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1

Vanderbilt researchers find a protein family key to aging, cancer:  

Cancer.gov

The list of aging-associated proteins known to be involved in cancer is growing longer, according to research by investigators at Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center and the National Institutes of Health. The new study, published Oct. 17 in Cancer Cell, identifies the protein SIRT2 as a tumor suppressor linked to gender-specific tumor development in mice. Along with two other "sirtuin" proteins previously linked to cancer, the new finding suggests the existence of a rare "family" of tumor suppressors.

2

Violence in the night-time economy: key findings from the research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violent behaviour in and around pubs and clubs on weekend nights presents a significant public health, criminal justice and urban management problem. Many people are injured in such violence, a significant minority of whom are permanently disfigured. In many of these incidents, alcohol has been consumed. The key findings from published UK and international research on violence in the night-time

Andrea Finney

3

UNC researchers find that P Rex-1 protein is key to melanoma metastasis:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center are part of a team that has identified a protein, called P-Rex1, that is key to the movement of cells called melanoblasts. When these cells experience uncontrolled growth, melanoma develops.

4

Research on Self-Determination in Physical Education: Key Findings and Proposals for Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: During the last 30 years, several theories of motivation have generated insights into the motives underlying learners' behavior in physical education. Self-determination theory (SDT), a general theory on social development and motivation, has enjoyed increasing popularity in physical education research during the past decade. SDT…

Van den Berghe, Lynn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Cardon, Greet; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen

2014-01-01

5

Key Events and Lessons for Managers in a Diverse Workforce: A Report on Research and Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research documented in this report builds on earlier work in the 1980s in the area of on-the-job experiences in developing effective leaders. The current study was designed to answer the following: (1) What are the significant events from which African American managers learn and develop? (2) Are the key events and lessons learned different…

Douglas, Christina A.

6

Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research  

PubMed Central

This review examines research findings in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis in light of the current debate about this chronic multiple?symptom, multiorgan, multisystem illness and the conflicting views in medicine. These issues cannot be separated from the political opinions and assertions that conflict with science and medicine, and will be part of this review as they have enormous consequences for scientific and medical research, patients, clinicians, carers and policy makers. PMID:16935967

Hooper, M

2007-01-01

7

Student Engagement and Student Outcomes: Key Findings from "CCSSE" Validation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from 20 years of research on undergraduate education have been unequivocal: The more actively engaged students are--with college faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study--the more likely they are to learn, to stick with their studies, and to attain their academic goals. The existing literature,…

McClenney, Kay; Marti, C. Nathan; Adkins, Courtney

2012-01-01

8

Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

2009-01-01

9

Washington University researchers find key genetic error in family of blood cancers:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers used whole-genome sequencing to identify a critical mutation in some patients with myelodysplastic syndromes that appears to increase the likelihood they will develop acute myeloid leukemia.

10

Johns Hopkins researchers find key to lymph node metastasis in mice  

Cancer.gov

In a study reported Sept. 10 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Online Early Edition, researchers at Johns Hopkins describe their discovery of how a protein responsible for cell survival in low oxygen can trigger the spread of cancer cells into the lymphatic system in a mouse model of breast cancer. Johns Hopkins is home to the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center.

11

A decade of research using the CASP scale: key findings and future directions.  

PubMed

Since the publication of A Measure of Quality of Life in Early Old Age: The Theory, Development and Properties of a Needs Satisfaction Model (CASP-19) just over 10 years ago, the scale has gone on to be used in a wide variety of studies in over 20 countries across the world and the original paper has become the most highly cited paper for Aging and Mental Health. Therefore it was felt that it was a good time to look back and reflect on the developments in the use of the scale as well as to look forward to what new research is being done and could be done with the measure. To this end we are extremely grateful for the editors for allowing us to bring together a collection of papers that represent cutting edge research using the CASP scale. These papers cover a wide variety of issues, from working conditions to religiosity, from a range of countries, covering Western and Eastern Europe as well as Africa. Each makes an important individual contribution to our understanding of the factors that influence quality of life in later life as well as pointing to the limitations of the measure and future work that can be done in this area. PMID:25847497

Hyde, M; Higgs, P; Wiggins, R D; Blane, D

2015-07-01

12

Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients who have completed initial cancer treatment (cancer survivors) have been relatively neglected. We need data to help us better understand the needs of this group and to underpin evidence-based service development. Methods: Scoping reviews of research published in the last two decades focussing on the problems faced by cancer survivors, and the effectiveness of interventions for these problems were undertaken. The aim was to identify what we know, what we do not know and opportunities where research could provide new information. We searched for, retrieved and rapidly appraised systematic reviews sourced from the most common electronic databases supplemented by more recently published individual studies. Results: The research evidence is surprisingly limited. We have some knowledge of the prevalence and nature of depression, pain and fatigue in cancer survivors. We know much less about cognitive and physical impairment, employment, financial well-being and relationships. Even where we have evidence, it is mostly of only moderate quality, is most often only for breast cancer and focuses almost exclusively on the early phase of survivorship. We have good evidence for the effectiveness of drug treatments for pain and moderate evidence for fatigue and depression, but not for other symptoms. Interventions based on rehabilitative and self-management approaches remain in the early stages of evaluation. Interpretation: There has been a substantial amount of research describing many of the problems experienced by the cancer survivors. This is strongest in the area of symptoms in the period soon after treatment. However, the quality of the evidence is often poor, and some topics have been little examined. We urgently need data on the natural evolution and scale of the problems of cancer survivors obtained from well-designed, large-scale cohort studies and the robust testing of interventions in clinical trials. Given the current financially constrained research funding environment, we suggest areas in which strategic investment might give findings that have the potential to make a major impact on patient well-being in a 5-year time scale. PMID:22048036

Richardson, A; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Foster, C; Stark, D; Armes, J; Brearley, S G; Hodges, L; Hook, J; Jarrett, N; Stamataki, Z; Scott, I; Walker, J; Ziegler, L; Sharpe, M

2011-01-01

13

The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

2012-01-01

14

RESEARCH FINDINGS BASIC NEUROSCIENCES RESEARCH  

E-print Network

RESEARCH FINDINGS BASIC NEUROSCIENCES RESEARCH Cocaine Dynamically Regulates Heterochromatin and Repetitive Element Unsilencing In Nucleus Accumbens Repeated cocaine exposure induces persistent alterations on drug-mediated effects occurring throughout active euchromatic regions of the genome, with very little

Bandettini, Peter A.

15

Nanofluids Research: Key Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets) in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities). Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids.

Wang, Liqiu; Fan, Jing

2010-08-01

16

RESEARCH FINDINGS BASIC NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH  

E-print Network

1 RESEARCH FINDINGS BASIC NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH MR Imaging in Conscious Monkeys Functional magnetic, both in human and nonhuman subjects. Preclinical fMRI studies have several advantages; for example disadvantage of preclinical fMRI to date has been the necessity to conduct the scanning in anesthetized animals

Bandettini, Peter A.

17

Institutional Data Management in Higher Education. ECAR Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of institutional data management, which examines the policies and practices by which higher education institutions effectively collect, protect, and use digital information assets to meet academic and business needs. Importantly, it also…

Yanosky, Ronald

2009-01-01

18

Key Research Results Achievement  

E-print Network

-performance designs. Potential Impact More schools and retail buildings can be cost- effectively designed and built Society of North America, the U.S. Green Building Council, and NREL's Commercial Buildings Group, under Design Guides Slash Energy Use in Schools and Retail Buildings by 50% NREL Highlights RESEARCH

19

Key findings of the national weatherization evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. The primary goal of the evaluation was to establish whether the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement, to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families-particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy-efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed a five-part study which produced a series of documents evaluating the Program. The objective of this document is to summarize the findings of the five-part National Weatherization Evaluation. The five studies were as follows: (1) Network Study-this study characterized the weatherization network`s leveraging, capabilities, procedures, staff, technologies, and innovations; (2) Resources and Population Study-this study profiled low-income weatherization resources, the weatherized population, and the population remaining to be served; (3) Multifamily Study-this study described the nature and extent of weatherization activities in larger multifamily buildings; (4) Single-family Study-this study estimated the national savings and cost- effectiveness of weatherizing single-family and small multifamily dwellings that use natural gas or electricity for space heating; (5) Fuel-Oil Study-this study estimated the savings and cost-effectiveness of weatherizing single-family homes, located in nine northeastern states, that use fuel oil for space heating. This paper provides a brief overview of each study`s purposes, research methods and most important findings.

Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.

1994-10-01

20

Developing International Research Collaborations among Postdoctoral Fellows: Key Findings from the Evaluation of NSF's International Research Fellowship Program. GS-10F-0086K  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over a decade ago, the National Science Board (NSB) highlighted the importance of international collaboration in its call for increased government commitment to promoting international science and engineering (S&E) research and education. The NSB also identified the National Science Foundation (NSF) as having an important leadership role in…

Martinez, Alina; Epstein, Carter; Parsad, Amanda; Whittaker, Karla

2012-01-01

21

Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures.  

E-print Network

Breast Cancer Research Finding Answers. Finding Cures. Thanks to improvements in treatment and early detection, more and more women are surviving breast cancer. In fact, the five-year survival rate for women with breast cancer today is 90%, up from only 63% in the 1960s. While progress has clearly been

Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.

22

Public key infrastructure for DOE security research  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

1997-06-01

23

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Tools Resources Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home BRP Key Initiatives: CASPHR The Cognitive, Affective, and Social Processes in Health Research

24

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Skip Navigation Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding & Grants Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Key Initiatives Cognitive, Affective, and Social Processes in Health Research Workgroup

25

Human Health Effects of Dichloromethane: Key Findings and Scientific Issues  

PubMed Central

Background: The U.S. EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) completed an updated toxicological review of dichloromethane in November 2011. Objectives: In this commentary we summarize key results and issues of this review, including exposure sources, identification of potential health effects, and updated physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Methods: We performed a comprehensive review of primary research studies and evaluation of PBPK models. Discussion: Hepatotoxicity was observed in oral and inhalation exposure studies in several studies in animals; neurological effects were also identified as a potential area of concern. Dichloromethane was classified as likely to be carcinogenic in humans based primarily on evidence of carcinogenicity at two sites (liver and lung) in male and female B6C3F1 mice (inhalation exposure) and at one site (liver) in male B6C3F1 mice (drinking-water exposure). Recent epidemiologic studies of dichloromethane (seven studies of hematopoietic cancers published since 2000) provide additional data raising concerns about associations with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Although there are gaps in the database for dichloromethane genotoxicity (i.e., DNA adduct formation and gene mutations in target tissues in vivo), the positive DNA damage assays correlated with tissue and/or species availability of functional glutathione S-transferase (GST) metabolic activity, the key activation pathway for dichloromethane-induced cancer. Innovations in the IRIS assessment include estimation of cancer risk specifically for a presumed sensitive genotype (GST-theta-1+/+), and PBPK modeling accounting for human physiological distributions based on the expected distribution for all individuals 6 months to 80 years of age. Conclusion: The 2011 IRIS assessment of dichloromethane provides insights into the toxicity of a commonly used solvent. Citation: Schlosser PM, Bale AS, Gibbons CF, Wilkins A, Cooper GS. 2015. Human health effects of dichloromethane: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 123:114–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1308030 PMID:25325283

Schlosser, Paul M.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Gibbons, Catherine F.; Wilkins, Amina

2014-01-01

26

Teacher Retirement Systems: Research Findings. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief summarizes findings presented at a February 2009 research conference on teacher retirement systems hosted by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College. The 2009 conference was the second in a series of NCPI events focusing on findings from recent research on issues related to…

Hansen, Janet S.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Costrell, Robert M.

2009-01-01

27

Neurobiology of depression: an integrated view of key findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Aims: The objectives of the present review were to summarise the key findings from the clinical literature regarding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and their implications for maximising treatment outcomes. Several neuroan- atomical structures in the prefrontal and limbic areas of the brain are involved in affective regulation. In patients with MDD, alterations in the dynamic patterns

V. Maletic; M. Robinson; T. Oakes; S. Iyengar; S. G. Ball; J. Russell

2007-01-01

28

Human Health Effects of Tetrachloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues  

PubMed Central

Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Objectives: We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA’s Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Methods: The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach—a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma—provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. Conclusions: PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE. Citation: Guyton KZ, Hogan KA, Scott CS, Cooper GS, Bale AS, Kopylev L, Barone S Jr, Makris SL, Glenn B, Subramaniam RP, Gwinn MR, Dzubow RC, Chiu WA. 2014. Human health effects of tetrachloroethylene: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 122:325–334;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307359 PMID:24531164

Hogan, Karen A.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L.; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.

2014-01-01

29

University research reactors: key ingredients for success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a review of the key ingredients for successful operation and continued development of a research reactor in a university environment. North Carolina State University's (NCSU's) PULSTAR reactor is presented as a representative successful facility along with its relevant background for achieving this status. Key ingredients include continued support by university administration, adequate staffing levels, local utility

G. D. Miller; B. W. Wehring

1986-01-01

30

Air Research Program: Key Pathways research track  

EPA Science Inventory

The pathways research track applies animal, cellular, and human studies to discern whether there is a common molecular mechanism (e.g. production of oxidative stress, phosphatase inhibition, disruption of iron homeostasis) through which air pollutants induce toxicity of air pollu...

31

Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues  

PubMed Central

Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus. PMID:23249866

Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

2012-01-01

32

Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education. Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the key findings from "Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education", the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of how the economic recession is impacting information technology (IT) organizations and operations in higher education. The study was designed to address the…

Goldstein, Philip J.

2010-01-01

33

The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010. Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the key findings from "The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010". Since 2004, the annual ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of undergraduate students and information technology has sought to shed light on how information technology affects the college experience. We ask…

Smith, Shannon D.; Caruso, Judith Borreson

2010-01-01

34

Applying Psychological Science to Higher Education: Key Findings and Open Questions  

E-print Network

Applying Psychological Science to Higher Education: Key Findings and Open Questions ! Samuel T fields (e.g., psychology, economics, educational technology), and because "learning" reflects will be of use to instructors, students, researchers, and institutional leaders in higher education in general

35

Rangeland ecology: Key global research issues & questions  

E-print Network

1 Rangeland ecology: Key global research issues & questions Robin Reid and Maria Fernandez-Gimenez This paper discusses developments in our understanding about rangeland ecology and rangeland dynamics in the last 20 years. Before the late 1980's, the mainstream view in range ecology was that livestock

36

Rangeland ecology: Key global research issues & questions  

E-print Network

1 Rangeland ecology: Key global research issues & questions Robin Reid1 and Maria Fernandez Ecology Lab 2Associate Professor Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA Global Issues and Questions in Rangeland Ecology · Despite the focus here on global issues, we need to recognize that Mongolia

37

Bluetooth Technology Key Challenges and Initial Research  

E-print Network

these devices, and Bluetooth is to enable seamless communication between all them, essentially replac- ing whatBluetooth Technology Key Challenges and Initial Research Roch Gu´erin Enyoung Kim Saswati Sarkar of problems faced by the Bluetooth technology when attempting to use it for building adhoc net- works

Sarkar, Saswati

38

Key research issues in Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes C difficile-associated diarrhea, an important nosocomial infection. Control of this infection remains a challenge, and much needs to be determined about the antimicrobial resistance of the organism, antibiotic stewardship, contamination of the patient environment, and various host factors that determine susceptibility or resistance to infection. A national symposium focusing on C difficile infections, the Clostridium difficile Symposium on Emerging Issues and Research, was hosted on November 23, 2004, by the Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, in partnership with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This symposium, which aimed to summarize key research issues regarding C difficile infections in Canada, had the following objectives: to provide a forum for learning and discussion about C difficile and its impact on the health of Canadians; to identify the key research issues that should be addressed; and to explore potential research funding opportunities and collaboration. The present report summarizes key research issues identified for C difficile infections in Canada by addressing four major themes: diagnosis and surveillance, infection prevention and control, antibiotic stewardship, and clinical management. PMID:18159559

Zhanel, George; Hammond, Greg

2005-01-01

39

Issues in mHealth: Findings From Key Informant Interviews  

PubMed Central

Background mHealth is enjoying considerable interest and private investment in the United States. A small but growing body of evidence indicates some promise in supporting healthy behavior change and self-management of long-term conditions. The unique benefits mobile phones bring to health initiatives, such as direct access to health information regardless of time or location, may create specific issues for the implementation of such initiatives. Other issues may be shared with general health information technology developments. Objective To determine the important issues facing the implementation of mHealth from the perspective of those within the US health system and those working in mHealth in the United States. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with 27 key informants from across the health and mHealth sectors in the United States. Interviewees were approached directly following an environmental scan of mHealth in the United States or recommendation by those working in mHealth. Results The most common issues were privacy and data security, funding, a lack of good examples of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of mHealth in practice, and the need for more high-quality research. The issues are outlined and categorized according to the environment within which they predominantly occur: policy and regulatory environments; the wireless industry; the health system; existing mHealth practice; and research. Conclusions Many of these issues could be addressed by making the most of the current US health reform environment, developing a strategic and coordinated approach, and seeking to improve mHealth practice. PMID:23032424

2012-01-01

40

Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings  

PubMed Central

Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings. PMID:24023863

Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent

2013-01-01

41

RESEARCH GIVES EDGE TO FINDING  

E-print Network

home revisited. COVER STORY Séamus Davis and the path to faculty renewal BY BILL STEELE A look at what the Nano' explores a revolution in design and transportation BY DANIEL ALOI RESEARCH SPOTLIGHT $80 million the publisher Cornell's Ithaca campus is about to experience a tectonic shift. In the coming decade, as the baby

Angenent, Lars T.

42

Space Situational Awareness (SSA) research findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is the foundation for space superiority and has become a national priority. Providing full SSA requires knowledge of space and ground assets along with communication links between these assets. It also requires an understanding of potential events and threats that may affect these assets. This paper summarizes the findings resulting from a research environment established to explore SSA issues. Non-traditional data sources available on the internet are identified along with methods to mine relevant data. Algorithms to augment this data with value added processing were evaluated and key features are presented. These include all-on-all conjunction analysis utilizing analytical distributed processing approaches and maneuver detection utilizing an approach described in the AMOS 2007 paper "Satellite Maneuver Detection Using Two-line Elements". Data fusion techniques are presented which were utilized to evaluate space launches, enhance maneuver detection capabilities, characterize events and determine possible intent. Several visualization approaches were explored and the key features/limitations are discussed to include performance consideration, event models between visualization components, and data needs at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels. Data dissemination approaches utilizing a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) are highlighted along with challenges such as Multiple Levels of Security associated with the data. Dependencies between visualization and dissemination that impact the system's performance are discussed. Alternatives to balance system performance and application of a User Defined Operational Picture (UDOP) are explored.

Richmond, D.

43

A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

Wals, Arjen E. J.

