugs. PMID:20932284

  18. Biochemistry and biotechnology of mesophilic and thermophilic nitrile metabolizing enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Cowan; Rebecca Cramp; Rui Pereira; Dan Graham; Qadreyah Almatawah

    1998-01-01

    Mesophilic nitrile-degrading enzymes are widely dispersed in the Bacteria and lower orders of the eukaryotic kingdom. Two\\u000a distinct enzyme systems, a nitrilase catalyzing the direct conversion of nitriles to carboxylic acids and separate but cotranscribed\\u000a nitrile hydratase and amidase activities, are now well known. Nitrile hydratases are metalloenzymes, incorporating FeIII or CoII ions in thiolate ligand networks where they function

  19. Enzymic imbalance in serine metabolism in rat hepatomas.

    PubMed Central

    Snell, K; Weber, G

    1986-01-01

    The activity of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase was high in tissues of high cell-renewal capacity, and was increased in neonatal and regenerating liver and, more markedly, in hepatomas. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase activity was present in hepatomas, whereas other enzymes of serine utilization (serine dehydratase and serine aminotransferase) were absent. This enzymic imbalance couples serine biosynthesis preferentially to nucleotide precursor formation in cancer cells. PMID:3082329

  20. De novo transcriptome characterization of Lilium 'Sorbonne' and key enzymes related to the flavonoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-fang; Jiang, Ling-min; Zhang, Dong-mei; Jia, Gui-xia

    2015-02-01

    Lily is an important cut-flower and bulb crop in the commercial market. Here, transcriptome profiling of Lilium 'Sorbonne' was conducted through de novo sequencing based on Illumina platform. This research aims at revealing basic information and data that can be used for applied purposes especially the molecular regulatory information on flower color formation in lily. In total, 36,920,680 short reads which corresponded to 3.32 GB of total nucleotides, were produced through transcriptome sequencing. These reads were assembled into 39,636 Unigenes, of which 30,986 were annotated in Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG, GO databases. Based on the three public protein databases, a total of 32,601 coding sequences were obtained. Meanwhile, 19,242 Unigenes were assigned to 128 KEGG pathways. Those with the greatest representation by unique sequences were for ''metabolic pathways'' (5,406 counts, 28.09 %). Our transcriptome revealed 156 Unigenes that encode key enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway including CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, DFR, etc. MISA software identified 2,762 simple sequence repeats, from which 1,975 primers pairs were designed. Over 2,762 motifs were identified, of which the most frequent was AG/CT (659, 23.86 %), followed by A/T (615, 22.27 %) and CCG/CGG (416, 15.06 %). Based on the results, we believe that the color formation of the Lilium 'Sorbonne' flower was mainly controlled by the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Additionally, this research provides initial genetic resources that will be valuable to the lily community for other molecular biology research, and the SSRs will facilitate marker-assisted selection in lily breeding. PMID:25307066

  1. Polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and susceptibility to cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hirvonen, A

    1999-01-01

    The variation in individual responses to exogenous agents is exceptionally wide. It is because of this large diversity of responsiveness that risk factors to environmentally induced diseases have been difficult to pinpoint, particularly at low exposure levels. Opportunities now exist for studies of host factors in cancer or other diseases in which an environmental component can be presumed. Many of the studies have shown an elevated disease proneness for individuals carrying the potential at-risk alleles of metabolic genes, but a number of controversial results have also been reported. This article is an overview of the data published to date on metabolic genotypes related to individual susceptibility to cancer. PMID:10229705

  2. Pharmacogenomics of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters: implications for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Bluth, Martin H

    2011-01-01

    The new era of personalized medicine, which integrates the uniqueness of an individual with respect to the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a drug, holds promise as a means to provide greater safety and efficacy in drug design and development. Personalized medicine is particularly important in oncology, whereby most clinically used anticancer drugs have a narrow therapeutic window and exhibit a large interindividual pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability. This variability can be explained, at least in part, by genetic variations in the genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes, transporters, or drug targets. Understanding of how genetic variations influence drug disposition and action could help in tailoring cancer therapy based on individual’s genetic makeup. This review focuses on the pharmacogenomics of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, with a particular highlight of examples whereby genetic variations in the metabolizing enzymes and transporters influence the pharmacokinetics and/or response of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:23226051

  3. Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites, key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Bin; Yang, Lin-Tong; Li, Yan; Xu, Jing; Liao, Tian-Tai; Chen, Yan-Bin; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-06-01

    Boron (B) deficiency is a widespread problem in many crops, including Citrus. The effects of B-deficiency on gas exchange, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, total soluble proteins and phenolics, and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves and roots were investigated. Boron-deficient leaves displayed excessive accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and much lower CO2 assimilation, demonstrating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. Dark respiration, concentrations of most organic acids [i.e., malate, citrate, oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate] and activities of enzymes [i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NAD-malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME), NADP-ME, pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase (PEPP), citrate synthase (CS), aconitase (ACO), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH) and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B-deficient leaves than in controls. Also, total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration and related enzyme [i.e., NADH-dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (NADH-GOGAT) and glutamate OAA transaminase (GOT)] activities were enhanced in B-deficient leaves. By contrast, respiration, concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids (malate, citrate and pyruvate), and activities of most enzymes [i.e., PEPC, NADP-ME, PK, PEPP, CS, ACO, NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADP-IDH and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction, as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes (i.e., nitrate reductase, NADH-GOGAT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase) were lower in B-deficient roots than in controls. Interestingly, leaf and root concentration of total phenolics increased, whereas that of total soluble protein decreased, in response to B-deficiency. In conclusion, respiration, organic acid (i.e., glycolysis and the TCA cycle) metabolism, the anapleurotic pathway and amino acid biosynthesis were upregulated in B-deficient leaves with excessive accumulation of carbohydrates to 'consume' the excessive carbon available, but downregulated in B-deficient roots with less accumulation of carbohydrates to maintain the net carbon balance. PMID:24957048

  4. Thyroid regulation of resting metabolic rate and intermediary metabolic enzymes in a lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    PubMed

    John-Alder, H B

    1990-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of physiological increments in plasma thyroxine (T4) at three levels of biological organization in thyroid-intact and thyroidectomized captive western fence lizards, Sceloporus occidentalis. Two doses of T4-loaded pellets elevated plasma T4 in thyroid-intact lizards from 4.8 +/- 0.47 to 10.7 +/- 2.25 and 20.4 +/- 5.77 ng/ml (mean +/- SE). Surgical thyroidectomy reduced T4 to 1.8 +/- 0.23 ng/ml, and subsequent T4 pellet implantation raised T4 to 14.8 +/- 4.30 ng/ml. Minimal resting metabolic rate (= standard metabolic rate; SMR), a common organismal metric of thyroid perturbation, was reduced 31% (P less than 0.0001) by thyroidectomy and was restored by T4 replacement but was not stimulated by T4 supplementation in thyroid-intact lizards. In T4-replaced, thyroidectomized lizards, SMR was significantly correlated with plasma T4 (r2 = 0.626, P = 0.003, n = 11). At the organ level, liver mass was not changed by any treatment; heart mass was decreased by thyroid deficiency and restored by T4 replacement. At the molecular level, citrate synthase activity was significantly reduced by thyroidectomy and was returned to control levels by T4 replacement in liver and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) but was not changed in cardiac muscle. Citrate synthase was not affected in any tissue by T4 supplementation in thyroid-intact lizards. Pyruvate kinase activity was not affected by any of the treatments in any of the tissues. Cytosolic alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase was significantly reduced in liver by all treatments and in skeletal muscle by T4 replacement after thyroidectomy. These results indicate that SMR and cardiac muscle mass in lizards are dependent on normal thyroid function and are expressed maximally in euthyroid animals. The stimulatory effect of T4 on SMR in thyroid-intact lizards, which has been reported previously by several investigators, is a nonphysiological response to pharmacological T4 levels, at least in these captive lizards. Molecular responses are tissue and enzyme dependent and cannot be generalized. Pellet implantation is an effective means of inducing physiological increments in plasma T4 and should replace previously used injection protocols. This new method can be used in capture-recapture experiments involving field-active lizards. PMID:2295423

  5. Effects of frying oil and Houttuynia cordata thunb on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of rodents

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Yen; Chen, Chiao-Ming; Chao, Pi-Yu; Chang, Tsan-Ju; Liu, Jen-Fang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of frying oil and Houttuynia cordata Thunb (H. cordata), a vegetable traditionally consumed in Taiwan, on the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of rodents. METHODS: Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a diet containing 0%, 2% or 5% H. cordata powder and 15% fresh soybean oil or 24-h oxidized frying oil (OFO) for 28 d respectively. The level of microsomal protein, total cytochrome 450 content (CYP450) and enzyme activities including NADPH reductase, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), aniline hydroxylase (ANH), aminopyrine demethylase (AMD), and quinone reductase (QR) were determined. QR represented phase II enzymes, the rest of the enzymes tested represented phase I enzymes. RESULTS: The oxidized frying oil feeding produced a significant increase in phase I and II enzyme systems, including the content of CYP450 and microsomal protein, and the activities of NADPH reductase, EROD, PROD, ANH, AMD and QR in rats (P<0.05). In addition, the activities of EROD, ANH and AMD decreased and QR increased after feeding with H. cordata in OFO-fed group (P<0.05). The feeding with 2% H. cordata diet showed the most significant effect. CONCLUSION: The OFO diet induces phases I and II enzyme activity, and the 2% H. cordata diet resulted in a better regulation of the xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system. PMID:15637750

  6. Regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes by xenobiotic receptors: PXR and CAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia H. Tolson; Hongbing Wang

    2010-01-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters play pivotal roles in the disposition and detoxification of numerous foreign and endogenous chemicals. To accommodate chemical challenges, the expression of many DMEs and transporters is up-regulated by a group of ligand-activated transcription factors namely nuclear receptors (NRs). The importance of NRs in xenobiotic metabolism and clearance is best exemplified by the most promiscuous xenobiotic

  7. Evolution of the key alkaloid enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase from spermidine synthase.

    PubMed

    Junker, Anne; Fischer, Juliane; Sichhart, Yvonne; Brandt, Wolfgang; Dräger, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) are the first specific enzymes of the biosynthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids. PMTs transfer a methyl group onto the diamine putrescine from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as coenzyme. PMT proteins have presumably evolved from spermidine synthases (SPDSs), which are ubiquitous enzymes of polyamine metabolism. SPDSs use decarboxylated SAM as coenzyme to transfer an aminopropyl group onto putrescine. In an attempt to identify possible and necessary steps in the evolution of PMT from SPDS, homology based modeling of Datura stramonium SPDS1 and PMT was employed to gain deeper insight in the preferred binding positions and conformations of the substrate and the alternative coenzymes. Based on predictions of amino acids responsible for the change of enzyme specificities, sites of mutagenesis were derived. PMT activity was generated in D. stramonium SPDS1 after few amino acid exchanges. Concordantly, Arabidopsis thaliana SPDS1 was mutated and yielded enzymes with both, PMT and SPDS activities. Kinetic parameters were measured for enzymatic characterization. The switch from aminopropyl to methyl transfer depends on conformational changes of the methionine part of the coenzyme in the binding cavity of the enzyme. The rapid generation of PMT activity in SPDS proteins and the wide-spread occurrence of putative products of N-methylputrescine suggest that PMT activity is present frequently in the plant kingdom. PMID:23908659

  8. Evolution of the key alkaloid enzyme putrescine N-methyltransferase from spermidine synthase

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Anne; Fischer, Juliane; Sichhart, Yvonne; Brandt, Wolfgang; Dräger, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Putrescine N-methyltransferases (PMTs) are the first specific enzymes of the biosynthesis of nicotine and tropane alkaloids. PMTs transfer a methyl group onto the diamine putrescine from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as coenzyme. PMT proteins have presumably evolved from spermidine synthases (SPDSs), which are ubiquitous enzymes of polyamine metabolism. SPDSs use decarboxylated SAM as coenzyme to transfer an aminopropyl group onto putrescine. In an attempt to identify possible and necessary steps in the evolution of PMT from SPDS, homology based modeling of Datura stramonium SPDS1 and PMT was employed to gain deeper insight in the preferred binding positions and conformations of the substrate and the alternative coenzymes. Based on predictions of amino acids responsible for the change of enzyme specificities, sites of mutagenesis were derived. PMT activity was generated in D. stramonium SPDS1 after few amino acid exchanges. Concordantly, Arabidopsis thaliana SPDS1 was mutated and yielded enzymes with both, PMT and SPDS activities. Kinetic parameters were measured for enzymatic characterization. The switch from aminopropyl to methyl transfer depends on conformational changes of the methionine part of the coenzyme in the binding cavity of the enzyme. The rapid generation of PMT activity in SPDS proteins and the wide-spread occurrence of putative products of N-methylputrescine suggest that PMT activity is present frequently in the plant kingdom. PMID:23908659

  9. FAst MEtabolizer (FAME): A rapid and accurate predictor of sites of metabolism in multiple species by endogenous enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kirchmair, Johannes; Williamson, Mark J; Afzal, Avid M; Tyzack, Jonathan D; Choy, Alison P K; Howlett, Andrew; Rydberg, Patrik; Glen, Robert C

    2013-11-25

    FAst MEtabolizer (FAME) is a fast and accurate predictor of sites of metabolism (SoMs). It is based on a collection of random forest models trained on diverse chemical data sets of more than 20?000 molecules annotated with their experimentally determined SoMs. Using a comprehensive set of available data, FAME aims to assess metabolic processes from a holistic point of view. It is not limited to a specific enzyme family or species. Besides a global model, dedicated models are available for human, rat, and dog metabolism; specific prediction of phase I and II metabolism is also supported. FAME is able to identify at least one known SoM among the top-1, top-2, and top-3 highest ranked atom positions in up to 71%, 81%, and 87% of all cases tested, respectively. These prediction rates are comparable to or better than SoM predictors focused on specific enzyme families (such as cytochrome P450s), despite the fact that FAME uses only seven chemical descriptors. FAME covers a very broad chemical space, which together with its inter- and extrapolation power makes it applicable to a wide range of chemicals. Predictions take less than 2.5 s per molecule in batch mode on an Ultrabook. Results are visualized using Jmol, with the most likely SoMs highlighted. PMID:24219364

  10. MetaCyc: a multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Caspi, Ron; Foerster, Hartmut; Fulcher, Carol A; Hopkinson, Rebecca; Ingraham, John; Kaipa, Pallavi; Krummenacker, Markus; Paley, Suzanne; Pick, John; Rhee, Seung Y; Tissier, Christophe; Zhang, Peifen; Karp, Peter D

    2006-01-01

    MetaCyc is a database of metabolic pathways and enzymes located at http://MetaCyc.org/. Its goal is to serve as a metabolic encyclopedia, containing a collection of non-redundant pathways central to small molecule metabolism, which have been reported in the experimental literature. Most of the pathways in MetaCyc occur in microorganisms and plants, although animal pathways are also represented. MetaCyc contains metabolic pathways, enzymatic reactions, enzymes, chemical compounds, genes and review-level comments. Enzyme information includes substrate specificity, kinetic properties, activators, inhibitors, cofactor requirements and links to sequence and structure databases. Data are curated from the primary literature by curators with expertise in biochemistry and molecular biology. MetaCyc serves as a readily accessible comprehensive resource on microbial and plant pathways for genome analysis, basic research, education, metabolic engineering and systems biology. Querying, visualization and curation of the database is supported by SRI's Pathway Tools software. The PathoLogic component of Pathway Tools is used in conjunction with MetaCyc to predict the metabolic network of an organism from its annotated genome. SRI and the European Bioinformatics Institute employed this tool to create pathway/genome databases (PGDBs) for 165 organisms, available at the BioCyc.org website. These PGDBs also include predicted operons and pathway hole fillers. PMID:16381923

  11. Increments and Duplication Events of Enzymes and Transcription Factors Influence Metabolic and Regulatory Diversity in Prokaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Núńez, Mario Alberto; Poot-Hernandez, Augusto Cesar; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Katya; Perez-Rueda, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the content of enzymes and DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) in 794 non-redundant prokaryotic genomes was evaluated. The identification of enzymes was based on annotations deposited in the KEGG database as well as in databases of functional domains (COG and PFAM) and structural domains (Superfamily). For identifications of the TFs, hidden Markov profiles were constructed based on well-known transcriptional regulatory families. From these analyses, we obtained diverse and interesting results, such as the negative rate of incremental changes in the number of detected enzymes with respect to the genome size. On the contrary, for TFs the rate incremented as the complexity of genome increased. This inverse related performance shapes the diversity of metabolic and regulatory networks and impacts the availability of enzymes and TFs. Furthermore, the intersection of the derivatives between enzymes and TFs was identified at 9,659 genes, after this point, the regulatory complexity grows faster than metabolic complexity. In addition, TFs have a low number of duplications, in contrast to the apparent high number of duplications associated with enzymes. Despite the greater number of duplicated enzymes versus TFs, the increment by which duplicates appear is higher in TFs. A lower proportion of enzymes among archaeal genomes (22%) than in the bacterial ones (27%) was also found. This low proportion might be compensated by the interconnection between the metabolic pathways in Archaea. A similar proportion was also found for the archaeal TFs, for which the formation of regulatory complexes has been proposed. Finally, an enrichment of multifunctional enzymes in Bacteria, as a mechanism of ecological adaptation, was detected. PMID:23922780

  12. In vivo co-localization of enzymes on RNA scaffolds increases metabolic production in a geometrically dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Gairik; Garg, Abhishek; Godding, David; Way, Jeffrey C.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2014-01-01

    Co-localization of biochemical processes plays a key role in the directional control of metabolic fluxes toward specific products in cells. Here, we employ in vivo scaffolds made of RNA that can bind engineered proteins fused to specific RNA binding domains. This allows proteins to be co-localized on RNA scaffolds inside living Escherichia coli. We assembled a library of eight aptamers and corresponding RNA binding domains fused to partial fragments of fluorescent proteins. New scaffold designs could co-localize split green fluorescent protein fragments to produce activity as measured by cell-based fluorescence. The scaffolds consisted of either single bivalent RNAs or RNAs designed to polymerize in one or two dimensions. The new scaffolds were used to increase metabolic output from a two-enzyme pentadecane production pathway that contains a fatty aldehyde intermediate, as well as three and four enzymes in the succinate production pathway. Pentadecane synthesis depended on the geometry of enzymes on the scaffold, as determined through systematic reorientation of the acyl-ACP reductase fusion by rotation via addition of base pairs to its cognate RNA aptamer. Together, these data suggest that intra-cellular scaffolding of enzymatic reactions may enhance the direct channeling of a variety of substrates. PMID:25034694

  13. In vivo co-localization of enzymes on RNA scaffolds increases metabolic production in a geometrically dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Gairik; Garg, Abhishek; Godding, David; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-08-01

    Co-localization of biochemical processes plays a key role in the directional control of metabolic fluxes toward specific products in cells. Here, we employ in vivo scaffolds made of RNA that can bind engineered proteins fused to specific RNA binding domains. This allows proteins to be co-localized on RNA scaffolds inside living Escherichia coli. We assembled a library of eight aptamers and corresponding RNA binding domains fused to partial fragments of fluorescent proteins. New scaffold designs could co-localize split green fluorescent protein fragments to produce activity as measured by cell-based fluorescence. The scaffolds consisted of either single bivalent RNAs or RNAs designed to polymerize in one or two dimensions. The new scaffolds were used to increase metabolic output from a two-enzyme pentadecane production pathway that contains a fatty aldehyde intermediate, as well as three and four enzymes in the succinate production pathway. Pentadecane synthesis depended on the geometry of enzymes on the scaffold, as determined through systematic reorientation of the acyl-ACP reductase fusion by rotation via addition of base pairs to its cognate RNA aptamer. Together, these data suggest that intra-cellular scaffolding of enzymatic reactions may enhance the direct channeling of a variety of substrates. PMID:25034694

  14. Post-translational modifications as key regulators of bacterial metabolic fluxes.

    PubMed

    Pisithkul, Tippapha; Patel, Nishaben M; Amador-Noguez, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    In order to survive and compete in natural settings, bacteria must excel at quickly adapting their metabolism to fluctuations in nutrient availability and other environmental variables. This necessitates fast-acting post-translational regulatory mechanisms, that is, allostery or covalent modification, to control metabolic flux. While allosteric regulation has long been a well-established strategy for regulating metabolic enzyme activity in bacteria, covalent post-translational modes of regulation, such as phosphorylation or acetylation, have previously been regarded as regulatory mechanisms employed primarily by eukaryotic organisms. Recent findings, however, have shifted this perception and point to a widespread role for covalent posttranslational modification in the regulation of metabolic enzymes and fluxes in bacteria. This review provides an outline of the exciting recent advances in this area. PMID:25597444

  15. PGC-1{alpha}: a key regulator of energy metabolism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Huiyun Liang (University of Texas Health Science Center Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies)

    2006-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator (PGC)-1{alpha} is a member of a family of transcription coactivators that plays a central role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. This makes it an inviting target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of obesity and Type 2 diabetes.

  16. Case study 3. Application of basic enzyme kinetics to metabolism studies: real-life examples.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; McCabe, Michelle; Podila, Lalitha; Tracy, Timothy S; Tweedie, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    An appreciation of the principles of enzyme kinetics can be applied in a number of drug metabolism applications. The concept for this chapter arose from a simple discussion on selecting appropriate time points to most efficiently assess metabolite profiles in a human Phase 1a clinical study (Subheading 4). By considering enzyme kinetics, a logical approach to the issue was derived. The dialog was an important learning opportunity for the participants in the discussion, and we have endeavored to capture this experience with other questions related to determination of K m and V max parameters, a consideration of the value of hepatocytes versus liver microsomes and enzyme inhibition parameters. PMID:24523124

  17. Reduction of nuclear encoded enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Edith E; Mayr, Johannes A; Zimmermann, Franz A; Feichtinger, René G; Stanger, Olaf; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-20

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are generally associated with reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes that contain subunits encoded by mtDNA. Conversely, entirely nuclear encoded mitochondrial enzymes in these syndromes, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and OXPHOS complex II, usually exhibit normal or compensatory enhanced activities. Here we report that a human cell line devoid of mtDNA (HEK293 ?(0) cells) has diminished activities of both complex II and CS. This finding indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism in ?(0) cells that downregulates the expression of entirely nuclear encoded components of mitochondrial energy metabolism. PMID:22222373

  18. Elasticity analysis and design for large metabolic responses produced by changes in enzyme activities.

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Fernando; Acerenza, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Metabolic control analysis has been extensively used to describe how the sensitivity properties of the component enzymes in a metabolic pathway (represented by the elasticity coefficients) determine the way in which metabolic variables respond (described by the control coefficients). Similarly, metabolic control design addresses the inverse problem of obtaining the sensitivity properties of the component enzymes that are required for the system to show a pre-established pattern of responses. These formalisms, including what is called elasticity analysis and design, were developed for small, strictly speaking infinitesimal, changes. Here we extend them to large metabolic responses. The new approach can be applied to simple two-step pathways or to any arbitrary metabolic system divided into two groups linked by one intermediate. General expressions that relate control and elasticity coefficients for large changes are derived. Concentration and flux connectivity relationships are obtained. The relationships for large changes indicate that the pattern of responses is not necessarily the same as the one obtained with the traditional infinitesimal approach, in some cases the patterns being qualitatively different. The general analysis is used to study the control of ketogenesis in rat liver mitochondria, starting from data available in the literature. The control profile of the pathway subject to large changes shows both quantitative and qualitative differences from the one obtained from an analysis that is performed with infinitesimal coefficients. This exemplifies the type of errors that may be introduced when drawing conclusions about large metabolic responses from results obtained with an infinitesimal treatment. PMID:12084013

  19. Subcellular Distribution of Enzymes of Glycolate Metabolism in the Alga Cyanidium caldarium1

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Wolfgang; Beevers, Harry

    1989-01-01

    The intracellular distribution of enzymes capable of catalyzing the reactions from phosphoglycolate to glycerate in the bluegreen colored eucaryotic alga Cyanidium caldarium has been studied. After separating the organelles from a crude homogenate on a linear flotation gradient, the enzymes glycolate oxidase and glutamate-glyoxylate aminotransferase along with catalase were present in the peroxisomal fraction (density: 1.23 grams per cubic centimeter). Serine hydroxymethyltransferase was found in the mitochondrial fraction (density: 1.18 grams per cubic centimeter). In contrast to the observations in green leaves of higher plants, the enzymes for the conversion of serine to glycerate (serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase and hydroxypyruvate reductase) were found only in the soluble fraction of the gradient. The partial characterization of enzymes from Cyanidium participating in glycolate metabolism revealed only slight differences from the corresponding enzymes from higher plants. The phylogenetic implications of the observed similarities between the enigmatic alga Cyanidium and higher plants are discussed. PMID:16666880

  20. Control and regulation of metabolic fluxes in microbes by substrates and enzymes.

    PubMed

    van Dam, K; Jansen, N; Postma, P; Richard, P; Ruijter, G; Rutgers, M; Smits, H P; Teusink, B; van der Vlag, J; Walsh, M

    1993-01-01

    The control of enzymes and substrates on the flux through microbial metabolic pathways can be quantified in terms of flux control coefficients. In pathways involving group transfer, the summation theorem for flux control by the enzymes has to be modified: the sum of control by all enzymes is between 1 and 2. The phosphoenolpyruvate:glucose phosphotransferase system is such a pathway. Experimental determination of the control by the enzymes in this pathway is under way. The control of the enzymes on the glycolytic flux in yeast is low, with the possible exception of the uptake step. In Klebsiella pneumoniae potassium and ammonium ions can simultaneously be 'limiting', (i.e. have significant control on growth) at pH6, but not at pH8. This may be due to the fact that at pH8 the high-affinity potassium uptake system is absent. PMID:8279827

  1. In vitro biotransformation and investigation of metabolic enzymes possibly responsible for the metabolism of bisdesoxyolaquindox in the liver fractions of rats, chicken, and pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao-Ying Liu; Dong-Mei Chen; Ling-Li Huang; Yan-Fei Tao; Min Yao; Zong-Hui Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Bisdesoxyolaquindox is a reduced metabolite of olaquindox which is used as a medicinal feed additive in veterinary medicine. The relevant metabolism studies of bisdesoxyolaquindox have been carried out for the first time in rat, chicken, and pig liver subcellular fractions in order to understand the metabolic enzymes that are possibly responsible for the metabolism of olaquindox. The metabolites were characterized

  2. Metaproteomic Analysis of a Chemosynthetic Hydrothermal Vent Community Reveals Insights into Key-Metabolic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, I.; Stokke, R.; Lanzen, A.; Pedersen, R.; Řvreĺs, L.; Urich, T.

    2010-12-01

    In 2005 researchers at the Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, Norway, discovered two active vent fields at the southwestern Mohns Ridge in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. The fields harbours both low-temperature iron deposits and high-temperature white smoker vents. Distinct microbial mats were abundantly present and located in close vicinity to the hydrothermal vent sites. Characteristics of the mat environment were steep physical and chemical gradients with temperatures ranging from 10°C in the top layer to 90°C at 10 cm bsf and high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and methane. The work presented here focus on the In situ community activities, and is part of an integrated strategy combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics to in-depth characterise these newly discovered hydrothermal vent communities. Extracted proteins were separated via SDS-PAGE. Peptides extracted after In-gel tryptic digest was injected into an Ultimate 3000 nanoLC system connected to a linear quadropole ion trap-orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap XL) mass spectrometer equipped with a nanoelectrospray ion source. A custom database of open reading frames (ORFs) from the combined metatranscriptome and metagenome datasets was implemented and searched against using Mascot 2.2; the IRMa tool box [1] was used in peptide validation. Validated ORFs were subjected to a Blastp search against Refseq with an E-value cut-off of 0.001. A total of 1097 proteins with ? 2 peptides were identified of which 921 gave a hit against Refseq, containing 519 unique proteins. Key enzymes of the sulfur oxidation pathway (sox) were found, which were taxonomically affiliated to Epsilonproteobacteria. In addition, this group actively expressed hydrogenases and membrane proteins involved in aerobic and anaerobic respiratory chains. Enzymes of dissimilatory sulfate-reduction (APS-reductase, AprAB and DsrA2) were found with closest hit to members of the Deltaproteobacteria. These findings indicate an internal sulfur cycle within the community. The community contained expressed enzymes of a variety of carbon metabolism pathways. Key enzymes of the reverse TCA cycle for fixation of CO2 and the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for oxidation of acetyl-CoA and / or the fixation of CO2 were found. Key enzymes of aerobic and anaerobic methane-oxidation pathways were identified as well, namely particulate methane monooxygenase and methyl-Coenzyme M reductase. Various house-keeping gene-products, like cold- and heat shock proteins as well as ribosomal proteins and ATP synthases were identified. This approach has a future potential of broadening our understanding of environmental complexity and regulation in response to geochemical constraints. [1] Dupierris, V., Masselon, C., Court, M., Kieffer-Jaquinod, S., and Bruley, C. (2009) A toolbox for validation of mass spectrometry peptides identification and generation of database: IRMa. Bioinformatics 25, 1980-1981.

  3. Mouflon ( Ovis musimon) dicrocoeliosis: Effects of parasitosis on the activities of biotransformation enzymes and albendazole metabolism in liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Skálová; V. K?ížová; V. Cvilink; B. Szotáková; L. Štorkánová; J. Velík; J. Lamka

    2007-01-01

    Parasitic infections can modify the host's ability to metabolize drugs and other xenobiotics by altering the biotransformation enzymes; these changes may have various pharmacological, toxicological or physiological consequences. In our study, several activities of liver biotransformation enzymes and in vitro metabolism of albendazole (ABZ) were tested and compared in non-infected mouflons (Ovis musimon) and in mouflons infected by lancet fluke

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF CHANGES IN XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM ENZYME EXPRESSION DURING AGING USING COMPREHENSIVE TRANSCRIPT PROFILING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aging leads to changes in the expression of enzymes and transporters important in the metabolism and fate of xenobiotics in liver, kidney and intestine. Most notable are the changes in a number of CYP and xenobiotic transporter genes regulated by the nuclear receptors PXR, CAR an...

  5. Modulation of hepatic and renal drug metabolizing enzyme activities in rats by subchronic administration of farnesol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas L. Horn; Lina Long; Michael J. Cwik; Robert L. Morrissey; Izet M. Kapetanovic; David L. McCormick

    2005-01-01

    Farnesol demonstrates antitumor activity in several animal models for human cancer and was being considered for development as a cancer chemopreventive agent. This study was performed to characterize the effects of minimally toxic doses of farnesol on the activity of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes. CD® rats (20\\/sex\\/group) received daily gavage exposure to farnesol doses of 0, 500,

  6. Astrocyte-neuron crosstalk regulates the expression and subcellular localization of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mamczur, Piotr; Borsuk, Borys; Paszko, Jadwiga; Sas, Zuzanna; Mozrzymas, Jerzy; Wi?niewski, Jacek R; Gizak, Agnieszka; Rakus, Dariusz

    2015-02-01

    Astrocytes releasing glucose- and/or glycogen-derived lactate and glutamine play a crucial role in shaping neuronal function and plasticity. Little is known, however, how metabolic functions of astrocytes, e.g., their ability to degrade glucosyl units, are affected by the presence of neurons. To address this issue we carried out experiments which demonstrated that co-culturing of rat hippocampal astrocytes with neurons significantly elevates the level of mRNA and protein for crucial enzymes of glycolysis (phosphofructokinase, aldolase, and pyruvate kinase), glycogen metabolism (glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase), and glutamine synthetase in astrocytes. Simultaneously, the decrease of the capability of neurons to metabolize glucose and glutamine is observed. We provide evidence that neurons alter the expression of astrocytic enzymes by secretion of as yet unknown molecule(s) into the extracellular fluid. Moreover, our data demonstrate that almost all studied enzymes may localize in astrocytic nuclei and this localization is affected by the co-culturing with neurons which also reduces proliferative activity of astrocytes. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that the astrocyte-neuron crosstalk substantially affects the expression of basal metabolic enzymes in the both types of cells and influences their subcellular localization in astrocytes. PMID:25257920

  7. Phylogenetic and biological investigation of the xenobiotic metabolizing arylamine N-acetyltransferase enzyme family among fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes well-characterized in several bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. The role of NATs in fungal biology has only recently been investigated. The NAT1 (FDB2) gene of Fusarium verticillioides was the first NAT cloned and character...

  8. Hepatic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression Through the Life Stages of the Mouse

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). No comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs has been ca...

  9. Exogenous cannabinoids as substrates, inhibitors, and inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stout, Stephen M; Cimino, Nina M

    2014-02-01

    Exogenous cannabinoids are structurally and pharmacologically diverse compounds that are widely used. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the data characterizing the potential for these compounds to act as substrates, inhibitors, or inducers of human drug metabolizing enzymes, with the aim of clarifying the significance of these properties in clinical care and drug interactions. In vitro data were identified that characterize cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) enzymes as potential significant contributors to the primary metabolism of several exogenous cannabinoids: tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; CYPs 2C9, 3A4); cannabidiol (CBD; CYPs 2C19, 3A4); cannabinol (CBN; CYPs 2C9, 3A4); JWH-018 (CYPs 1A2, 2C9); and AM2201 (CYPs 1A2, 2C9). CYP-450 enzymes may also contribute to the secondary metabolism of THC, and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases have been identified as capable of catalyzing both primary (CBD, CBN) and secondary (THC, JWH-018, JWH-073) cannabinoid metabolism. Clinical pharmacogenetic data further support CYP2C9 as a significant contributor to THC metabolism, and a pharmacokinetic interaction study using ketoconazole with oromucosal cannabis extract further supports CYP3A4 as a significant metabolic pathway for THC and CBD. However, the absence of interaction between CBD from oromucosal cannabis extract with omeprazole suggests a less significant role of CYP2C19 in CBD metabolism. Studies of THC, CBD, and CBN inhibition and induction of major human CYP-450 isoforms generally reflect a low risk of clinically significant drug interactions with most use, but specific human data are lacking. Smoked cannabis herb (marijuana) likely induces CYP1A2 mediated theophylline metabolism, although the role of cannabinoids specifically in eliciting this effect is questionable. PMID:24160757

  10. Metabolism as a key to histone deacetylase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Praveen; Williams, David E.; Ho, Emily; Dashwood, Roderick H.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms that are dysregulated in cancer and other human pathologies. Under this broad umbrella, modulators of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity have gained interest as both cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. Of the first generation, FDA-approved HDAC inhibitors to have progressed to clinical trials, vorinostat represents a “direct acting” compound with structural features suitable for docking into the HDAC pocket, whereas romidepsin can be considered a prodrug that undergoes reductive metabolism to generate the active intermediate (a zinc-binding thiol). It is now evident that other agents, including those in the human diet, can be converted by metabolism to intermediates that affect HDAC activity. Examples are cited of short-chain fatty acids, seleno-?-keto acids, small molecule thiols, mercapturic acid metabolites, indoles, and polyphenols. The findings are discussed in the context of putative endogenous HDAC inhibitors generated by intermediary metabolism (e.g. pyruvate), the yin–yang of HDAC inhibition versus HDAC activation, and the screening assays that might be most appropriate for discovery of novel HDAC inhibitors in the future. PMID:21599534

  11. Reciprocal regulation of p53 and malic enzymes modulates metabolism and senescence

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Du, Wenjing; Mancuso, Anthony; Wellen, Kathryn E.; Yang, Xiaolu

    2012-01-01

    Cellular senescence both protects multicellular organisms from cancer and contributes to their aging1. The preeminent tumor suppressor p53 plays an important role in the induction and maintenance of senescence, but how p53 carries out this function remains poorly understood1–3. Additionally, while increasing evidence supports the notion that metabolic changes underlie many cell fate decisions and p53-mediated tumor suppression, few connections between metabolic enzymes and senescence have been established. Here we describe a novel mechanism by which p53 links the functions. We show that p53 represses the expression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle)-associated malic enzyme 1 (ME1) and malic enzyme 2 (ME2). Both MEs are important for NADPH production, lipogenesis, and glutamine metabolism, with ME2 having a more profound effect. Through inhibiting MEs, p53 regulates cell metabolism and proliferation. Down-regulation of ME1 and ME2 reciprocally activates p53 through distinct Mdm2 and AMPK-mediated mechanisms in a feed-forward manner, bolstering this pathway and enhancing p53 activation. Down-regulation of ME1 and ME2 also modulates the outcome of p53 activation leading to strong induction of senescence, but not apoptosis, while enforced expression of either ME suppresses senescence. Our findings define physiological functions of MEs, demonstrate a positive feedback mechanism that sustains p53 activation, and reveal a connection between metabolism and senescence mediated by p53. PMID:23334421

  12. Regional variation in muscle metabolic enzymes in individual American shad (Alosa sapidissima)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leonard, J.B.K.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the activity of metabolic enzymes is often used to asses metabolic capacity at the tissue level, but the amount of regional variability within a tissue in an individual fish of a given species is frequently unknown. The activities of four enzymes (citrate synthase (CS), phosphofructokinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and ??-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD) were assayed in red and white muscle at 10 sites along the body of adult American shad (Alosa sapidissima). Red and white muscle HOAD and white muscle CS and LDH varied significantly, generally increasing posteriorly. Maximal variation occurs in red muscle HOAD (~450%) and white muscle LDH (~60%) activity. Differences between the sexes also vary with sampling location. This study suggests that the variability in enzyme activity may be linked to functional differences in the muscle at different locations, and also provides guidelines for sample collection in this species.

  13. The involvement of extracellular enzymes in the metabolism of Bdellovibrio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mark Engelking; Ramon J. Seidler

    1974-01-01

    Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Three host-independent (H-I)Bdellovibrio species are stimulated in growth by addition to the medium of cell-free host extracts. A mixture of fifteen labeled amino\\u000a acids was used to follow incorporation of counts into trichloroacetic acid (TCA) insoluble material. No label was recovered\\u000a in the nucleic acids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a LabeledEscherichia coli RNA, protein, andAeromonas DNA preparations were hydrolyzed byBdellovibrio extracellular enzymes.

  14. Hydrogenosome Metabolism Is the Key Target for Antiparasitic Activity of Resveratrol against Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Mallo, Natalia; Lamas, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Metronidazole (MDZ) and related 5-nitroimidazoles are the recommended drugs for treatment of trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. However, novel treatment options are needed, as recent reports have claimed resistance to these drugs in T. vaginalis isolates. In this study, we analyzed for the first time the in vitro effects of the natural polyphenol resveratrol (RESV) on T. vaginalis. At concentrations of between 25 and 100 ?M, RESV inhibited the in vitro growth of T. vaginalis trophozoites; doses of 25 ?M exerted a cytostatic effect, and higher doses exerted a cytotoxic effect. At these concentrations, RESV caused inhibition of the specific activity of a 120-kDa [Fe]-hydrogenase (Tvhyd). RESV did not affect Tvhyd gene expression and upregulated pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (a hydrogenosomal enzyme) gene expression only at a high dose (100 ?M). At doses of 50 to 100 ?M, RESV also caused overexpression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), a protective protein found in the hydrogenosome of T. vaginalis. The results demonstrate the potential of RESV as an antiparasitic treatment for trichomoniasis and suggest that the mechanism of action involves induction of hydrogenosomal dysfunction. In view of the results, we propose hydrogenosomal metabolism as a key target in the design of novel antiparasitic drugs. PMID:23478970

  15. Metabolism of myclobutanil and triadimefon by human and rat cytochrome P450 enzymes and liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Barton, H A; Tang, J; Sey, Y M; Stanko, J P; Murrell, R N; Rockett, J C; Dix, D J

    2006-09-01

    Metabolism of two triazole-containing antifungal azoles was studied using expressed human and rat cytochrome P450s (CYP) and liver microsomes. Substrate depletion methods were used due to the complex array of metabolites produced from myclobutanil and triadimefon. Myclobutanil was metabolized more rapidly than triadimefon, which is consistent with metabolism of the n-butyl side-chain in the former and the t-butyl group in the latter compound. Human and rat CYP2C and CYP3A enzymes were the most active. Metabolism was similar in microsomes prepared from livers of control and low-dose rats. High-dose (115 mg kg-1 day-1 of triadimefon or 150 mg kg-1 day-1 of myclobutanil) rats showed increased liver weight, induction of total CYP, and increased metabolism of the two triazoles, though the apparent Km appeared unchanged relative to the control. These data identify CYP enzymes important for the metabolization of these two triazoles. Estimated hepatic clearances suggest that CYP induction may have limited impact in vivo. PMID:16971344

  16. Metabolic pathways of inhaled glucocorticoids by the CYP3A enzymes.

    PubMed

    Moore, Chad D; Roberts, Jessica K; Orton, Christopher R; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P; Reilly, Christopher A; Ward, Robert M; Yost, Garold S

    2013-02-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6?-hydroxylation and ?(6)-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of ?(6)-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

  17. Metabolic Pathways of Inhaled Glucocorticoids by the CYP3A Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Chad D.; Roberts, Jessica K.; Orton, Christopher R.; Murai, Takahiro; Fidler, Trevor P.; Reilly, Christopher A.; Ward, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, for which the mainstay treatment has been inhaled glucocorticoids (GCs). Despite the widespread use of these drugs, approximately 30% of asthma sufferers exhibit some degree of steroid insensitivity or are refractory to inhaled GCs. One hypothesis to explain this phenomenon is interpatient variability in the clearance of these compounds. The objective of this research is to determine how metabolism of GCs by the CYP3A family of enzymes could affect their effectiveness in asthmatic patients. In this work, the metabolism of four frequently prescribed inhaled GCs, triamcinolone acetonide, flunisolide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate, by the CYP3A family of enzymes was studied to identify differences in their rates of clearance and to identify their metabolites. Both interenzyme and interdrug variability in rates of metabolism and metabolic fate were observed. CYP3A4 was the most efficient metabolic catalyst for all the compounds, and CYP3A7 had the slowest rates. CYP3A5, which is particularly relevant to GC metabolism in the lungs, was also shown to efficiently metabolize triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and fluticasone propionate. In contrast, flunisolide was only metabolized via CYP3A4, with no significant turnover by CYP3A5 or CYP3A7. Common metabolites included 6?-hydroxylation and ?6-dehydrogenation for triamcinolone acetonide, budesonide, and flunisolide. The structure of ?6-flunisolide was unambiguously established by NMR analysis. Metabolism also occurred on the D-ring substituents, including the 21-carboxy metabolites for triamcinolone acetonide and flunisolide. The novel metabolite 21-nortriamcinolone acetonide was also identified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. PMID:23143891

  18. Incorporation of enzyme concentrations into FBA and identification of optimal metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    De, Rajat K; Das, Mouli; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2008-01-01

    Background In the present article, we propose a method for determining optimal metabolic pathways in terms of the level of concentration of the enzymes catalyzing various reactions in the entire metabolic network. The method, first of all, generates data on reaction fluxes in a pathway based on steady state condition. A set of constraints is formulated incorporating weighting coefficients corresponding to concentration of enzymes catalyzing reactions in the pathway. Finally, the rate of yield of the target metabolite, starting with a given substrate, is maximized in order to identify an optimal pathway through these weighting coefficients. Results The effectiveness of the present method is demonstrated on two synthetic systems existing in the literature, two pentose phosphate, two glycolytic pathways, core carbon metabolism and a large network of carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of various organisms belonging to different phylogeny. A comparative study with the existing extreme pathway analysis also forms a part of this investigation. Biological relevance and validation of the results are provided. Finally, the impact of the method on metabolic engineering is explained with a few examples. Conclusions The method may be viewed as determining an optimal set of enzymes that is required to get an optimal metabolic pathway. Although it is a simple one, it has been able to identify a carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and the optimal pathway of core carbon metabolic network that is closer to some earlier investigations than that obtained by the extreme pathway analysis. Moreover, the present method has identified correctly optimal pathways for pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways. It has been mentioned using some examples how the method can suitably be used in the context of metabolic engineering. PMID:18634554

  19. Molecular thermodynamics of metabolism: quantum thermochemical calculations for key metabolites.

    PubMed

    Hadadi, N; Ataman, M; Hatzimanikatis, V; Panayiotou, C

    2015-04-28

    The present work is the first of a series of papers aiming at a coherent and unified development of the thermodynamics of metabolism and the rationalization of feasibility analysis of metabolic pathways. The focus in this part is on high-level quantum chemical calculations of the thermochemical quantities of relatively heavy metabolites such as amino acids/oligopeptides, nucleosides, saccharides and their derivatives in the ideal gas state. The results of this study will be combined with the corresponding hydration/solvation results in subsequent parts of this work in order to derive the desired thermochemical quantities in aqueous solutions. The above metabolites exist in a vast conformational/isomerization space including rotational conformers, tautomers or anomers exhibiting often multiple or cooperative intramolecular hydrogen bonding. We examine the challenges posed by these features for the reliable estimation of thermochemical quantities. We discuss conformer search, conformer distribution and averaging processes. We further consider neutral metabolites as well as protonated and deprotonated metabolites. In addition to the traditional presentation of gas-phase acidities, basicities and proton affinities, we also examine heats and free energies of ionic species. We obtain simple linear relations between the thermochemical quantities of ions and the formation quantities of their neutral counterparts. Furthermore, we compare our calculations with reliable experimental measurements and predictive calculations from the literature, when available. Finally, we discuss the next steps and perspectives for this work. PMID:25799954

  20. The effects of coffee on enzymes involved in metabolism of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Turesky; Janique Richoz; Anne Constable; Kellie D. Curtis; Karen H. Dingley; Kenneth W. Turteltaub

    2003-01-01

    The effects of coffee on the metabolism and genotoxicity of the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were investigated. Coffee diminished the bacterial mutagenicity of PhIP in the Ames reversion assay through inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), a key enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of PhIP. When given as part of the diet (0, 1 or 5% w\\/w) to male

  1. Cloning of the malic enzyme gene from Corynebacterium glutamicum and role of the enzyme in lactate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gourdon, P; Baucher, M F; Lindley, N D; Guyonvarch, A

    2000-07-01

    Malic enzyme is one of at least five enzymes, known to be present in Corynebacterium glutamicum, capable of carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions coupling glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To date, no information is available concerning the physiological role of the malic enzyme in this bacterium. The malE gene from C. glutamicum has been cloned and sequenced. The protein encoded by this gene has been purified to homogeneity, and the biochemical properties have been established. Biochemical characteristics indicate a decarboxylation role linked to NADPH generation. Strains of C. glutamicum in which the malE gene had been disrupted or overexpressed showed no detectable phenotype during growth on either acetate or glucose, but showed a significant modification of growth behavior during lactate metabolism. The wild type showed a characteristic brief period of exponential growth on lactate followed by a linear growth period. This growth pattern was further accentuated in a malE-disrupted strain (Delta malE). However, the strain overexpressing malE maintained exponential growth until all lactate had been consumed. This strain accumulated significantly larger amounts of pyruvate in the medium than the other strains. PMID:10877795

  2. PLP-dependent enzymes as entry and exit gates of sphingolipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bourquin, Florence; Capitani, Guido; Grütter, Markus Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Sphingolipids are membrane constituents as well as signaling molecules involved in many essential cellular processes. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) and sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL), both PLP (pyridoxal 5?-phosphate)-dependent enzymes, function as entry and exit gates of the sphingolipid metabolism. SPT catalyzes the condensation of serine and a fatty acid into 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine, whereas SPL degrades sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) into phosphoethanolamine and a long-chain aldehyde. The recently solved X-ray structures of prokaryotic homologs of SPT and SPL combined with functional studies provide insight into the structure–function relationship of the two enzymes. Despite carrying out different reactions, the two enzymes reveal striking similarities in the overall fold, topology, and residues crucial for activity. Unlike their eukaryotic counterparts, bacterial SPT and SPL lack a transmembrane helix, making them targets of choice for biochemical characterization because the use of detergents can be avoided. Both human enzymes are linked to severe diseases or disorders and might therefore serve as targets for the development of therapeutics aiming at the modulation of their activity. This review gives an overview of the sphingolipid metabolism and of the available biochemical studies of prokaryotic SPT and SPL, and discusses the major similarities and differences to the corresponding eukaryotic enzymes. PMID:21710479

  3. The enzymes of biotin dependent CO2 metabolism: What structures reveal about their reaction mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Waldrop, Grover L; Holden, Hazel M; Maurice, Martin St

    2012-01-01

    Biotin is the major cofactor involved in carbon dioxide metabolism. Indeed, biotin-dependent enzymes are ubiquitous in nature and are involved in a myriad of metabolic processes including fatty acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The cofactor, itself, is composed of a ureido ring, a tetrahydrothiophene ring, and a valeric acid side chain. It is the ureido ring that functions as the CO2 carrier. A complete understanding of biotin-dependent enzymes is critically important for translational research in light of the fact that some of these enzymes serve as targets for anti-obesity agents, antibiotics, and herbicides. Prior to 1990, however, there was a dearth of information regarding the molecular architectures of biotin-dependent enzymes. In recent years there has been an explosion in the number of three-dimensional structures reported for these proteins. Here we review our current understanding of the structures and functions of biotin-dependent enzymes. In addition, we provide a critical analysis of what these structures have and have not revealed about biotin-dependent catalysis. PMID:22969052

  4. Stereochemical course, isotope effects, and enzyme inhibitor studies of glaucine metabolism in fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The microbial transformation of the aporphine alkaloid glaucine by the fungi Fusarium solani (ATCC 12823) and Aspergillus flavipes (ATCC 1030) proceeds with complete substrate stereoselectivity. The fungus F. solani metabolizes only S-(+)-glaucine (1) to dehydroglaucine (3), and A. flavipes metabolizes only R-(-)-glaucine (2) to dehydroglaucine. This facile microbiological reaction is useful in the destructive resolution of racemic mixtures of glaucine, and may provide a model for producing pure enantiomers (either R or S) of other aporphines from racemic mixtures. In order to extend the reaction to other aporphines and related alkaloids, the overall stereochemical course and enzyme(s) involved in the reaction, and the substrate requirements of the enzyme were investigated. The overall stereochemical course of the transformation was examined using C-7 methyl-blocked analogs of glaucine, cis- and trans-7-methylglaucine, as substrates for the fungi. Isolation and examination of residual substrates from semi-preparative scale incubations by MS, PMR, PMR with a chiral shift reagent, OR and ORD indicated that the transformation was enantioselective in the case of A. flavipes. However, only a 10% enrichment of 6aR,7R-cis-7-methylglaucine was observed in F. solani cultures. The oxidation of glaucine can be envisioned as proceeding through one of several mechanisms, each involving a different enzyme system. Deuterium isotope, induction and enzyme inhibitor experiments helped to distinguish between the three mechanisms.

  5. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in human skin and SkinEthic reconstructed human skin models.

