Science.gov

Sample records for key research findings

  1. Research on Self-Determination in Physical Education: Key Findings and Proposals for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van den Berghe, Lynn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Cardon, Greet; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last 30 years, several theories of motivation have generated insights into the motives underlying learners' behavior in physical education. Self-determination theory (SDT), a general theory on social development and motivation, has enjoyed increasing popularity in physical education research during the past decade. SDT…

  2. Academic detailing can play a key role in assessing and implementing comparative effectiveness research findings.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Michael A; Avorn, Jerry

    2012-10-01

    Comparative effectiveness research evaluates the relative effectiveness, safety, and value of competing treatment options in clinically realistic settings. Such evaluations can be methodologically complex and difficult to interpret. There will be a growing need for critical evaluation of comparative effectiveness studies to assess the adequacy of their design and to put new information into a broader context. Equally important, this knowledge will have to be communicated to clinicians in a way that will actually change practice. We identify three challenges to effective dissemination of comparative effectiveness research findings: the difficulty of interpreting comparative effectiveness research data, the need for trusted sources of information, and the challenge of turning research results into clinical action. We suggest that academic detailing-direct outreach education that gives clinicians an accurate and unbiased synthesis of the best evidence for practice in a given clinical area-can translate comparative effectiveness research findings into actions that improve health care decision making and patient outcomes. PMID:23048098

  3. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  4. A decade of research using the CASP scale: key findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Hyde, M; Higgs, P; Wiggins, R D; Blane, D

    2015-07-01

    Since the publication of A Measure of Quality of Life in Early Old Age: The Theory, Development and Properties of a Needs Satisfaction Model (CASP-19) just over 10 years ago, the scale has gone on to be used in a wide variety of studies in over 20 countries across the world and the original paper has become the most highly cited paper for Aging and Mental Health. Therefore it was felt that it was a good time to look back and reflect on the developments in the use of the scale as well as to look forward to what new research is being done and could be done with the measure. To this end we are extremely grateful for the editors for allowing us to bring together a collection of papers that represent cutting edge research using the CASP scale. These papers cover a wide variety of issues, from working conditions to religiosity, from a range of countries, covering Western and Eastern Europe as well as Africa. Each makes an important individual contribution to our understanding of the factors that influence quality of life in later life as well as pointing to the limitations of the measure and future work that can be done in this area. PMID:25847497

  5. Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, A; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Foster, C; Stark, D; Armes, J; Brearley, S G; Hodges, L; Hook, J; Jarrett, N; Stamataki, Z; Scott, I; Walker, J; Ziegler, L; Sharpe, M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients who have completed initial cancer treatment (cancer survivors) have been relatively neglected. We need data to help us better understand the needs of this group and to underpin evidence-based service development. Methods: Scoping reviews of research published in the last two decades focussing on the problems faced by cancer survivors, and the effectiveness of interventions for these problems were undertaken. The aim was to identify what we know, what we do not know and opportunities where research could provide new information. We searched for, retrieved and rapidly appraised systematic reviews sourced from the most common electronic databases supplemented by more recently published individual studies. Results: The research evidence is surprisingly limited. We have some knowledge of the prevalence and nature of depression, pain and fatigue in cancer survivors. We know much less about cognitive and physical impairment, employment, financial well-being and relationships. Even where we have evidence, it is mostly of only moderate quality, is most often only for breast cancer and focuses almost exclusively on the early phase of survivorship. We have good evidence for the effectiveness of drug treatments for pain and moderate evidence for fatigue and depression, but not for other symptoms. Interventions based on rehabilitative and self-management approaches remain in the early stages of evaluation. Interpretation: There has been a substantial amount of research describing many of the problems experienced by the cancer survivors. This is strongest in the area of symptoms in the period soon after treatment. However, the quality of the evidence is often poor, and some topics have been little examined. We urgently need data on the natural evolution and scale of the problems of cancer survivors obtained from well-designed, large-scale cohort studies and the robust testing of interventions in clinical trials. Given the current financially constrained research funding environment, we suggest areas in which strategic investment might give findings that have the potential to make a major impact on patient well-being in a 5-year time scale. PMID:22048036

  6. The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

    2012-01-01

    There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

  7. Powering Down: Green IT in Higher Education. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "Powering Down: Green IT in Higher Education," the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of green IT. The study examines the stance institutions and their central IT organizations are taking on environmental sustainability (ES), the progress they are making on a variety of key

  8. Institutional Data Management in Higher Education. ECAR Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanosky, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of institutional data management, which examines the policies and practices by which higher education institutions effectively collect, protect, and use digital information assets to meet academic and business needs. Importantly, it also…

  9. Perceptual Tests of an Algorithm for Musical Key-Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuckler, Mark A.; Tomovski, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Perceiving the tonality of a musical passage is a fundamental aspect of the experience of hearing music. Models for determining tonality have thus occupied a central place in music cognition research. Three experiments investigated 1 well-known model of tonal determination: the Krumhansl-Schmuckler key-finding algorithm. In Experiment 1,…

  10. Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures.

    E-print Network

    Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

    Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures. Thanks to improvements in treatment and early detection, more and more women are surviving breast cancer. In fact, the five-year survival rate for women with breast cancer today is 90%, up from only 63% in the 1960s. While progress has clearly been

  11. Key findings of the national weatherization evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. The primary goal of the evaluation was to establish whether the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement, to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families-particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy-efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed a five-part study which produced a series of documents evaluating the Program. The objective of this document is to summarize the findings of the five-part National Weatherization Evaluation. The five studies were as follows: (1) Network Study-this study characterized the weatherization network`s leveraging, capabilities, procedures, staff, technologies, and innovations; (2) Resources and Population Study-this study profiled low-income weatherization resources, the weatherized population, and the population remaining to be served; (3) Multifamily Study-this study described the nature and extent of weatherization activities in larger multifamily buildings; (4) Single-family Study-this study estimated the national savings and cost- effectiveness of weatherizing single-family and small multifamily dwellings that use natural gas or electricity for space heating; (5) Fuel-Oil Study-this study estimated the savings and cost-effectiveness of weatherizing single-family homes, located in nine northeastern states, that use fuel oil for space heating. This paper provides a brief overview of each study`s purposes, research methods and most important findings.

  12. Developing International Research Collaborations among Postdoctoral Fellows: Key Findings from the Evaluation of NSF's International Research Fellowship Program. GS-10F-0086K

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Alina; Epstein, Carter; Parsad, Amanda; Whittaker, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, the National Science Board (NSB) highlighted the importance of international collaboration in its call for increased government commitment to promoting international science and engineering (S&E) research and education. The NSB also identified the National Science Foundation (NSF) as having an important leadership role in…

  13. Knowledge translation of research findings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation. PMID:22651257

  14. KEY DATA FINDINGS Coalition for Race Equity in Child

    E-print Network

    Riley, Shawn J.

    Substance abuse ­ mental health Economic stress, increased child poverty Weakening safety net DomesticKEY DATA FINDINGS Coalition for Race Equity in Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice May 21, 2014 Jane Policy #12;Key Decision Points in Child Welfare Investigation Placement Exit from placement #12;Decision

  15. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E.

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  16. Applying Psychological Science to Higher Education: Key Findings and Open Questions

    E-print Network

    Schrag, Daniel

    Applying Psychological Science to Higher Education: Key Findings and Open Questions ! Samuel T_moulton@harvard.edu ! ! ! ! In this document I summarize key findings and gaps in the science of learning in the hope that such a synthesis will be of use to instructors, students, researchers, and institutional leaders in higher education in general

  17. Finding a Voice through Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Jose; Vizcaino, Alida

    2006-01-01

    One question guided this experimental study: What impact does the change from teacher training to educational research have on university teachers' methodology and attitudes to teaching? To find answers to this question, the researchers selected five teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at the language centre of a private university on…

  18. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  19. Human Health Effects of Tetrachloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Karen A.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L.; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Objectives: We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA’s Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Methods: The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach—a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma—provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. Conclusions: PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE. Citation: Guyton KZ, Hogan KA, Scott CS, Cooper GS, Bale AS, Kopylev L, Barone S Jr, Makris SL, Glenn B, Subramaniam RP, Gwinn MR, Dzubow RC, Chiu WA. 2014. Human health effects of tetrachloroethylene: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 122:325–334;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307359 PMID:24531164

  20. AN INTEGRATED SYNTHESIS OF KEY AND POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides an overview and initial insights into the findings based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. Many key atmospheric sciences findings have been identified through the research conducted during the last five years as part of t...

  1. Research Articles RAP: Accurate and Fast Motif Finding Based

    E-print Network

    Shamir, Ron

    Research Articles RAP: Accurate and Fast Motif Finding Based on Protein-Binding Microarray Data between in vitro and in vivo binding prediction. The software is available on acgt.cs.tau.ac.il/rap. Key

  2. 6.1 Key Findings The findings from the HUC-6 and HUC-4 evaluations and the biome,

    E-print Network

    441 6.1 Key Findings The findings from the HUC-6 and HUC-4 evaluations and the biome, community provide an indication of the subbasin's aquatic habitat's ability to provide the key ecological correlates

  3. The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010. Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shannon D.; Caruso, Judith Borreson

    2010-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from "The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010". Since 2004, the annual ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of undergraduate students and information technology has sought to shed light on how information technology affects the college experience. We ask…

  4. Moving animal research findings to human application

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Moving animal research findings to human application Minda Lynch NIDA #12;Translation of Animal are the obstacles that impede moving animal research findings to the "next step" in a translational process? #12;One Behavioral Research from NIH How much animal model research in behavior does NIH support? How much

  5. 76 FR 47589 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken... Research Center: Based on the Respondent's acceptance of ORI's research misconduct findings, ORI found...

  6. Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings. PMID:24023863

  7. 76 FR 68460 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY...that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI...University of Virginia Medical Center: Based on...Resident Physician at UVA Medical Center, engaged in research misconduct by...

  8. Finding translation in stress research.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Ahmad R; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    In our ongoing efforts to advance understanding of human diseases, translational research across rodents and humans on stress-related mental disorders stands out as a field that is producing discoveries that illuminate mechanisms of risk and pathophysiology at a brisk rate. Here we offer a Perspective on how a productive translational research dialog between preclinical models and clinical studies of these disorders is being powered by an ever-developing appreciation of the shared neural circuits and genetic architecture that moderate the response to stress across species. Working from these deep foundations, we discuss the approaches, both traditional and innovative, that have the potential to deliver a new generation of risk biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for stress-related disorders. PMID:26404709

  9. Winter 2009 Key research in 2009

    E-print Network

    Winter 2009 Key research in 2009 Safer stem cells for humans One of our early career scientists, Dr pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, which reprogrammes adult stem cells to behave like embryonic stem cells when he found stem cell-like cells in his culture dishes. His work will advance the field

  10. 76 FR 80371 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken... research misconduct in research supported by National Center for Research Resources (NCRR),...

  11. M353 Solution key, Exam 1 (S. Zhang) 1. Find the IEEE double precision representation, and find the

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Shangyou

    M353 Solution key, Exam 1 (S. Zhang) 1. Find the IEEE double precision representation, and find the error fl(x)-x in base 10. Check that the relative rounding error is no more than mach/2: x = 100/7. [Key mach/2: x = 101/7. [Key: 14 + 3/7 = 11102 + .0112; 110 011..0111; (1/7)2-49 ; 8 101 ] 3. Find the IEEE

  12. A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2009-01-01

    This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

  13. I.5 Key Focus Group Findings on I-131 Exposure from the Nevada Test Site: Preliminary Findings from

    E-print Network

    I.5 Key Focus Group Findings on I-131 Exposure from the Nevada Test Site: Preliminary Findings from six focus groups during December 1999 with members of the higher-exposure public, the lower. Preliminary findings from the focus groups are presented in this report. These findings will be used to help

  14. 77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken... from Creighton University (CU) and additional evidence gathered by the Office of Research...

  15. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken... analysis conducted by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) during its oversight review, ORI found...

  16. 78 FR 72892 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... INFORMATION CONTACT: David E. Wright, Ph.D., Director, Office of Research Integrity, 1101 Wootton...

  17. 78 FR 5454 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken..., Department of Neurological Surgery, UW, engaged in research misconduct by falsifying results in...

  18. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Process of Care Research Branch Process of Care Research Branch (PCRB) Key Initiatives HPV and Cervical Cancer

  19. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Process of Care Research Branch Process of Care Research Branch (PCRB) Key Initiatives Behavioral Studies

  20. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Process of Care Research Branch Process of Care Research Branch (PCRB) Key Initiatives Epidemiology Studies

  1. The Children's Hearings Project Research Findings. A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Sally E.; And Others

    Since 1980 the Children's Hearings Project (CHP) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, has offered status offenders and their families mediation as an alternative to the courts. This report describes CPH's origins and summarizes the results of an extensive research study conducted during the first 2 years of its operation. The key findings were: (1)…

  2. 75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) and...

  3. 78 FR 47699 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), engaged in research misconduct in...

  4. 78 FR 8148 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... fellow, Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), engaged in research...

  5. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Process of Care Research Branch Key Initiatives Behavioral Studies Regarding HPV and Cervical Cancer Enhanced

  6. Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Project: The 1991 Nevada State telephone survey: Key findings

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.H.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1991-05-01

    The 1991 Nevada State Telephone Survey was implemented by Decision Research on behalf of the State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) as part of an ongoing socioeconomic impact assessment study. The scope of this survey was considerably smaller than a previous survey conducted in 1989 and focused more upon public evaluations of the Yucca Mountain repository program and the trust Nevadans currently addressing the siting issues. In order to provide place in key public officials who are Longitudinal data on the repository program, the 1991 questionnaire consisted of questions that were used in the 1989 NWPO survey which was conducted by Mountain West Research. As a result, the findings from this survey are compared with analogous items from the 1989 survey, and with the results from a survey commissioned by the Las Vegas Review-Journal and reported in their issue of October 21, 1990. The Review-Journal survey was conducted by Bruce Merri11 of the Arizona State University Media Research Center. A more complete comparison of the 1989 and 1991 surveys sponsored by NWPO is possible since the researchers at Decision Research had access to both these databases. The only source of information for the Review-Journal findings was the articles published in the Fall, 1990. The findings of the 1991 survey show that Nevadans oppose the federal government attempts to locate a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. They support a policy of opposition on the part of Nevada officials. They believe that Nevadans should have the final say in whether to accept the repository or not, and they reject the proposition that benefits from the repository program will outweigh the harms. These findings are very similar to survey results from 1989 and 1990 and once again demonstrate very widespread public opposition by Nevadans to the current federal repository program.

  7. Turning research find ings and scientific infor

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    is the age old challenge for the scientific community. While some scientists are content to merely adTurning research find ings and scientific infor mation into usable forms and applications vance our knowledge of a certain subject, we at ONRC are tasked with actually applying scientific

  8. 77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...., Chuang, L.-Y., Ke, C.-H., Yang, C.-H., International Journal of Computer Science, International...., Baumgartner, C., Sittampalam, S., Lushington, G., International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary,...

  9. U of M Civil Service Wellness Survey: Finding Out Employees' Health and Wellness Needs. A Report of Key Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matross, Ron; Roesler, Jon

    Key findings from a wellness survey conducted with University of Minnesota civil service employees are discussed. The survey was designed to provide information to guide future campus health and wellness programming. Four topics were covered: physical fitness/exercise, nutrition, self-improvement/psychological health, and general health/preventive…

  10. Key Findings from a National Internet Survey of 400 Teachers and 95 Principals Conducted November 12-21, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCleskey, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the key findings from a national Internet survey of 400 teachers and 95 principals. This survey was conducted November 12-21, 2008. The sample was based on a list provided by EMI Surveys, a custom online research sample provider with an extensive portfolio of projects. The margin of error for a sample of 495 interviews is [plus…

  11. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Project Background This supplement was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Behavioral Research Program, in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research.

  12. Researcher perspectives on disclosure of incidental findings in genetic research.

    PubMed

    Meacham, Meredith C; Starks, Helene; Burke, Wylie; Edwards, Kelly

    2010-09-01

    Genetic research can produce information that is beyond the aims of the research study yet may be of clinical or personal interest to study participants. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 44 researchers who were asked to describe how they would respond to a hypothetical vignette regarding the disclosure of findings with unanticipated clinical significance to research study participants. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content and thematic analyses. Researchers' decision-making processes about whether to disclose incidental findings were governed by potentially conflicting duties in three primary domains: information quality, adherence to rules, and participant welfare. There are several actions researchers can take to prepare for incidental findings, including: adding specific language in informed consent documents to state clearly how investigators will handle disclosure; exploring how prepared participants might be during the consent process to make decisions about how they would like to be approached in the event of incidental findings; developing procedures for appropriately communicating individual results and providing follow-up support based on participant preferences; and, in genetic research, having an awareness of the range of traits expressed by the genes under study. PMID:20831419

  13. Researcher Perspectives on Disclosure of Incidental Findings in Genetic Research

    PubMed Central

    Meacham, Meredith C.; Starks, Helene; Burke, Wylie; Edwards, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Genetic research can produce information that is beyond the aims of the research study yet may be of clinical or personal interest to study participants. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 44 researchers who were asked to describe how they would respond to a hypothetical vignette regarding the disclosure of findings with unanticipated clinical significance to research study participants. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content and thematic analyses. Researchers’ decision-making processes about whether to disclose incidental findings were governed by potentially conflicting duties in three primary domains: information quality, adherence to rules, and participant welfare. There are several actions researchers can take to prepare for incidental findings, including: adding specific language in informed consent documents to state clearly how investigators will handle disclosure; exploring how prepared participants might be during the consent process to make decisions about how they would like to be approached in the event of incidental findings; developing procedures for appropriately communicating individual results and providing follow-up support based on participant preferences; and, in genetic research, having an awareness of the range of traits expressed by the genes under study. PMID:20831419

  14. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Integrating Theories of Message Effects and Health Behavior Change to Improve Cancer Control In recognition of cancer communication as an "Extraordinary Opportunity," the National Cancer Institute's Behavioral Research Program (part of DCCPS) supports the Theories Project to examine the role of theory in health behavior and to promote the use of theory in health behavior research.

  15. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help ...

  16. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    The first activity of the Theories Project was a workshop held May 16-17, 2002. At this workshop researchers from a variety of backgrounds described the state of theory development from their own perspectives and suggested activities that NCI should undertake.

  17. Resilience in lesbians and gay men: A review and key findings from a nationwide Australian survey.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Rates of depression and anxiety are disproportionately high among lesbians and gay men, and stigma-related stress is thought to be a major factor. While reducing stigma remains a priority, developing ways to assist lesbians and gay men to build resilience to stigma-related stress is also a growing priority among policymakers and health professionals. This article summarizes major conceptual work and research on resilience among lesbians and gay men, including key findings from a nationwide online survey involving 2,793 Australian lesbians and gay men aged 16 years and older that examined demographic and psychosocial factors related to resilience. Research on resilience in gay and lesbian populations is currently a small field but appears to be growing. As recommended in this article, further work is needed to identify circumstances in which lesbians and gay men display resilience to stigma-related stress and to systematically test resilience training programmes that help to prevent depression and anxiety in these at-risk populations. PMID:26222668

  18. DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    The Science of Research and Technology Branch (SRTB) is invested in the improvement of the scientific rigor with which health behavior theories are tested and applied. SRTB encourages and supports the use of new data sources and methods for theory testing. Information about behavior and its influences from both prospective and archival collection methods is increasingly more temporally dense and “big” (i.e., high in volume, variety, and velocity).

  19. 78 FR 72892 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ...in research misconduct in research supported by National Cancer...the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by fabricating...were done. Thus, the main conclusions of the CEBP paper are based...2013: (1) To have his research supervised; Respondent...

  20. 77 FR 46438 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...in research misconduct in research supported by National Cancer...the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying results reported for research supported by U.S. Public...double-blind study reported in the paper Ravindranath,...

  1. 77 FR 40059 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...research misconduct in research supported by National...Oversight, Office of Research Integrity, 1101 Wootton...Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying...with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to...

  2. A natural language processing (NLP) program effectively extracts key pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy reports.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brian; Merchant, Madhur; Zheng, Chengyi; Thomas, Anil Abraham; Contreras, Richard; Jacobsen, Steven J; Chien, Gary

    2014-08-01

    Introduction and Objective Natural language processing (NLP) software programs have been widely developed to transform complex, free text into simplified, organized data. Potential applications in the field of medicine include automated report summaries, physician alerts, patient repositories, electronic medical record (EMR) billing, and quality metric reports. Despite these prospects and the recent widespread adoption of EMR, NLP has been relatively underutilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an internally developed NLP program in extracting select pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy specimen reports in the EMR. Methods An NLP program was generated by a software engineer to extract key variables from prostatectomy reports in the EMR within our healthcare system, which included: TNM stage, Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, histologic subtype, size of dominant tumor nodule, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), perineural invasion (PNI), angiolymphatic invasion (ALI), extracapsular extension (ECE), and surgical margin status (SMS). The program was validated by comparing NLP results to a "gold standard" compiled by two blinded manual reviewers for 100 random pathology reports. Results: NLP demonstrated 100% accuracy for identifying Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, SVI, ALI, and ECE. It also demonstrated near-perfect accuracy for extracting histologic subtype (99.0%), PNI (98.9%), TNM stage (98.0%), SMS (97.0%), and dominant tumor size (95.7%). The overall accuracy of NLP was 98.7%. NLP generated a result in <1 second, whereas the manual reviewers averaged 3.2 minutes per report. Conclusions: This novel program demonstrated high accuracy and efficiency identifying key pathologic details from the prostatectomy report within an EMR system. NLP has the potential to assist urologists by summarizing and highlighting relevant information from verbose pathology reports. It may also facilitate future urologic research through the rapid and automated creation of large databases. PMID:25083914

  3. 77 FR 54917 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Marc Hauser, former Professor, Department of Psychology, Harvard, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Center for Research Resources (NCRR),...

  4. Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

    2008-12-01

    Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts. PMID:18834752

  5. Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) Project TPACK Survey: Summary of the Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn; Jamieson-Proctor, Romina; Cavanagh, Rob; Albion, Peter; Grimbeek, Peter; Bond, Trevor; Fitzgerald, Robert; Romeo, Geoff; Lloyd, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the key findings of the TTF TPACK Survey developed and administered for the Teaching the Teachers for the Future (TTF) Project implemented in 2011. The TTF Project, funded by an Australian Government ICT Innovation Fund grant, involved all 39 Australian Higher Education Institutions which provide initial teacher…

  6. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2001 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  7. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Inst. for Social Research.

    This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2002 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

  8. Vesteinn Thorsson, Ph.D., Reviews Key Findings from the TCGA Study on Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Vesteinn Thorsson, Ph.D., Reviews the TCGA Study on Colorectal Cancer Vesteinn Thorsson, Ph.D., Reviews Key Findings from the TCGA Study on Colorectal Cancer You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later

  9. Gender and the STFC-funded PhD Experience Key Findings

    E-print Network

    1 Gender and the STFC-funded PhD Experience Key Findings · Male and female students have similar their career intentions. Student sample Table 1 shows the number, gender split and field of study as only two years of data are available.) Table 1 Number, gender and field of respondents to studentship

  10. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  11. UI researchers identify key gene that controls emergence of salmonella.

    E-print Network

    Bashir, Rashid

    UI researchers identify key gene that controls emergence of salmonella. New service offers parents while obtaining my de- gree," Meyer said. "I didn't have to pick up my entire life and move downstate

  12. Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-02-01

    In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

  13. Can recent innovations in harmonic analysis 'explain' key findings in natural image statistics?

    PubMed

    Donoho, D L; Flesia, A G

    2001-08-01

    Recently, applied mathematicians have been pursuing the goal of sparse coding of certain mathematical models of images with edges. They have found by mathematical analysis that, instead of wavelets and Fourier methods, sparse coding leads towards new systems: ridgelets and curvelets. These new systems have elements distributed across a range of scales and locations, but also orientations. In fact they have highly direction-specific elements and exhibit increasing numbers of distinct directions as we go to successively finer scales. Meanwhile, researchers in natural scene statistics (NSS) have been attempting to find sparse codes for natural images. The new systems they have found by computational optimization have elements distributed across a range of scales and locations, but also orientations. The new systems are certainly unlike wavelet and Gabor systems, on the one hand because of the multi-orientation and on the other hand because of the multi-scale nature. There is a certain degree of visual resemblance between the findings in the two fields, which suggests the hypothesis that certain important findings in the NSS literature might possibly be explained by the slogan: edges are the dominant features in images, and curvelets are the right tool for representing edges. We consider here certain empirical consequences of this hypothesis, looking at key findings of the NSS literature and conducting studies of curvelet and ridgelet transforms on synthetic and real images, to see if the results are consistent with predictions from this slogan. Our first experiment measures the nonGaussianity of Fourier, wavelet, ridgelet and curvelet coefficients over a database of synthetic and photographic images. Empirically the curvelet coefficients exhibit noticeably higher kurtosis than wavelet, ridgelet, or Fourier coefficients. This is consistent with the hypothesis. Our second experiment studies the inter-scale correlation of wavelet coefficient energies at the same location. We describe a simple experiment showing that presence of edges explains these correlations. We also develop a crude nonlinear 'partial correlation' by considering the correlation between wavelet parents and children after a few curvelet coefficients are removed. When we kill the few biggest coefficients of the curvelet transform, much of the correlation between wavelet subbands disappears--consistent with the hypothesis. We suggest implications for future discussions about NSS. PMID:11563535

  14. 78 FR 14797 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ...Louis (WUSTL) and Respondent's admission, ORI found that Mr. Adam C. Savine, former doctoral student, Department of Psychology, WUSTL, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH),...

  15. 75 FR 77641 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...institution that submits an application for PHS support for a research project on which the...proposed or that uses him in any capacity on PHS-supported research, or that submits a report of PHS-funded research in which he is...

  16. 78 FR 47699 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...application for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) support for a research project on which...to her participation in any capacity on PHS- supported research, Respondent shall...agreed that she shall not participate in any PHS- supported research until such a...

  17. 78 FR 25274 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...application for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) support for a research project on which...to his participation in any capacity on PHS- supported research, Respondent shall...agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS- supported research until such a...

  18. 77 FR 11538 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...application for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) support for a research project on which...Respondent's participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall...agrees that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a...

  19. 78 FR 8148 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...application for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) support for a research project on which...to his participation in any capacity on PHS- supported research, Respondent shall...agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS- supported research until such a...

  20. 78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ...application for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) support for a research project on which...Respondent's participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent shall...agreed that he shall not participate in any PHS-supported research until such a...

  1. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...institution that submits an application for PHS support for a research project on which the...that uses the Respondent in any capacity on PHS supported research, or that submits a report of PHS-funded research in which the Respondent...

  2. 78 FR 79460 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has...readers of a published paper,\\1\\ additional review...referred to as the ``PNAS paper...The questioned research involves a Western blot...Figure 6 of the published paper and Figure S4 of...