2009-01-01

44

Oregon Public School Drug Use Survey, 1996: Key Findings Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among public school students continues to be a major concern in Oregon as it is across the nation. This report, the sixth of the biannual public school drug use surveys conducted in Oregon since 1986, discusses major findings. These findings are (1) marijuana use is up for both the eighth and eleventh grades;…

Finigan, Michael

45

Key findings from the AWHONN perinatal staffing data collaborative.  

PubMed

The Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) created the Perinatal Staffing Data Collaborative in response to the release of its Guidelines for Professional Registered Nurse Staffing for Perinatal Units. In total, 183 surveys were submitted from 175 birthing hospitals in the United States. These findings represent the largest set of data available to describe current patterns in perinatal registered nurse (RN) staffing. In this article we summarize the findings of the AWHONN Perinatal Staffing Data Collaborative from 2011 through 2012. PMID:25652136

Scheich, Benjamin; Bingham, Debra

2015-03-01

46

Prejudice Reduction and the Findings of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research studies that have investigated the effects of interventions aimed at reducing prejudice are reviewed, and a synthesis of their findings is presented. Some generalizations are offered that have the potential to lead towards a less prejudiced society. Research is summarized according to the intervention approaches used in the following…

Pate, Glenn S.

47

Women in Mixed Groups: Some Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the research dealing with women in leadership roles within groups of both sexes. Some research indicates a reluctance of women to assume leadership roles. Other findings indicate women are more likely to be strong leaders when the task solution is given. (LPG)

Mamola, Claire

1979-01-01

48

Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Project: The 1991 Nevada State telephone survey: Key findings  

SciTech Connect

The 1991 Nevada State Telephone Survey was implemented by Decision Research on behalf of the State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) as part of an ongoing socioeconomic impact assessment study. The scope of this survey was considerably smaller than a previous survey conducted in 1989 and focused more upon public evaluations of the Yucca Mountain repository program and the trust Nevadans currently addressing the siting issues. In order to provide place in key public officials who are Longitudinal data on the repository program, the 1991 questionnaire consisted of questions that were used in the 1989 NWPO survey which was conducted by Mountain West Research. As a result, the findings from this survey are compared with analogous items from the 1989 survey, and with the results from a survey commissioned by the Las Vegas Review-Journal and reported in their issue of October 21, 1990. The Review-Journal survey was conducted by Bruce Merri11 of the Arizona State University Media Research Center. A more complete comparison of the 1989 and 1991 surveys sponsored by NWPO is possible since the researchers at Decision Research had access to both these databases. The only source of information for the Review-Journal findings was the articles published in the Fall, 1990. The findings of the 1991 survey show that Nevadans oppose the federal government attempts to locate a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. They support a policy of opposition on the part of Nevada officials. They believe that Nevadans should have the final say in whether to accept the repository or not, and they reject the proposition that benefits from the repository program will outweigh the harms. These findings are very similar to survey results from 1989 and 1990 and once again demonstrate very widespread public opposition by Nevadans to the current federal repository program.

Flynn, J.H.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

1991-05-01

49

Prisons Research Centre Annual Report and Research Findings 2009  

E-print Network

Prisons Research Centre Annual Report and Research Findings 2009 The Prisons Research Centre is now from the Prison Service, the Nuffield Foundation, the Leverhulme Trust, the ESRC, The KPMG Foundation by previous research by both investigators, and drew upon their expertise in the analysis of prison life

Travis, Adrian

50

Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Accounting Association (AAA) lists the print resources and electronic databases where AAA journals are indexed and abstracted at this Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research page. The detailed list includes indexing and abstracting devices for a number of journals -- Accounting Horizons, The Accounting Review, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Journal of the American Taxation Association, Journal of Information Systems, and the Journal of Management Accounting Research -- with date coverage and full-text information included for each.

51

Space Situational Awareness (SSA) research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is the foundation for space superiority and has become a national priority. Providing full SSA requires knowledge of space and ground assets along with communication links between these assets. It also requires an understanding of potential events and threats that may affect these assets. This paper summarizes the findings resulting from a research environment established to

David Richmond; Valley Forge PA

2008-01-01

52

Americans' Gut Bacteria Lack Diversity, Researchers Find  

MedlinePLUS

... person due to better sanitation and cleaner drinking water in the United States, the researchers reported in the journal Cell Reports . "These findings suggest that lifestyle practices that reduce bacterial dispersal ... and drinking-water treatment -- might be an important cause of microbiome ...

53

Prisons Research Centre Annual Report on Research Findings 2010  

E-print Network

Prisons Research Centre Annual Report on Research Findings 2010 The Prisons Research Centre is now from the Prison Service, the Nuffield Foundation, the Leverhulme Trust, the ESRC, The KPMG Foundation study of four matched public and private sector prisons (and three additional establishments). The main

Travis, Adrian

54

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Project Background This supplement was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Behavioral Research Program, in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences and the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research.

55

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Research Interests Alexander Rothman, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Psychology and the Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Programs, College of Liberal Arts at the University of Minnesota.

56

Key Findings from a National Internet Survey of 400 Teachers and 95 Principals Conducted November 12-21, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the key findings from a national Internet survey of 400 teachers and 95 principals. This survey was conducted November 12-21, 2008. The sample was based on a list provided by EMI Surveys, a custom online research sample provider with an extensive portfolio of projects. The margin of error for a sample of 495 interviews is [plus…

McCleskey, Nicole

2010-01-01

57

U of M Civil Service Wellness Survey: Finding Out Employees' Health and Wellness Needs. A Report of Key Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Key findings from a wellness survey conducted with University of Minnesota civil service employees are discussed. The survey was designed to provide information to guide future campus health and wellness programming. Four topics were covered: physical fitness/exercise, nutrition, self-improvement/psychological health, and general health/preventive…

Matross, Ron; Roesler, Jon

58

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Group Origin A fundamental goal of the National Cancer Institute’s Behavioral Research Program (BRP) is to facilitate a better understanding of health behaviors and their underlying processes. The Cognitive, Affective, and Social Processes in Health Research (CASPHR) working group was convened in Fall 2009 to provide expert consultation on how theories of cognitive, affective, and social processes, in particular, can enhance research and practice throughout the cancer continuum.

59

Researcher as Instrument: Understanding "Shifting" Findings in Constructivist Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies investigating the meaning and articulation of multiple identities among Black college students revealed shifts in the findings from the 2001 study to the 2005 study. This theoretical review explores the role of the researcher as instrument within the constructivist research paradigm as a possible explanation for some of these apparent…

Stewart, Dafina Lazarus

2010-01-01

60

Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research  

MedlinePLUS

... Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc At the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that ...

61

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

William Klein, PhD, was appointed associate director of the Behavioral Research Program (BRP) in August 2009. Prior to this appointment, he was associate professor in the Psychology Department at the University of Pittsburgh.

62

Key Features of Nuclear Research Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

By October 2004, some 672 research reactors had been built. Of these, 274 in 56 countries are in operation today. Such reactors\\u000a are not generally used for producing electrical power, although they have a very high power density in the core requiring\\u000a special design features. They are used for research and training, materials testing, as neutron generators and for production

Bhupendra jasani

63

Researchers Find Japanese Submarine at Pearl Harbor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier this week, researchers from the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab located the remains of a Japanese midget submarine. Found in 1200 feet of water, the submarine was sunk by the USS Ward just an hour before the aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Most important, the discovery of the midget submarine offers concrete physical evidence that the United States did fire the first shot against the Japanese. Previous expeditions to locate the sub, including an effort made in 2000 by the National Geographic Society, had been unsuccessful, largely due to the fact that the area is a military "junkyard" with tons of debris on the ocean floor.For more in-depth information on this story, readers may find the first four news links particularly helpful. The fifth link leads to the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab's Web site that features photographs of the midget sub from the expedition earlier this week. The sixth link is to a Web site dealing with the history and missions of the USS Ward. The final link contains detailed information about the 2000 expedition led by Robert Ballard, with support from the National Geographic Society, to find the midget submarine.

Green, Marcia.

2002-01-01

64

Key Dismukes NASA Ames Research Center  

E-print Network

the role of errors in accidents? Draw upon cognitive science research on skilled performance of human of multiple events, task demands, actions taken or not taken, and environmental factors #12;Confluence but can determine why the population of pilots is vulnerable · Considers variability of expert performance

65

Advanced NGV research key to market success  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the current research for natural gas vehicles (NGV) and the progress made toward the use of this fuel. It discusses the design of engine components and the cost as compared to conventional combustion components. It discusses the prices and availability of conversion kits which are capable of converting standard gasoline-powered vehicles into NGV's. It also discusses the

K. G. Davidson; S. V. Schaedel

1993-01-01

66

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

Research Interests Dr. Bryan received her BA in Psychology from UCLA, and her MA and PhD in Social Psychology with a Quantitative Emphasis from Arizona State University. Dr. Bryan is currently Professor and Director of the Social Psychology PhD Program in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of Colorado Boulder.

67

Research Summary Key Ingredients of Collaborative Management  

E-print Network

that collaboration amongst stakeholders can lead to more sustainable land-management. Voluntary collaboration closely with land-managers and other deer management stakeholders. Objectives This research aimed to: o forms. These may include: o co-ordinated land management o establishment of `strategic partnerships

68

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

There is growing attention within cancer survivorship research on neuropsychological effects (i.e., deficits in executive functioning, memory) associated with cancer and cancer therapies and their role in quality of life. However, the impact of cancer and related therapy on social cognitive processes, and the connection of these social cognitive processes to neuropsychological impairment and ultimately quality of life remain comparatively under-explored.

69

DCCPS: Behavioral Research Program: Key Initiatives  

Cancer.gov

The Science of Research and Technology Branch (SRTB) is invested in the improvement of the scientific rigor with which health behavior theories are tested and applied. SRTB encourages and supports the use of new data sources and methods for theory testing. Information about behavior and its influences from both prospective and archival collection methods is increasingly more temporally dense and “big” (i.e., high in volume, variety, and velocity).

70

Research on Key Technologies of Cloud Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of multi-core processors, virtualization, distributed storage, broadband Internet and automatic management, a new type of computing mode named cloud computing is produced. It distributes computation task on the resource pool which consists of massive computers, so the application systems can obtain the computing power, the storage space and software service according to its demand. It can concentrate all the computing resources and manage them automatically by the software without intervene. This makes application offers not to annoy for tedious details and more absorbed in his business. It will be advantageous to innovation and reduce cost. It's the ultimate goal of cloud computing to provide calculation, services and applications as a public facility for the public, So that people can use the computer resources just like using water, electricity, gas and telephone. Currently, the understanding of cloud computing is developing and changing constantly, cloud computing still has no unanimous definition. This paper describes three main service forms of cloud computing: SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, compared the definition of cloud computing which is given by Google, Amazon, IBM and other companies, summarized the basic characteristics of cloud computing, and emphasized on the key technologies such as data storage, data management, virtualization and programming model.

Zhang, Shufen; Yan, Hongcan; Chen, Xuebin

71

Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.  

PubMed

Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts. PMID:18834752

Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

2008-12-01

72

Children's contact with their incarcerated parents: research findings and recommendations.  

PubMed

Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children, incarcerated parents, caregivers, and professionals, parent-child contact during the imprisonment period is a key issue. In this article, we present a conceptual model to provide a framework within which to interpret findings about parent-child contact when parents are incarcerated. We then summarize recent research examining parent-child contact in context. On the basis of the research reviewed, we present initial recommendations for children's contact with incarcerated parents and also suggest areas for future intervention and research with this vulnerable population. PMID:20822198

Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D

2010-09-01

73

A natural language processing (NLP) program effectively extracts key pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy reports.  

PubMed

Introduction and Objective Natural language processing (NLP) software programs have been widely developed to transform complex, free text into simplified, organized data. Potential applications in the field of medicine include automated report summaries, physician alerts, patient repositories, electronic medical record (EMR) billing, and quality metric reports. Despite these prospects and the recent widespread adoption of EMR, NLP has been relatively underutilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an internally developed NLP program in extracting select pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy specimen reports in the EMR. Methods An NLP program was generated by a software engineer to extract key variables from prostatectomy reports in the EMR within our healthcare system, which included: TNM stage, Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, histologic subtype, size of dominant tumor nodule, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), perineural invasion (PNI), angiolymphatic invasion (ALI), extracapsular extension (ECE), and surgical margin status (SMS). The program was validated by comparing NLP results to a "gold standard" compiled by two blinded manual reviewers for 100 random pathology reports. Results: NLP demonstrated 100% accuracy for identifying Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, SVI, ALI, and ECE. It also demonstrated near-perfect accuracy for extracting histologic subtype (99.0%), PNI (98.9%), TNM stage (98.0%), SMS (97.0%), and dominant tumor size (95.7%). The overall accuracy of NLP was 98.7%. NLP generated a result in <1 second, whereas the manual reviewers averaged 3.2 minutes per report. Conclusions: This novel program demonstrated high accuracy and efficiency identifying key pathologic details from the prostatectomy report within an EMR system. NLP has the potential to assist urologists by summarizing and highlighting relevant information from verbose pathology reports. It may also facilitate future urologic research through the rapid and automated creation of large databases. PMID:25083914

Kim, Brian; Merchant, Madhur; Zheng, Chengyi; Thomas, Anil Abraham; Contreras, Richard; Jacobsen, Steven J; Chien, Gary

2014-08-01

74

A Key Technique in Operational Research Peer-Olaf Siebers  

E-print Network

/02/2006 Simulation - A Key Technique in Operational Research http://www.cs.nott.ac.uk/~pos/ 6/26 Static vs. Dynamic · Government service, banking, hotels, restaurants, educational institutions, disaster planning, the military

Aickelin, Uwe

75

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2001 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

76

Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2002 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Inst. for Social Research.

77

Vesteinn Thorsson, Ph.D., Reviews Key Findings from the TCGA Study on Colorectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Vesteinn Thorsson, Ph.D., Reviews the TCGA Study on Colorectal Cancer Vesteinn Thorsson, Ph.D., Reviews Key Findings from the TCGA Study on Colorectal Cancer You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later

78

Can recent innovations in harmonic analysis 'explain' key findings in natural image statistics?  

PubMed

Recently, applied mathematicians have been pursuing the goal of sparse coding of certain mathematical models of images with edges. They have found by mathematical analysis that, instead of wavelets and Fourier methods, sparse coding leads towards new systems: ridgelets and curvelets. These new systems have elements distributed across a range of scales and locations, but also orientations. In fact they have highly direction-specific elements and exhibit increasing numbers of distinct directions as we go to successively finer scales. Meanwhile, researchers in natural scene statistics (NSS) have been attempting to find sparse codes for natural images. The new systems they have found by computational optimization have elements distributed across a range of scales and locations, but also orientations. The new systems are certainly unlike wavelet and Gabor systems, on the one hand because of the multi-orientation and on the other hand because of the multi-scale nature. There is a certain degree of visual resemblance between the findings in the two fields, which suggests the hypothesis that certain important findings in the NSS literature might possibly be explained by the slogan: edges are the dominant features in images, and curvelets are the right tool for representing edges. We consider here certain empirical consequences of this hypothesis, looking at key findings of the NSS literature and conducting studies of curvelet and ridgelet transforms on synthetic and real images, to see if the results are consistent with predictions from this slogan. Our first experiment measures the nonGaussianity of Fourier, wavelet, ridgelet and curvelet coefficients over a database of synthetic and photographic images. Empirically the curvelet coefficients exhibit noticeably higher kurtosis than wavelet, ridgelet, or Fourier coefficients. This is consistent with the hypothesis. Our second experiment studies the inter-scale correlation of wavelet coefficient energies at the same location. We describe a simple experiment showing that presence of edges explains these correlations. We also develop a crude nonlinear 'partial correlation' by considering the correlation between wavelet parents and children after a few curvelet coefficients are removed. When we kill the few biggest coefficients of the curvelet transform, much of the correlation between wavelet subbands disappears--consistent with the hypothesis. We suggest implications for future discussions about NSS. PMID:11563535

Donoho, D L; Flesia, A G

2001-08-01

79

Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: Key findings and future recommendations  

PubMed Central

Many epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution use measurements from central-site monitors as their exposure estimate. However, measurements from central-site monitors may lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to capture exposure variability in a study population, thus resulting in exposure error and biased estimates. Articles in this dedicated issue examine various approaches to predict or assign exposures to ambient pollutants. These methods include: combining existing central-site pollution measurements with local- and/or regional-scale air quality models to create new or “hybrid” models for pollutant exposure estimates, and using exposure models to account for factors such as infiltration of pollutants indoors and human activity patterns. Key findings from these articles are summarized to provide lessons learned and recommendations for additional research on improving exposure estimation approaches for future epidemiological studies. In summary, when compared to use of central-site monitoring data, the enhanced spatial resolution of air quality or exposure models can have an impact on resultant health effect estimates, especially for pollutants derived from local sources such as traffic (e.g. EC, CO, and NOx). In addition, the optimal exposure estimation approach also depends upon the epidemiological study design. We recommend that future research develop pollutant-specific infiltration data (including for PM species), and improve existing data on human time-activity patterns, and exposure to local source (e.g. traffic), in order to enhance human exposure modeling estimates. We also recommend comparing how various approaches to exposure estimation characterize relationships between multiple pollutants in time and space, and investigating the impact of improved exposure estimates in chronic health studies. PMID:24084756

Baxter, Lisa K.; Dionisio, Kathie L.; Burke, Janet; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt; Sarnat, Jeremy A.; Hodas, Natasha; Rich, David Q.; Turpin, Barbara J.; Jones, Rena R.; Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Kumar, Naresh; Beevers, Sean D.; Özkaynak, Halûk

2014-01-01

80

Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an online and a printable brochure that provides information on why researchers study animals, how research animals are cared for, the ethics of animal research, cosmetic testing on animals, and how animal research helps people in the context of a diabetes patient.

2010-06-24

81

Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits  

SciTech Connect

In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

Wester, D.W.

1994-02-01

82

75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...former senior scientist, Discovery Research, Women's Health, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, engaged in research misconduct...phosphorylation cascades) that is of importance to women's health. Dr. Cheskis' team identified an adapter...

2010-04-13

83

76 FR 61361 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...research misconduct by (1) plagiarizing text and falsifying data from two publications...significant portions of that plagiarized text in two grant applications to the National...in research misconduct by plagiarizing text, falsifying data and references,...

2011-10-04

84

78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...analysis, ORI found that Dr. Hao Wang, former Associate Professor of Surgery and Pathology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, WU, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...

2013-11-12

85

78 FR 72892 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Respondent engaged in research misconduct by fabricating...referred to as the ``CEBP paper''). Specifically...in Table 1 of the CEBP paper and falsely reported...conclusions of the CEBP paper are based on fabricated...2013: (1) To have his research supervised;...

2013-12-04

86

77 FR 124 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...similar experiments in four laboratory meeting presentations. The purpose of the falsifications...PHS funds, or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS supported research in which...application, report, manuscript, or abstract; and (3) to exclude herself from...