    PubMed

    Eilstein, Joan; Léreaux, Guillaume; Arbey, Eric; Daronnat, Edwige; Wilkinson, Simon; Duché, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Skin metabolism is becoming a major consideration in the development of new cosmetic ingredients, skin being the first organ exposed to them. In order to replace limited samples of Excised human skin (EHS), in vitro engineered human skins have been developed. 3D models are daily used to develop and evaluate new cosmetic ingredients and have to be characterized and compared with EHS in terms of metabolic capabilities. This work presents the determination of apparent catalytic parameters (apparent Vmax, Km and the ratio Vmax/Km) in 3D models compared with EHS for cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase isoforms involved in drug metabolism, esterases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldehyde dehydrogenases, peroxidases, glutathione S-transferases, N-acetyl transferases, uridinyl diphosphate glucuronyl transferases and sulfotransferases. Results show that all these enzymes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics are expressed and functional in the EHS and 3D models. Also, the Vmax/Km ratios (estimating the intrinsic metabolic clearances) show that the metabolic abilities are the most often comparable between the skin models and EHS. These results indicate that the 3D models can substitute themselves for EHS to select cosmetic ingredients on the basis of their metabolism, efficacy or/and safety. PMID:25808006

  6. Functional genomics and SNP analysis of human genes encoding proline metabolic enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-an A. Hu; D. Bart Williams; Siqin Zhaorigetu; Shadi Khalil; Guanghua Wan; David Valle

    2008-01-01

    Proline metabolism in mammals involves two other amino acids, glutamate and ornithine, and five enzymatic activities, ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) reductase (P5CR), proline oxidase, P5C dehydrogenase, P5C synthase and ornithine-?-aminotransferase\\u000a (OAT). With the exception of OAT, which catalyzes a reversible reaction, the other four enzymes are unidirectional, suggesting\\u000a that proline metabolism is purpose-driven, tightly regulated, and compartmentalized. In addition, this tri-amino-acid system

  7. The Genes and Enzymes of Phosphonate Metabolism by Bacteria, and Their Distribution in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Chiu, Juan F.; Quinn, John P.; McGrath, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphonates are compounds that contain the chemically stable carbon–phosphorus (C–P) bond. They are widely distributed amongst more primitive life forms including many marine invertebrates and constitute a significant component of the dissolved organic phosphorus reservoir in the oceans. Virtually all biogenic C–P compounds are synthesized by a pathway in which the key step is the intramolecular rearrangement of phosphoenolpyruvate to phosphonopyruvate. However C–P bond cleavage by degradative microorganisms is catalyzed by a number of enzymes – C–P lyases, C–P hydrolases, and others of as-yet-uncharacterized mechanism. Expression of some of the pathways of phosphonate catabolism is controlled by ambient levels of inorganic P (Pi) but for others it is Pi-independent. In this report we review the enzymology of C–P bond metabolism in bacteria, and also present the results of an in silico investigation of the distribution of the genes that encode the pathways responsible, in both bacterial genomes and in marine metagenomic libraries, and their likely modes of regulation. Interrogation of currently available whole-genome bacterial sequences indicates that some 10% contain genes encoding putative pathways of phosphonate biosynthesis while ?40% encode one or more pathways of phosphonate catabolism. Analysis of metagenomic data from the global ocean survey suggests that some 10 and 30%, respectively, of bacterial genomes across the sites sampled encode these pathways. Catabolic routes involving phosphonoacetate hydrolase, C–P lyase(s), and an uncharacterized 2-aminoethylphosphonate degradative sequence were predominant, and it is likely that both substrate-inducible and Pi-repressible mechanisms are involved in their regulation. The data we present indicate the likely importance of phosphonate-P in global biogeochemical P cycling, and by extension its role in marine productivity and in carbon and nitrogen dynamics in the oceans. PMID:22303297

  8. Dual function of MIPS1 as a metabolic enzyme and transcriptional regulator.

    PubMed

    Latrasse, David; Jégu, Teddy; Meng, Pin-Hong; Mazubert, Christelle; Hudik, Elodie; Delarue, Marianne; Charon, Céline; Crespi, Martin; Hirt, Heribert; Raynaud, Cécile; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa

    2013-03-01

    Because regulation of its activity is instrumental either to support cell proliferation and growth or to promote cell death, the universal myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS), responsible for myo-inositol biosynthesis, is a critical enzyme of primary metabolism. Surprisingly, we found this enzyme to be imported in the nucleus and to interact with the histone methyltransferases ATXR5 and ATXR6, raising the question of whether MIPS1 has a function in transcriptional regulation. Here, we demonstrate that MIPS1 binds directly to its promoter to stimulate its own expression by locally inhibiting the spreading of ATXR5/6-dependent heterochromatin marks coming from a transposable element. Furthermore, on activation of pathogen response, MIPS1 expression is reduced epigenetically, providing evidence for a complex regulatory mechanism acting at the transcriptional level. Thus, in plants, MIPS1 appears to have evolved as a protein that connects cellular metabolism, pathogen response and chromatin remodeling. PMID:23341037

  9. Allelic expression of phase II metabolizing enzymes and relationship to irinotecan toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tadje, Marsha

    2014-07-01

    Many drugs are associated with variable response rates and, of the 1,200 drugs approved for use in the United States, about 15% are associated with adverse drug responses (Jorde, Carey, & Bamshad, 2010c). Often, variable response and risk for toxicity can be explained because of differences in genes and in the proteins encoded by those genes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for variable expression can be found in genes encoding for drug targets (receptors) or in genes responsible for drug disposition, including those that encode metabolizing enzymes or transporter molecules (Jorde et al., 2010c; Kuo, Lee, & Ma, 2009; Ma & Lu, 2011). Although pharmacogenetics usually refers to drug interactions based on a relatively small number of genes, pharmacogenomics is the preferred term because it refers to interactions within the entire complement of genes (Krau, 2013; Ma & Lu, 2011). This article discusses how SNPs in phase II metabolizing enzymes can influence irinotecan-induced toxicity. PMID:24969255

  10. Dual function of MIPS1 as a metabolic enzyme and transcriptional regulator

    PubMed Central

    Latrasse, David; Jégu, Teddy; Meng, Pin-Hong; Mazubert, Christelle; Hudik, Elodie; Delarue, Marianne; Charon, Céline; Crespi, Martin; Hirt, Heribert; Raynaud, Cécile; Bergounioux, Catherine; Benhamed, Moussa

    2013-01-01

    Because regulation of its activity is instrumental either to support cell proliferation and growth or to promote cell death, the universal myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS), responsible for myo-inositol biosynthesis, is a critical enzyme of primary metabolism. Surprisingly, we found this enzyme to be imported in the nucleus and to interact with the histone methyltransferases ATXR5 and ATXR6, raising the question of whether MIPS1 has a function in transcriptional regulation. Here, we demonstrate that MIPS1 binds directly to its promoter to stimulate its own expression by locally inhibiting the spreading of ATXR5/6-dependent heterochromatin marks coming from a transposable element. Furthermore, on activation of pathogen response, MIPS1 expression is reduced epigenetically, providing evidence for a complex regulatory mechanism acting at the transcriptional level. Thus, in plants, MIPS1 appears to have evolved as a protein that connects cellular metabolism, pathogen response and chromatin remodeling. PMID:23341037

  11. Effect of trifluoperazine on certain arterial wall lipid-metabolizing enzymes inducing atherosclerosis in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mohindroo, A; Ahluwalia, P

    1997-08-01

    The effect of trifluoperazine (TFP) was investigated on arterial wall lipid-metabolizing enzymes like acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) in rhesus monkeys. The activity was determined in aortic wall homogenates obtained from rhesus monkeys fed an atherogenic diet coupled with intramuscular injections of adrenaline and TFP. Although TFP had no significant effect on serum cholesterol and triglycerides, it decreased significantly the formation of atherosclerotic lesions by decreasing the esterification of cholesterol, by inhibiting ACAT and enhancing its utilization by activating CEH. Hence, the preventive effect of TFP on the development of atherosclerosis in rhesus monkeys is mediated through its ability to influence the activities of arterial wall lipid-metabolizing enzymes like ACAT and CEH. PMID:9270979

  12. Controls on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Enzymes: A Key Driver of In Situ Enzyme Activity Rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Wallenstein; Steven D. Allison; Jessica Ernakovich; J. Megan Steinweg; Robert Sinsabaugh

    \\u000a Enzyme activities are commonly measured in lab assays at a single standard temperature, which does not provide any information\\u000a on their temperature sensitivity. Temperature is one of the primary controls on enzyme activities, yet few studies have explored\\u000a how temperature drives enzyme activities in the environment. The temperature sensitivity of enzyme activity is controlled\\u000a by the structure and conformation of

  13. Effect of 2?butanol and 2?butanone on rat hepatic ultrastructure and drug metabolizing enzyme activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Traiger; James V. Bruckner; F. Kirk Dietz; Peter H. Cooke

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a single oral dose of 2?butanol (2.2 ml\\/kg) or 2?butanone (1.87 ml\\/kg) on hepatic ultrastructure and drug?metabolizing enzyme activity was studied in the rat. A 135–197% increase in acetanilide hydroxylase activity was found in rats sacrificed 12–40 h after dosing with 2?butanol or 2?butanone. A 40?h pretreatment with 2?butanone produced a 155% increase in aminopyrine N?demethylase activity.

  14. Effects of peroxisome proliferators and\\/or hypothyroidism on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat testis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalika Mehrotra; Ralf Morgenstern; Gerd Lundqvist; Luisa Becedas; Margot Bengtsson Ahlberg; Antonis Georgellis

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the present work were to study the effects of certain peroxisome proliferators on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in the testes of normal and hypothyroid rats, i.e. phenol sulfotransferases (pST), phenol UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (pUDPGT), glutathione transferases (GST), catalase, epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (QR). Adult male rats (normal and hypothyroid) were treated for 10

  15. Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of tetrahydrocannabinols and cannabinol by human hepatic microsomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhito Watanabe; Satoshi Yamaori; Tatsuya Funahashi; Toshiyuki Kimura; Ikuo Yamamoto

    2007-01-01

    In this study, tetrahydrocannabinols (THCs) were mainly oxidized at the 11-position and allylic sites at the 7?-position for ?8-THC and the 8?-position for ?9-THC by human hepatic microsomes. Cannabinol (CBN) was also mainly metabolized to 11-hydroxy-CBN and 8-hydroxy-CBN by the microsomes. The 11-hydroxylation of three cannabinoids by the microsomes was markedly inhibited by sulfaphenazole, a selective inhibitor of CYP2C enzymes,

  16. Topiramate does not alter expression in rat brain of enzymes of arachidonic acid metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Ghelardoni; Richard P. Bazinet; Stanley I. Rapoport; Francesca Bosetti

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: When administered chronically to rats, drugs that are effective in bipolar disorder—lithium and the anticonvulsants, valproic acid and carbamazepine —have been shown to downregulate the expression of certain enzymes involved in brain arachidonic acid (AA) release and cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated metabolism. Phase II clinical trials with the anticonvulsant topiramate (2,3:4,5-bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-beta-D-fructopyranose sulfamate) suggest that this drug may also be effective for

  17. Association between polymorphisms of folate-metabolizing enzymes and risk of prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Marchal; M. Redondo; A. Reyes-Engel; E. Perea-Milla; M. J. Gaitan; J. Machuca; F. Diaz; J. Caballero; J. Carnero

    2008-01-01

    Polymorphisms of the genes 5?-10?-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR, 677CT and 1298AC), methionine synthase (MTR, 2756AC) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR, 66AC) provoke variations in enzyme activity, which can lead to alterations in the metabolism of folates and in the synthesis of S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), the most active methyl donor in the body. This could play an important role in carcinogenesis through the

  18. Genes, Enzymes, and Regulation of para-Cresol Metabolism in Geobacter metallireducens? †

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Franziska; Heintz, Dimitri; Johannes, Jörg; van Dorsselaer, Alain; Boll, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    In aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria, the degradation of para-cresol (p-cresol) involves the initial hydroxylation to p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol by water catalyzed by the soluble, periplasmatic flavocytochrome p-cresol methylhydroxylase (PCMH; ?2?2 composition). In denitrifying bacteria the further metabolism proceeds via oxidation to p-hydroxybenzoate, the formation of p-hydroxybenzoyl-coenzyme A (CoA), and the subsequent dehydroxylation of the latter to benzoyl-CoA by reduction. In contrast, the strictly anaerobic Desulfobacterium cetonicum degrades p-cresol by addition to fumarate, yielding p-hydroxybenzylsuccinate. In this work, in vitro enzyme activity measurements revealed that the obligately anaerobic Geobacter metallireducens uses the p-cresol degradation pathway of denitrifying bacteria. Surprisingly, PCMH, which is supposed to catalyze both p-cresol hydroxylation and p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation to the corresponding aldehyde, was located in the membrane fraction. The ? subunit of the enzyme was present in two isoforms, suggesting an ????2 composition. We propose that the unusual asymmetric architecture and the membrane association of PCMH might be important for alternative electron transfer routes to either cytochrome c (in the case of p-cresol oxidation) or to menaquinone (in the case of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol oxidation). Unusual properties of further enzymes of p-cresol metabolism, p-hydroxybenzoate-CoA ligase, and p-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA reductase were identified and are discussed. A proteomic approach identified a gene cluster comprising most of the putative structural genes for enzymes involved in p-cresol metabolism (pcm genes). Reverse transcription-PCR studies revealed a different regulation of transcription of pcm genes and the corresponding enzyme activities, suggesting the presence of posttranscriptional regulatory elements. PMID:17449613

  19. Mouse Genetics Suggests Cell-Context Dependency for Myc-Regulated Metabolic Enzymes during Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Lisa M.; Kreutzer, Christiane; Pretsch, Walter; Bornkamm, Georg W.; Nilsson, Jonas A.

    2012-01-01

    c-Myc (hereafter called Myc) belongs to a family of transcription factors that regulates cell growth, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Myc initiates the transcription of a large cast of genes involved in cell growth by stimulating metabolism and protein synthesis. Some of these, like those involved in glycolysis, may be part of the Warburg effect, which is defined as increased glucose uptake and lactate production in the presence of adequate oxygen supply. In this study, we have taken a mouse-genetics approach to challenge the role of select Myc-regulated metabolic enzymes in tumorigenesis in vivo. By breeding ?-Myc transgenic mice, ApcMin mice, and p53 knockout mice with mouse models carrying inactivating alleles of Lactate dehydrogenase A (Ldha), 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) and Serine hydroxymethyltransferase 1 (Shmt1), we obtained offspring that were monitored for tumor development. Very surprisingly, we found that these genes are dispensable for tumorigenesis in these genetic settings. However, experiments in fibroblasts and colon carcinoma cells expressing oncogenic Ras show that these cells are sensitive to Ldha knockdown. Our genetic models reveal cell context dependency and a remarkable ability of tumor cells to adapt to alterations in critical metabolic pathways. Thus, to achieve clinical success, it will be of importance to correctly stratify patients and to find synthetic lethal combinations of inhibitors targeting metabolic enzymes. PMID:22438825

  20. Metabolomic strategies for the identification of new enzyme functions and metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Gareth A; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro S

    2014-06-01

    Recent technological advances in accurate mass spectrometry and data analysis have revolutionized metabolomics experimentation. Activity-based and global metabolomic profiling methods allow simultaneous and rapid screening of hundreds of metabolites from a variety of chemical classes, making them useful tools for the discovery of novel enzymatic activities and metabolic pathways. By using the metabolome of the relevant organism or close species, these methods capitalize on biological relevance, avoiding the assignment of artificial and non-physiological functions. This review discusses state-of-the-art metabolomic approaches and highlights recent examples of their use for enzyme annotation, discovery of new metabolic pathways, and gene assignment of orphan metabolic activities across diverse biological sources. PMID:24829223

  1. Metabolomic strategies for the identification of new enzyme functions and metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Gareth A; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; de Carvalho, Luiz Pedro S

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advances in accurate mass spectrometry and data analysis have revolutionized metabolomics experimentation. Activity-based and global metabolomic profiling methods allow simultaneous and rapid screening of hundreds of metabolites from a variety of chemical classes, making them useful tools for the discovery of novel enzymatic activities and metabolic pathways. By using the metabolome of the relevant organism or close species, these methods capitalize on biological relevance, avoiding the assignment of artificial and non-physiological functions. This review discusses state-of-the-art metabolomic approaches and highlights recent examples of their use for enzyme annotation, discovery of new metabolic pathways, and gene assignment of orphan metabolic activities across diverse biological sources. PMID:24829223

  2. Sucrose-Metabolizing Enzymes in Transport Tissues and Adjacent Sink Structures in Developing Citrus Fruit 1

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Cadance A.; Tomlinson, Patricia T.; Koch, Karen E.

    1989-01-01

    Juice tissues of citrus lack phloem; therefore, photosynthates enroute to juice sacs exit the vascular system on the surface of each segment. Areas of extensive phloem unloading and transport (vascular bundles + segment epidermis) can thus be separated from those of assimilate storage (juice sacs) and adjacent tissues where both processes occur (peel). Sugar composition, dry weight accumulation, and activities of four sucrose-metabolizing enzymes (soluble and cell-wall-bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase, sucrose synthase, and sucrose phosphate synthase) were measured in these transport and sink tissues of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) to determine more clearly whether a given enzyme appeared to be more directly associated with assimilate transport versus deposition or utilization. Results were compared at three developmental stages. Activity of sucrose (per gram fresh weight and per milligram protein) extracted from zones of extensive phloem unloading and transport was significantly greater than from adjacent sink tissues during the stages (II and III) when juice sacs grow most rapidly. In stage II fruit, activity of sucrose synthase also significantly surpassed that of all other sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in extracts from the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). In contrast, sucrose phosphate synthase and alkaline invertase at this stage of growth were the most active enzymes from adjacent, rapidly growing, phloem-free sink tissues (juice sacs). Activity of these two enzymes in extracts from juice sacs was significantly greater than that form the transport tissues (vascular bundles + segment epidermis). Soluble acid invertase was the most active enzyme in extracts from all tissues of very young fruit (stage I), including nonvascular regions, but nearly disappeared prior to the onset of juice sac sugar accumulation. The physiological function of high sucrose synthase activity in the transport tissues during rapid sucrose import remains to be determined. PMID:16666942

  3. Enzyme

    MedlinePLUS

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  4. Evolution of Domain Architectures and Catalytic Functions of Enzymes in Metabolic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Suen, Summit; Lu, Henry Horng-Shing; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Domain architectures and catalytic functions of enzymes constitute the centerpieces of a metabolic network. These types of information are formulated as a two-layered network consisting of domains, proteins, and reactions—a domain–protein–reaction (DPR) network. We propose an algorithm to reconstruct the evolutionary history of DPR networks across multiple species and categorize the mechanisms of metabolic systems evolution in terms of network changes. The reconstructed history reveals distinct patterns of evolutionary mechanisms between prokaryotic and eukaryotic networks. Although the evolutionary mechanisms in early ancestors of prokaryotes and eukaryotes are quite similar, more novel and duplicated domain compositions with identical catalytic functions arise along the eukaryotic lineage. In contrast, prokaryotic enzymes become more versatile by catalyzing multiple reactions with similar chemical operations. Moreover, different metabolic pathways are enriched with distinct network evolution mechanisms. For instance, although the pathways of steroid biosynthesis, protein kinases, and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis all constitute prominent features of animal-specific physiology, their evolution of domain architectures and catalytic functions follows distinct patterns. Steroid biosynthesis is enriched with reaction creations but retains a relatively conserved repertoire of domain compositions and proteins. Protein kinases retain conserved reactions but possess many novel domains and proteins. In contrast, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis has high rates of reaction/protein creations and domain recruitments. Finally, we elicit and validate two general principles underlying the evolution of DPR networks: 1) duplicated enzyme proteins possess similar catalytic functions and 2) the majority of novel domains arise to catalyze novel reactions. These results shed new lights on the evolution of metabolic systems. PMID:22936075

  5. Gestational Age-Dependent Changes in Gene Expression of Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters in Pregnant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Diana L.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P.; MacDonald, James W.; Tsai, Jesse M.; Farin, Frederico M.; Hebert, Mary F.; Thummel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics can be explained by changes in expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters and/or normal physiology. In this study, we determined gestational age-dependent expression profiles for all metabolic enzyme and transporter genes in the maternal liver, kidney, small intestine, and placenta of pregnant mice by microarray analysis. We specifically examined the expression of genes important for xenobiotic, bile acid, and steroid hormone metabolism and disposition, namely, cytochrome P450s (Cyp), UDP-glucuronosyltranserases (Ugt), sulfotransferases (Sult), and ATP-binding cassette (Abc), solute carrier (Slc), and solute carrier organic anion (Slco) transporters. Few Ugt and Sult genes were affected by pregnancy. Cyp17a1 expression in the maternal liver increased 3- to 10-fold during pregnancy, which was the largest observed change in the maternal tissues. Cyp1a2, most Cyp2 isoforms, Cyp3a11, and Cyp3a13 expression in the liver decreased on gestation days (gd) 15 and 19 compared with nonpregnant controls (gd 0). In contrast, Cyp2d40, Cyp3a16, Cyp3a41a, Cyp3a41b, and Cyp3a44 in the liver were induced throughout pregnancy. In the placenta, Cyp expression on gd 10 and 15 was upregulated compared with gd 19. Notable changes were also observed in Abc and Slc transporters. Abcc3 expression in the liver and Abcb1a, Abcc4, and Slco4c1 expression in the kidney were downregulated on gd 15 and 19. In the placenta, Slc22a3 (Oct3) expression on gd 10 was 90% lower than that on gd 15 and 19. This study demonstrates important gestational age-dependent expression of metabolic enzyme and transporter genes, which may have mechanistic relevance to drug disposition in human pregnancy. PMID:23175668

  6. Spatial modulation of key pathway enzymes by DNA-guided scaffold system and respiration chain engineering for improved N-acetylglucosamine production by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Zhu, Yanqiu; Ma, Wenlong; Shin, Hyun-dong; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2014-07-01

    Previously we constructed a Bacillus subtilis strain for efficient production of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) by engineering of GlcNAc synthetic and catabolic pathways. However, the further improvement of GlcNAc titer is limited by the intrinsic inefficiency of GlcNAc synthetic pathway and undesirable cellular properties including sporulation and high maintenance metabolism. In this work, we further improved GlcNAc titer through spatial modulation of key pathway enzymes and by blocking sporulation and decreasing maintenance metabolism. Specifically, a DNA-guided scaffold system was firstly used to modulate the activities of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase and GlcNAc-6-phosphate N-acetyltransferase, increasing the GlcNAc titer from 1.83g/L to 4.55g/L in a shake flask. Next, sporulation was blocked by respectively deleting spo0A (gene encoding the initiation regulon of sporulation) and sigE (gene encoding RNA polymerase sporulation-specific sigma factor). Deletion of sigE more effectively blocked sporulation without altering cell growth or GlcNAc production. The respiration chain was then engineered to decrease the maintenance metabolism of recombinant B. subtilis by deleting cydB and cydC, genes encoding cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase (subunit II) and ATP-binding protein for the expression of cytochrome bd, respectively. The respiration-engineered B. subtilis produced 6.15g/L GlcNAc in a shake flask and 20.58g/L GlcNAc in a 3-L fed-batch bioreactor. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the modulation of pathway enzymes via a DNA-guided scaffold system in B. subtilis. The combination of spatial modulation of key pathway enzymes and optimization of cellular properties may be used to develop B. subtilis as a well-organized cell factory for the production of the other industrially useful chemicals. PMID:24815549

  7. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Archaea: Current Insights into Unusual Enzymes and Pathways and Their Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Dominik; Rauch, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The metabolism of Archaea, the third domain of life, resembles in its complexity those of Bacteria and lower Eukarya. However, this metabolic complexity in Archaea is accompanied by the absence of many “classical” pathways, particularly in central carbohydrate metabolism. Instead, Archaea are characterized by the presence of unique, modified variants of classical pathways such as the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The pentose phosphate pathway is only partly present (if at all), and pentose degradation also significantly differs from that known for bacterial model organisms. These modifications are accompanied by the invention of “new,” unusual enzymes which cause fundamental consequences for the underlying regulatory principles, and classical allosteric regulation sites well established in Bacteria and Eukarya are lost. The aim of this review is to present the current understanding of central carbohydrate metabolic pathways and their regulation in Archaea. In order to give an overview of their complexity, pathway modifications are discussed with respect to unusual archaeal biocatalysts, their structural and mechanistic characteristics, and their regulatory properties in comparison to their classic counterparts from Bacteria and Eukarya. Furthermore, an overview focusing on hexose metabolic, i.e., glycolytic as well as gluconeogenic, pathways identified in archaeal model organisms is given. Their energy gain is discussed, and new insights into different levels of regulation that have been observed so far, including the transcript and protein levels (e.g., gene regulation, known transcription regulators, and posttranslational modification via reversible protein phosphorylation), are presented. PMID:24600042

  8. Effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on blood lipid metabolism enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liang; Yan, Jingna; Luo, Liyong; Zhang, Dongying

    2015-06-10

    Disorders of blood lipid metabolism are the primary risk factors for many diseases. Recently, the effect of Pu-erh tea on blood lipid metabolism has received increasing attention. However, the mechanism underlying its ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism is unclear. We set out to study this through assessing the effects of Pu-erh tea aqueous extract (PTAE) on the central enzymes of blood lipid metabolism, including lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) and pancreatic lipase (PL). We find that the Lp-PLA2, HMRG and PL activities are inhibited by PTAE in a dose-dependent manner and that the LCAT activity tends to increase with increasing PTAE concentrations. Lineweaver-Burk plot analyses reveal that PTAE acts as a competitive inhibitor for HMGR and PL and as a noncompetitive inhibitor for Lp-PLA2. Moreover, we determine that its active ingredients include catechins, gallic acid, caffeine, free amino acids, and soluble sugar. However, the effect of each ingredient and whether any of them have synergistic effects are still unknown. The results suggest that Pu-erh tea has a potent ability to regulate blood lipid metabolism and knowledge of the mechanisms provides insights into its potential therapeutic application as an alternative hypolipidemic drug. PMID:26018873

  9. Regulation of enzymes of serine and one-carbon metabolism by testosterone in rat prostate, liver, and kidney

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Sanborn; R. L. Kowle; H. J. Sallach

    1975-01-01

    A significant decrease in the specific activity of 3 enzymes of serine and one-carbon metabolism (3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, phosphoserine phosphatase, and serine hydroxymethyltransferase) was found in the rat prostate gland with castration. A single injection of testosterone propionate to rats 3 days after castration resulted in a significant increase in the 3 enzyme activities within 24 h. This increase in specific

  10. Mutually exclusive acetylation and ubiquitylation among enzymes involved in glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ande, Sudharsana Rao; Padilla-Meier, G Pauline; Mishra, Suresh

    2013-10-01

    The posttranslational modification (PTM) in protein occurs in a regiospecific manner. In addition, the most commonly occurring PTMs involve similar residues in proteins such as acetylation, ubiquitylation, methylation and sumoylation at the lysine residue and phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc modification at serine/threonine residues. Thus, the possibility of modification sites where two such PTMs may occur in a mutually exclusive manner (ME-PTM) is much higher than known. A recent surge in the identification and the mapping of the commonly occurring PTMs in proteins has revealed that this is indeed the case. However, in what way such ME-PTM sites are regulated and what could be their relevance in the coordinated network of protein function remains to be known. To gain such potential insights in a biological context, we analyzed two most prevalent PTMs on the lysine residue by acetylation and ubiquitylation along with the most abundant PTM in proteins by phosphorylation among enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, a fundamental process in biology. The analysis of the PTM data sets has revealed two important clues that may be intrinsically associated with their regulation and function. First, the most commonly occurring PTMs by phosphorylation, acetylation and ubiquitylation are widespread and clustered in most of the enzymes involved in glucose metabolism; and the prevalence of phosphorylation sites correlates with the number of acetylation and ubiquitylation sites including the ME-modification sites. Second, the prevalence of ME-acetylation/ubiquitylation sites is exceptionally high among enzymes involved in glucose metabolism and have distinct pattern among the subset of enzymes of glucose metabolism such as glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, glycogen synthesis, and the irreversible steps of gluconeogenesis. We hypothesize that phosphorylation including tyrosine phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of ME-acetylation/ubiquitylation sites and their similar pattern among the subset of functionally related proteins allows their coordinated regulation in the normal physiology. Similarly their coordinated dysregulation may underlie the disease processes such as reprogrammed metabolism in cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Our hypothesis provides an opportunity to understand the regulation of ME-PTMs in proteins and their relevance at the network level and is open for experimental validation. PMID:24052902

  11. The effects of space flight on some rat liver enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of space flight conditions on the activities of certain enzymes regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rat liver are investigated in an attempt to account for the losses in body weight observed during space flight despite preflight caloric consumption. Liver samples were analyzed for the activities of 32 cytosolic and microsomal enzymes as well as hepatic glycogen and individual fatty acid levels for ground control rats and rats flown on board the Cosmos 936 biosatellite under normal space flight conditions and in centrifuges which were sacrificed upon recovery or 25 days after recovery. Significant decreases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha-glycerol phosphate acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, aconitase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and an increase in palmitoyl CoA desaturase are found in the flight stationary relative to the flight contrifuged rats upon recovery, with all enzymes showing alterations returning to normal values 25 days postflight. The flight stationary group is also observed to be characterized by more than twice the amount of liver glycogen of the flight centrifuged group as well as a significant increase in the ratio of palmitic to palmitoleic acid. Results thus indicate metabolic changes which may be involved in the mechanism of weight loss during weightlessness, and demonstrate the equivalence of centrifugation during space flight to terrestrial gravity.

  12. Extract from Eugenia punicifolia is an antioxidant and inhibits enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lopes Galeno, Denise Morais; Carvalho, Rosany Piccolotto; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Lima, Arleilson Sousa; Oliveira de Almeida, Patricia Danielle; Pacheco, Carolina Carvalho; Pereira de Souza, Tatiane; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate in vitro biological activities of extract of Eugenia punicifolia leaves (EEP), emphasizing the inhibitory activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome and its antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by free radicals scavengers in vitro assays: DPPH·, ABTS(·+), O2(·?), and NO· and a cell-based assay. EEP were tested in inhibitory colorimetric assays using ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase, and pancreatic lipase enzymes. The EEP exhibited activity in ABTS(·+), DPPH·, and O2(·?) scavenger (IC50 = 10.5 ± 1.2, 28.84 ± 0.54, and 38.12 ± 2.6 ?g/mL), respectively. EEP did not show cytotoxic effects, and it showed antioxidant activity in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EEP exhibited inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase activities in vitro assays (IC50 = 122.8 ± 6.3; 2.9 ± 0.1; 23.5 ± 2.6), respectively; however, EEP did not inhibit the lipase activity. The findings supported that extract of E. punicifolia leaves is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of enzymes, such as ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase, which can result in a reduction in the carbohydrate absorption rate and decrease of risks factors of cardiovascular disease, thereby providing a novel dietary opportunity for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24078187

  13. Structural Phylogenomics Reveals Gradual Evolutionary Replacement of Abiotic Chemistries by Protein Enzymes in Purine Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    The origin of metabolism has been linked to abiotic chemistries that existed in our planet at the beginning of life. While plausible chemical pathways have been proposed, including the synthesis of nucleobases, ribose and ribonucleotides, the cooption of these reactions by modern enzymes remains shrouded in mystery. Here we study the emergence of purine metabolism. The ages of protein domains derived from a census of fold family structure in hundreds of genomes were mapped onto enzymes in metabolic diagrams. We find that the origin of the nucleotide interconversion pathway benefited most parsimoniously from the prebiotic formation of adenine nucleosides. In turn, pathways of nucleotide biosynthesis, catabolism and salvage originated ?300 million years later by concerted enzymatic recruitments and gradual replacement of abiotic chemistries. Remarkably, this process led to the emergence of the fully enzymatic biosynthetic pathway ?3 billion years ago, concurrently with the appearance of a functional ribosome. The simultaneous appearance of purine biosynthesis and the ribosome probably fulfilled the expanding matter-energy and processing needs of genomic information. PMID:23516625

  14. The Role of Intracellular Signaling in Insulin-mediated Regulation of Drug Metabolizing Enzyme Gene and Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang K.; Novak, Raymond F.

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous factors, including hormones, growth factors and cytokines, play an important role in the regulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme expression in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Alterations of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes gene and protein expression, observed in diabetes, fasting, obesity, protein-calorie malnutrition and long-term alcohol consumption alters the metabolism of xenobiotics, including procarcinogens, carcinogens, toxicants, and therapeutic agents and may also impact the efficacy and safety of therapeutic agents, as well as result in drug-drug interactions. Although the mechanisms by which xenobiotics regulate drug metabolizing enzymes have been studied intensively, less is known regarding the cellular signaling pathways and components which regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to hormones and cytokines. Recent findings, however, have revealed that several cellular signaling pathways are involved in hormone- and growth factor-mediated regulation of drug metabolizing enzymes. Our laboratory, and others, have demonstrated that insulin and growth factors regulate drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression, including cytochromes P450, glutathione S-transferases and microsomal epoxide hydrolase, through receptors which are members of the large receptor tyrosine kinase family, and by downstream effectors such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, the mitogen activated protein kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, mTOR, and the p70S6 kinase. Here, we review current knowledge of the signaling pathways implicated in regulation of drug metabolizing enzyme gene and protein expression in response to insulin and growth factors, with the goal of increasing our understanding of how chronic disease affects these signaling pathways, components, and ultimately gene expression and translational control. PMID:17097148

  15. Effects of Water-Borne Copper on Digestive and Metabolic Enzymes of the Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Na Li; Yunlong Zhao; Jian Yang

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential utility of enzyme parameters as indicators of water-borne copper\\u000a (Cu2+) contamination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Activities of the digestive enzymes of tryptase, pepsin, cellulase, amylase, and metabolic enzymes of alkaline phosphatase\\u000a (AKP), acid phosphatase (ACP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were measured in the hepatopancreas

  16. T-2 toxin inhibits gene expression and activity of key steroidogenesis enzymes in mouse Leydig cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian Ying; Zhang, Yong Fa; Meng, Xiang Ping; Li, Yuan Xiao; Ma, Kai Wang; Bai, Xue Fei

    2015-08-01

    T-2 toxin is one of the mycotoxins, a group of type A trichothecenes produced by several fungal genera including Fusarium species, which may lead to the decrease of the testosterone secretion in the primary Leydig cells derived from the mouse testis. The previous study demonstrated the effects of T-2 toxin through direct decrease of the testosterone biosynthesis in the primary Leydig cells derived from the mouse testis. In this study, we further examined the direct biological effects of T-2 toxin on steroidogenesis production, primarily in Leydig cells of mice. Mature mouse Leydig cells were purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation and the cell purity was determined by 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3?-HSD) staining. To examine T-2 toxin-induced testosterone secretion decrease, we measured the transcription levels of 3 key steroidogenic enzymes and 5 enzyme activities including 3?-HSD-1, P450scc, StAR, CYP17A1, and 17?-HSD in T-2 toxin/human chorionicgonadotropin (hCG) co-treated cells. Our previous study showed that T-2 toxin (10(-7)M, 10(-8)M and 10(-9)M) significantly suppressed hCG (10ng/ml)-induced testosterone secretion. The studies demonstrated that the suppressive effect is correlated with the decreases in the levels of transcription of 3?-HSD-1, P450scc, and StAR (P<0.05) and also in enzyme activities of 3?-HSD-1, P450scc, StAR, CYP17A1, and 17?-HSD (P<0.05). PMID:25962641

  17. Regulation of Key Enzymes of Sucrose Biosynthesis in Soybean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheikh, Nordine; Brenner, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    An important part in the understanding of the regulation of carbon partitioning within the leaf is to investigate the endogenous variations of parameters related to carbon metabolism. This study of diurnal changes in the activities of sucrose-synthesizing enzymes and levels of nonstructural carbohydrates in intact leaves of field-grown soybean plants (Glycine max [L.]) showed pronounced diurnal fluctuations in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity. However, there was no distinct diurnal change in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (F1,6BPase). SPS activity in leaves from plants grown in controlled environments presented two peaks during the light period. In contrast to field-grown plants, F1,6BPase activity in leaves from growth chamber-grown plants manifested one peak during the first half of the light period. In plants grown under both conditions, sucrose and starch accumulation rates were highest during early hours of the light period. By the end of the dark period, most of the starch was depleted. A pattern of diurnal fluctuations of abscisic acid (ABA) levels in leaves was also observed under all growing conditions. Either imposition of water stress or exogenous applications of ABA inhibited F1,6BPase activity. However, SPS-extractable activity increased following water deficit but did not change in response to ABA treatment. Gibberellin application to intact soybean leaves increased levels of both starch and sucrose. Both gibberellic acid (10?6m) and gibberellins 4 and 7 (10?5m) increased the activity of SPS but had an inconsistent effect on F1,6BPase. Correlation studies between the activities of SPS and F1,6BPase suggest that these two enzymes are coordinated in their function, but the factors that regulate them may be distinct because they respond differently to certain environmental and physiological changes. PMID:16653110

  18. Cytogenetic markers of susceptibility: influence of polymorphic carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Norppa, H

    1997-01-01

    Polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, responsible for individual differences in metabolic activation and detoxification reactions, may profoundly modulate the effects of chemical carcinogens. In the case of genotoxic carcinogens, differences in biological effects due to genetic polymorphisms can be evaluated by cytogenetic methods such as the analysis of chromosomal aberrations (CAs), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), micronuclei (MN), and changes in chromosome number. These techniques can be applied to any exposure known to induce such alterations, without additional method development for each exposing agent. The influence of polymorphic genes on the cytogenetic effects of a carcinogen can quickly be tested in vitro using metabolically competent cells collected from donors representing different genotypes or phenotypes. For instance, erythrocytes from individuals positive for glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) express GSTT1, whereas GSTT1-null donors, having a homozygous deletion of the GSTT1 gene, completely lack this detoxification enzyme. This deficiency results in highly increased sensitivity to SCE induction in whole-blood lymphocyte cultures by 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane, a reactive metabolite of 1,3-butadiene. The same cytogenetic techniques can also be applied as effect biomarkers in studies of human populations exposed to genotoxic carcinogens. For example, elevated rates of chromosome damage have been detected among smokers lacking glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1-null genotype), and the baseline level of SCEs seems to be increased in GSTT1-null individuals. Information obtained from cytogenetic studies of genetic polymorphisms can be used, for example, to recognize the genotoxically relevant substrates of the polymorphic enzymes, to identify genotypes that are susceptible to these genotoxins, to improve in vitro genotoxicity tests utilizing human cells, to increase the sensitivity of cytogenetic endpoints as biomarkers of genotoxic effects in humans, and to direct mechanistic studies and cancer epidemiology. PMID:9255568

  19. Identification of a Metabolizing Enzyme in Human Kidney by Proteomic Correlation Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hidetaka; Kubota, Kazuishi; Inaba, Shin-ichi; Takanaka, Kaoru; Shinagawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Molecular identification of endogenous enzymes and biologically active substances from complex biological sources remains a challenging task, and although traditional biochemical purification is sometimes regarded as outdated, it remains one of the most powerful methodologies for this purpose. While biochemical purification usually requires large amounts of starting material and many separation steps, we developed an advanced method named “proteomic correlation profiling” in our previous study. In proteomic correlation profiling, we first fractionated biological material by column chromatography, and then calculated each protein's correlation coefficient between the enzyme activity profile and protein abundance profile determined by proteomics technology toward fractions. Thereafter, we could choose possible candidates for the enzyme among proteins with a high correlation value by domain predictions using informatics tools. Ultimately, this streamlined procedure requires fewer purification steps and reduces starting materials dramatically due to low required purity compared with conventional approaches. To demonstrate the generality of this approach, we have now applied an improved workflow of proteomic correlation profiling to a drug metabolizing enzyme and successfully identified alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme (ALPL) as a phosphatase of CS-0777 phosphate (CS-0777-P), a selective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 modulator with potential benefits in the treatment of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, from human kidney extract. We identified ALPL as a candidate protein only by the 200-fold purification and only from 1 g of human kidney. The identification of ALPL as CS-0777-P phosphatase was strongly supported by a recombinant protein, and contribution of the enzyme in human kidney extract was validated by immunodepletion and a specific inhibitor. This approach can be applied to any kind of enzyme class and biologically active substance; therefore, we believe that we have provided a fast and practical option by combination of traditional biochemistry and state-of-the-art proteomic technology. PMID:23674616

  20. Calcium-regulated nuclear enzymes: potential mediators of phytochrome-induced changes in nuclear metabolism?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium ions have been proposed to serve as important regulatory elements in stimulus-response coupling for phytochrome responses. An important test of this hypothesis will be to identify specific targets of calcium action that are required for some growth or development process induced by the photoactivated form of phytochrome (Pfr). Initial studies have revealed that there are at least two enzymes in pea nuclei that are stimulated by Pfr in a Ca(2+)-dependent fashion, a calmodulin-regulated nucleoside triphosphatase and a calmodulin-independent but Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase. The nucleoside triphosphatase appears to be associated with the nuclear envelope, while the protein kinase co-purifies with a nuclear fraction highly enriched for chromatin. This short review summarizes the latest findings on these enzymes and relates them to what is known about Pfr-regulated nuclear metabolism.

  1. In vivo cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzyme characterization using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanfang; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Cameron, Brent D.

    2003-07-01

    The development of a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate in vivo phenotyping methodology for characterizing drug-metabolizing phenotypes with reference to the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes would be very beneficial. In terms of application, in the wake of the human genome project, considerable interest is focused on the development of new drugs whose uses will be tailored to specific genetic polymorphisms, and on the individualization of dosing regimens that are also tailored to meet individual patient needs depending upon genotype. In this investigation, chemical probes for CYP450 enzymes were characterized and identified with Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, gold-based metal colloid clusters were utilized to generate surface enhanced Raman spectra for each of the chemical probes. Results will be presented demonstrating the ability of SERS to identify minute quantities of these probes on the order needed for in vivo application.

  2. Epigenetic changes in gene expression for drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Wha; Han, Nayoung; Burckart, Gilbert J; Oh, Jung Mi

    2014-02-01

    Individual differences in drug response can be caused by genetic and epigenetic variability and disease determinants. Pharmacoepigenetics is a new field that studies the expression changes in pharmacogenes without changes in DNA sequences. Epigenetic control mechanisms are associated with DNA methylation, histone modification, small noncoding RNAs, and nucleosome remodeling. Researchers are actively attempting to identify epigenetic mechanisms for controlling the expression of enzymes and transporters affecting the metabolism and disposition of drugs. Current evidence suggests that epigenetic changes play a major role in cytochrome P450 enzyme expression, major transporter function, and in interactions with nuclear receptors. A thorough understanding of pharmacoepigenetics provides insight into new approaches to drug discovery and development, provides an understanding of previously observed actions of older drugs, and provides a pathway by which epigenetics can be harnessed to provide better patient-specific therapy. PMID:24166985

  3. Drug metabolism by cytochrome p450 enzymes: what distinguishes the pathways leading to substrate hydroxylation over desaturation?

    PubMed

    Ji, Li; Faponle, Abayomi S; Quesne, Matthew G; Sainna, Mala A; Zhang, Jing; Franke, Alicja; Kumar, Devesh; van Eldik, Rudi; Liu, Weiping; de Visser, Sam P

    2015-06-15

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly versatile biological catalysts in our body that react with a broad range of substrates. Key functions in the liver include the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. One particular metabolic pathway that is poorly understood relates to the P450 activation of aliphatic groups leading to either hydroxylation or desaturation pathways. A DFT and QM/MM study has been carried out on the factors that determine the regioselectivity of aliphatic hydroxylation over desaturation of compounds by P450 isozymes. The calculations establish multistate reactivity patterns, whereby the product distributions differ on each of the spin-state surfaces; hence spin-selective product formation was found. The electronic and thermochemical factors that determine the bifurcation pathways were analysed and a model that predicts the regioselectivity of aliphatic hydroxylation over desaturation pathways was established from valence bond and molecular orbital theories. Thus, the difference in energy of the O?H versus the O?C bond formed and the ?-conjugation energy determines the degree of desaturation products. In addition, environmental effects of the substrate binding pocket that affect the regioselectivities were identified. These studies imply that bioengineering P450 isozymes for desaturation reactions will have to include modifications in the substrate binding pocket to restrict the hydroxylation rebound reaction. PMID:25924594

  4. Metabolism of carcinogenic heterocyclic and aromatic amines by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Hammons; Daria Milton; Kristy Stepps

    1997-01-01

    sion systems catalyzed the N-hydroxylation of 4-aminobi- phenyl and the heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3- the initial step in the activation is N-hydroxylation and the methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline (IQ), 2-amino- 3,8-dimethyl- P450 enzymes P450 1A2 and P450 1A1 catalyze the reaction. imidazo(4,5-f)quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1- Metabolic activation and N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic methyl- 6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP). Rates were amines have also been demonstrated with human liver

  5. PAPER www.rsc.org/loc | Lab on a Chip Programmable assembly of a metabolic pathway enzyme in a pre-packaged

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    PAPER www.rsc.org/loc | Lab on a Chip Programmable assembly of a metabolic pathway enzyme in a pre report a biofunctionalization strategy for the assembly of catalytically active enzymes within and temporally defined sites. The enzyme of a bacterial metabolic pathway, S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase

  6. [Hypotensive, organoprotective, and metabolic effects of Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor moexipril in women with postmenopausal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Leonova, M V; Demidova, M A; Tarasov, A V; Belousov, Iu B

    2006-01-01

    Hypotensive, organoprotective, and metabolic effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor moexipril (7.5-15 mg/day for 16 weeks) with or without combination with hydrochlorothiazide was studied in 34 women (mean age 59.6+/-1.6 years) with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Thirty four women had dyslipidemia, 22 -- disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism, 18 -- obesity (mean body mass index 31.1+/-0.8 kg/m(2)). Treatment was associated with lowering of office systolic(-20.1%) and diastolic (-17.4%) blood pressure (BP). Target BP (140/90 mm Hg) was achieved in 27 patients. There also occurred significant lowering of mean 24 hour, diurnal, and nocturnal systolic and diastolic BP (p<0.05), significant changes of values of systolic and diastolic BP time indexes, normalization of which was observed both during day and night hours. Significant lowering of total cholesterol (-11.6%, p<0.05), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (-16.3%, p<0.02), and in patients with obesity of triglycerides (-27%, p<0.02) was revealed at the background of treatment with moexipril. In a group as a whole we observed significant lowering of excretion of albumins and b2-microglobulin; most pronounced antiproteinuretic effect was noted in patients with high microproteinuria and obesity. Vasodilating function of vessels improved in all patients with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome, mainly at the account of increment of endothelium dependent vasodilation and normalization of index of vasodilatation. PMID:16858353

  7. The cyclic dinucleotide c-di-AMP is an allosteric regulator of metabolic enzyme function.

    PubMed

    Sureka, Kamakshi; Choi, Philip H; Precit, Mimi; Delince, Matthieu; Pensinger, Daniel A; Huynh, TuAnh Ngoc; Jurado, Ashley R; Goo, Young Ah; Sadilek, Martin; Iavarone, Anthony T; Sauer, John-Demian; Tong, Liang; Woodward, Joshua J

    2014-09-11

    Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a broadly conserved second messenger required for bacterial growth and infection. However, the molecular mechanisms of c-di-AMP signaling are still poorly understood. Using a chemical proteomics screen for c-di-AMP-interacting proteins in the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, we identified several broadly conserved protein receptors, including the central metabolic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (LmPC). Biochemical and crystallographic studies of the LmPC-c-di-AMP interaction revealed a previously unrecognized allosteric regulatory site 25 Ĺ from the active site. Mutations in this site disrupted c-di-AMP binding and affected catalytic activity of LmPC as well as PC from pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis. C-di-AMP depletion resulted in altered metabolic activity in L. monocytogenes. Correction of this metabolic imbalance rescued bacterial growth, reduced bacterial lysis, and resulted in enhanced bacterial burdens during infection. These findings greatly expand the c-di-AMP signaling repertoire and reveal a central metabolic regulatory role for a cyclic dinucleotide. PMID:25215494

  8. Transcriptional co-regulation of secondary metabolism enzymes in Arabidopsis: functional and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Gachon, Claire M M; Langlois-Meurinne, Mathilde; Henry, Yves; Saindrenan, Patrick

    2005-05-01

    The combined knowledge of the Arabidopsis genome and transcriptome now allows to get an integrated view of the dynamics and evolution of metabolic pathways in plants. We used publicly available sets of microarray data obtained in a wide range of different stress and developmental conditions to investigate the co-expression of genes encoding enzymes of secondary metabolism pathways, in particular indoles, phenylpropanoids, and flavonoids. We performed hierarchical clustering of gene expression profiles and found that major enzymes of each pathway display a clear and robust co-expression throughout all the conditions studied. Moreover, detailed analysis evidenced that some genes display co-regulation in particular physiological conditions only, certainly reflecting their modular recruitment into stress- or developmentally regulated biosynthetic pathways. The combination of these microarray data with sequence analysis allows to draw very precise hypotheses on the function of otherwise uncharacterized genes. To illustrate this approach, we focused our analysis on secondary metabolism glycosyltransferases (UGTs), a multigenic family involved in the conjugation of small molecules to sugars like glucose. We propose that UGT74B1 and UGT74C1 may be involved in aromatic and aliphatic glucosinolates synthesis, respectively. We also suggest that UGT75C1 may function as an anthocyanin-5-O-glucosyltransferase in planta. Therefore, this data-mining approach appears very powerful for the functional prediction of unknown genes, and could be transposed to virtually any other gene family. Finally, we suggest that analysis of expression pattern divergence of duplicated genes also provides some insight into the mechanisms of metabolic pathway evolution. PMID:16027976

  9. Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Heather E. [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)], E-mail: hklein@lsuhsc.edu; Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Zhang, Jun [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States); Evans, Ronald M. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Gene Expression Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Moore, David D. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); DiGiovanni, John [Department of Carcinogenesis, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Science Park-Research Division, Park Road 1-C, Smithville, TX 78957 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have diverse activities in terms of inducing various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes based on their chemical structure.

  10. Identification of metabolic pathways and enzyme systems involved in the in vitro human hepatic metabolism of dronedarone, a potent new oral antiarrhythmic drug

    PubMed Central

    Klieber, Sylvie; Arabeyre-Fabre, Catherine; Moliner, Patricia; Marti, Eric; Mandray, Martine; Ngo, Robert; Ollier, Céline; Brun, Priscilla; Fabre, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro metabolism of dronedarone and its major metabolites has been studied in human liver microsomes and cryopreserved hepatocytes in primary culture through the use of specific or total cytochrome P450 (CYP) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. The identification of the main metabolites and enzymes participating in their metabolism was also elucidated by using rhCYP, rhMAO, flavin monooxygenases (rhFMO) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (rhUGT) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) analysis. Dronedarone was extensively metabolized in human hepatocytes with a metabolic clearance being almost completely inhibited (98 ± 2%) by 1-aminobenzotriazole. Ketoconazole also inhibited dronedarone metabolism by 89 ± 7%, demonstrating the crucial role of CYP3A in its metabolism. CYP3A isoforms mostly contributed to N-debutylation while hydroxylation on the butyl-benzofuran moiety was catalyzed by CYP2D6. However, hydroxylation on the dibutylamine moiety did not appear to be CYP-dependent. N-debutyl-dronedarone was less rapidly metabolized than dronedarone, the major metabolic pathway being catalyzed by MAO-A to form propanoic acid-dronedarone and phenol-dronedarone. Propanoic acid-dronedarone was metabolized at a similar rate to that of N-debutyl-dronedarone and was predominantly hydroxylated by CYP2C8 and CYP1A1. Phenol-dronedarone was extensively glucuronidated while C-dealkyl-dronedarone was metabolized at a slow rate. The evaluation of the systemic clearance of each metabolic process together with the identification of both the major metabolites and predominant enzyme systems and isoforms involved in the formation and subsequent metabolism of these metabolites has enhanced the overall understanding of metabolism of dronedarone in humans. PMID:25505590

  11. Identification of Multiple Phosphorylation Sites on Maize Endosperm Starch Branching Enzyme IIb, a Key Enzyme in Amylopectin Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Makhmoudova, Amina; Williams, Declan; Brewer, Dyanne; Massey, Sarah; Patterson, Jenelle; Silva, Anjali; Vassall, Kenrick A.; Liu, Fushan; Subedi, Sanjeena; Harauz, George; Siu, K. W. Michael; Tetlow, Ian J.; Emes, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Starch branching enzyme IIb (SBEIIb) plays a crucial role in amylopectin biosynthesis in maize endosperm by defining the structural and functional properties of storage starch and is regulated by protein phosphorylation. Native and recombinant maize SBEIIb were used as substrates for amyloplast protein kinases to identify phosphorylation sites on the protein. A multidisciplinary approach involving bioinformatics, site-directed mutagenesis, and mass spectrometry identified three phosphorylation sites at Ser residues: Ser649, Ser286, and Ser297. Two Ca2+-dependent protein kinase activities were partially purified from amyloplasts, termed K1, responsible for Ser649 and Ser286 phosphorylation, and K2, responsible for Ser649 and Ser297 phosphorylation. The Ser286 and Ser297 phosphorylation sites are conserved in all plant branching enzymes and are located at opposite openings of the 8-stranded parallel ?-barrel of the active site, which is involved with substrate binding and catalysis. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis indicates that phospho-Ser297 forms a stable salt bridge with Arg665, part of a conserved Cys-containing domain in plant branching enzymes. Ser649 conservation appears confined to the enzyme in cereals and is not universal, and is presumably associated with functions specific to seed storage. The implications of SBEIIb phosphorylation are considered in terms of the role of the enzyme and the importance of starch biosynthesis for yield and biotechnological application. PMID:24550386

  12. Update on the Genetic Polymorphisms of Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes in Antiepileptic Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Saruwatari, Junji; Ishitsu, Takateru; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2010-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in the genes that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes are implicated in the inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, the clinical impact of these polymorphisms on AED therapy still remains controversial. The defective alleles of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and/or CYP2C19 could affect not only the pharmacokinetics, but also the pharmacodynamics of phenytoin therapy. CYP2C19 deficient genotypes were associated with the higher serum concentration of an active metabolite of clobazam, N-desmethylclobazam, and with the higher clinical efficacy of clobazam therapy than the other CYP2C19 genotypes. The defective alleles of CYP2C9 and/or CYP2C19 were also found to have clinically significant effects on the inter-individual variabilities in the population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital, valproic acid and zonisamide. EPHX1 polymorphisms may be associated with the pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine and the risk of phenytoin-induced congenital malformations. Similarly, the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 genotype may affect the pharmacokinetics of lamotrigine. Gluthatione S-transferase null genotypes are implicated in an increased risk of hepatotoxicity caused by carbamazepine and valproic acid. This article summarizes the state of research on the effects of mutations of drug-metabolizing enzymes on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AED therapies. Future directions for the dose-adjustment of AED are discussed.