  3. 77 FR 32116 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    .../+ mouse lung cancer cells compared with KRAS induced lung cancer cells, there were reduced Tsc1 and Tsc2..., engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National... synergizes with KRAS activation in lung cancer development and confers rapamycin sensitivity'' by M.-C....

  4. 76 FR 7568 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) found that Meleik Goodwill, Ph.D...grant R21 ES013269-02. Specifically, PHS found that the Respondent engaged in research...institution that submits an application for PHS support for a research project on...

  5. 76 FR 63621 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ...and the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) are desirous of concluding this matter...to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on which...to her participation in this capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent...

  6. 77 FR 124 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...applies for U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) funding; Respondent agrees that prior to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on which...Respondent's participation in any capacity on PHS-supported research, Respondent...

  7. 76 FR 23600 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...review, the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) found that Junghee J. Shin, PhD, former...grants R01 AI048856 and R01 AI043063. PHS found that the Respondent engaged in research...institution that submits an application for PHS support for a research project on...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section...1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of key words used in this subpart are in the Clean Air...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section...1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of key words used in this subpart are in the Clean Air...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section...1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of key words used in this subpart are in the Clean Air...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.1176 Section...1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of key words used in this subpart are in the Clean Air...

  12. Multi-detector CT assessment in pulmonary hypertension: techniques, systematic approach to interpretation and key findings.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gareth; Hoey, Edward T D; Reynolds, John H; Ganeshan, Arul; Ment, Jerome

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may be suspected based on the clinical history, physical examination and electrocardiogram findings but imaging is usually central to confirming the diagnosis, establishing a cause and guiding therapy. The diagnostic pathway of PAH involves a variety of complimentary investigations of which computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has established a central role both in helping identify an underlying cause for PAH and assessing resulting functional compromise. In particular CTPA is considered as the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of thromboembolic disease. This article reviews the CTPA evaluation in PAH, describing CTPA techniques, a systematic approach to interpretation and spectrum of key imaging findings. PMID:26029645

  13. Multi-detector CT assessment in pulmonary hypertension: techniques, systematic approach to interpretation and key findings

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Gareth; Reynolds, John H.; Ganeshan, Arul; Ment, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may be suspected based on the clinical history, physical examination and electrocardiogram findings but imaging is usually central to confirming the diagnosis, establishing a cause and guiding therapy. The diagnostic pathway of PAH involves a variety of complimentary investigations of which computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) has established a central role both in helping identify an underlying cause for PAH and assessing resulting functional compromise. In particular CTPA is considered as the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of thromboembolic disease. This article reviews the CTPA evaluation in PAH, describing CTPA techniques, a systematic approach to interpretation and spectrum of key imaging findings. PMID:26029645

  14. Bibliotherapy as a Counseling Adjunct: Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Frederick A.; Engels, Dennis W.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews research relating to various aspects of bibliotherapy, including academic achievement, assertiveness, attitude change, behavioral change, fear reduction, helper effectiveness, marital accord, self-development, and therapeutic gains. Discusses implications for using bibliotherapy as an adjunct to counseling. (RC)

  15. 78 FR 5454 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ...statistical data obtained from purported scans of the films. The research studied the effect of cerebral ischemia on phospholipid homeostasis in an experimental animal model (SHR rat) of stroke during the course of reperfusion of the ischemic cortex. The...

  16. 77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ...Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin, engaged in research...ageing and rejuventation of blood stem cell niches.'' Nature 463:495-500...niche cells initiate hemotopoietic stem cell mobilization.'' Blood...

  17. 76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ...in research funded by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes...switched the labels on four (4) cell culture dishes for cells used in the same type of experiments...adding ethanol to his colleague's cell culture media, with the...

  18. 75 FR 77641 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Sagar S. Mungekar, PhD, New York University School of Medicine: Based on the Respondent's written admission and set forth below, the New York University School of Medicine (NYUSOM) and the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) found that Sagar S. Mungekar, PhD, former MD/ PhD student......

  19. 76 FR 7568 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Meleik Goodwill, Ph.D., Wadsworth Center, N.Y.S. Department of Health: Based on the Wadsworth Center report and the oversight review conducted by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI), the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) found that Meleik Goodwill, Ph.D., former postdoctoral......

  20. 40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of key...

  1. 78 FR 14797 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Mr. Adam C. Savine, former doctoral student, Department of Psychology, WUSTL, engaged in research... of motivation on cognitive control.'' Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 12(4):692-718, 2012 Dec. (hereafter... Psychol Gen. 2012). 3. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. ``Motivated cognitive control: Reward...

  2. Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

    2005-01-01

    There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

  3. 78 FR 25274 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Matthew Poore, Advanced Liquid Logic Inc.: Based on the report of an inquiry conducted by Advanced Liquid Logic Inc. (Liquid Logic), the Respondent's admission, and additional analysis conducted by ORI, ORI found that Mr. Matthew Poore, former Technician, Liquid Logic, engaged in......

  4. 76 FR 62807 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...position in which he receives or applies for PHS support on or after the effective date of...position in which he receives or applies for PHS support within three (3) years of the...to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on...

  5. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...Agreement Respondent does receive or apply for PHS support, Respondent agrees to have his...position in which he receives or applies for PHS support and to notify his employer(s...to the submission of an application for PHS support for a research project on...

  6. 77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...supported by U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) funds, specifically the INBRE program...on December 20, 2011: (1) To have any PHS-supported research supervised; ORI acknowledges...ensure that a plan for supervision of his PHS-related duties is submitted to ORI...

  7. 78 FR 21125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...research supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National...human promyelocytic (HL-60) cells transfected with NE mutants...impaired survival of human myeloid cells. 3. Falsified NE and [szlig...mutant NE transfect HL-60 cells was due to the mutation...

  8. 76 FR 62807 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Shamarendra Sanyal, PhD Duke University: Based on an inquiry conducted by Duke University (Duke), admissions by the Respondent, and additional analysis conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI and Duke found that Dr. Shamarendra Sanyal, former postdoctoral scholar, Duke,......

  9. 75 FR 18836 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) and the Assistant Secretary for Health have taken final action in the following case: Emily M. Horvath, Indiana University: Based on the Respondent's own admissions in sworn testimony and as set forth below, Indiana University (IU) and the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) found that Ms. Emily M. Horvath, former graduate......

  10. 75 FR 39530 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying and fabricating retinal gene profile data that he... gene expression profiles in retinal tissue from three-week old normal dogs and dogs with X-linked...\\ Paez, G.L., Zangerl, B., Acland, G.M., & Aguirre, G.D. ``Abnormal gene expression profile in...

  11. 78 FR 79460 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Baoyan Xu, M.D., Ph.D., National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health: Based on allegations made by readers of a published paper,\\1\\ additional review by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and ORI, and a limited admission by the Respondent that ``some......

  12. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Martin Biosse-Duplan, D.D.S., Ph.D., Harvard School of Dental Medicine: Based on the report of an investigation conducted by the Harvard School of Medicine (HSM) and Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM), the admission of the Respondent, and additional analysis conducted by ORI......

  13. Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1999-09-01

    One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

  14. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E.; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F.; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs’ vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among “key populations” (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya. PMID:26313642

  15. Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

  16. Structuring Professional Learning to Develop a Culture of Data Use: Aligning Knowledge from the Field and Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerzon, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background: This research review provides an analysis of current research related to school and district data use, with a particular focus on identifying key characteristics of schools and districts with effective "data using cultures." The research review identifies and analyzes findings in five key areas of practice: communicating…

  17. 'Project launch': from research finding to therapeutic product.

    PubMed

    Cevc, Gregor

    2014-01-23

    Only 0.1-0.5% of new therapy candidates gains marketing approval; just 10-20% of the approved ones ultimately recoup the ~0.6-0.9$USbn invested into their R&D until marketing authorisation. One reason is the high inherent risk of new therapeutic products development. Further reasons are suboptimal decisions during R&D and, too often, lack of adequate experience. To bridge the latter gap, this article succinctly reviews identification of new product opportunities and their patent protection, the resulting commercial opportunity and portfolio valuation, planning and conduct of the ensuing preclinical and clinical tests, as well as therapeutic product registration and price reimbursement, covering risk management as an aside. The article also clarifies the key terms, identifies the main pit falls, highlights the essential requirements for and the goals of different product development steps, to facilitate communication between researchers and developers. By combining public information with personal experience and recommendations the article aims at informing more broadly those who are familiar mainly with some of the (strictly regulated) activities involved in design, development and launch of new therapeutic products, be it that they are medicinal products or medical devices. Taken together, this should support initiation and evolution of new therapeutic products and assist researchers in finding-and better and more smoothly co-operating with-consultants or partners in development and marketing. PMID:23948554

  18. Research finds brain link for words, music ability

    E-print Network

    Kraus, Nina

    research suggests that intensive musical therapy may help improve speech in stroke patients, researchers sing, he said. Now, they are doing trials to see if music can be used as a therapy. But, he cautionedResearch finds brain link for words, music ability RANDOLPH E. SCHMID Published: Feb 20, 2010 SAN

  19. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this...

  1. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this...

  2. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this...

  3. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this...

  4. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this...

  5. The Effective Elementary School Principal: Theoretical Bases, Research Findings and Practical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, I. Emett, Jr.; Pankake, Anita M.

    Although much of the current school reform movement relies on the basic assumption of effective elementary school administration, insufficient effort has been made to synthesize key concepts found in organizational theory and management studies with relevant effective schools research findings. This paper attempts such a synthesis to help develop…

  6. Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

  7. Researchers Find Essential Brain Circuit in Visual Development

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2013 Researchers find essential brain circuit in visual development NIH-funded study could lead to new treatments ... adulthood. “Our study identifies a mechanism for visual development in the young brain and shows that it’s ...

  8. Researchers Say They Find Genes Linked to Alzheimer's Timing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... news/fullstory_156063.html Researchers Say They Find Genes Linked to Alzheimer's Timing Some sped up disease, ... say they have discovered a network of nine genes that may play a role in the development ...

  9. Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease Each year, millions of Americans take statins, ... people these benefits come at a cost: widespread muscle pain that persists as long as the drugs ...

  10. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  11. Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

  12. Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Elizabeth R.; Rothenberg, Karen H.; Berkman, Benjamin E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)—findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research—and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher’s failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors—including customary practice and guidance documents—that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher’s duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This approach enables participants to know at the outset which findings, if any, will be returned, allows researchers to ascertain when their failure to appropriately return incidental findings will give rise to liability, and enables courts to make determinations that will produce more consistent legal guidance. PMID:25346543

  13. Return of Individual Research Results & Incidental Findings: Facing the Challenges of Translational Science

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The debate over return of individual research results and incidental findings to research participants is a key frontier in research ethics and practice. Fundamentally, this is a problem of translational science, a question of when information about an individual that is generated in research should be communicated for clinical attention, as the technology itself is moving into clinical care. There is growing consensus that investigators should offer participants at least those individual findings of high clinical importance and actionability. Increasing attention to what information biobanks and secondary researchers owe people who provide data and samples offers an opportunity to treat these source individuals as research partners. Cutting-edge issues include return of results in pediatric populations and return to kin and family, including after death of the proband. Progress will require facing the continuum linking research and clinical care and developing standards and models for return. PMID:23875796

  14. Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2012-01-01

    Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue. PMID:23429172

  15. In Search of New Ideas, Research Findings, and Emerging Technologies? Here's Where To Find Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gary C.

    There are many avenues available to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) practitioners and developers in search of access to new ideas, research findings, and emerging technologies that will assist them in developing CAI products. Seven such avenues are described in detail: (1) graduate student interns, who bring unique insights, theory, and…

  16. IPCC Climate Change 2013: Mitigation of Climate Change - Key Findings and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokona, Youba

    2014-05-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change, examines the results of scientific research about mitigation, with special attention on how knowledge has evolved since the Fourth Assessment Report published in 2007. Throughout, the focus is on the implications of its findings for policy, without being prescriptive about the particular policies that governments and other important participants in the policy process should adopt. The report begins with a framing of important concepts and methods that help to contextualize the findings presented throughout the assessment. The valuation of risks and uncertainties, ethical concepts and the context of sustainable development and equity are among the guiding principles for the assessment of mitigation strategies. The report highlights past trends in stocks and flows of greenhouse gases and the factors that drive emissions at global, regional, and sectoral scales including economic growth, technology or population changes. It provides analyses of the technological, economic and institutional requirements of long-term mitigation scenarios and details on mitigation measures and policies that are applied in different economic sectors and human settlements. It then discusses interactions of mitigation policies and different policy instrument types at national, regional and global governance levels and between economic sectors, The Working Group III report comprises 16 chapters and in assembling this assessment authors were guided by the principles of the IPCC mandate: to be explicit about mitigation options, to be explicit about their costs and about their risks and opportunities vis-à-vis other development priorities, and to be explicit about the underlying criteria, concepts, and methods for evaluating alternative policies.

  17. Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.

    2006-12-01

    Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group of students who did not undertake UR or pursued alternate experiences reveal the extent to which some benefits of UR may be derived from other experiences. Faculty interviews reveal the costs and benefits to faculty of participating in this intensive form of science education. The presentation will highlight key findings and emphasize their relevance to faculty and program directors undertaking UR or seeking to generate its benefits through other activities.

  18. Researcher finds some bees evolved to shout at competitors

    E-print Network

    Nieh, James

    Researcher finds some bees evolved to shout at competitors July 7, 2014 Certain species of stingless bees in Brazil have been found to protect their sources of nectar and pollen from potential in other bee species. Dr. Elinor Lichtenberg from Washington State University made this discovery during

  19. Relationships Always Matter: Findings from a Phenomenological Research Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, David L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The…

  20. Hearing loss and aging: new research findings and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This review provides an overview of recent research that addressed hearing loss and auditory processing problems among elderly people. It focuses on research from the University of Maryland on problems in auditory temporal processing by elderly listeners as assessed in speech perception experiments using temporally altered signals and in psycho-acoustic experiments of duration and rhythm discrimination for simple and complex signals. Some recent studies of perceived hearing disability are also reviewed. The clinical implications of the research findings are discussed in relation to hearing aid performance and use by elderly people as well as potential signal processing strategies that may prove to be beneficial for this population. PMID:16470462

  1. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides a summary of drug use trends from a survey of nearly 50,000 eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth- grade students nationwide. It also includes perceived risk, personal disapproval, and perceived availability of each drug by this group. A synopsis of the methods used in the study and an overview of the key results from the 2006 survey…

  2. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Two-Part Study on Gender and Media. Summary of Key Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This pamphlet summarizes the key findings of a two-part study that investigated the messages that young women (age 10 to 17) get from the media. A content analysis examined messages to girls across a range of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine…

  3. 40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? 63.2831 Section 63.2831 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  4. Informed Consent for Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Waldman, Cameron R.; Fyer, Abby; Klitzman, Robert; Parens, Erik; Martinez, Josue; Price, W. Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Researchers face the dilemma of how to obtain consent for return of incidental findings (IFs) from genomic research. We surveyed and interviewed investigators and study participants, with the goal of providing suggestions for how to shape the consent process. Methods We performed an online survey of 254 US genetic researchers identified through the NIH RePORTER database and abstracts from the 2011 American Society of Human Genetics meeting; and qualitative semi-structured interviews with 28 genomic researchers and 20 research participants. Results Most researchers and participants endorsed disclosure of a wide range of information about return of IFs, including: risks, benefits, impact on family members, data security, and procedures for return of results in the event of death or incapacity and for recontact. However, most researchers were willing to devote 30 minutes or less to this process, and expressed concerns that disclosed information would overwhelm participants, a concern shared by many participants themselves. Conclusion There is a disjunction between the views of investigators and participants about the amount of information that should be disclosed and the practical realities of the research setting, including time available for consent discussions. This strongly suggests the need for innovative approaches to the informed consent process. PMID:24158054

  5. Research Infusion Collaboration: Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.

  6. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  7. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  8. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    PubMed

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

  9. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    This booklet presents an overview of the findings pertaining to eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students from the 1999 Monitoring the Future Study. This overview focuses on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also examines trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which…

  10. Introduction Timeline Key Lessons Learned Findings to Date: Student Self-Assessment

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    or Question Questions for Future Research · Medical interviewing, reflection and self-assessment skills coming into medical school. We did not stratify our data by prior experience · Do MS1 self, and self-directed learning · In 2009, we aimed to measure medical students' (n=63) self- assessments

  11. Supporting Primary and Secondary Beginning Teachers Online: Key Findings of the Education Alumni Support Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, T. W.; Harrington, I.; Smith, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    During 2005, the Education Alumni Support Project (EdASP) (Maxwell, Smith, Baxter, Boyd, Harrington, Jenkins, Sargeant & Tamatea 2006) provided online support for University of New England (UNE) graduand, and later, graduate, teachers as they commenced their careers. The project was based on research which reported that many beginning teachers did…

  12. Clinical physical therapists research activity reality and barriers to their utilizing research findings.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungyeon; Choi, Boram; Han, Dongwook

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This research study was performed to investigate the barriers to using the research findings of physical therapists on evidence-based practice. [Subjects] The subjects of this research were physical therapists employed by hospitals that agreed to cooperate with the research in B city. [Methods] A questionnaire made up of 6 research items, 8 physical therapist items, 6 presentation items, and 8 setting items, for a total of 28 items, was distributed. The responses were scored so the higher result scores indicate a higher barrier level to using research findings. Differences in barrier levels related to the likelihood of therapists using research findings in their practice varied according to the general characteristics of the result as according to the t-test and ANOVA. Scheffe's test was used as a post hoc test. [Results] The analysis of 158 returned questionnaires revealed that there were significant relationships between the age, educational level, and professional satisfaction of the therapists and the barriers to using research finding. Significant relationships were also found between the items of "Research participation in clinical research", "Frequency of reading research articles", and "Support of manager to use research" and the barrier level. No relationship was demonstrated between the recognition level of evidence-based practice and the performance level with the barrier score to using research findings. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that to improve the utilization of research findings, there is a need to provide therapists with continual education and opportunities to participate in research, and environments and ways in which the research results can be given practical applications. PMID:26311932

  13. Clinical physical therapists research activity reality and barriers to their utilizing research findings

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungyeon; Choi, Boram; Han, Dongwook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This research study was performed to investigate the barriers to using the research findings of physical therapists on evidence-based practice. [Subjects] The subjects of this research were physical therapists employed by hospitals that agreed to cooperate with the research in B city. [Methods] A questionnaire made up of 6 research items, 8 physical therapist items, 6 presentation items, and 8 setting items, for a total of 28 items, was distributed. The responses were scored so the higher result scores indicate a higher barrier level to using research findings. Differences in barrier levels related to the likelihood of therapists using research findings in their practice varied according to the general characteristics of the result as according to the t-test and ANOVA. Scheffe’s test was used as a post hoc test. [Results] The analysis of 158 returned questionnaires revealed that there were significant relationships between the age, educational level, and professional satisfaction of the therapists and the barriers to using research finding. Significant relationships were also found between the items of “Research participation in clinical research”, “Frequency of reading research articles”, and “Support of manager to use research” and the barrier level. No relationship was demonstrated between the recognition level of evidence-based practice and the performance level with the barrier score to using research findings. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that to improve the utilization of research findings, there is a need to provide therapists with continual education and opportunities to participate in research, and environments and ways in which the research results can be given practical applications. PMID:26311932

  14. Key Lessons about Induction for Policy Makers and Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to digest the core chapters of this volume, which draws together some of the most sophisticated thinking on new teacher induction from the last decade. This chapter attends to five key understandings about induction programs, including their context, design, implementation, and outcomes. These understandings emerge…

  15. Research on Key Technology and Applications for Internet of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xian-Yi; Jin, Zhi-Gang

    The Internet of Things (IOT) has been paid more and more attention by the academe, industry, and government all over the world. The concept of IOT and the architecture of IOT are discussed. The key technologies of IOT, including Radio Frequency Identification technology, Electronic Product Code technology, and ZigBee technology are analyzed. The framework of digital agriculture application based on IOT is proposed.

  16. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Glyn Elwyn, BA, MB, BCh, FRCGP, PhD is a primary care clinician with research interests in shared decision making, risk communication, the design and evaluation of decision support interventions and the integration of health informatics into clinical practice. He was appointed inter-school Distinguished Research Chair at Cardiff University in May 2005, and is the Chair of the Clinical Epidemiology Interdisciplinary Research Group at the School of Medicine and Director of Research at the Department of Primary Care and Public Health.

  17. Major Research Findings of The University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities

    E-print Network

    Clark, Frances L.

    1981-10-01

    This report presents abstracts of all research studies conducted during Years II and Ill of the University of Kansas LD Institute. Issues and assumptions addressed. major findings of completed studies, and implications are presented in three areas...

  18. Findings

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  19. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  20. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  1. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The purpose of this study is to understand the molecular changes linked to HIV-associated invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and its precursor, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3). A key goal of the study is to create low-cost assays that identify molecular changes marking the development of ICC and CIN-3. Cost effective assays for detection of cervical cancer are needed in developing areas, where HIV is endemic and resources are limited. Current tests are costly and insensitive, which results in over-treatment.

  2. Researchers discover key mutation in acute myeloid leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have discovered mutations in a particular gene that affects the treatment prognosis for some patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive blood cancer that kills 9,000 Americans annually.

  3. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Weiner is an associate professor in the department of health policy and management in the school of public health of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC); and director of the program on health care organization at the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research. His research interests focus on the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of innovations in health care organizations.

  4. Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research. PMID:23062065

  5. Key Competencies and Characteristics for Innovative Teaching among Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to understand the key competencies and characteristics for innovative teaching as perceived by Chinese secondary teachers. A mixed-methods research was used to investigate secondary teachers' views. First, a qualitative study was conducted with interviews of teachers to understand the perceived key competencies and…

  6. Key challenges in future Li-battery research.

    PubMed

    Tarascon, J-M

    2010-07-28

    Batteries are a major technological challenge in this new century as they are a key method to make more efficient use of energy. Although today's Li-ion technology has conquered the portable electronic markets and is still improving, it falls short of meeting the demands dictated by the powering of both hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles or by the storage of renewable energies (wind, solar). There is room for optimism as long as we pursue paradigm shifts while keeping in mind the concept of materials sustainability. Some of these concepts, relying on new ways to prepare electrode materials via eco-efficient processes, on the use of organic rather than inorganic materials or new chemistries will be discussed. Achieving these concepts will require the inputs of multiple disciplines. PMID:20566508

  7. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Salas earned a Ph.D. degree in industrial and organizational psychology from Old Dominion University. Before joining the University of Central Florida, Dr. Salas was a senior research psychologist and Head of the Training Technology Development Branch of NAVAIR-Orlando.

  8. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Stephen Humphrey is an Associate Professor of Management in the Smeal College of Business at Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Humphrey's research, which includes a focus on teamwork and the contributors to team success, has been published in notable psychology and management peer review journals. Dr. Humphrey earned a Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior and Human Resources Management from Michigan State University.

  9. Researchers discover key mutation in acute myeloid leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have discovered mutations in a particular gene that affects the treatment prognosis for some patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive blood cancer that kills 9,000 Americans annually. The scientists report their results in the Nov. 11, 2010, online issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.

  10. Student as Communication Skills Trainer: From Research to "Concept Keys"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodie, Graham D.

    2008-01-01

    Although textbooks are filled with practical communication advice, many students overlook the importance of basing practical advice about communication on quality research. This oversight is important for two reasons. First, given the explosion of self-help remedies focused on communication, students should learn to distinguish between…

  11. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    This study is examining the decision-making processes employed by older women for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Research includes identifying decisionmaking preferences, actual involvement in cancer screening decisions, decisional conflict, and the influence of these on planning and obtaining breast, cervical, and colorectal screening.

  12. Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

  13. Biobanking, consent, and control: a survey of Albertans on key research ethics issues.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Timothy; Rachul, Christen; Nelson, Erin

    2012-10-01

    While the development of large scale biobanks continues, ethics and policy challenges persist. Debate surrounds key issues such as giving and withdrawing consent, incidental findings and return of results, and ownership and control of tissue samples. Studies of public perception have demonstrated a lack of consensus on these issues, particularly in different jurisdictions. We conducted a telephone survey of members of the public in Alberta, Canada. The survey addressed the aforementioned issues, but also explored public trust in the individuals and institutions involved in biobanking research. Results show that the Alberta public is fairly consistent in their responses and that those who preferred a broad consent model were also less likely to desire continuing control and a right to withdraw samples. The study raises questions about the role of public perceptions and opinions, particularly in the absence of consensus. PMID:24845044

  14. Research on key technologies of LADAR echo signal simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui; Ye, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo

    2015-10-01

    LADAR echo signal simulator is one of the most significant components of hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation systems for LADAR, which is designed to simulate the LADAR return signal in laboratory conditions. The device can provide the laser echo signal of target and background for imaging LADAR systems to test whether it is of good performance. Some key technologies are investigated in this paper. Firstly, the 3D model of typical target is built, and transformed to the data of the target echo signal based on ranging equation and targets reflection characteristics. Then, system model and time series model of LADAR echo signal simulator are established. Some influential factors which could induce fixed delay error and random delay error on the simulated return signals are analyzed. In the simulation system, the signal propagating delay of circuits and the response time of pulsed lasers are belong to fixed delay error. The counting error of digital delay generator, the jitter of system clock and the desynchronized between trigger signal and clock signal are a part of random delay error. Furthermore, these system insertion delays are analyzed quantitatively, and the noisy data are obtained. The target echo signals are got by superimposing of the noisy data and the pure target echo signal. In order to overcome these disadvantageous factors, a method of adjusting the timing diagram of the simulation system is proposed. Finally, the simulated echo signals are processed by using a detection algorithm to complete the 3D model reconstruction of object. The simulation results reveal that the range resolution can be better than 8 cm.

  15. Challenges and key research questions for yaws eradication

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Mitjà, Oriol; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Pillay, Allan; Knauf, Sascha; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Bassat, Quique; Martin, Diana L.; Fegan, David; Taleo, Fasihah; Kool, Jacob; Lukehart, Sheila; Emerson, Paul M; Solomon, Anthony W; Ye, Tun; Ballard, Ronald C; Mabey, David CW; Asiedu, Kingsley B

    2015-01-01

    Yaws is endemic in West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific. The WHO has launched a campaign based on mass treatment with azithromycin, to eradicate yaws by 2020. Progress has been made towards achieving this ambitious goal, including the validation of point-of-care and molecular diagnostic tests and piloting of the strategy in a number of countries including Ghana, Vanuatu and Papua New Guinea. There is a need to address gaps in knowledge to allow refinement of the eradication strategy. Studies exploring determinants of the spatial distribution of yaws are needed to facilitate completion of baseline mapping. The finding that Haemophilus ducreyi causes lesions similar to yaws is particularly important and further work is required to assess the impact of azithromycin on these lesions. The integration of diagnostic tests in to different stages of the eradication campaign requires evaluation. Finally studies to inform the optimum mass treatment strategy for sustainably interrupting transmission must be conducted. PMID:26362174

  16. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Center for Population Health and Health Disparities at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan study is focused on understanding why high rates of cervical cancer incidence and mortality are observed in Appalachia Ohio. The multidisciplinary group of investigators are using community-based participatory research within the framework of the Social Determinants of Health model in three inter-related projects. An observational study is being used to investigate multi-level (social, environmental, behavioral, and biological) correlates of "risk-appropriate" Pap smear utilization.