2012-01-03

87

75 FR 39530 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...dogs with X-linked progressive retinal atrophy in abstracts and poster presentations for the 2006 \\1\\ and 2007...Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) meetings and in an unsubmitted manuscript...

2010-07-09

88

77 FR 11538 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...setting forth the committee meeting dates, Respondent's compliance...submitted for publication, and abstracts; the review will include a...or report, manuscript, or abstract involving PHS-supported research...report, manuscript, or abstract; and (4) To exclude...

2012-02-27

89

Tobacco Smoke Strengthens 'Superbug,' Lab Research Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... the infection, researchers from the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine found. "We already know ... an assistant clinical professor of medicine at UC San Diego, said in a university news release. However, ...

90

77 FR 125 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Assistant Professor in the K- INBRE \\1\\ Bioinformatics Core Facility, KU, engaged in research...International Joint Conference on Bioinformatics, Systems, Biology and Intelligent...the IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine Workshop,...

2012-01-03

91

77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin, engaged in research...ageing and rejuventation of blood stem cell niches.'' Nature 463:495-500...niche cells initiate hemotopoietic stem cell mobilization.'' Blood...

2012-08-28

92

75 FR 18836 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...figures identified below in specific grant applications and published papers are false and that these falsifications rise to the level of research misconduct: Respondent admitted to falsifying Figures 6B, 18, 22, 23B, and 24 in NCCAM,...

2010-04-13

93

Writing and Publishing Your Research Findings  

PubMed Central

Writing clearly is critical to the success of your scientific career. Unfortunately, this skill is not taught in medical school or postgraduate training. This article summarizes our approach to the writing and publication of your research. Here we focus on empirical or experimental reports of translational and clinically oriented research. We review the process of choosing what to write, how to write it clearly, and how to navigate the process of submission and publication. PMID:19491626

Quinn, Charles T.; Rush, A. John

2014-01-01

94

40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of key words...

2014-07-01

95

40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of key words...

2012-07-01

96

40 CFR 63.1176 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Mineral Wool Production § 63.1176 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart? The definitions of key words...

2010-07-01

97

79 FR 22973 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...falsified experimental data for LacZ stained liver sections and for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained liver sections. Specifically, ORI finds by...phenylalanine after PKU gene therapy and to show liver levels of BH 4 when the Respondent...

2014-04-25

98

Educational Research: Biologists Finding Their Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the publication of the Dearing report (1997) there has been an increasing emphasis on the quality of teaching and learning provision within higher education institutions (HEIs). This focus on provision has in turn generated much educational research into "approaches" to both teaching practice and student learning within higher education…

Orsmond, Paul

2007-01-01

99

75 FR 77641 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...thus, I could not be certain of the exact identity of the plasmids in question.'' ORI found that Dr. Mungekar engaged in research...Mungekar also claimed to have constructed 53 different reporter plasmids with RNase E mutants, when sequencing data did not exist...

2010-12-13

100

Training: Who Needs It? Research Report 1995. Key Issues for Providers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aimed at all those involved in the supply of training and vocational education for the hospitality industry, this report summarizes findings of the research report, "Training Who Needs It?" It draws out and explores in more detail key issues relating to the provision of training, support, and related initiatives for the industry. Section 1…

Hotel and Catering Training Co., London (England).

101

Technological Entrepreneurship: Key Themes and Emerging Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological entrepreneurship is a fertile area of research. Scholars from as diverse fields as entrepreneurship, strategy,\\u000a organizational theory, sociology, economics, and psychology have made valuable contributions to this fast growing area. Our\\u000a review of prior research reinforces the importance of prior research findings, while outlining several opportunities for imaginative\\u000a and productive scholarship in this area. We hope that our review

S. A. Zahra; J. C. Hayton

102

Key-linked on-line databases for clinical research.  

PubMed

Separating patient identification data from clinical data and/or information about biomaterial samples is an effective data protection measure, especially in clinical research employing "on-line", i.e., web-based, data capture. In this paper, we show that this specialised technique can be generalised into a network architecture of interconnected on-line databases potentially serving a variety of purposes. The basic idea of this approach consists of maintaining logical links, i.e., common record keys, between corresponding data structures in pairs of databases while keeping the actual key values hidden from clients. For client systems, simultaneous access to corresponding records is mediated by temporary access tokens. At the relational level, these links are represented by arbitrary unique record keys common to both databases. This architecture allows for integration of related data in different databases without replicating or permanently sharing this data in one place. Each participating on-line database can determine the degree of integration by specifying linkage keys only for those data structures that may be logically connected to other data. Logical links can de designed for specific use cases. In addition, each database controls user access by enforcing its own authorisation scheme. Another advantage is that individual database owners retain considerable leeway in adapting to changing local requirements without compromising the integration into the network. Beyond protecting individual subject identification data, this architecture permits splitting a cooperatively used data pool to achieve many kinds of objectives. Application examples could be clinical registries needing subject contact information for follow-up, biomaterial banks with or without genetic information, and automatic or assisted integration of data from electronic medical records into research data. PMID:22874246

Müller, Thomas H

2012-01-01

103

Managing incidental findings in human subjects research: analysis and recommendations.  

PubMed

No consensus yet exists on how to handle incidental findings (IFs) in human subjects research. Yet empirical studies document IFs in a wide range of research studies, where IFs are findings beyond the aims of the study that are of potential health or reproductive importance to the individual research participant. This paper reports recommendations of a two-year project group funded by NIH to study how to manage IFs in genetic and genomic research, as well as imaging research. We conclude that researchers have an obligation to address the possibility of discovering IFs in their protocol and communications with the IRB, and in their consent forms and communications with research participants. Researchers should establish a pathway for handling IFs and communicate that to the IRB and research participants. We recommend a pathway and categorize IFs into those that must be disclosed to research participants, those that may be disclosed, and those that should not be disclosed. PMID:18547191

Wolf, Susan M; Lawrenz, Frances P; Nelson, Charles A; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Cho, Mildred K; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Fletcher, Joel G; Georgieff, Michael K; Hammerschmidt, Dale; Hudson, Kathy; Illes, Judy; Kapur, Vivek; Keane, Moira A; Koenig, Barbara A; Leroy, Bonnie S; McFarland, Elizabeth G; Paradise, Jordan; Parker, Lisa S; Terry, Sharon F; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S

2008-01-01

104

Cancer researchers translate new laboratory findings to enhance melanoma treatment  

Cancer.gov

Translational researchers from UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC) have published results of two back-to-back studies in the journal Cancer Discovery that provide critical insights into two key areas of how tumors resist BRAF inhibitors: the key cell-signaling pathways BRAF-mutant melanoma cells use to learn how to become resistant to inhibitor drugs, and how the limited focus of BRAF inhibitors allows melanoma cells to evolve and develop drug resistance.

105

I.5 Key Focus Group Findings on I-131 Exposure from the Nevada Test Site: Preliminary Findings from  

E-print Network

Center Drive MSC-2580 Building 31, Room 10A03 Bethesda, MD 20892-2580 January 2000 I-5-1 #12;KEY FOCUS to Americans the potential health effects of Iodine- 131 (I-131) radiation released during atmospheric testing People from Iodine-131 in Fallout Following Nevada Atmospheric Nuclear Bomb Tests: A Report from

106

Finding our Future: A Research Agenda for the Research Enterprise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The NSF Digital Government research program helps to develop new research themes by sponsoring preliminary explorations and workshops to outline emerging areas of inquiry One area which was recently explored in this way is the grants making and grants management process by which the federal government distributes more than $100 billion each year The project included focus groups and

Theresa A. Pardo; Sharon S. Dawes; Anthony M. Cresswell; Fiona Thompson; Giri Kumar Tayi

2003-01-01

107

40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this...

2012-07-01

108

40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this...

2010-07-01

109

40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this...

2014-07-01

110

40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this...

2013-07-01

111

40 CFR 63.2831 - Where can I find definitions of key words used in this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production What This Subpart Covers § 63.2831 Where can I find definitions of key words used in this...

2011-07-01

112

Trust in Leadership: Meta-Analytic Findings and Implications for Research and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors examined the findings and implications of the research on trust in leadership that has been conducted during the past 4 decades. First, the study provides estimates of the primary relationships between trust in leadership and key outcomes, antecedents, and correlates (k = 106). Second, the study explores how specifying the construct with alternative leadership referents

Donald L. FERRIN; K. T. Dirks

2002-01-01

113

Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

114

The Effective Elementary School Principal: Theoretical Bases, Research Findings and Practical Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although much of the current school reform movement relies on the basic assumption of effective elementary school administration, insufficient effort has been made to synthesize key concepts found in organizational theory and management studies with relevant effective schools research findings. This paper attempts such a synthesis to help develop…

Burnett, I. Emett, Jr.; Pankake, Anita M.

115

Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue. PMID:23429172

Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

2012-01-01

116

Researchers Find Essential Brain Circuit in Visual Development  

MedlinePLUS

... 2013 Researchers find essential brain circuit in visual development NIH-funded study could lead to new treatments ... adulthood. “Our study identifies a mechanism for visual development in the young brain and shows that it’s ...

117

Smoking Linked to Damage in the Brain, Researchers Find  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Smoking Linked to Damage in the Brain, Researchers Find ... February 13, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Brain Diseases Smoking FRIDAY, Feb. 13, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may ...

118

Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting in February 2001, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) began publishing "Findings" magazine. The publication features research and findings from scholars doing work with funding from the NIGMS. Visitors can browse the archive of the publication by topic or date, and they can also check out the sample articles from the latest edition on the homepage. Recent pieces have included "Drugs from Deep Down", "Mesmerized by Metals", and "Just Found", which talks about potential sunburn treatments. The site also has the "Find More" area, which contains an image gallery, school resources, free slide kits, and interactive games. Also, the "Watch" area contains interviews with scientists like Dr. Kevin Tracey talking about his investigations into sepsis. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive Findings via email.

119

Key Findings on the Economic Status of Women in North Carolina  

E-print Network

(IWPR), The Status of Women in North Carolina, shows that many of North Carolina’s women are vulnerable to challenges such as unemployment, a persistent wage gap, poverty, and the high cost of child care. In addition, women in the state experience stubborn disparities in opportunities and outcomes— disparities that exist among women of different race and ethnic groups as well as among women from various geographic areas within the state. Addressing these challenges and disparities is essential to promoting the well-being and vibrancy of North Carolina’s many communities. When women thrive, whole communities and regions thrive as well. The forthcoming report provides critical data to identify both areas of progress for women in North Carolina and places where additional improvements are still needed. i The report analyzes key issues—such as employment and earnings, economic security and poverty, health and well-being, and political participation— that profoundly affect the lives of women in North Carolina. It presents data that can serve as a resource for advocates, researchers, community leaders, policymakers, and others who seek to analyze and discuss community investments, program initiatives, and public policies that will lead to positive change for women in the state of North Carolina and nationwide. The study is funded by the North Carolina Council for Women, the

But The

2012-01-01

120

Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

2009-01-01

121

St. Jude study finds a tumor suppressor protein is a key regulator of immune response and balance in mice:  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital scientists have identified a key immune system regulator [in mice], a protein that serves as a gatekeeper in the white blood cells that produce the “troops” to battle specific infections.

122

Case Western researchers present new findings for glioblastoma  

Cancer.gov

Physician-scientists from University Hospitals (UH), Case Medical Center's Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine presented new research findings this week at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) in Chicago. One study sought to identify protein biomarkers that can help physicians determine which patients may benefit from standard treatment for GBM.

123

Science Teachers' Awareness of Findings from Education Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a small-scale study designed to estimate science teachers' awareness of findings derived from research in science education and other branches of educational research. Focuses on experienced science teachers in Portugal who were following advanced professional training programs that usually lead to Masters' degrees in science education.…

Costa, Nilza; Marques, Luis; Kempa, Richard

2000-01-01

124

Yale researchers find genes behind aggressive endometrial cancer  

Cancer.gov

Yale and Yale Cancer Center researchers have defined the genetic landscape of uterine serous carcinoma (USC) tumors, a chemo-resistant, aggressive form of endometrial cancer, findings that point to new treatment opportunities. The collaborative team—which included researchers with expertise in gynecological cancer, genomics, and computational biology— identified a number of new genes that are frequently mutated in USC.

125

Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

Rutter, Michael

2005-01-01

126

Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research  

PubMed Central

The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)—findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research—and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher’s failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors—including customary practice and guidance documents—that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher’s duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This approach enables participants to know at the outset which findings, if any, will be returned, allows researchers to ascertain when their failure to appropriately return incidental findings will give rise to liability, and enables courts to make determinations that will produce more consistent legal guidance. PMID:25346543

Pike, Elizabeth R.; Rothenberg, Karen H.; Berkman, Benjamin E.

2014-01-01

127

IPCC Climate Change 2013: Mitigation of Climate Change - Key Findings and Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change, examines the results of scientific research about mitigation, with special attention on how knowledge has evolved since the Fourth Assessment Report published in 2007. Throughout, the focus is on the implications of its findings for policy, without being prescriptive about the particular policies that governments and other important participants in the policy process should adopt. The report begins with a framing of important concepts and methods that help to contextualize the findings presented throughout the assessment. The valuation of risks and uncertainties, ethical concepts and the context of sustainable development and equity are among the guiding principles for the assessment of mitigation strategies. The report highlights past trends in stocks and flows of greenhouse gases and the factors that drive emissions at global, regional, and sectoral scales including economic growth, technology or population changes. It provides analyses of the technological, economic and institutional requirements of long-term mitigation scenarios and details on mitigation measures and policies that are applied in different economic sectors and human settlements. It then discusses interactions of mitigation policies and different policy instrument types at national, regional and global governance levels and between economic sectors, The Working Group III report comprises 16 chapters and in assembling this assessment authors were guided by the principles of the IPCC mandate: to be explicit about mitigation options, to be explicit about their costs and about their risks and opportunities vis-à-vis other development priorities, and to be explicit about the underlying criteria, concepts, and methods for evaluating alternative policies.

Sokona, Youba

2014-05-01

128

Finding Fault? Exploring Legal Duties to Return Incidental Findings in Genomic Research.  

PubMed

The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)-findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research-and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher's failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors-including customary practice and guidance documents-that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher's duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This approach enables participants to know at the outset which findings, if any, will be returned, allows researchers to ascertain when their failure to appropriately return incidental findings will give rise to liability, and enables courts to make determinations that will produce more consistent legal guidance. PMID:25346543

Pike, Elizabeth R; Rothenberg, Karen H; Berkman, Benjamin E

2014-01-01

129

Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

130

In Search of New Ideas, Research Findings, and Emerging Technologies? Here's Where To Find Them.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are many avenues available to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) practitioners and developers in search of access to new ideas, research findings, and emerging technologies that will assist them in developing CAI products. Seven such avenues are described in detail: (1) graduate student interns, who bring unique insights, theory, and…

Powell, Gary C.

131

Who are the key players in a new translational research network?  

PubMed Central

Background Professional networks are used increasingly in health care to bring together members from different sites and professions to work collaboratively. Key players within these networks are known to affect network function through their central or brokerage position and are therefore of interest to those who seek to optimise network efficiency. However, their identity may not be apparent. This study using social network analysis to ask: (1) Who are the key players of a new translational research network (TRN)? (2) Do they have characteristics in common? (3) Are they recognisable as powerful, influential or well connected individuals? Methods TRN members were asked to complete an on-line, whole network survey which collected demographic information expected to be associated with key player roles, and social network questions about collaboration in current TRN projects. Three questions asked who they perceived as powerful, influential and well connected. Indegree and betweenness centrality values were used to determine key player status in the actual and perceived networks and tested for association with demographic and descriptive variables using chi square analyses. Results Response rate for the online survey was 76.4% (52/68). The TRN director and manager were identified as key players along with six other members. Only two of nine variables were associated with actual key player status; none with perceived. The main finding was the mismatch between actual and perceived brokers. Members correctly identified two of the three central actors (the two mandated key roles director and manager) but there were only three correctly identified actual brokers among the 19 perceived brokers. Possible reasons for the mismatch include overlapping structures and weak knowledge of members. Conclusions The importance of correctly identifying these key players is discussed in terms of network interventions to improve efficiency. PMID:23987790

2013-01-01

132

Key Observations from the NHLBI Asthma Clinical Research Network  

PubMed Central

The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Asthma Clinical Research Network (ACRN) recently completed its work after 20 years of collaboration as a multicentre clinical trial network. When formed, its stated mission was to perform multiple controlled clinical trials for treating patients with asthma by dispassionately examining new and existing therapies, and to rapidly communicate its findings to the medical community. The ACRN conducted 15 major clinical trials. In addition, clinical data, manual of operations, protocols and template informed consents from all ACRN trials are available via NHLBI BioLINCC (https://biolincc.nhlbi.nih.gov/studies/). This network contributed major insights into the use of inhaled corticosteroids, short-acting and long-acting ß-adrenergic agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and novel agents (tiotropium, colchicine and macrolide antibiotics). They also pioneered studies of the variability in drug response, predictors of treatment response and pharmacogenetics. This review highlights the major research observations from the ACRN that have impacted the current management of asthma. PMID:22514237

Szefler, Stanley J; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Israel, Elliot; Denlinger, Loren Clark; Lemanske, Robert F; Calhoun, William; Peters, Stephen P

2013-01-01

133

September 17, 2010 LSUHSC research finds cause & remedy for learning &  

E-print Network

of medical marijuana LSUHSC research finds combo of plant nutrients kills breast cancer cells Chancellor a study that identified the cause of learning and memory deficits associated with medical marijuana use that inhibit COX-2 prevented these debilitating side effects. The results suggest the use of medical marijuana

134

Facilitating research faculty participation in CBPR: development of a model based on key informant interviews.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) may enhance the translational research process; however, this would require increased institutional capacity for community engaged research. In this paper, we fi rst present results of key informant interviews with academic health center faculty regarding facilitators to faculty participation in CBPR partnerships and then propose a model arising from these results describing how increased capacity may be achieved. Participants were 13 key informant faculty of varying levels of expertise in CBPR at a large university academic health center. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. A thematic content analysis of each interview was conducted by research team members. Facilitators reported by faculty representing fi ve health science schools were grouped into fi ve thematic areas: (1) researcher personal attributes including an innate orientation toward working with community, (2) positive attitudes toward collaboration, (3) a partnership-building skill set, (4) community partners who are ready and eager to collaborate, and (5) supportive institutional policies and procedures. We propose a model describing the relationship between personal attributes, learned/environmental factors, and community facilitators that may be utilized to promote increased institutional capacity for CBPR and thus increase the likelihood of the successful translation of research findings into community settings. PMID:21500397

Allen, Michele L; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A; Pergament, Shannon L; Call, Kathleen T

2010-10-01

135

Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a summary of drug use trends from a survey of nearly 50,000 eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth- grade students nationwide. It also includes perceived risk, personal disapproval, and perceived availability of each drug by this group. A synopsis of the methods used in the study and an overview of the key results from the 2006 survey…

Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2007-01-01

136

Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Two-Part Study on Gender and Media. Summary of Key Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet summarizes the key findings of a two-part study that investigated the messages that young women (age 10 to 17) get from the media. A content analysis examined messages to girls across a range of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine…

1997

137

Finding and optimising the key factors for the multiple-response manufacturing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of modern technology, manufacturing processes became so sophisticated that a single quality characteristic cannot reflect the true product quality. Thus, it is essential to perform the key factor analysis for the manufacturing process with multiple-input (factors) and multiple-output (responses). In this paper, an integrated approach of using the desirability function in conjunction with the Mahalanobis-Taguchi-Gram Schmit (MTGS)

Jeh-Nan Pan; Jianbiao Pan; Chun-Yi Lee

2009-01-01

138

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2012-01-01

139

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2011-01-01

140

UCSD researchers find enzyme accelerates malignant stem cell cloning in chronic myeloid leukemia  

Cancer.gov

An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. The findings are published in the Dec. 24 online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). UCSD is home to the Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center.