  13. Role of aldo-keto reductase family 1 (AKR1) enzymes in human steroid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rižner, Tea Lanišnik; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-01-01

    Human aldo-keto reductases AKR1C1-AKR1C4 and AKR1D1 play essential roles in the metabolism of all steroid hormones, the biosynthesis of neurosteroids and bile acids, the metabolism of conjugated steroids, and synthetic therapeutic steroids. These enzymes catalyze NADPH dependent reductions at the C3, C5, C17 and C20 positions on the steroid nucleus and side-chain. AKR1C1-AKR1C4 act as 3-keto, 17-keto and 20-ketosteroid reductases to varying extents, while AKR1D1 acts as the sole ?(4)-3-ketosteroid-5?-reductase (steroid 5?-reductase) in humans. AKR1 enzymes control the concentrations of active ligands for nuclear receptors and control their ligand occupancy and trans-activation, they also regulate the amount of neurosteroids that can modulate the activity of GABAA and NMDA receptors. As such they are involved in the pre-receptor regulation of nuclear and membrane bound receptors. Altered expression of individual AKR1C genes is related to development of prostate, breast, and endometrial cancer. Mutations in AKR1C1 and AKR1C4 are responsible for sexual development dysgenesis and mutations in AKR1D1 are causative in bile-acid deficiency. PMID:24189185

  14. Optimizing the Distribution of Resources between Enzymes of Carbon Metabolism Can Dramatically Increase Photosynthetic Rate: A Numerical Simulation Using an Evolutionary Algorithm1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xin-Guang; de Sturler, Eric; Long, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of resources between enzymes of photosynthetic carbon metabolism might be assumed to have been optimized by natural selection. However, natural selection for survival and fecundity does not necessarily select for maximal photosynthetic productivity. Further, the concentration of a key substrate, atmospheric CO2, has changed more over the past 100 years than the past 25 million years, with the likelihood that natural selection has had inadequate time to reoptimize resource partitioning for this change. Could photosynthetic rate be increased by altered partitioning of resources among the enzymes of carbon metabolism? This question is addressed using an “evolutionary” algorithm to progressively search for multiple alterations in partitioning that increase photosynthetic rate. To do this, we extended existing metabolic models of C3 photosynthesis by including the photorespiratory pathway (PCOP) and metabolism to starch and sucrose to develop a complete dynamic model of photosynthetic carbon metabolism. The model consists of linked differential equations, each representing the change of concentration of one metabolite. Initial concentrations of metabolites and maximal activities of enzymes were extracted from the literature. The dynamics of CO2 fixation and metabolite concentrations were realistically simulated by numerical integration, such that the model could mimic well-established physiological phenomena. For example, a realistic steady-state rate of CO2 uptake was attained and then reattained after perturbing O2 concentration. Using an evolutionary algorithm, partitioning of a fixed total amount of protein-nitrogen between enzymes was allowed to vary. The individual with the higher light-saturated photosynthetic rate was selected and used to seed the next generation. After 1,500 generations, photosynthesis was increased substantially. This suggests that the “typical” partitioning in C3 leaves might be suboptimal for maximizing the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis. An overinvestment in PCOP enzymes and underinvestment in Rubisco, sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase were indicated. Increase in sink capacity, such as increase in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, was also indicated to lead to increased CO2 uptake rate. These results suggest that manipulation of partitioning could greatly increase carbon gain without any increase in the total protein-nitrogen investment in the apparatus for photosynthetic carbon metabolism. PMID:17720759

  15. Overview of chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta: Identification, domain organization, phylogenetic analysis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tetreau, Guillaume; Cao, Xiaolong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Jiang, Haobo; Blissard, Gary W; Kanost, Michael R; Wang, Ping

    2015-07-01

    Chitin is one of the most abundant biomaterials in nature. The biosynthesis and degradation of chitin in insects are complex and dynamically regulated to cope with insect growth and development. Chitin metabolism in insects is known to involve numerous enzymes, including chitin synthases (synthesis of chitin), chitin deacetylases (modification of chitin by deacetylation) and chitinases (degradation of chitin by hydrolysis). In this study, we conducted a genome-wide search and analysis of genes encoding these chitin metabolism enzymes in Manduca sexta. Our analysis confirmed that only two chitin synthases are present in M. sexta as in most other arthropods. Eleven chitin deacetylases (encoded by nine genes) were identified, with at least one representative in each of the five phylogenetic groups that have been described for chitin deacetylases to date. Eleven genes encoding for family 18 chitinases (GH18) were found in the M. sexta genome. Based on the presence of conserved sequence motifs in the catalytic sequences and phylogenetic relationships, two of the M. sexta chitinases did not cluster with any of the current eight phylogenetic groups of chitinases: two new groups were created (groups IX and X) and their characteristics are described. The result of the analysis of the Lepidoptera-specific chitinase-h (group h) is consistent with its proposed bacterial origin. By analyzing chitinases from fourteen species that belong to seven different phylogenetic groups, we reveal that the chitinase genes appear to have evolved sequentially in the arthropod lineage to achieve the current high level of diversity observed in M. sexta. Based on the sequence conservation of the catalytic domains and on their developmental stage- and tissue-specific expression, we propose putative functions for each group in each category of enzymes. PMID:25616108

  16. Genetically Modeled Mice with Mutations in Mitochondrial Metabolic Enzymes for the Study of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Piruat, José I.; Millán-Uclés, África

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been implicated in progression of cancer. As a paradigm, the “Warburg effect,” which by means of a switch toward anaerobic metabolism enables cancer cells to proliferate in oxygen limiting conditions, is well established. Besides this metabolic transformation of tumors, it has been discovered that mutations in genes encoding mitochondrial proteins are the etiological factors in different types of cancer. This confers to mitochondrial dysfunction a causative role, rather than resultant, in tumor genesis beyond its role in tumor progression and development. Mitochondrial proteins encoded by tumor-suppressor genes are part of the succinate-dehydrogenase, the fumarate-hydratase, and the mitochondrial isocitrate-dehydrogenase enzymes, all of them participating in the Krebs cycle. The spectrum of tumors associated with mutations in these genes is becoming larger and varies between each enzyme. Several mechanisms of tumorigenesis have been proposed for the different enzymatic defects, most of them based on studies using cellular and animal models. Regarding the molecular pathways implicated in the oncogenic transformation, one of the first accepted theories was based on the constitutive expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (Hif1?) at normal oxygen tension, a theory referred to as “pseudo-hypoxic drive.” This mechanism has been linked to the three types of mutations, thus suggesting a central role in cancer. However, other alternative molecular processes, such as oxidative stress or altered chromatin remodeling, have been also proposed to play an onco-pathogenic role. In the recent years, the role of oncometabolites, a new concept emerged from biochemical studies upon these tumors, has acquired relevance as responsible for tumor formation. Nevertheless, the actual contribution of each of these mechanisms has not been definitively established. In this review, we summarize the results obtained from mouse strains genetically modified in the three different enzymes. PMID:25126540

  17. Antimutagenic potential and modulation of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes by ginger essential oil.

    PubMed

    Jeena, Kottarapat; Liju, Vijayasteltar B; Viswanathan, Ramanath; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2014-06-01

    Essential oil extracted from ginger (GEO) was evaluated for its mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, TA 100, TA 102, and TA 1535 strains with and without microsomal activation. GEO was found to be non-mutagenic up to a concentration of 3?mg/plate. It was also assessed for antimutagenic potential against direct acting mutagens such as sodium azide, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, tobacco extract, and 2-acetamidoflourene, which needs microsomal activation. GEO significantly inhibited (p?metabolizing enzymes was investigated by studying its effect on various isoforms of microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Significant inhibition of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP2B1/2, aniline hydroxylase (an indicator of CYP2E1 activity), and aminopyrine-N-demethylase (indicator of CYP1A, 2A, 2B, 2D, and 3A activity) was shown by GEO both in vitro and in vivo. GEO gave an IC50 value of 30, 57.5, and 40?µg for CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP2B1/2, respectively, 55?µg for aniline hydroxylase, and 37.5?µg for aminopyrene-N-demethylase. GEO also significantly increased the levels of phase II carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronyl transferase and glutathione-S-transferase in vivo indicating the use of GEO as an antimutagen and as a potential chemopreventive agent. PMID:24023002

  18. Discovery of new enzymes and metabolic pathways by using structure and genome context.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suwen; Kumar, Ritesh; Sakai, Ayano; Vetting, Matthew W; Wood, B McKay; Brown, Shoshana; Bonanno, Jeffery B; Hillerich, Brandan S; Seidel, Ronald D; Babbitt, Patricia C; Almo, Steven C; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Gerlt, John A; Cronan, John E; Jacobson, Matthew P

    2013-10-31

    Assigning valid functions to proteins identified in genome projects is challenging: overprediction and database annotation errors are the principal concerns. We and others are developing computation-guided strategies for functional discovery with 'metabolite docking' to experimentally derived or homology-based three-dimensional structures. Bacterial metabolic pathways often are encoded by 'genome neighbourhoods' (gene clusters and/or operons), which can provide important clues for functional assignment. We recently demonstrated the synergy of docking and pathway context by 'predicting' the intermediates in the glycolytic pathway in Escherichia coli. Metabolite docking to multiple binding proteins and enzymes in the same pathway increases the reliability of in silico predictions of substrate specificities because the pathway intermediates are structurally similar. Here we report that structure-guided approaches for predicting the substrate specificities of several enzymes encoded by a bacterial gene cluster allowed the correct prediction of the in vitro activity of a structurally characterized enzyme of unknown function (PDB 2PMQ), 2-epimerization of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline betaine (tHyp-B) and cis-4-hydroxy-D-proline betaine (cHyp-B), and also the correct identification of the catabolic pathway in which Hyp-B 2-epimerase participates. The substrate-liganded pose predicted by virtual library screening (docking) was confirmed experimentally. The enzymatic activities in the predicted pathway were confirmed by in vitro assays and genetic analyses; the intermediates were identified by metabolomics; and repression of the genes encoding the pathway by high salt concentrations was established by transcriptomics, confirming the osmolyte role of tHyp-B. This study establishes the utility of structure-guided functional predictions to enable the discovery of new metabolic pathways. PMID:24056934

  19. Genetic polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes modify the association between Smoking and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Nguyen, Deanna D; Sauk, Jenny; Yajnik, Vijay; Xavier, Ramnik J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is a well established environmental risk factor for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The exact mechanism of its effect remains unexplained. Genetic polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes may influence susceptibility to the effect of smoking and shed light on its mechanism of action. Methods We utilized a prospective cohort of patients with CD, UC, and healthy controls. Smoking status was defined as current, former, or never smoking. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms in CYP2A6, glutathione transferase enzymes (GSTP1 and GSTM1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (NQO), and Heme Oxygenase 1 using a Sequenom platform. Multivariate logistic regression models with CD or UC as the outcome, stratified by genotype were developed and interaction p-values calculated. Results Our study included 634 patients with CD, 401 with UC, and 337 healthy controls. Ever smokers had an increased risk of CD (OR 3.88, 95% CI 2.35 – 6.39) compared to non-smokers among patients with AG/AA genotypes at CYP2A6. However, ever smoking was not associated with CD among patients with the AA genotype (pinteraction 0.001). Former smoking was associated with an increased risk for UC only in the presence of GG/AG genotypes for GSTP1, but not in those with the AA genotype (Pinteraction 0.012). Polymorphisms at the NQO and HMOX loci did not demonstrate a statistically significant interaction with smoking and risk of CD or UC. Conclusion Genetic polymorphisms in metabolizing enzymes may influence the association between smoking and CD and UC. Further studies of gene-environment interaction in IBD are warranted. PMID:24651583

  20. Effect of honokiol on the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong-Yeon; Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kim, Jeong-Han; Lee, Hye Suk

    2014-01-01

    Honokiol, 2-(4-hydroxy-3-prop-2-enyl-phenyl)-4-prop-2-enyl-phenol, an active component of Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia grandiflora, exerts various pharmacological activities such as antitumorigenic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic, and antithrombotic effects. To investigate whether honokiol acts as a perpetrator in drug interactions, messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels of phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1), were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following 48-hour honokiol exposure in three independent cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. Honokiol treatment at the highest concentration tested (50 ?M) increased the CYP2B6 mRNA level and CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion hydroxylase activity more than two-fold in three different hepatocyte cultures, indicating that honokiol induces CYP2B6 at higher concentrations. However, honokiol treatment (0.5-50 ?M) did not significantly alter the mRNA levels of phase I enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19) or phase II enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and SULT2A1) in cryopreserved human hepatocyte cultures. CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylase and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activities were not affected by 48-hour honokiol treatment in cryopreserved human hepatocytes. These results indicate that honokiol is a weak CYP2B6 inducer and is unlikely to increase the metabolism of concomitant CYP2B6 substrates and cause pharmacokinetic-based drug interactions in humans. PMID:25395831

  1. Dorsomedial hindbrain catecholamine regulation of hypothalamic astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme protein expression: Impact of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Tamrakar, P; Shrestha, P K; Briski, K P

    2015-04-30

    The brain astrocyte glycogen reservoir is a vital energy reserve and, in the cerebral cortex, subject among other factors to noradrenergic control. The ovarian steroid estradiol potently stimulates nerve cell aerobic respiration, but its role in glial glycogen metabolism during energy homeostasis or mismatched substrate supply/demand is unclear. This study examined the premise that estradiol regulates hypothalamic astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme protein expression during normo- and hypoglycemia in vivo through dorsomedial hindbrain catecholamine (CA)-dependent mechanisms. Individual astrocytes identified in situ by glial fibrillary acidic protein immunolabeling were laser-microdissected from the ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH), arcuate hypothalamic (ARH), and paraventricular hypothalamic (PVH) nuclei and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of estradiol (E)- or oil (O)-implanted ovariectomized (OVX) rats after insulin or vehicle injection, and pooled within each site. Stimulation [VMH, LHA] or suppression [PVH, ARH] of basal glycogen synthase (GS) protein expression by E was reversed in the former three sites by caudal fourth ventricular pretreatment with the CA neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). E diminished glycogen phosphorylase (GP) protein profiles by CA-dependent [VMH, PVH] or -independent mechanisms [LHA]. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) increased GS expression in the PVH in OVX+E, but reduced this protein in the PVH, ARH, and LHA in OVX+O. Moreover, IIH augmented GP expression in the VMH, LHA, and ARH in OVX+E and in the ARH in OVX+O, responses that normalized by 6-OHDA. Results demonstrate site-specific effects of E on astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme expression in the female rat hypothalamus, and identify locations where dorsomedial hindbrain CA input is required for such action. Evidence that E correspondingly increases and reduces basal GS and GP in the VMH and LHA, but augments the latter protein during IIH suggests that E regulates glycogen content and turnover in these structures during glucose sufficiency and shortage. PMID:25701713

  2. Correlation of Homocysteine Metabolic Enzymes Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Xinjiang Uygur Population

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Mei; Ji, Huihui; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liang, Jie; Zou, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic polymorphisms in the homocysteine (HCY) metabolic enzymes in the Xinjiang Uygur population who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Material/Methods Based on the epidemiological investigation, 129 cases of diagnosed Uygur MCI patients and a matched control group with 131 cases were enrolled for analyzing the association between the polymorphisms in the HCY metabolism related genes (C677T, A1298C, and G1968A polymorphisms in MTHFR, as well as the A2756G polymorphism in MS) and MCI by using the SNaPshot method. We then determined the homocysteine level in patients. Results In Xinjiang Uygur subjects, the A1298C polymorphisms in MTHFR and the A2756G polymorphisms in the MS gene in the MCI group were different from those in the control group. However, the C677T and G1968A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene in MCI patients were not different from those in the control group. Multivariate logistic regression showed that, in addition to the well-known risk factors, such as low education level, high cholesterol level, high level of low-density lipoprotein, and high homocysteine levels, the A>G mutation in the MS gene at the rs1805087 locus was another independent risk factor for MCI in the Uyghur MCI population. The risk of MCI in G allele carriers was 2.265 times higher than that in matched control individuals (95% CI: 1.205~4.256, P<0.05). Conclusions The genetic polymorphism of HCY metabolizing enzymes is correlated to the occurrence of MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. The A2756G polymorphism in the MS gene could be an independent risk factor for MCI in the Xinjiang Uygur population. PMID:25625218

  3. De novo biosynthesis of secondary metabolism enzymes in homogeneous cultures of Penicillium urticae.

    PubMed Central

    Grootwassink, J W; Gaucher, G M

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of patulin biosynthesis in submerged batch cultures of Penicillium urticae NRRL 2159A was investigated at the enzyme level. In contrast to earlier studies, this study achieved a clear temporal separation of growing cells devoid of secondary metabolism-specific enzymes from nongrowing cells, which rapidly produce these enzymes. A spore inoculum, silicone-treated flasks, and two new media which supported a rapid, pellet-free, filamentous type of growth were used. In yeast extract-glucose-buffer medium, a marked drop in the specific growth rate (approximately equal to 0.26 h-1) coincided with the appearance of the first pathway-specific enzyme, 6-methylsalicylic acid synthetase, at about 19 h after inoculation. About 3 h later, when replicatory growth had ceased entirely, the sparsely branched mycelia (length, approximately equal to 550 microns) began the rapid synthesis of a later pathway enzyme, m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. A similar sequence of events occurred in a defined nitrate-glucose-buffer medium; 12 other strains or isolates of P. urticae, as well as some patulin-producing aspergilli, behaved in a similar manner. The age at which a culture produced m-hydroxybenzyl alcohol dehydrogenase was increased by increasing the nutrient nitrogen content of the medium or by decreasing the size of the spore inoculum. In each instance the appearance of enzyme was determined by the nutritional status of the culture and not by its age. A similar appearance of patulin pathway enzymes occurred when a growing culture was resuspended in a nitrogen-free 4% glucose solution with or without 0.1 M phosphate (pH 6.5). The appearance of both the synthetase and the dehydrogenase was arrested by the addition of cycloheximide (0.4 to 5 micrograms/ml) or actinomycin D (20 to 80 micrograms/ml). This requirement for de novo protein and ribonucleic acid syntheses was confirmed by the incorporation of labeled leucine into the dehydrogenase, and the possibility that latent or preformed proteins were being activated was eliminated. Images PMID:6988382

  4. Submitochondrial localization and function of enzymes of glutamine metabolism in avian liver

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) was localized within the matrix compartment of avian liver mitochondria. The submitochondrial localization of this enzyme was determined by the digitonin-Lubrol method of Schnaitman and Greenawalt (35). The matrix fraction contained over 74% of the glutamine synthetase activity and the major proportion of the matirx marker enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (71%), NADP- dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (83%), and glutamate dehydrogenase (57%). The highest specific activities of these enzymes were also found in the matrix compartment. Oxidation of glutamine by avian liver mitochondria was substantially less than that of glutamate. Bromofuroate, an inhibitor of glutamate dehydrogenase, blocked oxidation of glutamate and of glutamine whereas aminoxyacetate, a transaminase inhibitor, had little or no effect with either substrate. These results indicate that glutamine metabolism is probably initiated by the conversion of glutamine to glutamate rather than to an alpha- keto acid. The localization of a glutaminase activity within avian liver mitochondria plus the absence of an active mitochondrial glutamine transaminase is consistent with the differential effects of the transaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase inhibitors. The high glutamine synthetase activity (40:1) suggests that mitochondrial catabolism of glutamine is minimal, freeing most of the glutamine synthesized for purine (uric acid) biosynthesis. PMID:16018

  5. A combined computational-experimental analyses of selected metabolic enzymes in Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Deepak; Lim, Chu Sing; Chow, Vincent T K; Sakharkar, Kishore R; Sakharkar, Meena K

    2008-01-01

    Comparative genomic analysis has revolutionized our ability to predict the metabolic subsystems that occur in newly sequenced genomes, and to explore the functional roles of the set of genes within each subsystem. These computational predictions can considerably reduce the volume of experimental studies required to assess basic metabolic properties of multiple bacterial species. However, experimental validations are still required to resolve the apparent inconsistencies in the predictions by multiple resources. Here, we present combined computational-experimental analyses on eight completely sequenced Pseudomonas species. Comparative pathway analyses reveal that several pathways within the Pseudomonas species show high plasticity and versatility. Potential bypasses in 11 metabolic pathways were identified. We further confirmed the presence of the enzyme O-acetyl homoserine (thiol) lyase (EC: 2.5.1.49) in P. syringae pv. tomato that revealed inconsistent annotations in KEGG and in the recently published SYSTOMONAS database. These analyses connect and integrate systematic data generation, computational data interpretation, and experimental validation and represent a synergistic and powerful means for conducting biological research. PMID:18802474

  6. A combined computational-experimental analyses of selected metabolic enzymes in Pseudomonas species

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Deepak; Lim, Chu Sing; Chow, Vincent T.K.; Sakharkar, Kishore R.; Sakharkar, Meena K.

    2008-01-01

    Comparative genomic analysis has revolutionized our ability to predict the metabolic subsystems that occur in newly sequenced genomes, and to explore the functional roles of the set of genes within each subsystem. These computational predictions can considerably reduce the volume of experimental studies required to assess basic metabolic properties of multiple bacterial species. However, experimental validations are still required to resolve the apparent inconsistencies in the predictions by multiple resources. Here, we present combined computational-experimental analyses on eight completely sequenced Pseudomonas species. Comparative pathway analyses reveal that several pathways within the Pseudomonas species show high plasticity and versatility. Potential bypasses in 11 metabolic pathways were identified. We further confirmed the presence of the enzyme O-acetyl homoserine (thiol) lyase (EC: 2.5.1.49) in P. syringae pv. tomato that revealed inconsistent annotations in KEGG and in the recently published SYSTOMONAS database. These analyses connect and integrate systematic data generation, computational data interpretation, and experimental validation and represent a synergistic and powerful means for conducting biological research. PMID:18802474

  7. Garlic Oil Attenuated Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis by Modulating the Metabolic Activation and Detoxification Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cui-Li; Zeng, Tao; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a potent carcinogen widely existing in the environment. Our previous study has demonstrated that garlic oil (GO) could prevent NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. It has been well documented that the metabolic activation may play important roles in NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we designed the current study to explore the potential mechanisms by investigating the changes of hepatic phase ? enzymes (including cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP) 2E1, CYP1A2 and CYP1A1) and phase ? enzymes (including glutathione S transferases (GSTs) and UDP- Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)) by using enzymatic methods, real-time PCR, and western blotting analysis. We found that NDEA treatment resulted in significant decreases of the activities of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu, UGTs and increases of the activities of CYP1A1 and GST pi. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of CYP2E1, CYP1A2, GST alpha, GST mu and UGT1A6 in the liver of NDEA-treated rats were significantly decreased compared with those of the control group rats, while the mRNA and protein levels of CYP1A1 and GST pi were dramatically increased. Interestingly, all these adverse effects induced by NDEA were simultaneously and significantly suppressed by GO co-treatment. These data suggest that the protective effects of GO against NDEA-induced hepatocarcinogenesis might be, at least partially, attributed to the modulation of phase I and phase II enzymes. PMID:23494807

  8. Antioxidative Properties and Inhibition of Key Enzymes Relevant to Type-2 Diabetes and Hypertension by Essential Oils from Black Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademosun, Ayokunle O.; Odubanjo, Oluwatoyin V.; Akinbola, Ifeoluwa A.

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant properties and effect of essential oil of black pepper (Piper guineense) seeds on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase (key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes), and angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) (key enzyme linked to hypertension) were assessed. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and dried with anhydrous Na2SO4, and the phenolic content, radical [1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and nitric oxide (NO)] scavenging abilities as well as the ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe2+-chelating ability of the essential oil were investigated. Furthermore, the effect on ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities was also investigated. The characterization of the constituents was done using GC. The essential oil scavenged DPPH?, NO?, and ABTS? and chelated Fe2+. ?-Pinene, ?-pinene, cis-ocimene, myrcene, allo-ocimene, and 1,8-cineole were among the constituents identified by GC. The essential oil inhibited ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and ACE enzyme activities in concentration-dependent manners, though exhibiting a stronger inhibition of ?-glucosidase than ?-amylase activities. Conclusively, the phenolic content, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, and angiotensin-1 converting enzyme activities by the essential oil extract of black pepper could be part of the mechanism by which the essential oil could manage and/or prevent type-2 diabetes and hypertension. PMID:24348547

  9. Long-term effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and metabolic control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana C N Chan; Gary T C Ko; Denis H Y Leung; Robert C K Cheung; Margaret Y F Cheung; Wing-Yee So; Ramasmyiyer Swaminathan; M Gary Nicholls; Julian A J H Critchley; Clive S Cockram

    2000-01-01

    Long-term effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and metabolic control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients.BackgroundIn hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients, treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors is associated with a lower incidence of cardiovascular events than those treated with calcium channel-blocking agents. However, the long-term renal effects of ACE inhibitors in these patients remain inconclusive. In 1989, we commenced a

  10. Complete Proteomic-Based Enzyme Reaction and Inhibition Kinetics Reveal How Monolignol Biosynthetic Enzyme Families Affect Metabolic Flux and Lignin in Populus trichocarpa[W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jack P.; Naik, Punith P.; Chen, Hsi-Chuan; Shi, Rui; Lin, Chien-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Shuford, Christopher M.; Li, Quanzi; Sun, Ying-Hsuan; Tunlaya-Anukit, Sermsawat; Williams, Cranos M.; Muddiman, David C.; Ducoste, Joel J.; Sederoff, Ronald R.; Chiang, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    We established a predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model for the 21 enzymes and 24 metabolites of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway using Populus trichocarpa secondary differentiating xylem. To establish this model, a comprehensive study was performed to obtain the reaction and inhibition kinetic parameters of all 21 enzymes based on functional recombinant proteins. A total of 104 Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters and 85 inhibition kinetic parameters were derived from these enzymes. Through mass spectrometry, we obtained the absolute quantities of all 21 pathway enzymes in the secondary differentiating xylem. This extensive experimental data set, generated from a single tissue specialized in wood formation, was used to construct the predictive kinetic metabolic-flux model to provide a comprehensive mathematical description of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway. The model was validated using experimental data from transgenic P. trichocarpa plants. The model predicts how pathway enzymes affect lignin content and composition, explains a long-standing paradox regarding the regulation of monolignol subunit ratios in lignin, and reveals novel mechanisms involved in the regulation of lignin biosynthesis. This model provides an explanation of the effects of genetic and transgenic perturbations of the monolignol biosynthetic pathway in flowering plants. PMID:24619611

  11. Variation in the Activity of Some Enzymes of Photorespiratory Metabolism in C4 Grasses

    PubMed Central

    UENO, OSAMU; YOSHIMURA, YASUYUKI; SENTOKU, NAOKI

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Photorespiration occurs in C4 plants, although rates are small compared with C3 plants. The amount of glycine decarboxylase in the bundle sheath (BS) varies among C4 grasses and is positively correlated with the granal index (ratio of the length of appressed thylakoid membranes to the total length of all thylakoid membranes) of the BS chloroplasts: C4 grasses with high granal index contained more glycine decarboxylase per unit leaf area than those with low granal index, probably reflecting the differences in O2 production from photosystem II and the potential photorespiratory capacity. Thus, it is hypothesized that the activities of peroxisomal enzymes involved in photorespiration are also correlated with the granal development. • Methods The granal development in BS chloroplasts was investigated and activities of the photorespiratory enzymes assayed in 28 C4 grasses and seven C3 grasses. • Key Results The NADP–malic enzyme grasses were divided into two groups: one with low granal index and the other with relatively high granal index in the BS chloroplasts. Both the NAD–malic enzyme and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase grasses had high granal index in the BS chloroplasts. No statistically significant differences were found in activity of hydroxypyruvate reductase between the C3 and C4 grasses, or between the C4 subtypes. The activity of glycolate oxidase and catalase were smaller in the C4 grasses than in the C3 grasses. Among the C4 subtypes, glycolate oxidase activities were significantly smaller in the NADP–malic enzyme grasses with low granal index in the BS chloroplasts, compared with in the C4 grasses with substantial grana in the BS chloroplasts. • Conclusions There is interspecies variation in glycolate oxidase activity associated with the granal development in the BS chloroplasts and the O2 production from photosystem II, which suggests different potential photorespiration capacities among C4 grasses. PMID:16100226

  12. Curcumin and resveratrol in combination modulate drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as antioxidant indices during lung carcinogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Wu, Y-M; Yu, Y; Cao, C-S; Zhang, J-H; Li, K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated combined chemopreventive potential of curcumin and resveratrol during benzo(a)pyrene (BP)-induced lung carcinogenesis in mice. The mice were segregated into five groups that included normal control, BP-treated, BP + curcumin-treated, BP + resveratrol-treated, and BP + curcumin + resveratrol-treated groups. A statistically significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed in the lungs of mice after 22 weeks of single dose of benzo(a)pyrene. Further, BP treatment also resulted in a significant increase in the enzyme activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase as well as drug-metabolizing enzymes, namely cytocrome P450 and cytochrome b5. On the other hand, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were found to be significantly decreased following BP treatment. Supplementation with curcumin and resveratrol to BP-treated mice significantly decreased the LPO levels, GSH levels, and enzyme activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes. Further, treatment of curcumin and resveratrol to BP-treated mice significantly elevated the activities of SOD, GR, and GST. Histoarchitectural studies showed well-differentiated signs of lung carcinogenesis following BP administration to mice. However, combined treatment with curcumin and resveratrol resulted in a noticeable improvement in the lung histoarchitecture. This study, therefore, concludes that curcumin and resveratrol when supplemented in combination regulate drug-metabolizing enzymes as well as antioxidant enzymes during lung carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:25632966

  13. Effects of Rumex patientia L. extract on some drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Silig, Yavuz; Cetinkaya, Oge; Demirezer, L Omur

    2004-02-01

    The effect of aqueous extract from the roots of Rumex patientia L. (Polygonaceae) (D-1), a traditional Turkish medicine used as a laxative and cholagogue, on drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P4502E1, NADPH cytochrome c reductase, NADH cytochrome b5 reductase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were studied in male Wistar albino rat liver. A significant increase was observed in cytochrome P4502E1 and GST activities, but not in NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase activities. Serum AST and ALT activities were found within the normal laboratory range values. The results demonstrated that the aqueous extract of R. patientia triggers induction of cytochrome P4502E1 in liver and cytosolic GST activity. PMID:22896908

  14. In vitro drug metabolism by human carboxylesterase 1: focus on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Ragnar; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Linnet, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) is the major hydrolase in human liver. The enzyme is involved in the metabolism of several important therapeutic agents, drugs of abuse, and endogenous compounds. However, no studies have described the role of human CES1 in the activation of two commonly prescribed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: enalapril and ramipril. Here, we studied recombinant human CES1- and CES2-mediated hydrolytic activation of the prodrug esters enalapril and ramipril, compared with the activation of the known substrate trandolapril. Enalapril, ramipril, and trandolapril were readily hydrolyzed by CES1, but not by CES2. Ramipril and trandolapril exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics, while enalapril demonstrated substrate inhibition kinetics. Intrinsic clearances were 1.061, 0.360, and 0.02 ml/min/mg protein for ramipril, trandolapril, and enalapril, respectively. Additionally, we screened a panel of therapeutic drugs and drugs of abuse to assess their inhibition of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate by recombinant CES1 and human liver microsomes. The screening assay confirmed several known inhibitors of CES1 and identified two previously unreported inhibitors: the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, isradipine, and the immunosuppressive agent, tacrolimus. CES1 plays a role in the metabolism of several drugs used in the treatment of common conditions, including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus; thus, there is a potential for clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. The findings in the present study may contribute to the prediction of such interactions in humans, thus opening up possibilities for safer drug treatments. PMID:24141856

  15. Functional Polymorphisms in Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes and Their Impact on the Therapy of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vianna-Jorge, Rosane; Festa-Vasconcellos, Juliana Simőes; Goulart-Citrangulo, Sheyla Maria Torres; Leite, Marcelo Sobral

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the top cancer among women, and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Although the mortality tends to decrease due to early detection and treatment, there is great variability in the rates of clinical response and survival, which makes breast cancer one of the most appealing targets for pharmacogenomic studies. The recognition that functional CYP2D6 polymorphisms affect tamoxifen pharmacokinetics has motivated the attempts of using CYP2D6 genotyping for predicting breast cancer outcomes. In addition to tamoxifen, the chemotherapy of breast cancer includes combinations of cytotoxic drugs, which are substrates for various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. Because of these drugs’ narrow therapeutic window, it has been postulated that impaired biotransformation could lead to increased toxicity. In the present review, we performed a systematic search of all published data exploring associations between polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and clinical outcomes of breast cancer. We retrieved 43 original articles involving either tamoxifen or other chemotherapeutic protocols, and compiled all information regarding response or toxicity. The data indicate that, although CYP2D6 polymorphisms can indeed modify tamoxifen pharmacokinetics, CYP2D6 genotyping alone is not enough for predicting breast cancer outcomes. The studies involving other chemotherapeutic protocols explored a great diversity of pharmacogenetic targets, but the number of studies for each functional polymorphism is still very limited, with usually no confirmation of positive associations. In conclusion, the application of pharmacogenetics to predict breast cancer outcomes and to select one individual’s chemotherapeutic protocol is still far from clinical routine. Although some very interesting results have been produced, no clear practical recommendations are recognized yet. PMID:23346096

  16. Metabolism of carcinogenic heterocyclic and aromatic amines by recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Hammons, G J; Milton, D; Stepps, K; Guengerich, F P; Tukey, R H; Kadlubar, F F

    1997-04-01

    The N-hydroxylation of carcinogenic arylamines represents an initial step in their metabolic activation. Animal studies have shown that this reaction is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes P450 1A1 and P450 1A2. In this study, utilizing enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli (and purified) or in human B-lymphoblastoid cells, the catalytic activities of recombinant human P450 1A1, P450 1A2, and P450 3A4 for N-hydroxylation of several carcinogenic arylamines were determined. P450 1A2 from both expression systems catalyzed the N-hydroxylation of 4-aminobiphenyl and the heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f/quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Rates were similar, with values of 1.1-7.8 nmol/min/nmol P450. In contrast, P450 1A1 catalyzed N-hydroxylation of only PhIP, and no activity was observed with P450 3A4. Further kinetic analysis with purified P450 1A2 showed similar Km and Vmax values for N-hydroxylation of the arylamines. Furafylline and fluvoxamine, inhibitors of P450 1A2 activity in human liver microsomes, were found to be inhibitory of the recombinant P450 1A2 N-hydroxylation activity. Results from this study are supportive of a major role for human P450 1A2 in the metabolic activation of arylamines. PMID:9111224

  17. The evolution of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase in plants: a key enzyme in proline synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreia Carina Turchetto-Zolet; Marcia Margis-Pinheiro; Rogerio Margis

    2009-01-01

    Many plants synthesize and accumulate proline in response to osmotic stress conditions. A central enzyme in the proline biosynthesis\\u000a is the bifunctional enzyme ?1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) that includes two functional catalytic domains: the ?-glutamyl kinase and the glutamic-?-semialdehyde\\u000a dehydrogenase. This enzyme catalyzes the first two steps of the proline biosynthetic pathway and plays a central role in the\\u000a regulation of

  18. Polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzymes, fish intake, and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Joshi, Amit D; Corral, Román; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2012-07-01

    Cooking fish at high temperature can produce potent carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of these carcinogens may undergo modification by the enzymes responsible for their detoxification and/or activation. In this study, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in nine carcinogen metabolism enzymes and their modifying effects on the association between white or dark fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk. We genotyped 497 localized and 936 advanced PCA cases and 760 controls from the California Collaborative Case-Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Three polymorphisms, EPHX1 Tyr113His, CYP1B1 Leu432Val and GSTT1 null/present, were associated with localized PCA risk. The PTGS2 765 G/C polymorphism modified the association between white fish consumption and advanced PCA risk (interaction P 5 0.002), with high white fish consumption being positively associated with risk only among carriers of the C allele. This effect modification by PTGS2 genotype was stronger when restricted to consumption of well-done white fish (interaction P 5 0.021). These findings support the hypotheses that changes in white fish brought upon by high-temperature cooking methods, such as carcinogen accumulation and/or fatty acid composition changes, may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. However, the gene-diet interactions should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Thus, our findings require further validation with additional studies. PMID:22610071

  19. Inhibitors of plant invertases do not affect the structurally related enzymes of fructan metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Ute; Harms, Karsten; Rausch, Thomas; Greiner, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    Plant fructan active enzymes (FAZYs), including the enzymes involved in inulin metabolism, namely sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; EC 2.4.1.99), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT; EC 2.4.1.100) and fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH; EC 3.2.1.153), are evolutionarily related to acid invertases (AIs), that is, plant cell wall invertase (CWI) and vacuolar invertase (VI). Acid invertases are post-translationally controlled by proteinaceous inhibitors. Whether FAZYs are subject to similar controls is not known. To probe their possible interactions with invertase inhibitors, we transiently expressed chicory (Cichorium intybus) FAZYs, as well as several previously characterized invertase inhibitors from nonfructan species, and the C. intybus cell wall/vacuolar inhibitor of fructosidase (CiC/VIF), a putative invertase inhibitor of a fructan-accumulating plant, in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana. Leaf extracts containing recombinant, enzymatically active FAZYs were used to explore the interaction with invertase inhibitors. Neither heterologous inhibitors nor CiC/VIF affected FAZY activities. CiC/VIF was confirmed as an AI inhibitor with a stronger effect on CWI than on VI. Its expression in planta was developmentally regulated (high in taproots, and undetectable in leaves and flowers). In agreement with its target specificities, CiC/VIF was associated with the cell wall. It is concluded that subtle structural differences between AIs and FAZYs result in pronounced selectivity of inhibitor action. PMID:19037899

  20. Involvement of glutathione and glutathione metabolizing enzymes in human colorectal cancer cell lines and tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum Daseul; Zhang, Rui; Han, Xia; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Piao, Mei Jing; Maeng, Young Hee; Chang, Weon Young; Hyun, Jin Won

    2015-09-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) is an abundant tripeptide present in the majority of cell types. GSH is highly reactive and is often conjugated to other molecules, via its sulfhydryl moiety. GSH is synthesized from glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine via two sequential ATP?consuming steps, which are catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL) and GSH synthetase (GSS). However, the role of GSH in cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to determine the levels of GSH and GSH synthetic enzymes in human colorectal cancer. The mRNA and protein expression levels of GSH, the catalytic subunit of GCL (GCLC) and GSS were significantly higher in the following five colon cancer cell lines: Caco?2, SNU?407, SNU?1033, HCT?116, and HT?29, as compared with the normal colon cell line, FHC. Similarly, in 9 out of 15 patients with colon cancer, GSH expression levels were higher in tumor tissue, as compared with adjacent normal tissue. In addition, the protein expression levels of GCLC and GSS were higher in the tumor tissue of 8 out of 15, and 10 out of 15 patients with colon cancer respectively, as compared with adjacent normal tissue. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed that GCLC and GSS were expressed at higher levels in colon cancer tissue, as compared with normal mucosa. Since GSH and GSH metabolizing enzymes are present at elevated levels in colonic tumors, they may serve as clinically useful biomarkers of colon cancer, and/or targets for anti-colon cancer drugs. PMID:26059756

  1. Sterol composition of yeast organelle membranes and subcellular distribution of enzymes involved in sterol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Zinser, E; Paltauf, F; Daum, G

    1993-01-01

    Organelles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated and analyzed for sterol composition and the activity of three enzymes involved in sterol metabolism. The plasma membrane and secretory vesicles, the fractions with the highest sterol contents, contain ergosterol as the major sterol. In other subcellular membranes, which exhibit lower sterol contents, intermediates of the sterol biosynthetic pathway were found at higher percentages. Lipid particles contain, in addition to ergosterol, large amounts of zymosterol, fecosterol, and episterol. These sterols are present esterified with long-chain fatty acids in this subcellular compartment, which also harbors practically all of the triacylglycerols present in the cell but very little phospholipids and proteins. Sterol delta 24-methyltransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes one of the late steps in sterol biosynthesis, was localized almost exclusively in lipid particles. Steryl ester formation is a microsomal process, whereas steryl ester hydrolysis occurs in the plasma membrane and in secretory vesicles. The fact that synthesis, storage, and hydrolysis of steryl esters occur in different subcellular compartments gives rise to the view that ergosteryl esters of lipid particles might serve as intermediates for the supply of ergosterol from internal membranes to the plasma membrane. PMID:8491706

  2. Regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes by xenobiotic receptors: PXR and CAR?

    PubMed Central

    Tolson, Antonia H.; Wang, Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and transporters play pivotal roles in the disposition and detoxification of numerous foreign and endogenous chemicals. To accommodate chemical challenges, the expression of many DMEs and transporters is up-regulated by a group of ligand-activated transcription factors namely nuclear receptors (NRs). The importance of NRs in xenobiotic metabolism and clearance is best exemplified by the most promiscuous xenobiotic receptors: pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane/activated receptor (CAR, NR1I3). Together, these two receptors govern the inductive expression of a largely overlapping array of target genes encoding phase I and II DMEs, and drug transporters. Moreover, PXR and CAR also represent two distinctive mechanisms of NR activation, whereby CAR demonstrates both constitutive and ligand-independent activation. In this review, recent advances in our understanding of PXR and CAR as xenosensors are discussed with emphasis placed on the differences rather than similarities of these two xenobiotic receptors in ligand recognition and target gene regulation. PMID:20727377

  3. Characterization of the human tumor suppressors TIG3 and HRASLS2 as phospholipid-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Toru; Jin, Xing-Hua; Tsuboi, Kazuhito; Tonai, Takeharu; Ueda, Natsuo

    2009-12-01

    Tazarotene-induced protein 3 (TIG3) and HRAS-like suppressor family 2 (HRASLS2) exhibit tumor-suppressing activities and belong to the lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) protein family. Since Ca(2+)-independent N-acyltransferase and H-rev107 (another tumor suppressor), both of which are members of the LRAT family, have been recently reported to possess catalytic activities related to phospholipid metabolism, we examined possible enzyme activities of human TIG3 and HRASLS2 together with human H-rev107. The purified recombinant proteins of TIG3, HRASLS2, and H-rev107 functioned as phospholipase (PL) A(1/2) in a Ca(2+)-independent manner with maximal activities of 0.53, 0.67, and 2.57 micromol/min/mg of protein, respectively. The proteins were active with various phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), and for most of substrates the PLA(1) activity was much higher than the PLA(2) activity. In addition, HRASLS2 catalyzed N-acylation of PE to form N-acyl-PE and O-acylation of lyso PC to form PC. TIG3 and H-rev107 catalyzed the N-acylation and O-acylation at relatively low rates. Moreover, these three proteins showed different expression profiles in human tissues. These results suggest that the tumor suppressors TIG3, HRASLS2 and H-rev107 are involved in the phospholipid metabolism with different physiological roles. PMID:19615464

  4. Differential effects of thyroxine on metabolic enzymes and other macromolecules in a freshwater teleost.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, G; Verma, Priyanka

    2003-04-01

    The effects of thyroxine (T(4)) on citrate synthase (CS), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), DNA, RNA, and protein of various tissues were studied to elucidate the hormonal control of metabolism in a freshwater catfish, Clarias batrachus. T(4) did not produce any significant effect on DNA content of the fish. The CS, RNA, and protein contents of brain, liver, and skeletal muscle of the fish exposed to thiourea for 28 days decreased approximately 50-58% as compared to their levels in control individuals. Injection of T(4) to thiourea-exposed fish produced about three-fold increases in CS, RNA, and protein. These macromolecular inductions by T(4) were blocked by actinomycin D or cycloheximide. This suggests T(4)-induced de novo synthesis of macromolecules and stimulation of aerobic capacity. However, the activities of G6-PDH and LDH of brain, liver, and skeletal muscle of the fish exposed to thiourea increased two times that of the activities in control individuals. Administration of T(4) to thiourea-exposed fish reduced LDH and G6-PDH activities by about 64-74%, which reflects T(4)-dependent inhibition in anaerobic power and selective anabolic activities of the HMP pathway. These differential effects of T(4) on some metabolic enzymes and other important macromolecules may be to meet the other T(4)-induced responses in the freshwater catfish. PMID:12658717

  5. Molecular, cellular, and tissue impact of depleted uranium on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, Yann; Rouas, Caroline; Monin, Audrey; Manens, Line; Stefani, Johanna; Delissen, Olivia; Grison, Stéphane; Dublineau, Isabelle

    2014-02-01

    Enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics (XME) are well recognized in experimental models as representative indicators of organ detoxification functions and of exposure to toxicants. As several in vivo studies have shown, uranium can alter XME in the rat liver or kidneys after either acute or chronic exposure. To determine how length or level of exposure affects these changes in XME, we continued our investigation of chronic rat exposure to depleted uranium (DU, uranyl nitrate). The first study examined the effect of duration (1-18 months) of chronic exposure to DU, the second evaluated dose dependence, from a level close to that found in the environment near mining sites (0.2 mg/L) to a supra-environmental dose (120 mg/L, 10 times the highest level naturally found in the environment), and the third was an in vitro assessment of whether DU exposure directly affects XME and, in particular, CYP3A. The experimental in vivo models used here demonstrated that CYP3A is the enzyme modified to the greatest extent: high gene expression changed after 6 and 9 months. The most substantial effects were observed in the liver of rats after 9 months of exposure to 120 mg/L of DU: CYP3A gene and protein expression and enzyme activity all decreased by more than 40 %. Nonetheless, no direct effect of DU by itself was observed after in vitro exposure of rat microsomal preparations, HepG2 cells, or human primary hepatocytes. Overall, these results probably indicate the occurrence of regulatory or adaptive mechanisms that could explain the indirect effect observed in vivo after chronic exposure. PMID:24146111

  6. Investigations on three genes in Ralstonia eutropha H16 encoding putative cyanophycin metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Adames, Katja; Euting, Karina; Bröker, Anna; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The genome sequence of the facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16 exhibited two coding sequences with high homologies to cyanophycin synthetases (CphA) as well as one gene coding for a putative cyanophycinase (CphB). To investigate whether or not the genes cphA H16 (H16_A0774), cphA'H16 (H16_A0775) and cphB H16 (H16_B1013) encode active cyanophycin (CGP) metabolism proteins, several functional analyses were performed. Extensive in silico analysis revealed that all characteristic motifs are conserved within CphAH16, whereas CphA'H16 misses a large part of the so-called J-loop present in other active cyanophycin synthetases. Although transcription of both genes was demonstrated by RT-PCR, and heterologously expressed cphA genes led to light-scattering inclusions in recombinant cells of Escherichia coli, no CGP could be isolated from the cells or detected by HPLC analysis. For all enzyme assay experiments carried out, significant enzyme activities were determined for CphA and CphA' in recombinant E. coli cells if crude cell extracts were applied. Homologous expression of cphA genes in cells of R. eutropha H16?phaC1 did not result in the formation of light-scattering inclusions, and no CGP could be isolated from the cells or detected by HPLC analysis. No transcription of cphB encoding a putative cyanophycinase could be detected by RT-PCR analysis and no overexpression was achieved in several strains of E. coli. Furthermore, no enzyme activity was detected by using CGP overlay agar plates. PMID:23224585

  7. Berberine bridge enzyme, a key branch-point enzyme in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis, contains a vacuolar sorting determinant.