  17. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Stephen M. Fiore, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in the University of Central Florida’s Cognitive Sciences Program in the Department of Philosophy, and Director of the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory at UCF’s Institute for Simulation and Training. Dr. Fiore’s research interests include aspects of the cognitive, social, and computational sciences in the investigation of learning and performance in individuals and teams. His scholarly publications have shed light on learning, memory, and problem solving at the individual and the group level. Dr.

  18. Reading Journal Articles for Comprehension Using Key Sentences: An Exercise for the Novice Research Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.

    2013-01-01

    We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…

  19. Finding paradigms for the future of alcoholism research: an interdisciplinary perspective.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R E

    2001-09-01

    This is a review article and critique of current research strategies in the alcohol field. Although the alcohol field is proud of its multidisciplinary tradition and scientific findings within specific disciplines, there are very few models of cross-disciplinary research and communication. Currently, the favored model of risk is genetic; the favored model of pathophysiology is molecular neuroscience; and the favored model of clinical investigation is narrowly categorical. If there is a hierarchy within science that is based on explanatory power, then models of alcoholism emerging from neuroscience, molecular biology, and genetics should be able to accommodate (if not account for) the findings on clinical aspects of alcohol dependence, as well as data on differential risk, course, and recovery that come from the behavioral and social sciences. The first section of this article reviews the most popular models of alcohol dependence over the past 40 years. I argue that the currently fashionable categorical approach to diagnosis in DSM-IV (and ICD-10) has failed to serve as a framework for interdisciplinary research and has failed to meet the needs of human geneticists, population-based researchers, psychosocial researchers, basic scientists working in animal models, and patient-oriented researchers. I argue for a return to the dimensional approach to diagnosis in the alcohol dependence syndrome construct. In the second section of the article, I lay out an agenda for revitalized patient-oriented research in the alcohol field, as a bridge between basic biological research and innovations in clinical practice, as well as the key to a valid diagnostic system that can inform research strategies in genetics and population-based research. In the third section of the article, I highlight the interface between genetic and psychosocial models of risk and propose a possible structure for future collaboration. I conclude with a plea to funding agencies and investigators to translate discipline-based scientific findings into a science relevant to alcoholism by addressing the challenges and opportunities of an interdisciplinary research agenda on the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence and the multidimensional sources of risk. PMID:11584161

  20. 2007 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference (TPRC) Finding an Effective Sustainable Model for a Wireless

    E-print Network

    Peha, Jon M.

    2007 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference (TPRC) 1 Finding an Effective Sustainable Model;2007 Telecommunications Policy Research Conference (TPRC) 2 1 Introduction As wireless technologies become increasingly

  1. Applying Ad Hoc Institutional Research Findings to College Strategic Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental scanning, enrollment forecasting, budget analyses, and institutional effectiveness assessment are examples of the explicit contributions institutional research offices make to campus strategic planning.

  2. "Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Cathy A.

    2009-01-01

    The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

  3. Training Methods; An Analysis of the Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Air Force (England). Technical Training Command.

    To report research on different instructional methods and variables, to indicate limitations of the research, and to suggest criteria for methods for particular learning goals, this review discusses and evaluates several major instructional methods: lectures, lesson-demonstration, programed instruction, case studies, tutorials, brainstorming,…

  4. Language Proficiency Assessment: Research Findings and Their Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Charlene; Simich, Carmen

    Current research is reviewed for implications for language proficiency assessment practices. Research is discussed concerning adult language proficiency testing, cognitive studies which attempt to conceptualize the construct of language proficiency, development of theoretical models of communicative competence, studies investigating the validity…

  5. Finding Nexus: Connecting Youth Work and Research Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormally, Sinéad; Coburn, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Participation in educational and social research helps to develop understanding of how young people learn and to consider wider aspects of their lives to enable their voices to be heard and acted upon. Research also facilitates the articulation and sharing of methodologies across a range of professional practices. We assert that theory and…

  6. Media Often Overplays Cancer Drug Research, Study Finds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 36 different cancer drugs, researchers found by combing Google. Unfortunately, half of the "marvel" drugs had not ... For the study, Prasad and his colleagues scanned Google news for 10 specific superlatives used in conjunction ...

  7. Biodiversity at Risk Genomes are key to basic research, and may contain solu-

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    Biodiversity at Risk Genomes are key to basic research, and may contain solu- tions to many among organisms. To expand this knowledge, biodiversity scientists of the future will need entire ge Preserving the Genomic Diversity of Life on Earth Genomics is shaping the future of biodiversity research

  8. Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

  9. Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the implications of collaborator search tools for researcher workflows. PMID:25370463

  10. 76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of... final notice of debarment based on the misconduct in science and research misconduct findings of the... misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of General...

  11. Instrumentation Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of…

  12. Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

    In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

  13. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must use Q...

  14. FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for
    sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data.
    Researchers must...

  15. Commercial Art. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of commercial art, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train commercial artists. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I; description…

  16. Electrical Distribution. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

  17. Journals Find Many Images in Research Are Faked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Kristin Roovers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania with a bright career ahead of her--a trusted member of a research laboratory at the medical school studying the role of cell growth in diabetes. When an editor of "The Journal of Clinical Investigation" did a spot-check on one of her images for an article in 2005, Roovers'…

  18. Outward Bound--An Adjunctive Psychiatric Therapy: Preliminary Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stich, Thomas F.; Sussman, Lewis R.

    According to a small study, Outward Bound can enhance the treatment of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Researchers measured the effect of a therapeutic Outward Bound program of prescribed physical and social tasks on the contentment and self-esteem of seven patients undergoing short-term treatment at the Veterans Administration Hospital in…

  19. Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Douglas

    This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

  20. Research on Interest in Science: Theories, Methods, and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krapp, Andreas; Prenzel, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical…

  1. Finding Community: A Guide to Community Research and Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Ron; And Others

    For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is to…

  2. Dental Laboratory Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sappe', Hoyt; Smith, Debra S.

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…

  3. Environmental Horticulture. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachler, Mike; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of environmental horticulture, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to address the needs of the horticulture field. Section 1 contains general information:…

  4. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

  5. A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…

  6. Research on Tactual Communication of Speech: Ideas, Issues, and Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Charlotte M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This research review on tactual communication of speech discusses methods of communication intended for the tactual sense alone, issues related to tactual input as a supplement for speechreading, and issues related to developing new synthetic tactual aids and the roles such aids could play in treating people with profound hearing loss. (Author/JDD)

  7. Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

  8. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

  9. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

  10. 42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

  11. Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hattori, Sadao

    1999-06-06

    Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

  12. Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent two highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Although interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, research on the topic of pain, nicotine, and tobacco smoking has increased dramatically over the past five years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, the current review extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these two conditions. Research in the broad area of pain and smoking was first dichotomized into investigations of either "effects of smoking on pain" or "effects of pain on smoking." We then integrated the extant literature to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain, increased smoking, and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Finally, we proposed directions for future research, and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence to support the notions that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions, and that the experience of pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation. PMID:21967450

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis and formulary decision making in England: findings from research.

    PubMed

    Williams, Iestyn P; Bryan, Stirling

    2007-11-01

    In a context of rapid technological advances in health care and increasing demand for expensive treatments, local formulary committees are key players in the management of scarce resources. However, little is known about the information and processes used when making decisions on the inclusion of new treatments. This paper reports research on the use of economic evaluations in technology coverage decisions in England, although the findings have a relevance to other health care systems with devolved responsibility for resource allocation. It reports a study of four local formulary committees in which both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Our main research finding is that it is an exception for cost-effectiveness analysis to inform technology coverage decisions. Barriers to use include access and expertise levels, concerns relating to the independence of analyses and problems with implementation of study recommendations. Further barriers derive from the constraints on decision makers, a lack of clarity over functions and aims of local committees, and the challenge of disinvestment in medical technologies. The relative weakness of the research-practice dynamics in this context suggests the need for a rethinking of the role of both analysts and decision makers. Our research supports the view that in order to be useful, analysis needs to better reflect the constraints of the local decision-making environment. We also recommend that local decision-making committees and bodies in the National Health Service more clearly identify the 'problems' which they are charged with solving and how their outputs contribute to broader finance and commissioning functions. This would help to establish the ways in which the routine use of cost-effectiveness analysis might become a reality. PMID:17698271

  14. Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. Technical Appendix. NCEE 2014-4010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey; Glazerman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This document represents the technical appendix intended to accompany "Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4010." Contents include: (1) Summary of Related, Non-Peer-Reviewed Studies; (2) Methods for Comparing Findings

  15. Gate valve and motor-operator research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

  16. Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

    2009-09-16

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

  17. Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    “Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881

  18. Discovery research: the scientific challenge of finding new antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Livermore, David M

    2011-09-01

    The dwindling supply of new antibiotics largely reflects regulatory and commercial challenges, but also a failure of discovery. In the 1990s the pharmaceutical industry abandoned its classical ways of seeking antibiotics and instead adopted a strategy that combined genomics with high-throughput screening of existing compound libraries. Too much emphasis was placed on identifying targets and molecules that bound to them, and too little emphasis was placed on the ability of these molecules to permeate bacteria, evade efflux and avoid mutational resistance; moreover, the compound libraries were systematically biased against antibiotics. The sorry result is that no antibiotic found by this strategy has yet entered clinical use and many major pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic discovery. Although a raft of start-up companies-variously financed by venture capital, charity or public money--are now finding new antibiotic compounds (some of them very promising in vitro or in early trials), their development through Phase III depends on financial commitments from large pharmaceutical companies, where the discouraging regulatory environment and the poor likely return on investment remain paramount issues. PMID:21700626

  19. Trends in Chicago's Schools across Three Eras of Reform: Summary of Key Findings. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppescu, Stuart; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; de la Torre, Marisa; Murphy, James

    2011-01-01

    In 1988, U.S. Secretary of Education William Bennett proclaimed Chicago's public schools to be the worst in the nation. Since that time, Chicago has been at the forefront of urban school reform. Beginning with a dramatic move in 1990 to shift power away from the central office, through CEO Paul Vallas's use of standardized testing to hold schools…

  20. New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy: Introduction to Special Section

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…

  1. The current structure of key actors involved in research on land and soil degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escadafal, Richard; Barbero, Celia; Exbrayat, Williams; Marques, Maria Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; El Haddadi, Anass; Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam

    2013-04-01

    Land and soil conservation topics, the final mandate of the United Convention to Combat desertification in drylands, have been diagnosed as still suffering from a lack of guidance. On the contrary, climate change and biodiversity issues -the other two big subjects of the Rio Conventions- seem to progress and may benefit from the advice of international panels. Arguably the weakness of policy measures and hence the application of scientific knowledge by land users and stakeholders could be the expression of an inadequate research organization and a lack of ability to channel their findings. In order to better understand the size, breadth and depth of the scientific communities involved in providing advice to this convention and to other bodies, this study explores the corpus of international publications dealing with land and/or with soils. A database of several thousands records including a significant part of the literature published so far was performed using the Web of Science and other socio-economic databases such as FRANCIS and CAIRN. We extracted hidden information using bibliometric methods and data mining applied to these scientific publications to map the key actors (laboratories, teams, institutions) involved in research on land and on soils. Several filters were applied to the databases in combination with the word "desertification". The further use of Tetralogie software merges databases, analyses similarities and differences between keywords, disciplines, authors and regions and identifies obvious clusters. Assessing their commonalities and differences, the visualisation of links and gaps between scientists, organisations, policymakers and other stakeholders is possible. The interpretation of the 'clouds' of disciplines, keywords, and techniques will enhance the understanding of interconnections between them; ultimately this will allow diagnosing some of their strengths and weaknesses. This may help explain why land and soil degradation remains a serious global problem that lacks sufficient attention. We hope that this study will contribute to clarify the scientific landscape at stake to remediate possible weaknesses in the future.

  2. Substance abuse treatment providers’ involvement in research is associated with willingness to use findings in practice

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Rogério M.; Yu, Gary; Spector, Anya Y.; Gorroochurn, Prakash; McCarty, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Using a national sample (n = 571) of substance abuse treatment providers affiliated with the Clinical Trials Network, we examined the contribution of several factors – demographic, attitudes and involvement in research – toward providers’ willingness to use research findings in practice. The sample included medical staff, social workers, psychologists and counselors. Using a multiple linear regression model, we examined the impact of involvement in research and willingness to use research findings in practice. Providers involved in research were more willing to use findings in practice (p<.001). Latino/as were less willing (p<.05). Providers with favorable attitudes toward evidence-based practices and whose agencies supported professional growth were more willing to use findings (p<.01). Involvement in research may enhance providers’ willingness to use findings in practice and improve quality of services. Results underscore the need for providing opportunities for all providers to engage in substance abuse treatment research, particularly racial/ethnic minority providers. PMID:20659649

  3. Building and Strengthening Policy Research Capacity: Key Issues in Canadian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of higher education in social and economic development, governments need to build a strong higher education data and policy research infrastructure to support informed decision-making, provide policy advice, and offer a critical assessment of key trends and issues. The author discusses the decline of higher education policy…

  4. PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Is salinity tolerance the key to success for the invasive water

    E-print Network

    Green, Andy J.

    PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Is salinity tolerance the key to success for the invasive water bug+Business Media B.V. 2010 Abstract Trichocorixa verticalis is a North Amer- ican water bug (Heteroptera: Corixidae verticalis is a small omnivorous water bug (Heteroptera: Corixidae) native to North-American brackish

  5. Good Research and Faculty Buy-in: 2 Keys to Effective Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    Effective marketing requires more than a sleek new logo. This article presents excerpts of an online discussion on the dos and don'ts of college marketing with Mary R. Stagaman, associate vice president for external relations at the University of Cincinnati. In this discussion, she noted that good research and faculty buy-in are the two keys to…

  6. Measuring Graduate Students' Teaching and Research Skills through Self-Report: Descriptive Findings and Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Joanna; Feldon, David

    2010-01-01

    This study extends research on graduate student development by examining descriptive findings and validity of a self-report survey designed to capture graduate students' assessments of their teaching and research skills. Descriptive findings provide some information about areas of growth among graduate students' in the first years of their…

  7. Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

  8. Prioritization of future research topics for children's hospice care by its key stakeholders: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, C; Knighting, K; Forbat, L; Kearney, N

    2009-07-01

    The Delphi process, widely used in health research to seek consensus on key issues amongst large stakeholder groups, was adopted to allow families, hospice staff/volunteers and linked professionals to identify and prioritize future research priorities for children's hospice care. In the qualitative Round 1, interviews with families (n = 5), linked professionals (n = 18) and focus groups with hospice staff and volunteers (n = 44) led to the generation of 56 research topics categorised within 14 broad themes. To give a larger number of stakeholders (n = 621) (including families n = 293; hospice staff/volunteers n = 216 and professionals n = 112) the opportunity to rate the importance of each research topic and seek group consensus on the future research priorities for children's hospice care, subsequent Rounds 2 and 3 involved the use of postal questionnaires. Response rates to questionnaires were 44% in Round 2 (274/621) and 83% in Round 3 (204/247). Participants prioritized research topics relating to 1) hospice and respite care needs of young people (aged 16 +), 2) pain and symptom management and 3) bereavement and end-of-life care. There was wide acknowledgement by those took part in the process of the difficulty in rating the topics, and emphasis on the fact that all of the topics raised during the project are of high importance and merit further research. The current salient issues perceived by key stakeholders as being the research priorities for children's hospice care were identified. Addressing these priority topics for research would further contribute to the development of a much needed evidence base in children's hospice and palliative care research and optimise the delivery of children's hospice services that are underpinned by valid and robust research. PMID:19304805

  9. Top 10 Greatest "Hits": Important Findings and Future Directions for Intimate Partner Violence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author highlights her choice of the 10 most important recent findings from the intimate partner violence research literature, which include (a) the creation of the Conflict Tactics Scale; (b) the finding that violent acts are most often perpetrated by intimates; (c) a series of findings that indicate that women also engage in…

  10. Pupils' Perceptions of Foreign Language Learning in the Primary School--Findings from the Key Stage 2 Language Learning Pathfinder Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings on pupil attitudes towards learning foreign languages in Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11) in primary schools in England. As a consequence of the National Languages Strategy, the University of Warwick was commissioned by the then Department for Education and Skills to undertake an evaluation between 2003 and 2005 of 19…

  11. Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

  12. Practice-Based Research Networks, Part I: Clinical Laboratories to Generate and Translate Research Findings Into Effective Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Sauers, Eric L.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Bay, R. Curtis

    2012-01-01

    Context To improve patient care, athletic training clinicians and researchers should work together to translate research findings into clinical practice. Problems with patient care observed in clinical practice should be translated into research frameworks, where they can be studied. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a compelling model for linking clinicians and researchers so they can conduct translational research to improve patient care. Objective To describe (1) the translational research model, (2) practice-based research as a mechanism for translating research findings into clinical practice, (3) the PBRN model and infrastructure, (4) the research potential using the PBRN model, and (5) protection of human participants in PBRN research. Description Translational research is the process of transforming research findings into health behavior that ultimately serves the public and attempts to bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Practice-based research represents the final step in the translational research continuum and describes research conducted by providers in clinical practices. The PBRNs are characterized by an organizational framework that transcends a single site or study and serves as the clinical research “laboratory” for conducting comparative-effectiveness studies using patient-oriented measures. The PBRN approach to research has many benefits, including enhanced generalizability of results, pooling of resources, rapid patient recruitment, and collaborative opportunities. However, multisite research also brings challenges related to the protection of human participants and institutional review board oversight. Clinical and Research Advantages Athletic training studies frequently include relatively few participants and, consequently, are able to detect only large effects. The incidence of injury at a single site is sufficiently low that gathering enough data to adequately power a treatment study may take many years. Collaborative efforts across diverse clinical practice environments can yield larger patient samples to overcome the limitations inherent in single-site research efforts. PMID:23068593

  13. Transforming Public Schools: A Synthesis of Research Findings from UCLA's Center X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quartz, Karen Hunter; Priselac, Jody; Franke, Megan Loef

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a…

  14. Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

  15. Early Literacy Research: Findings Primary-Grade Teachers Will Want to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutzel, D. Ray

    2015-01-01

    This article shares recent research findings in early literacy that every primary grade teacher has had questions about at one time or another ranging from handwriting to phonemic awareness, writing to concepts about print, and more. The article reports research that elaborates upon and extends early literacy research that was reported by the…

  16. Applying Effective Instruction Research Findings in Teacher Education: Six Influencing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Elsie W.

    This preliminary report provides an overview of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study which began in 1982 and will continue through 1985. ARTE: RUETE explores specific processes for incorporating recent research findings of effective instruction into preservice…

  17. Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although urban streams have been the focus of much research activity in recent years, there remain many unanswered questions about the mechanisms driving the “urban stream syndrome.” Identification of these key research questions is an important step toward effective, efficient ...

  18. Key considerations for logic model development in research partnerships: a Canadian case study.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Sarah J; Rusch, Melanie L; Masinda, Mambo Tabu; Sands, Jim; Frankish, Jim; Evoy, Brian

    2007-05-01

    Community-academic partnership research is a fairly new genre of community-based participatory research. It has arisen in part, from recognition of the potential role of alliances in the development and translation of applied knowledge and the elimination of health disparities. This paper reports on the learning process of academic and community members who worked together in developing a logic model for a research program focusing on partnerships with vulnerable populations. The Partners in Community Health Research is a 6-year training program that seeks to combine research, training, and practice through the work of its "learning clusters". As these types of partnerships proliferate, the articulation and exploration of clear models will assist in their implementation. The authors, coming from both academia and community agencies, present a logic model meant to facilitate program management. Key considerations in the model's development are discussed in the context of an ongoing research partnership; namely, the complexity of the research partnership, power and accountability, alignment with health promotion policy, and the iterative nature of program design. Recommendations challenge academics, policy-makers, service providers, and community members to reflect on the elements needed to support and manage research partnerships and the tools necessary to ensure continued collaboration. PMID:17689318

  19. The reinstatement model of drug relapse: recent neurobiological findings, emerging research topics, and translational research

    PubMed Central

    Bossert, Jennifer M.; Marchant, Nathan J.; Calu, Donna J.; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-01-01

    Background and Rationale Results from many clinical studies suggest that drug relapse and craving are often provoked by acute exposure to the self-administered drug or related drugs, drug-associated cues or contexts, or certain stressors. During the last two decades, this clinical scenario has been studied in laboratory animals by using the reinstatement model. In this model, reinstatement of drug seeking by drug priming, drug cues or contexts, or certain stressors is assessed following drug self-administration training and subsequent extinction of the drug-reinforced responding. Objective In this review, we first summarize recent (2009-present) neurobiological findings from studies using the reinstatement model. We then discuss emerging research topics, including the impact of interfering with putative reconsolidation processes on cue- and context-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, and similarities and differences in mechanisms of reinstatement across drug classes. We conclude by discussing results from recent human studies that were inspired by results from rat studies using the reinstatement model. Conclusions Main conclusions from the studies reviewed highlight: (1) the ventral subiculum and lateral hypothalamus as emerging brain areas important for reinstatement of drug seeking, (2) the existence of differences in brain mechanisms controlling reinstatement of drug seeking across drug classes, (3) the utility of the reinstatement model for assessing the effect of reconsolidation-related manipulations on cue-induced drug seeking, and (4) the encouraging pharmacological concordance between results from rat studies using the reinstatement model and human laboratory studies on cue- and stress-induced drug craving. PMID:23685858

  20. Incidental findings found in “healthy” volunteers during imaging performed for research: current legal and ethical implications

    PubMed Central

    Booth, T C; Jackson, A; Wardlaw, J M; Taylor, S A; Waldman, A D

    2010-01-01

    Incidental findings found in “healthy” volunteers during research imaging are common and have important implications for study design and performance, particularly in the areas of informed consent, subjects' rights, clinical image analysis and disclosure. In this study, we aimed to determine current practice and regulations concerning information that should be given to research subjects when obtaining consent, reporting of research images, who should be informed about any incidental findings and the method of disclosure. We reviewed all UK, European and international humanitarian, legal and ethical agencies' guidance. We found that the guidance on what constitutes incidental pathology, how to recognise it and what to do about it is inconsistent between agencies, difficult to find and less complete in the UK than elsewhere. Where given, guidance states that volunteers should be informed during the consent process about how research images will be managed, whether a mechanism exists for identifying incidental findings, arrangements for their disclosure, the potential benefit or harm and therapeutic options. The effects of incidentally discovered pathology on the individual can be complex and far-reaching. Radiologist involvement in analysis of research images varies widely; many incidental findings might therefore go unrecognised. In conclusion, guidance on the management of research imaging is inconsistent, limited and does not address the interests of volunteers. Improved standards to guide management of research images and incidental findings are urgently required. PMID:20335427

  1. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; O?Connor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Nindl, BC, Jaffin, DP, Dretsch, MN, Cheuvront, SN, Wesensten, NJ, Kent, ML, Grunberg, NE, Pierce, JR, Barry, ES, Scott, JM, Young, AJ, O'Connor, FG, and Deuster, PA. Human performance optimization metrics: consensus findings, gaps, and recommendations for future research. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S221-S245, 2015-Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts, and leverages science, resources, programs, and policies to optimize the performance capacities of all Service members. PMID:26506192

  2. Sharing the Knowledge: Sharing Aggregate Genomic Findings with Research Participants in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Kerasidou, Angeliki

    2015-12-01

    Returning research results to participants is recognised as an obligation that researchers should always try to fulfil. But can we ascribe the same obligation to researchers who conduct genomics research producing only aggregated findings? And what about genomics research conducted in developing countries? This paper considers Beskow's et?al. argument that aggregated findings should also be returned to research participants. This recommendation is examined in the context of genomics research conducted in developing countries. The risks and benefits of attempting such an exercise are identified, and suggestions on ways to avoid some of the challenges are proposed. I argue that disseminating the findings of genomic research to participating communities should be seen as sharing knowledge rather than returning results. Calling the dissemination of aggregate, population level information returning results can be confusing and misleading as participants might expect to receive individual level information. Talking about sharing knowledge is a more appropriate way of expressing and communicating the outcome of population genomic research. Considering the knowledge produced by genomics research a worthwhile output that should be shared with the participants and approaching the exercise as a 'sharing of knowledge', could help mitigate the risks of unrealistic expectations and misunderstanding of findings, whilst promoting trusting and long lasting relationships with the participating communities. PMID:25292263

  3. Building a Successful Adult Life: Findings from Youth-Directed Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Laurie E.; Garner, Tracee; Valnes, Betsy; Squire, Peter; Turner, Alison; Couture, Todd; Dertinger, Rocky

    2007-01-01

    Although transition outcomes for youth with disabilities have shown some improvement and transition support practices have been identified, many young people continue to face transition barriers that preclude their full participation in key adult life activities. While research efforts have largely been professionally driven, there is emerging…

  4. 75 FR 62892 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ...COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-020; NRC-2010-0313] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Correction In notice document 2010-24809 beginning on page 61220 in the...

  5. Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... and adolescents years after they were exposed to alcohol in the womb. That is according to a ...

  6. 05 August 2015 UCT researchers find ways to reduce goose poo on golf courses

    E-print Network

    Tadross, Mark

    05 August 2015 UCT researchers find ways to reduce goose poo on golf courses Goose poo on golf, is the trick to making them stay away from it. Many methods that have been used in the past to control goose

  7. What is big data? A consensual definition and a review of key research topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Mauro, Andrea; Greco, Marco; Grimaldi, Michele

    2015-02-01

    Although Big Data is a trending buzzword in both academia and the industry, its meaning is still shrouded by much conceptual vagueness. The term is used to describe a wide range of concepts: from the technological ability to store, aggregate, and process data, to the cultural shift that is pervasively invading business and society, both drowning in information overload. The lack of a formal definition has led research to evolve into multiple and inconsistent paths. Furthermore, the existing ambiguity among researchers and practitioners undermines an efficient development of the subject. In this paper we have reviewed the existing literature on Big Data and analyzed its previous definitions in order to pursue two results: first, to provide a summary of the key research areas related to the phenomenon, identifying emerging trends and suggesting opportunities for future development; second, to provide a consensual definition for Big Data, by synthesizing common themes of existing works and patterns in previous definitions.

  8. Key future research questions on mediators and moderators of behaviour change processes for substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen

    2008-06-01

    In summarizing the key themes and results of the second meeting of the German Addiction Research Network 'Understanding Addiction: Mediators and Moderators of Behaviour Change Process', the following concrete steps forward were laid out to improve knowledge. The steps included pleas to (1) redefine substance abuse disorders, especially redefine the concept of abuse and harmful use; (2) increase the use of longitudinal and life-course studies with more adequate statistical methods such as latent growth modelling; (3) empirically test more specific and theoretically derived common factors and mechanisms of behavioural change processes; (4) better exploit cross-regional and cross-cultural differences.Funding agencies are urged to support these developments by specifically supporting interdisciplinary research along the lines specified above. This may include improved forms of international funding of groups of researchers from different countries, where each national group conducts a specific part of an integrated proposal. PMID:18543369

  9. School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

  10. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  11. Improving Student Achievement in Mathematics, Part 1: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grouws, Douglas A.; Cebulla, Kristin J.