141

Recreation ecology research findings: Implications for wilderness and park managers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recreationists unintentionally trample vegetation, erode soil, and disturb wildlife. Such human-related impacts present a dilemma for managers charged with the dual objectives of providing recreational opportunities and preserving natural environments. This paper presents some of the principal findings and management implications from research on visitor impacts to protected areas, termed recreation ecology research. This field of study seeks to identify the type and extent of resource impacts and to evaluate relationships between use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. The capabilities and managerial utility of recreation impact monitoring are also described.

Marion, J.L.

1998-01-01

142

Research Infusion Collaboration: Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.

Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda

2004-01-01

143

A Survey of American Voter Attitudes Concerning Child Care Services: Highlights and Key Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 901 voters was conducted to measure voter attitudes toward child care and, in particular, the Act for Better Child Care Services (ABC). The survey also explored attitudes toward parental leave. Findings indicated that: (1) a majority of Americans think of child care as an urgent need and…

Marttila & Kiley, Inc., Boston, MA.

144

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents an overview of the findings pertaining to eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students from the 1999 Monitoring the Future Study. This overview focuses on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also examines trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

145

Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.  

PubMed

Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

2014-05-01

146

Supporting Primary and Secondary Beginning Teachers Online: Key Findings of the Education Alumni Support Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 2005, the Education Alumni Support Project (EdASP) (Maxwell, Smith, Baxter, Boyd, Harrington, Jenkins, Sargeant & Tamatea 2006) provided online support for University of New England (UNE) graduand, and later, graduate, teachers as they commenced their careers. The project was based on research which reported that many beginning teachers did…

Maxwell, T. W.; Harrington, I.; Smith, H. J.

2010-01-01

147

Visual Overviews for Discovering Key Papers and Influences Across Research Fronts  

E-print Network

Visual Overviews for Discovering Key Papers and Influences Across Research Fronts Aleks Aris1 , Ben publication and citation links among papers can help researchers and analysts to see the rate of growth clues to key papers. As the researchers and analysts begin to make insights about an emerging topic

Golbeck, Jennifer

148

Developing Intuition: The Key to Creative Futures Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Futures research involves speculation about alternative developments based upon existing data and potential choices. Effective futures research requires creativity in scientific practice rather than an overemphasis on reason. In discussing the important role of intuition in futures research, characteristics of creative scientists are reviewed and…

Southern, Stephen; Domzalski, Suzanne

149

Organizational Social Network Research: Core Ideas and Key Debates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the growing popularity of the social network perspective across diverse organizational subject areas, this review examines the coherence of the research tradition (in terms of leading ideas from which the diversity of new research derives) and appraises current directions and controversies. The leading ideas at the heart of the organizational social network research program include: an emphasis on relations

Martin Kilduff; Daniel J. Brass

2010-01-01

150

Thomas Jefferson University study finds tissue around tumor holds key to fighting triple negative breast cancer  

Cancer.gov

A natural substance found in the surrounding tissue of a tumor may be a promising weapon to stop triple negative breast cancer from metastasizing. A preclinical study published in PLOS ONE September 19 by Thomas Jefferson University researchers found that decorin, a well-studied protein known to help halt tumor growth, induces a series of tumor suppressor genes in the surrounding tissue of triple negative breast cancer tumors that help stop metastasis. Thomas Jefferson University is home to the Kimmel Cancer Center.

151

MIT-led study finds turning on key enzyme blocks tumor formation  

Cancer.gov

Unlike ordinary cells, cancer cells devote most of their energy to reproducing themselves. To do this, they must trigger alternative metabolic pathways that produce new cellular building blocks, such as DNA, carbohydrates and lipids. Chemical compounds that disrupt an enzyme critical to this metabolic diversion prevent tumors from forming in mice, according to an MIT-led study appearing online in Nature Chemical Biology on Aug. 26. MIT is home to the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research.

152

Managing incidental findings and research results in genomic research involving biobanks and archived data sets.  

PubMed

Biobanks and archived data sets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings and individual research results of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using "biobank" here to refer both to collections of samples and collections of data). This article reports recommendations from a 2-year project funded by the National Institutes of Health. We analyze the responsibilities involved in managing the return of incidental findings and individual research results in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). We suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When reidentification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and the roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) reidentify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. We suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. This article specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks as well as those already in existence. PMID:22436882

Wolf, Susan M; Crock, Brittney N; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Beskow, Laura M; Cho, Mildred K; Christman, Michael F; Green, Robert C; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M; Koenig, Barbara A; Kohane, Isaac S; Leroy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S; Petersen, Gloria M; Richardson, Henry S; Scott, Joan A; Terry, Sharon F; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wolf, Wendy A

2012-04-01

153

Involuntary Memories and Dissociative Amnesia: Assessing Key Assumptions in PTSD Research  

PubMed Central

Autobiographical memories of trauma victims are often described as disturbed in two ways. First, the trauma is frequently re-experienced in the form of involuntary, intrusive recollections. Second, the trauma is difficult to recall voluntarily (strategically); important parts may be totally or partially inaccessible—a feature known as dissociative amnesia. These characteristics are often mentioned by PTSD researchers and are included as PTSD symptoms in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In contrast, we show that both involuntary and voluntary recall are enhanced by emotional stress during encoding. We also show that the PTSD symptom in the diagnosis addressing dissociative amnesia, trouble remembering important aspects of the trauma is less well correlated with the remaining PTSD symptoms than the conceptual reversal of having trouble forgetting important aspects of the trauma. Our findings contradict key assumptions that have shaped PTSD research over the last 40 years. PMID:25309832

Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

2014-01-01

154

DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research  

Cancer.gov

Glyn Elwyn, BA, MB, BCh, FRCGP, PhD is a primary care clinician with research interests in shared decision making, risk communication, the design and evaluation of decision support interventions and the integration of health informatics into clinical practice. He was appointed inter-school Distinguished Research Chair at Cardiff University in May 2005, and is the Chair of the Clinical Epidemiology Interdisciplinary Research Group at the School of Medicine and Director of Research at the Department of Primary Care and Public Health.

155

Research on Key Technology and Applications for Internet of Things  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet of Things (IOT) has been paid more and more attention by the academe, industry, and government all over the world. The concept of IOT and the architecture of IOT are discussed. The key technologies of IOT, including Radio Frequency Identification technology, Electronic Product Code technology, and ZigBee technology are analyzed. The framework of digital agriculture application based on IOT is proposed.

Chen, Xian-Yi; Jin, Zhi-Gang

156

UNC study finds cancer gene family member functions key to cell adhesion and migration  

Cancer.gov

While cancer researchers are learning more of WTX and how its loss contributes to cancer formation, virtually nothing is known of FAM123C or FAM123A, the latter of which is a highly abundant protein within neurons, cells that receive and send messages from the body to the brain and back to the body. A UNC-led team of scientists used sophisticated technologies to identify and describe the protein interactions that distinguish each member of the WTX family. They found that unlike WTX and FAM123C, FAM123A interacts with a specific set of proteins that regulates cell adhesion and migration, processes essential to normal cell functioning and which, when mutated, contribute to human diseases such as cancer or Alzheimer’s.

157

Criticisms of Educational Research: Key Topics and Levels of Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article is an exploration of the meanings and worthiness of criticism as a significant phenomenon in the evolution of educational research during the 1990s. While drawing on an overview of the vast amount of documents expressing criticisms of educational research in the UK, western and eastern continental Europe and the USA, it summarises the…

Oancea, Alis

2005-01-01

158

Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

Piotrowski, Chris

2013-01-01

159

Key Developments in Endocrine Disrupter Research and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental etiologies involving exposures to chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones are proposed for a number of adverse human health effects, including infertility, abnormal prenatal and childhood development, and reproductive cancers (National Research Council, 1999; World Health Organization, 2002). Endocrine disrupters represent a significant area of environmental research with important implications for human health. This article provides an overview of some

Karen P. Phillips; Warren G. Foster

2008-01-01

160

The Genetics of Autism: Key Issues, Recent Findings and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD’S) are highly heritable. Consequently, gene discovery promises to help illuminate the pathophysiology of these syndromes, yielding important opportunities for the development of novel treatments and a more nuanced understanding of the natural history of these disorders. Although the underlying genetic architecture of ASD’s is not yet known, the literature demonstrates that it is not, writ large, a monogenic disorder with Mendelian inheritance, but rather a group of complex genetic syndromes with risk deriving from genetic variations in multiple genes. The widely accepted “Common Disease-Common Variant” hypothesis predicts that the risk alleles in ASD’s and other complex disorders will be common in the general population. However, recent evidence from gene discovery efforts in a wide range of diseases raises important questions regarding the overall applicability of the theory and the extent of its usefulness in explaining individual genetic liability. In contrast, considerable evidence points to the importance of rare alleles both with regard to their value in providing a foothold into the molecular mechanisms of ASD and their overall contribution to the population-wide risk. This chapter reviews the origins of the common versus rare variant debate, highlights recent findings in the field, and addresses the clinical implications of both common and rare variant discoveries. PMID:20159341

El-Fishawy, Paul; State, Matthew W.

2010-01-01

161

Maternal health and safe motherhood: findings from concluded research studies.  

PubMed

The research component of the World Health Organization's Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Program was established to provide new knowledge on scientifically valid and socially and economically acceptable ways of reducing high levels of maternal mortality and severe morbidity in order to achieve the global goal of reducing the level of maternal mortality by 50% by the year 2000. From the start of the program, more than 300 applications for support were received; 223 were submitted to the steering committee, of which 84 received funding. Not all of the studies have been completed. Among those studies which have been completed, however, several have been published in national and international journals, and some have been presented in a format generally inaccessible to those working in maternal health and safe motherhood. This paper introduces a special issue of World Health Statistics Quarterly which has brought together unpublished research results in the attempt to more widely disseminate research findings. A great deal of information has been obtained on levels of maternal mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Examples of health service and community interventions to improve maternal health have been identified, while information has accumulated on the main causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, hemorrhage, anemia, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, sepsis, obstructed labor, and abortion. This valuable methodological and practical data have been collected despite constraints upon the scope and nature of the research and upon the methodologies used. PMID:7571705

1995-01-01

162

Researchers discover key mutation in acute myeloid leukemia;  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have discovered mutations in a particular gene that affects the treatment prognosis for some patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive blood cancer that kills 9,000 Americans annually.

163

DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research  

Cancer.gov

Dr. Weiner is an associate professor in the department of health policy and management in the school of public health of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC); and director of the program on health care organization at the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research. His research interests focus on the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of innovations in health care organizations.

164

Affirming our commitment to research: the Medical Library Association's research policy statement: the process and findings*  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Building on its 1995 research policy statement, the Medical Library Association (MLA) has issued a new research policy, The Research Imperative. This paper shares the background research that informed the new policy. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifty-one key informants representing various library types, functions, geographic locations, ages, and ethnicities. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze the resulting textual database. Additionally, to gather input from the membership as a whole, two open forums were held at MLA annual meetings. Results: Key informant data indicated that the policy should provide roles for MLA in leadership, advocacy, collaboration, services, education, publishing, and development of a research agenda. Evidence-based library and information practice was emphasized. Six themes emerged to center the new policy: creation of a research culture, challenges, domains of research, research skills set, roles of stakeholders, and measurement of progress. Conclusion: Reflecting the interests and beliefs of the membership, The Research Imperative challenges MLA members to build a supportive culture that values and contributes to a research base that is recognized as an essential tool for future practice. PMID:18379666

Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.; Perry, Gerald J.; McKibbon, K. Ann

2008-01-01

165

Managing Incidental Findings and Research Results in Genomic Research Involving Biobanks & Archived Datasets  

PubMed Central

Biobanks and archived datasets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using “biobank” here to refer to both collections of samples and collections of data). This paper reports recommendations from a 2-year, NIH-funded project. The authors analyze responsibilities to manage return of IFs and IRRs in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). They suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When re-identification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities: to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) re-identify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. The authors suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and that are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. The paper specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks and biobanks already in existence. PMID:22436882

Wolf, Susan M.; Crock, Brittney N.; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P.; Beskow, Laura M.; Cho, Mildred K.; Christman, Michael F.; Green, Robert C.; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Kohane, Isaac S.; LeRoy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J.; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Richardson, Henry S.; Scott, Joan A.; Terry, Sharon F.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Wolf, Wendy A.

2013-01-01

166

Key challenges in future Li-battery research.  

PubMed

Batteries are a major technological challenge in this new century as they are a key method to make more efficient use of energy. Although today's Li-ion technology has conquered the portable electronic markets and is still improving, it falls short of meeting the demands dictated by the powering of both hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles or by the storage of renewable energies (wind, solar). There is room for optimism as long as we pursue paradigm shifts while keeping in mind the concept of materials sustainability. Some of these concepts, relying on new ways to prepare electrode materials via eco-efficient processes, on the use of organic rather than inorganic materials or new chemistries will be discussed. Achieving these concepts will require the inputs of multiple disciplines. PMID:20566508

Tarascon, J-M

2010-07-28

167

Student as Communication Skills Trainer: From Research to "Concept Keys"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although textbooks are filled with practical communication advice, many students overlook the importance of basing practical advice about communication on quality research. This oversight is important for two reasons. First, given the explosion of self-help remedies focused on communication, students should learn to distinguish between…

Bodie, Graham D.

2008-01-01

168

DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research  

Cancer.gov

Stephen Humphrey is an Associate Professor of Management in the Smeal College of Business at Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Humphrey's research, which includes a focus on teamwork and the contributors to team success, has been published in notable psychology and management peer review journals. Dr. Humphrey earned a Ph.D. in Organizational Behavior and Human Resources Management from Michigan State University.

169

NOAA atmospheric baseline observatories provide key data for researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

GREENLAND---Brian Vasel, an admitted ``Poley'' who has overwintered twice at the South Pole, is drawn to ice sheets. That's a good thing for him: Two of the six atmospheric baseline observatories that he oversees as field operations manager for the Global Monitoring Division of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) are located on

Randy Showstack

2011-01-01

170

Researchers discover key mutation in acute myeloid leukemia  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have discovered mutations in a particular gene that affects the treatment prognosis for some patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive blood cancer that kills 9,000 Americans annually. The scientists report their results in the Nov. 11, 2010, online issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.

171

Research on Key Technologies for Urban Unmanned Intelligent Vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of the intelligent transportation systems (ITS), and the widely used technologies of road testing, machine vision etc. in the field of intelligent vehicle, it is possible for the smart car to move automatically in well-structured environments. As for urban complex environments, the researches on unmanned intelligent vehicle are still at the initial stage. For the more complex

Wang Jianfeng; Zhang Chao; Shan Yuetian; Xu Yunhe; Wang Shu

2010-01-01

172

The Key Role of Educational Research in the Development and Evaluation of the National Numeracy Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors contest a politician's claim that the National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) in English primary schools has been an undisputed success with no contribution from educational researchers. First, the key role of researchers and research in the development of the NNS is outlined. Then there is a description of the Leverhulme Numeracy Research

Brown, Margaret; Askew, Mike; Millett, Alison; Rhodes, Valerie

2003-01-01

173

Psychological Therapies for Auditory Hallucinations (Voices): Current Status and Key Directions for Future Research  

PubMed Central

This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P.; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E.; Johns, Louise C.; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

2014-01-01

174

Psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations (voices): current status and key directions for future research.  

PubMed

This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E; Johns, Louise C; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

2014-07-01

175

DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research  

Cancer.gov

Stephen M. Fiore, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in the University of Central Florida’s Cognitive Sciences Program in the Department of Philosophy, and Director of the Cognitive Sciences Laboratory at UCF’s Institute for Simulation and Training. Dr. Fiore’s research interests include aspects of the cognitive, social, and computational sciences in the investigation of learning and performance in individuals and teams. His scholarly publications have shed light on learning, memory, and problem solving at the individual and the group level. Dr.

176

NOAA atmospheric baseline observatories provide key data for researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GREENLAND—Brian Vasel, an admitted “Poley” who has overwintered twice at the South Pole, is drawn to ice sheets. That's a good thing for him: Two of the six atmospheric baseline observatories that he oversees as field operations manager for the Global Monitoring Division of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) are located on ice sheets, one at the South Pole and the other at Summit Station, in central Greenland, atop 3.2 kilometers of ice. All of the NOAA atmospheric baseline observatories (ABOs)—including those at Barrow, Alaska; Trinidad Head, Calif.; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; and American Samoa—were strategically selected for their unique locations to conduct a variety of atmospheric and solar measurements. For instance, Summit Station is a high-latitude, high-altitude site that is in the free troposphere, and the site in American Samoa is in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, Vasel noted.

Showstack, Randy

2011-08-01

177

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting. 335.071...CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.071...and findings affecting research and development contracting. OPDIV...

2010-10-01

178

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting. 335.071...CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.071...and findings affecting research and development contracting. OPDIV...

2011-10-01

179

Vulnerable Children's Access to Examinations at Key Stage 4. Research Report RR639  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project was commissioned by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) in 2004 to examine barriers to vulnerable children accessing examinations at the end of key stage 4 and to identify strategies employed to overcome these barriers. Key groups of vulnerable children identified by the DfES included: (1) Looked-after children;…

Kendall, Sally; Johnson, Annie; Martin, Kerry; Kinder; Kay

2005-01-01

180

Reading Journal Articles for Comprehension Using Key Sentences: An Exercise for the Novice Research Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…

Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.