    PubMed

    Bird, D A; Facchini, P J

    2001-10-01

    In opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.), (S)-reticuline is the last common intermediate in sanguinarine and morphine biosynthesis. Sanguinarine accumulates in the vacuole of cultured opium poppy cells in response to treatment with fungal elicitors. The first committed step in sanguinarine biosynthesis is catalyzed by the berberine bridge enzyme (BBE), which converts (S)-reticuline to (S)-scoulerine. An N-terminal signal peptide and novel vacuolar sorting determinant were identified and characterized in BBE. In vitro translation of BBE mRNA in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomes produced a glycosylated, proteolysis-resistant protein, confirming the existence of a signal peptide. Transcripts encoding a BBE N-terminal deletion series fused to beta-glucuronidase or green fluorescent protein (GFP) were also translated in the presence of canine microsomes, and introduced into cultured opium poppy cells via microprojectile bombardment. The signal peptide was restricted to the first 25 amino acids and shown to initially target BBE to the endoplasmic reticulum. Fusion of 50 N-terminal residues from BBE to GFP resulted in the localization of the reporter to the vacuole. GFP was also sorted to the vacuole when fused to a heterologous N-terminal signal peptide followed by BBE amino acids 26-50. The BBE vacuolar sorting determinant was further localized between residues 26 and 41 by deletion analysis. The final subcellular destination of BBE is consistent with the vacuolar sequestration of sanguinarine. However, the vacuolar pH is below the functional range for BBE, suggesting that the enzyme is active only prior to its entry into the vacuole. PMID:11722125

  8. Xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in cells used for testing skin sensitization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fabian, E; Vogel, D; Blatz, V; Ramirez, T; Kolle, S; Eltze, T; van Ravenzwaay, B; Oesch, F; Landsiedel, R

    2013-09-01

    For ethical and regulatory reasons, in vitro tests for scoring potential toxicities of cosmetics are essential. A test strategy for investigating potential skin sensitization using two human keratinocytic and two human dendritic cell lines has been developed (Mehling et al. Arch Toxicol 86:1273–1295, 2012). Since prohaptens may be metabolically activated in the skin, information on xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) activities in these cell lines is of high interest. In this study, XME activity assays, monitoring metabolite or cofactor, showed the following: all three passages of keratinocytic (KeratinoSens® and LuSens) and dendritic (U937 und THP-1) cells displayed N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) activities (about 6–60 nmol/min/mg S9-protein for acetylation of para-aminobenzoic acid). This is relevant since reactive species of many cosmetics are metabolically controlled by cutaneous NAT1. Esterase activities of about 1–4 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein were observed in all passages of investigated keratinocytic and about 1 nmol fluorescein diacetate/min/mg S9-protein in dendritic cell lines. This is also of practical relevance since many esters and amides are detoxified and others activated by cutaneous esterases. In both keratinocytic cell lines, activities of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) were observed (5–17 nmol product/min/mg cytosolic protein). ALDH is relevant for the detoxication of reactive aldehydes. Activities of several other XME were below detection, namely the investigated cytochrome P450-dependent alkylresorufin O-dealkylases 7-ethylresorufin O-deethylase, 7-benzylresorufin O-debenzylase and 7-pentylresorufin O-depentylase (while NADPH cytochrome c reductase activities were much above the limit of quantification), the flavin-containing monooxygenase, the alcohol dehydrogenase as well as the UDP glucuronosyl transferase activities. PMID:23958860

  9. Activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the liver of rats with multi-vitamin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tutelyan, Victor A; Kravchenko, Lidia V; Aksenov, Ilya V; Trusov, Nikita V; Guseva, Galina V; Kodentsova, Vera M; Vrzhesinskaya, Oksana A; Beketova, Nina A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine how multi-vitamin deficiency affects xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme (XME) activities in the rat liver. Vitamin levels and XME activities were studied in the livers of male Wistar rats who were fed for 4 weeks with semi-synthetic diets containing either adequate (100 % of recommended vitamin intake) levels of vitamins (control), or decreased vitamin levels (50 % or 20 % of recommended vitamin intake). The study results have shown that moderate vitamin deficiency (50 %) leads to a decrease of vitamin A levels only, and to a slight increase, as compared with the control, in the following enzyme activities: methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD) activity of CYP1 A2 - by 34 % (p < 0.05), UDP-glucuronosyl transferase - by 26 % (p < 0.05), and quinone reductase - by 55 % (p < 0.05). Profound vitamin deficiency (20 %) led to a decrease of vitamins A, E, B1, B2, and C, and enzyme activities in the liver: MROD - to 78 % of the control level (p < 0.05), 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase - to 74 % (p < 0.05), heme oxygenase-1 - to 83 % (p < 0.05), and quinone reductase - to 60 % (p < 0.05). At the same time, the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activity and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP1A1, pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity of CYP2B1/2 and 6?-testosterone hydroxylase, as well as the total activity of glutathione transferase did not differ from the control levels. The study has demonstrated that profound multi-vitamin deficiency is associated with a decrease in the expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A1 mRNAs to 62 % and 79 %, respectively. These data indicated that a short-term but profound multi-vitamin deficiency in rats leads to a decrease in the activities and expression of the some XME that play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics and metabolism of drugs and antioxidant protection. PMID:24220160

  10. Identification of metabolic pathways involved in the biotransformation of tolperisone by human microsomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dalmadi, Balázs; Leibinger, János; Szeberényi, Szabolcs; Borbás, Tímea; Farkas, Sándor; Szombathelyi, Zsolt; Tihanyi, Károly

    2003-05-01

    The in vitro metabolism of tolperisone, 1-(4-methyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-3-(1-piperidino)-1-propanone-hydrochloride, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, was examined in human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant enzymes. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements revealed methyl-hydroxylation (metabolite at m/z 261; M1) as the main metabolic route in HLM, however, metabolites of two mass units greater than the parent compound and the hydroxy-metabolite were also detected (m/z 247 and m/z 263, respectively). The latter was identified as carbonyl-reduced M1, the former was assumed to be the carbonyl-reduced parent compound. Isoform-specific cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibitors, inhibitory antibodies, and experiments with recombinant P450s pointed to CYP2D6 as the prominent enzyme in tolperisone metabolism. CYP2C19, CYP2B6, and CYP1A2 are also involved to a smaller extent. Hydroxymethyl-tolperisone formation was mediated by CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP1A2, but not by CYP2B6. Tolperisone competitively inhibited dextromethorphan O-demethylation and bufuralol hydroxylation (K(i) = 17 and 30 microM, respectively). Tolperisone inhibited methyl p-tolyl sulfide oxidation (K(i) = 1200 microM) in recombinant flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3) and resulted in a 3-fold (p < 0.01) higher turnover number using rFMO3 than that of control microsomes. Experiments using nonspecific P450 inhibitors-SKF-525A, 1-aminobenzotriazole, 1-benzylimidazole, and anti-NADPH-P450-reductase antibodies-resulted in 61, 47, 49, and 43% inhibition of intrinsic clearance in HLM, respectively, whereas hydroxymethyl-metabolite formation was inhibited completely by nonspecific chemical inhibitors and by 80% with antibodies. Therefore, it was concluded that tolperisone undergoes P450-dependent and P450-independent microsomal biotransformations to the same extent. On the basis of metabolites formed and indirect evidences of inhibition studies, a considerable involvement of a microsomal reductase is assumed. PMID:12695352

  11. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. PMID:10064546

  12. Phase I to II cross-induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes: A feedforward control mechanism for potential hormetic responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Zhang; Jingbo Pi; Courtney G. Woods; Melvin E. Andersen

    2009-01-01

    Hormetic responses to xenobiotic exposure likely occur as a result of overcompensation by the homeostatic control systems operating in biological organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying overcompensation that leads to hormesis are still unclear. A well-known homeostatic circuit in the cell is the gene induction network comprising phase I, II and III metabolizing enzymes, which are responsible for xenobiotic detoxification, and

  13. Metabolic analysis of Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of the carboxylating enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Gokarn; M. A. Eiteman; E. Altman

    2000-01-01

    Fermentation patterns of Escherichia coli with and without the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) enzymes were compared under anaerobic conditions with glucose as a carbon source. Time profiles of glucose and fermentation product concentrations were determined and used to calculate metabolic fluxes through central carbon pathways during exponential cell growth. The presence of the Rhizobium etli pyc gene

  14. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  15. Characterization of the Impact of Life Stage on Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Expression and Gene -Chemical Interactions in the Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in responses to environmental chemicals and drugs between life stages are likely due in part to differences in the expression of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and transporters (XMETs). We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression of XMETs thro...

  16. Effects of Oxygen Limitation on Xylose Fermentation, Intracellular Metabolites, and Key Enzymes of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Jianqiang

    The effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602 were studied using batch cultures. The maximum yield of ethanol was 0.34 g/g at oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of 8.4 mmol/L·h. The maximum yield of xylitol was 0.33 g/g at OTR of 5.1 mmol/L·h. Oxygen limitation greatly affected mycelia growth and xylitol and ethanol productions. The specific growth rate (?) decreased 82% from 0.045 to 0.008 h-1 when OTR changed from 12.6 to 8.4 mmol/L·h. Intracellular metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were determined at various OTRs. Concentrations of most intracellular metabolites decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation. Intracellular enzyme activities of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase, the first three enzymes in xylose metabolic pathway, decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation, resulting in the decreased xylose uptake rate. Under all tested conditions, transaldolase and transketolase activities always maintained at low levels, indicating a great control on xylose metabolism. The enzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase played a major role in NADPH regeneration, and its activity decreased remarkably with the increase in oxygen limitation.

  17. Effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation, intracellular metabolites, and key enzymes of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhihua; Qu, Yinbo; Zhang, Xiao; Lin, Jianqiang

    2008-03-01

    The effects of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation of Neurospora crassa AS3.1602 were studied using batch cultures. The maximum yield of ethanol was 0.34 g/g at oxygen transfer rate (OTR) of 8.4 mmol/L.h. The maximum yield of xylitol was 0.33 g/g at OTR of 5.1 mmol/L.h. Oxygen limitation greatly affected mycelia growth and xylitol and ethanol productions. The specific growth rate (micro) decreased 82% from 0.045 to 0.008 h(-1) when OTR changed from 12.6 to 8.4 mmol/L.h. Intracellular metabolites of the pentose phosphate pathway, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were determined at various OTRs. Concentrations of most intracellular metabolites decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation. Intracellular enzyme activities of xylose reductase, xylitol dehydrogenase, and xylulokinase, the first three enzymes in xylose metabolic pathway, decreased with the increase in oxygen limitation, resulting in the decreased xylose uptake rate. Under all tested conditions, transaldolase and transketolase activities always maintained at low levels, indicating a great control on xylose metabolism. The enzyme of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase played a major role in NADPH regeneration, and its activity decreased remarkably with the increase in oxygen limitation. PMID:18425610

  18. Activities of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolizing enzymes from liver of mink ( Mustela vison) and preliminary observations on steady state kinetics of the enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. G. Sorensen; I. M. Petersen; O. Sand

    1995-01-01

    The activity and some kinetic parameters of the key enzymes of the glycolysis, the gluconeogenesis and the amino acid catabolism from the liver of male and female mink have been determined and compared to the corresponding activities from rat and cat. The activities of glucose-6-phosphatase and pyruvate kinase are dependent on sex, both being higher in females. Except for pyruvate

  19. The impact of smoking and polymorphic enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism on the stage of bladder tumors: a generalized ordered logistic regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Khedhiri, Sami; Stambouli, Nejla; Ouerhani, Slah; Rouissi, Kamel; Marrakchi, Raja; Gaaied, Amel B; Slama, M B

    2010-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is the predominant risk factor for bladder cancer in males and females. The tobacco carcinogens are metabolized by various xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes such as N-acetyltransferases (NAT) and glutathione S-transferases (GST). Polymorphisms in NAT and GST genes alter the ability of these enzymes to metabolize carcinogens. In this paper, we conduct a statistical analysis based on logistic regressions to assess the impact of smoking and metabolizing enzyme genotypes on the risk to develop bladder cancer using a case-control study from Tunisia. We also use the generalized ordered logistic model to investigate whether these factors do have an impact on the progression of bladder tumors. PMID:20063011

  20. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and inhibitory effects of some marine sponges against carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than 15,000 marine products have been described up to now; Sponges are champion producers, concerning the diversity of products that have been found. Most bioactive compounds from sponges were classified into anti-inflammatory, antitumor, immuno- or neurosurpressive, antiviral, antimalarial, antibiotic, or antifouling. Evaluation of in vitro inhibitory effects of different extracts from four marine sponges versus some antioxidants indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes concerned with diabetes mellitus was studied. The chemical characterizations for the extracts of the predominating sponges; SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Methods All chemicals served in the biological study were of analytical grade and purchased from Sigma, Merck and Aldrich. All kits were the products of Biosystems (Spain), Sigma Chemical Company (USA), Biodiagnostic (Egypt). Carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes; α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and β-galactosidase (EC3.2.1.1, EC3.2.1.20, and EC3.2.1.23, respectively) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Company (USA). Results Four marine sponges; Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4), were collected from the Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, and taxonomically characterized. The sponges' extracts exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Purification and Chemical characterization of sponge 1 using NMR and mass spectroscopy, recognized the existence of di-isobutyl phthalate (1), di-n-butyl phthalate (2), linoleic acid (3), ?-sitosterol (4), and cholesterol (5). Sponge 3 produced bis-[2-ethyl]-hexyl-phthylester (6) and triglyceride fatty acid ester (7). Conclusion Marine sponges are promising sources for delivering of bioactive compounds. Four marine sponges, collected from Red Sea at Egyptian coasts, were identified as Smenospongia (SP1), Callyspongia (SP2), Niphates (SP3), and Stylissa (SP4). The results demonstrated that different sponges extracts exhibited inhibitory effects on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in linear relationships to some extent with concentration of inhibitors (dose dependant). The extracts of sponges (3, 1, and 2) showed, respectively, potent-reducing power. Chemical characterizations of sponges SP1 and SP3 were discussed. Based on this study, marine sponges are considered as talented sources for production of diverse and multiple biologically active compounds. PMID:22898269

  1. The genes and enzymes of the carotenoid metabolic pathway in Vitis vinifera L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are a heterogeneous group of plant isoprenoids primarily involved in photosynthesis. In plants the cleavage of carotenoids leads to the formation of the phytohormones abscisic acid and strigolactone, and C13-norisoprenoids involved in the characteristic flavour and aroma compounds in flowers and fruits and are of specific importance in the varietal character of grapes and wine. This work extends the previous reports of carotenoid gene expression and photosynthetic pigment analysis by providing an up-to-date pathway analysis and an important framework for the analysis of carotenoid metabolic pathways in grapevine. Results Comparative genomics was used to identify 42 genes putatively involved in carotenoid biosynthesis/catabolism in grapevine. The genes are distributed on 16 of the 19 chromosomes and have been localised to the physical map of the heterozygous ENTAV115 grapevine sequence. Nine of the genes occur as single copies whereas the rest of the carotenoid metabolic genes have more than one paralogue. The cDNA copies of eleven corresponding genes from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage were characterised, and four where shown to be functional. Microarrays provided expression profiles of 39 accessions in the metabolic pathway during three berry developmental stages in Sauvignon blanc, whereas an optimised HPLC analysis provided the concentrations of individual carotenoids. This provides evidence of the functioning of the lutein epoxide cycle and the respective genes in grapevine. Similarly, orthologues of genes leading to the formation of strigolactone involved in shoot branching inhibition were identified: CCD7, CCD8 and MAX1. Moreover, the isoforms typically have different expression patterns, confirming the complex regulation of the pathway. Of particular interest is the expression pattern of the three VvNCEDs: Our results support previous findings that VvNCED3 is likely the isoform linked to ABA content in berries. Conclusions The carotenoid metabolic pathway is well characterised, and the genes and enzymes have been studied in a number of plants. The study of the 42 carotenoid pathway genes of grapevine showed that they share a high degree of similarity with other eudicots. Expression and pigment profiling of developing berries provided insights into the most complete grapevine carotenoid pathway representation. This study represents an important reference study for further characterisation of carotenoid biosynthesis and catabolism in grapevine. PMID:22702718

  2. TM6SF2 and MAC30, new enzyme homologs in sterol metabolism and common metabolic disease

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Ponting, Chris P.

    2014-01-01

    Carriers of the Glu167Lys coding variant in the TM6SF2 gene have recently been identified as being more susceptible to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), yet exhibit lower levels of circulating lipids and hence are protected against cardiovascular disease. Despite the physiological importance of these observations, the molecular function of TM6SF2 remains unknown, and no sequence similarity with functionally characterized proteins has been identified. In order to trace its evolutionary history and to identify functional domains, we embarked on a computational protein sequence analysis of TM6SF2. We identified a new domain, the EXPERA domain, which is conserved among TM6SF, MAC30/TMEM97 and EBP (D8, D7 sterol isomerase) protein families. EBP mutations are the cause of chondrodysplasia punctata 2 X-linked dominant (CDPX2), also known as Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, a defective cholesterol biosynthesis disorder. Our analysis of evolutionary conservation among EXPERA domain-containing families and the previously suggested catalytic mechanism for the EBP enzyme, indicate that TM6SF and MAC30/TMEM97 families are both highly likely to possess, as for the EBP family, catalytic activity as sterol isomerases. This unexpected prediction of enzymatic functions for TM6SF and MAC30/TMEM97 is important because it now permits detailed experiments to investigate the function of these key proteins in various human pathologies, from cardiovascular disease to cancer. PMID:25566323

  3. Plastid Localization of the Key Carotenoid Enzyme Phytoene Synthase Is Altered by Isozyme, Allelic Variation, and Activity[W

    PubMed Central

    Shumskaya, Maria; Bradbury, Louis M.T.; Monaco, Regina R.; Wurtzel, Eleanore T.

    2012-01-01

    Plant carotenoids have unique physiological roles related to specific plastid suborganellar locations. Carotenoid metabolic engineering could enhance plant adaptation to climate change and improve food security and nutritional value. However, lack of fundamental knowledge on carotenoid pathway localization limits targeted engineering. Phytoene synthase (PSY), a major rate-controlling carotenoid enzyme, is represented by multiple isozymes residing at unknown plastid sites. In maize (Zea mays), the three isozymes were transiently expressed and found either in plastoglobuli or in stroma and thylakoid membranes. PSY1, with one to two residue modifications of naturally occurring functional variants, exhibited altered localization, associated with distorted plastid shape and formation of a fibril phenotype. Mutating the active site of the enzyme reversed this phenotype. Discovery of differential PSY locations, linked with activity and isozyme type, advances the engineering potential for modifying carotenoid biosynthesis. PMID:23023170

  4. (CANCER RESEARCH 48, 1390-1397, March 15, 1988] Epoxide-metabolizing Enzymes in Mammary Gland and Liver from BALB/c Mice

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    (CANCER RESEARCH 48, 1390-1397, March 15, 1988] Epoxide-metabolizing Enzymes in Mammary Gland and Liver from BALB/c Mice and Effects of Inducers on Enzyme Activity1 Marilyn H. Suva, Roger N. Wixtrom.3.23) (EH) are hydrolytic enzymes which may play an important role in the activation and detoxification

  5. Cadmium Alters the Biotransformation of Carcinogenic Aromatic Amines by Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes: Molecular, Cellular, and in Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ragunathan, Nilusha; Dairou, Julien; Sanfins, Elodie; Busi, Florent; Noll, Christophe; Janel, Nathalie; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogenic heavy metal of environmental concern. Exposure to both Cd and carcinogenic organic compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or aromatic amines (AAs), is a common environmental problem. Human arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NATs) are xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes that play a key role in the biotransformation of AA carcinogens. Changes in NAT activity have long been associated with variations in susceptibility to different cancers in relation with exposure to certain AAs. Objective We explored the possible interactions between Cd and the NAT-dependent biotransformation of carcinogenic AAs. Methods We exposed purified enzymes, lung epithelial cells, and mouse models to Cd and subsequently analyzed NAT-dependent metabolism of AAs. Results We found that Cd, at biologically relevant concentrations, impairs the NAT-dependent acetylation of carcinogenic AAs such as 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) in lung epithelial cells. NAT activity was strongly impaired in the tissues of mice exposed to Cd. Accordingly, mice exposed to Cd and 2-AF displayed altered in vivo toxicokinetics with a significant decrease (~ 50%) in acetylated 2-AF in plasma. We found that human NAT1 was rapidly and irreversibly inhibited by Cd [median inhibitory concentration (IC50) ? 55 nM; rate inhibition constant (kinact) = 5 × 104 M?1 · sec?1], with results of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) protection assays indicating that Cd-mediated inhibition was due to the reaction of metal with the active-site cysteine residue of the enzyme. We found similar results for human NAT2, although this isoform was less sensitive to inactivation (IC50 ? 1 ?M; kinact = 1 × 104 M?1 · sec?1). Conclusions Our data suggest that Cd can alter the metabolism of carcinogenic AAs through the impairment of the NAT-dependent pathway, which may have important toxicological consequences. PMID:20810355

  6. Key Aromatic-Ring-Cleaving Enzyme, Protocatechuate 3,4Dioxygenase, in the Ecologically Important Marine Roseobacter Lineage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALISON BUCHAN; LAUREN S. COLLIER; ELLEN L. NEIDLE; MARY ANN MORAN

    2000-01-01

    Aromatic compound degradation in six bacteria representing an ecologically important marine taxon of the a-proteobacteria was investigated. Initial screens suggested that isolates in the Roseobacter lineage can degrade aromatic compounds via the b-ketoadipate pathway, a catabolic route that has been well characterized in soil microbes. Six Roseobacter isolates were screened for the presence of protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase, a key enzyme in

  7. Azospirillum brasilense Produces the Auxin-Like Phenylacetic Acid by Using the Key Enzyme for Indole3Acetic Acid Biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Somers; D. Ptacek; P. Gysegom; M. Srinivasan; J. Vanderleyden

    2005-01-01

    Received 23 August 2004\\/Accepted 28 October 2004 An antimicrobial compound was isolated from Azospirillum brasilense culture extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the auxin-like molecule, phenylacetic acid (PAA). PAA synthesis was found to be mediated by the indole-3-pyruvate decar- boxylase, previously identified as a key enzyme in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production in A.

  8. Characterization of enzymes involved in the central metabolism of Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Bernadette; Pahlke, Jennifer; Schweiger, Paul; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans is an industrially important bacterium that lacks a complete Embden-Meyerhof pathway (glycolysis). The organism instead uses the pentose phosphate pathway to oxidize sugars and their phosphorylated intermediates. However, the lack of glycolysis limits the amount of NADH as electron donor for electron transport phosphorylation. It has been suggested that the pentose phosphate pathway contributes to NADH production. Six enzymes predicted to play central roles in intracellular glucose and gluconate flux were heterologously overproduced in Escherichia coli and characterized to investigate the intracellular flow of glucose and gluconates into the pentose phosphate pathway and to explore the contribution of the pentose phosphate pathway to NADH generation. The key pentose phosphate enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gox0145) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (Gox1705) had dual cofactor specificities but were physiologically NADP- and NAD-dependent, respectively. Putative glucose dehydrogenase (Gox2015) was NADP-dependent and exhibited a preference for mannose over glucose, whereas a 2-ketogluconate reductase (Gox0417) displayed dual cofactor specificity for NAD(P)H. Furthermore, a putative gluconokinase and a putative glucokinase were identified. The gluconokinase displayed high activities with gluconate and is thought to shuttle intracellular gluconate into the pentose phosphate pathway. A model for the trafficking of glucose and gluconates into the pentose phosphate pathway and its role in NADH generation is presented. The role of NADPH in chemiosmotic energy conservation is also discussed. PMID:20676631

  9. Comparative Studies of Enzymes Related to Serine Metabolism in Higher Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Geoffrey P.; Rosenblum, I. Y.; Sallach, H. J.

    1968-01-01

    The following enzymes related to serine metabolism in higher plants have been investigated: 1) d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, 2) phosphohydroxypyruvate:l-glutamate transaminase, 3) d-glycerate dehydrogenase, and 4) hydroxypyruvate:l-alanine transaminase. Comparative studies on the distribution of the 2 dehydrogenases in seeds and leaves from various plants revealed that d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is widely distributed in seeds in contrast to d-glycerate dehydrogenase, which is either absent or present at low levels, and that the reverse pattern is observed in green leaves. The levels of activity of the 4 enzymes listed above were followed in different tissues of the developing pea (Pisum sativum, var. Alaska). In the leaf, from the tenth to seventeenth day of germination, the specific activity of d-glycerate dehydrogenase increased markedly and was much higher than d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase which remained relatively constant during this time period. Etiolation resulted in a decrease in d-glycerate dehydrogenase and an increase in d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activities. In apical meristem, on the other hand, the level of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase exceeded that of d-glycerate dehydrogenase at all time periods studied. Low and decreasing levels of both dehydrogenases were found in epicotyl and cotyledon. The specific activities of the 2 transaminases remained relatively constant during development in both leaf and apical meristem. In general, however, the levels of phosphohydroxypyruvate:l-glutamate transaminase were comparable to those of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase in a given tissue as were those for hydroxypyruvate: l-alanine transaminase and d-glycerate dehydrogenase. PMID:5699148

  10. Comparative studies of enzymes related to serine metabolism in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Cheung, G P; Rosenblum, I Y; Sallach, H J

    1968-11-01

    THE FOLLOWING ENZYMES RELATED TO SERINE METABOLISM IN HIGHER PLANTS HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED: 1) d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, 2) phosphohydroxypyruvate:l-glutamate transaminase, 3) d-glycerate dehydrogenase, and 4) hydroxypyruvate:l-alanine transaminase. Comparative studies on the distribution of the 2 dehydrogenases in seeds and leaves from various plants revealed that d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase is widely distributed in seeds in contrast to d-glycerate dehydrogenase, which is either absent or present at low levels, and that the reverse pattern is observed in green leaves. The levels of activity of the 4 enzymes listed above were followed in different tissues of the developing pea (Pisum sativum, var. Alaska). In the leaf, from the tenth to seventeenth day of germination, the specific activity of d-glycerate dehydrogenase increased markedly and was much higher than d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase which remained relatively constant during this time period. Etiolation resulted in a decrease in d-glycerate dehydrogenase and an increase in d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activities. In apical meristem, on the other hand, the level of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase exceeded that of d-glycerate dehydrogenase at all time periods studied. Low and decreasing levels of both dehydrogenases were found in epicotyl and cotyledon. The specific activities of the 2 transaminases remained relatively constant during development in both leaf and apical meristem. In general, however, the levels of phosphohydroxypyruvate:l-glutamate transaminase were comparable to those of d-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase in a given tissue as were those for hydroxypyruvate: l-alanine transaminase and d-glycerate dehydrogenase. PMID:5699148

  11. Functional Polymorphisms of Folate-Metabolizing Enzymes in Relation to Homocysteine Concentrations in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    SUMMERS, CAROLYN M.; CUCCHIARA, ANDREW J.; NACKOS, ELENI; HAMMONS, ANDREA L.; MOHR, ELISABETH; WHITEHEAD, ALEXANDER S.; VON FELDT, JOAN M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if functional polymorphisms of folate/homocysteine pathway enzymes are associated with homocysteine concentrations and/or coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and controls. Methods We investigated 163 SLE patients and 160 controls. Functional polymorphisms in 6 genes in the folate/homocysteine pathway were genotyped: 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C, cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) 844ins68, methionine synthase (MTR) 2756A>G, methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A>G, thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 1494del6, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) c.86+60_78. Results Homocysteine levels were higher in African American SLE patients than Caucasian patients and African American controls. Genotype distributions were significantly different in African American and Caucasian controls for 6 of the 7 polymorphisms. Genotype distributions for each polymorphism did not differ significantly between SLE patients and controls even after stratification by race. Glomerular filtration rate was strongly negatively correlated to homocysteine levels, and was therefore adjusted for as a covariate in the models of the effects of the polymorphisms on homocysteine levels. In SLE patients none of the 7 polymorphisms was associated with homocysteine concentrations. In Caucasian controls only MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C showed effects on homo-cysteine similar to what would be expected from the literature. There were no genotypic associations with median CAC scores in SLE patients or controls with and without stratification by race. Conclusion Polymorphisms in folate/homocysteine metabolizing enzymes do not predict higher homocysteine levels or CAC scores in patients with SLE. PMID:18785313

  12. [Effects of waterlogging on the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of different tree species].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Cao, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wang-Xiang

    2010-03-01

    Aimed to understand the waterlogging tolerance and adaptation mechanisms of different tree species, a simulated field experiment was conducted to study the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of one-year-old seedlings of Taxodium distichum, Carya illinoensis, and Sapium sebiferum. Three treatments were installed, i. e., CK, waterlogging, and flooding, with the treatment duration being 60 days. Under waterlogging and flooding, the relative growth of test tree species was in the order of T. distichum > C. illinoensis > S. sebiferum, indicating that T. distichum had the strongest tolerance against waterlogging and flooding, while S. sebiferum had the weakest one. Also under waterlogging and flooding, the root/crown ratio of the three tree species increased significantly, suggesting that more photosynthates were allocated in roots, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities of the tree species also had a significant increase. Among the test tree species, T. distichum had the lowest increment of LDH and ADH activities under waterlogging and flooding, but the increment could maintain at a higher level in the treatment duration, while for C. illinoensis and S. sebiferum, the increment was larger during the initial and medium period, but declined rapidly during the later period of treatment. The malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphohexose (HPI), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) -6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) activities of the tree species under waterlogging and flooding had a significant decrease, and the decrement was the largest for T. distichum, being 35.6% for MDH, 21.0% for HPI, and 22.7% for G6PDH - 6PGDH under flooding. It was suggested that under waterlogging and flooding, the tree species with strong waterlogging tolerance had a higher ability to maintain energy-metabolic balance, and thus, its growth could be maintained at a certain level. PMID:20560312

  13. [Comparative efficacy and safety of contemporary Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors moexipril and spirapril in women with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Leonova, M V; Demidova, M A; Tarasov, A V; Belousov, Iu B

    2006-01-01

    Moexipril (7.4-15 mg/day) was given to 34, spirapril (3-6 mg/day) -- to 18 postmenopausal women with hypertension and metabolic syndrome for 16 weeks. Hydrochlorthiazide was added when therapy was not sufficiently effective. Both angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors had similar hypotensive activity: blood pressure normalized in 71 and 61% of moexipril and spirapril treated women, respectively. Both drugs promoted normalization of metabolism of lipid (lowering of levels of cholesterol, atherogenic lipoproteins and triglycerides) and carbohydrates (lowering of hyperinsulinemia). Patients with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome had elevation of leptin level up to 27.5+/-5.5 pg/ml. Moexipril and spirapril caused lowering of elevated levels of leptin. These drugs did not affect levels of sex hormones. They exerted vasoprotective (normalization of endothelium dependent and independent vasodilatation) and nephroprotective (attenuation and normalization of microalbuminuria) effects. Thus spirapril and moexipril are effective in treatment of hypertension in patients with postmenopausal metabolic syndrome. PMID:16474309

  14. Does the thermal plasticity of metabolic enzymes underlie thermal compensation of locomotor performance in the eastern newt (Notophthalmus viridescens)?

    PubMed

    Mineo, Patrick M; Schaeffer, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) upregulate the metabolic capacity of skeletal muscle in winter to compensate for thermodynamic effects on metabolism. However, whether this compensation facilitates locomotor performance at low temperature is unknown. Therefore, our aim was to determine if thermal acclimation of metabolic enzymes in muscle benefits locomotion. Eastern newts from southern Ohio were acclimated to cold (5°C, 10:14 L:D) or warm (25°C, 14:10 L:D) conditions for 12 weeks. Following acclimation, we measured the locomotor performance (burst speed and time until exhaustion) and the activities of metabolic enzymes in skeletal muscle at 5-30°C. Creatine kinase (CK) activity in skeletal muscle was higher in cold compared to warm-acclimated newts, and cold-acclimated newts had a higher burst speed at low temperature compared to warm-acclimated newts. At low temperature, time until exhaustion was higher in cold compared to warm-acclimated newts, but the activities of citrate synthase (CS) and cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) in muscle were lower in cold compared to warm-acclimated newts. Together, these results demonstrate that eastern newts compensate for the effects of low temperature on locomotor performance. Whereas thermal compensation of CK activity is correlated with burst locomotion at low temperature, aerobic enzymes in skeletal muscle (CS and CCO) are not linked to compensation of sustained locomotion. PMID:25382581

  15. Genome-wide identification of gibberellins metabolic enzyme genes and expression profiling analysis during seed germination in maize.

    PubMed

    Song, Jian; Guo, Baojian; Song, Fangwei; Peng, Huiru; Yao, Yingyin; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2011-08-15

    Gibberellin (GA) is an essential phytohormone that controls many aspects of plant development. To enhance our understanding of GA metabolism in maize, we intensively screened and identified 27 candidate genes encoding the seven GA metabolic enzymes including ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS), ent-kaurene synthase (KS), ent-kaurene oxidase (KO), ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO), GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox), GA 3-oxidase (GA3ox), and GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox), using all available public maize databases. The results indicate that maize genome contains three CPS, four KS, two KO and one KAO genes, and most of them are arranged separately on the maize genome, which differs from that in rice. In addition, the enzymes catalyzing the later steps (ZmGA20ox, ZmGA3ox and ZmGA2ox) are also encoded by gene families in maize, but GA3ox enzyme is likely to be encoded by single gene. Expression profiling analysis exhibited that transcripts of 15 GA metabolic genes could be detected during maize seed germination, which provides further evidence for the notion that increased synthesis of active GA in the embryo is required for triggering germination events. Moreover, a variety of temporal genes expression patterns of GA metabolic genes were detected, which revealed the complexity of underlying mechanism for GA regulated seed germination. PMID:21640170

  16. Purple rice bran extract attenuates the aflatoxin b1-induced initiation stage of hepatocarcinogenesis by alteration of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Suwannakul, Nattawan; Punvittayagul, Charatda; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented rice bran has been suggested to be a valuable source of beneficial phytochemicals. We investigated genotoxic and anti-genotoxic effects of purple rice bran extract (PRBE) in rats using a liver micronucleus assay. Purple rice bran was extracted with methanol, obtaining large amounts of phenolic compounds, including anthocyanins and small amounts of gamma-oryzanol. The experimental protocols were divided into two sets. Male rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 was a negative control, while Groups 2 and 3 were fed with 100 and 500 mg/kg bw of PRBE, respectively, for 28 days. PRBE had no effect on micronucleus formation or xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat liver. Experiments concerning the effect of PRBE on AFB1 showed that PRBE significantly lessened the amount of micronucleated hepatocytes in AFB1 treated rats. Furthermore, it modulated metabolic activation of AFB1 metabolism in the liver by suppressing activity and protein expression of CYP1A2, CYP3A and CYP 450 reductase, and enhancing phase II enzymes including GST and UGT. Overall, purple rice bran extract was not genotoxic in rats. It exhibited anti-genotoxicity by modulation some xenobiotic enzymes active in AFB1 metabolism. PMID:25921147

  17. Enzymic synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-d-glucose. II. Metabolic characteristics of the enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leznicki, A. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of indole-3-acetyl-1-O-beta-D-glucose from indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPG) has been shown to be a reversible reaction with the equilibrium away from ester formation and toward formation of IAA. The enzyme occurs primarily in the liquid endosperm of the corn kernel but some activity occurs in the embryo. It is relatively specific showing no glucose ester formation with oxindole-3-acetic acid or 7-hydroxy-oxindole-3-acetic acid, and low activity with phenylpropene acids, such as rho-coumaric acid. The enzyme is also specific for the nucleotide sugar showing no activity with UDPGalactose or UDPXylose. The enzyme is inhibited by inorganic pyrophosphate, by phosphate esters and by phospholipids, particularly phosphatidyl ethanolamine. The enzyme is inhibited by zeatin, by 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid, by IAA-myo-inositol and IAA-glucan, but not by zeatin riboside, and only weakly by gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and kinetin. The reaction is slightly stimulated by both calcium and calmodulin and, in some cases, by thiol compounds. The role of this enzyme in the homeostatic control of indole-3-acetic acid levels in Zea mays is discussed.

  18. In-silico prediction of key metabolic differences between two non-small cell lung cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Rezola, Alberto; Pey, Jon; Rubio, Ángel; Planes, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism expresses the phenotype of living cells and understanding it is crucial for different applications in biotechnology and health. With the increasing availability of metabolomic, proteomic and, to a larger extent, transcriptomic data, the elucidation of specific metabolic properties in different scenarios and cell types is a key topic in systems biology. Despite the potential of the elementary flux mode (EFM) concept for this purpose, its use has been limited so far, mainly because their computation has been infeasible for genome-scale metabolic networks. In a recent work, we determined a subset of EFMs in human metabolism and proposed a new protocol to integrate gene expression data, spotting key 'characteristic EFMs' in different scenarios. Our approach was successfully applied to identify metabolic differences among several human healthy tissues. In this article, we evaluated the performance of our approach in clinically interesting situation. In particular, we identified key EFMs and metabolites in adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma subtypes of non-small cell lung cancers. Results are consistent with previous knowledge of these major subtypes of lung cancer in the medical literature. Therefore, this work constitutes the starting point to establish a new methodology that could lead to distinguish key metabolic processes among different clinical outcomes. PMID:25093336

  19. Stereoselective Formation and Metabolism of 4-Hydroxy-Retinoic Acid Enantiomers by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Roberts, Arthur G.; Scian, Michele; Topletz, Ariel R.; Blankert, Sean A.; Halpert, James R.; Nelson, Wendel L.; Isoherranen, Nina

    2012-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA), the major active metabolite of vitamin A, plays a role in many biological processes, including maintenance of epithelia, immunity, and fertility and regulation of apoptosis and cell differentiation. atRA is metabolized mainly by CYP26A1, but other P450 enzymes such as CYP2C8 and CYP3As also contribute to atRA 4-hydroxylation. Although the primary metabolite of atRA, 4-OH-RA, possesses a chiral center, the stereochemical course of atRA 4-hydroxylation has not been studied previously. (4S)- and (4R)-OH-RA enantiomers were synthesized and separated by chiral column HPLC. CYP26A1 was found to form predominantly (4S)-OH-RA. This stereoselectivity was rationalized via docking of atRA in the active site of a CYP26A1 homology model. The docked structure showed a well defined niche for atRA within the active site and a specific orientation of the ?-ionone ring above the plane of the heme consistent with stereoselective abstraction of the hydrogen atom from the pro-(S)-position. In contrast to CYP26A1, CYP3A4 formed the 4-OH-RA enantiomers in a 1:1 ratio and CYP3A5 preferentially formed (4R)-OH-RA. Interestingly, CYP3A7 and CYP2C8 preferentially formed (4S)-OH-RA from atRA. Both (4S)- and (4R)-OH-RA were substrates of CYP26A1 but (4S)-OH-RA was cleared 3-fold faster than (4R)-OH-RA. In addition, 4-oxo-RA was formed from (4R)-OH-RA but not from (4S)-OH-RA by CYP26A1. Overall, these findings show that (4S)-OH-RA is preferred over (4R)-OH-RA by the enzymes regulating atRA homeostasis. The stereoselectivity observed in CYP26A1 function will aid in better understanding of the active site features of the enzyme and the disposition of biologically active retinoids. PMID:23071109

  20. [Effects of polyvitamin deficiency on the activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, L V; Aksenov, I V; Trusov, N V; Guseva, G V; Avrent'eva, L I; Kodentsova, V M

    2012-01-01

    The activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes was studied in the liver of male Wistar rats, which were fed for 4 weeks diets, containing 100 (control), 50 and 20% of vitamin adequate level. Moderate (50%) polyvitamin deficiency increased activity of EROD (by 13%), MROD (by 34%; p<0,05), 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase (by 16%), 6beta-testosterone hydroxylase (by 17%), UDP-glucuronosyle transferase (by 26%, p<0,05) and quinone reductase (by 55%, p<0,05). Deep (20%) polyvitamin deficiency decreased in liver activity of MROD (to 78% of control level, p<0,05), 4-nitrophenol hydroxylase (to 74%, p<0,05), heme oxygenase-1 (to 83%, p<0,05) and quinone reductase (to 60%, p<0,05). At the same time a 22% increase in the UDP-glucuronosyle transferase activity compared to the control group was found; activities of EROD, PROD, 6beta-testosterone hydroxylase and the total activity of glutathione S-transferase were unchanged. Deep polyvitamin deficiency had no significant effect on CYP1A1 mRNA and AhR mRNA level, whereas the expression of CYP1A2 mRNA and CYP3A1 mRNA were decreased to 62 and 79%, respectively, as compared with control. PMID:22774475

  1. Hydroxylated PAHs in bile of deep-sea fish. Relationship with xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Escartin, E.; Porte, C. [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Environmental Chemistry Dept.] [IIQAB-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Environmental Chemistry Dept.

    1999-08-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution in deep-sea environments has been assessed by measuring bile PAH metabolites in deep-sea fish. Five species from the NW Mediterranean were selected for the study: Coryphaenoides guentheri, Lepidion lepidion, Mora moro, Bathypterois mediterraneus, and Alepocephalus rostratus. Bile crude samples were directly analyzed by HPLC-fluorescence at the excitation/emission wavelengths of benzo[a]pyrene. Differences among sampling sites were recorded, which suggests that coastal discharges of contaminants may reach these remote areas. Subsequently, a number of bile samples were hydrolyzed and analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of individual PAHs. 1-Pyrenol and 2-phenylphenol were among the most abundant compounds detected. The results obtained confirm the long-range transport of PAHs to deep-sea environments, subsequent exposure of fish inhabiting those remote areas, and its ability to metabolize and excrete them through the bile. The data also describe hepatic enzymes (cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferases) that appear to be as catalytically efficient as those in shallow water species.

  2. Inhibitory effects of kale ingestion on metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Teramoto, Sachiyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala DC) is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. There are any reports about the effects of kale ingestion on the chemoprevention function and mechanism, but the interactions between kale and drugs have not been researched. We investigated the effects of kale intake on cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism by using cocktail probe drugs, including midazolam (for CYP3A4), caffeine (for CYP1A2), dextromethorphan (for CYP2D6), tolbutamide (for CYP2C9), omeprazole (for CYP2C19), and chlorzoxazone (for CYP2E1). Cocktail drugs were administered into rats treated with kale and cabbage (2000 mg/kg) for a week. The results showed that kale intake induced a significant increase in plasma levels and the AUC of midazolam, caffeine, and dextromethorphan. In addition, the plasma concentration and AUC of omeprazole tended to increase. Additionally, no almost differences in the mRNA expression levels of CYP enzymes in the liver were observed. In conclusion, kale ingestion was considered to have an inhibitory effect on the activities of CYP3A4, 1A2, 2D6, and 2C19 for a reason competitive inhibition than inhibitory changes in the mRNA expressions. PMID:22975634

  3. A Moonlighting Enzyme Links Escherichia coli Cell Size with Central Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Norbert S.; Buske, Paul J.; Shi, Yue; Levin, Petra Anne

    2013-01-01

    Growth rate and nutrient availability are the primary determinants of size in single-celled organisms: rapidly growing Escherichia coli cells are more than twice as large as their slow growing counterparts. Here we report the identification of the glucosyltransferase OpgH as a nutrient-dependent regulator of E. coli cell size. During growth under nutrient-rich conditions, OpgH localizes to the nascent septal site, where it antagonizes assembly of the tubulin-like cell division protein FtsZ, delaying division and increasing cell size. Biochemical analysis is consistent with OpgH sequestering FtsZ from growing polymers. OpgH is functionally analogous to UgtP, a Bacillus subtilis glucosyltransferase that inhibits cell division in a growth rate-dependent fashion. In a striking example of convergent evolution, OpgH and UgtP share no homology, have distinct enzymatic activities, and appear to inhibit FtsZ assembly through different mechanisms. Comparative analysis of E. coli and B. subtilis reveals conserved aspects of growth rate regulation and cell size control that are likely to be broadly applicable. These include the conservation of uridine diphosphate glucose as a proxy for nutrient status and the use of moonlighting enzymes to couple growth rate-dependent phenomena to central metabolism. PMID:23935518

  4. Alterations of metabolic enzymes in Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata, after exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A; Gagnon, M M; Nugegoda, D

    2005-08-01

    Australian bass Macquaria novemaculeata were exposed to the water-accommodated fraction of Bass Strait crude oil, dispersed crude oil, or burnt crude oil to assess sublethal effects of oil spill remediation techniques on fish. Fish were exposed to these treatments for 16 days either through the water column or by way of a pre-exposed diet of amphipod Allorchestes compressa. Fish gills, liver, and white muscle were sampled and cytochrome C oxidase (CCO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities quantified. In all treatments containing fish exposed by way of the water column, aerobic activity increased in the gills, whereas a decrease of this enzymic activity was observed in the liver and white muscle. Exposures by way of the food pathway indicated similar trends. Anaerobic (LDH) activity increased in the gills, liver, and white muscle after waterborne exposures. Stimulation in anaerobic activity also occurred in the liver and white muscle of fish after exposure to contaminated food. CCO activity in the gills was the most sensitive biomarker when monitoring waterborne exposures to petroleum hydrocarbons. In the gills, the dispersed oil treatment resulted in the most pronounced biological response, suggesting that in the short term the use of dispersants on an oil slick might cause the most perturbations to fish metabolism. PMID:16001154

  5. Rooting depth: a key trait connecting water and carbon metabolism of trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Tadeja; Dal Borgo, Anna; Casolo, Valentino; Bressan, Alice; Stenni, Barbara; Zini, Luca; Bertoncin, Paolo; Nardini, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Drought episodes accompanied by heat waves are thought to be the main cause of increasing rates of tree decline and mortality in several biomes with consequent ecological/economical consequences. Three possible and not mutually exclusive mechanisms have been proposed to be the drivers of this phenomenon: hydraulic failure caused by massive xylem cavitation and leading to strong reduction of root-to-leaf water transport, carbon starvation caused by prolonged stomatal closure and leading to impairment of primary and secondary metabolism, and finally attacks of biotic agents. The different mechanisms have been reported to have different relevance in the different species. We analyzed the seasonal changes of water relations, xylem sap isotopic composition, and concentration of non-structural carbohydrates in four different woody species co-occurring in the same habitat during a summer drought. Analysis of rain and deep soil water isotopic composition were also performed. Different species showed differential access to deep water sources which influences the gas exchanges and the concentration of non structural carbohydrates (NSC) during the dry season. Species with access to deeper water maintained higher NSC content and were also able to better preserve the integrity of the water transport pathway. On the basis of our results, we propose that rooting depth is a key trait connecting water and carbon plant metabolism, thus mediating the likelihood of hydraulic failure vs carbon starvation in trees subjected to global warming.

  6. BMP-6 is a key endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression and iron metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Andriopoulos, Billy; Corradini, Elena; Xia, Yin; Faasse, Sarah A.; Chen, Shanzhuo; Grgurevic, Lovorka; Knutson, Mitchell D.; Pietrangelo, Antonello; Vukicevic, Slobodan; Lin, Herbert Y.; Babitt, Jodie L.

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile hemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the major iron regulatory hormone hepcidin (HAMP)1 and hemojuvelin (HFE2)2. We have previously shown that hemojuvelin is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptor and that BMP signals regulate hepcidin expression and iron metabolism3,4. However, the endogenous BMP regulator(s) of hepcidin in vivo is unknown. Here, we show that in vitro, compared with soluble hemojuvelin (HJV.Fc), the homologous DRAGON.Fc more potently inhibits hepcidin induction by BMP-2 or BMP-4, but less potently inhibits BMP-6. In vivo, HJV.Fc or a neutralizing BMP-6 antibody inhibits hepcidin expression and increases serum iron, while DRAGON.Fc has no effect. Notably, Bmp6 null mice have a phenotype resembling hereditary hemochromatosis with reduced hepcidin expression and tissue iron overload. Finally, we demonstrate a physical interaction between HJV.Fc and BMP-6, and we show that BMP-6 increases hepcidin expression and reduces serum iron in mice. These data support a key role for BMP-6 as a ligand for HJV and an endogenous regulator of hepcidin expression and iron metabolism in vivo. PMID:19252486

  7. Crystal structure of ATP sulfurylase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key enzyme in sulfate activation

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Tobias C.; Blaesse, Michael; Huber, Robert

    2001-01-01

    ATP sulfurylases (ATPSs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyse the primary step of intracellular sulfate activation: the reaction of inorganic sulfate with ATP to form adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (APS) and pyrophosphate (PPi). With the crystal structure of ATPS from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have solved the first structure of a member of the ATP sulfurylase family. We have analysed the crystal structure of the native enzyme at 1.95 ? resolution using multiple isomorphous replacement (MIR) and, subsequently, the ternary enzyme product complex with APS and PPi bound to the active site. The enzyme consists of six identical subunits arranged in two stacked rings in a D3 symmetric assembly. Nucleotide binding causes significant conformational changes, which lead to a rigid body structural displacement of domains III and IV of the ATPS monomer. Despite having similar folds and active site design, examination of the active site of ATPS and comparison with known structures of related nucleotidylyl transferases reveal a novel ATP binding mode that is peculiar to ATP sulfuryl-ases. PMID:11157739

  8. Random mutagenesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase: a key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Tarun, A S; Lee, J S; Theologis, A

    1998-08-18

    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACC synthase, EC 4.4.1. 14) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway in plants. To determine the amino acid residues critical for the structure and function of this enzyme, the tomato Le-ACS2 isoenzyme has been subjected to both site-directed and PCR random mutagenesis. Mutant ACC synthases with reduced enzyme activity have been selected by using a genetic screen based on the functional complementation of an Escherichia coli Ile auxotroph that has been engineered to express ACC deaminase from Pseudomonas sp. The DNA sequence of almost 1,000 clones has been determined, and 334 single missense mutations have been selected for analysis. We have identified three classes of mutants based on their activity and expression in E. coli. Class I and II mutants have the same level of protein expression as the wild type, but their enzyme activity is reduced to 0-5% and 5-50%, respectively. Class III mutants have neither activity nor detectable protein expression. The inactive mutations are clustered in regions that are highly conserved among various ACC synthases. This library of mutants will facilitate the elucidation of structure-function relationships of this regulatory enzyme. PMID:9707555

  9. Inhibition of Key Digestive Enzymes Related to Diabetes and Hyperlipidemia and Protection of Liver-Kidney Functions by Trigonelline in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hamden, Khaled; Mnafgui, Kais; Amri, Zahra; Aloulou, Ahmed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a serious health problem and a source of risk for numerous severe complications such as obesity and hypertension. Treatment of diabetes and its related diseases can be achieved by inhibiting key digestive enzymes related to starch and lipid digestion. The findings revealed that the administration of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats helped to protect the pancreas ?-cells from death and damage. Additionally, the supplement of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats significantly decreased intestinal ?-amylase and maltase by 36 and 52%, respectively, which led to a significant decrease in the blood glucose rate by 46%. Moreover, the administration of trigonelline to surviving diabetic rats potentially inhibited key enzymes of lipid metabolism and absorption such as lipase activity in the small intestine by 56%, which led to a notable decrease in serum triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) rates and an increase in the HDL cholesterol level. This treatment also improved glucose, maltase, starch, and lipid oral tolerance. Trigonelline was also observed to protect the liver-kidney functions efficiently, which was evidenced by the significant decrease in the serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and creatinine, albumin, and urea rates. The histological analysis of the pancreas, liver, and kidney tissues further established the positive effect of trigonelline. Overall, the findings presented in this study demonstrate that the administration of trigonelline to diabetic rats can make it a potentially strong candidate for industrial application as a pharmacological agent for the treatment of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and liver-kidney dysfunctions. PMID:23641341

  10. Remarkable Reproducibility of Enzyme Activity Profiles in Tomato Fruits Grown under Contrasting Environments Provides a Roadmap for Studies of Fruit Metabolism1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Biais, Benoît; Bénard, Camille; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Colombié, Sophie; Prodhomme, Duyęn; Ménard, Guillaume; Bernillon, Stéphane; Gehl, Bernadette; Gautier, Hélčne; Ballias, Patricia; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Sweetlove, Lee; Génard, Michel; Gibon, Yves

    2014-01-01

    To assess the influence of the environment on fruit metabolism, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’) plants were grown under contrasting conditions (optimal for commercial, water limited, or shaded production) and locations. Samples were harvested at nine stages of development, and 36 enzyme activities of central metabolism were measured as well as protein, starch, and major metabolites, such as hexoses, sucrose, organic acids, and amino acids. The most remarkable result was the high reproducibility of enzyme activities throughout development, irrespective of conditions or location. Hierarchical clustering of enzyme activities also revealed tight relationships between metabolic pathways and phases of development. Thus, cell division was characterized by high activities of fructokinase, glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, indicating ATP production as a priority, whereas cell expansion was characterized by enzymes involved in the lower part of glycolysis, suggesting a metabolic reprogramming to anaplerosis. As expected, enzymes involved in the accumulation of sugars, citrate, and glutamate were strongly increased during ripening. However, a group of enzymes involved in ATP production, which is probably fueled by starch degradation, was also increased. Metabolites levels seemed more sensitive than enzymes to the environment, although such differences tended to decrease at ripening. The integration of enzyme and metabolite data obtained under contrasting growth conditions using principal component analysis suggests that, with the exceptions of alanine amino transferase and glutamate and malate dehydrogenase and malate, there are no links between single enzyme activities and metabolite time courses or levels. PMID:24474652

  11. Proline and its metabolism enzymes in cucumber cell cultures during acclimation to salinity.

    PubMed

    Naliwajski, Marcin R; Sk?odowska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Proline is an important osmolyte appearing as the result of salt stress response of plants. In the present study, we measured the proline concentration, activities of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR), and proline dehydrogenase (PDH) key regulatory enzymes in the biosynthesis and degradation of proline in the acclimated (AC20) and the non-acclimated (NAC) cucumber cell suspension cultures subjected to moderate (150 mM NaCl; AC20-150, NAC-150, respectively) and severe (200 mM NaCl; AC20-200, NAC-200, respectively) salt stress. The data showed that salt stress brought about a linear increase in proline content in both types of cultures. However, in the acclimated culture proline accumulation was observed earlier, in third hour after stress. Only in the acclimated culture moderate and severe stresses up-regulated P5CS activity throughout the experiment, whereas the activity of P5CR grew in response to both NaCl concentrations only in 24th and 48th hour. The severe salt stress resulted in decrease in P5CR in NAC-200 cultures. In response to salt stress, both types of cell suspension cultures reacted with decline in PDH activity below the spectrophotometrically detected level. Cell cultures vigor correlated with salt concentration and time of exposure to the stress factor. Both NaCl concentrations caused linear decline in vigor of the non-acclimated culture up to 80-90 % at the end of the experiment, whereas in the acclimated culture significant decrease by about 30-40 % was reached in 24th hour after stress. The presented data suggest that acclimation to salt stress up-regulated proline synthesis enzyme activity and caused intensive accumulations of proline by inhibiting its oxidation. PMID:23990108

  12. Evaluation of in vivo parameters of drug metabolizing enzyme activity in man after administration of clemastine, phenobarbital or placebo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Hildebrandt; I. Roots; M. Speck; K. Saalfrank; H. Kewitz

    1975-01-01

    The 24 h urinary excretion of 6ß-hydroxycortisol and D-glucaric acid, the plasma half-lives and total clearances of aminopyrine, and serum gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity have been measured in nineteen healthy male volunteers. The study was done double blind and was conducted as a test of induction of microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes during and after daily doses of 6 mg clemastine, 300 mg

  13. Effect of Graded Nrf2 Activation on Phase-I and -II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kai Connie; Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that induces a battery of cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative/electrophilic stress. Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) sequesters Nrf2 in the cytosol. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 in regulating the mRNA of genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes and xenobiotic transporters. Microarray analysis was performed in livers of Nrf2-null, wild-type, Keap1-knockdown mice with increased Nrf2 activation, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout mice with maximum Nrf2 activation. In general, Nrf2 did not have a marked effect on uptake transporters, but the mRNAs of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, and organic anion transporter 2 were decreased with Nrf2 activation. The effect of Nrf2 on cytochrome P450 (Cyp) genes was minimal, with only Cyp2a5, Cyp2c50, Cyp2c54, and Cyp2g1 increased, and Cyp2u1 decreased with enhanced Nrf2 activation. However, Nrf2 increased mRNA of many other phase-I enzymes, such as aldo-keto reductases, carbonyl reductases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1. Many genes involved in phase-II drug metabolism were induced by Nrf2, including glutathione S-transferases, UDP- glucuronosyltransferases, and UDP-glucuronic acid synthesis enzymes. Efflux transporters, such as multidrug resistance-associated proteins, breast cancer resistant protein, as well as ATP-binding cassette g5 and g8 were induced by Nrf2. In conclusion, Nrf2 markedly alters hepatic mRNA of a large number of drug metabolizing enzymes and xenobiotic transporters, and thus Nrf2 plays a central role in xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. PMID:22808024

  14. Enzymes of glycerol and glyceraldehyde metabolism in mouse liver: effects of caloric restriction and age on activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevork Hagopian; Jon J. RAMSEY; Richard Weindruch

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis The influence of caloric restriction on hepatic glyceraldehyde- and glycerol-metabolizing enzyme activities of young and old mice were studied. Glycerol kinase and cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were increa- sed in both young and old CR (calorie-restricted) mice when compared with controls, whereas triokinase increased only in old CR mice. Aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase activities in both young and

  15. Enzymes of Adenylate Metabolism and Their Role in Hibernation of the White-Tailed Prairie Dog, Cynomys leucurus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara E. English; Kenneth B. Storey

    2000-01-01

    AMP deaminase (AMPD) and adenylate kinase (AK) were purified from skeletal muscle of the white-tailed prairie dog, Cynomus leucurus, and enzyme properties were assayed at temperatures characteristic of euthermia (37°C) and hibernation (5°C) to analyze their role in adenylate metabolism during hibernation. Total adenylates decreased in muscle of torpid individuals from 6.97 ± 0.31 to 4.66 ± 0.58 ?mol\\/g of

  16. Comparison of Expression of Glucokinase Gene and Activities of Enzymes Related to Glucose Metabolism in Livers between Dog and Cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tanaka; A. Inoue; A. Takeguchi; T. Washizu; M. Bonkobara; T. Arai

    2005-01-01

    Plasma glucose and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) concentrations and activities of enzymes related to glucose metabolism in livers were measured in dogs and cats. Nucleotide sequences of the conserved region of glucokinase (GK) cDNA that contained ATP- and glucose-binding domains were determined in canine liver and feline pancreas for design of the species-specific oligonucleotide primers for reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

  17. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vibeke Breinholt; Sřren T Lauridsen; Bahram Daneshvar; Jette Jakobsen

    2000-01-01

    The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g\\/kg b.w. per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity in the liver was significantly induced in a dose-dependent fashion at all lycopene

  18. Effect of Graded Nrf2 Activation on Phase-I and -II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in Mouse Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Connie Wu; Julia Yue Cui; Curtis D. Klaassen

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that induces a battery of cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative\\/electrophilic stress. Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) sequesters Nrf2 in the cytosol. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 in regulating the mRNA of genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes and xenobiotic transporters. Microarray

  19. Induction of hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in female Fischer 344 rats following repeated inhalation exposure to decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. McKim; Supratim Choudhuri; Paul C. Wilga; Ajay Madan; Leigh Ann Burns-Naas; Robert H. Gallavan; Richard W. Mast; Dennis J. Naas; Andrew Parkinson; Robert G. Meeks

    1999-01-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is a cyclic siloxane with a wide range of commercial applications. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of D5 on the expression and activity of selected rat hepatic phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. Female Fischer-344 rats were exposed to 160 ppm D5 vapors (6 h\\/day, 7 days\\/week, for 28 days) by whole-body inhala-

  20. Plasmalogen metabolism-related enzymes in rat brain during aging: influence of n-3 fatty acid intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. André; P. Juanéda; J. L. Sébédio; J. M. Chardigny

    2006-01-01

    Plasmalogens (Pls) are phospholipids containing a vinyl–ether bond at the sn-1 position of the glycerol backbone. They represent between 1\\/2 and 2\\/3 of the ethanolamine phospholipids in the brain. During aging, the Pls content in human brain falls down. However, the role of Pls metabolism-related enzymes in the regulation of Pls levels remains to be determined. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAP-AT)

  1. Expression pattern of glycoside hydrolase genes in Lutzomyia longipalpis reveals key enzymes involved in larval digestion

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Caroline da Silva; Diaz-Albiter, Hector M.; Faria, Maiara do Valle; Sant'Anna, Maurício R. V.; Dillon, Rod J.; Genta, Fernando A.