    This digest summarizes research findings on best teacher practices in mathematics education. Among the findings are: students can learn both concepts and skills by solving problems; whole-class discussion following individual and group work improves student achievement; and using calculators in the learning of mathematics can result in increased…

  12. A Transdisciplinary Approach to Training: Preliminary Research Findings Based on a Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimpitsos, Christos; Petridou, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the research findings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…

  13. Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research

  14. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science

    PubMed Central

    Damschroder, Laura J; Aron, David C; Keith, Rosalind E; Kirsh, Susan R; Alexander, Jeffery A; Lowery, Julie C

    2009-01-01

    Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR) that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality), four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources), 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture, leadership engagement), five constructs were identified related to individual characteristics, and eight constructs were identified related to process (e.g., plan, evaluate, and reflect). We present explicit definitions for each construct. Conclusion The CFIR provides a pragmatic structure for approaching complex, interacting, multi-level, and transient states of constructs in the real world by embracing, consolidating, and unifying key constructs from published implementation theories. It can be used to guide formative evaluations and build the implementation knowledge base across multiple studies and settings. PMID:19664226

  15. Different animal welfare orientations towards some key research areas of current relevance to pastoral dairy farming in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Webster, J R; Schütz, K E; Sutherland, M A; Stewart, M; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    The New Zealand dairy industry needs to meet public expectations regarding animal welfare in order to retain the freedom to operate and achieve market success. Three key orientations towards animal welfare assessment have been identified, namely biological functioning, affective state and natural living, the last two of which are more recent foci for societal concern. Biological functioning was the first and most-studied aspect of animal welfare and continues to be important, but now the contribution of affective state to animal well-being is emphasised much more. Natural living, or naturalness, has received relatively less attention from animal welfare science. It is proposed that increasing the use of naturalness as a contextual reference point for considering species-specific behavioural expressions of affective state will enhance its inclusion in animal welfare assessment. Nevertheless, all three orientations need to be considered in order to evaluate the significance of welfare research findings. On this basis, five key aspects of the New Zealand dairy industry that have been the subject of recent research, due to the risk of them not meeting public expectations, are highlighted and discussed. The aspects are provision of shade and shelter, meeting targets for body condition, provision of comfortable surfaces for rearing calves, and for adult cows while off pasture, and pain relief for disbudding of calves. Research evidence indicates that the industry guidelines on body condition score, if met, would satisfy public expectations across the three orientations to animal welfare, whereas further work is needed on the other aspects. It is concluded that considering these three orientations to animal welfare when planning research and then evaluating the outcomes will help to promote the market success of the dairy industry in New Zealand. PMID:25157557

  16. THE TEN MOST SIGNIFICANT EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH FINDINGS IN THE PAST TEN YEARS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DAVIES, DANIEL R.; GRIFFITHS, DANIEL E.

    TO ASCERTAIN THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH IN EDUCATION, THREE QUESTIONS MAY BE ASKED--(1) TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE BEHAVIOR OF INDIVIDUALS IN EDUCATION BEEN CHANGED. (2) HOW MANY ARTICLES HAVE BEEN WRITTEN AS A RESULT OF THE FINDINGS. (3) TO WHAT EXTENT DO EDUCATORS TALK ABOUT OR USE THE CONCEPTS GENERATED BY THE RESEARCH IN DISCUSSING THEIR OWN…

  17. Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson-Karlan, George R.

    2011-01-01

    The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

  18. Methods, Findings, and History in Attitude-Behavior Research: A Rejoinder to Hanson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn

    1981-01-01

    Reviews Hanson's findings that laboratory research tends to demonstrate a positive correlation between attitudes and behavior while field research does not. This article, by adding date of publication, shows that the trend over time, presumably because of improved methodology, is toward more positive correlations in both settings. (Author/JAC)

  19. The theory research of multi-user quantum access network with Measurement Device Independent quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yi-Ming; Li, Yun-Xia; Shi, Lei; Meng, Wen; Cui, Shu-Min; Xu, Zhen-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Quantum access network can't guarantee the absolute security of multi-user detector and eavesdropper can get access to key information through time-shift attack and other ways. Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is immune from all the detection attacks, and accomplishes the safe sharing of quantum key. In this paper, that Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution is used in the application of multi-user quantum access to the network is on the research. By adopting time-division multiplexing technology to achieve the sharing of multiuser detector, the system structure is simplified and the security of quantum key sharing is acquired.

  20. Looking Back To Find a Vision: Exploring the Emancipatory Potential of Teacher Research. Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Cornett, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the limitations of experimental studies of learning and the emergence of alternative paradigms such as constructivism. Examines the growth of teacher research and its historical influences, including Montessori, Dewey's Progressive Movement, and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. Discusses current trends in teacher research, asserting that it is…

  1. Key findings from the first 360 sols of the Curiosity rover mission in Gale crater, Mars (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, J. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of the Curiosity rover mission is to search for habitable environments. Since its landing in Gale crater early August 2012, the Curiosity rover has been exploring primarily the area in vicinity of where it landed and 450 m to the east in the Glenelg region. Measurements of energetic particle radiation during the cruise to Mars and on the martian surface reveal the effects of shielding by spacecraft materials and Mars' variable atmosphere. The unique setting of Curiosity within a deep and large crater has allowed its meteorological instruments to capture phenomena not accessible to other missions. Atmospheric volume mixing and isotope ratios point to significant loss from the top of the martian atmosphere, supportive of early conditions on Mars being more suitable for life. Geologic mapping using orbital data sets provided regional context that was used by the science team to plan where the rover should go and to interpret the findings. The most intensive geologic investigations included the study of conglomeratic sediments deposited by sustained stream flow; highly alkaline igneous rocks and minerals that expand the range of known volcanic compositions on Mars; correlations between hydration signatures and geologic features; a basaltic aeolian sand shadow that records an environment with low water activity; and a smectite-rich relatively higher thermal inertia mudstone that records an ancient, habitable environment of shallow lake waters with low salinity, neutral acidity, and variable but not strongly oxidizing conditions. The rover has begun a several-kilometer drive to Aeolis Mons (informally known as Mount Sharp), where close-up examination of a thick succession of layered deposits is expected to reveal information about the evolution of past environmental conditions on Mars, from the study of older clay-bearing to younger hydrated-sulfate-bearing deposits.

  2. From research to control: Translating research findings into health policies, operational guidelines and health products.

    PubMed

    Kilama, Wen

    2009-11-01

    Although Africa's health research capacity is still weak, African R&D institutions are contributing immensely to the development of health policies, guidelines and products essential for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of Africa's leading health problems. In order to increase Africa's contributions, all health research stakeholders should participate in setting health research priorities and agenda, followed by establishing health research networks and consortia, holistic capacity strengthening, and gathering of baseline data. The evaluation of candidate tools, and the research preceding it, must abide by international scientific and ethical standards, and must involve institutional and national regulatory authorities. The funding of product development and product availability in Africa benefits from national governments, bilateral, multilateral, and philanthropic agencies. When a trial is over poses many social and ethical issues, and not infrequently existing guidelines may not be adequate. Mechanisms for making products available in resource constrained countries are presented, as are problems relating to manufacturing, markets and procurement. So are obligations to trial and research communities. The paper concludes by outlining the obligations of each stakeholder, in order to make research products readily available in resource constrained settings. PMID:19686696

  3. Translating research findings to promote peace: moving from "field to forum" with verbatim theatre.

    PubMed

    Liehr, Patricia; Morris, Kate; Leavitt, Mary Ann; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2013-01-01

    Peace, both personal and global, resides in understanding. Verbatim theatre is introduced as a vehicle for translating research findings to promote understanding and thereby, promote health. By shifting our translation lens from "bench to bedside" to "field to forum," new opportunities arise for moving nursing research-findings to an engaged audience. Stories from Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima survivors were woven into the verbatim performance, With Their Voices Raised. Analysis of audience members' reflections after the performance suggests that verbatim theatre created a connection based in openness, engagement, and trust that informed understanding and raised awareness about peace processes. PMID:23907299

  4. Nutrition and Growth: Recent Research Findings and Research Priorities. Matrix No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, George G.

    Recent research indicates that low income adults and infants in the United States are more likely to be overweight than undernourished. Very possibly, the assumptions upon which food supplement programs are based are ill-founded. While many of the currently operating broadly conceived supplemental food programs achieve desirable collateral…

  5. Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Yule, Thomas J.

    1994-10-01

    Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

  6. Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection

    SciTech Connect

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1994-07-01

    Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Lab. in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

  7. The key-role of instrumentation for the new generation of research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bignan, G.; Villard, J. F.; Destouches, C.; Baeten, P.; Vermeeren, L.; Michiels, S.

    2011-07-01

    Experimental reactors have been indispensable since the beginning of the use of nuclear energy to support many important fields of industry and research: safety, lifetime management and operation optimisation of nuclear power plants, development of new types of reactors with improved resources and fuel cycle management, medical applications, material development for fusion... Over the last decade, modifications of the operational needs and the ageing of the nuclear facilities have led to several closures and time is coming for new key European Experimental Reactors (EER) within a European and International Framework. Projects like MYRRHA and JHR are underway to define and implement a new consistent EER policy: - Meeting industry and public needs, keeping a high level of scientific expertise; - With a limited number of EER, specified within a rational compromise between specialisation, complementarities and back-up capacities; - To be put into effective operation in this or the next decade. These new projects will give to the scientific community high performances allowing innovative fields of R and D. A new generation of instrumentation to address new phenomena and that allows better on-line investigation of some key physical parameters is necessary to achieve these challenges. One initiative to progress in this direction is the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between CEA and SCK.CEN which has already given significant results and patents. Major scientific challenges to achieve in the field of instrumentation for this new generation of European Research Reactors have to be investigated and are described in this paper as well as a short description of the JHR and MYRRHA reactors that will be serving as flexible irradiation facilities for testing them. (authors)

  8. New Directions for Early Child Development Programs: Some Findings from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Lois-ellin

    Information on the preschool years, which has emerged from the pioneering studies and programs of the 60's, is reviewed and interpreted with regard to implications for current and future policy. Limitations of knowledge in this area are noted and attributed to inadequacies in the related research. Four general findings are reviewed and discussed:…

  9. A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

    2011-01-01

    It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

  10. Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotzer, Tina A.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

  11. Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

  12. Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8 Published of the Gulf of Mexico in the wake of BP's massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill made a brief stopover today life before and after the largest oil spill in the history of the Gulf of Mexico. #12;"This

  13. New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Ed

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

  14. Summary of Research Findings on the Military General Educational Development Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Earl A.

    This report summarizes and integrates the finding of research studies dealing with the military General Educational Development (GED) program. The major areas covered include (1) the field conduct of the GED program, (2) characteristics of GED program participants, (3) a comparison of the utility of the GED certificate with that of the high school…

  15. Internet Consumer Catalog Shopping: Findings from an Exploratory Study and Directions for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joseph M.; Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents findings from an exploratory, empirical investigation of perceptions of Internet catalog shopping compared to more traditional print catalog shopping. Two factors that might influence perceptions, personality, and important other people are examined, and directions for further research are suggested. (Author/LRW)

  16. A Synthesis of Research Findings on Teacher Planning and Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, L. James

    Several generalizations are made from a review of research findings on teachers' instructional planning methods. Teachers do not, as a rule, follow the advocated model of identifying student outcomes before considering activities or means of instruction. Rather, they focus on content to be taught and the activities in which they will engage the…

  17. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    PubMed

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games. PMID:26386003

  18. 'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-12

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case supporting how radionuclide transfer is represented in the performance assessment model. The objective here is to illustrate how geochemical research contributes to this process and, above all, to identify a certain number of subjects which should be treated in priority. PMID:19008019

  19. ‘Geo’chemical research: A key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case supporting how radionuclide transfer is represented in the performance assessment model. The objective here is to illustrate how geochemical research contributes to this process and, above all, to identify a certain number of subjects which should be treated in priority.

  20. Assessing the Key Processes of Youth-Led Participatory Research: Psychometric Analysis and Application of an Observational Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Emily J.; Douglas, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Youth-led Participatory Action Research (YPAR)--in which young people conduct research aimed at improving problems in their schools and communities--is increasing in public health, youth development, and education. We report on the development and psychometric testing of the YPAR Process Template (YPT)--to assess the quality of key YPAR processes…

  1. Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: a translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Kathleen T; Todres, Les

    2011-04-01

    We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve the communicative concern to express phenomena relevant to caring practice in ways that appeal to the 'head, hand and heart'. The paper first offers some thoughts about the complex kind of knowledge relevant to caring that is not only technical or propositional, but actionable and aesthetically moving as well. We call this kind of knowledge 'embodied relational understanding'. Further, the paper outlines the development of one way of serving a more aesthetic phenomenology whereby research findings can be faithfully and evocatively translated into more empathically impactful expressions. We call this process 'embodied interpretation'. It is guided by an epistemological framework grounded in the philosophies of Gadamer and Gendlin. We finally illustrate the process with reference to the experience of living after Stroke, and consider the value of this translational process for nursing education and practice. PMID:20863496

  2. Funding considerations for the disclosure of genetic incidental findings in biobank research

    PubMed Central

    Black, L; Avard, D; Zawati, MH; Knoppers, BM; Hébert, J; Sauvageau, G

    2013-01-01

    The use of biobanks in biomedical research has grown considerably in recent years. As a result of the increasing analysis of tissue samples stored in biobanks, there has also been an increase in the probability of discovering—in addition to the research target—incidental findings (IF). We identified 23 laws, policies and guidelines from international, regional and national organizations that provide guidance or identify the need for the disclosure of IF to research participants. We analyzed these instruments to determine their contemplation of the funding considerations for the disclosure of IF, examining their guidance for who discloses and the extent of researcher responsibilities. We found that the available normative documents provide little guidance to researchers and biobanks for how they should address cost and funding concerns associated with IF disclosure. It is therefore essential that the research and policy communities think through the financial implications of imposing an ethical responsibility to disclose IF. Concerted efforts should be made by policymakers, ethicists, researchers, clinicians and research institutions to develop detailed funding recommendations, potentially universal in application, to aid in the disclosure of IF, and we provide recommendations on steps that can be taken to ensure full consideration of these issues. PMID:23662709

  3. Models of Consent to Return of Incidental Findings in Genomic Research

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Paul S.; Parens, Erik; Waldman, Cameron R.; Klitzman, Robert; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Price, W. Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K.

    2014-01-01

    Genomic research has the capacity to generate a wide array of findings that go beyond the goals of the study—usually referred to as “incidental findings.” The evolving consensus of researchers, participants, and expert panels is that at least some incidental results should be made available to participants. However, there are a number of challenges to discussing these issues with participants and ascertaining their preferences, including the complexity and magnitude of the relevant information. Believing that usual models of informed consent are not likely to be effective in this context, we identify four approaches that investigators and IRBs might consider: traditional consent, staged consent, mandatory return, and outsourcing. Each has advantages and disadvantages compared with the other options, and which one is selected for a given project will depend on a mix of practical and normative considerations that are described in this paper. PMID:24919982

  4. Research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture: A review.

    PubMed

    Hai, Ngo Van

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to present research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture. In omnivorous species of tilapia aquaculture, intestines and gonads, rearing water and sediments or even commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics. Administration of probiotics varies from direct oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is most commonly used. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. As probiotics have been proven to be either immune enhancers and/or growth promoters in aquatic animals, several modes of actions of probiotics in enhancement of immune responses, and an improvement of growth and survival rates of tilapia are presented, while the effects of others are not yet understood to the same degree as for other fish species. Some points extracted from the research findings are emphasised for further investigation and development. PMID:26003738

  5. Traumatic brain injury in the US military: epidemiology and key clinical and research programs.

    PubMed

    Helmick, Katherine M; Spells, Cynthia A; Malik, Saafan Z; Davies, Cathleen A; Marion, Donald W; Hinds, Sidney R

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), and particularly concussion, is a major concern for the U.S. Military because of the associated short term disability, long term cognitive and pain symptoms suffered by some, and risk of prolonged or permanent neurologic injury if the Service member incurs a second TBI before full recovery from the first. Concussions were seen more often during the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq than in prior conflicts, such as the Vietnam War, because of the use of improvised explosive devices that typically caused non-penetrating closed head injury. Since 2000 more than 300,000 Service members were diagnosed with TBI, of which more than 80 % were concussions. Improved TBI screening tools also have identified a higher than expected incidence of concussions occurring in garrison. In this review we summarize current epidemiologic data for TBI in the Military, and describe contemporary Military procedures and strategies for TBI prevention, identification, evaluation, and acute and chronic care. Key TBI clinical research priorities and programs are described, and innovative organizational plans to address future TBI needs are summarized. PMID:25972118

  6. Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

    1996-01-01

    Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

  7. Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qorro, Martha A. S.

    2013-06-01

    The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

  8. Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, Switzerland-Research Program And Key Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, C. O.; Bossart, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants and the potential for self-sealing, has brought clay formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation, the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in the Jura Mountains of NW Switzerland is an important international test site for researching clay formations. Research is carried out in the underground facility, which is located adjacent to the security gallery of the Mont Terri motorway tunnel. Fifteen partners from European countries, USA, Canada and Japan participate in the project. The objectives of the research program are to analyze the hydrogeological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties of the Opalinus Clay, to determine the changes induced by the excavation of galleries and by heating of the rock formation, to test sealing and container emplacement techniques and to evaluate and improve suitable investigation techniques. For the safety of deep geological disposal, it is of key importance to understand the processes occurring in the undisturbed argillaceous environment, as well as the processes in a disturbed system, during the operation of the repository. The objectives are related to: 1. Understanding processes and mechanisms in undisturbed clays and 2. Experiments related to repository-induced perturbations. Experiments of the first group are dedicated to: i) Improvement of drilling and excavation technologies and sampling methods; ii) Estimation of hydrogeological, rock mechanical and geochemical parameters of the undisturbed Opalinus Clay. Upscaling of parameters from laboratory to in situ scale; iii) Geochemistry of porewater and natural gases; evolution of porewater over time scales; iv) Assessment of long-term hydraulic transients associated with erosion and thermal scenarios and v) Evaluation of diffusion and retention parameters for long-lived radionuclides. Experiments related to repository-induced perturbations are focused on: i) Influence of rock liner on the disposal system and the buffering potential of the host rock; ii) Self-sealing processes in the excavation damaged zone; iii) Hydro-mechanical coupled processes (e.g. stress redistributions and pore pressure evolution during excavation); iv) Thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes (e.g. heating of bentonite and host rock) and v) Gas-induced transport of radionuclides in porewater and along interfaces in the engineered barrier system. A third research direction is to demonstrate the feasibility of repository construction and long-term safety after repository closure. Demonstration experiments can contribute to improving the reliability of the scientific basis for the safety assessment of future geological repositories, particularly if they are performed on a large scale and with a long duration. These experiments include the construction and installation of engineered barriers on a 1:1 scale: i) Horizontal emplacement of canisters; ii) Evaluation of the corrosion of container materials; repository re-saturation; iii) Sealing of boreholes and repository access tunnels and iv) Long-term monitoring of the repository. References Bossart, P. & Thury, M. (2008): Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Project, Programme 1996 to 2007 and Results. - Rep. Swiss Geol. Surv. 3.

  9. Key challenges and ways forward in researching the “good death”: qualitative in-depth interview and focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Fiona; Boyd, Kirsty; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Scott A; Brown, Duncan; Mallinson, Ian; Kearney, Nora; Worth, Allison

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand key challenges in researching end of life issues and identify ways of overcoming these. Design Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with researchers and focus groups with people affected by cancer. Participants An international sample of 32 researchers; seven patients with experience of cancer; and four carers in south east Scotland. Results Researchers highlighted the difficulty of defining the end of life, overprotective gatekeeping by ethics committees and clinical staff, the need to factor in high attrition rates associated with deterioration or death, and managing the emotions of participants and research staff. People affected by cancer and researchers suggested that many people nearing the end of life do want to be offered the chance to participate in research, provided it is conducted sensitively. Although such research can be demanding, most researchers believed it to be no more problematic than many other areas of research and that the challenges identified can be overcome. Conclusions The continuing taboos around death and dying act as barriers to the commissioning and conduct of end of life research. Some people facing death, however, may want to participate in research and should be allowed to do so. Ethics committees and clinical staff must balance understandable concern about non-maleficence with the right of people with advanced illness to participate in research. Despite the inherent difficulties, end of life research can be conducted with ethical and methodological rigour. Adequate psychological support must be provided for participants, researchers, and transcribers. PMID:17329313

  10. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  11. Key Challenges for Tertiary Education Policy and Research--An Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goedegebuure, Leo; Schoen, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Australia has had a mixed history in the way in which policy research has related to higher education policy. Recognising a history of policy-related research and to some extent research-informed policy-making, Australia has followed the trend of other New Public Management-driven systems of de-emphasising policy-oriented independent research. In…

  12. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change: Research findings and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Corbera, Esteve; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the special feature of Ecology and Society entitled “Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Global Environmental Change. The special feature addresses two main research themes. The first theme concerns the resilience of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (hereafter TEK) and the conditions that might explain its loss or persistence in the face of global change. The second theme relates to new findings regarding the way in which TEK strengthens community resilience to respond to the multiple stressors of global environmental change. Those themes are analyzed using case studies from Africa, Asia, America and Europe. Theoretical insights and empirical findings from the studies suggest that despite the generalized worldwide trend of TEK erosion, substantial pockets of TEK persist in both developing and developed countries. A common trend on the studies presented here is hybridization, where traditional knowledge, practices, and beliefs are merged with novel forms of knowledge and technologies to create new knowledge systems. The findings also reinforce previous hypotheses pointing at the importance of TEK systems as reservoirs of experiential knowledge that can provide important insights for the design of adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with global environmental change. Based on the results from papers in this feature, we discuss policy directions that might help to promote maintenance and restoration of living TEK systems as sources of social-ecological resilience. PMID:26097492

  13. Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2010-01-01

    This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

  14. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

  15. Exome Sequencing and Unrelated Findings in the Context of Complex Disease Research: Ethical and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Gholson J.; Jiang, Tao; Van Wijk, Richard; Wang, Wei; Bodily, Paul Mark; Xing, Jinchuan; Tian, Lifeng; Robison, Reid J.; Clement, Mark; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Moore, Barry; Glessner, Joseph T.; Elia, Josephine; Reimherr, Fred; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Yandell, Mark; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wang, Jun; Johnson, William Evan; Wei, Zhi; Wang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Exome sequencing has identified the causes of several Mendelian diseases, although it has rarely been used in a clinical setting to diagnose the genetic cause of an idiopathic disorder in a single patient. We performed exome sequencing on a pedigree with several members affected with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in an effort to identify candidate variants predisposing to this complex disease. While we did identify some rare variants that might predispose to ADHD, we have not yet proven the causality for any of them. However, over the course of the study, one subject was discovered to have idiopathic hemolytic anemia (IHA), which was suspected to be genetic in origin. Analysis of this subject’s exome readily identified two rare non-synonymous mutations in PKLR gene as the most likely cause of the IHA, although these two mutations had not been documented before in a single individual. We further confirmed the deficiency by functional biochemical testing, consistent with a diagnosis of red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Our study implies that exome and genome sequencing will certainly reveal additional rare variation causative for even well-studied classical Mendelian diseases, while also revealing variants that might play a role in complex diseases. Furthermore, our study has clinical and ethical implications for exome and genome sequencing in a research setting; how to handle unrelated findings of clinical significance, in the context of originally planned complex disease research, remains a largely uncharted area for clinicians and researchers. PMID:21794208

  16. How Can Book Reading Close the Word Gap? Five Key Practices from Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Emily K.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary development is critical for children's ability to learn to read and their success at school. Vocabulary has also been identified as a key factor in the achievement gap, with children from low-income families knowing significantly fewer words when they enter school. Although book reading has long been celebrated as an effective way for…

  17. Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

  18. Key Elements and challenges of USEPA’s developing ecological services research program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past year, EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has redirected research within the Ecological Services Research Program (ESRP) to focus on ecosystem services and their associated benefits to human well-being. By 2009, all of EPA/ORD’s Ecological Services Resear...

  19. Virtualization of Research Universities: Raising the Right Questions to Address Key Functions of the Institution. Research & Occasional Paper Series. CSHE.6.03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the variety of information and communication technology (ICT) applications at traditional universities and to integrate them into a holistic picture of the institution. Using the distinction of three key elements of scholarly activity (research, publication, education), it suggests a functional…

  20. Dilemmas in Youth Employment Programming: Findings from the Youth Research and Technical Assistance Project. Volumes I and II. Research and Evaluation Report Series 92-C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This 2-volume set contains 10 papers, 5 in each volume, that review and evaluate findings from the Youth Research and Technical Assistance Project, whose purpose was not only to explore studies and evaluations related to youth training and employment programs but also to provide a broader synthesis of evidence, findings, and research from related…

  1. Subsonic Transonic Applied Refinements By Using Key Strategies - STARBUKS In the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paryz, Roman W.

    2014-01-01

    Several upgrade projects have been completed at the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility over the last 1.5 years in an effort defined as STARBUKS - Subsonic Transonic Applied Refinements By Using Key Strategies. This multi-year effort was undertaken to improve NTF's overall capabilities by addressing Accuracy and Validation, Productivity, and Reliability areas at the NTF. This presentation will give a brief synopsis of each of these efforts.