2013-01-01

181

Texas A&M University-Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences-Florida Keys Research: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past decade, researchers from Texas A&M University have been working in collaboration with groups including the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission to promote "the recovery of several endangered species in the Florida Keys, namely Florida Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri), silver rice rat (Oryzomys palustris natator), and Key Largo woodrat (Neotoma floridana smalli)." This Florida Keys Research program website offers downloadable publications in the form of journal articles, theses, and one dissertation. The 219-page dissertation on Florida Key deer population ecology was authored by Dr. Roel R. Lopez (now assistant professor for the program) in December of 2001. The site's three listed theses (all submitted between August and December of 2003) include a 239-page publication regarding the distribution of the Lower Keys marsh rabbit; an 83-page publication about Key Largo woodrat ecology, and a 154-page publication concerning Florida Key deer management strategies. Currently, the site's 17 listed journal articles primarily address issues concerning Florida Key deer.

182

A prospective key informant surveillance system to measure maternal mortality – findings from indigenous populations in Jharkhand and Orissa, India  

PubMed Central

Background In places with poor vital registration, measurement of maternal mortality and monitoring the impact of interventions on maternal mortality is difficult and seldom undertaken. Mortality ratios are often estimated and policy decisions made without robust evidence. This paper presents a prospective key informant system to measure maternal mortality and the initial findings from the system. Methods In a population of 228 186, key informants identified all births and deaths to women of reproductive age, prospectively, over a period of 110 weeks. After birth verification, interviewers visited households six to eight weeks after delivery to collect information on the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods, as well as birth outcomes. For all deaths to women of reproductive age they ascertained whether they could be classified as maternal, pregnancy related or late maternal and if so, verbal autopsies were conducted. Results 13 602 births were identified, with a crude birth rate of 28.2 per 1000 population (C.I. 27.7–28.6) and a maternal mortality ratio of 722 per 100 000 live births (C.I. 591–882) recorded. Maternal deaths comprised 29% of all deaths to women aged 15–49. Approximately a quarter of maternal deaths occurred ante-partum, a half intra-partum and a quarter post-partum. Haemorrhage was the commonest cause of all maternal deaths (25%), but causation varied between the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods. The cost of operating the surveillance system was US$386 a month, or US$0.02 per capita per year. Conclusion This low cost key informant surveillance system produced high, but plausible birth and death rates in this remote population in India. This method could be used to monitor trends in maternal mortality and to test the impact of interventions in large populations with poor vital registration and thus assist policy makers in making evidence-based decisions. PMID:18307796

Barnett, Sarah; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Borghi, Jo; Rath, Suchitra; Costello, Anthony

2008-01-01

183

Columbia University Medical Center researchers find that a new computational approach finds gene that drives aggressive brain cancer  

Cancer.gov

Columbia University Medical Center researchers have combined existing computational tools with a new algorithm called DIGGIT, which 'walks' backward from the master regulators to find the genetic events that drive brain cancer.

184

Measuring sustained attention after traumatic brain injury: differences in key findings from the sustained attention to response task (SART).  

PubMed

Clinical reports after traumatic brain injury (TBI) suggest frequent difficulties with sustained attention, but their objective measurement has proved difficult. In 1997, Robertson and colleagues reported on a new sustained attention assessment tool, the sustained attention to response task (SART). Individuals with TBI were reported to produce more errors of commission on the SART than control participants, and both groups showed a relationship between SART errors and everyday lapses of attention as measured by the cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ). Although few direct replications of these findings have been reported, the SART has been used widely as a measure of sustained attention in TBI, in normal controls, and in various other clinical samples. As part of a program of research on attention in TBI, we administered the SART and the CFQ to a sample of 34 survivors of moderate to severe TBI and to 35 control participants. CFQ scores reported by significant others showed clear group differences in everyday lapses of attention. Despite this, group differences in SART errors of commission were small and non-significant, and the correlations between SART errors and CFQ scores were small within both groups. Further analyses excluding participants with invalid score profiles, or restricting the analysis to the first performance of the SART failed to alter the results. These findings suggest that more research is needed to establish the validity of the SART as a measure of sustained attention after TBI, and to determine under what circumstances the original findings hold. PMID:16682059

Whyte, John; Grieb-Neff, Patricia; Gantz, Christopher; Polansky, Marcia

2006-01-01

185

1998 National Gun Policy Survey of the National Opinion Research Center: Research Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research in 1999 released a final report based on the research findings of a national survey on gun policies. The 64-page study reports on topics such as the regulation of firearms, gun ownership and use, knowledge and attitudes toward guns, gun violence, and safety issues. The report includes thirteen statistical tables and concludes that the American public strongly supports "legislation to regulate firearms, make guns safer, and reduce the accessibility of firearms to criminals and children."

Smith, Tom W.

186

Graphic organizers in reading instruction: Research findings and issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an instructional tool, graphic organizers (GOs) have been highly recommended and used in contemporary classrooms. Over the past decade, a number of concerns have been raised about claims for the effectiveness of GOs. These concerns involve the inconsistent research results on student improvements, the limitation in generalizability from research studies, and the need for research studies with second language

Xiangying Jiang; William Grabe

2007-01-01

187

Finding the ‘action’ in feminist participatory action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although feminist researchers have increasingly called for participatory and action-oriented research, there have been few analyses of the diverse actions that can occur. We theorized the actions considered and implemented in a feminist participatory action research project (FPAR). For three years we collaborated intensively with a group of diverse women on low income who were involved in a FPAR project

Colleen Reid; Allison Tom; Wendy Frisby

2006-01-01

188

Key focal areas for bridging the fields of aging and disability: findings from the growing older with a disability conference  

PubMed Central

Based upon research presented at the 2011 Festival of International Conferences on Caregiving, Disability, Aging and Technology (FICCDAT)—and specifically the Growing Older with a Disability (GOWD) conference, this paper identifies areas where bridging building between aging and disability is needed to support older adults aging into or with disabilities. Five focal areas emerged: 1) The Need to Forward Bridging Between Aging and Disability Sectors, 2) Theoretical Frameworks of Individual Aging that Facilitate Bridging, 3) Bridging through Consumer Participation and Involvement, 4) Bridging Through Knowledge Transfer and 5) Bridging Opportunities in Long-Term Supports and Services and Assistive Technologies. Discussion of themes is provided within both international and Canadian contexts, reflecting the interests of FICCDAT and GOWD organizers in discussing how to improve bridging in Canada. Findings from this report form the basis of the Toronto Declaration on Bridging Aging and Disability Policy, Practice, and Research. PMID:23593057

Naidoo, Vishaya; Putnam, Michelle; Spindel, Andria

2012-01-01

189

Effects of climate change on biodiversity: a review and identification of key research issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current knowledge of effects of climate change on biodiversity is briefly reviewed, and results are presented of a survey of biological research groups in the Netherlands, aimed at identifying key research issues in this field. In many areas of the world, biodiversity is being reduced by humankind through changes in land cover and use, pollution, invasions of exotic species and

Maarten Kappelle; Margret M. I. Van Vuuren; Pieter Baas

1999-01-01

190

42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information...contest ORI findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions, including any... (2) Accept or challenge each proposed HHS administrative action; (3)...

2010-10-01

191

USC researchers find new target for prostate cancer treatment  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have found a promising new therapeutic target for prostate cancer. The findings offer evidence that a newly discovered member of a family of cell surface proteins called G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) promotes prostate cancer cell growth.

192

Action Research Project: Prof 190-191 Finding Journal Articles  

E-print Network

education databases. PPhhrraasseess "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder" BBoooolleeaann OOppeerraattoorrss:: OORR,, NNOOTT ((ddeeffaauulltt iiss AANNDD)) adhd OR "attention deficit" "differentiated by Queen's. use the Cited by feature to find related articles. PPhhrraasseess "attention deficit

Abolmaesumi, Purang

193

The Sponsored Research Lifecycle Part I: Finding a Sponsor  

E-print Network

Elements ­ Research Experience vitalizes Instructional Activities ­ Research Accomplishment informs our Accomplishments Drive Public Recognition ­ Smart Gun ­ Mall & School Security ­ Stem Cell ­ Traffic Congestion of Education (ED) Department of Energy (DOE) Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Department

Bieber, Michael

194

Seeking Renewal, Finding Community: Participatory Action Research in Teacher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…

Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey

2011-01-01

195

"Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

Coulter, Cathy A.

2009-01-01

196

Researchers find nanodiamonds could improve effectiveness of breast cancer treatment  

Cancer.gov

UCLA researchers and collaborators have developed a potentially more effective treatment for "triple-negative" breast cancer that uses nanoscale, diamond-like particles called nanodiamonds. Nanodiamonds are between 4 and 6 nanometers in diameter and are shaped like tiny soccer balls. Byproducts of conventional mining and refining operations, the particles can form clusters following drug binding and have the ability to precisely deliver cancer drugs to tumors, significantly improving the drugs' desired effect. UCLA is home to the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. The research team included contributors from the NanoCarbon Research Institute in Nagano, Japan and UC San Francisco, home of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center.

197

MD Anderson researchers find that yoga regulates stress hormones  

Cancer.gov

Through a grant from the National Cancer Institute, researchers are now conducting a Phase III clinical trial in women with breast cancer to further determine the mechanisms of yoga that lead to improvement in physical functioning and quality of life.

198

Roswell Park researchers find prognostic biomarker candidates for ovarian cancer  

Cancer.gov

Cancer researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute have identified two independent classes of novel candidate prognostic markers for ovarian cancer, advancing efforts to develop targeted therapies for the disease.

199

MIT researchers find new technology may enable earlier cancer diagnosis  

Cancer.gov

A new technology developed at MIT may help to make biomarker detection much easier. The researchers, led by Sangeeta Bhatia, have developed nanoparticles that can home to a tumor and interact with cancer proteins to produce thousands of biomarkers.

200

Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... necrotizing myopathy, a progressive muscle wasting disease of unknown cause. Further investigation revealed that as many as three-fourths of these patients had previously used statins, leading the researchers to suspect from ...

201

Find the Expert at the Agricultural Research Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service now offers a feature where users can directly ask questions of Agricultural experts. Searching is possible in three ways: Keyword, Broad Subject Area, or Research Area. Typical search results include lists of experts with contact addresses, including email. With subject areas ranging from Air Quality and Mitigation to Weeds, this service adds a nice notch in the measuring stick of improved scientific communication.

202

Trade and Employment: Stylized Facts and Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The substantial literature investigating the links between trade, trade policy, and labour market outcomes has generated a number of stylized facts, but many open questions remain. A common finding is that much of the shorter-run impacts of trade and reforms involve reallocation of labour or wage impacts within sectors. Wage responses to trade and trade reforms are generally greater than

Bernard Hoekman; Alan L. Winters; L. Alan Winters

2005-01-01

203

SUMMARY OF RESEARCH FINDINGS IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

AS A RESULT OF TWO CONFERENCES HELD IN 1963-64, INTERVIEW-TYPE SURVEYS OF EMPLOYMENT NEEDS IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES WERE CONDUCTED IN 26 STATES IN 1964. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FINDINGS RESULTED IN THIS SYNTHESIS. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON -- (1) NUMBERS OF PEOPLE EMPLOYED, (2) PRESENT NUMBER, ESTIMATED INCREASE, OCCUPATIONAL GROUP AND LEVEL…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

204

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2013-10-01

205

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2014-10-01

206

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2012-10-01

207

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2012-10-01

208

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2013-10-01

209

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2010-10-01

210

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2010-10-01

211

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2011-10-01

212

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2011-10-01

213

Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

Duncan, J. Michael

2006-01-01

214

Finding Collaborators: Toward Interactive Discovery Tools for Research Network Systems  

PubMed Central

Background Research networking systems hold great promise for helping biomedical scientists identify collaborators with the expertise needed to build interdisciplinary teams. Although efforts to date have focused primarily on collecting and aggregating information, less attention has been paid to the design of end-user tools for using these collections to identify collaborators. To be effective, collaborator search tools must provide researchers with easy access to information relevant to their collaboration needs. Objective The aim was to study user requirements and preferences for research networking system collaborator search tools and to design and evaluate a functional prototype. Methods Paper prototypes exploring possible interface designs were presented to 18 participants in semistructured interviews aimed at eliciting collaborator search needs. Interview data were coded and analyzed to identify recurrent themes and related software requirements. Analysis results and elements from paper prototypes were used to design a Web-based prototype using the D3 JavaScript library and VIVO data. Preliminary usability studies asked 20 participants to use the tool and to provide feedback through semistructured interviews and completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results Initial interviews identified consensus regarding several novel requirements for collaborator search tools, including chronological display of publication and research funding information, the need for conjunctive keyword searches, and tools for tracking candidate collaborators. Participant responses were positive (SUS score: mean 76.4%, SD 13.9). Opportunities for improving the interface design were identified. Conclusions Interactive, timeline-based displays that support comparison of researcher productivity in funding and publication have the potential to effectively support searching for collaborators. Further refinement and longitudinal studies may be needed to better understand the implications of collaborator search tools for researcher workflows. PMID:25370463

Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry

2014-01-01

215

Identifying and preventing medical errors in patients with limited English proficiency: key findings and tools for the field.  

PubMed

Since the 1999 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report To Err is Human, progress has been made in patient safety, but few efforts have focused on safety in patients with limited English proficiency (LEP). This article describes the development, content, and testing of two new evidence-based Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) tools for LEP patient safety. In the content development phase, a comprehensive mixed-methods approach was used to identify common causes of errors for LEP patients, high-risk scenarios, and evidence-based strategies to address them. Based on our findings, Improving Patient Safety Systems for Limited English Proficient Patients: A Guide for Hospitals contains recommendations to improve detection and prevention of medical errors across diverse populations, and TeamSTEPPS Enhancing Safety for Patients with Limited English Proficiency Module trains staff to improve safety through team communication and incorporating interpreters in the care process. The Hospital Guide was validated with leaders in quality and safety at diverse hospitals, and the TeamSTEPPS LEP module was field-tested in varied settings within three hospitals. Both tools were found to be implementable, acceptable to their audiences, and conducive to learning. Further research on the impact of the combined use of the guide and module would shed light on their value as a multifaceted intervention. PMID:24629098

Wasserman, Melanie; Renfrew, Megan R; Green, Alexander R; Lopez, Lenny; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; Brach, Cindy; Betancourt, Joseph R

2014-01-01

216

Most Colleges Chase Prestige on a Treadmill, Researchers Find  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pursuit of institutional prestige has done little to improve the reputations of most colleges, and it may be causing many of them to become less distinguishable from their competitors, new research shows. In one study presented at the annual conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Kyle V. Sweitzer, a data-resource…

Schmidt, Peter

2008-01-01

217

Journals Find Many Images in Research Are Faked  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kristin Roovers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania with a bright career ahead of her--a trusted member of a research laboratory at the medical school studying the role of cell growth in diabetes. When an editor of "The Journal of Clinical Investigation" did a spot-check on one of her images for an article in 2005, Roovers'…

Young, Jeffrey R.

2008-01-01

218

Graphic Organizers in Reading Instruction: Research Findings and Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an instructional tool, graphic organizers (GOs) have been highly recommended and used in contemporary classrooms. Over the past decade, a number of concerns have been raised about claims for the effectiveness of GOs. These concerns involve the inconsistent research results on student improvements, the limitation in generalizability from…

Jiang, Xiangying; Grabe, William

2007-01-01

219

Urban Delinquency and Substance Abuse. Initial Findings. Research Summary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In collaborative efforts three research teams have investigated the problems of urban delinquency and substance abuse in longitudinal studies that have gone on since 1986. The Denver Youth Study is a longitudinal survey that involves annual interviews with probability samples of five different birth cohorts and their parents from areas of Denver…

Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Thornberry, Terence P.

220

Employee Retention at ABC & Co. Northwest Arkansas. Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 7-month research project was conducted by graduate students at a garment manufacturing plant in Fayetteville, Arkansas, to gain information about high employee turnover. Information also was gathered about the employment situation in northwest Arkansas in general, union-labor relationships, and how other companies handled turnover. Data were…

Hatcher, Timothy; And Others

221

Management Communication Ethics Research: Finding the Bull's-Eye.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that scholars who wish to produce substantive research in management communication ethics would be helped by a clear vision of what the term designates. States that management communication ethics should designate concerns that lie at the intersection of management, communication, and ethics. Concludes that this approach could help to…

Reinsch, N. Lamar, Jr.

1996-01-01

222

Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: research findings and clinical directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, methamphetamine has appeared in mass quantities, in part, because of the ease and cost efficiency of manufacturing. With this increase in availability, the use of methamphetamine has increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to describe the existing treatment options for methamphetamine abuse and provide recommendations for practitioners and researchers. Methamphetamine abuse adversely impacts

Margaret Cretzmeyer; Mary Vaughan Sarrazin; Diane L. Huber; Robert I. Block; James A. Hall

2003-01-01

223

Electrical Distribution. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas

224

Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of

Joseph W. Ditre; Thomas H. Brandon; Emily L. Zale; Mary M. Meagher

2011-01-01

225

UT Southwestern researchers find new gene mutations for Wilms Tumor  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center and the Gill Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders at Children’s Medical Center, Dallas, have made significant progress in defining new genetic causes of Wilms tumor, a type of kidney cancer found only in children.

226

Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

Kirby, Douglas

227

Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

2011-01-01

228

"UWA research will continue to find real solutions  

E-print Network

capacity of the state, helping to keep Australian agriculture profitable and sustainable well of Agriculture Chair, and Director, The UWA Institute of Agriculture uwa is one of the top universities in the world for research and teaching in dryland agriculture and food production systems. the reputation

Tobar, Michael

229

Women Who Experienced Childhood Incest: Research Findings and Therapeutic Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognition of the gravity of the social problem of incest in the United States, coupled with increasing demands for psychological treatment and assistance from social service agencies by incest victims and their families, has demonstrated the need for controlled research in this area. Knowledge of the effects of incest is critical to the…

Courtois, Christine A.; Watts, Deborah

230

FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must use Q...

231

FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must...

232

Vanderbilt researchers find that an enzyme affects tumor metastasis  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have established a role for MMP2 in the development of lung metastases from primary breast cancer. Using mice without the Mmp2 gene, the team found that metastatic tumors in the lung proliferate less in the absence of fibroblast MMP2.

233

Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

2011-01-01

234

Bargaining and Faculty Reward Systems: Current Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical research literature on the relationship between faculty bargaining and faculty reward systems was reviewed. The emphasis was on five areas that may be affected by bargaining: the rationalization of institutional policies and practicies, particularly those related to personnel issues; a rationalization of grievance procedures, with a…

Begin, James P.

235

Aligning Economic and Workforce Development Activities in Baltimore. Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent efforts to build economic and work force development systems in seven leading cities were reviewed to inform similar efforts undertaken in Baltimore, Maryland. Research examining efforts to establish work force development systems in the following cities were analyzed: Austin, Texas; Berkeley, California; Boston, Massachusetts; Cleveland,…

Hicks, Lisa; Olins, Alexandra; Prince, Heath

236

Research on Interest in Science: Theories, Methods, and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical…

Krapp, Andreas; Prenzel, Manfred

2011-01-01

237

Finding a Place for Genomics in Health Disparities Research  

PubMed Central

The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not previously possible. The potential for genomic strategies to help in addressing population-level disparities therefore needs to be carefully evaluated. Using 3 examples from current research, we argue that the best way to maximize the benefits of population-based genomic investigations, and mitigate potential harms, is to direct research away from the identification of genetic causes of disparities and instead focus on applying genomic methodologies to the development of clinical and public health tools with the potential to ameliorate healthcare inequities, direct population-level health interventions or inform public policy. Such a transformation will require close collaboration between transdisciplinary teams and community members as well as a reorientation of current research objectives to better align genomic discovery efforts with public health priorities and well-recognized barriers to fair health care delivery. PMID:22488458

Fullerton, S.M.; Knerr, S.; Burke, W.