    2014-01-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is the most important vector of American Visceral Leishmaniasis. Adults are phytophagous (males and females) or blood feeders (females only), and larvae feed on solid detritus. Digestion in sand fly larvae has scarcely been studied, but some glycosidase activities putatively involved in microorganism digestion were already described. Nevertheless, the molecular nature of these enzymes, as the corresponding genes and transcripts, were not explored yet. Catabolism of microbial carbohydrates in insects generally involves ?-1,3-glucanases, chitinases, and digestive lysozymes. In this work, the transcripts of digestive ?-1,3-glucanase and chitinases were identified in the L. longipalpis larvae throughout analysis of sequences and expression patterns of glycoside hydrolases families 16, 18, and 22. The activity of one i-type lysozyme was also registered. Interestingly, this lysozyme seems to play a role in immunity, rather than digestion. This is the first attempt to identify the molecular nature of sand fly larval digestive enzymes. PMID:25140153

  2. Structural Insights into Maize Viviparous14, a Key Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of the Phytohormone Abscisic Acid W

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, S.; Gabelli, S; Echeverria, I; Vogel, J; Guan, J; Tan, B; Klee, H; McCarty, D; Amzela, M

    2010-01-01

    The key regulatory step in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), a hormone central to the regulation of several important processes in plants, is the oxidative cleavage of the 11,12 double bond of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid. The enzyme viviparous14 (VP14) performs this cleavage in maize (Zea mays), making it a target for the rational design of novel chemical agents and genetic modifications that improve plant behavior through the modulation of ABA levels. The structure of VP14, determined to 3.2-{angstrom} resolution, provides both insight into the determinants of regio- and stereospecificity of this enzyme and suggests a possible mechanism for oxidative cleavage. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the distantly related CCD1 of maize shows how the VP14 structure represents a template for all plant carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs). In addition, the structure suggests how VP14 associates with the membrane as a way of gaining access to its membrane soluble substrate.

  3. Determination of key enzyme activities in commercial peptidase and lipase preparations from microbial or animal sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. N Kilcawley; M. G Wilkinson; P. F Fox

    2002-01-01

    The enzyme complement of a selection of commercial food-grade peptidase and lipase preparations was investigated. Each preparation was assayed for protein content, proteinase activity at pH 5.5 and 7.0 at 37°C using azocasein and semi-quantitatively assayed for lipase, peptidase, proteinase, phosphatase and glycosidase activity by the API-ZYM system. Each peptidase preparation was also assayed for various endo-, carboxy-, amino- and

  4. The evolution of pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase in plants: a key enzyme in proline synthesis.

    PubMed

    Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogerio

    2009-01-01

    Many plants synthesize and accumulate proline in response to osmotic stress conditions. A central enzyme in the proline biosynthesis is the bifunctional enzyme Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) that includes two functional catalytic domains: the gamma-glutamyl kinase and the glutamic-gamma-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. This enzyme catalyzes the first two steps of the proline biosynthetic pathway and plays a central role in the regulation of this process in plants. To determine the evolutionary events that occurred in P5CS genes, partial sequences from four Neotropical trees were cloned and compared to those of other plant taxa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that P5CS duplication events have occurred several times following the emergence of flowering plants and at different frequencies throughout the evolution of monocots and dicots. Despite the high number of conserved residues in plant P5CS sequences, positive selection was observed at different regions of P5CS paralogous genes and also when dicots and monocots were contrasted. PMID:19002717

  5. Effect of oxidized frying oil and vitamin C levels on the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system of guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, J F; Lee, Y W; Chang, F C

    2000-06-01

    The influence of oxidized frying oil (OFO) on the guinea pig hepatic microsomal xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme system in the presence of different amounts dietary vitamin C was investigated. Weanling male guinea pigs were divided into four groups and were fed 15% oxidized frying oil diets supplemented with vitamin C at 300, 600, or 1,500 mg/kg (experimental diets) or a control diet that contained 15% fresh untreated soybean oil with 300 mg/kg of vitamin C, respectively. After 60 d, guinea pigs were euthanized and phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the liver were determined. Compared with the fresh oil diet fed the control group, the relative liver weight was higher in the OFO-fed groups. Hepatic microsomal protein and cytochrome P450 contents were significantly higher in OFO-fed guinea pigs than in the control group. Both values increased in response to increased intake of vitamin C. The activities of phase II relative components, including UDP-glucuronyl transferase, UDP-glucuronyl dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase, of guinea pigs fed the OFO diets supplemented with 300 mg vitamin C/kg were significantly higher than those of guinea pigs fed the control diet. However, the phase II relative components decreased with increasing vitamin C content in the diet. The results demonstrate that both dietary OFO and vitamin C in guinea pigs induce hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, but the level of induction is modulated by the dietary vitamin C level. PMID:10955280

  6. Berries and Ellagic Acid Prevent Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Enzymes of Estrogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Aiyer, Harini S.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine whether dietary berries and ellagic acid prevent 17? estradiol (E2) -induced mammary tumors by altering estrogen metabolism, we randomized ACI rats (n=6/group) into 5 groups ? sham implant + control diet (SH-CD), E2 ? implant + control diet (E2-CD), E2+2.5% black raspberry (E2-BRB); E2+2.5% blueberry (E2-BB) and E2+ 400ppm ellagic acid (E2-EA). Animals were euthanized at early (6wk), intermediate (18wk) and late (24wk) phases of E2-carcinogenesis and the mammary tissue analyzed for gene-expression changes using quantitative real-time PCR. At 6 weeks, E2-treatment caused 48-fold increase in cytochrome P4501A1(CYP1A1) (p<0.0001), which was attenuated by both BRB and BB diets to 12- and 21-fold, respectively (p<0.001). E2 did not alter CYP1B1 levels, but both berry and EA diets significantly suppressed it by 11- and 3.5-fold, respectively from baseline (p<0.05). There was a 5-fold increase in 17?-Hydroxysteroid dehyrdogenase(17?HSD7) and this was moderately abrogated to about 2-fold by all supplementation (p<0.05). At 18 weeks, CYP1A1 was elevated by 15-fold in E2-CD and only E2-BB reduced this increase to 7-fold (p<0.05). Catechol-O-methyl transferase(COMT) expression was elevated 2-fold by E2-treatment (p<0.05) and all supplementation reversed this. At 24 weeks, CYP1A1 expression was less pronounced, but still high (8-fold) in E2-treated rats. This increase was reduced to 3.2 and 4.6-fold, by E2-BRB and E2-EA, respectively (p<0.05), but not by E2-BB. Supplementation did not alter the effect of E2 on steroid receptors. The diets also significantly suppressed mammary tumor incidence (10–30%), volume (41–67%) and multiplicity (38 to 51%) (p<0.05). Berries may prevent mammary tumors by suppressing the levels of E2-metabolizing enzymes during the early phase of E2-carcinogenesis. PMID:20501861

  7. Effects of Sublethal Exposure to a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Formulation on Metabolic Activities of Different Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes in Rats.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Karen; Najle, Roberto; Lifschitz, Adrián; Maté, María L; Lanusse, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo L

    2014-07-01

    The activities of different xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver subcellular fractions from Wistar rats exposed to a glyphosate (GLP)-based herbicide (Roundup full II) were evaluated in this work. Exposure to the herbicide triggered protective mechanisms against oxidative stress (increased glutathione peroxidase activity and total glutathione levels). Liver microsomes from both male and female rats exposed to the herbicide had lower (45%-54%, P < 0.01) hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) levels compared to their respective control animals. In female rats, the hepatic 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (a general CYP-dependent enzyme activity) was 57% higher (P < 0.05) in herbicide-exposed compared to control animals. Conversely, this enzyme activity was 58% lower (P < 0.05) in male rats receiving the herbicide. Lower (P < 0.05) 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethlyase (EROD, CYP1A1/2 dependent) and oleandomycin triacetate (TAO) N-demethylase (CYP3A dependent) enzyme activities were observed in liver microsomes from exposed male rats. Conversely, in females receiving the herbicide, EROD increased (123%-168%, P < 0.05), whereas TAO N-demethylase did not change. A higher (158%-179%, P < 0.01) benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase (a CYP2B-dependent enzyme activity) activity was only observed in herbicide-exposed female rats. In herbicide-exposed rats, the hepatic S-oxidation of methimazole (flavin monooxygenase dependent) was 49% to 62% lower (P < 0.001), whereas the carbonyl reduction of menadione (a cytosolic carbonyl reductase-dependent activity) was higher (P < 0.05). Exposure to the herbicide had no effects on enzymatic activities dependent on carboxylesterases, glutathione transferases, and uridinediphospho-glucuronosyltransferases. This research demonstrated certain biochemical modifications after exposure to a GLP-based herbicide. Such modifications may affect the metabolic fate of different endobiotic and xenobiotic substances. The pharmacotoxicological significance of these findings remains to be clarified. PMID:24985121

  8. Fructoselysine 3-epimerase, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the unusual Amadori compound psicoselysine in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Wiame, Elsa; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2004-01-01

    The frl (fructoselysine) operon encodes fructoselysine 6-kinase and fructoselysine 6-phosphate deglycase, allowing the conversion of fructoselysine into glucose 6-phosphate and lysine. We now show that a third enzyme encoded by this operon catalyses the metal-dependent reversible interconversion of fructoselysine with its C-3 epimer, psicoselysine. The enzyme can be easily assayed through the formation of tritiated water from [3-3H]fructoselysine. Psicoselysine supports the growth of Escherichia coli, causing the induction of the three enzymes of the frl operon. No growth on fructoselysine or psicoselysine was observed with Tn5 mutants in which the putative transporter (FrlA) or fructoselysine 6-phosphate deglycase (FrlB) had been inactivated, indicating the importance of the frl operon for the metabolism of both substrates. The ability of E. coli to grow on psicoselysine suggests the occurrence of this unusual Amadori compound in Nature. PMID:14641112

  9. Regulation of enzymes of serine and one-carbon metabolism by testosterone in rat prostate, liver, and kidney.

    PubMed

    Sanborn, T A; Kowle, R L; Sallach, H J

    1975-10-01

    A significant decrease in the specific activity of 3 enzymes of serine and one-carbon metabolism (3-phosphoglycerate dehydrgenase, phosphoserine phosphatase, and serine hydroxy-methyltransferase) was found in the rat prostate gland with castration. A single injection of testosterone propionate to rats 3 days after castration resulted in a significant increase in the 3 enzyme activities within 24 h. This increase in specific activity was maximal 72 h after injection of testosterone in the case of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and serine hydroxymethyltransferase. When cycloheximide was administered in conjunction with testosterone, the increase in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and serine hydroxy-methyltransferase activity was significantly reduced compared to injection of testosterone alone. N6, O2'-dibutyryl adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate [(Bu)2 cAMP] and theophylline injected at 8 h intervals to rats 3 days after castration failed to mimic the action of testosterone on these 3 enzymes 24 and 72 h after beginning injections. Castration had no effect on the specific activity of these enzymes in the kidney; however, 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase was significantly diminished in the liver 6 days after castration. A single injection of testosterone to rats 3 days after castration restored the activity to sham-operated levels. Serine hydroxy-methyltransferase and phosphoserine phosphatase activity in the liver were unaffected 6 days after castration. Thus testosterone exerts a regulatory role on serine and one-carbon metabolism in the prostate and liver which (Bu), cAMP is unable to minic. PMID:172314

  10. Knowledge-Based Simulation of DNA Metabolism: Prediction of Enzyme Action1

    E-print Network

    Brutlag, Doug

    can serve as an interactive modeling tool for reasoning about metabolism. 1.1 Simulation Methods Until of metabolism can also be extremely fast and highly interactive. Inference is commonly achieved through forward

  11. [Effects of rutin on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver of rats fed diets with different level of fat].

    PubMed

    Aksenov, I V; Trusov, N V; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Lashneva, N V; Kravchenko, L V; Tutel'ian, V A

    2014-01-01

    The study has been carried out on 6 groups of male Wistar rats, which received semi-synthetic diets within 28 days. Rats of 1st and 4th group received fat-free diet, 2nid.and 5th - diet containing standard amount of fat (10% by weight, 26% by caloric content; lard/sunflower oil - 1/1); 3rd and 6th group - a high-fat diet (30% by weight, 56% by caloric content). During the last 14 days of the experiment rats received rutin in the dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. AOA, MDA level and the activity of paraoxonase I have been evaluated in blood serum. In rat liver along with the parameters of the antioxidant status (MDA level, activity of paraoxonase 1, quinone reductase, heme oxygenase-1) the activity of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP3A1, CYP2B1, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and glutathione transferase) and the activity of lysosomal enzymes (arylsulfatase A and B, ?-galactosidase and ?-glucuronidase) have been investigated. Elevation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes and XME in liver with the increase of diet fat content has been-noted. Rutin admihistration had no effect onparamete6rs of antioxidant status and decreased unsedimentable activity of lysosomal enzymes that did not depend on fat content in the diet. Rutin receiving increased the activity of all studied XME in rats fed standard diet, but practically did not effect on their activity in rats fed by fat-free and high-fat diets. Thus, rutin in pharmacological dose has no effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes that doesn't depend on the level of fat in the diet, while the decrease or increase of diet fat content modulates (weakens) the influence of rutin on the XME activity. PMID:25816620

  12. Transcription Factor Nrf1 Negatively Regulates the Cystine/Glutamate Transporter and Lipid-Metabolizing Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Tsujita, Tadayuki; Peirce, Vivian; Baird, Liam; Matsuyama, Yuka; Takaku, Misaki; Walsh, Shawn V.; Griffin, Julian L.; Uruno, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Liver-specific Nrf1 (NF-E2-p45-related factor 1) knockout mice develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To identify postnatal mechanisms responsible for this phenotype, we generated an inducible liver-specific Nrf1 knockout mouse line using animals harboring an Nrf1flox allele and a rat CYP1A1-Cre transgene (Nrf1flox/flox::CYP1A1-Cre mice). Administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) to these mice (Nrf1flox/flox::CYP1A1-Cre+3MC mice) resulted in loss of hepatic Nrf1 expression. The livers of mice lacking Nrf1 accumulated lipid, and the hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition in such animals differed significantly from that in the Nrf1flox/flox::CYP1A1-Cre control. This change was provoked by upregulation of several FA metabolism genes. Unexpectedly, we also found that the level of glutathione was increased dramatically in livers of Nrf1flox/flox::CYP1A1-Cre+3MC mice. While expression of glutathione biosynthetic enzymes was unchanged, xCT, a component of the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc?, was significantly upregulated in livers of Nrf1flox/flox::CYP1A1-Cre+3MC mice, suggesting that Nrf1 normally suppresses xCT. Thus, stress-inducible expression of xCT is a two-step process: under homeostatic conditions, Nrf1 effectively suppresses nonspecific transactivation of xCT, but when cells encounter severe oxidative/electrophilic stress, Nrf1 is displaced from an antioxidant response element (ARE) in the gene promoter while Nrf2 is recruited to the ARE. Thus, Nrf1 controls both the FA and the cystine/cysteine content of hepatocytes by participating in an elaborate regulatory network. PMID:25092871

  13. Accumulation of phenolic acid conjugates and betacyanins, and changes in the activities of enzymes involved in feruloylglucose metabolism in cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum L.

    PubMed

    Bokern, M; Wray, V; Strack, D

    1991-05-01

    Cell-suspension cultures of Chenopodium rubrum accumulate various soluble secondary phenolic metabolites such as the hydroxybenzoic acid glycosides 4-hydroxybenzoic acid-?-glucoside, vanillic acid-?-glucoside, the hydroxycinnamic acid acylglycosides 1-O-(4-coumaroyl)-?-glucose, 1-O-feruloyl-?-glucose, 1-O-sinapoyl-?-glucose and 1-O-feruloyl-(?-1,2-glucuronosyl)-?-glucose, the hydroxycinnamic acid amide N-feruloylaspartate, and the betacyanins betanin, amaranthin and celosianin II. In addition, accumulation of the insoluble cell wall-bound hydroxycinnamic acids with ferulic acid as the major component occurs parallel to culture growth. The changes of three pivotal enzymatic activities, all O-transferases which are involved in the formation of the dominant ferulic acid conjugates, were determined. These are (i) uridine 5'-diphosphate(UDP)glucose-hydroxycinnamic acid O-glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1), (ii) UDP-glucuronic acid:1-O-hydroxycin-namoyl-?-glucose O-glucuronosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1) and (iii) 1-O-hydroxycinnamoyl-?-glucose:amaranthin O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (EC 2.3.1). The patterns of metabolite accumulation associated with these enzyme activities show that the hydroxycinnamic acid-glucose esters play a central role as metabolically active intermediates in the secondary metabolism of Ch. rubrum. Two cell lines of this culture (CH, CHN), differing in their betacyanin content, were compared with respect to this metabolism. A markedly higher total betacyanin content in the CHN line might possibly be the consequence of an increased supply of the key precursor for betalain biosynthesis, i.e. 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). In addition, the enhanced accumulation of celosianin II in the CHN line correlates well with a higher activity of the enzyme catalyzing the transfer of ferulic acid from 1-O-feruloyl-?-glucose to amaranthin. PMID:24194079

  14. Superiority of Interconvertible Enzyme Cascades in Metabolic Regulation: Analysis of Multicyclic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. B. Chock; E. R. Stadtman

    1977-01-01

    Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase and glycogen phosphorylase are prototypes for models of ``closed'' and ``opened'' bicyclic cascade systems. Steady-state functions relating the fractional activation of interconvertible enzymes to the concentrations of allosteric effectors and to the catalytic constants of the several converter enzymes in such cascades were determined. The study shows that when the active form of an interconvertible enzyme

  15. Changes in activities of several enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism during the cell cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Van Doorn, J; Valkenburg, J A; Scholte, M E; Oehlen, L J; Van Driel, R; Postma, P W; Nanninga, N; Van Dam, K

    1988-01-01

    Activity changes of a number of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were determined in cell extracts of fractionated exponential-phase populations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown under excess glucose. Cell-size fractionation was achieved by an improved centrifugal elutriation procedure. Evidence that the yeast populations had been fractionated according to age in the cell cycle was obtained by examining the various cell fractions for their volume distribution and their microscopic appearance and by flow cytometric analysis of the distribution patterns of cellular DNA and protein contents. Trehalase, hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, phosphofructokinase 1, and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase showed changes in specific activities throughout the cell cycle, whereas the specific activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase remained constant. The basal trehalase activity increased substantially (about 20-fold) with bud emergence and decreased again in binucleated cells. However, when the enzyme was activated by pretreatment of the cell extracts with cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, no significant fluctuations in activity were seen. These observations strongly favor posttranslational modification through phosphorylation-dephosphorylation as the mechanism underlying the periodic changes in trehalase activity during the cell cycle. As observed for trehalase, the specific activities of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase 1 rose from the beginning of bud formation onward, finally leading to more than eightfold higher values at the end of the S phase. Subsequently, the enzyme activities dropped markedly at later stages of the cycle. Pyruvate kinase activity was relatively low during the G1 phase and the S phase, but increased dramatically (more than 50-fold) during G2. In contrast to the three glycolytic enzymes investigated, the highest specific activity of the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1, 6-diphosphatase 1 was found in fractions enriched in either unbudded cells with a single nucleus or binucleated cells. The observed changes in enzyme activities most likely underlie pronounced alterations in carbohydrate metabolism during the cell cycle. PMID:2844728

  16. Mono-hydroxy methoxychlor alters levels of key sex steroids and steroidogenic enzymes in cultured mouse antral follicles

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@gmail.co [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Leslie, Traci C., E-mail: traci.leslie@gmail.co [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Hatfield, Kimberly P., E-mail: kpm9786@yahoo.co [Program in Toxicology and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Gupta, Rupesh K., E-mail: drrupesh@illinois.ed [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.ed [Department of Comparative Biosciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) is an organochlorine pesticide that reduces fertility in female rodents by decreasing antral follicle numbers and increasing follicular death. MXC is metabolized in the body to mono-hydroxy MXC (mono-OH). Little is known about the effects of mono-OH on the ovary. Thus, this work tested the hypothesis that mono-OH exposure decreases production of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) by cultured mouse antral follicles. Antral follicles were isolated from CD-1 mice (age 35-39 days) and exposed to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), or mono-OH (0.1-10 {mu}g/mL) for 96 h. Media and follicles were collected for analysis of sex steroid levels and mRNA expression, respectively. Mono-OH treatment (10 {mu}g/mL) decreased E{sub 2} (DMSO: 3009.72 {+-} 744.99 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1679.66 {+-} 461.99 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 1752.72 {+-} 532.41 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 45.89 {+-} 33.83 ng/mL), testosterone (DMSO: 15.43 {+-} 2.86 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 17.17 {+-} 4.71 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 13.64 {+-} 3.53 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 1.29 {+-} 0.23 ng/mL), androstenedione (DMSO: 1.92 {+-} 0.34 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 1.49 {+-} 0.43 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 0.64 {+-} 0.31 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 0.12 {+-} 0.06 ng/mL) and progesterone (DMSO: 24.11 {+-} 4.21 ng/mL; mono-OH 0.1 {mu}g/mL: 26.77 {+-} 4.41 ng/mL; 1 {mu}g/mL: 20.90 {+-} 3.75 ng/mL; 10 {mu}g/mL: 9.44 {+-} 2.97 ng/mL) levels. Mono-OH did not alter expression of Star, Hsd3b1, Hsd17b1 and Cyp1b1, but it did reduce levels of Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1 and Cyp19a1 mRNA. Collectively, these data suggest that mono-OH significantly decreases levels of key sex steroid hormones and the expression of enzymes required for steroidogenesis.

  17. Adaptive control model reveals systematic feedback and key molecules in metabolic pathway regulation.

    PubMed

    Quo, Chang F; Moffitt, Richard A; Merrill, Alfred H; Wang, May D

    2011-02-01

    Robust behavior in metabolic pathways resembles stabilized performance in systems under autonomous control. This suggests we can apply control theory to study existing regulation in these cellular networks. Here, we use model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) to investigate the dynamics of de novo sphingolipid synthesis regulation in a combined theoretical and experimental case study. The effects of serine palmitoyltransferase over-expression on this pathway are studied in vitro using human embryonic kidney cells. We report two key results from comparing numerical simulations with observed data. First, MRAC simulations of pathway dynamics are comparable to simulations from a standard model using mass action kinetics. The root-sum-square (RSS) between data and simulations in both cases differ by less than 5%. Second, MRAC simulations suggest systematic pathway regulation in terms of adaptive feedback from individual molecules. In response to increased metabolite levels available for de novo sphingolipid synthesis, feedback from molecules along the main artery of the pathway is regulated more frequently and with greater amplitude than from other molecules along the branches. These biological insights are consistent with current knowledge while being new that they may guide future research in sphingolipid biology. In summary, we report a novel approach to study regulation in cellular networks by applying control theory in the context of robust metabolic pathways. We do this to uncover potential insight into the dynamics of regulation and the reverse engineering of cellular networks for systems biology. This new modeling approach and the implementation routines designed for this case study may be extended to other systems. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb . PMID:21314456

  18. Cellulase a key enzyme in fermentation: Annual report, 1985--1986

    SciTech Connect

    Eveleigh, D.E.; Macmillan, J.D.

    1986-05-04

    Many microbial cellulase systems are comprised of multiple components namely, endoglucanase (EG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), and betaglucosidabe. These three types of enzyme of the cellulase complex act synergistically but their mechanism of interaction in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose is poorly understood. As monoclonal antibodies (McAb) can be used as both snesitive and specific protein probes, we proposed the preparation of McAb specific for cellulases components, which should allow direct analysis of these enzymes. We have been generating murine McAb that react specifically with cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases. To date a McAb specific for a fungal (Trichoderma reesei) cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I) that does not show cross reactivity toward endoglucanases, has been obtained (Riskeet et al; 1986a). This McAb preparation has been used for purification of CBH I via affinity chromatography. Thus the purified McAb to CBH I was immobilized on CnBr-Sepharose-4b to yield an immunomatrix which was analogous studies are also being developed with the cellulase form Microbispora bispora. 5 refs.

  19. Development of fluorescent peptide substrates and assays for the key autophagy-initiating cysteine protease enzyme, ATG4B.

    PubMed

    Vezenkov, Lubomir; Honson, Nicolette S; Kumar, Nag S; Bosc, Damien; Kovacic, Suzana; Nguyen, Thanh G; Pfeifer, Tom A; Young, Robert N

    2015-07-01

    An efficient assay for monitoring the activity of the key autophagy-initiating enzyme ATG4B based on a small peptide substrate has been developed. A number of putative small fluorogenic peptide substrates were prepared and evaluated and optimized compounds showed reasonable rates of cleavage but required high enzyme concentrations which limited their value. A modified peptide substrate incorporating a less sterically demanding self-immolative element was designed and synthesized and was shown to have enhanced properties useful for evaluating inhibitors of ATG4B. Substrate cleavage was readily monitored and was linear for up to 4h but enzyme concentrations of about ten-fold higher were required compared to assays using protein substrate LC3 or analogs thereof (such as FRET-LC3). Several known inhibitors of ATG4B were evaluated using the small peptide substrate and gave IC50 values 3-7 fold higher than previously obtained values using the FRET-LC3 substrate. PMID:25979376

  20. Metabolism of hydroxypyruvate in a mutant of barley lacking NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase, an important photorespiratory enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, A.J.S.; Blackwell, R.D.; Lea, P.J. (Univ. of Lancaster (England))

    1989-09-01

    A mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), LaPr 88/29, deficient in NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase (HPR) activity has been isolated. The activities of both NADH (5%) and NADPH-dependent (19%) HPR were severely reduced in this mutant compared to the wild type. Although lacking an enzyme in the main carbon pathway of photorespiration, this mutant was capable of CO{sub 2} fixation rates equivalent to 75% of that of the wild type, in normal atmospheres and 50% O{sub 2}. There also appeared to be little disruption to the photorespiratory metabolism as ammonia release, CO{sub 2} efflux and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} release from L-(U-{sup 14}C)serine feeding were similar in both mutant and wild-type leaves. When leaves of LaPr 88/29 were fed either ({sup 14}C)serine or {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, the accumulation of radioactivity was in serine and not in hydroxypyruvate, although the mutant was still able to metabolize over 25% of the supplied ({sup 14}C)serine into sucrose. After 3 hours in air the soluble amino acid pool was almost totally dominated by serine and glycine. LaPr 88/29 has also been used to show that NADH-glyoxylate reductase and NADH-HPR are probably not catalyzed by the same enzyme in barley and that over 80% of the NADPH-dependent HPR activity is due to the NADH-dependent enzyme. We also suggest that the alternative NADPH activity can metabolize a proportion, but not all, of the hydroxypyruvate produced during photorespiration and may thus form a useful backup to the NADH-dependent enzyme under conditions of maximal photorespiration.

  1. Thermoinductive Regulation of Gibberellin Metabolism in Thlaspi arvense L. (II. Cold Induction of Enzymes in Gibberellin Biosynthesis).

    PubMed

    Hazebroek, J. P.; Metzger, J. D.; Mansager, E. R.

    1993-06-01

    Vernalization of Thlaspi arvense L. results in the alteration of gibberellin (GA) metabolism such that the metabolism and turnover of the GA precursor ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (kaurenoic acid) is dramatically increased. This cold-induced change in GA metabolism is restricted to the shoot tip, the site of perception of cold in this species (J.P. Hazebroek, J.D. Metzger [1990] Plant Physiol 94: 157-165). In the present report additional biochemical information about the nature of this low-temperature-regulated process is provided. The endogenous levels of kaurenoic acid in leaves and shoot tips of plants were estimated by combined gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectrometry at various times after 4 weeks of vernalization at 6[deg]C. The endogenous levels in shoot tips declined 10-fold by 2 d after the plants were returned to 21[deg]C; this decline continued such that there was nearly 50-fold less kaurenoic acid by 10 d after the end of vernalization. No effect of vernalization on the endogenous levels of kaurenoic acid in leaves was observed. An in vitro enzyme assay was developed to monitor changes in the ability of tissues to convert kaurenoic acid to ent-7[alpha]-hydroxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid (7-OH kaurenoic acid). The activity of this enzyme rapidly increased in microsomal extracts from shoot tips following the end of vernalization. No thermoinduced increase in activity was observed in leaves. The enzymic oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenol was also induced in shoot tips by vernalization. However, this reaction does not appear to be rate limiting for GA biosynthesis, because substantial amounts of kaurenoic acid accumulated in noninduced shoot tips. These results corroborate our hypothesis that the conversion of kaurenoic acid to 7-OH kaurenoic acid is the primary step in GA metabolism regulated by vernalization in Thlaspi shoot tips. PMID:12231843

  2. The MetaCyc Database of metabolic pathways and enzymes and the BioCyc collection of Pathway/Genome Databases

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Ron; Foerster, Hartmut; Fulcher, Carol A.; Kaipa, Pallavi; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Paley, Suzanne; Rhee, Seung Y.; Shearer, Alexander G.; Tissier, Christophe; Walk, Thomas C.; Zhang, Peifen; Karp, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    MetaCyc (MetaCyc.org) is a universal database of metabolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life. The pathways in MetaCyc are curated from the primary scientific literature, and are experimentally determined small-molecule metabolic pathways. Each reaction in a MetaCyc pathway is annotated with one or more well-characterized enzymes. Because MetaCyc contains only experimentally elucidated knowledge, it provides a uniquely high-quality resource for metabolic pathways and enzymes. BioCyc (BioCyc.org) is a collection of more than 350 organism-specific Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs). Each BioCyc PGDB contains the predicted metabolic network of one organism, including metabolic pathways, enzymes, metabolites and reactions predicted by the Pathway Tools software using MetaCyc as a reference database. BioCyc PGDBs also contain predicted operons and predicted pathway hole fillers—predictions of which enzymes may catalyze pathway reactions that have not been assigned to an enzyme. The BioCyc website offers many tools for computational analysis of PGDBs, including comparative analysis and analysis of omics data in a pathway context. The BioCyc PGDBs generated by SRI are offered for adoption by any interested party for the ongoing integration of metabolic and genome-related information about an organism. PMID:17965431

  3. Determination of key residues for catalysis and RNA cleavage specificity: one mutation turns RNase II into a "SUPER-ENZYME".

    PubMed

    Barbas, Ana; Matos, Rute G; Amblar, Mónica; López-Vińas, Eduardo; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2009-07-31

    RNase II is the prototype of a ubiquitous family of enzymes that are crucial for RNA metabolism. In Escherichia coli this protein is a single-stranded-specific 3'-exoribonuclease with a modular organization of four functional domains. In eukaryotes, the RNase II homologue Rrp44 (also known as Dis3) is the catalytic subunit of the exosome, an exoribonuclease complex essential for RNA processing and decay. In this work we have performed a functional characterization of several highly conserved residues located in the RNase II catalytic domain to address their precise role in the RNase II activity. We have constructed a number of RNase II mutants and compared their activity and RNA binding to the wild type using different single- or double-stranded substrates. The results presented in this study substantially improve the RNase II model for RNA degradation. We have identified the residues that are responsible for the discrimination of cleavage of RNA versus DNA. We also show that the Arg-500 residue present in the RNase II active site is crucial for activity but not for RNA binding. The most prominent finding presented is the extraordinary catalysis observed in the E542A mutant that turns RNase II into a "super-enzyme." PMID:19458082

  4. Novel Systems Modeling Methodology in Comparative Microbial Metabolomics: Identifying Key Enzymes and Metabolites Implicated in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Heberling, Colin; Dhurjati, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a group of mental illnesses highly correlated with gastrointestinal dysfunction. Recent studies have shown that there may be one or more microbial “fingerprints” in terms of the composition characterizing individuals with autism, which could be used for diagnostic purposes. This paper proposes a computational approach whereby metagenomes characteristic of “healthy” and autistic individuals are artificially constructed via genomic information, analyzed for the enzymes coded within, and then these enzymes are compared in detail. This is a text mining application. A custom-designed online application was built and used for the comparative metabolomics study and made publically available. Several of the enzyme-catalyzing reactions involved with the amino acid glutamate were curiously missing from the “autism” microbiome and were coded within almost every organism included in the “control” microbiome. Interestingly, there exists a leading hypothesis regarding autism and glutamate involving a neurological excitation/inhibition imbalance; but the association with this study is unclear. The results included data on the transsulfuration and transmethylation pathways, involved with oxidative stress, also of importance to autism. The results from this study are in alignment with leading hypotheses in the field, which is impressive, considering the purely in silico nature of this study. The present study provides new insight into the complex metabolic interactions underlying autism, and this novel methodology has potential to be useful for developing new hypotheses. However, limitations include sparse genome data availability and conflicting literature experimental data. We believe our software tool and methodology has potential for having great utility as data become more available, comprehensive and reliable. PMID:25913376

  5. Cloning of ?-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-01-01

    A ?-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of ?-primeverosides (6-O-?-d-xylopyranosyl-?-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The ?-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The ?-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The ?-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to ?-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the ?-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze ?-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl ?-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the ?-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the ?-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the ?-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl ?-primeveroside by the ?-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the ?-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the ?-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100

  6. Effects of glucose, insulin and triiodothyroxine on leptin and leptin receptor expression and the effects of leptin on activities of enzymes related to glucose metabolism in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rong-Hua; Zhou, Yi; Yuan, Xiao-Chen; Liang, Xu-Fang; Fang, Liu; Bai, Xiao-Li; Wang, Min; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2015-08-01

    Leptin is an important regulator of appetite and energy expenditure in mammals, but its role in fish metabolism control is poorly understood. Our previous studies demonstrated that leptin has an effect on the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure as well as lipid metabolism (stimulation of lipolysis and inhibition of adipogenesis) in the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. To further investigate the role of leptin in fish, the effects of glucose, insulin and triiodothyroxine (T3) on the expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor (Lepr) and the effects of leptin on the activities of critical glucose metabolism enzymes in grass carp hepatocytes were evaluated in the present study. Our data indicated that leptin gene expression was induced by glucose in a dose-dependent manner, while Lepr gene expression exhibited a biphasic change. A high dose of insulin (100 ng/mL) significantly up-regulated the expression of leptin and Lepr. Leptin expression was markedly up-regulated by a low concentration of T3 but inhibited by a high concentration of T3. T3 up-regulated Lepr expression in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that leptin had a close relationship with three factors (glucose, insulin and T3) and might participate in the regulation of glucose metabolism in grass carp. In addition, we also found that leptin affected the activities of key enzymes that are involved in glucose metabolism, which might be mediated by insulin receptor substrate-phosphoinositol 3-kinase signaling. PMID:25952973

  7. In vivo effects of vanadate on hepatic glycogen metabolizing and lipogenic enzymes in insulin-dependent and insulin-resistant diabetic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramji L. Khandelwal; Subbiah Pugazhenthi

    1995-01-01

    The insulin-mimetic action of vanadate is well established but the exact mechanism by which it exerts this effect is still not clearly understood. The role of insulin in the regulation of hepatic glycogen metabolizing and lipogenic enzymes is well known. In our study, we have, therefore, examined the effects of vanadate on these hepatic enzymes using four different models of

  8. Biological definition of multiple chemical sensitivity from redox state and cytokine profiling and not from polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara De Luca; Maria G. Scordo; Eleonora Cesareo; Saveria Pastore; Serena Mariani; Gianluca Maiani; Andrea Stancato; Beatrice Loreti; Giuseppe Valacchi; Carla Lubrano; Desanka Raskovic; Luigia De Padova; Giuseppe Genovesi; Liudmila G. Korkina

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundMultiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a poorly clinically and biologically defined environment-associated syndrome. Although dysfunctions of phase I\\/phase II metabolizing enzymes and redox imbalance have been hypothesized, corresponding genetic and metabolic parameters in MCS have not been systematically examined.

  9. Effect of onion consumption by rats on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Teyssier; M.-J Amiot; N Mondy; J Auger; R Kahane; M.-H Siess

    2001-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables or their natural constituents which increase detoxication enzymes and\\/or reduce activating enzymes are considered as good candidates to prevent chemically-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, rats were fed a diet supplemented with 20% onion powder for 9 days. Several cytochrome P450 (CYP)s enzymes (CYP 1A, 2B, 2E1, 3A), which are involved in carcinogen activation, were determined by measuring

  10. Caffeine as a metabolic probe: Exploration of the enzyme-inducing effect of cigarette smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Kalow; Bing-Kou Tang

    1991-01-01

    It has been realized recently that the primary metabolism of caffeine in humans is catalyzed by P-450IA2 and that the rate of caffeine metabolism can be estimated from a metabolic ratio in a single urine sample. A population of 178 students including 19 smokers were subjected to this caffeine test to establish their P-450IA2 index. Both stated numbers of cigarettes

  11. Formation of oxylipins by CYP74 enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Stumpe; Ivo Feussner

    2006-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation is common to all biological systems, both appearing in developmentally and environmentally regulated processes. Products are hydroperoxy polyunsaturated fatty acids and metabolites derived there from collectively named oxylipins. They may either originate from chemical oxidation or are synthesized by the action of various enzymes, such as lipoxygenases. Cloning of many lipoxygenases and other key enzymes metabolizing oxylipins revealed

  12. Variation in sulfur and selenium accumulation is controlled by naturally occurring isoforms of the key sulfur assimilation enzyme ADENOSINE 5'-PHOSPHOSULFATE REDUCTASE2 across the Arabidopsis species range.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dai-Yin; Baraniecka, Patrycja; Danku, John; Koprivova, Anna; Lahner, Brett; Luo, Hongbing; Yakubova, Elena; Dilkes, Brian; Kopriva, Stanislav; Salt, David E

    2014-11-01

    Natural variation allows the investigation of both the fundamental functions of genes and their role in local adaptation. As one of the essential macronutrients, sulfur is vital for plant growth and development and also for crop yield and quality. Selenium and sulfur are assimilated by the same process, and although plants do not require selenium, plant-based selenium is an important source of this essential element for animals. Here, we report the use of linkage mapping in synthetic F2 populations and complementation to investigate the genetic architecture of variation in total leaf sulfur and selenium concentrations in a diverse set of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions. We identify in accessions collected from Sweden and the Czech Republic two variants of the enzyme ADENOSINE 5'-PHOSPHOSULFATE REDUCTASE2 (APR2) with strongly diminished catalytic capacity. APR2 is a key enzyme in both sulfate and selenate reduction, and its reduced activity in the loss-of-function allele apr2-1 and the two Arabidopsis accessions Hodonín and Shahdara leads to a lowering of sulfur flux from sulfate into the reduced sulfur compounds, cysteine and glutathione, and into proteins, concomitant with an increase in the accumulation of sulfate in leaves. We conclude from our observation, and the previously identified weak allele of APR2 from the Shahdara accession collected in Tadjikistan, that the catalytic capacity of APR2 varies by 4 orders of magnitude across the Arabidopsis species range, driving significant differences in sulfur and selenium metabolism. The selective benefit, if any, of this large variation remains to be explored. PMID:25245030

  13. Identification of the rat liver cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of the calcium channel blocker dipfluzine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Shi, Xiaowei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weili; Li, Junxia

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the specific cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes involved in the metabolism of dipfluzine hydrochloride using the combination of a chemical inhibition study, a correlation analysis and a panel of recombinant rat CYP450 enzymes. The incubation of Dip with rat liver microsomes yielded four metabolites, which were identified by liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The results from the assays involving eight selective inhibitors indicated that CYP3A and CYP2A1 contributed most to the metabolism of Dip, followed by CYP2C11, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2; however, CYP2B1, CYP2C6 and CYP2D1 did not contribute to the formation of the metabolites. The results of the correlation analysis and the assays involving the recombinant CYP450 enzymes further confirmed the above results and concluded that CYP3A2 contributed more than CYP3A1. The results will be valuable in understanding drug-drug interactions when Dip is coadministered with other drugs. PMID:25461550

  14. Effects of Ospemifene on Drug Metabolism Mediated by Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Humans in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Turpeinen, Miia; Uusitalo, Jouko; Lehtinen, Terhi; Kailajärvi, Marita; Pelkonen, Olavi; Vuorinen, Jouni; Tapanainen, Pasi; Stjernschantz, Camilla; Lammintausta, Risto; Scheinin, Mika

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these investigations was to determine the possible effects of the novel selective estrogen receptor modulator, ospemifene, on cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated drug metabolism. Ospemifene underwent testing for possible effects on CYP enzyme activity in human liver microsomes and in isolated human hepatocytes. Based on the results obtained in vitro, three Phase 1 crossover pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in healthy postmenopausal women to assess the in vivo effects of ospemifene on CYP-mediated drug metabolism. Ospemifene and its main metabolites 4-hydroxyospemifene and 4?-hydroxyospemifene weakly inhibited a number of CYPs (CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2C8, and CYP2D6) in vitro. However, only CYP2C9 activity was inhibited by 4-hydroxyospemifene at clinically relevant concentrations. Induction of CYPs by ospemifene in cultured human hepatocytes was 2.4-fold or less. The in vivo studies showed that ospemifene did not have significant effects on the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves of the tested CYP substrates warfarin (CYP2C9), bupropion (CYP2B6) and omeprazole (CYP2C19), demonstrating that pretreatment with ospemifene did not alter their metabolism. Therefore, the risk that ospemifene will affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are substrates for CYP enzymes is low. PMID:23880855

  15. A comparative study on the metabolism of Epimedium koreanum Nakai-prenylated flavonoids in rats by an intestinal enzyme (lactase phlorizin hydrolase) and intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Yan; Wang, Ying; Gao, Xia; Qu, Ding; Liu, Congyan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids in Herba Epimedii by an intestinal enzyme and flora. Flavonoids were incubated at 37 °C with rat intestinal enzyme and intestinal flora. HPLC-UV was used to calculate the metabolic rates of the parent drug in the incubation and LC/MS/MS was used to determine the chemical structures of metabolites generated by different flavonoid glycosides. Rates of flavonoid metabolism by rat intestinal enzyme were quicker than those of intestinal flora. The sequence of intestinal flora metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin B>epimedin A>epimedin C>baohuoside I, whereas the order of intestinal enzyme metabolic rates was icariin>epimedin A>epimedin C>epimedin B>baohuoside I. Meanwhile, the LC/MS/MS graphs showed that icariin produced three products, epimedin A/B/C had four and baohuoside I yielded one product in incubations of both intestinal enzyme and flora, which were more than the results of HPLC-UV due to the fact LC/MS/MS has lower detectability and higher sensitivity. Moreover, the outcomes indicated that the rate of metabolization of flavonoids by intestinal enzyme were faster than those of intestinal flora, which was consistent with the HPLC-UV results. In conclusion, the metabolic pathways of the same components by intestinal flora and enzyme were the same. What's more, an intestinal enzyme such as lactase phlorizin hydrolase exhibited a more significant metabolic role in prenylated flavonoids of Herba Epimedi compared with intestinal flora. PMID:24368601

  16. [Antioxidative enzymes play key roles in cadmium tolerance of Phytolacca americana].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Huang, Zhi-Bo; Li, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jin-Guang; Li, Xia

    2011-03-01

    Phytolacca americana L. has the capacity to take up and accumulate to very high levels heavy metals such as Mn and Cd, and is used for phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soils. The role of antioxidative enzyme of Phytolacca americana in response to Cd stress is unknown. The 6-week-old seedlings of Phytolacca americana were exposed to half strength Hoagland solution with 200 micromol/L CdCl2 or 400 micromol/L CdCl2 for 4 days. The content of H2O2 and MDA, and electrolyte leakage increased, while the photosynthetic rate decreased, indicated that the oxidative damage induced by Cd stress in Phytolacca americana was one of the metal toxicity mechanism. The activities of SOD and POD increased rapidly with elevated Cd concentration and exposure time, CAT activity was stable in response to 200 micromol/L CdCl2 stress, and increased only at 3 d later upon 400 micromol/L CdCl2, treatment. Suggested that the enzymatic antioxidation capacity played important role in Cd tolerance of hyperaccumulator plant. PMID:21634194

  17. Metabolism at Evolutionary Optimal States

    PubMed Central

    Rabbers, Iraes; van Heerden, Johan H.; Nordholt, Niclas; Bachmann, Herwig; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is generally required for cellular maintenance and for the generation of offspring under conditions that support growth. The rates, yields (efficiencies), adaptation time and robustness of metabolism are therefore key determinants of cellular fitness. For biotechnological applications and our understanding of the evolution of metabolism, it is necessary to figure out how the functional system properties of metabolism can be optimized, via adjustments of the kinetics and expression of enzymes, and by rewiring metabolism. The trade-offs that can occur during such optimizations then indicate fundamental limits to evolutionary innovations and bioengineering. In this paper, we review several theoretical and experimental findings about mechanisms for metabolic optimization. PMID:26042723

  18. Metabolism at evolutionary optimal States.

    PubMed

    Rabbers, Iraes; van Heerden, Johan H; Nordholt, Niclas; Bachmann, Herwig; Teusink, Bas; Bruggeman, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is generally required for cellular maintenance and for the generation of offspring under conditions that support growth. The rates, yields (efficiencies), adaptation time and robustness of metabolism are therefore key determinants of cellular fitness. For biotechnological applications and our understanding of the evolution of metabolism, it is necessary to figure out how the functional system properties of metabolism can be optimized, via adjustments of the kinetics and expression of enzymes, and by rewiring metabolism. The trade-offs that can occur during such optimizations then indicate fundamental limits to evolutionary innovations and bioengineering. In this paper, we review several theoretical and experimental findings about mechanisms for metabolic optimization. PMID:26042723

  19. A new method for evaluation and dietary therapy of congenital: deficiencies of amino acid metabolic enzymes. Linear system analysis and optimization of feedback inputs for the metabolic pathways of lysine, methionine and isoleucine.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, H; Li Wei, K; Nozawa, T; Ishikawa, Y; Fukuyama, Y

    1998-03-01

    We intended to elucidate an integrated mathematical model of amino acid metabolism and we propose a system for optimization treatment of disturbed metabolic states caused by congenital enzyme deficiencies. Our analysis focused on the metabolic pathway starting at asparaginic acid proceeding to isoleucine, methionine and lysine. The rate of change in the concentration of the biochemical species was expressed as 21 linear rate equations. We obtained the rate constants and the magnitude of feedback from reported experimental data. Linear systems analysis revealed that the metabolic system under study was stable but uncontrollable. These properties were insensitive to changes in the magnitude of feedback. To show the effect of optimizing the feedback so that it minimizes the square of the concentration of the species and the control input, we analyzed the impulse response of the species, transient response and the singular value of the system for four cases; (1) at the physiological state without optimizing the feedback, (2) at the physiological state attained after optimizing the feedback, (3) at the pathophysiological state attained with enzyme deficiency states for lysine and methionine metabolism without optimizing the feedback, and (4) at the pathophysiological state attained after optimizing the feedback for enzyme deficiencies. In the enzyme deficient model, the impulse response oscillated and lasted longer than that in the physiological state. These changes appeared even in the species on other branched pathways. The singular value was elevated in the enzyme deficient state. By optimizing the feedback, all the impulse responses in the enzyme deficient state recovered to nearly those in the normal physiological state. Similarly, the transient response and the singular value in the enzyme deficient state recovered to nearly the normal physiological values. We elucidated the numerical value of the feedback gain for this optimization. The present analysis is useful for the evaluation of the integrated properties of amino acid metabolism and the optimization technique is potentially of use for determining a treatment course for congenital metabolic enzyme deficiencies. PMID:9648664

  20. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF XENOBIOTIC METABOLIZING ENZYMES (XMES) IN THE AGING MALE FISHER RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detoxification and elimination of xenobiotics is a major function of the liver and is important in maintaining the metabolic homeostasis of the organism. The degree to which aging affects hepatic metabolism is not known. The expression of XMEs, in part, determines the fate of the...