  2. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  3. Edinburgh Research Explorer Between destitution and a hard place: finding the strength to

    E-print Network

    Millar, Andrew J.

    people find strength to survive the experience of destitution following a refusal from the asylum system of people in the North East of England who find themselves destitute following the asylum process that people find strength to cope wit

  4. Key Challenges and New Trends in Battery Research (2011 EFRC Forum)

    ScienceCinema

    Tarascon, Jean Marie (University de Picardie Jules Verne, France)

    2012-03-14

    Jean-Marie Tarascon, Professor at the University de Picardie Jules Verne, France, was the fourth speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Tarascon recounted European basic research activates in electrical energy storage. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several ?grand challenges? and use-inspired ?basic research needs? recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

  5. Key Considerations for Logic Model Development in Research Partnerships: A Canadian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielden, Sarah J.; Rusch, Melanie L.; Masinda, Mambo Tabu; Sands, Jim; Frankish, Jim; Evoy, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Community-academic partnership research is a fairly new genre of community-based participatory research. It has arisen in part, from recognition of the potential role of alliances in the development and translation of applied knowledge and the elimination of health disparities. This paper reports on the learning process of academic and community…

  6. A Plan for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention Research: Seven Key Policy Investigative Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Thomas J.; Szekeres,Gregory

    2004-01-01

    Although HIV prevention research has accomplished much over the last 2 decades, significant challenges remain. The accomplishments have included rapid progression through various stages of research--from descriptive to clinical trials--and the fielding of several Phase 3 trials with biological endpoints. The challenges include developing…

  7. A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18: contextual influences and key components.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Suzanne; Stone, Patricia W; Larson, Elaine L

    2008-01-01

    The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Research Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities reported a decade ago. The authors focus on 3 specific aspects of context--genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technologies--that must be considered in formulating a nursing informatics research agenda. These influences are illustrated using the significant issue of healthcare associated infections (HAI). A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18 must expand users of interest to include interdisciplinary researchers; build upon the knowledge gained in nursing concept representation to address genomic and environmental data; guide the reengineering of nursing practice; harness new technologies to empower patients and their caregivers for collaborative knowledge development; develop user-configurable software approaches that support complex data visualization, analysis, and predictive modeling; facilitate the development of middle-range nursing informatics theories; and encourage innovative evaluation methodologies that attend to human-computer interface factors and organizational context. PMID:18922269

  8. Identifying Key Priorities for Future Palliative Care Research Using an Innovative Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Riffin, Catherine; Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Warmington, Marcus; Adelman, Ronald D.; Reid, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Using an innovative approach, we identified research priorities in palliative care to guide future research initiatives. We searched 7databases (2005–2012) for review articles published on the topics of palliative and hospice–end-of-life care. The identified research recommendations (n = 648) fell into 2 distinct categories: (1) ways to improve methodological approaches and (2) specific topic areas in need of future study. The most commonly cited priority within the theme of methodological approaches was the need for enhanced rigor. Specific topics in need of future study included perspectives and needs of patients, relatives, and providers; underrepresented populations; decision-making; cost-effectiveness; provider education; spirituality; service use; and inter-disciplinary approaches to delivering palliative care. This review underscores the need for additional research on specific topics and methodologically rigorous research to inform health policy and practice. PMID:25393169

  9. A Review of Methodological Characteristics of Research Published in Key Journals in Higher Education: Implications for Graduate Research Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Susan R.; Lovell, Cheryl D.

    2004-01-01

    Professional journals serve an important function within most disciplines as they offer a mechanism for professional communication. In the field of higher education, research on methodological characteristics of the published literature has been sparse. This study used content analysis to identify the types of research designs and analytical…

  10. NIH Researchers Find Vitamin D Binding Protein May Help to Assess Vitamin D Deficiency in African and White Americans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here Home NIH researchers find vitamin D binding protein may help to assess vitamin D deficiency in ... Americans November 21, 2013 Measuring vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) may be important for accurately determining vitamin ...

  11. Summaries of Conference Papers, Theme 1, Research Findings. International Conference on Evaluation and Research in Educational Television and Radio (Milton Keynes, England, April 9-13, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

    Educational television and radio research and evaluation findings are the subject of 25 papers summarized in this document. Seven papers deal with evaluation of research projects in educational television and radio. Four papers on adult education and two on educational technology in teacher training are also summarized. Research in teaching with…

  12. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  13. UKERC ENERGY RESEARCH ATLAS: CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (version 10 February 2008) Section 1: An overview which includes a broad characterisation of research activity in the sector and the key research challenges

    E-print Network

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    UKERC ENERGY RESEARCH ATLAS: CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (version 10 February 2008) Section 1: An overview which includes a broad characterisation of research activity in the sector and the key research challenges Section 2: An assessment of UK capabilities in relation to wider international activities

  14. Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

  15. Signature Concepts of Key Researchers in North American Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandlbinder, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Universities in the English-speaking world share a common ancestry that extends back to medieval times. From these beginnings universities quickly developed distinctive qualities as they became integrated within different social and cultural systems of their home societies. A number of comparisons of higher education research have shown major…

  16. Signature Concepts of Key Researchers in Higher Education Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandlbinder, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Early career university teachers often have limited experience of the higher education literature making it difficult for them to identify what ideas have become central to justifying what university teachers ought to be doing in higher education teaching and learning. A review of the research literature in journals focused on teaching and…

  17. For Immediate Release --Monday, December 2, 2013 University of Lethbridge researcher plays key role in

    E-print Network

    Morris, Joy

    . In a country like Japan, which has a very elderly population, there's not a huge the reliance of migrant care workers in immigrant-receiving countries like Canada, Japan," explains Dr. McDaniel, Canada Research Chair (Tier 1) in Global Population

  18. Key Implementation Considerations for Executing Evidence-Based Programs: Project Overview. ASPE Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In April 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) hosted a Forum, Emphasizing Evidence-Based Programs for Children and Youth, to convene the nation's leading practitioners and researchers with experience using and evaluating an array of evidence-based…

  19. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  20. Rational Numbers: Fractions and Decimals, Set B, Using Research: A Key to Elementary School Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suydam, Marilyn N.; Weaver, J. Fred

    Reported are suggestions indicated by research studies to eight questions concerning the teaching of rational numbers. (1) Can young children learn fractional concepts? Answer: Manipulative materials are of value to learning in the primary grades. (2) How should the common denominator be determined? Answer: Both factoring and equivalent fractions…

  1. Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBanca, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

  2. Key Technology Research on Open Architecture for The Sharing of Heterogeneous Geographic Analysis Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, S. S.; Wen, Y. N.; Lv, G. N.; Hu, D.

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the increasing development of cloud computing technologies laid critical foundation for efficiently solving complicated geographic issues. However, it is still difficult to realize the cooperative operation of massive heterogeneous geographical models. Traditional cloud architecture is apt to provide centralized solution to end users, while all the required resources are often offered by large enterprises or special agencies. Thus, it's a closed framework from the perspective of resource utilization. Solving comprehensive geographic issues requires integrating multifarious heterogeneous geographical models and data. In this case, an open computing platform is in need, with which the model owners can package and deploy their models into cloud conveniently, while model users can search, access and utilize those models with cloud facility. Based on this concept, the open cloud service strategies for the sharing of heterogeneous geographic analysis models is studied in this article. The key technology: unified cloud interface strategy, sharing platform based on cloud service, and computing platform based on cloud service are discussed in detail, and related experiments are conducted for further verification.

  3. Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks: a key service for diagnosis and research on rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Filocamo, Mirella; Baldo, Chiara; Goldwurm, Stefano; Renieri, Alessandra; Angelini, Corrado; Moggio, Maurizio; Mora, Marina; Merla, Giuseppe; Politano, Luisa; Garavaglia, Barbara; Casareto, Lorena; Bricarelli, Francesca Dagna

    2013-01-01

    Several examples have always illustrated how access to large numbers of biospecimens and associated data plays a pivotal role in the identification of disease genes and the development of pharmaceuticals. Hence, allowing researchers to access to significant numbers of quality samples and data, genetic biobanks are a powerful tool in basic, translational and clinical research into rare diseases. Recently demand for well-annotated and properly-preserved specimens is growing at a high rate, and is expected to grow for years to come. The best effective solution to this issue is to enhance the potentialities of well-managed biobanks by building a network.Here we report a 5-year experience of the Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks (TNGB), a non-profit association of Italian repositories created in 2008 to form a virtually unique catalogue of biospecimens and associated data, which presently lists more than 750 rare genetic defects. The process of TNGB harmonisation has been mainly achieved through the adoption of a unique, centrally coordinated, IT infrastructure, which has enabled (i) standardisation of all the TNGB procedures and activities; (ii) creation of an updated TNGB online catalogue, based on minimal data set and controlled terminologies; (iii) sample access policy managed via a shared request control panel at web portal. TNGB has been engaged in disseminating information on its services into both scientific/biomedical - national and international - contexts, as well as associations of patients and families. Indeed, during the last 5-years national and international scientists extensively used the TNGB with different purposes resulting in more than 250 scientific publications. In addition, since its inception the TNGB is an associated member of the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure and recently joined the EuroBioBank network. Moreover, the involvement of patients and families, leading to the formalization of various agreements between TNGB and Patients' Associations, has demonstrated how promoting Biobank services can be instrumental in gaining a critical mass of samples essential for research, as well as, raising awareness, trust and interest of the general public in Biobanks. This article focuses on some fundamental aspects of networking and demonstrates how the translational research benefits from a sustained infrastructure. PMID:24004821

  4. Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

  5. Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks: a key service for diagnosis and research on rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Several examples have always illustrated how access to large numbers of biospecimens and associated data plays a pivotal role in the identification of disease genes and the development of pharmaceuticals. Hence, allowing researchers to access to significant numbers of quality samples and data, genetic biobanks are a powerful tool in basic, translational and clinical research into rare diseases. Recently demand for well-annotated and properly-preserved specimens is growing at a high rate, and is expected to grow for years to come. The best effective solution to this issue is to enhance the potentialities of well-managed biobanks by building a network. Here we report a 5-year experience of the Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks (TNGB), a non-profit association of Italian repositories created in 2008 to form a virtually unique catalogue of biospecimens and associated data, which presently lists more than 750 rare genetic defects. The process of TNGB harmonisation has been mainly achieved through the adoption of a unique, centrally coordinated, IT infrastructure, which has enabled (i) standardisation of all the TNGB procedures and activities; (ii) creation of an updated TNGB online catalogue, based on minimal data set and controlled terminologies; (iii) sample access policy managed via a shared request control panel at web portal. TNGB has been engaged in disseminating information on its services into both scientific/biomedical - national and international - contexts, as well as associations of patients and families. Indeed, during the last 5-years national and international scientists extensively used the TNGB with different purposes resulting in more than 250 scientific publications. In addition, since its inception the TNGB is an associated member of the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure and recently joined the EuroBioBank network. Moreover, the involvement of patients and families, leading to the formalization of various agreements between TNGB and Patients’ Associations, has demonstrated how promoting Biobank services can be instrumental in gaining a critical mass of samples essential for research, as well as, raising awareness, trust and interest of the general public in Biobanks. This article focuses on some fundamental aspects of networking and demonstrates how the translational research benefits from a sustained infrastructure. PMID:24004821

  6. Key Understandings in School Mathematics: 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article is the first in a series which draws on findings from Nunes, Watson and Bryant (2009): "Key understandings in school mathematics: a report to the Nuffield Foundation." The Nuffield report is soundly based on research about how children learn some of the concepts involved in mathematics. In this series of articles the author takes key

  7. Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhiambo, George; Hii, Amy

    2012-01-01

    There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders' perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were…

  8. Finding my ground in public health research: lessons from my Grandmother's kitchen.

    PubMed

    Koolmatrie, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Research has a 'bad name' in Aboriginal communities. Too often, researchers have come, gathered information and taken it away from Aboriginal people, with no benefit for the communities taking part in the research. This history has implications for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal researchers planning research with Aboriginal communities. An in depth interview study will be conducted in one region of Victoria. Participants will be Aboriginal women who have had a baby within the previous five years. Processes that have been used in preparing to 'step out' into the community to conduct this research are the focus of the paper. PMID:22168372

  9. New research models and novel signal analysis in studies on preterm labor: a key to progress?

    PubMed Central

    Pierzynski, Piotr; Oczeretko, Edward; Laudanski, Piotr; Laudanski, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Preterm labor affects up to 20% of pregnancies, is considered a main cause of associated neonatal morbidity and mortality and is responsible for neonatal care costs of multimillion euros. In spite of that, the commercial market for this clinical indication is rather limited, which may be also related to high liability. Consequently, with only a few exceptions, preterm labor is not in the orbit of great interest of the pharmaceutical industry. Coordinated effort of research community may bring the change and help required to reduce the influence of this multifactorial syndrome on society. Between the novel techniques that are being explored in a SAFE (The Special Non-Invasive Advances in Fetal and Neonatal Evaluation Network) group, there are new research models of preterm labor as well as novel methodology of analysis of biological signals. In this article, we briefly describe new clinical and nonclinical human models of preterm labor as well as summarize some novel methods of data processing and analysis that may be used in the context of preterm labor. PMID:17570166

  10. English-Language Teachers' Engagement with Research: Findings from Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.; Pervin, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report on a small-scale study in which we investigated English-language teachers' engagement with educational research. We conceptualized engagement with research as reading and systematically using research for professional development. Using questionnaires and in-depth interviews, we gathered empirical materials from 40…

  11. Research Activities for the G/C/T Classroom: Finding the Right Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Richard

    1983-01-01

    The article describes five research activities designed to expose elementary gifted students to the resources available for historical and descriptive research. Activities include describing the day of their birth, investigating origins of their street name, examining objects from the past, and researching the lives of famous people. (CL)

  12. 99 Jumpstarts to Research: Topic Guides for Finding Information on Current Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Peggy; Olson, Catherine; Goodwin, Susan Williams

    This book, created by three reference librarians, teaches the beginning researcher good research habits. It provides names of tools students should consult for a well-rounded, well-researched paper on a controversial issue in the news. Books, specialized databases, online resources, and agencies to contact are all included. Each "jumpstart" has…

  13. Thinking Languages in L2 Writing: Research Findings and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Jim

    2003-01-01

    This article reports the findings of part of a major study exploring the disciplinary writing processes and perceptions of 15 Chinese graduate students in sciences and engineering at a major Canadian university. The findings relate to the thinking languages of the participants in writing disciplinary assignments. The study reveals that whether an…

  14. Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

    2013-12-01

    PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact the public, and refine their science with teachers in the field.

  15. Ten key research issues for integrated and sustainable wastewater reuse in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Shomar, Basem; Dare, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Wastewater management is not limited to the technology used to collect and treat wastewater. It begins with the early planning phase of building a society and includes considerations of how that society will grow. Therefore, history, culture, religion, and socioeconomy are important components to include in any relevant and integrated studies of wastewater management and reuse. Engineering, health, chemistry, biology, food production, cultural heritage, and the needs of people of all ages should be considered together when making management decisions regarding issues so intimately tied with humanity as water and sanitation. Other escalating challenges such as poverty, food, and water scarcity, migration and instability, flooding and catastrophes, diseases and mortality, etc. should also be considered as part of wastewater management and reuse planning. Emerging contaminants could be associated with the urbanization, modernization, and industrialization of several countries. Several arid countries have developed water security strategies where wastewater reuse is a major component. The existing wastewater treatment technologies in these countries are, in most cases, unable to remove such contaminants which may affect irrigation waters, industrial products, groundwater, etc. People would have to accept that the food on their tables could be irrigated with treated wastewater that they generated a few months ago, even if very advanced technologies were used to treat it. The purpose of this review is to highlight multidisciplinary areas of research on wastewater and to propose applicable and affordable mechanisms by which we may consider wastewater as a legitimate resource. PMID:25427896

  16. Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Middle School: Opportunities, Constraints, and Key Processes

    PubMed Central

    Ritterman, Miranda L.; Wanis, Maggie G.

    2010-01-01

    Late childhood and early adolescence represent a critical transition in the developmental and academic trajectory of youth, a time in which there is an upsurge in academic disengagement and psychopathology. PAR projects that can promote youth’s sense of meaningful engagement in school and a sense of efficacy and mattering can be particularly powerful given the challenges of this developmental stage. In the present study, we draw on data from our own collaborative implementation of PAR projects in secondary schools to consider two central questions: (1) How do features of middle school settings and the developmental characteristics of the youth promote or inhibit the processes, outcomes, and sustainability of the PAR endeavor? and (2) How can the broad principles and concepts of PAR be effectively translated into specific intervention activities in schools, both within and outside of the classroom? In particular, we discuss a participatory research project conducted with 6th and 7th graders at an urban middle school as a means of highlighting the opportunities, constraints, and lessons learned in our efforts to contribute to the high-quality implementation and evaluation of PAR in diverse urban public schools. PMID:20676754

  17. NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find Resveratrol helps protect against cardiovascular disease in animal study June 3, 2014 Resveratrol, a compound found ... translatable to humans. Multiple studies on resveratrol in animal models, however, have presented ample evidence to support ...

  18. Diel patterns of soil respiration in a moist subtropical forest: key drivers and future research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez del Arroyo, O.; Wood, T. E.

    2014-12-01

    Moist tropical forests have the highest soil respiration rates (Rs) of any terrestrial ecosystem and account for approximately one third of the world's soil carbon (C) pool. Small increases in the magnitude of Rs in these ecosystems can result in high rates of soil C loss, with significant consequences for global climate change. Identifying the climatic controls of Rs in moist subtropical forests will improve our ability to predict how this large C flux will respond to climate change. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether Rs varies on diel timescales, (2) whether diel Rs patterns vary seasonally, and (3) identify biophysical drivers of this temporal variation. We measured hourly Rs in a secondary, moist subtropical forest in Puerto Rico for a 3-year period using an automated soil respiration system (LI-COR 8100/8150 with six chambers). Concomitant with Rs we measured hourly variation in several climatic drivers (air/soil temperature, soil moisture, relative humidity, and photosynthetically active radiation). Soil respiration showed significant diel variation, with the magnitude, amplitude, and shape of these curves varying throughout the year. Overall, diel Rs peaked in the late afternoon and reached a minimum in the early morning. Diel amplitudes ranged from 1 to 7 ?mol CO2 m-2 s-1, with larger amplitudes occurring in warmer months that also have higher rates of Rs. In warmer months Rs exhibited a strong bimodal pattern, and a narrower diel range with a single peak in cooler and drier months. Diel Rs was positively correlated with soil temperature, but this relationship was non-linear during the day and linear at night (i.e., hysteresis). The bimodal pattern of Rs may be due to a mid-day depression of photosynthesis when humidity is low and air temperature is high, thereby reducing transport of photosynthate to the roots and decreasing rhizospheric respiration. The hysteresis between Rs and temperature suggests multiple controls on Rs on diel time-scales. Research that partitions Rs into its components could provide insight into their respective sensitivities to different climatic drivers, improving our capacity to understand the effects of climate change on the tropical forest C cycle.

  19. InSITEs into Practitioner Research: Findings from a Research-Based ESOL Teacher Professional Development Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Matt; Kiely, Richard; Askham, James

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an innovative continuing professional development (CPD) programme for experienced English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) teachers, and a research study into its impact. The programme incorporates the principles of Practitioner Research (PR) and focuses in particular on the skills of data analysis and situated…

  20. Still in the Shadows with Their Future Uncertain. A Report on Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), 2011. Summary of Key Findings and a Call to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lynda; Larson, Sheryl A.; Wuorio, Allise; Lakin, K. Charlie

    2011-01-01

    In light of the fiftieth anniversary of President Kennedy's call to action back in 1961, The Arc wanted to know if people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are still living in the shadows. So, they launched a national online survey, Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), from July 22, 2010 to October 31,…

  1. WHO Atlas on Global Resources for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities 2007: Key Findings Relevant for Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Celine; Saxena, Shekhar; Lecomte, Jocelin; Cumbrera, Marco Garrido; Harnois, Gaston

    2008-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Atlas-ID project was designed to collect, compile, and disseminate information on intellectual disabilities (ID) services and resources from across the world. This paper aims at selecting findings in the Atlas-ID that can be used as a tool for advocacy, human rights awareness, development planning, and…

  2. Development of CAI Presentations for Science Teaching and Overview of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Mridula D.

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests that information and communication technologies (ICT) used in the form of computer assisted instruction (CAI) may benefit student learning. There is, however, limited research about the application of CAI in non-Western educational contexts. Here I describe the use of CAI in the learning of science in India. Evaluation of student…

  3. Broad Claims from Slender Findings: Early Literacy Research and Educational Policy Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.

    A study of state educational policymaking revealed a number of instances where assertions have been made about what the "research says" in offering support for particular policies; however, in many of these instances the available research seems to have been distorted or exaggerated in order to better leverage particular policy proposals. The role…

  4. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

    2005-01-01

    Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

  5. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study represents a one year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving two dist...

  6. Research: Value-Added Assessment Findings--Poor Kids Get Poor Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    The Summer 2004 issue of Research Points, a four-page flier from the American Educational Research Association, opens with the fundamental case for value-added assessment: Today's accountability systems place the blame on schools for inadequate student academic achievement, which seems unfair to many people. They believe that family background and…

  7. What They Take with Them: Findings from the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Bradley; Gillespie, Paula; Kail, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Through the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project (PWTARP), the authors have set out to explore and document what peer tutors take with them from their training and experience. The Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project has made it possible for the authors to sample and analyze more systematically the reflections of 126 former tutors from…

  8. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  9. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE NIHfunded research leads to thousands of new scientific findings every year. These incremental

    E-print Network

    Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    research. Ebola Research ­ The Ebola outbreak that began in 2014 in West Africa is the largest to identify the origin and track transmission of the Ebola virus and used computer model projections to successfully treat a nurse who had contracted the Ebola virus. A large NIHsponsored clinical trial to assess

  10. NINE KEY FUNCTIONS FOR A HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR COMMUNITY-ENGAGED RESEARCH: POINTS TO CONSIDER1

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The Ethical Conduct of Community-engaged research (CEnR), of which the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) model is the partnership model most widely discussed in the CEnR literature and is the primary model we draw upon in this discussion, requires an integrated and comprehensive human subjects protection (HSP) program that addresses the additional concerns salient to CEnR where members of a community are both research partners and participants. As delineated in the federal regulations, the backbone of a HSP program is the fulfillment of nine functions: (1) minimize risks; (2) reasonable benefit-risk ratio; (3) fair subject selection; (4) adequate monitoring; (5) informed consent; (6) privacy and confidentiality; (7) conflicts of interest; (8) address vulnerabilities; and (9) HSP training. The federal regulations, however, do not consider the risks and harms that may occur to groups, and these risks have not traditionally been included in the benefit: risk analysis nor have they been incorporated into an HSP framework. We explore additional HSP issues raised by CEnR within these nine ethical functions. Various entities exist that can provide HSP—the investigator, the Institutional Review Board, the Conflict of Interest Committee, the Research Ethics Consultation program, the Research Subject Advocacy program, the Data and Safety Monitoring Plan, and the Community Advisory Board. Protection is best achieved if these entities are coordinated to ensure that no gaps exist, to minimize unnecessary redundancy, and to provide checks and balances between the different entities of HSP and the nine functions that they must realize. The document is structured to provide a “points-to-consider” roadmap for HSP entities to help them adequately address the nine key functions necessary to provide adequate protection of individuals and communities in CEnR. PMID:20235862

  11. Research foci for career and technical education: findings from a national Delphi study 

    E-print Network

    Lambeth, Jeanea Marie

    2009-05-15

    is to be chosen depends on the problems that are to be solved? (Heylighen, 1993). Gall, Gall, and Borg (2003) contended that ?behavioral researchers in education and psychology exemplify an approach to scientific inquiry that is grounded in positivist...

  12. The European antibody network's practical guide to finding and validating suitable antibodies for research.

    PubMed

    Roncador, Giovanna; Engel, Pablo; Maestre, Lorena; Anderson, Amanda P; Cordell, Jacqueline L; Cragg, Mark S; Šerbec, Vladka ?; Jones, Margaret; Lisnic, Vanda J; Kremer, Leonor; Li, Demin; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich; Pascual, Núria; Rodríguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio; Torensma, Ruurd; Turley, Helen; Pulford, Karen; Banham, Alison H

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies are widely exploited as research/diagnostic tools and therapeutics. Despite providing exciting research opportunities, the multitude of available antibodies also offers a bewildering array of choice. Importantly, not all companies comply with the highest standards, and thus many reagents fail basic validation tests. The responsibility for antibodies being fit for purpose rests, surprisingly, with their user. This paper condenses the extensive experience of the European Monoclonal Antibody Network to help researchers identify antibodies specific for their target antigen. A stepwise strategy is provided for prioritising antibodies and making informed decisions regarding further essential validation requirements. Web-based antibody validation guides provide practical approaches for testing antibody activity and specificity. We aim to enable researchers with little or no prior experience of antibody characterization to understand how to determine the suitability of their antibody for its intended purpose, enabling both time and cost effective generation of high quality antibody-based data fit for publication. PMID:26418356

  13. NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect Against Diabetes in Animal Study

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the body cannot regulate its blood sugar. Rhesus monkeys were fed either a standard diet, a high ... 24 months. Researchers found that the islets of monkeys on a high fat/high sugar diet supplemented ...

  14. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

  15. Natriuretic peptides, heart, and adipose tissue: new findings and future developments for diabetes research.

    PubMed

    Gruden, Gabriella; Landi, Andrea; Bruno, Graziella

    2014-11-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) play a key role in cardiovascular homeostasis, counteracting the deleterious effects of volume and pressure overload and activating antibrotic and antihypertrophic pathways in the heart. N-terminal B-type NP (NT-proBNP) also is a promising biomarker of global cardiovascular risk in the general population, and there is increasing interest on its potential use in diabetic patients for screening of silent cardiovascular abnormalities, cardiovascular risk stratification, and guided intervention. Recently, both atrial NP (ANP) and B-type NP (BNP) have emerged as key mediators in the control of metabolic processes including the heart in the network of organs that regulate energy usage and metabolism. Epidemiological studies have shown that ANP and BNP are reduced in people with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes, and this deficiency may contribute to enhance their global cardiovascular risk. Moreover, ANP and BNP have receptors in the adipose tissue, enhance lipolysis and energy expenditure, and modulate adipokine release and food intake. Therefore, low ANP and BNP levels may be not only a consequence but also a cause of obesity, and recent prospective studies have shown that low levels of NT-proBNP and midregional proANP (MR-proANP) are a strong predictor of type 2 diabetes onset. Whether ANP and BNP supplementation may result in either cardiovascular or metabolic benefits in humans remains, however, to be established. PMID:25342830

  16. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  17. An Example of the Use of Research Methods and Findings as an Experiential Learning Exercise in an Accounting Theory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bublitz, Bruce; Philipich, Kirk; Blatz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching note is to describe an experiential learning exercise used in a master's level financial accounting theory course. The experiential exercise illustrates how order effects can affect user's judgments, a long-standing research finding. This experiential exercise was used in an attempt to make students more cognizant of…

  18. Bonus Awards for Teachers in Texas' Performance Pay Program: Findings from the First Round of TEEG Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this evaluation report, researchers examined how first-year TEEG schools…

  19. OHIO RIVER BASIN ENERGY STUDY: AIR QUALITY AND RELATED IMPACTS. VOLUME I. DOCUMENTATION IN SUPPORT OF KEY ORBES AIR QUALITY FINDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report was prepared as part of the Ohio River Basin Energy Study (ORBES), a multi-disciplinary research program supported by the Environmental Protection Agency. The extensive air quality analysis undertaken for the ORBES included examination of pollutant emissions and resul...

  20. Conclusions: Overview of Findings from the ERA Study, Inferences, and Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors have brought the findings of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study up to age 15 years and, in so doing, have focused especially on the question of whether there are deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs) that differ meaningfully from other forms of psychopathology. For this purpose, their main…

  1. Research Methods into Language/Code Switching and Synthesis of Findings into Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitch, Kristine L.

    While language switching among multilinguals has been studied in a wide variety of contexts, few attempts have been made to generalize or to integrate findings into useful communication theory. Since language switching is an important part of personal as well as group identity and since issues surrounding language identity are often a focal point…

  2. Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy--key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey.