2012-01-01

238

Nyholm Lecture: Chemical Education Research: Facts, Findings, and Consequences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses research indicating that presenting students with large amounts of information while their concepts are primitive prevents them from grouping/handling the very information they need to make concepts develop. Reducing the load or providing strategies to help students group/sequence the load are recommended. (JN)

Johnstone, A. H.

1983-01-01

239

Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. Technical Appendix. NCEE 2014-4010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document represents the technical appendix intended to accompany "Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4010." Contents include: (1) Summary of Related, Non-Peer-Reviewed Studies; (2) Methods for Comparing Findings

Max, Jeffrey; Glazerman, Steven

2014-01-01

240

The current structure of key actors involved in research on land and soil degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land and soil conservation topics, the final mandate of the United Convention to Combat desertification in drylands, have been diagnosed as still suffering from a lack of guidance. On the contrary, climate change and biodiversity issues -the other two big subjects of the Rio Conventions- seem to progress and may benefit from the advice of international panels. Arguably the weakness of policy measures and hence the application of scientific knowledge by land users and stakeholders could be the expression of an inadequate research organization and a lack of ability to channel their findings. In order to better understand the size, breadth and depth of the scientific communities involved in providing advice to this convention and to other bodies, this study explores the corpus of international publications dealing with land and/or with soils. A database of several thousands records including a significant part of the literature published so far was performed using the Web of Science and other socio-economic databases such as FRANCIS and CAIRN. We extracted hidden information using bibliometric methods and data mining applied to these scientific publications to map the key actors (laboratories, teams, institutions) involved in research on land and on soils. Several filters were applied to the databases in combination with the word "desertification". The further use of Tetralogie software merges databases, analyses similarities and differences between keywords, disciplines, authors and regions and identifies obvious clusters. Assessing their commonalities and differences, the visualisation of links and gaps between scientists, organisations, policymakers and other stakeholders is possible. The interpretation of the 'clouds' of disciplines, keywords, and techniques will enhance the understanding of interconnections between them; ultimately this will allow diagnosing some of their strengths and weaknesses. This may help explain why land and soil degradation remains a serious global problem that lacks sufficient attention. We hope that this study will contribute to clarify the scientific landscape at stake to remediate possible weaknesses in the future.

Escadafal, Richard; Barbero, Celia; Exbrayat, Williams; Marques, Maria Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; El Haddadi, Anass; Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam

2013-04-01

241

Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

Hattori, Sadao

1999-06-06

242

Migraine genetics: current findings and future lines of research.  

PubMed

In the last two decades, migraine research has greatly advanced our current knowledge of the genetic contributions and the pathophysiology of this common and debilitating disorder. Nonetheless, this knowledge still needs to grow further and to translate into more effective treatments. To date, several genes involved in syndromic and monogenic forms of migraine have been identified, allowing the generation of animal models which have significantly contributed to current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these rare forms of migraine. Common forms of migraine are instead posing a greater challenge, as they may most often stem from complex interactions between multiple common genetic variants, with environmental triggers. This paper reviews our current understanding of migraine genetics, moving from syndromic and monogenic forms to oligogenic/polygenic migraines most recently addressed with some success through genome-wide association studies. Methodological issues in study design and future perspectives opened by biomarker research will also be briefly addressed. PMID:25501253

Persico, A M; Verdecchia, M; Pinzone, V; Guidetti, V

2015-04-01

243

Europlanet-RI/IDIS: Finding information for planetary research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Europlanet Research Infrastructure -Europlanet RI", supported by the European Com-mission's Framework Program 7, aims at integrating major parts of the distributed European Planetary Research infrastructure with as diverse components as space exploration, ground-based observations, laboratory experiments and numerical modelling teams. A central part of Europlanet RI is the "Integrated and Distributed Information Service" (IDIS), a network of data and information access facilities in Europe via which information relevant for planetary research can be easily found and retrieved. If a scientist is looking for possible collaborating colleagues or institutes in preparation of a new space project, for addresses of possible test facilities and their capabilities or for supporting data from other missions, laboratory measurements or modeling teams in analyzing own data, Europlanet/IDIS will give fast access to this information. While still under development, the infrastructure will develop during the following three years into a virtual observatory with the possibility of combining data from different science fields, observatories and missions. IDIS presents also an efficient way to publish the information about own activities or own laboratory's capabilities to possible future partners. For more information visit http://www.idis.europlanet-ri.eu/

Schmidt, Walter; Capria, Maria Teresa; Chanteur, Gerard

244

Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

2009-09-16

245

Trends in Chicago's Schools across Three Eras of Reform: Summary of Key Findings. Research Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1988, U.S. Secretary of Education William Bennett proclaimed Chicago's public schools to be the worst in the nation. Since that time, Chicago has been at the forefront of urban school reform. Beginning with a dramatic move in 1990 to shift power away from the central office, through CEO Paul Vallas's use of standardized testing to hold schools…

Luppescu, Stuart; Allensworth, Elaine M.; Moore, Paul; de la Torre, Marisa; Murphy, James

2011-01-01

246

U of Chicago researchers find that STING pathway could be key to tumor immunity  

Cancer.gov

A protein complex known as STING plays a crucial role in detecting the presence of tumor cells and promoting an aggressive anti-tumor response by the body's innate immune system, according to two separate studies in Immunity.

247

Key Findings This research was funded by the Office of the Assistant  

E-print Network

of Chicago, and National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Grant #5R24HD051152-07. www with Children after the Great Recession Scott W. Allard, University of Chicago, Sandra Danziger and Maria Wathen

Edwards, Paul N.

248

Gate valve and motor-operator research findings  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

1995-09-01

249

New Seminar Course Coupled Human and Natural Systems (CHANS): Key Issues and Research Frontiers  

E-print Network

New Seminar Course Fall 2013 *** *** *** Coupled Human and Natural Systems (CHANS): Key Issues in research on coupled human and natural systems (CHANS, e.g., social-ecological systems, human in Sustainability Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability Department of Fisheries and Wildlife liuji

250

Good Research and Faculty Buy-in: 2 Keys to Effective Marketing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective marketing requires more than a sleek new logo. This article presents excerpts of an online discussion on the dos and don'ts of college marketing with Mary R. Stagaman, associate vice president for external relations at the University of Cincinnati. In this discussion, she noted that good research and faculty buy-in are the two keys to…

Blumenstyk, Goldie

2008-01-01

251

Major Long Haul Truck Idling Generators in Key States ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE  

E-print Network

mandated driver rest periods. Idling the main truck engine to provide for these relatively small powerMajor Long Haul Truck Idling Generators in Key States 1013776 #12;#12;ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH-0813 USA 800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com Major Long Haul Truck Idling Generators

252

Building and Strengthening Policy Research Capacity: Key Issues in Canadian Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the importance of higher education in social and economic development, governments need to build a strong higher education data and policy research infrastructure to support informed decision-making, provide policy advice, and offer a critical assessment of key trends and issues. The author discusses the decline of higher education policy…

Jones, Glen A.

2014-01-01

253

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Is salinity tolerance the key to success for the invasive water  

E-print Network

PRIMARY RESEARCH PAPER Is salinity tolerance the key to success for the invasive water bug) that occurs in brackish and saline aquatic systems. Recently, it has been found invading three continents compared both the realized and standardized salinity niche of invasive T. verticalis and native Corixidae

Green, Andy J.

254

Key technology research of downward communication receiving system in rotary steerable drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The downward communication receiving system in rotary steerable is a hot research topic today. Several key technologies for its implementation, namely, transmission channel, the ground command code, underground detection devices, and underground instruction decoding were studied in this paper. After comprehensive drilling technology, command transmission time, underground communication recognition accuracy, etc., the drilling fluid pulse transmission is selected as a

Huo Ai-qing; He Yu-yao; Wang Yue-long; Tang Nan; Cheng Wei-bin

2010-01-01

255

Bioethanol from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Findings Determine Research Priorities  

PubMed Central

“Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881

Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei

2014-01-01

256

Discovery research: the scientific challenge of finding new antibiotics.  

PubMed

The dwindling supply of new antibiotics largely reflects regulatory and commercial challenges, but also a failure of discovery. In the 1990s the pharmaceutical industry abandoned its classical ways of seeking antibiotics and instead adopted a strategy that combined genomics with high-throughput screening of existing compound libraries. Too much emphasis was placed on identifying targets and molecules that bound to them, and too little emphasis was placed on the ability of these molecules to permeate bacteria, evade efflux and avoid mutational resistance; moreover, the compound libraries were systematically biased against antibiotics. The sorry result is that no antibiotic found by this strategy has yet entered clinical use and many major pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic discovery. Although a raft of start-up companies-variously financed by venture capital, charity or public money--are now finding new antibiotic compounds (some of them very promising in vitro or in early trials), their development through Phase III depends on financial commitments from large pharmaceutical companies, where the discouraging regulatory environment and the poor likely return on investment remain paramount issues. PMID:21700626

Livermore, David M

2011-09-01

257

Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.  

PubMed

Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies. PMID:22827348

Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

2012-08-01

258

Researching the meaning of life: finding new sources of hope.  

PubMed

The purpose of the paper is to discuss means of assisting terminally ill patients in seeking for sources of meaning and hope, alongside the acknowledgment that their lifespan is short.Psycho-spiritual aspects make a substantial component patients suffering from incurable illness have to deal with. Evaluating and mapping the causes and expressions of psychological--spiritual suffering may assist in tailoring appropriate strategies of distress relief. Therefore, interventions should be given in accordance with their specific focus of difficulties, as well as with wishes and needs. Appropriate interventions in palliative psychotherapeutic rapport are inspired by identifying new sources for meaning in current life (sometimes, aided by past experiences or future visions). Reinforcing sources for meaning may attempt in providing patients amongst:--equilibrium, between suffering and sorrow (which sometimes take over the patient's world), and on the other hand, new experiences, sense of satisfaction and fulfillment. Individual's acknowledgment that he is not completely withdrawn from the circle of life, and yet significance and fulfillment in life still exists. For a holistic meaning ? centered intervention it is advisable to simultaneously integrate two central axes: the existential analysis, inspired by concepts driven from Frenkl's Logotherapy, such as freedom of choice, personal responsibility, inner truth, hope and transcendentalism; the operative axis, enhancing meaning and hope by assisting patient's wishes come true. Patients are aware, many times, that those wishes may be their last one, therefore perceive their fulfillment as crucial for their sense of meaning. Moreover, those wishes may elevate patient and family's spirit and reduce risk of demoralization. Whereas existential--spiritual interventions are recommended to be given by qualified professional therapists, the operation of fulfilling wishes is feasible by everyone, from family members to multi-disciplinary staff. Case illustrations for meaning--centered interventions will be discussed in the course of the paper. Cultural and traditional differences within the Israeli society, expressed in themes of work with patients, will lead to the conclusion, that there are many creative ways for researching meaning of life and sources for hope. PMID:20590354

Alon, Shirly

2010-01-01

259

Do HealthCare Decision Makers Find Economic Evaluations Useful? The Findings of Focus Group Research in UK Health Authorities  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe impact of economic evaluation studies on health-care decision makers has been shown to be rather limited. However, there is an increasing requirement for the cost-effectiveness of health-care interventions to be considered in formulating and implementing guidelines for clinical practice. This paper reports the findings of recent focus group research among UK health authorities, which examined the usefulness of published

Christiane Hoffmann; Boyka A. Stoykova; John Nixon; Julie M. Glanville; Kate Misso; Michael F. Drummond

2002-01-01

260

Social Science Research Findings and Educational Policy Dilemmas: Some Additional Distinctions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the relationship of social science research to social policy making, stressing that social science models and research findings are largely irrelevant to the actual concerns of policymakers and noting the ways in which ideological factors mediate the process. (SLD)

Miller, Steven I.; Fredericks, Marcel

2000-01-01

261

Study led by St. Jude finds key regulatory genes often amplified in aggressive childhood tumor of the brainstem:  

Cancer.gov

The largest study ever of a rare childhood brain tumor found more than half the tumors carried extra copies of specific genes linked to cancer growth, according to research led by St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital investigators.

262

Incidental Computer Tomography Radiologic Findings through Research Participation in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although variation exists in the classification and practice of managing clinical findings in research, emerging views suggest that researchers bear some responsibility in the management of incidental findings. This study contributes to the documentation of the population characteristics and prevalence of medical findings incidental to research participation, specifically findings related to coronary calcium scores and computed tomography (CT) scans that investigated cardiovascular disparities in an asymptomatic population. Methods A total of 571 asymptomatic adult participants were recruited in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study. Participants completed a 16-slice CT scan of the heart and abdomen. Findings of radiology reports and 3 years of follow-up documentation were reviewed. Results A total of 246 clinically apparent findings were identified in 169 asymptomatic participants (32.9% of participants who completed a CT scan). Another 245 participants (48%) had findings of unknown significance, a total of 307 findings. At least 4 cases in this study led to a clinically significant intervention. Conclusion Although CT scans were completed for research purposes, study procedures resulted in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals who were previously asymptomatic. Potential clinical benefits in imaging research are moderated by considerations regarding possible harm and costs resulting from uncertain findings and the use of CT scans for nonclinical purposes. The continued development of protocols for the handling of incidental findings in research and the establishment of guidelines are needed to ensure that research procedures mirror the best interests of participants. PMID:24808109

Espinoza, Anna; Malone, Kendra; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Fulda, Kimberly G.; Cardarelli, Roberto

2014-01-01

263

[Research on finger key-press gesture recognition based on surface electromyographic signals].  

PubMed

This article reported researches on the pattern recognition of finger key-press gestures based on surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals. All the gestures were defined referring to the PC standard keyboard, and totally 16 sorts of key-press gestures relating to the right hand were defined. The SEMG signals were collected from the forearm of the subjects by 4 sensors. And two kinds of pattern recognition experiments were designed and implemented for exploring the feasibility and repeatability of the key-press gesture recognition based on SEMG signals. The results from 6 subjects showed, by using the same-day templates, that the average classification rates of 16 defined key-press gestures reached above 75.8%. Moreover, when the training samples added up to 5 days, the recognition accuracies approached those obtained with the same-day templates. The experimental results confirm the feasibility and repeatability of SEMG-based key-press gestures classification, which is meaningful for the implementation of myoelectric control-based virtual keyboard interaction. PMID:21604501

Cheng, Juan; Chen, Xiang; Lu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Zhangyan

2011-04-01

264

Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles—overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement—that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

2014-01-01

265

Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design, analysis, and interpretation.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging (NI) technologies are having increasing impact in the study of complex cognitive and social processes. In this emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience, a central goal should be to increase the understanding of the interaction between the neurobiology of the individual and the environment in which humans develop and function. The study of sex/gender is often a focus for NI research, and may be motivated by a desire to better understand general developmental principles, mental health problems that show female-male disparities, and gendered differences in society. In order to ensure the maximum possible contribution of NI research to these goals, we draw attention to four key principles-overlap, mosaicism, contingency and entanglement-that have emerged from sex/gender research and that should inform NI research design, analysis and interpretation. We discuss the implications of these principles in the form of constructive guidelines and suggestions for researchers, editors, reviewers and science communicators. PMID:25221493

Rippon, Gina; Jordan-Young, Rebecca; Kaiser, Anelis; Fine, Cordelia

2014-01-01

266

Recent research related to juvenile sex offending: findings and directions for further research.  

PubMed

Serious scholarly inquiry into juvenile sex offending represents a relatively new field, dating from the mid 1940s. During the next 4 decades, a mere handful of articles exploring aspects of juvenile sex offending were added to the available literature. By the 1980s, however, the literature began to increase rapidly, a trend that continues today. The purpose of this article is a focused review of the juvenile sex offender literature cited in PubMed over the last 5 years (2009-2013). The authors have chosen studies that will bring readers up to date on research they believe impacts our current understanding of best practices in the management of juvenile sex offending. For convenience, our review is organized into topical categories including research into characteristics and typologies of juvenile sex offenders, risk assessment and recidivism, assessment and treatment, the ongoing debate about mandatory registration of sex offenders as it applies to juveniles, and other thought provoking studies that do not fit neatly into the aforementioned categories. The studies included contain findings that both reinforce and challenge currently held notions about best practices concerning treatment and public policy, suggesting that our knowledge of the field continues to evolve in important ways. PMID:24562765

Malin, H Martin; Saleh, Fabian M; Grudzinskas, Albert J

2014-04-01

267

Integrating findings of traditional medicine with modern pharmaceutical research: the potential role of linked open data  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the biggest obstacles to progress in modern pharmaceutical research is the difficulty of integrating all available research findings into effective therapies for humans. Studies of traditionally used pharmacologically active plants and other substances in traditional medicines may be valuable sources of previously unknown compounds with therapeutic actions. However, the integration of findings from traditional medicines can be fraught

Matthias Samwald; Michel Dumontier; Jun Zhao; Joanne S Luciano; Michael Scott Marshall; Kei Cheung

2010-01-01

268

Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

Bell, Nancy D.

2011-01-01

269

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of...Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a...

2011-10-01

270

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of...Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a...

2014-10-01

271

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of...Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a...

2013-10-01

272

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of...Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a...

2012-10-01

273

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of...Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a...

2010-10-01

274

Fox Chase analysis finds more cutting-edge cancer research supported by industry  

Cancer.gov

Nearly half of the research presented at ASCO’s annual meeting last year came from researchers with ties to companies, and the amount appears to be increasing every year, according to new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center. The new findings will be presented this year at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting on Monday, June 4.