  1. A combined computational-experimental analyses of selected metabolic enzymes in Pseudomonas species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepak Perumal; Chu Sing Lim; Vincent T. K. Chow; Kishore R. Sakharkar; Meena K. Sakharkar

    Comparative genomic analysis has revolutionized our ability to predict the metabolic subsystems that occur in newly sequenced genomes, and to explore the functional roles of the set of genes within each subsystem. These computational predictions can considerably reduce the volume of experimental studies required to assess basic metabolic properties of multiple bacterial species. However, experimental validations are still required to

  2. A new role for ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex: regulating metabolism through post-translational modification of other enzymes.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Mary C; Rae, Caroline D

    2015-07-01

    This Editorial highlights a study by Gibson et al. published in this issue of JNeurochem, in which the authors reveal a novel role for the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) in post-translational modification of proteins. KGDHC may catalyze post-translational modification of itself as well as several other proteins by succinylation of lysine residues. The authors' report of an enzyme responsible for succinylation of key mitochondrial enzymes represents a major step toward our understanding of the complex functional metabolome. TCA, tricarboxylic acid; KG, ?-ketoglutarate; KGDHC, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex; FUM, fumarase; MDH, malate dehydrogenase; ME, malic enzyme; GDH, glutamate dehydrogenase; AAT, aspartate aminotransferase; GS, glutamine synthetase; PAG, phosphate-activated glutaminase; SIRT3, silent information regulator 3; SIRT5, silent information regulator 5. PMID:26052752

  3. Metabolism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Metabolic Syndrome Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Your Child's ... System Thyroid Disorders Diabetes Center Movie: Endocrine System Metabolic Syndrome Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel Blood Test: Comprehensive ...

  4. PPAR? via HNF4? regulates the expression of genes encoding hepatic amino acid catabolizing enzymes to maintain metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Alejandra V; Rangel-Escareńo, Claudia; Torres, Nimbe; Alemán-Escondrillas, Gabriela; Ortiz, Victor; Noriega, Lilia G; Torre-Villalvazo, Ivan; Granados, Omar; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; Tobon-Cornejo, Sandra; González-Hirschfeld, Diana; Recillas-Targa, Félix; Tejero-Barrera, Elizabeth; Gonzalez, Frank J; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-03-01

    The liver is the main organ involved in the metabolism of amino acids (AA), which are oxidized by amino acid catabolizing enzymes (AACE). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) stimulates fatty acid ?-oxidation, and there is evidence that it can modulate hepatic AA oxidation during the transition of energy fuels. To understand the role and mechanism of PPAR?'s regulation of AA catabolism, the metabolic and molecular adaptations of Ppara-null mice were studied. The role of PPAR? on AA metabolism was examined by in vitro and in vivo studies. In wild-type and Ppara-null mice, fed increasing concentrations of the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio, we measured metabolic parameters, and livers were analyzed by microarray analysis, histology and Western blot. Functional enrichment analysis, EMSA and gene reporter assays were performed. Ppara-null mice presented increased expression of AACE in liver affecting AA, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Ppara-null mice had increased glucagon/insulin ratio (7.2-fold), higher serum urea (73.1 %), lower body protein content (19.7 %) and decreased several serum AA in response to a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet. A functional network of differentially expressed genes, suggested that changes in the expression of AACE were regulated by an interrelationship between PPAR? and HNF4?. Our data indicated that the expression of AACE is down-regulated through PPAR? by attenuating HNF4? transcriptional activity as observed in the serine dehydratase gene promoter. PPAR? via HNF4? maintains body protein metabolic homeostasis by down-regulating genes involved in amino acid catabolism for preserving body nitrogen. PMID:25576393

  5. Unpredictability of metabolism--the key role of metabolomics science in combination with next-generation genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2011-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing provides technologies which sequence whole prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes in days, perform genome-wide association studies, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing and RNA sequencing for transcriptome studies. An exponentially growing volume of sequence data can be anticipated, yet functional interpretation does not keep pace with the amount of data produced. In principle, these data contain all the secrets of living systems, the genotype-phenotype relationship. Firstly, it is possible to derive the structure and connectivity of the metabolic network from the genotype of an organism in the form of the stoichiometric matrix N. This is, however, static information. Strategies for genome-scale measurement, modelling and predicting of dynamic metabolic networks need to be applied. Consequently, metabolomics science--the quantitative measurement of metabolism in conjunction with metabolic modelling--is a key discipline for the functional interpretation of whole genomes and especially for testing the numerical predictions of metabolism based on genome-scale metabolic network models. In this context, a systematic equation is derived based on metabolomics covariance data and the genome-scale stoichiometric matrix which describes the genotype-phenotype relationship. PMID:21556754

  6. Effect of commercially available green and black tea beverages on drug-metabolizing enzymes and oxidative stress in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Hsu, Ya-Ru; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Chang, Keng-Hao; Yang, Hui-Ting

    2014-08-01

    The effect of commercially available green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) drinks on drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and oxidative stress in rats was investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a laboratory chow diet and GT or BT drink for 5 weeks. Control rats received de-ionized water instead of the tea drinks. Rats received the GT and BT drinks treatment for 5 weeks showed a significant increase in hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1A2, and a significant decrease in CYP2C, CYP2E1 and CYP3A enzyme activities. Results of immunoblot analyses of enzyme protein contents showed the same trend with enzyme activity. Significant increase in UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity and reduced glutathione content in liver and lungs were observed in rats treated with both tea drinks. A lower lipid peroxide level in lungs was observed in rats treated with GT drink. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that both tea drinks decreased pregnane X receptor binding to DNA and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 binding to DNA. These results suggest that feeding of both tea drinks to rats modulated DME activities and reduced oxidative stress in liver and lungs. GT drink is more effective on reducing oxidative stress than BT drink. PMID:24815822

  7. Metabolism of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate by a soluble enzyme fraction from pea (Pisum sativum) roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. K. Drobak; P. A. C. Watkins; K. Roberts; J. A. Chattaway; A. P. Dawson

    1991-01-01

    Metabolism of the putative messenger molecule D-myo-inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)Pâ) in plant cells has been studied using a soluble fraction from pea (pisum sativum) roots as enzyme source and (5-³²P)Ins(1,4,5)Pâ and (2-ÂłH)Ins(1,4,5)Pâ as tracers. Ins(1,4,5)Pâ was rapidly converted into both lower and higher inositol phosphates. The major dephosphorylation product was inositol (4,5) bisphosphate (Ins(4,5)Pâ) whereas inositol(1,4)bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)Pâ) was only present in very

  8. Urinary excretion ofD-glucaric acid, an indicator of drug metabolizing enzyme activity, in patients with impaired renal function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kampf; I. Roots; A. G. Hildebrandt

    1980-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate ofD-glucaric acid, an in vivo parameter of the activity of drug metabolizing enzymes, has been determined in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (glomerular filtration rate 4.5–80 ml\\/min\\/1.73 m2). The mean value of 22.3 µmoles\\/d (SD 7.2; n 28) was almost identical to that of healthy controls (22.1 µmoles\\/d, SD 7.3; n 22). Thus, no inhibitory or

  9. [The metabolic fingerprint of the compatibility of Radix Aconite and Radix Paeoniae Alba and its effect on CYP450 enzymes].

    PubMed

    Bi, Yun-Feng; Zheng, Zhong; Pi, Zi-Feng; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Feng-Rui

    2014-12-01

    Using a UPLC-MS/MS (MRM) and cocktail probe substrates method, the metabolic fingerprint of the compatibility of Radix Aconite (RA) and Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and its effect on CYP450 enzymes were investigated. These main CYP isoforms include CYP 1A2, CYP 2C, CYP 2E1, CYP 2D and CYP 3A. Compared with the inhibition effect of RA decoctions on CYP450 isoforms, their co-decoctions of RA and RPA with different proportions can decrease RA' inhibition on CYP3A, CYP2D, CYP2C and CYP1A2, but can not reduce RA' effect on CYP2E1. The metabolic fingerprints of RA decoction and co-decoctions with different proportions of RPA in CYP450 of rat liver were analyzed by UPLC-MS. Compared with the metabolic fingerprints of RA decoction, the intensity of diester-diterpenoid aconitum alkaloids decreased significantly, while the intensity of monoester-diterpenoid alkaloids significantly increased in the metabolic fingerprints of co-decoctions of RA and RPA. The results suggest that RA coadministration with RPA increased the degradation of toxic alkaloid and show the effect of toxicity reducing and efficacy enhancing. PMID:25920201

  10. Metabolic capabilities of cytochrome P450 enzymes in Chinese liver microsomes compared with those in Caucasian liver microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junling; He, Minxia M; Niu, Wei; Wrighton, Steven A; Li, Li; Liu, Yang; Li, Chuan

    2012-01-01

    AIM The most common causes of variability in drug response include differences in drug metabolism, especially when the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are involved. The current study was conducted to assess the differences in CYP activities in human liver microsomes (HLM) of Chinese or Caucasian origin. METHODS The metabolic capabilities of CYP enzymes in 30 Chinese liver microsomal samples were compared with those of 30 Caucasian samples utilizing enzyme kinetics. Phenacetin O-deethylation, coumarin 7-hydroxylation, bupropion hydroxylation, amodiaquine N-desethylation, diclofenac 4?-hydroxylation (S)-mephenytoin 4?-hydroxylation, dextromethorphan O-demethylation, chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation and midazolam 1?-hydroxylation/testosterone 6?-hydroxylation were used as probes for activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test was used to assess the differences. RESULTS The samples of the two ethnic groups were not significantly different in cytochrome-b5 concentrations but were significantly different in total CYP concentrations and NADPH-P450 reductase activity (P < 0.05). Significant ethnic differences in intrinsic clearance were observed for CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2E1; the median values of the Chinese group were 54, 58, 26, and 35% of the corresponding values of the Caucasian group, respectively. These differences were associated with differences in Michaelis constant or maximum velocity. Despite negligible difference in intrinsic clearance, the Michaelis constant of CYP2B6 appeared to have a significant ethnic difference. No ethnic difference was observed for CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2D6 and CYP3A. CONCLUSIONS These data extend our knowledge on the ethnic differences in CYP enzymes and will have implications for drug discovery and drug therapy for patients from different ethnic origins. PMID:21815912

  11. Phase I to II cross-induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes: a feedforward control mechanism for potential hormetic responses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Pi, Jingbo; Woods, Courtney G; Andersen, Melvin E

    2009-06-15

    Hormetic responses to xenobiotic exposure likely occur as a result of overcompensation by the homeostatic control systems operating in biological organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying overcompensation that leads to hormesis are still unclear. A well-known homeostatic circuit in the cell is the gene induction network comprising phase I, II and III metabolizing enzymes, which are responsible for xenobiotic detoxification, and in many cases, bioactivation. By formulating a differential equation-based computational model, we investigated in this study whether hormesis can arise from the operation of this gene/enzyme network. The model consists of two feedback and one feedforward controls. With the phase I negative feedback control, xenobiotic X activates nuclear receptors to induce cytochrome P450 enzyme, which bioactivates X into a reactive metabolite X'. With the phase II negative feedback control, X' activates transcription factor Nrf2 to induce phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase, etc., which participate in a set of reactions that lead to the metabolism of X' into a less toxic conjugate X''. The feedforward control involves phase I to II cross-induction, in which the parent chemical X can also induce phase II enzymes directly through the nuclear receptor and indirectly through transcriptionally upregulating Nrf2. As a result of the active feedforward control, a steady-state hormetic relationship readily arises between the concentrations of the reactive metabolite X' and the extracellular parent chemical X to which the cell is exposed. The shape of dose-response evolves over time from initially monotonically increasing to J-shaped at the final steady state-a temporal sequence consistent with adaptation-mediated hormesis. The magnitude of the hormetic response is enhanced by increases in the feedforward gain, but attenuated by increases in the bioactivation or phase II feedback loop gains. Our study suggests a possibly common mechanism for the hormetic responses observed with many mutagens/carcinogens whose activities require bioactivation by phase I enzymes. Feedforward control, often operating in combination with negative feedback regulation in a homeostatic system, may be a general control theme responsible for steady-state hormesis. PMID:19371757

  12. Phase I to II cross-induction of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes: A feedforward control mechanism for potential hormetic responses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qiang [Division of Computational Biology, Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)], E-mail: qzhang@thehamner.org; Pi Jingbo [Division of Translational Biology, Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Woods, Courtney G. [Division of Computational Biology, Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); ExxonMobil Biomedical Sciences, Annandale, NJ 08801 (United States); Andersen, Melvin E. [Division of Computational Biology, Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Hormetic responses to xenobiotic exposure likely occur as a result of overcompensation by the homeostatic control systems operating in biological organisms. However, the mechanisms underlying overcompensation that leads to hormesis are still unclear. A well-known homeostatic circuit in the cell is the gene induction network comprising phase I, II and III metabolizing enzymes, which are responsible for xenobiotic detoxification, and in many cases, bioactivation. By formulating a differential equation-based computational model, we investigated in this study whether hormesis can arise from the operation of this gene/enzyme network. The model consists of two feedback and one feedforward controls. With the phase I negative feedback control, xenobiotic X activates nuclear receptors to induce cytochrome P450 enzyme, which bioactivates X into a reactive metabolite X'. With the phase II negative feedback control, X' activates transcription factor Nrf2 to induce phase II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase and glutamate cysteine ligase, etc., which participate in a set of reactions that lead to the metabolism of X' into a less toxic conjugate X''. The feedforward control involves phase I to II cross-induction, in which the parent chemical X can also induce phase II enzymes directly through the nuclear receptor and indirectly through transcriptionally upregulating Nrf2. As a result of the active feedforward control, a steady-state hormetic relationship readily arises between the concentrations of the reactive metabolite X' and the extracellular parent chemical X to which the cell is exposed. The shape of dose-response evolves over time from initially monotonically increasing to J-shaped at the final steady state-a temporal sequence consistent with adaptation-mediated hormesis. The magnitude of the hormetic response is enhanced by increases in the feedforward gain, but attenuated by increases in the bioactivation or phase II feedback loop gains. Our study suggests a possibly common mechanism for the hormetic responses observed with many mutagens/carcinogens whose activities require bioactivation by phase I enzymes. Feedforward control, often operating in combination with negative feedback regulation in a homeostatic system, may be a general control theme responsible for steady-state hormesis.

  13. Comparison of the Small Molecule Metabolic Enzymes of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    E-print Network

    Teichmann, Sarah

    London, Darwin Building, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom The comparison of the small molecule metabolism, respectively. The arrangement and family membership of the domains that form all or part of 374 E. coli

  14. Selective Killing of Human Malignant Cell Lines Deficient in Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase, a Purine Metabolic Enzyme

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoyuki Kamatani; Walter A. Nelson-Rees; Dennis A. Carson

    1981-01-01

    Seven out of 31 (23%) human malignant tumor cell lines had no detectable methylthioadenosine phosphorylase activity (<0.001 nmol\\/min per mg of protein), assayed with 5'-chloroadenosine as substrate. The enzyme-deficient cell lines were derived from five leukemias, one melanoma, and one breast cancer. None of 16 cell lines of nonmalignant origin, derived from lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells, lacked the enzyme

  15. Comparative Studies ofEnzymesRelated to SerineMetabolism in Higher Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey P. Cheung; I. Y. Rosenblum; J. Sallach

    Thefollowing enzymes related to serinemetabolisminhigherplants havebeen investigated: 1)D-3.phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, 2) phosphohydroxypyruvate :L-glutamate transaminase, 3)D-glyeerate dehydrogenase, and 4) hydroxypyruvate :i.-alanine transaminase. Comparative studies on thedistribution ofthe2 dehydrogena,ses inseedsandleaves from various plants revealed thatD-3-phosphoglyccrate dehydrogenase iswidelydistributed inseeds incontrasttoD-glycerate dehydrogenase, whiohiseither absent or presentat lowlevels, and thatthereverse patternisobserved isn greenleaves. Thelevels ofactivity ofthe4 enzymes listed abovewere followed indifferent tissues of thedeveloping pea (Pisumsativum,

  16. Salt mediated changes in some enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in halotolerant Cladosporium sphaerospermum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalpana Karlekar; T. V. Parekh; H. S. Chhatpar

    1985-01-01

    Cladosporium sphaerospermum, isolated from salt pans was halotolerant. When grown in the presence of salt, the activities of invertase, isocitrate lyase,\\u000a fructose-1,6 diphosphate aldolase and malate dehydrogenase were found to be increased and that of amylase decreased. Both,\\u000a enzyme activation as well as an increase inde novo synthesis of enzymes were found to be some of the mechanisms of salt

  17. Aldose reductase: An aldehyde scavenging enzyme in the intraneuronal metabolism of norepinephrine in human sympathetic ganglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Kawamura; Graeme Eisenhofer; Irwin J Kopin; Peter F Kador; Yong S Lee; Shigeki Fujisawa; Sanai Sato

    2002-01-01

    The neurotransmitter norepinephrine is metabolized by monoamine oxidase into an aldehyde intermediate that is further metabolized to the stable glycol derivative, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG). In this study, the possible role of aldose reductase in reducing this aldehyde intermediate in human sympathetic neurons has been examined.DHPG is formed when norepinephrine is incubated with aldose reductase in the presence of monoamine oxidase. DHPG

  18. The effects of fractionated thermally oxidized corn oil on drug-metabolizing enzyme systems in the rat.

    PubMed

    Perciballi, M; Pintauro, S J

    1985-08-01

    Corn oil samples were heated, with aeration, to 210 degrees C for a total of 5 hr. Both fresh and oxidized samples were urea-fractionated and the individual fractions were administered to male Sprague-Dawley rats by gastric intubation. The effects of urea adducts, adduct-free fractions, non-saponifiable fractions and unfractioned fresh and thermally oxidized oil samples on hepatic, intestinal and colonic drug-metabolizing enzymes were determined. The treatments had no significant effects on hepatic or intestinal drug-metabolizing or mixed-function oxidase activities. There was a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in colonic UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity in rats treated with thermally oxidized corn oil, while the non-saponifiable fraction of the same sample decreased (P less than 0.1) the activity of this enzyme. There was also a significant increase in the activity of colonic benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase in rats treated with the non-adduct fraction or with urea adducts of the thermally oxidized corn oil. These data suggest the colon as a possible specific site for the alteration of mixed-function oxidase activities by products of thermally oxidized oils. PMID:3930352

  19. Studies on the role of six enzymes in the metabolism of kinetin in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    PubMed

    Rup, Pushpinder J; Sohal, S K; Kaur, H

    2006-07-01

    The activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, O-demethylase, ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase, belonging to two main classes of detoxification enzymes (i.e. hydrolases and oxido-reductases), mostly involved in metabolism and degradation of xenobiotics in insects, were assessed under the influence of kinetin, a plant growth regulator (PGR). The nymphs (48-52 hr old) of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) were permitted to feed on radish plant, Raphanus sativus L. treated with kinetin (400 ppm) for 13, 25 and 37 hr. It was found that the activity of catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase increased significantly when compared with the control of the same age group, which indicated that these enzymes might be playing a significant role in the metabolism of kinetin in this insect. The activity of O-demethylase showed an increase up to 25 hr of the treatment but it decreased under prolonged treatment whereas the activity of succinate dehydrogenase fluctuated insignificantly. ATPase showed a decrease in the activity with the treatment suggesting kinetin's interference in synthesis of ATPase. PMID:17402253

  20. Effect of geraniol, a plant derived monoterpene on lipids and lipid metabolizing enzymes in experimental hyperlipidemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, Muthukumaran; Chandrasekaran, Balaji; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major, modifiable risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we have focused on the effect of different doses of geraniol (GOH) on the lipid profile and lipid metabolizing enzymes in atherogenic diet (AD) fed hamsters. Male Syrian hamsters were grouped into seven: group 1 were control animals; group 2 were animals fed GOH alone (200 mg/kg b.w); group 3 were animals fed AD (10 % coconut oil, 0.25 % cholesterol, and 0.25 % cholic acid); group 4 were animals fed AD + corn oil (2.5 ml/kg b.w); and groups 5, 6, and 7 were fed AD as in group 3 + different doses of GOH (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg b.w), respectively, for 12 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and various assays were performed in the plasma and tissues. The AD hamsters showed marked changes in lipid profile and lipid metabolizing enzymes. However, supplementation with GOH counteracted the hyperlipidemia by inhibiting HMG CoA reductase and suppressing lipogenesis. The antihyperlipidemic efficacy of GOH was found to be effective at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. This study illustrates that GOH is effective in lowering the risk of hyperlipidemia in AD fed hamsters. PMID:25218494

  1. Polysaccharide peptides from Coriolus versicolor competitively inhibit model cytochrome P450 enzyme probe substrates metabolism in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Yeung, John H K; Or, Penelope M Y

    2012-03-15

    Polysaccharide peptide (PSP), isolated from COV-1 strain of Coriolus versicolor, is commonly used as an adjunct in cancer chemotherapy or health supplement in China. Previous studies have shown that PSP decreased antipyrine clearance and inhibited rat CYP2C11-mediated tolbutamide 4-hydroxylation and in human CYP2C9. In this study, the effects of the water extractable fraction of PSP on the metabolism of model CYP1A2, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 probe substrates were investigated in pooled human liver microsomes. PSP (1.25-20?M) dose-dependently decreased CYP1A2-mediated metabolism of phenacetin to paracetamol (IC(50) 19.7?M) and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of testosterone to 6?-hydroxytestosterone (IC(20) 7.06?M). Enzyme kinetics studies showed the inhibition of CYP1A2 activity was competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=18.4?M). Inhibition of testosterone to 6?-hydroxytestosterone was also competitive and concentration-dependent (K(i)=31.8?M). Metabolism of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan (CYP2D6-mediated) and chlorzoxazone to 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone (CYP2E1-mediated) was only minimally inhibited by PSP, with IC(20) values at 15.6?M and 11.9?M, respectively. This study demonstrated that PSP competitively inhibited the CYP1A2- and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of model probe substrates in human liver microsomes in vitro. The relatively high K(i) values for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 would suggest a low potential for PSP to cause herb-drug interaction related to these CYP isoforms. PMID:22305191

  2. The action of antidiabetic plants of the canadian james bay cree traditional pharmacopeia on key enzymes of hepatic glucose homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nachar, Abir; Vallerand, Diane; Musallam, Lina; Lavoie, Louis; Badawi, Alaa; Arnason, John; Haddad, Pierre S

    2013-01-01

    We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada) to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and glycogen synthase (GS) activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) were probed by Western blot. Seven of the seventeen plant extracts significantly decreased G6Pase activity, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca, exerting an effect similar to insulin. This action involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, several plant extracts activated GS, Larix laricina and A. balsamea, far exceeding the action of insulin. We also found a significant correlation between GS stimulation and GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by plant extract treatments. In summary, three Cree plants stand out for marked effects on hepatic glucose homeostasis. P. glauca affects glucose production whereas L. laricina rather acts on glucose storage. However, A. balsamea has the most promising profile, simultaneously and powerfully reducing G6Pase and stimulating GS. Our studies thus confirm that the reduction of hepatic glucose production likely contributes to the therapeutic potential of several antidiabetic Cree traditional medicines. PMID:23864882

  3. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. [Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1989-01-01

    Progress in understanding of the metabolism of monoterpenes by peppermint and spearmint is recorded including the actions of two key enzymes, geranyl pyrophosphate:limonene cyclase and a UDP-glucose dependent glucosyl transferase; concerning the ultrastructure of oil gland senescence; enzyme subcellular localization; regulation of metabolism; and tissue culture systems.

  4. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-07-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 ?M) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The shoot and root length at 40/35 °C decreased by 46 and 37 %, respectively over control while at 45/40 °C, a decrease of 63 and 47 %, respectively over control was observed. In the plants growing in the presence of 10 ?M proline at 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C, the shoot length showed improvement of 32 and 53 %, respectively over untreated plants, while the root growth was improved by 22 and 26 %, respectively. The stress injury (as membrane damage) increased with elevation of temperatures while cellular respiration, chlorophyll content and relative leaf water content reduced as the temperature increased to 45/40 °C. The endogenous proline was elevated to 46 ?mol g(-1) dw at 40/35 °C but declined to 19 ?mol g(-1) dw in plants growing at 45/40 °C that was associated with considerable inhibition of growth at this temperature. The oxidative damage measured as malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content increased manifolds in heat stressed plants coupled with inhibition in the activities of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) and levels of non-enzymatic (ascorbic acid, glutathione, proline) antioxidants. The enzymes associated with carbon fixation (RUBISCO), sucrose synthesis (sucrose phosphate synthase) and sucrose hydrolysis (invertase) were strongly inhibited at 45/40 °C. The plants growing in the presence of proline accumulated proline up to 63 ?mol g(-1) dw and showed less injury to membranes, had improved content of chlorophyll and water, especially at 45/40 °C. Additionally, the oxidative injury was significantly reduced coupled with elevated levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. A significant improvement was also noticed in the activities of enzymes of carbon metabolism in proline-treated plants. We report here that proline imparts partial heat tolerance to chickpea's growth by reducing the cellular injury and protection of some vital enzymes related to carbon and oxidative metabolism and exogenous application of proline appears to have a countering effect against elevated high temperatures on chickpea. PMID:23573011

  5. Expression and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase from the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4: a key enzyme in bacterial plant growth promotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos Hontzeas; Jérôme Zoidakis; Bernard R. Glick; Mahdi M. Abu-Omar

    2004-01-01

    The enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) converts ACC, the precursor of the plant hormone ethylene, to ?-ketobutyrate and ammonium. This enzyme has been identified in soil bacteria and has been proposed to play a key role in microbe-plant association. A soluble recombinant ACCD from Pseudomonas putida UW4 of molecular weight 41 kDa has been cloned, expressed, and purified. It showed selectivity

  6. Chlorogenic acid and caffeine in combination inhibit fat accumulation by regulating hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes in mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodong; Qiu, Yangyang; Zhang, Qing-Feng; Li, Dongming

    2014-09-28

    Obesity has become a public health concern due to its positive association with the incidence of many diseases, and coffee components including chlorogenic acid (CGA) and caffeine have been demonstrated to play roles in the suppression of fat accumulation. To investigate the mechanism by which CGA and caffeine regulate lipid metabolism, in the present study, forty mice were randomly assigned to four groups and fed diets containing no CGA or caffeine, CGA, caffeine, or CGA+caffeine for 24 weeks. Body weight, intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, and serum biochemical parameters were measured, and the activities and mRNA and protein expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analysed. There was a decrease in the body weight and IPAT weight of mice fed the CGA+caffeine diet. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, TAG and leptin of mice fed the CGA+caffeine diet. The activities of carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) were increased in mice fed the caffeine and CGA+caffeine diets, while the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) was suppressed in those fed the CGA+caffeine diet. The mRNA expression levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), CAT and ACO were considerably up-regulated in mice fed the CGA+caffeine diet, while those of PPAR?2 were down-regulated. The protein expression levels of AMPK were increased and those of FAS were decreased in mice fed the CGA+caffeine diet. These results indicate that CGA+caffeine suppresses fat accumulation and body weight gain by regulating the activities and mRNA and protein expression levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes and that these effects are stronger than those exerted by CGA and caffeine individually. PMID:25201308

  7. Identification of glucoselysine-6-phosphate deglycase, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the fructation product glucoselysine

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The metabolism of the glycation product fructose-?-lysine in Escherichia coli involves its ATP-dependent phosphorylation by a specific kinase (FrlD), followed by the conversion of fructoselysine 6-phosphate into glucose 6-phosphate and lysine by fructoselysine-6-phosphate deglycase (FrlB), which is distantly related to the isomerase domain of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase. As shown in the present work, several bacterial operons comprise: (1) a homologue of fructoselysine-6-phosphate deglycase; (2) a second homologue of the isomerase domain of glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase, more closely related to it; and (3) components of a novel phosphotransferase system, but no FrlD homologue. The FrlB homologue (GfrF) and the closer glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase homologue (GfrE) encoded by an Enterococcus faecium operon were expressed in E. coli and purified. Similar to FrlB, GfrF catalysed the reversible conversion of fructoselysine 6-phosphate into glucose 6-phosphate and lysine. When incubated with fructose 6-phosphate and elevated concentrations of lysine, GfrE catalysed the formation of a compound identified as 2-?-lysino-2-deoxy-6-phospho-glucose (glucoselysine 6-phosphate) by NMR. GfrE also catalysed the reciprocal conversion, i.e. the formation of fructose 6-phosphate (but not glucose 6-phosphate) from glucoselysine 6-phosphate. The equilibrium constant of this reaction (0.8 M) suggests that the enzyme serves to degrade glucoselysine 6-phosphate. In conclusion, GfrF and GfrE serve to metabolize glycation products formed from lysine and glucose (fructoselysine) or fructose (glucoselysine), via their 6-phospho derivatives. The latter are presumably formed by the putative phosphotransferase system encoded by gfrA–gfrD. The designation gfr (glycation and fructation product degradation) is proposed for this operon. This is the first description of an enzyme participating in the metabolism of fructation products. PMID:16153181

  8. Study of 'Redhaven' peach and its white-fleshed mutant suggests a key role of CCD4 carotenoid dioxygenase in carotenoid and norisoprenoid volatile metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Carotenoids are plant metabolites which are not only essential in photosynthesis but also important quality factors in determining the pigmentation and aroma of flowers and fruits. To investigate the regulation of carotenoid metabolism, as related to norisoprenoids and other volatile compounds in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch.), and the role of carotenoid dioxygenases in determining differences in flesh color phenotype and volatile composition, the expression patterns of relevant carotenoid genes and metabolites were studied during fruit development along with volatile compound content. Two contrasted cultivars, the yellow-fleshed 'Redhaven' (RH) and its white-fleshed mutant 'Redhaven Bianca' (RHB) were examined. Results The two genotypes displayed marked differences in the accumulation of carotenoid pigments in mesocarp tissues. Lower carotenoid levels and higher levels of norisoprenoid volatiles were observed in RHB, which might be explained by differential activity of carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) enzymes. In fact, the ccd4 transcript levels were dramatically higher at late ripening stages in RHB with respect to RH. The two genotypes also showed differences in the expression patterns of several carotenoid and isoprenoid transcripts, compatible with a feed-back regulation of these transcripts. Abamine SG - an inhibitor of CCD enzymes - decreased the levels of both isoprenoid and non-isoprenoid volatiles in RHB fruits, indicating a complex regulation of volatile production. Conclusions Differential expression of ccd4 is likely to be the major determinant in the accumulation of carotenoids and carotenoid-derived volatiles in peach fruit flesh. More in general, dioxygenases appear to be key factors controlling volatile composition in peach fruit, since abamine SG-treated 'Redhaven Bianca' fruits had strongly reduced levels of norisoprenoids and other volatile classes. Comparative functional studies of peach carotenoid cleavage enzymes are required to fully elucidate their role in peach fruit pigmentation and aroma. PMID:21269483

  9. Gene expression of transporters and phase I/II metabolic enzymes in murine small intestine during fasting

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Heleen M; Bünger, Meike; de Groot, Philip J; van der Meijde, Jolanda; Hooiveld, Guido JEJ; Müller, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background Fasting has dramatic effects on small intestinal transport function. However, little is known on expression of intestinal transport and phase I/II metabolism genes during fasting and the role the fatty acid-activated transcription factor PPAR? may play herein. We therefore investigated the effects of fasting on expression of these genes using Affymetrix GeneChip MOE430A arrays and quantitative RT-PCR. Results After 24 hours of fasting, expression levels of 33 of the 253 analyzed transporter and phase I/II metabolism genes were changed. Upregulated genes were involved in transport of energy-yielding molecules in processes such as glycogenolysis (G6pt1) and mitochondrial and peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids (Cact, Mrs3/4, Fatp2, Cyp4a10, Cyp4b1). Other induced genes were responsible for the inactivation of the neurotransmitter serotonin (Sert, Sult1d1, Dtd, Papst2), formation of eicosanoids (Cyp2j6, Cyp4a10, Cyp4b1), or for secretion of cholesterol (Abca1 and Abcg8). Cyp3a11, typically known because of its drug metabolizing capacity, was also increased. Fasting had no pronounced effect on expression of phase II metabolic enzymes, except for glutathione S-transferases which were down-regulated. Time course studies revealed that some genes were acutely regulated, whereas expression of other genes was only affected after prolonged fasting. Finally, we identified 8 genes that were PPAR?-dependently upregulated upon fasting. Conclusion We have characterized the response to fasting on expression of transporters and phase I/II metabolic enzymes in murine small intestine. Differentially expressed genes are involved in a variety of processes, which functionally can be summarized as a) increased oxidation of fat and xenobiotics, b) increased cholesterol secretion, c) increased susceptibility to electrophilic stressors, and d) reduced intestinal motility. This knowledge increases our understanding of gut physiology, and may be of relevance for e.g. pre-surgery regimen of patients. PMID:17683626

  10. A metabolic pathway assembled by enzyme selection may support herbivory of leaf-cutter ants on plant starch.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Maurício; Bueno, Odair Correa; Rodrigues, André; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Somera, Alexandre Favarin; Silva, Aline

    2013-05-01

    Mutualistic associations shape the evolution in different organism groups. The association between the leaf-cutter ant Atta sexdens and the basidiomycete fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus has enabled them to degrade starch from plant material generating glucose, which is a major food source for both mutualists. Starch degradation is promoted by enzymes contained in the fecal fluid that ants deposit on the fungus culture in cut leaves inside the nests. To understand the dynamics of starch degradation in ant nests, we purified and characterized starch degrading enzymes from the ant fecal fluid and from laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus and found that the ants intestine positively selects fungal ?-amylase and a maltase likely produced by the ants, as a negative selection is imposed to fungal maltase and ant ?-amylases. Selected enzymes are more resistant to catabolic repression by glucose and proposed to structure a metabolic pathway in which the fungal ?-amylase initiates starch catalysis to generate byproducts which are sequentially degraded by the maltase to produce glucose. The pathway is responsible for effective degradation of starch and proposed to represent a major evolutionary innovation enabling efficient starch assimilation from plant material by leaf-cutters. PMID:23500892

  11. Nuclear receptors in the multidrug resistance through the regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Yakun; TANG, Yong; GUO, Changxiong; WANG, Jiuhui; BORAL, Debasish; NIE, Daotai

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy is one of the three most common treatment modalities for cancer. However, its efficacy is limited by multidrug resistant cancer cells. Drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) and efflux transporters promote the metabolism, elimination, and detoxification of chemotherapeutic agents. Consequently, elevated levels of DMEs and efflux transporters reduce the therapeutic effectiveness of chemotheraputics and, often, lead to treatment failure. Nuclear receptors, especially pregnane X receptor (PXR, NR1I2) and constitutive androstane activated receptor (CAR, NR1I3), are increasingly recognized for their role in xenobiotic metabolism and clearance as well as their role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) during chemotherapy. Promiscuous xenobiotic receptors, including PXR and CAR, govern the inducible expressions of a broad spectrum of target genes that encode phase I DMEs, phase II DMEs, and efflux transporters. Recent studies conducted by a number of groups, including ours, have revealed that PXR and CAR play pivotal roles in the development of MDR in various human carcinomas, including prostate, colon, ovarian, and esophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Accordingly, PXR/CAR expression levels and/or activation statuses may predict prognosis and identify the risk of drug resistance in patients subjected to chemotherapy. Further, PXR/CAR antagonists, when used in combination with existing chemotherapeutics that activate PXR/CAR, are feasible and promising options that could be utilized to overcome or, at least, attenuate MDR in cancer cells. PMID:22326308

  12. Dehydroabietic acid (DHAA) alters metabolic enzyme activity and the effects of 17?-estradiol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Pandelides, Z; Guchardi, J; Holdway, D

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), a resin acid present in pulp and paper mill effluent, affects liver energy metabolism and may have anti-estrogenic effects in fish. A chronic-exposure toxicity experiment using immature rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was conducted in order to assess the endocrine disrupting and liver metabolic effects of the model estrogen 17?-estradiol (E2) and the wood extractives DHAA and ?-sitosterol (BS), regularly present in pulp and paper mill effluents. Exposure to 5ppm of E2 significantly increased hepatosomatic index (HSI), vitellogenin (VTG) and plasma sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). This latter effect was reduced by mixing E2 with DHAA, indicating that DHAA does not cause its endocrine disrupting effects indirectly due to liver damage. Exposure to 0.5ppm of DHAA as well as all the DHAA mixed treatments caused significant increases in liver citrate synthase (CS), activity after 7 days, however, the fish returned to control values by 28 days. Results indicate that DHAA may alter metabolic enzyme activity as well as alter the effects of E2 in juvenile rainbow trout. PMID:24507142

  13. Natural variations in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes: developing tools for coral monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougée, L. R. A.; Richmond, R. H.; Collier, A. C.

    2014-06-01

    The continued deterioration of coral reefs worldwide demonstrates the need to develop diagnostic tools for corals that go beyond general ecological monitoring and can identify specific stressors at sublethal levels. Cellular diagnostics present an approach to defining indicators (biomarkers) that have the potential to reflect the impact of stress at the cellular level, allowing for the detection of intracellular changes in corals prior to outright mortality. Detoxification enzymes, which may be readily induced or inhibited by environmental stressors, present such a set of indicators. However, in order to apply these diagnostic tools for the detection of stress, a detailed understanding of their normal, homeostatic levels within healthy corals must first be established. Herein, we present molecular and biochemical evidence for the expression and activity of major Phase I detoxification enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP450), CYP2E1, and CYP450 reductase, as well as the Phase II enzymes UDP, glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), ?-glucuronidase, glutathione- S-transferase (GST), and arylsulfatase C (ASC) in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. Additionally, we characterized enzyme expression and activity variations over a reproductive cycle within a coral's life history to determine natural endogenous changes devoid of stress exposure. Significant changes in enzyme activity over the coral's natural lunar reproductive cycle were observed for CYP2E1 and CYP450 reductase as well as UGT and GST, while ?-glucuronidase and ASC did not fluctuate significantly. The data represent a baseline description of `health' for the expression and activity of these enzymes that can be used toward understanding the impact of environmental stressors on corals. Such knowledge can be applied to address causes of coral reef ecosystem decline and to monitor effectiveness of mitigation strategies. Achieving a better understanding of cause-and-effect relationships between putative stressors and biological responses in corals, and other marine invertebrates, can guide and evaluate mitigation and conservation approaches for marine ecosystem protection.

  14. Total solids content: a key parameter of metabolic pathways in dry anaerobic digestion

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In solid-state anaerobic digestion (AD) bioprocesses, hydrolytic and acidogenic microbial metabolisms have not yet been clarified. Since these stages are particularly important for the establishment of the biological reaction, better knowledge could optimize the process performances by process parameters adjustment. Results This study demonstrated the effect of total solids (TS) content on microbial fermentation of wheat straw with six different TS contents ranging from wet to dry conditions (10 to 33% TS). Three groups of metabolic behaviors were distinguished based on wheat straw conversion rates with 2,200, 1,600, and 1,400 mmol.kgVS-1 of fermentative products under wet (10 and 14% TS), dry (19 to 28% TS), and highly dry (28 to 33% TS) conditions, respectively. Furthermore, both wet and dry fermentations showed acetic and butyric acid metabolisms, whereas a mainly butyric acid metabolism occurred in highly dry fermentation. Conclusion Substrate conversion was reduced with no changes of the metabolic pathways until a clear limit at 28% TS content, which corresponded to the threshold value of free water content of wheat straw. This study suggested that metabolic pathways present a limit of TS content for high-solid AD. PMID:24261971

  15. Crystal structure of a substrate complex of myo-inositol oxygenase, a di-iron oxygenase with a key role in inositol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T; Dickson, James M J; Cooper, Garth J S; Loomes, Kerry M; Baker, Edward N

    2006-10-10

    Altered metabolism of the inositol sugars myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol is implicated in diabetic complications. In animals, catabolism of MI and D-chiro-inositol depends on the enzyme MI oxygenase (MIOX), which catalyzes the first committed step of the glucuronate-xylulose pathway, and is found almost exclusively in the kidneys. The crystal structure of MIOX, in complex with MI, has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction methods and refined at 2.0-A resolution (R=0.206, Rfree=0.253). The structure reveals a monomeric, single-domain protein with a mostly helical fold that is distantly related to the diverse HD domain superfamily. Five helices form the structural core and provide six ligands (four His and two Asp) for the di-iron center, in which the two iron atoms are bridged by a putative hydroxide ion and one of the Asp ligands, Asp-124. A key loop forms a lid over the MI substrate, which is coordinated in bidentate mode to one iron atom. It is proposed that this mode of iron coordination, and interaction with a key Lys residue, activate MI for bond cleavage. The structure also reveals the basis of substrate specificity and suggests routes for the development of specific MIOX inhibitors. PMID:17012379

  16. Phosphotransferase protein EIIANtr interacts with SpoT, a key enzyme of the stringent response, in Ralstonia eutropha H16.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Katja; Zschiedrich, Christopher P; Bowien, Botho; Stülke, Jörg; Görke, Boris

    2014-04-01

    EIIA(Ntr) is a member of a truncated phosphotransferase (PTS) system that serves regulatory functions and exists in many Proteobacteria in addition to the sugar transport PTS. In Escherichia coli, EIIA(Ntr) regulates K(+) homeostasis through interaction with the K(+) transporter TrkA and sensor kinase KdpD. In the ?-Proteobacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16, EIIA(Ntr) influences formation of the industrially important bioplastic poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). PHB accumulation is controlled by the stringent response and induced under conditions of nitrogen deprivation. Knockout of EIIA(Ntr) increases the PHB content. In contrast, absence of enzyme I or HPr, which deliver phosphoryl groups to EIIA(Ntr), has the opposite effect. To clarify the role of EIIA(Ntr) in PHB formation, we screened for interacting proteins that co-purify with Strep-tagged EIIA(Ntr) from R. eutropha cells. This approach identified the bifunctional ppGpp synthase/hydrolase SpoT1, a key enzyme of the stringent response. Two-hybrid and far-Western analyses confirmed the interaction and indicated that only non-phosphorylated EIIA(Ntr) interacts with SpoT1. Interestingly, this interaction does not occur between the corresponding proteins of E. coli. Vice versa, interaction of EIIA(Ntr) with KdpD appears to be absent in R. eutropha, although R. eutropha EIIA(Ntr) can perfectly substitute its homologue in E. coli in regulation of KdpD activity. Thus, interaction with KdpD might be an evolutionary 'ancient' task of EIIA(Ntr) that was subsequently replaced by interaction with SpoT1 in R. eutropha. In conclusion, EIIA(Ntr) might integrate information about nutritional status, as reflected by its phosphorylation state, into the stringent response, thereby controlling cellular PHB content in R. eutropha. PMID:24515609

  17. Biochemical and genetic characterization of a novel enzyme of pentitol metabolism: D-arabitol-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Povelainen, Mira; Eneyskaya, Elena V; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Ivanen, Dina R; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Neustroev, Kirill N; Miasnikov, Andrei N

    2003-01-01

    An enzyme with a specificity that has not been described previously, D-arabitol-phosphate dehydrogenase (APDH), has been purified from cell lysate of Enterococcus avium. SDS/PAGE indicated that the enzyme had a molecular mass of 41+/-2 kDa, whereas a molecular mass of 160+/-5 kDa was observed under non-denaturing conditions, implying that the APDH may exist as a tetramer with identical subunits. Purified APDH was found to have a narrow substrate specificity, converting only D-arabitol 1-phosphate and D-arabitol 5-phosphate into xylulose 5-phosphate and ribulose 5-phosphate, respectively, in the oxidative reaction. Both NAD(+) and NADP(+) were accepted as cofactors. Based on the partial protein sequences, the APDH gene was cloned. Homology comparisons place APDH within the medium-range dehydrogenase family. Unlike most members of this family, APDH requires Mn(2+) but no Zn(2+) for enzymic activity. The DNA sequence surrounding the gene suggests that it belongs to an operon that also contains several components of phosphotransferase system. Both biochemical evidence and protein sequence homology comparisons indicate that similar enzymes are widespread among the Gram-positive bacteria. Their apparent biological role is to participate in arabitol catabolism via the 'arabitol phosphate route', similar to the ribitol and xylitol catabolic routes described previously. PMID:12467497

  18. The las Enzymes Control Pyruvate Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis during Growth on Maltose?

    PubMed Central

    Solem, Christian; Koebmann, Brian; Yang, Fen; Jensen, Peter R.

    2007-01-01

    The fermentation pattern of Lactococcus lactis with altered activities of the las enzymes was examined on maltose. The wild type converted 65% of the maltose to mixed acids. An increase in phosphofructokinase or lactate dehydrogenase expression shifted the fermentation towards homolactic fermentation, and with a high level of expression of the las operon the fermentation was homolactic. PMID:17616595

  19. Specificity of Non-Michaelis-Menten Enzymes: Necessary Information for Analyzing Metabolic Pathways

    E-print Network

    of enzyme kinetics and mechanism, including pH8 and temperature dependence,9 progress curve analysis10 of the proposed definition indicates that hexokinase D, often believed highly specific for glucose candiscriminatebetweensubstratesthatarepresentsimultaneously. As long as a reaction is considered with just one substrate at a time, the definition

  20. Development of Phase II Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes in Differentiating Murine Clara Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle V. Fanucchi; Alan R. Buckpitt; Mary E. Murphy; David H. Storms; Bruce D. Hammock; Charles G. Plopper

    2000-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and epoxide hydrolases (EHs) protect cells from exogenous insult by detoxifying electrophilic compounds. Little is known about these enzyme systems during postnatal lung development. This study was designed to help establish whether the heightened neonatal susceptibility of the lung to bioactivated cytotoxicants is the result of inadequate ability to detoxify reactive intermediates. We compared the distribution of

  1. Design optimization for bioMEMS studies of enzyme-controlled metabolic pathways

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    significantly suppress these parasitic effects. To reduce homogeneous reactions we have developed a new in bioMEMS Microfluidic devices and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography fabrication have reduced been a major goal to develop means to isolate enzymes at specific locations in a microfluidic system

  2. METABOLISM OF MYCLOBUTANIL AND TRIADIMEFON BY HUMAN AND RAT CYTOCHROME P450 ENZYMES AND LIVER MICROSOMES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolism of two triazole-containing antifungal azoles was studied using expressed human and rat cytochrome P450s (CYP) and liver microsomes. Substrate depletion methods were used due to the complex array of metabolites produced from myclobutanil and triadimefon. Myclobutanil wa...