    PubMed

    Norton, L R; Maskell, L C; Smart, S S; Dunbar, M J; Emmett, B A; Carey, P D; Williams, P; Crowe, A; Chandler, K; Scott, W A; Wood, C M

    2012-12-30

    Countryside Survey is a unique large scale long-term monitoring programme investigating stock and change of habitats, landscape features, vegetation, soil and freshwaters of Great Britain. Repeat field surveys combine policy and scientific objectives to provide evidence on how multiple aspects of the environment are changing over time, a key goal of international science in the face of profound human impacts on ecosystems. Countryside Survey 2007 (CS2007), the fifth survey since 1978, retained consistency with previous surveys, whilst evolving in line with technological and conceptual advances in the collection and integration of data to understand landscape change. This paper outlines approaches taken in the 2007 survey and its subsequent analysis and presents some of the headline results of the survey and their relevance for national and international policy objectives. Key changes between 1998 and 2007 included: a) significant shifts in agricultural land cover from arable to grassland, accompanied by increases in the area of broadleaved woodland, b) decreases in the length of managed hedges associated with agricultural land, as a proportion deteriorated to lines of trees and c) increases in the areas and numbers of wet habitats (standing open water, ponds) and species preferring wetter conditions (1998-2007 and 1978-2007). Despite international policy directed at maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, there were widespread decreases in species richness in all linear and area habitats, except on arable land, consistent with an increase in competitive and late successional species between 1998 and 2007 and 1978 and 2007. Late successional and competitive species: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Hawthorn (Cratageous monogyna) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), in the top ten recorded species recorded in 2007, all increased between 1998 and 2007. The most commonly recorded species in CS (1990, 1998 and 2007) was agricultural Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Increases in both water quality and soil pH were in line with policy aimed at addressing previous deterioration of both. Headwater streams broadly showed continued improvements in biological quality from 1998 to 2007, continuing trends seen since 1990. In soils, there were significant increases in soil pH between 1998 and 2007 consistent with recovery from acidification. PMID:23010623

  3. Informed Consent for Exome Sequencing Research in Families with Genetic Disease: The Emerging Issue of Incidental Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bergner, Amanda L.; Bollinger, Juli; Raraigh, Karen S.; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Blout, Carrie Lynn; Telegrafi, Aida Bytyci; James, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic sequencing technology is increasingly used in genetic research. Studies of informed consent for exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) research have largely involved hypothetical scenarios or healthy individuals enrolling in population-based studies. Studies have yet to explore the consent experiences of adults with inherited disease. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 15 adults recently enrolled in a large-scale ES/GS study (11 affected adults, four parents of affected children). Our study had two goals: (1) to explore three theoretical barriers to consent for ES/GS research (interpretive/technical complexity, possibility of incidental findings, and risks of loss of privacy); and (2) to explore how interviewees experienced the consent process. Interviewees could articulate study goals and processes, describe incidental findings, discuss risks of privacy loss, and reflect on their consent experience. Few expected the study would identify the genetic cause of their condition. All elected to receive incidental findings. Interviewees acknowledged paying little attention to potential implications of incidental findings in light of more pressing goals of supporting research regarding their own medical conditions. Interviewees suggested that experience living with a genetic condition prepared them to adjust to incidental findings. Interviewees also expressed little concern about loss of confidentiality of study data. Some experienced the consent process as very long. None desired reconsent prior to return of study results. Families with inherited disease likely would benefit from a consent process in which study risks and benefits were discussed in the context of prior experiences with genetic research and genetic disease. PMID:25251809

  4. Florida Keys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

    This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

    Size: 51.6 by 29.7 kilometers ( 32.0 by 18.4 miles) Location: 24.7 degrees North latitude, 81.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1, 2, and 3 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Date Acquired: October 28, 2001

  5. Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. Methods During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. Results A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n?=?24), English (n?=?20), Hindi (n?=?20), and Urdu (n?=?20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n?=?43) and men (n?=?41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as “incidental research participants”, the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. Conclusions This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This investigation illustrates how potential research participants perceive research participation. Fundamentally, Western ethical research principles were applicable, but required flexibility and culturally informed adaptations. PMID:24495499

  6. Steps to Strengthen Ethics in Organizations: Research Findings, Ethics Placebos, and What Works

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization’s misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

  7. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  8. What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures of…

  9. An Attachment Perspective on the Child--Dog Bond: Interdisciplinary and International Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of attachment formation in young children has been a focal point in child development research for decades. However, young children's attachments are not only with human beings; they also form bonds with companion animals, particularly dogs ("Canis familiaris"). Given the number of dogs that are kept by families…

  10. Standardization in EU Education and Training Policy: Findings from a European Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Hubert; Phillips, David

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an EU-funded project under the Training and Mobility of Researchers (TMR) Programme, with a particular emphasis on the Oxford-based part. Involving six European universities, the overarching investigation was concerned with the tensions between standardization and tradition in education. In Oxford the focus was on aspects of…

  11. Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

  12. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  13. Finding Voice through Teacher-Student Collaboration in a Feminist Research Project: Long-Term Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fey, Marion Harris

    In a feminist classroom an instructor who acts as an "interested party" rather than an authority, fosters an environment of care and connection which can result in life-changing discoveries for the participants. Drawing on David Bleich's conception of a "socially generous research" that removes hierarchical barriers between teacher and student, a…

  14. The Challenge of Finding Faculty Time for Applied Research Activities in Ontario Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenkrantz, Otte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the role of Ontario college faculty has evolved since the advent of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act of 2000 and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act of 2002 in terms of whether or not the decision to create a research culture at the colleges included making time…

  15. Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

  16. Research on College Science Teaching. Part II: Findings and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koran, John J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Identifies and discusses some areas of research and practice that are of current interest or utility at the college level. Areas discussed include instructional objectives, advance organizers, self-pacing and audio-tutorial systems, teacher behavior, and evaluation instrumentation. (GS)

  17. Designing for Dissemination Among Public Health Researchers: Findings From a National Survey in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Julie A.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We have described the practice of designing for dissemination among researchers in the United States with the intent of identifying gaps and areas for improvement. Methods. In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 266 researchers using a search of the top 12 public health journals in PubMed and lists available from government-sponsored research. The sample involved scientists at universities, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Results. In the pooled sample, 73% of respondents estimated they spent less than 10% of their time on dissemination. About half of respondents (53%) had a person or team in their unit dedicated to dissemination. Seventeen percent of all respondents used a framework or theory to plan their dissemination activities. One third of respondents (34%) always or usually involved stakeholders in the research process. Conclusions. The current data and the existing literature suggest considerable room for improvement in designing for dissemination. PMID:23865659

  18. Social and Emotional Distress among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Ardy SixKiller

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are repeatedly exposed to opportunities to participate in self-destructive and illegal behaviors. This digest examines risk factors associated with four contexts: peers, family, school, and community. Recent research has shown that, relative to national averages, AI/AN youth have higher rates of…

  19. Strategies for Improving Rehearsal Technique: Using Research Findings to Promote Better Rehearsals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvey, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Music education researchers and conducting pedagogues have identified numerous behaviors that contribute to increased verbal and nonverbal teaching effectiveness of conductors on the podium. This article is a review of literature concerning several conductor behaviors that may (a) increase the effectiveness of rehearsals, (b) enhance the…

  20. Socioeconomic Status and the Undergraduate Engineering Experience: Preliminary Findings from Four American Universities. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Krista; Lichtenstein, Gary; Sheppard, Sheri

    2008-01-01

    Students of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be underrepresented in American higher education, particularly at four-year institutions and more selective universities. Education researchers have shown that in the four year period following high school, low SES students are less likely to persist to a bachelor's degree or have graduate…

  1. Reporting and Interpreting Quantitative Research Findings: What Gets Reported and Recommendations for the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson-Hall, Jenifer; Plonsky, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a set of guidelines for reporting on five types of quantitative data issues: (1) Descriptive statistics, (2) Effect sizes and confidence intervals, (3) Instrument reliability, (4) Visual displays of data, and (5) Raw data. Our recommendations are derived mainly from various professional sources related to L2 research but…

  2. A Preview of Recent Findings About EMH Students to Films. Research Report No. 744.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Jack H.

    The model developed by the Computer Based Project for the Evaluation of Media for the Handicapped in Syracuse, New York to evaluate the use of captioned films for the deaf with mentally handicapped and emotionally disturbed children is briefly described, followed by a review of recent research conducted by the project staff. Among the areas which…

  3. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  4. Finding the right doctoral thesis – an innovative research fair for medical students

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R.; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the CanMEDS framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects. Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called DoktaMed with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. DoktaMed is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of DoktaMed rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor"). They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting DoktaMed as a worthwhile investment of time. Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting DoktaMed. However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that DoktaMed focuses on now. Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of DoktaMed is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects. PMID:26413167

  5. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  6. Toward a sustainable biomedical research enterprise: Finding consensus and implementing recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Christopher L; Corb, Benjamin W; Matthews, C Robert; Sundquist, Wesley I; Berg, Jeremy M

    2015-09-01

    The US research enterprise is under significant strain due to stagnant funding, an expanding workforce, and complex regulations that increase costs and slow the pace of research. In response, a number of groups have analyzed the problems and offered recommendations for resolving these issues. However, many of these recommendations lacked follow-up implementation, allowing the damage of stagnant funding and outdated policies to persist. Here, we analyze nine reports published since the beginning of 2012 and consolidate over 250 suggestions into eight consensus recommendations made by the majority of the reports. We then propose how to implement these consensus recommendations, and we identify critical issues, such as improving workforce diversity and stakeholder interactions, on which the community has yet to achieve consensus. PMID:26195768

  7. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  8. Toward a sustainable biomedical research enterprise: Finding consensus and implementing recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Christopher L.; Corb, Benjamin W.; Matthews, C. Robert; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Berg, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The US research enterprise is under significant strain due to stagnant funding, an expanding workforce, and complex regulations that increase costs and slow the pace of research. In response, a number of groups have analyzed the problems and offered recommendations for resolving these issues. However, many of these recommendations lacked follow-up implementation, allowing the damage of stagnant funding and outdated policies to persist. Here, we analyze nine reports published since the beginning of 2012 and consolidate over 250 suggestions into eight consensus recommendations made by the majority of the reports. We then propose how to implement these consensus recommendations, and we identify critical issues, such as improving workforce diversity and stakeholder interactions, on which the community has yet to achieve consensus. PMID:26195768

  9. Dental unit waterline contamination: a review of research and findings from a clinic setting.

    PubMed

    Wirthlin, M Robert; Roth, Mollie

    2015-03-01

    The interior of small-diameter tubing in dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) creates an attractive environment for the growth of biofilm and bacteria. Substantial research shows that troublesome and potentially pathogenic bacteria have been found in DUWLs, and scant peer-reviewed information from which to evaluate chemical treatment options has been historically available. The authors' research compares three DUWL cleaners-an alkaline peroxide product, a freshly mixed chlorine dioxide product, and a buffer-stabilized chlorine dioxide product-in 16 dental units with self-contained water systems over a 10-day working period to determine the optimal chemical treatment option. The study found chlorine dioxide waterline cleaners to be most effective in containing DUWL contaminations. PMID:25822748

  10. Contributions to Cancer Research: Finding a Niche in Communication | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    This past July, I started a journey into the fields of communications and cancer research when I joined the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) as a fellow in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Health Communications Internship Program (HCIP). Cancer genomics and working in an office were new and uncharted territory for me: before I came to OCG, I was finishing a Ph.D. in cell biology at Vanderbilt University in Dr. Matthew Tyska’s laboratory.

  11. Proceedings of Student-Faculty Research Day, CSIS, Pace University, May 3rd Developing a Quantum Key Distribution Simulator

    E-print Network

    Tappert, Charles

    a Quantum Key Distribution Simulator Sam Aybar, Richard Harrison, Inti Sairitupa, Jay Thomas, and Ronald I, jt11701p, rfrank}@pace.edu Abstract Quantum Key Distribution allows for the secure transmission encryption methods insecure. This paper details the upgrading of a Quantum Key Distribution simulator

  12. )OML is a federal oceanic and atmospheric research lab built in 1973 on Virginia Key, and is a part of the National

    E-print Network

    of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). AOML car- ries out world-class research)OML is a federal oceanic and atmospheric research lab built in 1973 on Virginia Key, and is a part in the study of hurricanes and oceanic processes related to climate and healthy coastal oceans. AOML

  13. The educational gradient in marital disruption: a meta-analysis of European research findings.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta; Vignoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    A large number of empirical studies have investigated the effects of women's education on union dissolution in Europe, but results have varied substantially. This paper seeks to assess the relationship between educational attainment and the incidence of marital disruption by systematizing the existing empirical evidence. A quantitative literature review (a meta-analysis) was conducted to investigate the temporal change in the relationship, net of inter-study differences. The results point to a weakening of the positive educational gradient in marital disruption over time and even to a reversal in the direction of this gradient in some countries. The findings also show that the change in the educational gradient can be linked to an increase in access to divorce. Finally, the results suggest that women's empowerment has played an important role in changing the educational gradient, while the liberalization of divorce laws has not. PMID:24279466

  14. Key Findings from Preclinical and Clinical Drug Interaction Studies Presented in New Drug and Biological License Applications Approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingjing; Ritchie, Tasha K; Zhou, Zhu; Ragueneau-Majlessi, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory approval documents contain valuable information, often not published, to assess the drug-drug interaction (DDI) profile of newly marketed drugs. This analysis aimed to systematically review all drug metabolism, transport, pharmacokinetics, and DDI data available in the new drug applications and biologic license applications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2014, using the University of Washington Drug Interaction Database, and to highlight the significant findings. Among the 30 new drug applications and 11 biologic license applications reviewed, 35 new molecular entities (NMEs) were well characterized with regard to drug metabolism, transport, and/or organ impairment and were fully analyzed in this review. In vitro, a majority of the NMEs were found to be substrates or inhibitors/inducers of at least one drug metabolizing enzyme or transporter. In vivo, when NMEs were considered as victim drugs, 16 NMEs had at least one in vivo DDI study with a clinically significant change in exposure (area under the time-plasma concentration curve or Cmax ratio ?2 or ?0.5), with 6 NMEs shown to be sensitive substrates of cytochrome P450 enzymes (area under the time-plasma concentration curve ratio ?5 when coadministered with potent inhibitors): paritaprevir and naloxegol (CYP3A), eliglustat (CYP2D6), dasabuvir (CYP2C8), and tasimelteon and pirfenidone (CYP1A2). As perpetrators, seven NMEs showed clinically significant inhibition involving both enzymes and transporters, although no clinically significant induction was observed. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling and pharmacogenetics studies were used for six and four NMEs, respectively, to optimize dosing recommendations in special populations and/or multiple impairment situations. In addition, the pharmacokinetic evaluations in patients with hepatic or renal impairment provided useful quantitative information to support drug administration in these fragile populations. PMID:26424199

  15. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines and places is essential if we are to develop viable measures and approaches to soil and water conservation across the globe. In this paper we will provide an overview of the topics that are addressed in this session and give an overview of the current research in this field and using the insights we will aim to present a new research agenda oriented towards a significant impact in economic and environmental sustainability.

  16. PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénassy, O.; Caron, C.; Ferret-Canape, C.; Cheylus, A.; Courcelle, E.; Dantec, C.; Dayre, P.; Dostes, T.; Durand, A.; Facq, A.; Gambini, G.; Geahchan, E.; Helft, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Ingarao, M.; Joly, P.; Kieffer, J.; Larré, J.-M.; Libes, M.; Morris, F.; Parmentier, H.; Pérochon, L.; Porte, O.; Romier, G.; Rousse, D.; Tournoy, R.; Valeins, H.

    2014-06-01

    PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarEFor theHigher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA...), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME by more than 900 contributors. Although the server is maintained by a French institution, it is open to international contributions in the academic domain. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas (presently more than 2000) registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. The project has been presented to the HEP community in 2012 for the first time [1]. This is an update of the status and a call for (further) contributions.

  17. Factors predicting the use of technology: findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE).

    PubMed

    Czaja, Sara J; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18-91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579

  18. Factors Predicting the Use of Technology: Findings From the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE)

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D.; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579

  19. The impact of migration on gender roles: findings of field research in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, A

    1994-01-01

    "This article suggests an alternative approach to unravel the impact of migration experiences on gender roles of women [in Turkey].... Analysis of the pre-migration settings of women included in this study involves an attempt to delineate background characteristics, including types of marriage and family arrangements, levels of education and work experiences outside the household in order to assess relative impact on their post-migration characteristics.... Differences among the women in terms of their exposure to migration have also been taken into account as part of their migration experiences.... The main focus of the research is changing gender roles of women rather than their emancipation." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND SPA) PMID:12346405

  20. Disaster Media Coverage and Psychological Outcomes: Descriptive Findings in the Extant Research

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Rahman, Ambreen

    2014-01-01

    This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and media formats studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both natural and man-made events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other media formats—newspapers, radio, and internet (including social media)—that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional formats especially newer formats such as social media. PMID:25064691

  1. Adjuvant therapy of primary breast cancer: a review of key findings from the 7th international conference, St. Gallen, February 2001.

    PubMed

    Aapro, M S

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer research has developed at a rapid pace over the last decades. Recent discoveries promise to provide individualized treatment options, increased long-term survival for women with breast cancer, and the possibility of moving toward curative intent in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Age, race, tumor size, histological tumor type, axillary nodal status, standardized pathological grade, and hormone-receptor status are accepted as established prognostic and/or predictive factors for selection of systemic adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. The role of other promising new factors, such as p53 mutations, HER-2 status, plasminogen activator system, histological evidence of vascular invasion, and quantitative parameters of angiogenesis will be determined in ongoing prospective studies. Currently, 5 years' treatment with adjuvant tamoxifen in women with hormone-positive receptor status, is regarded as the optimal duration of treatment. Long-term follow-up on the randomized trials will determine the added benefit of treatment beyond 5 years. Ovarian ablation has shown a reduction in recurrence and death, and the exact role and extent of adjuvant chemotherapy in premenopausal women with hormone-responsive tumors is under discussion. Combination hormonal and chemo-hormonal therapies are also being evaluated. There are no convincing data on the survival impact of tamoxifen as a preventative therapy for breast cancer: longer-term follow-up is required, and the planned meta-analyses in 2005 should help shed light on this issue. Statistically significant benefits have been observed with adjuvant chemotherapy (particularly with anthracycline-containing regimens in premenopausal women) versus no adjuvant chemotherapy. The optimal length of adjuvant anthracycline/cyclophosphamide (AC) regimens needs further evaluation as do randomized comparisons of AC to cyclophosphamide/ doxorubicin/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cyclophosphamide/epirubicin/5-FU. Although taxanes promise to provide an additive benefit to adjuvant chemotherapy regimens, the Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9344 and the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-28 studies evaluating paclitaxel in the adjuvant setting have not yet demonstrated statistically significant benefits on disease-free survival and overall survival. In the year 2000, all adjuvant therapy studies conducted by the Co-operative Groups in both node-negative and node-positive disease involve a taxane. High-dose chemotherapy evaluations are still ongoing. The numerous prospective adjuvant therapy trials (hormonal; selective estrogen-receptor modulators; aromatase inhibitors; chemotherapy, involving anthracyclines/taxanes/platinum/trastuzumab; biological factors; elderly women (>70 years); high-risk patients; radiotherapy in 1-3 positive lymph nodes), and neoadjuvant studies might further define the chances to enhance cure rates in the treatment of primary breast cancer. PMID:11524557

  2. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Process of Care Research Branch Process of Care Research Branch (PCRB) Key Initiatives The

  3. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Process of Care Research Branch Process of Care Research Branch (PCRB) Key Initiatives Priority Areas for

  4. DCCPS: BRP: HBRB: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Health Behaviors Research Branch Health Behaviors Research Branch (HBRB) Key Initiatives Transdisciplinary

  5. The prevalence of questionable occlusal caries lesions: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Makhija, Sonia K; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Bader, James D; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rindal, D. Brad; Bauer, Michael; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Qvist, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Questionable occlusal caries (QOC) can be defined as clinically-suspected caries with no cavitation or radiographic evidence of occlusal caries. To our knowledge, its prevalence has not been quantified; this was the objective of this study. Methods A total of 82 dentist and hygienist practitioner-investigators from “The Dental Practice-Based Research Network” (DPBRN) participated. When patients presented with at least one unrestored occlusal surface, their number of unrestored occlusal surfaces and QOC were quantified. Information also was recorded about patient characteristics on consented patients who had QOC. Data analysis adjusted for patient clustering within practices. Results Overall, 6,910 patients had at least one unrestored occlusal surface, with a total of 50,445 unrestored surfaces. Thirty-four percent of all patients and 11% of unrestored surfaces among all patients had QOC. Patient- and surface-level QOC prevalence varied significantly by region (p<0.001; p<0.03). The highest percent for patient-and surface-level prevalence was in Florida/Georgia (42%; 16%). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the prevalence of QOC in routine clinical practice. These results document a high prevalence overall, with wide variation in prevalence among DPBRN’s five main regions. Clinical Implications QOC lesions are common in routine practice and warrant further investigation regarding how best to manage them. PMID:23204090

  6. Self-disturbances in Schizophrenia: History, Phenomenology, and Relevant Findings From Research on Metacognition

    PubMed Central

    Mishara, Aaron L.

    2014-01-01

    With a tradition of examining self-disturbances (Ichstörungen) in schizophrenia, phenomenological psychiatry studies the person’s subjective experience without imposing theoretical agenda on what is reported. Although this tradition offers promising interface with current neurobiological models of schizophrenia, both the concept of Ichstörung and its history are not well understood. In this article, we discuss the meaning of Ichstörung, the role it played in the development of the concept of schizophrenia, and recent research on metacognition that allows for the quantitative study of the link between self-disturbance and outcome in schizophrenia. Phenomenological psychiatrists such as Blankenburg, Binswanger, and Conrad interpreted the Ichstörung as disturbed relationship to self and others, thus challenging recent efforts to interpret self-disturbance as diminished pure passive self-affection, which putatively “explains” schizophrenia and its various symptoms. Narrative is a reflective, embodied process, which requires a dynamic shifting of perspectives which, when compromised, may reflect disrupted binding of the components of self-experience. The Metacognition Assessment Scale—abbreviated as MAS-A—suggests that persons with schizophrenia tend to produce narratives with reductions in the binding processes required to produce an integrated, embodied self within narrated life stories, and in interactive relationships with others. PMID:24319117

  7. Gene-sodium interaction and blood pressure: findings from genomics research of blood pressure salt sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Tanika N; He, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a complex trait determined by both genetic and environmental factors, as well as the interactions between these factors. Over the past few decades, there has been substantial progress in elucidating the genetic determinants underlying the BP response to sodium intake, or BP salt sensitivity. Research of monogenic BP disorders has highlighted the importance of renal salt handling in BP regulation, implicating genes and biological pathways related to salt sensitivity. Candidate gene studies have contributed important information toward understanding the genomic mechanisms underlying the BP response to salt intake, identifying genes in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renal sodium channels/transporters, and the endothelial system related to this phenotype. Despite these advancements, genome-wide association studies are still needed to uncover novel mechanisms underlying salt sensitivity, while future sequencing efforts promise the discovery of functional variants related to this complex trait. Delineating the genetic architecture of salt sensitivity will be critical to understanding how genes and dietary sodium interact to influence BP. PMID:22656380

  8. Rubber dam use during root canal treatment: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Anabtawi, Mona F.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Bauer, Michael R.; Reams, Gregg; Makhija, Sonia K.; Benjamin, Paul L.; Williams, O. Dale

    2012-01-01

    Background The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) provides a venue to investigate whether certain procedures are performed routinely. Study objectives were to: (1) quantify rubber dam use during root canal treatment (RCT) among general dentists; (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentist or practice characteristics are associated with its use. Methods DPBRN practitioner-investigators participated in a questionnaire that included items about rubber dam use and other forms of isolation during root RCT. DPBRN Enrollment Questionnaire data provided certain practitioner and practice characteristics. Results A total of 729 practitioners responded (74%); 524 were general dentists and indicated they do RCT and the percentage of RCT in which they use a rubber dam. Of these 524, 44% use rubber dam for all RCTs; 24% use it for 51%–99% of RCTs; 17% use it for 1%–50%; 15% never use it during RCT. Usage varied significantly by geographic region and practice type. Cotton rolls and other forms of isolation were also reported. Conclusions Similar to other reports in the literature, not all DPBRN general dentists use a rubber dam during RCT. Clinical implications Because the current clinical standard of care is to use a rubber dam during RCT, increasing its use may be important. PMID:23372134

  9. Participatory Action Research in Public Mental Health and a School of Nursing: Qualitative Findings from an Academic-Community Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, Irma H.; Farrell, Sarah P.; Hinton, Ivora; Johnson, Robert; Moody, David; Rifkin, Karen; Moore, Kenneth; Becker, Marcia; Barker, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Summary An academic-community partnership between a school of nursing (SON) at a public university (the University of Virginia, or UVA) and a public mental health clinic developed around a shared goal of finding an acceptable shared decision making (SDM) intervention targeting medication use by persons with serious mental illness. The planning meetings of the academic-community partnership were recorded and analyzed. Issues under the partnership process included 1) clinic values and priorities, 2) research agenda, 3) ground rules, and 4) communication. Issues under the SDM content included: 1) barriers, 2) information exchange, 3) positive aspects of shared decision making, and 4) technology. Using participatory-action research (PAR), the community clinic was able to raise questions and concerns throughout the process, be actively involved in research activities (such as identifying stakeholders and co-leading focus groups), participate in the reflective activities on the impact of SDM on practice and policy, and feel ownership of the SDM intervention. PMID:22163075

  10. Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media. PMID:22403693

  11. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  12. Key considerations for the success of Medical Education Research and Innovation units in Canada: unit director perceptions.