275

Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007

Frank Labanca

2008-01-01

276

Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2010-01-01

277

Monitoring the Future. National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication Number 10-7583  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2010-01-01

278

Practice-Based Research Networks, Part I: Clinical Laboratories to Generate and Translate Research Findings Into Effective Patient Care  

PubMed Central

Context To improve patient care, athletic training clinicians and researchers should work together to translate research findings into clinical practice. Problems with patient care observed in clinical practice should be translated into research frameworks, where they can be studied. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a compelling model for linking clinicians and researchers so they can conduct translational research to improve patient care. Objective To describe (1) the translational research model, (2) practice-based research as a mechanism for translating research findings into clinical practice, (3) the PBRN model and infrastructure, (4) the research potential using the PBRN model, and (5) protection of human participants in PBRN research. Description Translational research is the process of transforming research findings into health behavior that ultimately serves the public and attempts to bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Practice-based research represents the final step in the translational research continuum and describes research conducted by providers in clinical practices. The PBRNs are characterized by an organizational framework that transcends a single site or study and serves as the clinical research “laboratory” for conducting comparative-effectiveness studies using patient-oriented measures. The PBRN approach to research has many benefits, including enhanced generalizability of results, pooling of resources, rapid patient recruitment, and collaborative opportunities. However, multisite research also brings challenges related to the protection of human participants and institutional review board oversight. Clinical and Research Advantages Athletic training studies frequently include relatively few participants and, consequently, are able to detect only large effects. The incidence of injury at a single site is sufficiently low that gathering enough data to adequately power a treatment study may take many years. Collaborative efforts across diverse clinical practice environments can yield larger patient samples to overcome the limitations inherent in single-site research efforts. PMID:23068593

Sauers, Eric L.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Bay, R. Curtis

2012-01-01

279

Applying Effective Instruction Research Findings in Teacher Education: Six Influencing Factors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This preliminary report provides an overview of the Applying Research to Teacher Education (ARTE) Research Utilization in Elementary Teacher Education (RUETE) study which began in 1982 and will continue through 1985. ARTE: RUETE explores specific processes for incorporating recent research findings of effective instruction into preservice…

Gee, Elsie W.

280

Enhancing the Interpretation of "Significant" Findings: The Role of Mixed Methods Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present essay outlines how mixed methods research can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings. First, we define what we mean by significance in educational evaluation research. With regard to quantitative-based research, we define the four types of significance: statistical significance, practical significance, clinical…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

2004-01-01

281

What is big data? A consensual definition and a review of key research topics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Big Data is a trending buzzword in both academia and the industry, its meaning is still shrouded by much conceptual vagueness. The term is used to describe a wide range of concepts: from the technological ability to store, aggregate, and process data, to the cultural shift that is pervasively invading business and society, both drowning in information overload. The lack of a formal definition has led research to evolve into multiple and inconsistent paths. Furthermore, the existing ambiguity among researchers and practitioners undermines an efficient development of the subject. In this paper we have reviewed the existing literature on Big Data and analyzed its previous definitions in order to pursue two results: first, to provide a summary of the key research areas related to the phenomenon, identifying emerging trends and suggesting opportunities for future development; second, to provide a consensual definition for Big Data, by synthesizing common themes of existing works and patterns in previous definitions.

De Mauro, Andrea; Greco, Marco; Grimaldi, Michele

2015-02-01

282

Key-problem analysis and experimental research of stereo HMD used in augmented reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The key problems to be solved in stereo HMD (Head-Mounted Display) used in augmented reality are analyzed, such as brightness of image, fusion of virtual and real scene, binocular rivalry, occlusion, distortion, stereo vision and tracking of head and line of sight. An experimental platform of HMD is developed by discrete elements to research the key problems. The problem of fusion of virtual and real scene can be solved effectively by replacing the common beam splitter with polarization beam splitter in combiner. The variations of HMD vision effects including binocular rivalry with binocular overlapped range are investigated, and the results indicate that the optimal effect is achieved when the binocular overlapped range is 33~50% of the monocular field of view (FOV). At last, stereo vision is realized in HMD by the stereo image pairs made up according to the parallax theory.

Gao, Wei-Qing; Zhou, Shi-E.; Lv, Guo-Qiang; Ming, Hai

2009-11-01

283

Comparative Study of Human and Mouse Postsynaptic Proteomes Finds High Compositional Conservation and Abundance Differences for Key Synaptic Proteins  

PubMed Central

Direct comparison of protein components from human and mouse excitatory synapses is important for determining the suitability of mice as models of human brain disease and to understand the evolution of the mammalian brain. The postsynaptic density is a highly complex set of proteins organized into molecular networks that play a central role in behavior and disease. We report the first direct comparison of the proteome of triplicate isolates of mouse and human cortical postsynaptic densities. The mouse postsynaptic density comprised 1556 proteins and the human one 1461. A large compositional overlap was observed; more than 70% of human postsynaptic density proteins were also observed in the mouse postsynaptic density. Quantitative analysis of postsynaptic density components in both species indicates a broadly similar profile of abundance but also shows that there is higher abundance variation between species than within species. Well known components of this synaptic structure are generally more abundant in the mouse postsynaptic density. Significant inter-species abundance differences exist in some families of key postsynaptic density proteins including glutamatergic neurotransmitter receptors and adaptor proteins. Furthermore, we have identified a closely interacting set of molecules enriched in the human postsynaptic density that could be involved in dendrite and spine structural plasticity. Understanding synapse proteome diversity within and between species will be important to further our understanding of brain complexity and disease. PMID:23071613

Bayés, Àlex; Collins, Mark O.; Croning, Mike D. R.; van de Lagemaat, Louie N.; Choudhary, Jyoti S.; Grant, Seth G. N.

2012-01-01

284

Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 ... study supported by the NIH's National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). The study is the first ...

285

U of Pittsburgh researchers find stem cells in mice in the esophagus  

Cancer.gov

In an animal study published online today in Cell Reports, researchers report findings from mice that could lead to new insights into the development and treatment of esophageal cancer and the precancerous condition known as Barrett's esophagus.

286

U of Minnesota researchers find that microRNA is tied to colon cancer tumor growth  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have identified microRNAs that may cause colon polyps from turning cancerous. The finding could help physicians provide more specialized, and earlier, treatment before colon cancer develops.

287

A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes – Statistical Significance Versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used toquantify the degree of practical significanceof study results. This paper gives anintroduction to the computation andinterpretation of effect sizes from theperspective of the consumer of the researchliterature. The key points made are:1. ES is a useful indicator of the practical(clinical) importance of research resultsthat can be operationally defined frombeing ``negligible'' to

Mohammadreza Hojat; Gang Xu

2004-01-01

288

A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes--Statistical Significance versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used to quantify the degree of practical significance of study results. This paper gives an introduction to the computation and interpretation of effect sizes from the perspective of the consumer of the research literature. The key points made are: (1) "ES" is a useful indicator of the…

Hojat, Mohammadreza; Xu, Gang

2004-01-01

289

Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research

White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

2010-01-01

290

Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

Labanca, Frank

2008-11-01

291

School Effectiveness Research Findings in the Portuguese Speaking Countries: Brazil and Portugal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides findings of research on school effectiveness and discusses implications for evaluation in Brazil and Portugal. Most findings reported over the last decade have been published in Brazilian or Portuguese refereed journals. Thus, a brief literature review of such studies enables that knowledge to reach international scholars and…

Ferrão, Maria Eugénia

2014-01-01

292

Improving Student Achievement in Mathematics, Part 1: Research Findings. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest summarizes research findings on best teacher practices in mathematics education. Among the findings are: students can learn both concepts and skills by solving problems; whole-class discussion following individual and group work improves student achievement; and using calculators in the learning of mathematics can result in increased…

Grouws, Douglas A.; Cebulla, Kristin J.

293

NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect Against Diabetes in Animal Study  

MedlinePLUS

NIH researchers find resveratrol helps protect against diabetes in animal study August 8, 2013 Resveratrol, a compound in nuts, grapes, and wine, has ... of non-human primates, researchers have found that resveratrol counters some of the negative effects of a ...

294

Disclosure of Incidental Findings From Next-Generation Sequencing in Pediatric Genomic Research  

PubMed Central

Next-generation sequencing technologies will likely be used with increasing frequency in pediatric research. One consequence will be the increased identification of individual genomic research findings that are incidental to the aims of the research. Although researchers and ethicists have raised theoretical concerns about incidental findings in the context of genetic research, next-generation sequencing will make this once largely hypothetical concern an increasing reality. Most commentators have begun to accept the notion that there is some duty to disclose individual genetic research results to research subjects; however, the scope of that duty remains unclear. These issues are especially complicated in the pediatric setting, where subjects cannot currently but typically will eventually be able to make their own medical decisions at the age of adulthood. This article discusses the management of incidental findings in the context of pediatric genomic research. We provide an overview of the current literature and propose a framework to manage incidental findings in this unique context, based on what we believe is a limited responsibility to disclose. We hope this will be a useful source of guidance for investigators, institutional review boards, and bioethicists that anticipates the complicated ethical issues raised by advances in genomic technology. PMID:23400601

Abdul-Karim, Ruqayyah; Berkman, Benjamin E.; Wendler, David; Rid, Annette; Khan, Javed; Badgett, Tom

2013-01-01

295

Young, Drunk, Dangerous and Driving: Underage Drinking and Driving Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes major, recent research findings concerning illegal alcohol use and intoxicated driving among American youth. Examines what research revealed about the nature of underage drinking and driving; what health, social, and legal ramifications are associated with drinking and driving; and what characteristics and behavioral patterns are found…

Little, Robert; Clontz, Kenneth

1994-01-01

296

Rotation Checklist (from the IG handbook) You can find information on genetics faculty research  

E-print Network

Rotation Checklist (from the IG handbook) You can find information on genetics faculty research ______________________________________ Research talks given by faculty various faculty seminar series through IG and through the departments. Once. The IG program is willing to assist you in this as well. This will allow you to do at least 3 full- term

Mayfield, John

297

THE TEN MOST SIGNIFICANT EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH FINDINGS IN THE PAST TEN YEARS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TO ASCERTAIN THE SIGNIFICANCE OF RESEARCH IN EDUCATION, THREE QUESTIONS MAY BE ASKED--(1) TO WHAT EXTENT HAS THE BEHAVIOR OF INDIVIDUALS IN EDUCATION BEEN CHANGED. (2) HOW MANY ARTICLES HAVE BEEN WRITTEN AS A RESULT OF THE FINDINGS. (3) TO WHAT EXTENT DO EDUCATORS TALK ABOUT OR USE THE CONCEPTS GENERATED BY THE RESEARCH IN DISCUSSING THEIR OWN…

DAVIES, DANIEL R.; GRIFFITHS, DANIEL E.

298

Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

Peterson-Karlan, George R.

2011-01-01

299

User Research Findings for Purdue University Library Website Redesign Major themes from undergraduate focus group  

E-print Network

): Undergraduates: 1. Need a website design that shows school pride. 2. Will simply use article and catalog searchUser Research Findings for Purdue University Library Website Redesign Major themes from undergraduate focus group: 1. If undergraduates are assigned a research topic, they go to the library website

Zhang, Tao

300

Models of consent to return of incidental findings in genomic research.  

PubMed

Genomic research-including whole genome sequencing and whole exome sequencing-has a growing presence in contemporary biomedical investigation. The capacity of sequencing techniques to generate results that go beyond the primary aims of the research-historically referred to as "incidental findings"-has generated considerable discussion as to how this information should be handled-that is, whether incidental results should be returned, and if so, which ones.Federal regulations governing most human subjects research in the United States require the disclosure of "the procedures to be followed" in the research as part of the informed consent process. It seems reasonable to assume-and indeed, many commentators have concluded-that genomic investigators will be expected to inform participants about, among other procedures, the prospect that incidental findings will become available and the mechanisms for dealing with them. Investigators, most of whom will not have dealt with these issues before, will face considerable challenges in framing meaningful disclosures for research participants.To help in this task, we undertook to identify the elements that should be included in the informed consent process related to incidental findings. We did this by surveying a large number of genomic researchers (n = 241) and by conducting in-depth interviews with a smaller number of researchers (n = 28) and genomic research participants (n = 20). Based on these findings, it seems clear to us that routine approaches to informed consent are not likely to be effective in genomic research in which the prospect of incidental findings exists. Ensuring that participants' decisions are informed and meaningful will require innovative approaches to dealing with the consent issue. We have identified four prototypical models of a consent process for return of incidental findings. PMID:24919982

Appelbaum, Paul S; Parens, Erik; Waldman, Cameron R; Klitzman, Robert; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Price, W Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K

2014-01-01

301

FRESHWATER FINDINGS, 1979-1982: RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, DULUTH, MINNESOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report contains citations of publications for the years 1979-1982 on research conducted or supported by the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. All published material has been organized into two major categories: (1) Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Proceedings, etc., ...

302

From research to control: Translating research findings into health policies, operational guidelines and health products.  

PubMed

Although Africa's health research capacity is still weak, African R&D institutions are contributing immensely to the development of health policies, guidelines and products essential for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of Africa's leading health problems. In order to increase Africa's contributions, all health research stakeholders should participate in setting health research priorities and agenda, followed by establishing health research networks and consortia, holistic capacity strengthening, and gathering of baseline data. The evaluation of candidate tools, and the research preceding it, must abide by international scientific and ethical standards, and must involve institutional and national regulatory authorities. The funding of product development and product availability in Africa benefits from national governments, bilateral, multilateral, and philanthropic agencies. When a trial is over poses many social and ethical issues, and not infrequently existing guidelines may not be adequate. Mechanisms for making products available in resource constrained countries are presented, as are problems relating to manufacturing, markets and procurement. So are obligations to trial and research communities. The paper concludes by outlining the obligations of each stakeholder, in order to make research products readily available in resource constrained settings. PMID:19686696

Kilama, Wen

2009-11-01

303

Freshwater findings, 1979-1982: research publications of the Environmental Research Laboratory, Duluth, Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

This report contains citations of publications for the years 1979-1982 on research conducted or supported by the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. All published material has been organized into two major categories: (1) Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Proceedings, etc., and (2) EPA Research Reports. The report is organized by year with all journal articles, book chapters, proceedings, etc., for a given year appearing before the EPA research reports for the same year; within each category publications are listed alphabetically by author. Authors of the publications listed include ERL-Duluth laboratory staff members and scientists at universities, in industry, and at other facilities who received research funding under the auspices of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Limited quantities of reprints are available for those articles identified by ERL-Duluth reprint number in parentheses following the citation. These can be obtained by writing to: Librarian, ERL-Duluth, U.S. EPA, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804. EPA research reports can be obtained by writing to: National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22151. All other articles are not available from ERL-Duluth or NTIS, but can be found in most major libraries.

Highland, T.; Curtis, C.

1983-10-01

304

Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Yule, Thomas J.

1994-10-01

305

Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

PubMed Central

Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination. PMID:21092164

2010-01-01

306

Research on the key techniques of form and position evaluation based on the genetic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Evolutionary Algorithm (EA)-Genetic Algorithm (GA) was improved to evaluate the form and position errors that were summarized as nonlinear optimization problems. The key techniques in the implementation of the GA have been studied in detail. The emphasis was on the fitness functions of the GA concerned with the concrete problem so that they were proposed first. Second the expression of the desired solutions was discussed in the continual space optimization problem. Because different expression was suitable for different problem, here the real numbers were used to express the solutions to find which were called as chromosomes in the GA. Third the improved evolutionary strategies of GA were described respectively on emphasis. They were the selection operation of Odd Number Selection plus Roulette Wheel Selection, the crossover operation of Arithmetic Crossover Between Near Relatives and Far Relatives, and the mutation operation of Adaptive Gaussian mutation. The evolutionary strategies determined the update of the whole population and the terminal solution. After operations from generation to generation, the initial stochastic population on the basis of the least squared solutions would be improved until the best chromosome/individual appeared. Finally some examples were computed to verify the devised method. The experimental results show that the GA-based method can find the desired solutions that are superior to the least squared solutions and almost equal to those given by other optimization techniques except a few examples give a similar result.

Cui, Changcai; Li, Bing

2006-11-01

307

A Systematic Review on the Designs of Clinical Technology: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Human factors (HF) studies are increasingly important as technology infuses into clinical settings. No nursing research reviews exist in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review on designs of clinical technology, 34 articles with 50 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were classified into three categories based on HF research goals. The majority of studies evaluated effectiveness of clinical design; efficiency was fewest. Current research ranges across many interface types examined with no apparent pattern or obvious rationale. Future research should expand types, settings, participants; integrate displays; and expand outcome variables. PMID:19707093

PhD, Greg Alexander; Staggers, Nancy

2010-01-01

308

Research education: findings of a study of teaching-learning research using multiple analytical perspectives.  

PubMed

This multimethod, qualitative study provides results for educators of nursing doctoral students to consider. Combining the expertise of an empirical analytical researcher (who uses statistical methods) and an interpretive phenomenological researcher (who uses hermeneutic methods), a course was designed that would place doctoral students in the midst of multiparadigmatic discussions while learning fundamental research methods. Field notes and iterative analytical discussions led to patterns and themes that highlight the value of this innovative pedagogical application. Using content analysis and interpretive phenomenological approaches, together with one of the students, data were analyzed from field notes recorded in real time over the period the course was offered. This article describes the course and the study analysis, and offers the pedagogical experience as transformative. A link to a sample syllabus is included in the article. The results encourage nurse educators of doctoral nursing students to focus educational practice on multiple methodological perspectives. PMID:25406843

Vandermause, Roxanne; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Fritz, Roschelle

2014-12-01

309

Major Research Findings of The University of Kansas Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities  

E-print Network

-Vocabul ary_and Spelling t. and Ross Tests of Higher Co-9JJ) t-ive·· Prqce~ses-Rel_~va_n.t and Irrelevant Information).- -- - ·--- · ·- -·- - · ---- · · · · -- · MAJOR FINDINGS : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Some behavioral ch'aracteri sti cs differentiate LD... the result of environmental influences. 4. Learning disabilities are unique to childhood rather than a handicap that persists into adolescence and adulthood. 5. Learning disabled individuals are as handicapped in adjusting to community living...

Clark, Frances L.

1981-10-01

310

Translating research findings to promote peace: moving from "field to forum" with verbatim theatre.  

PubMed

Peace, both personal and global, resides in understanding. Verbatim theatre is introduced as a vehicle for translating research findings to promote understanding and thereby, promote health. By shifting our translation lens from "bench to bedside" to "field to forum," new opportunities arise for moving nursing research-findings to an engaged audience. Stories from Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima survivors were woven into the verbatim performance, With Their Voices Raised. Analysis of audience members' reflections after the performance suggests that verbatim theatre created a connection based in openness, engagement, and trust that informed understanding and raised awareness about peace processes. PMID:23907299

Liehr, Patricia; Morris, Kate; Leavitt, Mary Ann; Takahashi, Ryutaro

2013-01-01

311

Nutrition and Growth: Recent Research Findings and Research Priorities. Matrix No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research indicates that low income adults and infants in the United States are more likely to be overweight than undernourished. Very possibly, the assumptions upon which food supplement programs are based are ill-founded. While many of the currently operating broadly conceived supplemental food programs achieve desirable collateral…

Graham, George G.