  3. MetaCyc: a multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes

    E-print Network

    prediction program to create Pathway/Genome Databases that can be augmented with curation from the scienti resource on microbial and plant pathways for genome analysis, basic research, education, metabolic engineering and sys- tems biology. In the past 2 years the data content and the Pathway Tools software used

  4. Pulmonary metabolism of foreign compounds: its role in metabolic activation.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G M

    1990-01-01

    The lung has the potential of metabolizing many foreign chemicals to a vast array of metabolites with different pharmacological and toxicological properties. Because many chemicals require metabolic activation in order to exert their toxicity, the cellular distribution of the drug-metabolizing enzymes in a heterogeneous tissue, such as the lung, and the balance of metabolic activation and deactivation pathways in any particular cell are key factors in determining the cellular specificity of many pulmonary toxins. Environmental factors such as air pollution, cigarette smoking, and diet markedly affect the pulmonary metabolism of some chemicals and, thereby, possibly affect their toxicity. PMID:2200668

  5. NAD(P)H-Hydrate Dehydratase- A Metabolic Repair Enzyme and Its Role in Bacillus subtilis Stress Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dvoracek, Lukas; Streitova, Eliska; Licha, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the strategies for survival stress conditions in bacteria is a regulatory adaptive system called general stress response (GSR), which is dependent on the SigB transcription factor in Bacillus sp. The GSR is one of the largest regulon in Bacillus sp., including about 100 genes; however, most of the genes that show changes in expression during various stresses have not yet been characterized or assigned a biochemical function for the encoded proteins. Previously, we characterized the Bacillus subtilis168 osmosensitive mutant, defective in the yxkO gene (encoding a putative ribokinase), which was recently assigned in vitro as an ADP/ATP-dependent NAD(P)H-hydrate dehydratase and was demonstrated to belong to the SigB operon. Methods and Results We show the impact of YxkO on the activity of SigB-dependent Pctc promoter and adaptation to osmotic and ethanol stress and potassium limitation respectively. Using a 2DE approach, we compare the proteomes of WT and mutant strains grown under conditions of osmotic and ethanol stress. Both stresses led to changes in the protein level of enzymes that are involved in motility (flagellin), citrate cycle (isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase), glycolysis (phosphoglycerate kinase), and decomposition of Amadori products (fructosamine-6-phosphate deglycase). Glutamine synthetase revealed a different pattern after osmotic stress. The patterns of enzymes for branched amino acid metabolism and cell wall synthesis (L-alanine dehydrogenase, aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, ketol-acid reductoisomerase) were altered after ethanol stress. Conclusion We performed the first characterization of a Bacillus subtilis168 knock-out mutant in the yxkO gene that encodes a metabolite repair enzyme. We show that such enzymes could play a significant role in the survival of stressed cells. PMID:25393291

  6. Dose-response effects of lycopene on selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in the rat.

    PubMed

    Breinholt, V; Lauridsen, S T; Daneshvar, B; Jakobsen, J

    2000-06-30

    The administration of lycopene to female rats at doses ranging from 0.001 to 0.1 g/kg b.w. per day for 2 weeks was found to alter the drug-metabolizing capacity and antioxidant status of the exposed animals. An investigation of four cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes revealed that benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity in the liver was significantly induced in a dose-dependent fashion at all lycopene doses investigated. Likewise, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity was induced, although only at the two highest lycopene concentrations tested. An investigation of selected phase 2 detoxification enzymes provided evidence that lycopene was capable of inducing hepatic quinone reductase, approximately two-fold, at doses between 0.001 and 0.05 g/kg b.w. per day, whereas no effect was observed at the remaining doses tested. Glutathione transferase, using the two substrates, 2,4-dichloronitrobenzene and 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, was significantly induced at the 0.1 g/kg b.w. per day dose, whereas no effect was observed at the remaining lycopene doses. Analysis of the antioxidant status of the blood compartment revealed that three out of four antioxidant enzymes were affected by lycopene treatment. The activity of superoxide dismutase was thus significantly induced at lycopene doses of 0.005 and 0.05 g/kg b.w, whereas glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was only induced at the 0.005 g/kg b.w. per day dose. For all antioxidant enzymes investigated, the activities seemed to return to the control level after exerting peak induction at doses between 0.005 and 0.05 g/kg b.w. per day. The explanation for this remains unknown. The plasma concentration of lycopene at dietary levels of 0.001, 0.005, 0.05 and 0.1 g/kg b.w. per day was estimated to be 16, 32, 71 and 67 nM, which is barely within the lower range of the mean human plasma concentration of lycopene, which ranges from 70-1790 nM. Oxidative stress induced by the heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), and investigated by analyzing for malondialdehyde in plasma, was not found to be affected by prior lycopene exposure. The level of PhIP-DNA adducts in the liver or colon was likewise not affected by lycopene at any dose. Overall, the present study provides evidence that lycopene administered in the diet of young female rats exerts minor modifying effects toward antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress and cancer. The fact that these enzymatic activities are induced at all of these very low plasma levels, could be taken to suggest that modulation of antioxidant and drug-metabolizing enzymes may indeed be relevant to humans, which in general exhibit a plasma lycopene level several fold above the effective levels observed in this study. PMID:10806309

  7. AMP-activated protein kinase as a key molecular link between metabolism and clockwork.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongjin; Kim, Eun-Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Circadian clocks regulate behavioral, physiological and biochemical processes in a day/night cycle. Circadian oscillators have an essential role in the coordination of physiological processes with the cyclic changes in the physical environment. Such mammalian circadian clocks composed of the positive components (BMAL1 and CLOCK) and the negative components (CRY and PERIOD (PER)) are regulated by a negative transcriptional feedback loop in which PER is rate-limiting for feedback inhibition. In addition, posttranslational modification of these components is critical for setting or resetting the circadian oscillation. Circadian regulation of metabolism is mediated through reciprocal signaling between the clock and metabolic regulatory networks. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the brain and peripheral tissue is a crucial cellular energy sensor that has a role in metabolic control. AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of CRY and Casein kinases I regulates the negative feedback control of circadian clock by proteolytic degradation. AMPK can also modulate the circadian rhythms through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent regulation of silent information regulator 1. Growing evidence elucidates the AMPK-mediated controls of circadian clock in metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. In this review, we summarize the current comprehension of AMPK-mediated regulation of the circadian rhythms. This will provide insight into understanding how their components regulate the metabolism. PMID:23887727

  8. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  9. The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.

    PubMed

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  10. Stable Carbon Isotope Discrimination by Form IC Rubisco Enzymes of the Extremely Metabolically Versatile Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Ralstonia eutropha}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, P. J.; Boller, A. J.; Zhao, Z.; Tabita, F. R.; Cavanaugh, C. M.; Scott, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Variations in the relative amounts of 12C and 13C in microbial biomass can be used to infer the pathway(s) autotrophs use to fix and assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon. Discrimination against 13C by the enzymes catalyzing autotrophic carbon fixation is a major factor dictating biomass stable carbon isotopic compositions (?13C = {[13C/12Csample/13C/12Cstandard] - 1} × 1000). Five different forms of RubisCO (IA, IB, IC, ID, and II) are utilized by algae and autotrophic bacteria reliant on the Calvin-Benson cycle for carbon fixation. To date, isotope discrimination has been measured for form IA, IB, and II RubisCOs, and their ? values (={[12k/13k] - 1} × 1000; 12k and 13k = rates of 12C and 13C fixation) range from 18 to 29‰, explaining the variation in biomass ?13C values of autotrophs utilizing these enzymes. Isotope discrimination by form IC RubisCO has not been measured, despite the presence of this enzyme in many proteobacteria of ecological interest, including marine manganese-oxidizing bacteria, some nitrifying and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and extremely metabolically versatile organisms such as Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Ralstonia eutropha. The purpose of this work was to determine the ? values for form IC RubisCO enzymes from R. sphaeroides and R. eutropha. Recombinant form IC RubisCOs were purified by conventional column chromatography procedures. Assay conditions (pH, dissolved inorganic carbon concentration) were tested to determine which parameters were conducive to the high rates of carbon fixation necessary for ? determination. Under standard conditions (pH 8.5 and 5 mM DIC), form IC RubisCO activities were sufficient for ? determination. Experiments are currently being conducted to measure the ? values of these enzymes. Sampling the full phylogenetic breadth of RubisCO enzymes for isotopic discrimination makes it possible to constrain the range of ?13C values of organisms fixing carbon via the Calvin-Benson cycle. These results are critical for determining the degree to which Calvin cycle carbon fixation contributes to primary and secondary productivity in microbially-dominated food webs.

  11. The MetaCyc database of metabolic pathways and enzymes and the BioCyc collection of pathway/genome databases

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Ron; Altman, Tomer; Dreher, Kate; Fulcher, Carol A.; Subhraveti, Pallavi; Keseler, Ingrid M.; Kothari, Anamika; Krummenacker, Markus; Latendresse, Mario; Mueller, Lukas A.; Ong, Quang; Paley, Suzanne; Pujar, Anuradha; Shearer, Alexander G.; Travers, Michael; Weerasinghe, Deepika; Zhang, Peifen; Karp, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    The MetaCyc database (http://metacyc.org/) provides a comprehensive and freely accessible resource for metabolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life. The pathways in MetaCyc are experimentally determined, small-molecule metabolic pathways and are curated from the primary scientific literature. MetaCyc contains more than 1800 pathways derived from more than 30?000 publications, and is the largest curated collection of metabolic pathways currently available. Most reactions in MetaCyc pathways are linked to one or more well-characterized enzymes, and both pathways and enzymes are annotated with reviews, evidence codes and literature citations. BioCyc (http://biocyc.org/) is a collection of more than 1700 organism-specific Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs). Each BioCyc PGDB contains the full genome and predicted metabolic network of one organism. The network, which is predicted by the Pathway Tools software using MetaCyc as a reference database, consists of metabolites, enzymes, reactions and metabolic pathways. BioCyc PGDBs contain additional features, including predicted operons, transport systems and pathway-hole fillers. The BioCyc website and Pathway Tools software offer many tools for querying and analysis of PGDBs, including Omics Viewers and comparative analysis. New developments include a zoomable web interface for diagrams; flux-balance analysis model generation from PGDBs; web services; and a new tool called Web Groups. PMID:22102576

  12. Comparison of Activities of Enzymes Related to Energy Metabolism in Peripheral Leukocytes and Livers between Holstein Dairy Cows and ICR Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tanaka; S. Urabe; A. Takeguchi; H. Mizutani; T. Sako; S. Imai; I. Yoshimura; N. Kimura; T. Arai

    2006-01-01

    Activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism and isoenzyme patterns of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined in\\u000a peripheral leukocytes and livers of Holstein dairy cows and Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice. In dairy cow liver, activities\\u000a of enzymes in glycolysis, malate–aspartate shuttle and lipogenesis were lower, but activities of glucose-6-phosphatase in\\u000a gluconeogenesis were higher than those in mouse liver.

  13. Protein deacetylation by SIRT1: an emerging key post-translational modification in metabolic regulation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jiujiu; Auwerx, Johan

    2010-07-01

    The biological function of most proteins relies on reversible post-translational modifications, among which phosphorylation is most prominently studied and well recognized. Recently, a growing amount of evidence indicates that acetylation-deacetylation reactions, when applied to crucial mediators, can also robustly affect the function of target proteins and thereby have wide-ranging physiological impacts. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which functions as a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent protein deacetylase, deacetylates a wide variety of metabolic molecules in response to the cellular energy and redox status and as such causes significant changes in metabolic homeostasis. This review surveys the evidence for the emerging role of SIRT1-mediated deacetylation in the control of metabolic homeostasis. PMID:20026274

  14. Experiment K-7-21: Effect of Microgravity on 1: Metabolic Enzymes of Type 1 and Type 2 Muscle Fibers, and on 2: Metabolic Enzymes, Neurotransmitter Amino Acids, and Neurotransmitter Associated Enzymes in Selected Regions of the Central Nervous System. Part 1; Metabolic Enzymes of Individual Muscle Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, O. H.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Krasnov, I. B.; Carter, J. G.; Chi, M. M.-Y.; Choksi, R.; Manchester, J. K.; McDougal, D. B.; Nemeth, P. M.; Pusateri, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Individual fibers of any given muscle vary widely in enzyme composition, a fact obscured when enzyme levels of whole muscle are measured. Therefore, the purpose of this part of the study was to assess the effects of microgravity and hind limb suspension on the enzyme patterns within a slow twitch muscle (soleus) and a fast twitch muscle (tibialis anterior).

  15. Short-term hepatic effects of depleted uranium on xenobiotic and bile acid metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Guéguen; M. Souidi; C. Baudelin; N. Dudoignon; S. Grison; I. Dublineau; C. Marquette; P. Voisin; P. Gourmelon; J. Aigueperse

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity of uranium has been demonstrated in different organs, including the kidneys, skeleton, central nervous system,\\u000a and liver. However, few works have investigated the biological effects of uranium contamination on important metabolic function\\u000a in the liver. In vivo studies were conducted to evaluate its effects on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in the metabolism\\u000a of cholesterol and xenobiotics in

  16. The MetaCyc Database of metabolic pathways and enzymes and the BioCyc collection of Pathway\\/Genome Databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ron Caspi; Hartmut Foerster; Carol A. Fulcher; Pallavi Kaipa; Markus Krummenacker; Mario Latendresse; Suzanne M. Paley; Seung Yon Rhee; Alexander G. Shearer; Christophe Tissier; Thomas C. Walk; Peifen Zhang; Peter D. Karp

    2008-01-01

    The MetaCyc database (MetaCyc.org) is a com- prehensive and freely accessible resource for met- abolic pathways and enzymes from all domains of life. The pathways in MetaCyc are experimentally determined, small-molecule metabolic pathways and are curated from the primary scientific litera- ture. With more than 1400 pathways, MetaCyc is the largest collection of metabolic pathways currently available. Pathways reactions are

  17. 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole metabolism by the mouse and human CYP1 family of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Shertzer, Howard G; Genter, Mary B; Talaska, Glenn; Curran, Christine P; Nebert, Daniel W; Dalton, Timothy P

    2007-06-01

    Found in tobacco smoke, fossil fuel and other organic combustion products, 7H-dibenzo[c,g]carbazole (DBC) is a potent mouse lung carcinogen and potential human carcinogen. Although the first hydroxylation is critical for determining activation versus detoxication, the enzymes responsible for site-specific hydroxylation of DBC are not known. We found that DBC-DNA adduct levels are significantly higher in aromatic hydrocarbon receptor null Ahr(-/-) mice, suggesting that the induction of Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-regulated genes, such as those in the CYP1 family, decrease DBC genotoxicity. Using knockout mice for Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1, we showed that the major CYP1 enzymes that metabolize DBC are CYP1A1 in beta-naphthoflavone (BNF)-induced liver, CYP1A2 in non-induced liver, CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 in induced lung and none in non-induced lung. DBC metabolism by the human CYP1 enzymes was examined in vitro using Supersomestrade mark. Each mouse CYP1, as well as each human CYP1, has a unique DBC metabolite profile. Comparison of the metabolite profile in BNF-induced mice suggested that CYP1A1 primarily generates 1-OH, 2-OH and (5 + 6)-OH-DBC, whereas CYP1A2 generates primarily (5 + 6)-OH-DBC and CYP1B1 primarily generates 4-OH-DBC. This was similar to that observed in the human CYP1 enzymes. Most importantly, lung CYP1B1 is associated with forming 4-OH-DBC, the most potent metabolite leading to DBC-DNA adducts. These studies suggest that for non-pulmonary routes of exposure (i.e. skin, gastric, i.p.), low hepatic expression of CYP1A2 and CYP1A1, together with high expression levels of lung CYP1B1 and CYP1A1, may define a phenotype for high susceptibility to carcinogens such as DBC. PMID:17166882

  18. Thiol redox sensitivity of two key enzymes of heme biosynthesis and pentose phosphate pathways: uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase and transketolase.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Brian; Pedrajas, José Rafael; Padilla, C Alicia; Bárcena, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Hem12p) and transketolase (Tkl1p) are key mediators of two critical processes within the cell, heme biosynthesis, and the nonoxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The redox properties of both Hem12p and Tkl1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated using proteomic techniques (SRM and label-free quantification) and biochemical assays in cell extracts and in vitro with recombinant proteins. The in vivo analysis revealed an increase in oxidized Cys-peptides in the absence of Grx2p, and also after treatment with H2O2 in the case of Tkl1p, without corresponding changes in total protein, demonstrating a true redox response. Out of three detectable Cys residues in Hem12p, only the conserved residue Cys52 could be modified by glutathione and efficiently deglutathionylated by Grx2p, suggesting a possible redox control mechanism for heme biosynthesis. On the other hand, Tkl1p activity was sensitive to thiol redox modification and although Cys622 could be glutathionylated to a limited extent, it was not a natural substrate of Grx2p. The human orthologues of both enzymes have been involved in certain cancers and possess Cys residues equivalent to those identified as redox sensitive in yeast. The possible implication for redox regulation in the context of tumour progression is put forward. PMID:23970950

  19. Thiol Redox Sensitivity of Two Key Enzymes of Heme Biosynthesis and Pentose Phosphate Pathways: Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase and Transketolase

    PubMed Central

    Pedrajas, José Rafael; Padilla, C. Alicia; Bárcena, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (Hem12p) and transketolase (Tkl1p) are key mediators of two critical processes within the cell, heme biosynthesis, and the nonoxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). The redox properties of both Hem12p and Tkl1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated using proteomic techniques (SRM and label-free quantification) and biochemical assays in cell extracts and in vitro with recombinant proteins. The in vivo analysis revealed an increase in oxidized Cys-peptides in the absence of Grx2p, and also after treatment with H2O2 in the case of Tkl1p, without corresponding changes in total protein, demonstrating a true redox response. Out of three detectable Cys residues in Hem12p, only the conserved residue Cys52 could be modified by glutathione and efficiently deglutathionylated by Grx2p, suggesting a possible redox control mechanism for heme biosynthesis. On the other hand, Tkl1p activity was sensitive to thiol redox modification and although Cys622 could be glutathionylated to a limited extent, it was not a natural substrate of Grx2p. The human orthologues of both enzymes have been involved in certain cancers and possess Cys residues equivalent to those identified as redox sensitive in yeast. The possible implication for redox regulation in the context of tumour progression is put forward. PMID:23970950

  20. Induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes in rats treated with 1-nitropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Belisario, M.A.; Borgia, R.; Pecce, R.; de Lorenzo, F.

    1988-02-01

    The inducing effects of 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) on the microsomal cytochrome P-450 system were studied in rats. Intraperitoneal administration of 1-NP led to increases in cytochrome P-450 content and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, ethoxycoumarin, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities. These increases were does dependent. Cytochrome b/sub 5/ content aminopyrine and p-nitroanisole demethylase activities were not affected by treatment of rats with 1-NP. Substrate specificity, sensitivity to mixed-function oxidase inhibitors, and electrophoretic pattern of 1-NP-induced cytochrome(s) P-450 were compared to the major forms of cytochrome P-450 induced by phenobarbital and methylcholanthrene. Furthermore microsomes from 1-NP-induced rats showed greater ability to metabolize the chemical as compared with those from control animals; this result indicates that 1-NP induces a form(s) of cytochrome P-450 especially effective in the metabolism of the substance itself.

  1. Antioxidant and Xenobiotic-metabolizing Enzyme Gene Expression in Doxorubicin resistant MCF7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Akinan; Gerald Forrest; Fong-Fong Chu; R. Steven; James H. Doroshow

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the expression of the genes for several antioxidant and xenobiotic-detoxifying enzymes in the multidrug-resistant variant of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, MCF-7\\/Dox. MCF-7\\/Dox is greater than 500-fold resistant to doxorubicin by donogenic assay. En zyme activity determinations in the cytoplasmic compartment of MCF- 7\\/Dox revealed a 25-fold increase in glutathione peroxidase level com pared to the

  2. Metabolism of Leukotriene A4 by an Enzyme in Blood Plasma: A Possible Leukotactic Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Fitzpatrick; J. Haeggstrom; E. Granstrom; B. Samuelsson

    1983-01-01

    Cell-free mammalian plasma transformed leukotriene A4 into leukotriene B4. This conversion originated from a soluble enzymatic activity. Heating at 56 degrees C or digestion of plasma with a proteolytic enzyme eliminated formation of leukotriene B4 but not other diastereomeric dihydroxyicosatetraenoic acids formed by nonenzymatic hydrolysis of leukotriene A4. Plasma from several mammals, including guinea pigs, cows, sheep, rabbits, rats, dogs,

  3. Effects of Schistosoma haematobium infection on drug-metabolizing enzymes in human bladder cancer tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A Sheweita; F. G El-Shahat; M. A Bazeed; M. R Abu El-Maati; P. J O'Connor

    2004-01-01

    The mixed function oxidase system includes the phase I drug oxidation proteins e.g. aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), N-nitrosodimethylamine-N-demethylase I (NDMA-dI) and cytochrome b5 which metabolize most carcinogens and xenobiotics into less and\\/or more active intermediates. These were determined in human bladder tissues diagnosed as bladder cancer only (10 samples) and bladder cancer associated with Schistosoma haematobium (12 samples) and normal

  4. Genetic polymorphism of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and the risk of lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chikako Kiyohara; Taro Shirakawa; Julian M. Hopkin

    2002-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for the development of lung cancer. It has been suggested that\\u000a genetic susceptibility may contribute to the risk, because only a small portion of smokers develops the disease. Several polymorphisms\\u000a that involve the metabolic activation or detoxification of carcinogens derived from cigarette smoke have been found to be\\u000a associated with

  5. Adaptive evolution of multiple-variable exons and structural diversity of drug-metabolizing enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Can Li; Qiang Wu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human genome contains a large number of gene clusters with multiple-variable-first exons, including the drug-metabolizing UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1) and I-branching ?-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GCNT2, also known as IGNT) clusters, organized in a tandem array, similar to that of the protocadherin (PCDH), immunoglobulin (IG), and T-cell receptor (TCR) clusters. To gain insight into the evolutionary processes that may have shaped their

  6. Polyamine metabolism in brain tumours: diagnostic relevance of quantitative biochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R-I Ernestus; G Röhn; R Schröder; T Els; Á Klekner; W Paschen; N Klug

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVEActivation of polyamine metabolism is closely associated with cellular proliferation. The purpose was to investigate whether the content of the polyamines putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and the activity of the first metabolic key enzyme of polyamine metabolism, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), represent biochemical markers of malignancy in brain tumours.METHODSThe concentration of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine, and the activity of ODC were

  7. The Protein Level of PGC-1?, a Key Metabolic Regulator, Is Controlled by NADH-NQO1

    PubMed Central

    Adamovich, Yaarit; Shlomai, Amir; Tsvetkov, Peter; Umansky, Kfir B.; Reuven, Nina; Estall, Jennifer L.; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2013-01-01

    PGC-1? is a key transcription coactivator regulating energy metabolism in a tissue-specific manner. PGC-1? expression is tightly regulated, it is a highly labile protein, and it interacts with various proteins—the known attributes of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). In this study, we characterize PGC-1? as an IDP and demonstrate that it is susceptible to 20S proteasomal degradation by default. We further demonstrate that PGC-1? degradation is inhibited by NQO1, a 20S gatekeeper protein. NQO1 binds and protects PGC-1? from degradation in an NADH-dependent manner. Using different cellular physiological settings, we also demonstrate that NQO1-mediated PGC-1? protection plays an important role in controlling both basal and physiologically induced PGC-1? protein level and activity. Our findings link NQO1, a cellular redox sensor, to the metabolite-sensing network that tunes PGC-1? expression and activity in regulating energy metabolism. PMID:23648480

  8. Endocrine and metabolic changes in Anguilla anguilla L. following exposure to beta-naphthoflavone--a microsomal enzyme inducer.

    PubMed

    Teles, M; Oliveira, M; Pacheco, M; Santos, M A

    2005-01-01

    Anguilla anguilla L. were exposed during 24 and 48 h to 2.7 muM beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), a known microsomal enzyme inducer. The BNF effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4) and cortisol plasma levels were investigated. Alterations on plasma glucose and lactate levels were also measured as an indication of energy-mobilizing hormones alterations. BNF showed to be able to decrease significantly A. anguilla plasma T4 levels, whereas TSH, T3 and cortisol plasma remained constant. However, plasma glucose levels were significantly increased, demonstrating that intermediary metabolism has been affected. These results demonstrate that BNF a PAH-like compound alters the normal functioning of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in A. anguilla. PMID:15607783

  9. [Effects of green tea extract and its components on antioxidant status and activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes of rats].

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, L V; Trusov, N V; Aksenov, I V; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Lashneva, N V; Tutel'ian, V A

    2011-01-01

    Dietary administration of green tea extract (GTE) or epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), quercetin (Qu) or caffeine (Cf) in doses equal to their concentration in GTE led to an increase of serum and liver antioxidant capacity and strengthening stability of microsomal and lysosomal membranes in rats. The antioxidant efficiency of EGCG and Qu was considerably higher than that of GTE. There were significant differences in the effects of EGCG, Qu and GTE on the activities and expression of mRNA for CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A1. But feeding both GTE and Cf to rats results in similar elevated activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase and glutathion transferase. Our results suggest that Cf is the main contributor to GTE effects on activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. PMID:21692342

  10. Regulation of the expression of key genes involved in HDL metabolism by unsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects, and possible mechanisms of action, of unsaturated fatty acids on the expression of genes involved in HDL metabolism in HepG2 cells. The mRNA concentration of target genes was assessed by real time PCR. Protein concentrations were determined by wes...

  11. An Algorithm for Assigning Unique Keys To Metabolic Pathways Dept. of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    Grossman, Robert

    of metabolic pathways include KEGG [1], BioCyc [2], CGAP [3] and UM-BBD [4]. MetaCyc [5] and EcoCyc [6] are two component databases in BioCyc. MetaCyc contains over 900 pathways from more than 900 different organisms simplifying assumptions in this paper. First, we assume that the starting point of this algorithm

  12. Intestinal bile acid sensing is linked to key endocrine and metabolic signalng pathways

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bile acids have historically been considered to mainly function in cholesterol homeostasis and facilitate fat digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent discoveries show that bile acids also function as signaling molecules that exert diverse endocrine and metabolic actions by activating G prote...

  13. Polyphenols as enzyme inhibitors in different degraded peat soils: Implication for microbial metabolism in rewetted peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Dominik; Roth, Cyril; Gelbrecht, Jörg; Fenner, Nathalie; Reuter, Hendrik

    2015-04-01

    Recently, more than 30,000 ha of drained minerotrophic peatlands (= fens) in NE Germany were rewetted to restore their ecological functions. Due to an extended drainage history, a re-establishment of their original state is not expected in the short-term. Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, ammonium and phosphate have been measured in the soil porewater of the upper degraded peat layers of rewetted fens at levels of one to three orders higher than the values in pristine systems; an indicator of increased microbial activity in the upper degraded soil layers. On the other hand there is evidence that the substrate availability within the degraded peat layer is lowered since the organic matter has formerly been subject to intense decomposition over the decades of drainage and intense agricultural use of the areas. Previously however, it was suggested that inhibition of hydrolytic enzymes by polyphenolic substances is suspended during aeration of peat soils mainly due to the decomposition of the inhibiting polyphenols by oxidising enzymes such as phenol oxidase. Accordingly we hypothesised a lack of enzyme inhibiting polyphenols in degraded peat soils of rewetted fens compared to less decomposed peat of more natural fens. We collected both peat samples at the soil surface (0-20 cm) and fresh roots of dominating vascular plants and mosses (as peat parent material) from five formerly drained rewetted sites and five more natural sites of NE Germany and NW Poland. Less decomposed peat and living roots were used to obtain an internal standard for polyphenol analysis and to run enzyme inhibition tests. For all samples we determined the total phenolic contents and in addition we distinguished between the contents of hydrolysable and condensed tannic substances. From a methodical perspective the advantage of internal standards compared to the commercially available standards cyanidin chloride and tannic acid became apparent. Quantification with cyanidin or tannic acid led to a considerable underestimation (up to 90%) of polyphenolic concentrations in peat soils. As hypothesised we found that highly degraded peat contains far lower levels of total polyphenolics (factor 8) and condensed tannins (factor 50) than less decomposed peat. In addition we detected large differences between different plant species with highest polyphenolic contents for the roots of Carex appropinquata that were more than 10-fold higher than Sphagnum spp. (450 mg/g dry mass vs. 39 mg/g dry mass). Despite these differences, we did not find a significant correlation between enzyme activities and peat degradation state, indicating that there is no simple linear relationship between polyphenolic contents and microbial activity.

  14. Potential risks resulting from fruit/vegetable-drug interactions: effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Martínez-Arismendi, José Luis; Orozco-Bustos, Danae; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Torres, Eliseo; Burchiel, Scott W

    2011-05-01

    It has been well established that complex mixtures of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables can be beneficial for human health. Moreover, it is becoming increasingly apparent that phytochemicals can influence the pharmacological activity of drugs by modifying their absorption characteristics through interactions with drug transporters as well as drug-metabolizing enzyme systems. Such effects are more likely to occur in the intestine and liver, where high concentrations of phytochemicals may occur. Alterations in cytochrome P450 and other enzyme activities may influence the fate of drugs subject to extensive first-pass metabolism. Although numerous studies of nutrient-drug interactions have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, no generalizations on the effect of nutrient-drug interactions on drug bioavailability are currently available. Several publications have highlighted the unintended consequences of the combined use of nutrients and drugs. Many phytochemicals have been shown to have pharmacokinetic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to commonly consumed fruits and vegetables with significant beneficial effects as nutrients and components in folk medicine. Here, we discuss the phytochemistry and pharmacokinetic interactions of the following fruit and vegetables: grapefruit, orange, tangerine, grapes, cranberry, pomegranate, mango, guava, black raspberry, black mulberry, apple, broccoli, cauliflower, watercress, spinach, tomato, carrot, and avocado. We conclude that our knowledge of the potential risk of nutrient-drug interactions is still limited. Therefore, efforts to elucidate potential risks resulting from food-drug interactions should be intensified in order to prevent undesired and harmful clinical consequences. PMID:22417366

  15. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Galvez Ranilla; Young-In Kwon; Emmanouil Apostolidis; Kalidas Shetty

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America were investigated to determine their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension. High phenolic and antioxidant activity-containing medicinal plants and spices such as Chancapiedra (Phyllantus niruri L.), Zarzaparrilla (Smilax officinalis), Yerba Mate (Ilex paraguayensis St-Hil), and Huacatay (Tagetes minuta) had

  16. Keeping the engine primed: HIF factors as key regulators of cardiac metabolism and angiogenesis during ischemia.

    PubMed

    Shohet, Ralph V; Garcia, Joseph A

    2007-12-01

    Myocardial ischemia, the most common cause of cardiac hypoxia in clinical medicine, occurs when oxygen delivery cannot meet myocardial metabolic requirements in the heart. This deficiency can result from either a reduced supply of oxygen (decreased coronary bloodflow) or an increased myocardial demand for oxygen (increased wall stress or afterload). Patients with stable coronary artery disease as well as patients experiencing acute myocardial infarction can experience episodes of severe ischemia. Although hypoxia is an obligatory component, it is not the sole environmental stress experienced by the ischemic heart. Reperfusion after ischemia is associated with increased oxidative stress as the heart reverts to aerobic respiration and thereby generates toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). During mild ischemia, mitochondrial function is partially compromised and substrate preferences adapt to sustain adequate ATP generation. With severe ischemia, mitochondrial function is markedly compromised and anaerobic metabolism must provide energy no matter what the cost in generation of toxic ROS adducts. Ischemia produces a variety of environmental stresses that impair cardiovascular function. As a result, multiple signaling pathways are activated in mammalian cells during ischemia/reperfusion injury in an attempt to minimize cellular injury and maintain cardiac output. Amongst the transcriptional regulators activated are members of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor family. HIF factors regulate a variety of genes that affect a myriad of cellular processes including metabolism, angiogenesis, cell survival, and oxygen delivery, all of which are important in the heart. In this review, we will focus on the metabolic and angiogenic aspects of HIF biology as they relate to the heart during ischemia. We will review the metabolic requirements of the heart under normal as well as hypoxic conditions, the effects of preconditioning and its regulation as it pertains to HIF biology, the apparent roles of HIF-1 and HIF-2 in intermediary metabolism, and translational applications of HIF-1 and HIF-2 biology to cardiac angiogenesis. Increased understanding of the role of HIFs in cardiac ischemia will ultimately influence clinical cardiovascular practice. PMID:18026917

  17. Enzymes of Glycerol and Glyceraldehyde Metabolism in Mouse Liver: Effects of Caloric Restriction and Age on Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Kevork; Ramsey, Jon J.; Weindruch, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis The influence of caloric restriction on hepatic glyceraldehyde and glycerol metabolizing enzyme activities of young and old mice were studied. Glycerol kinase and cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were increased in both young and old CR mice when compared to controls, while triokinase increased only in old CR mice. Aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase activities in both young and old CR were unchanged by CR. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed a trend towards an increased activity in old CR mice, while a trend towards a decreased activity in alcohol dehydrogenase was observed in both young and old CR mice. Serum glycerol levels decreased in young and old CR mice. Therefore, increases in glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in fasting blood glycerol levels in CR animals. A prominent role for triokinase in glyceraldehyde metabolism with CR was also observed. The results indicate that long-term CR induces sustained increases in the capacity for gluconeogenesis from glycerol. PMID:18429748

  18. The Effects of Space Flight on Some Liver Enzymes Concerned with Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, S.; Lin, C. Y.; Klein, H. P.; Volkmann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The activities of about 30 enzymes concerned with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and the levels of glycogen and of individual fatty acids were measured in livers of rats ex- posed to prolonged space flight (18.5 days) aboard COSMOS 986 Biosatellite. When flight stationary, (FS) and flight centrifuged (FC) rats were compared at recovery (R(sub 0)), decrceases in the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, alpha glycerphosphate, acyl transferase, diglyceride acyl transferase, acconitase and Epsilon-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase were noted in the weightless group (FS). The significance of these findings was strengthened since all activities, showing alterations at R(sub 0), returned to normal 25 days post-flight. Differences were also seen in levels of two liver constituents. When glycogen and total fatty acids of the two groups of flight animals were determined, differences that could be attributed to reduced gravity were observed, the FS group at R(sub 0) contained, on the average, more than twice the amount of glycogen than did controls ad a remarkable shift in the ratio of palmitate to palmitoleate were noted. These metabolic alterations appear to be unique to the weightless condition. Our data justify the conclusion that centrifugation during space flight is equivalent to terrestrial gravity.

  19. Multilocus Genotypes of Relevance for Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Therapy with Thiopurines in Patients with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Gabriele; Franca, Raffaella; Verzegnassi, Federico; Londero, Margherita; Rabusin, Marco; Decorti, Giuliana

    2013-01-01

    Multilocus genotypes have been shown to be of relevance for using pharmacogenomic principles to individualize drug therapy. As it relates to thiopurine therapy, genetic polymorphisms of TPMT are strongly associated with the pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of thiopurines (mercaptopurine and azathioprine), influencing their toxicity and efficacy. We have recently demonstrated that TPMT and ITPA genotypes constitute a multilocus genotype of pharmacogenetic relevance for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving thiopurine therapy. The use of high-throughput genomic analysis allows identification of additional candidate genetic factors associated with pharmacogenetic phenotypes, such as TPMT enzymatic activity: PACSIN2 polymorphisms have been identified by a genome-wide analysis, combining evaluation of polymorphisms and gene expression, as a significant determinant of TPMT activity in the HapMap CEU cell lines and the effects of PACSIN2 on TPMT activity and mercaptopurine induced adverse effects were confirmed in children with ALL. Combination of genetic factors of relevance for thiopurine metabolizing enzyme activity, based on the growing understanding of their association with drug metabolism and efficacy, is particularly promising for patients with pediatric ALL. The knowledge basis and clinical applications for multilocus genotypes of importance for therapy with mercaptopurine in pediatric ALL is discussed in the present review. PMID:23335936

  20. Mathematica program: its use to simulate metabolic irreversible pathways and inhibition of the first enzyme of a pathway by its end product as visualized with the reservoir model.

    PubMed

    López-Cánovas, Francisco; Gomes, Paula J F; Sillero, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    The main objective of this report is to show the usefulness and versatility of the Mathematica program to simulate enzyme linear pathways and to depict the effect of changing the Vmax and/or Km values of one or more enzymes on the course of the reaction. In addition, analysis of the different types of inhibition of the first enzyme of the pathway by its end product is viewed with the reservoir model for enzyme kinetics. All the data shown here are quantitatively related to the kinetic constants of the implicated enzymes. Particular attention has been paid to calculate the time needed to achieve half of the possible total synthesis of the final product of a metabolic pathway. PMID:23746727

  1. Liver enzymes of serine metabolism during neonatal development of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Snell, K

    1980-01-01

    The developmental patterns of L-serine hydroxymethyltransferase, L-phosphoserine aminotransferase, L-serine aminotransferase and L-serine dehydratase were determined in rat liver. The results point to an increased capacity for serine biosynthesis de novo in the perinatal period. It is suggested that serine at this time, and also at weaning, may serve as a precursor, via the serine hydroxymethyltransferase reaction, for nucleotide biosynthesis to support the rapid phases of liver growth. The role of the alternative pathways of serine metabolism during neonatal development is discussed. PMID:6781481

  2. Cold acclimation induces freezing tolerance via antioxidative enzymes, proline metabolism and gene expression changes in two chrysanthemum species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiafu; Chang, Qingshan; Gu, Chunsun; Song, Aiping; Chen, Sumei; Dong, Bin; Chen, Fadi

    2014-02-01

    Cold acclimation is necessary for chrysanthemum to achieve its genetically determined maximum freezing tolerance, but the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this study was to discover whether changes in antioxidative enzymes, proline metabolism and frost-related gene expression induced by cold acclimation are related to freezing tolerance. Our results showed that the semi-lethal temperature (LT50) decreased from -7.3 to -23.5 °C in Chrysanthemum dichrum and -2.1 to -7.1 °C in Chrysanthemum makinoi, respectively, after cold acclimation for 21 days. The activities of SOD, CAT and APX showed a rapid and transient increase in the two chrysanthemum species after 1 day of cold acclimation, followed by a gradual increase during the subsequent days and then stabilization. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of some isozyme genes (Mn SOD, CAT and APX) were upregulated, which was consistent with the SOD, CAT and APX activities, while others remained relatively constant (Fe SOD and Cu/Zn SOD). P5CS and PDH expression were increased under cold acclimation and the level of P5CS presented similar trends as proline content, indicating proline accumulation was via P5CS and PDH cooperation. Cold acclimation also promoted DREB, COR413 and CSD gene expression. The activities of three enzymes and gene expression were higher in C. dichrum than in C. makinoi after cold acclimation. Our data suggested that cold-inducible freezing-tolerance could be attributed to higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, and increased proline content and frost-related gene expression during different periods. PMID:24413987

  3. Mode of cytotoxic action of pseudomonal leukocidin on phosphatidylinositol metabolism and activation of lysosomal enzyme in rabbit leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, T; Kato, I

    1984-01-01

    The cytotoxic action of leukocidin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was supported by the following observations. (i) The destruction of rabbit leukocytes by the toxin was reduced in the absence of Ca2+ and stimulated by the addition of calcium ionophore A23187 but inhibited by EDTA, EGTA, and TMB-8, an antagonist of intracellular Ca2+ transport. (ii) Uptake of 45Ca into leukocytes exposed to the toxin was enhanced about threefold the rate of uptake into untreated cells. The increased 45Ca uptake into the cells was slightly inhibited by trifluoperazine, an inhibitor of Ca2+-calmodulin activity, but not by ruthenium red. (iii) Pseudomonal leukocidin enhanced rapidly the labeling of phosphatidylinositol, polyphosphoinositides, phosphatidic acid, and lysophosphatidic acid from [32P]phosphate. The time course experiments of the labeling and breakdown of these phospholipids suggested that the initial action of this toxin was to stimulate phosphatidic acid production, presumably causing a rapid metabolic change of phosphatidylinositol correlating with the activities of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and 1,2-diacylglycerol kinase. It was considered that a rapid formation of phosphatidic acid and degradation of polyphosphoinositides might be related to a Ca2+ movement from extra- and intracellular space. (iv) In leukocytes exposed to the toxin, acid phosphatase activity as a marker enzyme of lysosome was activated up to 75% of the lysosomal enzyme before cell destruction. The leakage of lysosomal enzyme from the cells occurred at the almost same time as leukocyte destruction. The mode of cytotoxic action of pseudomonal leukocidin is discussed. Images PMID:6418658

  4. PPAR-? as a Key Nutritional and Environmental Sensor for Metabolic Adaptation12

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Alejandra V.; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R.

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that belong to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors and regulate the expression of several genes involved in metabolic processes that are potentially linked to the development of some diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and obesity. One type of PPAR, PPAR-?, is a transcription factor that regulates the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and amino acids and is activated by ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids and drugs used to treat dyslipidemias. There is evidence that genetic variants within the PPAR? gene have been associated with a risk of the development of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease by influencing fasting and postprandial lipid concentrations; the gene variants have also been associated with an acceleration of the progression of type 2 diabetes. The interactions between genetic PPAR? variants and the response to dietary factors will help to identify individuals or populations who can benefit from specific dietary recommendations. Interestingly, certain nutritional conditions, such as the prolonged consumption of a protein-restricted diet, can produce long-lasting effects on PPAR? gene expression through modifications in the methylation of a specific locus surrounding the PPAR? gene. Thus, this review underlines our current knowledge about the important role of PPAR-? as a mediator of the metabolic response to nutritional and environmental factors. PMID:23858092

  5. The multifaceted roles of metabolic enzymes in the Paracoccidioides species complex

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Caroline M.; de Oliveira, Haroldo C.; da Silva, Julhiany de F.; Assato, Patrícia A.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana M.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria J. S.

    2014-01-01

    Paracoccidioides species are dimorphic fungi and are the etiologic agents of paracoccidioidomycosis, which is a serious disease that involves multiple organs. The many tissues colonized by this fungus suggest a variety of surface molecules involved in adhesion. A surprising finding is that most enzymes in the glycolytic pathway, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and glyoxylate cycle in Paracoccidioides spp. have adhesive properties that aid in interacting with the host extracellular matrix and thus act as ‘moonlighting’ proteins. Moonlighting proteins have multiple functions, which adds a dimension to cellular complexity and benefit cells in several ways. This phenomenon occurs in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. For example, moonlighting proteins from the glycolytic pathway or TCA cycle can play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by either acting as proteins secreted in a conventional pathway and/or as cell surface components that facilitate adhesion or adherence. This review outlines the multifunctionality exhibited by many Paracoccidioides spp. enzymes, including aconitase, aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate lyase, malate synthase, triose phosphate isomerase, fumarase, and enolase. We discuss the roles that moonlighting activities play in the virulence characteristics of this fungus and several other human pathogens during their interactions with the host. PMID:25566229

  6. Analysis of proline metabolic enzymes in Oryza sativa under NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Bagdi, D L; Shaw, B P

    2013-07-01

    The regulation of proline accumulation in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Badami) was investigated. The increasing concentration of NaCl from 0.5 to 2.5% progressively increased the proline content in rice. Proline accumulation caused by NaCl was related to protein proteolysis, an increase in OAT, P5CS, PSCR activity, a decrease in PDH activity. The maximum increase in proline content was recorded at 2.5% NaCl concentration as compared to control and other concentrations of NaCl. The highest significant activity of proline synthesizing enzymes, Delta1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase, Delta1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate reductase and Ornithine-delta-aminotransferase with a lowest activity of proline hydrolysis enzymes; Proline dehydrogenase were also recorded at 2.5% salinity over control and other concentrations of NaCl with a in-significant increase in the activity of Delta1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase and Ornithine-delta-aminotransferase at 0.5 % concentration of NaCl over control. Externally the addition of 300mg MnCl2, 220 ml(-1) 1/2 strength Hoagland solution, having 1% NaCl, was seen to increase a 893.9% in proline content of this variety as compared to control. PMID:24640242

  7. Association Between Gene Expression of Metabolizing Enzymes and Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinomas in China

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have indicated that the incidence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is associated with environmental exposure to mutagens and carcinogens. To determine whether the basal expression level of genes involved in metabolism of carcinogens is associated with the risk of ESCC, a case–control study of 100 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated ESCC and 117 healthy controls was performed, and the relative expression levels of four metabolism genes (CYP2E1, GSTP1, MTHFR, and NQO1) were determined with quantitative real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Analyzed with the mean of relative expression level in the controls as the cut-off point, the result exhibited that the increased risk for ESCC was significantly associated with reduced expression of GSTP1 (odds ratio [OR]=3.644, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.947–6.823) and NQO1 (OR=1.870, 95% CI: 1.046–3.345). When adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol use, the increased risk for ESCC was significantly associated with reduced expression of GSTP1, MTHFR, and NQO1, and GSTP1 mRNA showed a steady association with the risk for ESCC (OR=2.640) in the model of stepwise regression analysis. Reduced expression of GSTP1 in PBMCs was significantly associated with the risk for ESCC, suggesting an important etiology clue to the early progression of ESCC in the Huaian population of China. PMID:22853296

  8. Study of the serum levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the expression of related liver metabolic enzymes in a rat valproate-induced autism model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Gao, Jingquan; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Xuelai; Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Hao, Yanqiu; Li, Xiang; Cao, Yonggang; Wu, Lijie

    2015-08-01

    To investigate whether the decreased level of serum polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in patients with autism is associated with the expression of related liver metabolic enzymes, we selected rats that were exposed to valproic acid (VPA) on embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) as a model of autism. We observed the serum levels of PUFAs and the expression of related liver metabolic enzymes, including ?5-desaturase, ?6-desaturase and elongase (Elovl2), in VPA-exposed and control rats on postnatal day 35 (PND35) and conducted sex dimorphic analysis. We found that the levels of serum PUFAs and related liver metabolic enzymes in the VPA rats were significantly reduced, in association with autism-like behavioral changes, the abnormal expression of apoptosis-related proteins and hippocampal neuronal injury, compared to the control rats and showed sex difference in VPA group. This finding indicated that rats exposed to VPA at the embryonic stage may exhibit reduced synthesis of serum PUFAs due to the down-regulation of liver metabolic enzymes, thereby inducing nervous system injury and behavioral changes, which is affected by sex in the meantime. PMID:25916973

  9. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Joseph

    2010-03-26

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  10. Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Opportunitistic Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of chemodiversity in Nature (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Noel, Joseph

    2011-04-25

    Joseph Noel from the Salk Institute on "Metabolic Noise, Vestigial Metabolites or the Raw Material of Ecological Adaptation? Enzymes, Catalytic Promiscuity and the Evolution of Chemodiversity in Nature" on March 26, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINING VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological pharmacokinetic\\pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  12. THE IMPORTANCE OF OBTAINING INFORMATION ON THE SPECIFIC CONTENT OF TISSUE ENZYMES METABOLIZING ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES, PRIOR TO DETERMINE VMAX, KM VALUES FOR USE IN PBPK MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physiological pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models require Vmax, Km values for the metabolism of OPs by tissue enzymes. Current literature values cannot be easily used in OP PBPK models (i.e., parathion and chlorpyrifos) because standard methodologies were not used in their ...

  13. Genetic basis and implications of cross-sensitivity in Zea mays L. (sweet corn) to multiple herbicides metabolized by cytochrome P-450 enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain Zea mays L. (sweet corn) hybrids and inbreds can be injured or killed following postemergence applications of several herbicides metabolized by cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Identification of sensitive hybrids in annual screening trials, the primary means of guiding weed management decisions, i...

  14. COMPARATIVE METABOLIC STUDIES BETWEEN RUMINANT B. EMMANUEL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and the liver of these species. BHB-deHx is one of the key enzymes in the metabolic pathway leading to ketone explained: the activity of the enzyme in both the rumen epithelium and the liver is low, and the rumen%gy, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran The camel may have a significant

  15. Formate Dehydrogenase, an Enzyme of Anaerobic Metabolism, Is Induced by Iron Deficiency in Barley Roots1

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Itai, Reiko; Suzuki, Koichiro; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko-Kishi; Yoshimura, Etsuro; Mori, Satoshi

    1998-01-01

    To identify the proteins induced by Fe deficiency, we have compared the proteins of Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Peptide sequence analysis of induced proteins revealed that formate dehydrogenase (FDH), adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, and the Ids3 gene product (for Fe deficiency-specific) increased in Fe-deficient roots. FDH enzyme activity was detected in Fe-deficient roots but not in Fe-sufficient roots. A cDNA encoding FDH (Fdh) was cloned and sequenced. Fdh expression was induced by Fe deficiency. Fdh was also expressed under anaerobic stress and its expression was more rapid than that induced by Fe deficiency. Thus, the expression of Fdh observed in Fe-deficient barley roots appeared to be a secondary effect caused by oxygen deficiency in Fe-deficient plants. PMID:9489019

  16. Identification of key components in the energy metabolism of the hyperthermophilic sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus by transcriptome analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, William P.; Stokke, Runar; Roalkvam, Irene; Steen, Ida H.

    2014-01-01

    Energy conservation via the pathway of dissimilatory sulfate reduction is present in a diverse group of prokaryotes, but is most comprehensively studied in Deltaproteobacteria. In this study, whole-genome microarray analyses were used to provide a model of the energy metabolism of the sulfate-reducing archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, based on comparative analysis of litoautotrophic growth with H2/CO2 and thiosulfate, and heterotrophic growth on lactate with sulfate or thiosulfate. Only 72 genes were expressed differentially between the cultures utilizing sulfate or thiosulfate, whereas 269 genes were affected by a shift in energy source. We identified co-located gene cluster encoding putative lactate dehydrogenases (LDHs; lldD, dld, lldEFG), also present in sulfate-reducing bacteria. These enzymes may take part in energy conservation in A. fulgidus by specifically linking lactate oxidation with APS reduction via the Qmo complex. High transcriptional levels of Fqo confirm an important role of F420H2, as well as a menaquinone-mediated electron transport chain, during heterotrophic growth. A putative periplasmic thiosulfate reductase was identified by specific up-regulation. Also, putative genes for transport of sulfate and sulfite are discussed. We present a model for hydrogen metabolism, based on the probable bifurcation reaction of the Mvh:Hdl hydrogenase, which may inhibit the utilization of Fdred for energy conservation. Energy conservation is probably facilitated via menaquinone to multiple membrane-bound heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr) complexes and the DsrC protein—linking periplasmic hydrogenase (Vht) to the cytoplasmic reduction of sulfite. The ambiguous roles of genes corresponding to fatty acid metabolism induced during growth with H2 are discussed. Putative co-assimilation of organic acids is favored over a homologous secondary carbon fixation pathway, although both mechanisms may contribute to conserve the amount of Fdred needed during autotrophic growth with H2. PMID:24672515

  17. Changes in Activities of Enzymes of Carbon Metabolism in Leaves during Exposure of Plants to Low Temperature 1

    PubMed Central

    Holaday, A. Scott; Martindale, Wayne; Alred, Rhu; Brooks, Andrew L.; Leegood, Richard C.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the response of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in spinach and bean to low temperature. (a) Exposure of warm-grown spinach and bean plants to 10°C for 10 days resulted in increases in the total activities of a number of enzymes, including ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), stromal fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase (Fru 1,6-P2ase), sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphatase (Sed 1,7-P2ase), and the cytosolic Fru 1,6-P2ase. In spinach, but not bean, there was an increase in the total activity of sucrose-phosphate synthase. (b) The CO2-saturated rates of photosynthesis for the cold-acclimated spinach plants were 68% greater at 10°C than those for warm-acclimated plants, whereas in bean, rates of photosynthesis at 10°C were very low after exposure to low temperature. (c) When spinach leaf discs were transferred from 27 to 10°C, the stromal Fru 1,6-P2ase and NADP-malate dehydrogenase were almost fully activated within 8 minutes, and Rubisco reached 90% of full activation within 15 minutes of transfer. An initial restriction of Calvin cycle fluxes was evident as an increase in the amounts of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, glycerate-3-phosphate, Fru 1,6-P2, and Sed 1,7-P2. In bean, activation of stromal Fru 1,6-P2ase was weak, whereas the activation state of Rubisco decreased during the first few minutes after transfer to low temperature. However, NADP-malate dehydrogenase became almost fully activated, showing that no loss of the capacity for reductive activation occurred. (d) Temperature compensation in spinach evidently involves increases in the capacities of a range of enzymes, achieved in the short term by an increase in activation state, whereas long-term acclimation is achieved by an increase in the maximum activities of enzymes. The inability of bean to activate fully certain Calvin cycle enzymes and sucrose-phosphate synthase, or to increase nonphotochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence at 10°C, may be factors contributing to its poor performance at low temperature. PMID:16668733

  18. Inhibition of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), an Enzyme Essential for NAD+ Biosynthesis, Leads to Altered Carbohydrate Metabolism in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bo; Dong, Sucai; Shepard, Robert L; Kays, Lisa; Roth, Kenneth D; Geeganage, Sandaruwan; Kuo, Ming-Shang; Zhao, Genshi

    2015-06-19

    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) has been extensively studied due to its essential role in NAD(+) biosynthesis in cancer cells and the prospect of developing novel therapeutics. To understand how NAMPT regulates cellular metabolism, we have shown that the treatment with FK866, a specific NAMPT inhibitor, leads to attenuation of glycolysis by blocking the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase step (Tan, B., Young, D. A., Lu, Z. H., Wang, T., Meier, T. I., Shepard, R. L., Roth, K., Zhai, Y., Huss, K., Kuo, M. S., Gillig, J., Parthasarathy, S., Burkholder, T. P., Smith, M. C., Geeganage, S., and Zhao, G. (2013) Pharmacological inhibition of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT), an enzyme essential for NAD(+) biosynthesis, in human cancer cells: metabolic basis and potential clinical implications. J. Biol. Chem. 288, 3500-3511). Due to technical limitations, we failed to separate isotopomers of phosphorylated sugars. In this study, we developed an enabling LC-MS methodology. Using this, we confirmed the previous findings and also showed that NAMPT inhibition led to accumulation of fructose 1-phosphate and sedoheptulose 1-phosphate but not glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 6-phosphate, and sedoheptulose 7-phosphate as previously thought. To investigate the metabolic basis of the metabolite formation, we carried out biochemical and cellular studies and established the following. First, glucose-labeling studies indicated that fructose 1-phosphate was derived from dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde, and sedoheptulose 1-phosphate was derived from dihydroxyacetone phosphate and erythrose via an aldolase reaction. Second, biochemical studies showed that aldolase indeed catalyzed these reactions. Third, glyceraldehyde- and erythrose-labeling studies showed increased incorporation of corresponding labels into fructose 1-phosphate and sedoheptulose 1-phosphate in FK866-treated cells. Fourth, NAMPT inhibition led to increased glyceraldehyde and erythrose levels in the cell. Finally, glucose-labeling studies showed accumulated fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in FK866-treated cells mainly derived from dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Taken together, this study shows that NAMPT inhibition leads to attenuation of glycolysis, resulting in further perturbation of carbohydrate metabolism in cancer cells. The potential clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. PMID:25944913

  19. Soil Enzymes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The functionality and resilience of natural and managed ecosystems mainly rely on the metabolic abilities of microbial communities, the main source of enzymes in soils. Enzyme mediated reactions are critical in the decomposition of organic matter, cycling of nutrients, and in the breakdown of herbic...