    PubMed

    Varpio, Lara; Bidlake, Erin; Humphrey-Murto, Sue; Sutherland, Stephanie; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2014-08-01

    Growth in the field of medical education is evidenced by the proliferation of units dedicated to advancing Medical Education Research and Innovation (MERI). While a review of the literature discovered narrative accounts of MERI unit development, we found no systematic examinations of the dimensions of and structures that facilitate the success of these units. We conducted qualitative interviews with the directors of 12 MERI units across Canada. Data were analyzed using qualitative description (Sandelowski in Res Nurs Health 23:334-340, 2000). Final analysis drew on Bourdieu's (Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1977; Media, culture and society: a critical reader. Sage, London, 1986; Language and symbolic power. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1991) concepts of field, habitus, and capital, and more recent research investigating the field of MERI (Albert in Acad Med 79:948-954, 2004; Albert et al. in Adv Health Sci Educ 12:103-115, 2007). When asked about the metrics by which they define their success, directors cited: teaching, faculty mentoring, building collaborations, delivering conference presentations, winning grant funding, and disseminating publications. Analyzed using Bourdieu's concepts, these metrics are discussed as forms of capital that have been legitimized in the MERI field. All directors, with the exception of one, described success as being comprised of elements (capital) at both ends of the service-research spectrum (i.e., Albert's PP-PU structure). Our analysis highlights the forms of habitus (i.e., behaviors, attitudes, demeanors) directors use to negotiate, strategize and position the unit within their local context. These findings may assist institutions in developing a new-or reorganizing an existing-MERI unit. We posit that a better understanding of these complex social structures can help units become savvy participants in the MERI field. With such insight, units can improve their academic output and their status in the MERI context-locally, nationally, and internationally. PMID:24452441

  13. Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

    2008-05-01

    With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or inappropriate evaluation procedures; and, lack of a coordinated and strategic approach among donors. A New Framework Improving ocean stewardship and ending the fragmentation of current capacity building programs will require a new, broadly adopted framework for capacity building that emphasizes cooperation, sustainability, and knowledge transfer within and among communities. The report identifies four specific features of capacity building that would increase the effectiveness and efficiency of future programs: 1. Regional action plans based on periodic program assessments to guide investments in capacity and set realistic milestones and performance measures. 2. Long-term support to establish self-sustaining programs. Sustained capacity building programs require a diversity of sources and coordinated investments from local, regional, and international donors. 3. Development of leadership and political will. One of the most commonly cited reasons for failure and lack of progress in ocean and coastal governance initiatives is lack of political will. One strategy for strengthening support is to identify, develop, mentor, and reward leaders. 4. Establishment of networks and mechanisms for regional collaboration. Networks bring together those working in the same or similar ecosystems with comparable management or governance challenges to share information, pool resources, and learn from one another. The report also recommends the establishment of regional centers to encourage and support collaboration among neighboring countries.

  14. What would you do if you lost your research data tomorrow? Take the research data health check... and find help to secure, share and exploit your valuable research.

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    being selective: which data to discard and when as well as what to keep and for how long? how securely to produce new research? share data with your collaborators securely and effectively? Whether buildingWhat would you do if you lost your research data tomorrow? Take the research data health check

  15. Perceptions of Risk Survey 2008: Key Findings

    E-print Network

    Bentley, Katie

    known were loss of appetite, hair loss, nausea and swellings with only around 3% of respondents or genital problems (19%), sudden or dramatic weight loss (19%), and a change in a mole (17%). · Less well

  16. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: ‘Consulting communities’ to inform policy?

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

  17. A lesson from Japan: research and development efficiency is a key element of pharmaceutical industry consolidation process.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hirohisa; Masuda, Sachiko; Kimura, Hiromichi

    2014-02-01

    Scholarly attention to pharmaceutical companies' ability to sustain research and development (R&D) productivity has increased as they increasingly handle business challenges. Furthermore, the deterioration of R&D productivity has long been considered a major cause of mergers and acquisitions (M&As). This study attempts to investigate quantitatively the possible causes of the deterioration and the relationship between the deterioration and M&As by examining the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. Japan from 1980 to 1997 is an ideal case because of the availability of official data, but more importantly the significant changes in its business environment at the time. Using the Malmquist Index and data envelopment analysis, we measured the deterioration of R&D productivity from 1980 to 1997 based on a sample of 15 Japanese companies. Two lessons can be learned from Japan's case. First, to sustain R&D productivity over the long term, companies should use licensing activities and focus on the dominant therapeutic franchises. Second, if a company fails significantly to catch up with the benchmark, it is likely to pursue an M&A or seek an alternative way to improve R&D productivity. These findings appear similar to the current situation of the global pharmaceutical industry, although Japan pursued more licensing activities than M&A to improve R&D productivity. PMID:24647159

  18. DCCPS: BRP: HCIRB: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Health Communication and Informatics Research Branch Key Initiatives Centers of Excellence

  19. Motivations, concerns and preferences of personal genome sequencing research participants: Baseline findings from the HealthSeq project.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Saskia C; Linderman, Michael D; Suckiel, Sabrina A; Diaz, George A; Zinberg, Randi E; Ferryman, Kadija; Wasserstein, Melissa; Kasarskis, Andrew; Schadt, Eric E

    2016-01-01

    Whole exome/genome sequencing (WES/WGS) is increasingly offered to ostensibly healthy individuals. Understanding the motivations and concerns of research participants seeking out personal WGS and their preferences regarding return-of-results and data sharing will help optimize protocols for WES/WGS. Baseline interviews including both qualitative and quantitative components were conducted with research participants (n=35) in the HealthSeq project, a longitudinal cohort study of individuals receiving personal WGS results. Data sharing preferences were recorded during informed consent. In the qualitative interview component, the dominant motivations that emerged were obtaining personal disease risk information, satisfying curiosity, contributing to research, self-exploration and interest in ancestry, and the dominant concern was the potential psychological impact of the results. In the quantitative component, 57% endorsed concerns about privacy. Most wanted to receive all personal WGS results (94%) and their raw data (89%); a third (37%) consented to having their data shared to the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP). Early adopters of personal WGS in the HealthSeq project express a variety of health- and non-health-related motivations. Almost all want all available findings, while also expressing concerns about the psychological impact and privacy of their results. PMID:26036856

  20. Concordance between Clinical Practice and Published Evidence: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Wynne E.; Funkhouser, Ellen; Makhija, Sonia K.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Bader, James D.; Rindal, D. Brad; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Hilton, Thomas J.; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Documenting the gap between what is occurring in clinical practice and what published research suggests is an important step toward improving care. This study quantified concordance between clinical practice and published evidence across preventive, diagnostic and treatment procedures among a sample of dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Methods. Network dentists completed one questionnaire about their demographic characteristics and another about how they treat patients across 12 scenarios/clinical practice behaviors. Responses to each clinical practice were coded as consistent (i.e., ‘1’) or inconsistent (i.e., ‘0’) with published evidence, summed, and divided by the number of all non-missing to create an overall ‘concordance’ score, calculated as the mean percent of responses that were consistent with published evidence. Results. Analyses were limited to participants in the United States (N = 591). Mean concordance at the practitioner level was 62% (SD = 18); procedure-specific concordance ranged from 8-100%. Affiliation with a large group practice, being a female practitioner, and receiving a dental degree before 1990 were independently associated with high concordance (?75%). Conclusions. Dentists reported a medium-range concordance between practice and evidence. Clinical Implications. Efforts to bring research findings into routine practice are needed. PMID:24379327

  1. [Great discoveries: from the painstaking efforts of researchers to the contribution of accidental findings and the dissemination of study results].

    PubMed

    Garattini, Silvio

    2015-06-01

    This article takes its cue from the original work of sir Alexander Fleming on penicillin, published in the first issue of Recenti Progressi in Medicina in 1946 and reproduced here on the occasion of the approaching 70-year anniversary of the journal. The path that brought Fleming to the discovery of penicillin, one of the major milestones in the history of clinical pharmacology, provides insight for a range of considerations: the painstaking efforts of researchers, the contribution from accidental findings, and the dissemination of study results. Although the discovery of penicillin has changed the course of medicine, the benefits deriving from such an important advance are most likely to be offset by the overprescription of antibiotics, which is the leading cause of antimicrobial resistance and one of the most serious public health problems of our time. PMID:26076415

  2. Drug-related harm among people who inject drugs in Thailand: summary findings from the Mitsampan Community Research Project

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For decades, Thailand has experienced high rates of illicit drug use and related harms. In response, the Thai government has relied on drug law enforcement to address this problem. Despite these efforts, high rates of drug use persist, and Thailand has been contending with an enduring epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among people who inject drugs (IDU). Methods In response to concerns regarding drug-related harm in Thailand and a lack of research focused on the experiences and needs of Thai IDU, the Mitsampan Community Research Project was launched in 2008. The project involved administering surveys capturing a range of behavioral and other data to community-recruited IDU in Bangkok in 2008 and 2009. Results In total, 468 IDU in Bangkok were enrolled in the project. Results revealed high rates of midazolam injection, non-fatal overdose and incarceration. Syringe sharing remained widespread among this population, driven primarily by problems with access to syringes and methamphetamine injection. As well, reports of police abuse were common and found to be associated with high-risk behavior. Problems with access to evidence-based drug treatment and HIV prevention programs were also documented. Although compulsory drug detention centers are widely used in Thailand, data suggested that these centers have little impact on drug use behaviors among IDU in Bangkok. Conclusions The findings from this project highlight many ongoing health and social problems related to illicit drug use and drug policies in Bangkok. They also suggest that the emphasis on criminal justice approaches has resulted in human rights violations at the hands of police, and harms associated with compulsory drug detention and incarceration. Collectively, the findings indicate the urgent need for the implementation of evidence-based policies and programs in this setting. PMID:24099081

  3. Community-Based Review of Research Across Diverse Community Contexts: Key Characteristics, Critical Issues, and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Shore, Nancy; Ford, Angela; Wat, Eric; Brayboy, Missy; Isaacs, Mei-Ling; Park, Alice; Strelnick, Hal; Seifer, Sarena D

    2015-07-01

    A growing number of community-based organizations and community-academic partnerships are implementing processes to determine whether and how health research is conducted in their communities. These community-based research review processes (CRPs) can provide individual and community-level ethics protections, enhance the cultural relevance of study designs and competence of researchers, build community and academic research capacity, and shape research agendas that benefit diverse communities. To better understand how they are organized and function, representatives of 9 CRPs from across the United States convened in 2012 for a working meeting. In this article, we articulated and analyzed the models presented, offered guidance to communities that seek to establish a CRP, and made recommendations for future research, practice, and policy. PMID:25973834

  4. Carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise in adolescents: research findings, ethical issues and suggestions for the future.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M

    2012-10-01

    In the last decade, research has begun to investigate the efficacy of carbohydrate supplementation for improving aspects of physical capacity and skill performance during sport-specific exercise in adolescent team games players. This research remains in its infancy, and further study would be beneficial considering the large youth population actively involved in team games. Literature on the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance is scarce, limited to shooting accuracy in adolescent basketball players and conflicting in its findings. Between-study differences in the exercise protocol, volume of fluid and carbohydrate consumed, use of prior fatiguing exercise and timing of skill tests may contribute to the different findings. Conversely, initial data supports carbohydrate supplementation in solution and gel form for improving intermittent endurance running capacity following soccer-specific shuttle running. These studies produced reliable data, but were subject to limitations including lack of quantification of the metabolic response of participants, limited generalization of data due to narrow participant age and maturation ranges, use of males and females within the same sample and non-standardized pre-exercise nutritional status between participants. There is a lack of consensus regarding the influence of frequently consuming carbohydrate-containing products on tooth enamel erosion and the development of obesity or being overweight in adolescent athletes and non-athletes. These discrepancies mean that the initiation or exacerbation of health issues due to frequent consumption of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents cannot be conclusively refuted. Coupled with the knowledge that consuming a natural, high-carbohydrate diet -3-8 hours before exercise can significantly alter substrate use and improve exercise performance in adults, a moral and ethical concern is raised regarding the direction of future research in order to further knowledge while safeguarding the health and well-being of young participants. It could be deemed unethical to continue study into carbohydrate supplementation while ignoring the potential health concerns and the possibility of generating similar performance enhancements using natural dietary interventions. Therefore, future work should investigate the influence of pre-exercise dietary intake on the prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise performance of adolescents. This would enable quantification of whether pre-exercise nutrition can modulate exercise performance and, if so, the optimum dietary composition to achieve this. Research could then combine this knowledge with ingestion of carbohydrate-containing products during exercise to facilitate ethical and healthy nutritional guidelines for enhancing the exercise performance of adolescents. This article addresses the available evidence regarding carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise in adolescent team games players. It discusses the potential health concerns associated with the frequent use of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents and how this affects the research ethics of the field, and considers directions for future work. PMID:22901040

  5. Quantum Key Distribution Protocol with Private-Public Key

    E-print Network

    Eduin H. Serna

    2012-05-12

    A quantum cryptographic protocol based in public key cryptography combinations and private key cryptography is presented. Unlike the BB84 protocol [1] and its many variants [2,3] two quantum channels are used. The present research does not make reconciliation mechanisms of information to derive the key. A three related system of key distribution are described.

  6. Translational nutrition research at UC-Davis – the key role of the clinical and translational science center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To better understand the facility and equipment needs for human clinical nutrition research the New York Academy of Sciences presented a symposium. This paper is the result of that symposium and provides information into how clinical nutrition research is conducted at the Clinical and Translational ...

  7. Relationships Hold the Key to Trustworthy and Productive Translational Science: Recommendations for Expanding Community Engagement in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Yarborough, Mark; Edwards, Kelly; Espinoza, Paula; Geller, Gail; Sarwal, Alok; Sharp, Richard R.; Spicer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Good relationships between research institutions and communities are an essential, but often neglected, part of the infrastructure of translational science. In an effort to create greater interest among translational science researchers in cultivating relationships with community members, we report the results of a workshop we convened to learn how relationships vital to research are best created and sustained. We highlight common barriers and challenges that hinder relationships. We also provide recommendations that individual research institutions and teams can use to expand and strengthen their relationships with community members. The improved relationships between universities and communities that could result from their implementation should build greater public trust in biomedical research, lead to a stronger commitment to see it succeed, and engender shared values and commitments that will give rise to new rewards, recognition and admonishment to sustain those values and commitments over time, all of which would facilitate translational science. PMID:23919367

  8. Public preferences regarding the return of individual genetic research results: findings from a qualitative focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, Juli; Scott, Joan; Dvoskin, Rachel; Kaufman, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Studies have found that people are interested in receiving their individual research results (IRRs) in exchange for participating in genetic studies. However, it is unclear whether the public understands the nature and limitations of these results and whether they would want information with little or no clinical utility. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups in three U.S. cities to examine the types of results they would want to learn, the perceived value of results with little or no clinical utility, and how individuals might prioritize the value of different types of IRRs. Findings Nearly all focus group participants said they would want at least some IRRs returned. Priority was placed on results that are well understood. Less important to participants were magnitude of the risk conferred and actionability of the result. In addition to wanting results that will help treat or prevent disease, participants identified other potential clinical and personal reasons for wanting IRRs. Many believed the study had an obligation to return IRRs and that the study should trade off sample size to meet the perceived obligation of returning results. Although most people would prefer to receive as much information as possible, many were willing to accept the return of a limited set of results in exchange for their participation. Conclusions Members of the public understood the nuances and limitations that are likely to apply to most IRRs. Researchers and others deciding the value of returning a given result should not base their decision on actionability of the information alone. Rather, they should consider broadening their definition of clinical utility to include the possible personal utility of information. PMID:22402755

  9. What if Indigenous Knowledge Contradicts Accepted Scientific Findings?--The Hidden Agenda: Respect, Caring and Passion towards Aboriginal Research in the Context of Applying Western Academic Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    The statement in the title, what if Indigenous Knowledge contradicts accepted scientific findings (Fowler, 2000), is an expression of the dilemma people who research Indigenous Knowledge think they find themselves in when they are confronted with different interpretations of what it means to be human, or, as I may summarize it, with different…

  10. Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

  11. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  12. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D. T.; Shehee, T. C.

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  13. Ernst Rüdin's Unpublished 1922-1925 Study "Inheritance of Manic-Depressive Insanity": Genetic Research Findings Subordinated to Eugenic Ideology.

    PubMed

    Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-11-01

    In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin's seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin's 1922-1925 study on the inheritance of "manic-depressive insanity" was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses). PMID:26544949

  14. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  15. Research on the key technology of update of land survey spatial data based on embedded GIS and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan; Liu, Yanfang; Yu, Hai; Xia, Yin

    2009-10-01

    According to the actual needs of the second land-use survey and the PDA's characteristics of small volume and small memory, it can be analyzed that the key technology of the data collection system of field survey based on GPS-PDA is the read speed of the data. In order to enhance the speed and efficiency of the analysis of the spatial data on mobile devices, we classify the layers of spatial data; get the Layer-Grid Index by getting the different levels and blocks of the layer of spatial data; then get the R-TREE index of the spatial data objects. Different scale levels of space are used in different levels management. The grid method is used to do the block management.

  16. Marketing Education National Research Conference Report. Marketing Practices: Implications for Developing a Future Workforce. (Key West, Florida, April 15-17, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Marcella M., Ed.

    This conference provided a forum for presenting research findings to educators and other audiences interested in marketing education. The following papers were presented: "Application and Utilization of the Marketing Education Baccalaureate Degree in the Public School--Training and Development Arenas" (Wyant, Prey); "The Impact of Alternative…

  17. HOW TO FIND A GSR POSITION Students wishing to engage in research as part of their education need to secure a position

    E-print Network

    Levine, Alex J.

    HOW TO FIND A GSR POSITION Students wishing to engage in research as part of their education need to secure a position in a lab in the area where they are interested in doing research. Securing a GSR position can come about in many ways: Some applicants contact Principle Investigators (PI) during

  18. MajorAccomplishmentsMajorOpportunitiesKeyAttributes2009OERReport The Office of Extramural Research NIH Office of the Director

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    . For further information: A Look Back at 2009, A Look Ahead to 2010 In this inaugural edition of the 2009 OER of institutions the very next day it seemed, with the goal of jump starting jobs and the economy and creating jobs ­ Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) / Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) ­ Academic

  19. Key Considerations for the Success of Medical Education Research and Innovation Units in Canada: Unit Director Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varpio, Lara; Bidlake, Erin; Humphrey-Murto, Sue; Sutherland, Stephanie; Hamstra, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Growth in the field of medical education is evidenced by the proliferation of units dedicated to advancing Medical Education Research and Innovation (MERI). While a review of the literature discovered narrative accounts of MERI unit development, we found no systematic examinations of the dimensions of and structures that facilitate the success of…

  20. Musical Development and Learning Characteristics of Students: A Compilation of Key Points from the Research Literature Organized by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Lori; Standley, Jayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Development involves progressive changes in knowledge and abilities that occur across the life span. Current research on musical abilities suggests that the development of skills necessary for musicality begins in utero and continues through adulthood. Many of these skills, such as the ability to carry a tune, move in time to music, and respond…

  1. DCCPS: BRP: TCRB: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Research Topics: Special Populations and Tobacco Special Issue of the American

  2. DCCPS: BRP: TCRB: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Research Topics: Special Populations and Tobacco Tobacco and Health of Women

  3. DCCPS: BRP: TCRB: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch Research Topics: Secondhand Smoke Exposure to secondhand

  4. Research on Key Factors and Their Interaction Effects of Electromagnetic Force of High-Speed Solenoid Valve

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Liyun; Xu, De; Ma, Xiuzhen; Song, Enzhe

    2014-01-01

    Analysis consisting of numerical simulations along with lab experiments of interaction effects between key parameters on the electromagnetic force based on response surface methodology (RSM) has been also proposed to optimize the design of high-speed solenoid valve (HSV) and improve its performance. Numerical simulation model of HSV has been developed in Ansoft Maxwell environment and its accuracy has been validated through lab experiments. Effect of change of core structure, coil structure, armature structure, working air gap, and drive current on the electromagnetic force of HSV has been analyzed through simulation model and influence rules of various parameters on the electromagnetic force have been established. The response surface model of the electromagnetic force has been utilized to analyze the interaction effect between major parameters. It has been concluded that six interaction factors including working air gap with armature radius, drive current with armature thickness, coil turns with side pole radius, armature thickness with its radius, armature thickness with side pole radius, and armature radius with side pole radius have significant influence on the electromagnetic force. Optimal match values between coil turns and side pole radius; armature thickness and side pole radius; and armature radius and side pole radius have also been determined. PMID:25243217

  5. How to Use Find Reviewers on the Research.gov DesktopPrepare and submit your Final, Annual, and Interim Project Reports on Research.gov! The National Science Foundation (NSF) has transferred its existing project reporting

    E-print Network

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    . How to Use Find Reviewers on the Research.gov DesktopPrepare and submit your Final, Annual, and Interim Project Reports on Research.gov! The National Science Foundation (NSF) has transferred its existing project reporting functionality from FastLane to Research.gov. This means that Principal

  6. Factors influencing the utilization of research findings by health policy-makers in a developing country: the selection of Mali's essential medicines

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Michael A; Fretheim, Atle; Maïga, Diadié

    2007-01-01

    Background Research findings are increasingly being recognized as an important input in the formation of health policy. There is concern that research findings are not being utilized by health policy-makers to the extent that they could be. The factors influencing the utilization of various types of research by health policy-makers are beginning to emerge in the literature, however there is still little known about these factors in developing countries. The object of this study was to explore these factors by examining the policy-making process for a pharmaceutical policy common in developing countries; an essential medicines list. Methods A study of the selection and updating of Mali's national essential medicines list was undertaken using qualitative methods. In-depth semi-structured interviews and a natural group discussion were held with national policy-makers, most specifically members of the national commission that selects and updates the country's list. The resulting text was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. A document analysis was also performed. Results Several factors emerged from the textual data that appear to be influencing the utilization of health research findings for these policy-makers. These factors include: access to information, relevance of the research, use of research perceived as a time consuming process, trust in the research, authority of those who presented their view, competency in research methods, priority of research in the policy process, and accountability. Conclusion Improving the transfer of research to policy will require effort on the part of researchers, policy-makers, and third parties. This will include: collaboration between researchers and policy-makers, increased production and dissemination of relevant and useful research, and continued and improved technical support from networks and multi-national organizations. Policy-makers from developing countries will then be better equipped to make informed decisions concerning their health policy issues. PMID:17338810

  7. UUnlocking secrets of the vadose zone: Researchers say this layer of soil holds keys to tracking water’s every move 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    stream_source_info Unlocking secrets of the vadose zone.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 15091 Content-Encoding windows-1252 stream_name Unlocking secrets of the vadose zone.pdf.txt Content-Type text.../plain; charset=windows-1252 Story by Leslie Lee 6 tx H2O Fall 2012 Unlocking secrets of the vadose zone Researchers say this layer of soil holds keys to tracking water?s every move Fall 2012 tx H2O 7 ] Sayena Farid-Marandi collects ground...

  8. They Can't Always Find What They Want; Kids' Online Behaviors Have Researchers Scratching Their Heads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkel, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Understanding precisely how young people search for online information is both easy and frustrating. It's a snap because we can easily observe kids sitting down at a computer, going straight to Google, typing in one or two key words, and selecting a few Web pages from a huge list of hits. It's frustrating because of the many questions their…

  9. Research Findings on a Virtual Training Center--Measuring Web Based Training as an Effective Project Management Facilitation Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Brian; Stockman, Mark

    This paper focuses on the design of an assessment plan that can accurately measure the impact of using World Wide Web-based deliveries to increase performance. Key trends in technology and training are reviewed, and effective assessment of online training deliveries is examined. The Virtual Business Training Center (VBTC) is an integrated business…

  10. Evidence-informed recommendations to reduce dissemination bias in clinical research: conclusions from the OPEN (Overcome failure to Publish nEgative fiNdings) project based on an international consensus meeting

    PubMed Central

    Meerpohl, Joerg J; Schell, Lisa K; Bassler, Dirk; Gallus, Silvano; Kleijnen, Jos; Kulig, Michael; La Vecchia, Carlo; Maruši?, Ana; Ravaud, Philippe; Reis, Andreas; Schmucker, Christine; Strech, Daniel; Urrútia, Gerard; Antes, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Dissemination bias in clinical research severely impedes informed decision-making not only for healthcare professionals and patients, but also for funders, research ethics committees, regulatory bodies and other stakeholder groups that make health-related decisions. Decisions based on incomplete and biased evidence cannot only harm people, but may also have huge financial implications by wasting resources on ineffective or harmful diagnostic and therapeutic measures, and unnecessary research. Owing to involvement of multiple stakeholders, it remains easy for any single group to assign responsibility for resolving the problem to others. Objective To develop evidence-informed general and targeted recommendations addressing the various stakeholders involved in knowledge generation and dissemination to help overcome the problem of dissemination bias on the basis of previously collated evidence. Methods Based on findings from systematic reviews, document analyses and surveys, we developed general and targeted draft recommendations. During a 2-day workshop in summer 2013, these draft recommendations were discussed with external experts and key stakeholders, and refined following a rigorous and transparent methodological approach. Results Four general, overarching recommendations applicable to all or most stakeholder groups were formulated, addressing (1) awareness raising, (2) implementation of targeted recommendations, (3) trial registration and results posting, and (4) systematic approaches to evidence synthesis. These general recommendations are complemented and specified by 47 targeted recommendations tailored towards funding agencies, pharmaceutical and device companies, research institutions, researchers (systematic reviewers and trialists), research ethics committees, trial registries, journal editors and publishers, regulatory agencies, benefit (health technology) assessment institutions and legislators. Conclusions Despite various recent examples of dissemination bias and several initiatives to reduce it, the problem of dissemination bias has not been resolved. Tailored recommendations based on a comprehensive approach will hopefully help increase transparency in biomedical research by overcoming the failure to disseminate negative findings. PMID:25943371

  11. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this enhance the robustness of the study, it may lead to different conclusions from those that would have been drawn through relying on one method alone and demonstrates the value of collecting both types of data within a single study. More widespread use of mixed methods in trials of complex interventions is likely to enhance the overall quality of the evidence base. PMID:16524479

  12. Narrative Abilities: Advances in Research and Implications for Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Donna

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses the key findings in recent research dealing narrative abilities in children with and without language implications. The implications of research findings for narrative assessment and intervention are discussed.

  13. Key Nutrients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

  14. NCI: SBIR & STTR - Find Funding - Contracts - 249 System to Analyze and Support Biomarker Research and Development Strategies

    Cancer.gov

    Because of the rapid expansion of the worldwide biomarker research data in volume and breadth, there is a critical need for integrating all of these data within a knowledge management system that supports automated review and evaluation of current research and development efforts, particularly within the context of all cancer research and therapeutic and diagnostic product development. Such a system permits rapid identification and decision-making to allocate resources where they can most efficiently be used to enhance product development.

  15. Unstructured quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Patrick J. Coles; Eric M. Metodiev; Norbert Lütkenhaus

    2015-10-05

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows for communication between distant parties with security guaranteed by quantum theory. The main theoretical problem in QKD is to calculate the secret key rate for a given protocol. Analytical formulas for the key rate are known for protocols that have a high degree of symmetry, such as the BB84 and six-state protocols. However, experimental imperfections tend to break symmetries. Since symmetry is exploited in theoretical treatments, the effect of experimental imperfections on key rates is difficult to estimate. Furthermore, it is an interesting question whether (intentionally) asymmetric protocols could offer an advantage over their symmetric counterparts. In this work, we develop a robust numerical approach for calculating the key rate for arbitrary discrete-variable QKD protocols. Ultimately this approach will allow researchers to investigate the security of ``unstructured'' protocols, i.e., those that lack symmetry. Our approach relies on transforming the key rate calculation to the dual optimization problem, which can be solved efficiently with significantly fewer parameters than the primal problem, and gives reliable lower bounds on the key rate. We illustrate our method by giving tight lower bounds for some unstructured protocols for which the key rate was previously unknown.

  16. Pursuit of the “truth” about mental illness: the significance of findings in neuropsychiatric research, and lessons from the past

    PubMed Central

    DeLisi, Lynn E.

    2014-01-01

    Technology in genetics and brain imaging has advanced so rapidly that it is difficult to be knowledgeable about all the new tools being used in the pursuit of progress toward understanding and treating mental illness. While findings from new studies remain promising, caution is needed with regard to their current applicability to clinical use, both to predict who is likely to become ill and who is likely to respond to medication. A perspective on the past, using schizophrenia as an example, illustrates important findings that were published, had much visibility, and caused a flurry of new related studies, but then slowly disappeared, either to be abandoned as an artifact of the assay or study design, an epiphenomenon, or as simply nonreplicated findings not leading to further progress. Remembering that good science is “the pursuit of the truth” and not joining the latest “bandwagon fad” of “believers” is an important principle to adhere to when participating in the politics of science. PMID:25733950

  17. Finding the Words to Work Together: Developing a Research Design to Explore Risk and Adult Protection in Co-Produced Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Ian; Archibald, Sylvia; McInnes, Kerry; Cross, Beth; Daniel, Brigid; Johnson, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Although co-production of research with people who access support services is increasingly common, details about how people who access support services can take more of an assertive role in developing research proposals and method design remains sketchy. This article reflects on the development of a research project on adult protection practice in…

  18. Culturally Competent Research with American Indians and Alaska Natives: Findings and Recommendations of the First Symposium of the Work Group on American Indian Research and Program Evaluation Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Joyce Y.; Davis, Jamie D.; Du Bois, Barbara; Echo-Hawk, Holly; Erickson, Jill Shepard; Goins, R. Turner; Hill, Calvin; Hillabrant, Walter; Johnson, Sharon R.; Kendall, Elizabeth; Keemer, Kelly; Manson, Spero M.; Marshall, Catherine A.; Running Wolf, Paulette; Santiago, Rolando L.; Schacht, Robert; Stone, Joseph B.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the collective experience of a multidisciplinary network of researchers, practitioners, and program evaluators who support appropriate research and evaluation methods in working with Native peoples. Our experience underlines the critical importance of culture in understanding and conducting research with the diverse…

  19. Who Has Used Internal Company Documents for Biomedical and Public Health Research and Where Did They Find Them?

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, L. Susan; Rutkow, Lainie; Vedula, S. Swaroop; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Rosman, Lori M.; Twose, Claire; Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. Results Our searches identified 9,305 citations of which 357 were eligible. Scanning of reference lists and consultation with colleagues identified 4 additional articles, resulting in 361 included articles. Most articles examined internal tobacco company documents (325/361; 90%). Articles using documents from pharmaceutical companies (20/361; 6%) were the next most common. Tobacco articles used documents from repositories; pharmaceutical documents were from a range of sources. Most included articles relied upon internal company documents obtained through litigation (350/361; 97%). The research questions posed were primarily about company strategies to promote or position the company and its products (326/361; 90%). Most articles (346/361; 96%) used information from miscellaneous documents such as memos or letters, or from unspecified types of documents. When explicit information about study funding was provided (290/361 articles), the most common source was the US-based National Cancer Institute. We developed an alternative and more sensitive search targeted at identifying additional research articles using internal pharmaceutical company documents, but the search retrieved an impractical number of citations for review. Conclusions Internal company documents provide an excellent source of information on health topics (e.g., corporate behavior, study data) exemplified by articles based on tobacco industry documents. Pharmaceutical and other industry documents appear to have been less used for research, indicating a need for funding for this type of research and well-indexed and curated repositories to provide researchers with ready access to the documents. PMID:24800999

  20. Biomimetics for NASA Langley Research Center: Year 2000 Report of Findings From a Six-Month Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, Emilie J.; Anders, John B., Jr.; Cox, David E.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Fox, Robert L.; Katzberg, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    This report represents an attempt to see if some of the techniques biological systems use to maximize their efficiency can be applied to the problems NASA faces in aeronautics and space exploration. It includes an internal survey of resources available at NASA Langley Research Center for biomimetics research efforts, an external survey of state of the art in biomimetics covering the Materials, Structures, Aerodynamics, Guidance and Controls areas. The Biomimetics Planning team also included ideas for potential research areas, as well as recommendations on how to implement this new program. This six-month survey was conducted in the second half of 1999.

  1. Consulting communities on feedback of genetic findings in international health research: sharing sickle cell disease and carrier information in coastal Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background International health research in malaria-endemic settings may include screening for sickle cell disease, given the relationship between this important genetic condition and resistance to malaria, generating questions about whether and how findings should be disclosed. The literature on disclosing genetic findings in the context of research highlights the role of community consultation in understanding and balancing ethically important issues from participants’ perspectives, including social forms of benefit and harm, and the influence of access to care. To inform research practice locally, and contribute to policy more widely, this study aimed to explore the views of local residents in Kilifi County in coastal Kenya on how researchers should manage study-generated information on sickle cell disease and carrier status. Methods Between June 2010 and July 2011, we consulted 62 purposively selected Kilifi residents on how researchers should manage study-generated sickle cell disease findings. Methods drew on a series of deliberative informed small group discussions. Data were analysed thematically, using charts, to describe participants’ perceptions of the importance of disclosing findings, including reasoning, difference and underlying values. Themes were derived from the underlying research questions and from issues emerging from discussions. Data interpretation drew on relevant areas of social science and bioethics literature. Results Perceived health and social benefits generated strong support for disclosing findings on sickle cell disease, but the balance of social benefits and harms was less clear for sickle cell trait. Many forms of health and social benefits and harms of information-sharing were identified, with important underlying values related to family interests and the importance of openness. The influence of micro and macro level contextual features and prioritization of values led to marked diversity of opinion. Conclusions The approach demonstrates a high ethical importance in many malaria endemic low-to-middle income country settings of disclosing sickle cell disease findings generated during research, alongside provision of effective care and locally-informed counselling. Since these services are central to the benefits of disclosure, health researchers whose studies include screening for sickle cell disease should actively promote the development of health policy and services for this condition in situations of unmet need, including through the prior development of collaborative partnerships with government health managers and providers. Community consultation can importantly enrich ethical debate on research practice where in-depth exploration of informed views and the potential for difference are taken into account. PMID:24125465

  2. Implementing the ten steps to successful breastfeeding in multiple hospitals serving low-wealth patients in the US: innovative research design and baseline findings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding are maternity practices proven to support successful achievement of exclusive breastfeeding. They also are the basis for the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). This study explores implementation of these steps in hospitals that serve predominantly low wealth populations. Methods A quasi-experimental design with mixed methods for data collection and analysis was included within an intervention project. We compared the impact of a modified Ten Steps implementation approach to a control group. The intervention was carried out in hospitals where: 1) BFHI designation was not necessarily under consideration, and 2) the majority of the patient population was low wealth, i.e., eligible for Medicaid. Hospitals in the research aspect of this project were systematically assigned to one of two groups: Initial Intervention or Initial Control/Later Intervention. This paper includes analyses from the baseline data collection, which consisted of an eSurvey (i.e., Carolina B-KAP), Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care survey tool (mPINC), the BFHI Self-Appraisal, key informant interviews, breastfeeding data, and formatted feedback discussion. Results Comparability was ensured by statistical and non-parametric tests of baseline characteristics of the two groups. Additional findings of interest included: 1) a universal lack of consistent breastfeeding records and statistics for regular monitoring/review, 2) widespread misinterpretation of associated terminology, 3) health care providers’ reported practices not necessarily reflective of their knowledge and attitudes, and 4) specific steps were found to be associated with hospital breastfeeding rates. A comprehensive set of facilitators and obstacles to initiation of the Ten Steps emerged, and hospital-specific practice change challenges were identified. Discussion This is one of the first studies to examine introduction of the Ten Steps in multiple hospitals with a control group and in hospitals that were not necessarily interested in BFHI designation, where the population served is predominantly low wealth, and with the use of a mixed methods approach. Limitations including numbers of hospitals and inability to adhere to all elements of the design are discussed. Conclusions For improvements in quality of care for breastfeeding dyads, innovative and site-specific intervention modification must be considered. PMID:23688264

  3. Rural-Urban Migration and Poverty: A Synthesis of Research Findings, With a Look at the Literature. Final Report, Tracor Project 073-014.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Daniel O.

    The result of a literature survey in the general area of rural-urban migration and poverty, this report presents both a synthesis of current research findings and an annotated bibliography. The synthesis includes a nine chapter discussion of: (1) the rural areas left by the migrants; (2) the decision to migrate; (3) comparative characteristics of…

  4. Interventions for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Overview of Findings for Five Innovative Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that prenatal exposure to alcohol causes damage to the developing fetus, resulting in a spectrum of disorders known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Although our understanding of the deficits and disturbances associated with FASDs is far from complete, there are consistent findings indicating these are serious,…

  5. The Impact of Performance Pay on Teacher Turnover: Findings from Year Two of the TEEG Program. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this larger study, evaluators examined how participation in the TEEG…

  6. The Design of Schools' Performance Incentive Programs in Texas: Findings from Year One of GEEG. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. In this report, the authors provide an overview of 99 schools' locally designed educator…

  7. The Design of Schools' Performance Incentive Programs in Texas: Findings from Year One of TEEG. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Performance Incentives, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the first-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, one of several statewide educator incentive programs in Texas. This report provides an overview of over 1,000 schools' locally designed TEEG performance incentive…

  8. DCCPS: BRP: TCRB: Key Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Tobacco Control Research Branch American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) NCI Tobacco Control Monograph

  9. Middle Term Achievements of Project 5322: Retrieval Of Key Eco-Hydrological Parameters From Remote Sensing In The Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (Water)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Menenti, Massimo

    2010-10-01

    The general objective of project 5322 in the Dragon 2 programme is to quantitatively retrieve some key eco- hydrological parameters by using remote sensed data, especially from ESA, Chinese, and the Third Party Mission (TPM). To achieve this goal, a comprehensive observation experiment, Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (WATER) was carried out. WARER is a simultaneously airborne, satellite-borne, and ground-based remote sensing experiment took place in the Heihe River Basin, a typical inland river basin in the northwest of China. This paper introduces the background and implementation of WATER. Data have been obtained so far are described in details. After a period of data analysis for two years, numerous results have also been achieved. This paper presents some early results of WATER as well.

  10. Can Music Education Help At-Risk Students? Study Finds Positive Testimony Substantial but Quantitative Research Lacking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2008-01-01

    This article reports the finding of a recent study conducted as part of a larger white paper, "Sounds of Learning: The Impact of Music Education on All Aspects of a Child's Growth and Development. The purpose of the study was to uncover what people know and what they do not know about the impact of music education on at-risk kids, in an effort to…

  11. Finding the team for Mars: a psychological and human factors analysis of a Mars Desert Research Station crew.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion. PMID:22317591

  12. Review: An urgent need for research on factors impacting adherence to and retention in care among HIV-positive youth and adolescents from key populations

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Priya; Lim, Sin How; Khairuddin, Norliana; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The 50% increase in HIV-related deaths in youth and adolescents (aged 10–24) from 2005 to 2012 highlights the need to improve HIV treatment and care in this population, including treatment adherence and retention. Youth and adolescents from key populations or young key populations (YKP) in particular are highly stigmatized and may face additional barrier(s) in adhering to HIV treatment and services. We reviewed the current knowledge on treatment adherence and retention in HIV care among YKP to identify gaps in the literature and suggest future directions to improve HIV care for YKP. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature search for YKP and their adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retention in HIV care on PsycInfo (Ovid), PubMed and Google Scholar using combinations of the keywords HIV/AIDS, ART, adolescents, young adults, adherence (or compliance), retention, men who have sex with men, transgender, injection drug users, people who inject drugs and prisoners. We included empirical studies on key populations defined by WHO; included the terms youth and adolescents and/or aged between 10 and 24; examined adherence to or retention in HIV care; and published in English-language journals. All articles were coded using NVivo. Results and discussion The systematic search yielded 10 articles on YKP and 16 articles on behaviourally infected youth and adolescents from 1999 to 2014. We found no studies reporting on youth and adolescents identified as sex workers, transgender people and prisoners. From existing literature, adherence to ART was reported to be influenced by age, access to healthcare, the burden of multiple vulnerabilities, policy involving risk behaviours and mental health. A combination of two or more of these factors negatively impacted adherence to ART among YKP. Collectively, these studies demonstrated that future programmes need to be tailored specifically to YKP to ensure adherence. Conclusions There is an urgent need for more systematic research in YKP. Current limited evidence suggests that healthcare delivery should be tailored to the unique needs of YKP. Thus, research on YKP could be used to inform future interventions to improve access to treatment and management of co-morbidities related to HIV, to ease the transition from paediatric to adult care and to increase uptake of secondary prevention methods. PMID:25724503

  13. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  14. Governance and Administrative Infrastructure in New York City Charter Schools. Going Charter Year Three Findings. Charter School Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Carol; Echazarreta, Juan; Jacobowitz, Robin; McBride, Yolanda; Troy, Tammi

    In this final report of a 3-year evaluation, researchers explored the developing infrastructure in New York City charter schools and identified areas in which school stakeholders--private partners, boards of trustees, school leaders, parents, and teachers--needed support to help charter schools succeed. The study was based on monthly visits to…

  15. Research Findings on Effective Program Designs and Methodologies: Quantitative Levels of Program Acceptability by Components and Demographic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, Richard D.; Dereshiwsky, Mary I.

    This report on the third year of evaluation of the Arizona career ladder research and evaluation project indicates that to a high degree, project requirements are being realized; the study is clearly determining if teachers' professional careers and instructional performance activities are enhanced by the system, and what effects these…

  16. LINKAGES ACROSS PM POLICY AND RESEARCH: EXAMINING THE POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM THE PM2.5 SUPERSITES PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PM2.5 Supersites program was designed to complement routinely operating PM2.5 networks by providing enhanced temporal and chemical/physical composition data in addressing three overarching objectives: supporting health effects and exposure research, advanced monitoring meth...

  17. Achieving School Effectiveness. Process Steps and Variables. A Ready Reference Guide to Research Findings and Action Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island Educational Leadership Academy, Cranston.

    This resource guide is designed to summarize the relevant research and practical information currently available to administrators on school effectiveness. The guide consists of two major sections to aid in the development of planning skills and the implementation of programs to increase student and teacher performance. The first section details…

  18. Young Children's Research Behaviour? Children Aged Four to Eight Years Finding Solutions at Home and at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Children's research abilities have become increasingly recognised by adults, yet children remain excluded from the academy. This restricts children's freedom to make choices in matters affecting them, underestimates their capabilities and denies children particular rights. The present paper reports on young children's…

  19. Education Markets, School Competition, and Parental Choice in the U.K.: A Report of Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.; Gewirtz, Sharon

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes a study examining the dynamics of a set of (British) education markets over a 39-month period. Secondary schools in three adjacent local education authorities served as laboratories for researching choice and competition. The market's disciplinary effects are clear. The education market reinforces opportunity advantages of middle-class…

  20. Men and Women in Outdoor Play--Changing the Concepts of Caring Findings from Norwegian and Austrian Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilsen, Kari; Koch, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    In many countries there are very few men in professional care for young children. In this paper we will focus on the different perspectives of male and female workers to outdoor play and discuss the role of outdoor activities in recruiting more men to pre-schools. The article is based on research in Norway and Austria. The results draw the…

  1. Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) in Web-Based Classes: Preliminary Findings and a Call for Further Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Karen A.

    2007-01-01

    Student evaluation of teaching (SET) is important to faculty because SET ratings help faculty improve performance and are often used as the basis for evaluations of teaching effectiveness in administrative decisions (e.g., tenure). Researchers have conducted over 2,000 studies on SET during the past 70 years. However, despite the explosive growth…

  2. Community Needs, Concerns, and Perceptions About Health Research: Findings From the Clinical and Translational Science Award Sentinel Network

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Donna Jo; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bennett, Nancy M.; Strelnick, Hal; Dwyer-White, Molly; Collyar, Deborah E.; Ajinkya, Shaun; Seifer, Sarena D.; O’Leary, Catina Callahan; Striley, Catherine W.; Evanoff, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We used results generated from the first study of the National Institutes of Health Sentinel Network to understand health concerns and perceptions of research among underrepresented groups such as women, the elderly, racial/ethnic groups, and rural populations. Methods. Investigators at 5 Sentinel Network sites and 2 community-focused national organizations developed a common assessment tool used by community health workers to assess research perceptions, health concerns, and conditions. Results. Among 5979 individuals assessed, the top 5 health concerns were hypertension, diabetes, cancer, weight, and heart problems; hypertension was the most common self-reported condition. Levels of interest in research participation ranged from 70.1% among those in the “other” racial/ethnic category to 91.0% among African Americans. Overall, African Americans were more likely than members of other racial/ethnic groups to be interested in studies requiring blood samples (82.6%), genetic samples (76.9%), or medical records (77.2%); staying overnight in a hospital (70.5%); and use of medical equipment (75.4%). Conclusions. Top health concerns were consistent across geographic areas. African Americans reported more willingness to participate in research even if it required blood samples or genetic testing. PMID:23409875

  3. Education, Training and Work. Research Findings and Conclusions. Seminar Papers. (Thessaloniki, Greece, November 14, 1996.) CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Thessaloniki (Greece).

    These three keynote speeches from a European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training (CEDEFOP) seminar "Research on Vocational Education and Training in Europe" focus on the links between education, training, work, and economic growth. "Education and Training Policies in the Transition towards a Global Information Society: Needs and…

  4. Summary of Research Findings on Children's Developmental Health = Resume des conclusions de la recherche sur la sante developpementale des effants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Jane

    This kit is comprised of bilingual resources for child caregivers related to nourishing and nurturing a child's brain for optimal neurodevelopmental health. The kit is the result of a 30-month project to synthesize research on brain development and to develop resources in support of excellent caregiver practice in Canada. The kit contains the…

  5. An unexplored ethical issue in clinical research: disclosure of individual findings in the Creando Posibilidades [Creating Possibilities] study.

    PubMed

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Keller, Colleen; Fishstrom, Astrid

    2013-06-01

    Individual disclosure refers to the presumptive ethical responsibility of an investigator to communicate to a study participant information that was collected as a part of a research study protocol and is specific to the individual. Currently, there are no federal regulatory guidelines specifying the conditions and management of disclosure of health-related individual-specific information. In this report, the authors discuss the challenges associated with individual disclosure in the context of a longitudinal descriptive study. Arguments favoring disclosure and those challenging disclosure as a general ethical duty are presented. Finally, strategies for addressing individual disclosure are discussed using a research exemplar in which risk behaviors related to health outcomes were measured. PMID:23408475

  6. Finding research information on the web: how to make the most of Google and other free search tools.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web has had a major impact on the accessibility of research information. The move towards open access and development of institutional repositories has resulted in increasing amounts of information being made available free of charge. Many of these resources are not included in conventional subscription databases and Google is not always the best way to ensure that one is picking up all relevant material on a topic. This article will look at how Google's search engine works, how to use Google more effectively for identifying research information, alternatives to Google and will review some of the specialist tools that have evolved to cope with the diverse forms of information that now exist in electronic form. PMID:23738438

  7. [Evidence-based health policy or scientifically cloaked lobbyism--the utilization of research findings in health politics].

    PubMed

    Knieps, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Like no other political field health politics has become the target of well-connected lobbyists. On the other hand, there is hardly any other area with so many different methodological and institutional consulting approaches. Since the emergence of concepts like evidence-based medicine and evidence-based healthcare now evidence-based policy seems to be cropping up at conferences and in publications. The author has been working at the various interfaces of research and politics. In this article he takes health politics as an example to look at the actual utilisation of scientific knowledge in politics. Following a brief introduction to the particularities of the healthcare sector the tense relationship between research and politics will be highlighted and specific examples will be given using both the genesis of the SHI Competition Act and the competencies and responsibilities of the Federal Joint Committee. PMID:19645341

  8. Effects of capturing and collaring on polar bears: findings from long-term research on the southern Beaufort Sea population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rode, Karyn D.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Atwood, Todd C.; Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Implications: This study provides empirical evidence that current capture-based research methods do not have long-term implications, and are not contributing to observed changes in body condition, reproduction or survival in the southern Beaufort Sea. Continued refinement of capture protocols, such as the use of low-impact dart rifles and reversible drug combinations, might improve polar bear response to capture and abate short-term reductions in activity and movement post-capture.

  9. Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High Performance Computer Facility Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.

  10. A natural stem cell therapy? How novel findings and biotechnology clarify the ethics of stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Patel, P

    2006-01-01

    The natural replacement of damaged cells by stem cells occurs actively and often in adult tissues, especially rapidly dividing cells such as blood cells. An exciting case in Boston, however, posits a kind of natural stem cell therapy provided to a mother by her fetus—long after the fetus is born. Because there is a profound lack of medical intervention, this therapy seems natural enough and is unlikely to be morally suspect. Nevertheless, we feel morally uncertain when we consider giving this type of therapy to patients who would not naturally receive it. Much has been written about the ethics of stem cell research and therapy; this paper will focus on how recent advances in biotechnology and biological understandings of development narrow the debate. Here, the author briefly reviews current stem cell research practices, revisits the natural stem cell therapy case for moral evaluation, and ultimately demonstrates the importance of permissible stem cell research and therapy, even absent an agreement about the definition of when embryonic life begins. Although one promising technology, blighted ovum utilisation, uses fertilised but developmentally bankrupt eggs, it is argued that utilisation of unfertilised eggs to derive totipotent stem cells obviates the moral debate over when life begins. There are two existing technologies that fulfil this criterion: somatic cell nuclear transfer and parthenogenic stem cell derivation. Although these technologies are far from therapeutic, concerns over the morality of embryonic stem cell derivation should not hinder their advancement. PMID:16574879

  11. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006–2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006–2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including “natural products and polymers” with nine key technical points, “fermentation industry” with twelve ones, “electrical medical equipment” with four ones, and “diagnosis, surgery” with four ones. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new technological opportunities. PMID:26599967

  12. The use of focus groups to examine pubertal concerns in preteen girls: initial findings and implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Doswell, W M; Vandestienne, G

    1996-01-01

    This article presents the findings of four focus groups aimed at discovering the concerns a group of 9- to 12-year-old African American and Hispanic girls (N = 38) had about puberty, the transition to adolescence, and growing up. Among the factors these girls liked about growing up were increasing independence from parents, widening social relations with same- and opposite-sex friends, and an increase in decision making regarding clothes and activities. What they reported as not liking about growing up were an increase in peer pressure, high parental expectations, and more responsibility for their actions in home, school, and recreational activities. Health care for this group must include systematic monitoring of pubertal development and concerns in order to aggressively educate preadolescents to negotiate this period smoothly and to avoid high-risk behaviors that could have negative health and social sequelae during adolescence and adulthood. PMID:8920329

  13. The bad apple effect and social value orientation in public-goods dilemmas: replication and extension of research findings.

    PubMed

    Wu, Song; Sun, Jiaqing; Cai, Wei; Jin, Shenghua

    2014-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous findings on the effect of uncooperative behavior on group cooperation (the "bad apple" effect). Study 1 (56 women, 40 men; M age = 23.5 yr.) manipulated information about contributions from the bad apple, controlling for overall contributions to a group account. Study 2 (50 women, 34 men; M age = 20.4 yr.) compared the effects of a bad apple and a good apple on cooperation. The social value orientation of participants was measured to explore individual differences in the bad apple effect. The results revealed a bad apple (a) decreased cooperation among individuals with proself and prosocial orientations in Study 1, and (b) had a greater effect than a good apple on those who were proself compared to prosocial in Study 2. PMID:25074307

  14. Prior authorization policies in Medicaid programs: The importance of study design and analysis on findings and outcomes from research.

    PubMed

    Keast, Shellie L; Farmer, Kevin; Smith, Michael; Nesser, Nancy; Harrison, Donald

    2016-01-01

    U.S. State Medicaid programs for the medically indigent strive to deliver quality health care services with limited budgets. An often used cost management strategy is prior authorization of services or prescription medications. The goal of this strategy is to shape the pharmaceutical market share in the most efficient manner for the particular state Medicaid program, much like commercial managed care organizations. These policies are often scrutinized due to the population Medicaid serves, which in the past was largely composed of individuals with vulnerable health status. Unintended consequences can occur if these policies are not carried out in an appropriate manner or if they greatly restrict services. The data used for policy implementation research is prone to certain problems such as skewness and multimodality. Previous guidelines have been published regarding the best practices when analyzing these data. These guidelines were used to review the current body of literature regarding prior authorization in Medicaid. Further discussed are additional characteristics such as therapeutic areas researched and the outcomes identified. Finally, the importance of considering state-specific characteristics when reviewing individual policies and the usefulness of these results for other programs are also considered. PMID:25980583

  15. Generalizing the findings from group dynamics-based physical activity research to practice settings: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Harden, Samantha M; Burke, Shauna M; Haile, Amanda M; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-03-01

    The general purpose of this secondary analysis of a prior systematic review was to determine the degree to which group dynamics-based physical activity interventions align with research processes and outcomes that are more likely to facilitate the translation of research into practice. To accomplish this, a systematic search was conducted within Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, and MEDLINE databases to identify articles published prior to 2010 that used at least one group dynamics-based strategy (e.g., group interaction, group goal setting) in physical activity promotion. These 17 intervention studies were identified and coded based on the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance framework and Pragmatic-Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summary (for trial design characteristics). Reporting was infrequent for external validity factors (i.e., representativeness, adoption, cost, maintenance) but more frequent for internal validity factors (e.g., inclusion criteria). Intervention costs were not reported. Studies were more likely to be pragmatic (i.e., designed to determine the effects of an intervention under the usual conditions in which it will be applied) in areas of participant compliance and practitioner adherence and explanatory (i.e., designed to determine the effects of an intervention under ideal conditions) and in areas of practitioner expertise and flexibility of intervention protocol. While a number of these interventions were tested in more pragmatic settings, external validity factors were still underreported. PMID:23716732

  16. The Key Roles in the Informal Organization: A Network Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Toni, Alberto F.; Nonino, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the key roles embedded in the informal organizational structure (informal networks) and to outline their contribution in the companies' performance. A major objective of the research is to find and characterize a new key informal role that synthesises problem solving, expertise, and accessibility…

  17. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix A: Research Supporting Key Elements of the Standards, Glossary of Key Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    One of the key requirements of the Common Core State Standards for Reading is that all students must be able to comprehend texts of steadily increasing complexity as they progress through school. By the time they complete the core, students must be able to read and comprehend independently and proficiently the kinds of complex texts commonly found…

  18. Family pet ownership during childhood: findings from a UK birth cohort and implications for public health research.

    PubMed

    Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Coyne, Karen P; German, Alexander J; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2010-10-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood. PMID:21139856

  19. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R.; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M.; Coyne, Karen P.; German, Alexander J.; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood. PMID:21139856

  20. Domestic Violence and Welfare Policy: Research Findings That Can Inform Policies on Marriage and Child Well-Being. Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Sharmila

    Asserting that the welfare reform proposals of the mid-1990s drew attention to the problem of domestic violence among individuals receiving public assistance who are among the poorest of the poor, this report examines what is known from past research on domestic violence that may inform policies related to marriage and child well-being. In…