  20. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil) ethanolic leaf extract protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, P; Murugan, R Senthil; Abbas, H; Abraham, S K; Nagini, S

    2007-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of ethanolic Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Four different concentrations of ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to Wistar rats by intragastric intubation for five consecutive days followed by intraperitoneal injection of DMBA (35 mg/kg of body weight) 90 minutes after the final dose of the extract. Administration of DMBA increased bone marrow micronuclei, phase I enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl formation. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the activities of phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidants in the liver, erythrocytes, and bone marrow. Pretreatment with ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg of body weight significantly reduced micronuclei formation and phase I enzymes as well as lipid and protein oxidation with enhanced antioxidant and phase II enzyme activities. The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract inhibits DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, reducing the extent of lipid and protein oxidation and up-regulating antioxidant defenses. PMID:17887944

  1. The clinical significance of betaine, an osmolyte with a key role in methyl group metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lever, Michael; Slow, Sandy

    2010-06-01

    Betaine is an essential osmolyte and source of methyl groups and comes from either the diet or by the oxidation of choline. Its metabolism methylates homocysteine to methionine, also producing N,N-dimethylglycine. Betaine insufficiency is associated with the metabolic syndrome, lipid disorders and diabetes, and may have a role in vascular and other diseases. Betaine is important in development, from the pre-implantation embryo to infancy. Betaine supplementation improves animal and poultry health, but the effect of long-term supplementation on humans is not known, though reports that it improves athletic performance will stimulate further studies. Subsets of the population that may benefit from betaine supplementation could be identified by the laboratory, in particular those who excessively lose betaine through the urine. Plasma betaine is highly individual, in women typically 20-60 micromol/L and in men 25-75 micromol/L. Plasma dimethylglycine is typically <10 micromol/L. Urine betaine excretion is minimal, even following a large betaine dose. It is constant, highly individual and normally <35 mmol/mole creatinine. The preferred method of betaine measurement is by LC-MS/MS, which is rapid and capable of automation. Slower HPLC methods give comparable results. Proton NMR spectrometry is another option but caution is needed to avoid confusion with trimethylamine-N-oxide. PMID:20346934

  2. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathera??molting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  3. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  4. Dietary effects on inhibition of rat hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes by a pesticide (Morestan).

    PubMed

    Gaillard, D; Chamoiseau, G; Derache, R

    1977-08-01

    Female rats were fed for 21 days on 5 semi-synthetic diets containing 8 or 30% proteins, 1 or 25% lipids respectively, the control animals being given a diet containing 20% proteins and 5% lipids. The animals on each diet were then subdivided into two subgroups and on the 22nd, 23rd, 24th and 25th days were given an oral dose of 75 mg/kg of Morestan in solution in peanut oil (PO) or a dose of oil only. The microsomes were prepared 24 h after the last administration and aniline aromatic hydroxylase, aminopyrine and N-methylaniline N-demethylase activities and cytochrome P-450, protein and RNA levels were measured. Whatever the diet, Morestan inhibited N-demethylase activities and decreased the cytochrome P-450 level; liver protein and RNA levels and microsomal RNA level increased. The 25% lipid diet alone increased activity of the three enzymes studied, without modifying the cytochrome P-450 level; Morestan produced antagonism of this effect in the rats on this diet. The decreased cytochrome P-450 level caused by Morestan was higher in animals on the 8% protein diet. PMID:929614

  5. Metabolic engineering of Lactococcus lactis influence of the overproduction of lipase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Raftari, Mohammad; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Bakar, Fatimah Abu

    2013-11-01

    The dairy industry uses lipase extensively for hydrolysis of milk fat. Lipase is used in the modification of the fatty acid chain length, to enhance the flavours of various chesses. Therefore finding the unlimited source of lipase is a concern of dairy industry. Due to the importance of lipase, this study was an attempt to express the lipase from Burkholderia cepacia in Lactococcus lactis. To achieve this, a gene associated with lipase transport was amplified and subcloned in inducible pNZ8148 vector, and subsequently transformed into Lc. lactis NZ9000. The enzyme assay as well as SDS-PAGE and western blotting were carried out to analysis the recombinant lipase expression. Nucleotide sequencing of the DNA insert from the clone revealed that the lipase activity corresponded to an open reading frame consisting of 1092 bp coding for a 37·5-kDa size protein. Blue colour colonies on nile blue sulphate agar and sharp band on 37·5-kD size on SDS-PAGE and western blotting results confirm the successful expression of lipase by Lc. lactis. The protein assay also showed high expression, approximately 152·2 ?g/ml.h, of lipase by recombinant Lc. lactis. The results indicate that Lc. lactis has high potential to overproduce the recombinant lipase which can be used commercially for industrially purposes. PMID:24063299

  6. Differential genome analyses of metabolic enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa for drug target identification.

    PubMed

    Perumal, Deepak; Lim, Chu Sing; Sakharkar, Kishore R; Sakharkar, Meena K

    2007-01-01

    Complete genome sequences of several pathogenic bacteria have been determined, and many more such projects are currently under way. While these data potentially contain all the determinants of host-pathogen interactions and possible drug targets, computational tools for selecting suitable candidates for further experimental analyses are currently limited. Detection of bacterial genes that are non-homologous to human genes, and are essential for the survival of the pathogen represents a promising means of identifying novel drug targets. We used a differential pathway analyses approach (based on KEGG data) to identify essential genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our approach identified 214 unique enzymes in P. aeruginosa that may be potential drug targets and can be considered for rational drug design. About 40% of these putative targets have been reported as essential by transposon mutagenesis data elsewhere. Homology model for one of the proteins (LpxC) is presented as a case study and can be explored for in silico docking with suitable inhibitors. This approach is a step towards facilitating the search for new antibiotics. PMID:18391237

  7. Acetaldehyde and Retinaldehyde-Metabolizing Enzymes in Colon and Pancreatic cancers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S; Arcaroli, J; Thompson, DC; Messersmith, W; Vasiliou, V

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal (CRC) and pancreatic cancers are two very significant contributors to cancer-related deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for these cancers. Ethanol is oxidized primarily by alcohol dehydrogenases to acetaldehyde, an agent capable of initiating tumors by forming adducts with proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde is metabolized by ALDH2, ALDH1B1 and ALDH1A1 to acetate. Retinoic acid (RA) is required for cellular differentiation and is known to arrest tumor development. RA is synthesized from retinaldehyde by the retinaldehyde dehydrogenases, specifically ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3 and ALDH8A1. By eliminating acetaldehyde and generating RA, ALDHs can play a crucial regulatory role in the initiation and progression of cancers. ALDH1 catalytic activity has been used as a biomarker to identify and isolate normal and cancer stem cells; its presence in a tumor is associated with poor prognosis in colon and pancreatic cancer. In summary, these ALDHs are not only biomarkers for CRC and pancreatic cancer but also play important mechanistic role in cancer initiation, progression and eventual prognosis. PMID:25427913

  8. Functional Characterization of Proanthocyanidin Pathway Enzymes from Tea and Their Application for Metabolic Engineering1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yongzhen; Abeysinghe, I. Sarath B.; He, Ji; He, Xianzhi; Huhman, David; Mewan, K. Mudith; Sumner, Lloyd W.; Yun, Jianfei; Dixon, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is rich in specialized metabolites, especially polyphenolic proanthocyanidins (PAs) and their precursors. To better understand the PA pathway in tea, we generated a complementary DNA library from leaf tissue of the blister blight-resistant tea cultivar TRI2043 and functionally characterized key enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of PA precursors. Structural genes encoding enzymes involved in the general phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathway and the PA-specific branch pathway were well represented in the library. Recombinant tea leucoanthocyanidin reductase (CsLAR) expressed in Escherichia coli was active with leucocyanidin as substrate to produce the 2R,3S-trans-flavan-ol (+)-catechin in vitro. Two genes encoding anthocyanidin reductase, CsANR1 and CsANR2, were also expressed in E. coli, and the recombinant proteins exhibited similar kinetic properties. Both converted cyanidin to a mixture of (+)-epicatechin and (?)-catechin, although in different proportions, indicating that both enzymes possess epimerase activity. These epimers were unexpected based on the belief that tea PAs are made from (?)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin. Ectopic expression of CsANR2 or CsLAR led to the accumulation of low levels of PA precursors and their conjugates in Medicago truncatula hairy roots and anthocyanin-overproducing tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), but levels of oligomeric PAs were very low. Surprisingly, the expression of CsLAR in tobacco overproducing anthocyanin led to the accumulation of higher levels of epicatechin and its glucoside than of catechin, again highlighting the potential importance of epimerization in flavan-3-ol biosynthesis. These data provide a resource for understanding tea PA biosynthesis and tools for the bioengineering of flavanols. PMID:23288883

  9. Characterization of distinct forms of cytochromes P-450, epoxide metabolizing enzymes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Pham, M A; Magdalou, J; Totis, M; Fournel-Gigleux, S; Siest, G; Hammock, B D

    1989-07-01

    Study of drug metabolizing enzyme activity was undertaken in skin microsomal and cytosolic fractions of male and female rats. The presence of several isoforms was revealed from their activities towards selected substrates and from their cross immunoreactivity using antibodies raised against purified hepatic or renal cytochromes P-450, epoxide hydrolase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. Cytochrome P-450 content was precisely quantified by second derivative spectrophotometry, 23.1 and 16.5 pmol/mg protein in males and females, respectively. The monooxygenase activity associated to cytochromes P-450IIB1 and P-450IA1 was determined through O-dealkylation of ethoxy-; pentoxy- and benzoxyresorufin. The activity ranged between 4 and 2 nmol/min/mg protein for male and female rats, respectively. These results and Western blot analysis indicated that rat skin microsomes contain both monooxygenase systems associated with cytochromes P-450IIB1 and P-450IA1. By contrast lauric acid hydroxylation, supported by cytochrome P-450IVA1, was not detectable. Activities of epoxide metabolizing enzymes (microsomal and cytosolic epoxide hydrolases; glutathione S-transferase) were also characterized in skin. Microsomes catalysed the hydratation of benzo(a)pyrene-4,5-oxide and cis-stilbene oxide at the same extent, whatever the sex, although the specific activity was 10 times lower than in liver. The hydratation of trans-stilbene oxide by soluble epoxide hydrolase was four times lower than in the liver. Conjugation of cis-stilbene oxide with glutathione in skin and liver proceeded at essentially similar rates, as the specific activity of glutathione S-transferase in skin was only two times less than that measured in hepatic cytosol. Glucuronidation of 1-naphthol, bilirubin but not of testosterone could be followed in the microsomal fraction. Revelation by Western blot indicated that both the isoforms involved in conjugation of phenols and bilirubin were present in skin microsomes. By contrast, the isoform catalysing the conjugation of testosterone was apparently missing. When immunoblotting was carried out using specific antibodies raised against the renal isoforms, the same result was obtained. In addition, an intense staining corresponding to a 57 kD-protein was observed. PMID:2500129

  10. Long-term monitoring reveals carbon–nitrogen metabolism key to microcystin production in eutrophic lakes

    PubMed Central

    Beversdorf, Lucas J.; Miller, Todd R.; McMahon, Katherine D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental drivers contributing to cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic systems have been extensively studied. However, understanding of toxic vs. non-toxic cyanobacterial population dynamics and the mechanisms regulating cyanotoxin production remain elusive, both physiologically and ecologically. One reason is the disconnect between laboratory and field-based studies. Here, we combined 3 years of temporal data, including microcystin (MC) concentrations, 16 years of long-term ecological research, and 10 years of molecular data to investigate the potential factors leading to the selection of toxic Microcystis and MC production. Our analysis revealed that nitrogen (N) speciation and inorganic carbon (C) availability might be important drivers of Microcystis population dynamics and that an imbalance in cellular C: N ratios may trigger MC production. More specifically, precipitous declines in ammonium concentrations lead to a transitional period of N stress, even in the presence of high nitrate concentrations, that we call the “toxic phase.” Following the toxic phase, temperature and cyanobacterial abundance remained elevated but MC concentrations drastically declined. Increases in ammonium due to lake turnover may have led to down regulation of MC synthesis or a shift in the community from toxic to non-toxic species. While total phosphorus (P) to total N ratios were relatively low over the time-series, MC concentrations were highest when total N to total P ratios were also highest. Similarly, high C: N ratios were also strongly correlated to the toxic phase. We propose a metabolic model that corroborates molecular studies and reflects our ecological observations that C and N metabolism may regulate MC production physiologically and ecologically. In particular, we hypothesize that an imbalance between 2-oxoglutarate and ammonium in the cell regulates MC synthesis in the environment. PMID:26029192

  11. Long-term monitoring reveals carbon-nitrogen metabolism key to microcystin production in eutrophic lakes.

    PubMed

    Beversdorf, Lucas J; Miller, Todd R; McMahon, Katherine D

    2015-01-01

    The environmental drivers contributing to cyanobacterial dominance in aquatic systems have been extensively studied. However, understanding of toxic vs. non-toxic cyanobacterial population dynamics and the mechanisms regulating cyanotoxin production remain elusive, both physiologically and ecologically. One reason is the disconnect between laboratory and field-based studies. Here, we combined 3 years of temporal data, including microcystin (MC) concentrations, 16 years of long-term ecological research, and 10 years of molecular data to investigate the potential factors leading to the selection of toxic Microcystis and MC production. Our analysis revealed that nitrogen (N) speciation and inorganic carbon (C) availability might be important drivers of Microcystis population dynamics and that an imbalance in cellular C: N ratios may trigger MC production. More specifically, precipitous declines in ammonium concentrations lead to a transitional period of N stress, even in the presence of high nitrate concentrations, that we call the "toxic phase." Following the toxic phase, temperature and cyanobacterial abundance remained elevated but MC concentrations drastically declined. Increases in ammonium due to lake turnover may have led to down regulation of MC synthesis or a shift in the community from toxic to non-toxic species. While total phosphorus (P) to total N ratios were relatively low over the time-series, MC concentrations were highest when total N to total P ratios were also highest. Similarly, high C: N ratios were also strongly correlated to the toxic phase. We propose a metabolic model that corroborates molecular studies and reflects our ecological observations that C and N metabolism may regulate MC production physiologically and ecologically. In particular, we hypothesize that an imbalance between 2-oxoglutarate and ammonium in the cell regulates MC synthesis in the environment. PMID:26029192

  12. Androgen-metabolizing enzymes show region-specific changes across the breeding season in the brain of a wild songbird.

    PubMed

    Soma, K K; Bindra, R K; Gee, J; Wingfield, J C; Schlinger, B A

    1999-11-01

    The Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) is an arctic-breeding songbird that shows rapid behavioral changes during a short breeding season. Changes in plasma testosterone (T) in the spring are correlated with singing but not territorial aggression in males. Also, T treatment increases song but not aggression in this species. In contrast, in temperate-zone breeders, song and aggression are highly correlated, and both increase after T treatment. We asked whether regional or temporal differences in androgen-metabolizing enzymes in the longspur brain explain hormone-behavior patterns in this species. We measured the activities of aromatase, 5alpha-reductase and 5beta-reductase in free-living longspur males. Aromatase and 5alpha-reductase convert T into the active steroids 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT), respectively. 5beta-Reductase deactivates T via conversion to 5beta-DHT, an inactive steroid. We examined seven brain regions at three stages in the breeding season. Overall, aromatase activity was high in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and ventromedial telencephalon (containing nucleus taeniae, the avian homologue to the amygdala). 5beta-Reductase activity was high throughout the telencephalon. Activities of all three enzymes changed over time in a region-specific manner. In particular, aromatase activity in the rostral hypothalamus was decreased late in the breeding season, which may explain why T treatment at this time does not increase aggression. Changes in 5beta-reductase do not explain the effects of plasma T on aggressive behavior. PMID:10512976

  13. Overexpression of metabolic enzymes at the junction of glycolylsis and the TCA cycle in Escherichia coli: physiological effects and application 

    E-print Network

    Spitzer, Richard G.

    1999-01-01

    The metabolism of Escherichia coli has central importance in biochemical engineering, metabolic engineering, and molecular biology. This study relates to all three disciplines. In biochemical engineering, previous studies ...

  14. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1: molecular cloning and characterization of a novel mitochondrial acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Stagos, Dimitrios; Chen, Ying; Brocker, Chad; Donald, Elizabeth; Jackson, Brian C; Orlicky, David J; Thompson, David C; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2010-10-01

    Ethanol-induced damage is largely attributed to its toxic metabolite, acetaldehyde. Clearance of acetaldehyde is achieved by its oxidation, primarily catalyzed by the mitochondrial class II aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). ALDH1B1 is another mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that shares 75% peptide sequence homology with ALDH2. Recent population studies in whites suggest a role for ALDH1B1 in ethanol metabolism. However, to date, no formal documentation of the biochemical properties of ALDH1B1 has been forthcoming. In this current study, we cloned and expressed human recombinant ALDH1B1 in Sf9 insect cells. The resultant enzyme was purified by affinity chromatography to homogeneity. The kinetic properties of purified human ALDH1B1 were assessed using a wide range of aldehyde substrates. Human ALDH1B1 had an exclusive preference for NAD(+) as the cofactor and was catalytically active toward short- and medium-chain aliphatic aldehydes, aromatic aldehydes, and the products of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde. Most importantly, human ALDH1B1 exhibited an apparent K(m) of 55 ?M for acetaldehyde, making it the second low K(m) ALDH for metabolism of this substrate. The dehydrogenase activity of ALDH1B1 was sensitive to disulfiram inhibition, a feature also shared with ALDH2. The tissue distribution of ALDH1B1 in C57BL/6J mice and humans was examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical analysis. The highest expression occurred in the liver, followed by the intestinal tract, implying a potential physiological role for ALDH1B1 in these tissues. The current study is the first report on the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of human ALDH1B1 protein. PMID:20616185

  15. Low temperature and defoliation affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes in different regions of the rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea.

    PubMed

    Portes, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; de Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2008-10-01

    In addition to the storage function, fructans in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth have been associated with drought and freezing tolerance. Vernonia herbacea, native of the Brazilian Cerrado, bears underground reserve organs, rhizophores, accumulating inulin-type fructans. The rhizophore is a cauline branched system with positive geotropic growth, with the apex (distal region) presenting younger tissues; sprouting of new shoots occurs by development of buds located on the opposite end (proximal region). Plants induced to sprouting by excision of the aerial organs present increased 1-fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity in the proximal region, while plants at the vegetative stage present high 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in the distal region. The aim of the present study was to analyze how low temperature (5 degrees C) could affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes and fructan composition in the different regions of the rhizophores of intact and excised plants. 1-SST and 1-fructan:fructan fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) were higher in the distal region decreasing towards the proximal region in intact plants at the vegetative phase, and were drastically diminished when cold and/or excision were imposed. In contrast, 1-FEH increased in the proximal region of treated plants, mainly in excised plants subjected to cold. The ratio fructo-oligo to fructo-polysaccharides was significantly higher in plants exposed to low temperature (1.17 in intact plants and 1.64 in excised plants) than in plants exposed to natural temperature conditions (0.84 in intact vegetative plants and 0.58 in excised plants), suggesting that oligosaccharides are involved in the tolerance of plants to low temperature via 1-FEH, in addition to 1-FFT. Principal component analysis indicated different response mechanisms in fructan metabolism under defoliation and low temperature, which could be interpreted as part of the strategies to undergo unfavorable environmental conditions prevailing in the Cerrado during winter. PMID:18342987

  16. Expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in propagatable cell cultures and induction of micronuclei by 13 compounds.

    PubMed

    Glatt, H; Gemperlein, I; Setiabudi, F; Platt, K L; Oesch, F

    1990-05-01

    Activities of various xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes were determined in 18 cell lines. Activities of cytochrome P450 reductase, microsomal epoxide hydrolase and glutathione transferase were detectable in all lines. The highest values were similar to the activities found in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Catalase activity was also present in all 12 investigated cell lines. Activity of UDP-glucuronosyl transferase was high in some lines, but low or undetectable in others. Activity of cytosolic epoxide hydrolase was not measurable in most lines, and was low in the others. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene was observed in eight out of nine examined lines, no activity being found in V79 cells. V79 and three epithelial cell lines were then used as target cells in a genotoxicity assay in which the frequency of micronucleated cells was determined. In V79 cells, 7,12-dimethyl- benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene-trans-7,8-dihydrodiol, aflatoxin B1, N-nitrosomorpholine and 2-acetylaminofluorene showed negative responses, whereas N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, 9-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene 1,2-catechol, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, 1,2-quinone hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone proved positive in the test. All 13 compounds, however, induced micronuclei in rat intestinal cells (IEC-17 and IEC-18) and in embryonal human liver cells (HuFoe-15). Thus, these epithelial cell lines are capable of activating and detecting a broad spectrum of chemically diverse genotoxic compounds. They may also be useful for the detection of hazardous compounds whose active metabolites are not able to penetrate from the extracellular space into the indicator cell. PMID:2385178

  17. The effects of drugs with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory activities on xenobiotics-metabolizing enzymes expression in primary human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Vrzal, Radim; Zenata, Ondrej; Bachleda, Petr; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we investigated the effects of several drugs used in transplant medicine, i.e. cyclosporine A, tacrolimus, rapamycin, everolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin, on the expression of major drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocytes. Moreover, we tested the ability of these drugs to affect transcriptional activity of glucocorticoid (GR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We found that most of tested compounds did not induce expression of CYP1A1/1A2/3A4/2A6/2B6/2C9 mRNAs in human hepatocytes. Slight induction was observed for CYP2A6/2C9 mRNAs and CYP2A6 protein in the rapamycin-treated hepatocytes. Decrease of CYP2A6 and CYP2B6 proteins was observed in rosuvastatin-treated cells. Mycophenolate mofetil antagonized the effects of dexamethasone on GR but it potentiated the action of dioxin on AhR. Induction of CYP1A1 mRNA in HepG2 cells by dioxin was modestly antagonized by mycophenolate mofetil, while the induction by benzo[a]pyren or S-omeprazole was significantly potentiated by this drug. In general, tested compounds can be considered safe in the terms of possible drug-drug interaction caused by induction of drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450. Nevertheless, mycophenolate mofetil is of possible concern and its combination with drugs, environmental pollutants or food constituents, which activate AhR, may represent a significant toxicological risk. PMID:25929522

  18. Localization of key enzymes in alkaloid producing plants: Tryptophan synthase [Beta] in Camptotheca acuminata and tyrosine decarboxylase in Papaver somniferum 

    E-print Network

    El-Ahmady, Sherweit Hamed

    2000-01-01

    enzymes, tryptophan synthase ? (TSB) and tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC), have been localized in Camptotheca acuminata and Papaver somniferum respectively. In C. acuminata, TSB plays a role in the biosynthesis of the monoterpene indole alkaloid camptothecin...

  19. Genomic cloning of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase: a purine metabolic enzyme deficient in multiple different cancers.

    PubMed Central

    Nobori, T; Takabayashi, K; Tran, P; Orvis, L; Batova, A; Yu, A L; Carson, D A

    1996-01-01

    5'-Deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (methylthioadeno-sine: ortho-phosphate methylthioribosyltransferase, EC 24.2.28; MTAP) plays a role in purine and polyamine metabolism and in the regulation of transmethylation reactions. MTAP is abundant in normal cells but is deficient in many cancers. Recently, the genes for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16 and p15 have been localized to the short arm of human chromosome 9 at band p21, where MTAP and interferon alpha genes (IFNA) also map. Homozygous deletions of p16 and p15 are frequent malignant cell lines. However, the order of the MTAP, p16, p15, and IFNA genes on chromosome 9p is uncertain, and the molecular basis for MTAP deficiency in cancer is unknown. We have cloned the MTAP gene, and have constructed a topologic map of the 9p21 region using yeast artificial chromosome clones, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and sequence-tagged-site PCR. The MTAP gene consists of eight exons and seven introns. Of 23 malignant cell lines deficient in MTAP protein, all but one had complete or partial deletions. Partial or total deletions of the MTAP gene were found in primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL). A deletion breakpoint of partial deletions found in cell lines and primary T-ALL was in intron 4. Starting from the centromeric end, the gene order on chromosome 9p2l is p15, p16, MTAP, IFNA, and interferon beta gene (IFNB). These results indicate that MTAP deficiency in cancer is primarily due to codeletion of the MTAP and p16 genes. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8650244

  20. Genomic cloning of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase: a purine metabolic enzyme deficient in multiple different cancers.

    PubMed

    Nobori, T; Takabayashi, K; Tran, P; Orvis, L; Batova, A; Yu, A L; Carson, D A

    1996-06-11

    5'-Deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (methylthioadeno-sine: ortho-phosphate methylthioribosyltransferase, EC 24.2.28; MTAP) plays a role in purine and polyamine metabolism and in the regulation of transmethylation reactions. MTAP is abundant in normal cells but is deficient in many cancers. Recently, the genes for the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16 and p15 have been localized to the short arm of human chromosome 9 at band p21, where MTAP and interferon alpha genes (IFNA) also map. Homozygous deletions of p16 and p15 are frequent malignant cell lines. However, the order of the MTAP, p16, p15, and IFNA genes on chromosome 9p is uncertain, and the molecular basis for MTAP deficiency in cancer is unknown. We have cloned the MTAP gene, and have constructed a topologic map of the 9p21 region using yeast artificial chromosome clones, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and sequence-tagged-site PCR. The MTAP gene consists of eight exons and seven introns. Of 23 malignant cell lines deficient in MTAP protein, all but one had complete or partial deletions. Partial or total deletions of the MTAP gene were found in primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL). A deletion breakpoint of partial deletions found in cell lines and primary T-ALL was in intron 4. Starting from the centromeric end, the gene order on chromosome 9p2l is p15, p16, MTAP, IFNA, and interferon beta gene (IFNB). These results indicate that MTAP deficiency in cancer is primarily due to codeletion of the MTAP and p16 genes. PMID:8650244

  1. Effect of Developmental Chlorpyrifos Exposure, on Endocannabinoid Metabolizing Enzymes, in the Brain of Juvenile Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Russell L.; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Ross, Matthew K.

    2011-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA or anandamide) play vital roles during nervous system development including regulating axonal guidance and synaptogenesis. The enzymatic degradation of 2-AG and AEA is highly susceptible to inhibition by organophosphate compounds in vitro. Furthermore, acute in vivo exposure of adult animals to the agricultural insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPS) caused moderate inhibition of both 2-AG and AEA hydrolysis. However, the effects of repeated exposure to lower levels of CPS, especially during development, on endocannabinoid metabolism in the brain is not known. To examine this, rat pups were orally exposed daily from postnatal days 10–16 to either 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/kg CPS. Body weight gain was reduced by 5.0 mg/kg on all days of treatment whereas 2.5 mg/kg reduced the weight gain only on the last two days of treatment. At 4-h postexposure on day 16, forebrain cholinesterase (ChE) activity and hydrolysis of 2-AG and AEA were inhibited in a dose-related manner, and the extent of inhibition from highest to lowest level was AEA hydrolysis > ChE activity > 2-AG hydrolysis. The extent of inhibition of AEA hydrolysis was approximately twice than that of ChE activity with AEA hydrolysis being virtually eliminated by 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg causing 40% inhibition. The sensitivity of AEA hydrolysis, compared with canonical targets such as ChE activity, suggests a potential alternative developmental target for CPS. Inhibition of AEA hydrolysis could result in accumulation of endocannabinoids, which could alter normal endocannabinoid transmission during brain maturation. PMID:21507991

  2. [Regulation of terpene metabolism]. Annual progress report, March 15, 1988--March 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.

    1989-12-31

    Progress in understanding of the metabolism of monoterpenes by peppermint and spearmint is recorded including the actions of two key enzymes, geranyl pyrophosphate:limonene cyclase and a UDP-glucose dependent glucosyl transferase; concerning the ultrastructure of oil gland senescence; enzyme subcellular localization; regulation of metabolism; and tissue culture systems.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Adenosine 5?-monophosphate Deaminase—The Key Enzyme Responsible for the Umami Taste of Nori ( Porphyra yezoensis Ueda, Rhodophyta)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiko Minami; Minoru Sato; Yoshihiro Shiraiwa; Koji Iwamoto

    The enzyme adenosine 5?-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD, EC 3.5.4.6) catalyzes the conversion of adenosine 5?-monophosphate\\u000a to inosine 5?-mononucleotide (IMP). IMP is generally known as the compound responsible for the umami taste of the edible red alga Porphyra yezoensis Ueda that is known in Japan as nori. Therefore, we suspect that AMPD plays a key role in providing a favorable nori taste.

  4. Isolation and characterization of cDNA sequences of l-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase, a key enzyme for biosynthesis of ascorbic acid, from extant primitive fish groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Sun Cho; Susan E. Douglas; Jeffrey W. Gallant; Keun Yong Kim; Dong Soo Kim; Yoon Kwon Nam

    2007-01-01

    Most advanced teleosts lack l-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase (GULO), a key enzyme required for the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. However, extant representatives of primitive species including sturgeon and many cartilaginous fishes, are exceptional in their ability to synthesize ascorbic acid de novo. In the present study, full-length GULO cDNAs were isolated from white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and two shark species belonging to

  5. Microsomal metabolism of N,N-diethylacetamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide and their effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Silvia, M; Vincenzo, L; Arturo, M; Giovanni, G P

    1994-08-17

    This study was undertaken to investigate: (1) the effect of N,N-diethylacetamide (DEAC) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC) administration to rats on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver; (2) the in vitro dealkylation of DEAC and DMAC by hepatic microsomes from rats treated with various P450 inducers and purified P450 (2B1 and 2E1). DEAC administration at doses of 100-300 mg/kg i.p. for 3 days mostly induced P450 2B1/2-associated hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activities (pentoxyresorufin O-depenthylase and the 16 beta-testosterone hydroxylase) and its own dealkylation (DEAC deethylase activity). P4502E1-linked monooxygenase activities, such as aniline and p-nitrophenol hydroxylases, were not affected. DEAC treatment increased the amount of P4502B1/2 in microsomes in a dose-dependent manner, but depressed the amount of P-4502C11 as assayed by western blotting. DMAC treatment did not alter any microsomal monooxygenases or phase II enzymatic activity. The oxidative metabolism of DEAC and DMAC with control and induced microsomes resulted in the dealkylation of these solvents, giving rise to acetaldehyde and formaldehyde, respectively. The kinetic parameters for these N-dealkylations were investigated. It was found that phenobarbital-, dexamethasone- and DEAC-induced microsomes deethylated DEAC with a Vmax approximately 3-fold of control-, ethanol- or beta-naphtoflavone-induced microsomes, although with a similar affinity; ethanol- or acetone-induced microsomes demethylated DMAC with a Vmax higher than that of control microsomes. In a reconstituted system, the purified P4502B1 dealkylated DEAC, but not DMAC, at the rate of 6.2 nmol/min/nmol P450, whereas purified P4502E1 dealkylated DMAC, but not DEAC, at the rate of 7.9 nmol/min/nmol P450. Oxidation of DEAC and DMAC were markedly inhibited in microsomes from DEAC-treated rats by anti-P4502B1 IgG and in microsomes from acetone-treated rats by anti-P4502E1 IgG, respectively. These results indicate that DMAC and DEAC are predominantly oxidated by different P450 isozymes and that only DEAC, when administered to rat, is capable of altering the expression of the hepatic P450 system. This latter feature could be related to the higher toxicity reported for DEAC. PMID:8080444

  6. Exposure to leachate from municipal battery recycling site: implication as key inhibitor of steroidogenic enzymes and risk factor of prostate damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Akintunde, Jacob K; Oboh, G

    2013-01-01

    Few or no studies have measured the effect of short- and long-term exposure to industrial leachate. Mature male Wistar strain albino rats (175-220 g) underwent sub-chronic exposure to leachate from the Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling site (EOMABRL) via oral administration for a period of 60 days at different doses (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%) per kilogram of body weight to evaluate the toxic effects of the leachate on male reproductive function using steroidogenic enzymes and biomarkers of prostate damage. Control groups were treated equally but were given distilled water instead of the leachate. After the treatment periods, results showed that the treatment induced systemic toxicity at the doses tested by causing a significant (p<0.05) loss in absolute body weight and decline in growth rate. There was a marked significant decrease (p<0.05) in testicular activities of ?(5)-3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Conversely, the activity of prostatic acid phosphatase, a key marker enzyme for prostrate damage was significantly (p<0.05) elevated in the treated rats. Similarly, the administration of EOMABRL significantly (p<0.05) exacerbated the activity of total acid phosphatase with concomitant increase in the activity of prostatic alkaline phosphatase. These findings conclude that exposure to leachate from a battery recycling site induces sub-chronic testicular toxicity by inhibiting key steroidogenic enzymes and activating key markers linked with prostate damage/cancer in rats. PMID:24200534

  7. Investigation of the role of the enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism in the resistance of insects to insecticides

    SciTech Connect

    Leonova, I.N.; Nedel'kina, S.V.; Naumova, N.B.; Salganik, R.I.

    1986-09-10

    The activity of three enzyme systems of xenobiotic metabolism: cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases, nonspecific esterases, and glutathione S-transferases, was investigated on a sensitive strain (S) of the housefly M. domestica L. and strains resistant to tetrametrin (R/sub tetr/), permetrin (R/sub perm/), mecarbenyl (R/sub mec/), and chlorophos (R/sub chlor/). In the strains R/sub tetr/ and R/sub mec/, in comparison with strain S, an increase of 2.7 and 2.3-fold, respectively, in the activity of microsomal monooxygenases was observed. The position of the maxima of the CO-differential spectra of cytochrome P-450 in all the investigated resistant strains, with the exception of R/sub chlor/, is shifted by 1-2 nm in the shortwave direction. The activity of glutathione S-transferases in the strain R/sub tetr/ proved elevated in comparison with the strain S. The data of an investigation of the total esterase activity and the data of starch gel electrophoresis are evidence of quantitative and qualitative differences between the strains. For all the resistant strains except for R/sub mec/, supplementary zones of esterase activity appear. The data obtained are discussed in connection with the resistance of the insects to insecticides.

  8. Polymorphisms of Metabolizing Enzymes and Susceptibility to Ethmoid Intestinal-type Adenocarcinoma in Professionally Exposed Patients1

    PubMed Central

    Pastore, Elisa; Perrone, Federica; Orsenigo, Marta; Mariani, Luigi; Millefanti, Clara; Riccio, Stefano; Colombo, Sarah; Cantů, Giulio; Pierotti, Marco A; Pilotti, Silvana

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (ITAC) of ethmoid is a rare tumor associated with occupational exposure to wood and leather dusts. Polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes play an important role in gene-environment interactions and may contribute to a high degree of variance in individual susceptibility to cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate by polymerase chain reaction the role of polymorphisms at CYP1A1 and GSTM1 genes in 30 ethmoid ITAC patients and 79 healthy donors. The distribution of Thr/Asn genotype at CYP1A1 codon 461 was significantly overrepresented among the patients (23.3%; P = .0422), whereas the Ile/Val genotype at CYP1A1 codon 462 was not significantly different between cases and controls (P = .76). The GSTM1 null genotype was not significantly different between cases and control (P = 1), but we observed that the combined codon 461 Thr/Asn and GSTM1 null genotype was overrepresented in the patient group (P = .0019). The results reveal that patients with CYP1A1 codon 461 polymorphism may be at high genetic risk of ITAC and that the risk increases in the presence of combined polymorphism of CYP1A1 and GSTM1 null genotype. This strongly suggests that CYP1A1 codon 461 and GSTM1 null genotype may be useful in selecting exposed individuals at risk for ethmoid ITAC. PMID:19412423

  9. Sequence and genetic organization of a Zymomonas mobilis gene cluster that encodes several enzymes of glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Barnell, W.O.; Kyung Cheol Yi; Conway, T. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (United States))

    1990-12-01

    The Zymomonas mobilis genes that encode glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (zwf), 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase (edd), and glucokinase (glk) were cloned independently by genetic complementation of specific defects in Escherichia coli metabolism. The identify of these cloned genes was confirmed by various biochemical means. Nucleotide sequence analysis established that these three genes are clustered on the genome and revealed an additional open reading frame in this region that has significant amino acid identity to the E.coli xylose-proton symporter and the human glucose transporter. On the basis of this evidence and structural analysis of the deduced primary amino acid sequence, this gene is believed to encode the Z. mobilis glucose-facilitated diffusion protein, glf. The four genes in the 6-kb cluster are organized in the order glf, zwf, edd, glk. The glf and zwf genes are separated by 146 bp. The zwf and edd genes overlap by 8 bp, and their expression may be translationally coupled. The edd and glk genes are separated by 203 bp. The glk gene is followed by tandem transcriptional terminators. The four genes appear to be organized in an operon. Such an arrangement of the genes that govern glucose uptake and the first three steps of the Entner-Doudoroff glycolytic pathway provides the organism with a mechanism for carefully regulating the levels of the enzymes that control carbon flux into the pathway.

  10. Overexpression of AMP-metabolizing enzymes controls adenine nucleotide levels and AMPK activation in HEK293T cells.

    PubMed

    Plaideau, Catheline; Liu, Jianming; Hartleib-Geschwindner, Judith; Bastin-Coyette, Laurent; Bontemps, Françoise; Oscarsson, Jan; Hue, Louis; Rider, Mark H

    2012-06-01

    We investigated whether overexpression of AMP-metabolizing enzymes in intact cells would modulate oligomycin-induced AMPK activation. Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells were transiently transfected with increasing amounts of plasmid vectors to obtain a graded increase in overexpression of AMP-deaminase (AMPD) 1, AMPD2, and soluble 5'-nucleotidase IA (cN-IA) for measurements of AMPK activation and total intracellular adenine nucleotide levels induced by oligomycin treatment. Overexpression of AMPD1 and AMPD2 slightly decreased AMP levels and oligomycin-induced AMPK activation. Increased overexpression of cN-IA led to reductions in the oligomycin-induced increases in AMP and ADP concentrations by ?70 and 50%, respectively, concomitant with a 50% decrease in AMPK activation. The results support the view that a rise in ADP as well as AMP is important for activation of AMPK, which can thus be regulated by the adenylate energy charge. The control coefficient of cN-IA on AMP was 0.3-0.7, whereas the values for AMPD1 and AMPD2 were <0.1, suggesting that in this model cN-IA exerts a large proportion of control over intracellular AMP. Therefore, small molecule inhibition of cN-IA could be a strategy for AMPK activation. PMID:22415305

  11. Metabolism of novel anti-HIV agent 3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK by human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP enzymes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-mei Zhuang; Jing-ting Deng; Hua Li; Wei-li Kong; Jin-xiu Ruan; Lan Xie

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the metabolism of 3-cyanomethyl-4-methyl-DCK (CMDCK), a novel anti-HIV agent, by human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs).Methods:CMDCK was incubated with HLMs or a panel of recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes including CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, and 3A5. LC-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify CMDCK metabolites. In the experiments with

  12. Serum Hepatic Enzyme Activity and Alcohol Drinking Status in Relation to the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in the General Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, Hirokazu; Katsuura-Kamano, Sakurako; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Sawachika, Fusakazu; Arisawa, Kokichi

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on the combined associations of elevated serum hepatic enzyme activity and alcohol drinking with metabolic syndrome are rare. Our objectives were to evaluate the associations of elevated serum hepatic enzyme activity with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general Japanese population and whether alcohol drinking had a modifying effect on these associations. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 1,027 men and 1,152 women throughout Japan during 2002–2010. Biochemical factors including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were determined in overnight fasting blood, and a survey on lifestyle was conducted by questionnaire. Serum ALT and GGT levels were divided into tertiles in men and women, and their associations with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome were evaluated by logistic regressions. Results Elevated serum ALT and GGT, even within the reference range, were independently associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and were associated with most of its components in both sexes, except for the association between GGT and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in men. Stratified analyses by alcohol drinking status revealed that within the same tertile category of serum ALT and GGT, subjects classified as alcohol abstainers showed higher adjusted odds ratios for metabolic syndrome prevalence than those classified as regular alcohol drinkers in both sexes. The interaction effects of serum GGT with alcohol drinking status on metabolic syndrome prevalence were significant in both sexes. Conclusions These results suggest that elevated serum ALT and GGT, even within the reference range, are independently associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence, especially in alcohol abstainers, in Japanese men and women. PMID:24755715

  13. Metabolizing enzyme localization and activities in the first trimester human placenta: the effect of maternal and gestational age, smoking and alcohol consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abby C. Collier; Malcolm D. Tingle; James W. Paxton; Murray D. Mitchell; Jeffrey A. Keelan

    BACKGROUND: The rationale for this study was to assess the expression, activity and localization of the enzymes uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), ?-glucuronidase, cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in first trimester human placenta and to gauge the effects of maternal variables on placental metabolism. METHODS: CYP1A, CYP2E1, UGT and ?-glucuronidase activities were assessed in 25 placentas using

  14. Effect of dietary protein\\/carbohydrate ratio on activities of hepatic enzymes involved in the amino acid metabolism of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Gaye-Siessegger; U. Focken; K. Becker

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of different dietary protein\\/carbohydrate ratios on activities of enzymes involved in the amino acid metabolism as well as on growth performance and body composition of Nile tilapia (Oreo-\\u0009chromis niloticus). Fish were fed semi-synthetic diets differing in their protein\\/carbohydrate ratio. The diets were formulated to be isolipidic and isoenergetic (on the basis of metabolizable energy). Fish

  15. Changes in the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 and the activity of carcinogen -metabolizing enzymes in Schistosoma haematobium-infected human bladder tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Sheweita; M. R. Abu El-Maati; F. G. El-Shahat; M. A. Bazeed

    2001-01-01

    The bioactivation of N-nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is mediated primarily by the mixed-function oxidase system, which includes dimethylnitrosamine N-demethylase I, arylhydrocarbon [benzo(a)pyerne] hydroxylase, cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, and ethoxycoumarin deethylase. Most of carcinogens and xenobiotics are conjugated and detoxified by phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase. The present study showed the influence of Schistosoma haematobium on

  16. Drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in freshly isolated oval cells and in an established oval cell line from carcinogen-fed rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Steinberg; R. Steinbrecher; D. Schrenk; P. Munzel; M. Bruck; H. Gschaidmaier; F. Oesch; K. W. Bock

    1994-01-01

    The activities of several different phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes were measured in freshly isolated oval cells from rats fed a choline-deficient\\/DL-ethionine-supplemented diet for 6 weeks and alsoin vitro in the established oval cell line OC\\/CDE 6. No cytochrome P450 was spectrophotometrically measurable in both preparations and two cytochrome P450-dependent monoxygenase activities, aminopyrineN-demethylase and ethoxyresorufinO-deethylase, could not be

  17. The role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in regulation of enzymes involved in metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a model of rat liver progenitor cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Vondrá?ek; Pavel Kr?má?; Ji?ina Procházková; Lenka Trilecová; Martina Gavelová; Lenka Skálová; Barbora Szotáková; Martin Bun?ek; Hana Radilová; Alois Kozubík; Miroslav Machala

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to hepatocytes, there is only limited information about the expression and activities of enzymes participating in metabolic activation of environmental mutagens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in liver progenitor cells. In rat liver “stem-like” WB-F344 cell line, sharing many characteristics with rat liver progenitor cells, PAHs are efficiently activated to their ultimate genotoxic metabolites forming DNA adducts. The

  18. Dietary methyl donors, methyl metabolizing enzymes, and epigenetic regulators: diet–gene interactions and promoter CpG island hypermethylation in colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan de Vogel; Kim A. D. Wouters; Ralph W. H. Gottschalk; Frederik J. van Schooten; Adriaan P. de Bruďne; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Piet A. van den Brandt; Manon van Engeland; Matty P. Weijenberg

    2011-01-01

    Dietary methyl donors might influence DNA methylation during carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Among 609 CRC cases\\u000a and 1,663 subcohort members of the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (n = 120,852), we estimated CRC risk according to methyl donor intake across genotypes of folate metabolizing enzymes and methyltransferases.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Although diet–gene interactions were not statistically significant, methionine intake was inversely associated

  19. Changes in Growth Performance, Metabolic Enzyme Activities, and Content of Fe, Cu, and Zn in Liver and Kidney of Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) Exposed to Dietary Pb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Dai; Linglin Fu; Huahua Du; Chengguan Jin; Zirong Xu

    2009-01-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to 0, 100, 400, and 800 ?g\\/g concentrations of Pb in diet for 60 days, and changes in growth performance, metabolic\\u000a enzyme activities, and essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, and Zn) content in liver and kidney were investigated. Daily weight\\u000a gain, feed conversation ratio, and survival of tilapia were not significantly affected by dietary Pb. Alanine transaminase

  20. Lack of association between human longevity and genetic polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing enzymes at the NAT2, GSTM1 and CYP2D6 loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Laure Muiras; Patrick Verasdonck; Florence Cottet; François Schächter

    1998-01-01

    In the present study, the possible role of genetic polymorphism of three drug-metabolizing enzymes, debrisoquine\\/sparteine\\u000a hydroxylase (CYP2D6), glutathione S-transferase ? (GSTM1), and N-acetyltransferase (NAT2), as a putative genetic component of human longevity, was explored. A total of 817 DNA samples from a centenarian and a control\\u000a (20–70 years) population was subjected to PCR-coupled RFLP methods. Subjects were genotyped for the

  1. Molecular docking and enzyme kinetic studies of dihydrotanshinone on metabolism of a model CYP2D6 probe substrate in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuelin; Wang, Yan; Or, Penelope M Y; Wan, David C C; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Yeung, John H K

    2012-05-15

    The effects of Danshen and its active components (tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, dihydrotanshinone and cryptotanshinone) on CYP2D6 activity was investigated by measuring the metabolism of a model CYP2D6 probe substrate, dextromethorphan to dextrorphan in human pooled liver microsomes. The ethanolic extract of crude Danshen (6.25-100 ?g/ml) decreased dextromethorphan O-demethylation in vitro (IC(50)=23.3 ?g/ml) and the water extract of crude Danshen (0.0625-1 mg/ml) showed no inhibition. A commercially available Danshen pill (31.25-500 ?g/ml) also decreased CYP2D6 activity (IC(50)=265.8 ?g/ml). Among the tanshinones, only dihydrotanshinone significantly inhibited CYP2D6 activity (IC(50)=35.4 ?M), compared to quinidine, a specific CYP2D6 inhibitor (IC(50)=0.9 ?M). Crytotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA produced weak inhibition, with IC(20) of 40.8 ?M, 16.5 ?M and 61.4 ?M, respectively. Water soluble components such as salvianolic acid B and danshensu did not affect CYP2D6-mediated metabolism. Enzyme kinetics studies showed that inhibition of CYP2D6 activity by the ethanolic extract of crude Danshen and dihydrotanshinone was concentration-dependent, with K(i) values of 4.23 ?g/ml and 2.53 ?M, respectively, compared to quinidine, K(i)=0.41 ?M. Molecular docking study confirmed that dihydrotanshinone and tanshinone I interacted with the Phe120 amino acid residue in the active cavity of CYP2D6 through Pi-Pi interaction, but did not interact with Glu216 and Asp301, the key residues for substrate binding. The logarithm of free binding energy of dihydrotanshinone (-7.6 kcal/mol) to Phe120 was comparable to quinidine (-7.0 kcal/mol) but greater than tanshinone I (-5.4 kcal/mol), indicating dihydrotanshinone has similar affinity to quinidine in binding to the catalytic site on CYP2D6. PMID:22541637

  2. Effects of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol on gene expression of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in sea bream hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2010-11-01

    The present study investigated the regulatory effects of growth hormone (GH), human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I), thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)) and cortisol, on mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glycogen synthase (GS), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in hepatocytes isolated from silver sea bream. Genes encoding GK, G6Pase, GS and GP were partially cloned and characterized from silver sea bream liver and real-time PCR assays were developed for the quantification of the mRNA expression profiles of these genes in order to evaluate the potential of these carbohydrate metabolic pathways. GK mRNA level was elevated by GH and hIGF-I, implying that GH-induced stimulation of GK expression may be mediated via IGF-I. GH was found to elevate GS and G6Pase expression, but reduce G6PDH mRNA expression. However, hIGF-I did not affect mRNA levels of GS, G6Pase and G6PDH, suggesting that GH-induced modulation of GS, G6Pase and G6PDH expression levels is direct, and occurs independently of the action of IGF-I. T(3) and T(4) directly upregulated transcript abundance of GK, G6Pase, GS and GP. Cortisol significantly increased transcript amounts of G6Pase and GS but markedly decreased transcript abundance of GK and G6PDH. These changes in transcript abundance indicate that (1) the potential of glycolysis is stimulated by GH and thyroid hormones, but attenuated by cortisol, (2) gluconeogenic and glycogenic potential are augmented by GH, thyroid hormones and cortisol, (3) glycogenolytic potential is upregulated by thyroid hormones but not affected by GH or cortisol, and (4) the potential of the pentose phosphate pathway is attenuated by GH and cortisol but unaffected by thyroid hormones. PMID:20647047

  3. Lipoxygenase, a key enzyme in bioconversion of linoleic acid into trihydroxy-octadecenoic acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipoxygenases catalyze the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids with a (1Z,4Z)-pentadiene structure leading to the formation of conjugated (Z,E)-hydroperoxydienoic acids, which in turn result in production of hydroxy lipid. These enzymes are widely distributed in plants, animals, and microorganisms...

  4. Acetate Activation in Methanosaeta thermophila: Characterization of the Key Enzymes Pyrophosphatase and Acetyl-CoA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Stefanie; Welte, Cornelia; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The thermophilic methanogen Methanosaeta thermophila uses acetate as sole substrate for methanogenesis. It was proposed that the acetate activation reaction that is needed to feed acetate into the methanogenic pathway requires the hydrolysis of two ATP, whereas the acetate activation reaction in Methanosarcina sp. is known to require only one ATP. As these organisms live at the thermodynamic limit that sustains life, the acetate activation reaction in Mt. thermophila seems too costly and was thus reevaluated. It was found that of the putative acetate activation enzymes one gene encoding an AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase was highly expressed. The corresponding enzyme was purified and characterized in detail. It catalyzed the ATP-dependent formation of acetyl-CoA, AMP, and pyrophosphate (PPi) and was only moderately inhibited by PPi. The breakdown of PPi was performed by a soluble pyrophosphatase. This enzyme was also purified and characterized. The pyrophosphatase hydrolyzed the major part of PPi (KM = 0.27 ± 0.05?mM) that was produced in the acetate activation reaction. Activity was not inhibited by nucleotides or PPi. However, it cannot be excluded that other PPi-dependent enzymes take advantage of the remaining PPi and contribute to the energy balance of the cell. PMID:22927778

  5. Activities of Key Gluconeogenic Enzymes and Glycogen Synthase in Rat and Human Livers, Hepatomas, and Hepatoma Cell Cultures1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn D. Hammond; Doris Balinsky

    The activities of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), phospho- enolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phos- phatase (GGPase), and glycogen synthetase (GS) were determined in the cancerous and in the apparently unin- volved (host) regions of livers from primary hepatoma patients as well as in normal adult human livers and human fetal livers. The activities of these enzymes were also assayed in a fairly fast-growing,