312

Research to practice: Using research findings to inform the first-year engineering experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meaningful experiences in the first year of an engineering curriculum are known to motivate students and help student retention in engineering. On-going research in the School of Engineering is aimed at understanding the formation of an engineering identity in students, as well as classifying and assessing problem-based learning practices embodied throughout the curriculum. Investigations were conducted with the inaugural freshman

H. Watson; O. Pierrakos; T. Newbold

2010-01-01

313

Social science research related to wildfire management: an overview of recent findings and future research needs  

E-print Network

dimensions of wildland fire covering diverse topics including: attitudes towards pre-fire mitigation, social fire-mitigation efforts before a fire. Over time, social science research has continued to examine of natural-resource management, the approach to managing wildland fires has evolved over time as scientific

314

Evaluating the Impact of Professional Development on Teaching Practice: Research Findings and Future Research Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Continuing professional development for teaching is important for institutional renewal, teacher development and student learning improvement. However, our longitudinal research into provision of continuing professional development has shown that the majority of educators who attend professional development workshops do not put what they have…

Doherty, Iain

2011-01-01

315

[Textual research of Hou ke mi yao (Secret Key of Laryngology)].  

PubMed

Hou ke mi yao (Secret Key of Laryngology) was one of the most popular books of throat department in the Qing Dynasty. Because of the inscription "Xiyuan Zheng of ancient She as the author, Xu Zuo-ting of Lequan revised and enlarged", this book was generally regarded as the important work of Xin'an Zheng's family of throat department. However, after the textual research, Hou ke mi yao, in fact, was edited on the basis of Zhang Zong-liang's Hou ke zhi zhang (Guide Book for Laryngology) of the Qing Dynasty: with the second volume, "method of processing" deleted, and Wu's "verse of 24 kinds of symptom of throat diseases" (his whole name unknown) and 12 pills added. Thus, the author of Hou ke mi yao was Zhang and Wu instead of Xiyuan Zheng, and the contents reflected the academic thought of Zhang Zong-liang and Wu. According to the record of General Catalogue of the Ancient Literature of Chinese Medicine in China, there were 14 editions of Hou ke mi yao available, however, only 12 editions are extant after the investigation. In addition, there are mistakes of its author, book title and editions included in the Textual Research on Chinese Medical Literature and General Catalogue of the Ancient Literature of Chinese Medicine in China which, therefore, should be corrected. PMID:24060030

Zhang, Liang-Liang

2013-05-01

316

Findings of innovation research applied to quality management principles for health care.  

PubMed

We asked health care professionals to identify and prioritize barriers to implementing TQM in their organizations. Lack of evidence of TQM success was a commonly listed barrier. In response, we drew from research in the innovation literature that identifies factors that distinguish successful from failed efforts to innovate and improve. Applied to TQM principles, innovation findings overwhelmingly support customer and quality mindedness. To a lesser degree other principles are upheld, suggesting future research in the area. PMID:7607882

Gustafson, D H; Hundt, A S

1995-01-01

317

Research and Teaching: An Investigation of the Evolution of High School and Undergraduate Student Researchers' Understanding of Key Science Ethics Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school and undergraduate research students were surveyed over the 10-week period of their summer research programs to investigate their understanding of key concepts in science ethics and whether their understanding changed over the course of their summer research experiences. Most of the students appeared to understand the issues relevant to…

Mabrouk, Patricia Ann

2013-01-01

318

'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.  

PubMed

Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case supporting how radionuclide transfer is represented in the performance assessment model. The objective here is to illustrate how geochemical research contributes to this process and, above all, to identify a certain number of subjects which should be treated in priority. PMID:19008019

Altmann, Scott

2008-12-12

319

On some key research issues in Enterprise Risk Management related to economic capital and diversification effect at group level  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this short communication is to give an overview of the key research issues in Enterprise Risk Management that arose during the talks and the brainstorming session of the first ERMII research workshop, which was held at ISFA, University of Lyon in June 2007. To define and compute economic capital at group level, fundamental problems related for example

Wayne Fisher; Stéphane Loisel; Shaun Wang

2008-01-01

320

Assessing the Key Processes of Youth-Led Participatory Research: Psychometric Analysis and Application of an Observational Rating Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth-led Participatory Action Research (YPAR)--in which young people conduct research aimed at improving problems in their schools and communities--is increasing in public health, youth development, and education. We report on the development and psychometric testing of the YPAR Process Template (YPT)--to assess the quality of key YPAR processes…

Ozer, Emily J.; Douglas, Laura

2015-01-01

321

Application of Research Findings and Summary of Research Needs: Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Updated research findings with acido- sis, feedlot bloat, liver abscesses, and sudden death syndromes were presented at the Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feed- lot Cattle. Possible industry applications include the need to establish guidelines for use of clostridial vaccines in feedlot cattle, further assessment of the relationship between acidosis and polioen- cephalomalacia, examination of the effects

M. L. Galyean; K. S. Eng

322

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Childhood adversity as a risk for cancer: findings  

E-print Network

,6]. In humans, early life exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE), like trauma, abuse or maltreatmentRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Childhood adversity as a risk for cancer: findings from the 1958,2,3 and Cyrille Delpierre1,2 Abstract Background: To analyse whether Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Revisiting the Research Findings on Heritage Language Learning: Three Interpretive Frames.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes that heritage language education research findings in Canada fall within three interpretive frames, involving (1) interdependence, which posits that languages complement each other; (2) narrativity, which suggests that there is a narrative structure to the developing mind; and (3) cognitive enhancement, which posits that language and…

Danesi, Marcel

1991-01-01

324

Research on the caretaking of children of incarcerated parents: Findings and their service delivery implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research findings on caretaking-related problems associated with the absence of parents from the home following incarceration. It focuses on the impact of incarceration on the welfare and adjustment of urban African American children and on the assumption of caretaking responsibilities by other caretakers, principally maternal grandmothers. Noting the complex situational difficulties involved and the potential burdens associated

Thomas E. Hanlon; Steven B. Carswell; Marc Rose

2007-01-01

325

Can Research Findings Help School Systems Obtain the Most Bang from the Construction Bucks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed…

Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

326

Managing innovation and change processes: Findings from the Minnesota innovation research program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how innovations develop over time based on findings emerging from seven innovations included in the Minnesota Innovation Research Program. These observations are very different from typical models in the literature of the innovation process. The actual process is fluid, and includes an initial shock to propel the innovation into being, proliferation of the original idea, setbacks and

Roger Schroeder; Andrew Van de Ven; Gary Scudder; Douglas Polley

1986-01-01

327

Translating Research Findings to PTSD Prevention: Results of a Randomized–Controlled Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on therapeutic studies revealing positive prognostic factors and on research findings revealing how trauma is processed, we developed the memory structuring intervention (MSI) in attempt to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The MSI attempts to shift processing of traumatic memory from uncontrollable somatosensory and affective processes to more controlled linguistic and cognitive processes by providing patients organization, labeling, and

Yori Gidron; Reuven Gal; Sara Freedman; Irit Twiser; Ari Lauden; Yoram Snir; Jonathan Benjamin

2001-01-01

328

Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

Grotzer, Tina A.

2011-01-01

329

Indiana U researchers find that blood test could help to diagnose pancreatic cancer  

Cancer.gov

Indiana U researchers find that a blood test could help to diagnose pancreatic cancer. The disease is difficult to diagnose in early stages because the pancreas is hidden behind other organs such as the stomach, small intestine, liver, gallbladder, spleen and bile ducts.

330

Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

2011-01-01

331

Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8  

E-print Network

Undersea researchers find little oil spill damage so far By KRISTA KLAUS | News Channel 8 Published of the Gulf of Mexico in the wake of BP's massive Deepwater Horizon oil spill made a brief stopover today life before and after the largest oil spill in the history of the Gulf of Mexico. #12;"This

Belogay, Eugene A.

332

Finding links to cancer Masonic Cancer Center researchers work to identify carcinogens  

E-print Network

Finding links to cancer Masonic Cancer Center researchers work to identify carcinogens in the world around us--as well as ways to avoid them When scientists talk about "environmental" causes of cancer are linked to as many as two out of every three cancers diagnosed. DeAnn Lazovich, Ph.D., M.P.H., is one

Minnesota, University of

333

Summary of Research Findings on the Military General Educational Development Program. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes and integrates the finding of research studies dealing with the military General Educational Development (GED) program. The major areas covered include (1) the field conduct of the GED program, (2) characteristics of GED program participants, (3) a comparison of the utility of the GED certificate with that of the high school…

Waller, Earl A.

334

[What happens to children and adolescents with mental disorders? Findings from long-term outcome research].  

PubMed

Research on the long-term outcome of mental disorders originating in childhood and adolescence is an important part of developmental psychopathology. After a brief sketch of relevant terms of outcome research, the first part of this review reports findings based on heterotypic cohort studies. The major second part of this review presents findings based on long-term outcome studies dealing with homotypic diagnostic groups. In particular, the review focuses on the course and prognosis of ADHD, anxiety disorders, depression, conduct disorders, eating disorders, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and selective mutism. Findings mainly support the vulnerability hypothesis regarding mental disorders with early manifestation in childhood and adolescence as frequent precursors of mental disorders in adulthood. The discussion focuses on the impact of early manifesting disorders in the frame of general mental morbidity and of the effect of interventions, which is not yet sufficiently discernible. PMID:24240498

Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

2013-11-01

335

New research findings on emotionally focused therapy: introduction to special section.  

PubMed

This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients for which EFT is effective (Denton, Wittenborn, & Golden, this issue) and the next two studies (Furrow, Edwards, Choi, & Bradley, this issue; Wittenborn, this issue) focus on the person of the therapist and provide some implications for EFT intervention and training. Together, these three studies provide valuable lessons on how to deepen our knowledge of the application of EFT for different populations and therapists. PMID:22765321

Johnson, Susan M; Wittenborn, Andrea K

2012-06-01

336

DIII-D research towards resolving key issues for ITER and steady-state tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DIII-D research program is addressing key ITER research needs and developing the physics basis for future steady-state tokamaks. Pellet pacing edge-localized mode (ELM) control in the ITER configuration reduces ELM energy loss in proportion to 1/fpellet by inducing ELMs at up to 12× the natural ELM rate. Complete suppression of ELMs with resonant magnetic perturbations has been extended to the q95 expected for ITER baseline scenario discharges, and long-duration ELM-free QH-mode discharges have been produced with ITER-relevant co-current neutral-beam injection (NBI) using external n = 3 coils to generate sufficient counter-Ip torque. ITER baseline discharges at ?N ˜ 2 and scaled NBI torque have been maintained in stationary conditions for more than four resistive times using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) for tearing mode suppression and disruption avoidance; active tracking with steerable launchers and feedback control catch these modes at small amplitude, reducing the ECCD power required to suppress them. Massive high-Z gas injection into disruption-induced 300-600 kA 20 MeV runaway electron (RE) beams yield dissipation rates ˜10× faster than expected from e-e collisions and demonstrate the possibility of benign dissipation of such REs should they occur in ITER. Other ITER-related experiments show measured intrinsic plasma torque in good agreement with a physics-based model over a wide range of conditions, while first-time main-ion rotation measurements show it to be lower than expected from neoclassical theory. Core turbulence measurements show increased temperature fluctuations correlated with sharply enhanced electron transport when \

Hill, D. N.; the DIII-D Team

2013-10-01

337

Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

1996-01-01

338

The crystalline revolution :ISO's finding opens a new research field, "astro-mineralogy"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicate minerals were known to be a main component of dust in space, but detecting them in a crystallised state has been a surprise. It allows the identification of precise silicates in astronomical objects, which will open "a totally new field in astronomy: astro-mineralogy. This is the crystalline revolution", said the author, Dutch astronomer Rens Waters of Amsterdam university. "It's really fantastic, this possibility of identifying the silicates. Before ISO everybody thought that all silicates in space were amorphous, without a well-ordered internal structure; that means you cannot differentiate among the many different silicates existing. Now we can try to identify them and track their presence in different regions. A whole new research field is starting", said Rens Waters, who brought to the press conference samples of several terrestrial crystalline silicates: olivine and pyroxene, the most common silicates on Earth. Crystals give key clues about the physical conditions and evolutionary history of crystal-bearing objects. The precise mechanisms for crystal-making are now being researched now very actively in the laboratories, although some working-hypotheses are already being used. For instance, crystals can be made by heating the material to temperatures above 1 300 degrees Centigrade and then cooling it down slowly. Those found so far by ISO are at -170 degrees Centigrade, both in stellar envelopes and in protoplanetary discs. In the case of the old stars -red giant stars, where crystals are found to account for as much as 20% of all the surrounding dust, astronomers think that that the high temperatures near the star triggered the crystallisation of the silicates. In the protoplanetary discs some experts postulate that electric shocks - like lightning flashes - heated the dust, which cooled afterwards. "The crystals detected by ISO in these discs have a size of about a thousandth of a millimetre. They collide with each other, forming bigger and bigger bodies. Models predict that in about ten to one hundred million years they will make planets", Waters says. "In fact, crystalline silicates are very common in our own Solar System. You also have them in the comet Hale Bopp!". The reason why crystalline silicates had not been detected before in stars has to do with their low temperatures. Cold material emits mostly infrared light, which means an infrared space telescope like ESA's ISO was needed. The two high-resolution spectrometers on-board the satellite, able to detect the 'chemical fingerprint' of the crystals, did the rest. Astronomers are sure about the discovery because those chemical fingerprints, the spectra, can be compared in laboratories with spectra from crystalline silicates found on Earth. This method has demonstrated the crystalline structure and has even already allowed the identification of some of the crystals, such as forsterite and enstatite. However, crystalline silicates are a large family and their chemical signatures can be very similar; to enlarge the list of precise crystals more work will be needed, say experts in space chemistry. That is just one of the open questions requiring lab work. There's at least another one: crystalline silicates are found around old stars, in protoplanetary disks and in our own Solar System, but not in the space among the stars; astronomers can't explain it yet. "Crystalline silicates are synthesised around the stars; then that dust goes into the interstellar space, and enriches the raw material out of which more stars and planets will form. So you would expect crystals also to be in the interstellar medium! Crystals will certainly make us learn a lot...", says Waters. "This finding shows that ISO is really unveiling the chemistry of the Universe", says ESA astronomer Alberto Salama, chairman of the workshop about ISO results in spectroscopy held this week at ESA's Villafranca station in Madrid where the results were presented to the scientific community. "This is becoming more and more a 'hot

2000-02-01

339

U-M researchers find driver of breast cancer stem cell metastasis  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have found that a cancer gene linked to aggressive spread of the disease promotes breast cancer stem cells. The finding implies a new way to target the behavior of these lethal cells. The finding involves the cancer gene RhoC, which has previously been shown to promote metastasis of many types of cancer. RhoC levels increase as breast cancer progresses and high levels of RhoC are associated with worse patient survival.

340

What clinicians want: Findings from a psychotherapy practice research network survey.  

PubMed

Practice research networks may be one way of advancing knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) in psychotherapy. In this study, we document this process by first asking clinicians what they want from psychotherapy research. Eighty-two psychotherapists in 10 focus groups identified and discussed psychotherapy research topics relevant to their practices. An analysis of these discussions led to the development of 41 survey items. In an online survey, 1,019 participants, mostly practicing clinicians, rated the importance to their clinical work of these 41 psychotherapy research topics. Ratings were reduced using a principal components analysis in which 9 psychotherapy research themes emerged, accounting for 60.66% of the variance. Two postsurvey focus groups of clinicians (N = 22) aided in interpreting the findings. The ranking of research themes from most to least important were-Therapeutic Relationship/Mechanisms of Change, Therapist Factors, Training and Professional Development, Client Factors, Barriers and Stigma, Technology and Adjunctive Interventions, Progress Monitoring, Matching Clients to Therapist or Therapy, and Treatment Manuals. Few differences were noted in rankings based on participant age or primary therapeutic orientation. Postsurvey focus group participants were not surprised by the top-rated items, as they were considered most proximal and relevant to therapists and their work with clients during therapy sessions. Lower ranked items may be perceived as externally imposed agendas on the therapist and therapy. We discuss practice research networks as a means of creating new collaborations consistent with KTE goals. Findings of this study can help to direct practitioner-researcher collaborations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25528356

Tasca, Giorgio A; Sylvestre, John; Balfour, Louise; Chyurlia, Livia; Evans, Jane; Fortin-Langelier, Benjamin; Francis, Kylie; Gandhi, Jasmine; Huehn, Linda; Hunsley, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Kinley, Jackie; Koszycki, Diana; Leszcz, Molyn; Lybanon-Daigle, Vanessa; Mercer, Deanna; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Presniak, Michelle; Ravitz, Paula; Ritchie, Kerri; Talbot, Jeanne; Wilson, Brian

2015-03-01

341

Industry and Labour Market Research Labour market and industry research are key components of the career planning process. When engaging in career  

E-print Network

is time sensitive due to the dynamic nature of the new economy. It is important to remember that economic Industry and Labour Market Research Labour market and industry research are key components of the career planning process. When engaging in career decisions, it is important to have a broad

Boonstra, Rudy

342

Integrating findings of traditional medicine with modern pharmaceutical research: the potential role of linked open data  

PubMed Central

One of the biggest obstacles to progress in modern pharmaceutical research is the difficulty of integrating all available research findings into effective therapies for humans. Studies of traditionally used pharmacologically active plants and other substances in traditional medicines may be valuable sources of previously unknown compounds with therapeutic actions. However, the integration of findings from traditional medicines can be fraught with difficulties and misunderstandings. This article proposes an approach to use linked open data and Semantic Web technologies to address the heterogeneous data integration problem. The approach is based on our initial experiences with implementing an integrated web of data for a selected use-case, i.e., the identification of plant species used in Chinese medicine that indicate potential antidepressant activities. PMID:21167050

2010-01-01

343

Repackaging prostate cancer support group research findings: an e-KT case study.  

PubMed

In the context of psychosocial oncology research, disseminating study findings to a range of knowledge "end-users" can advance the well-being of diverse patient subgroups and their families. This article details how findings drawn from a study of prostate cancer support groups were repackaged in a knowledge translation website--www.prostatecancerhelpyourself.ubc.ca--using Web 2.0 features. Detailed are five lessons learned from developing the website: the importance of pitching a winning but feasible idea, keeping a focus on interactivity and minimizing text, negotiating with the supplier, building in formal pretests or a pilot test with end-users, and completing formative evaluations based on data collected through Google™ and YouTube™ Analytics. The details are shared to guide the e-knowledge translation efforts of other psychosocial oncology researchers and clinicians. PMID:24713522

Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S; Lohan, Maria; Bottorff, Joan L

2015-01-01

344

UNC researchers find new genetic target for a different kind of cancer drug  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the UNC School of Medicine have discovered that the protein RBM4, a molecule crucial to the process of gene splicing, is drastically decreased in multiple forms of human cancer, including lung and breast cancers. The finding, published in the journal Cancer Cell, offers a new route toward therapies that can thwart the altered genetic pathways that allow cancer cells to proliferate and spread.

345

Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, Switzerland-Research Program And Key Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants and the potential for self-sealing, has brought clay formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation, the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in the Jura Mountains of NW Switzerland is an important international test site for researching clay formations. Research is carried out in the underground facility, which is located adjacent to the security gallery of the Mont Terri motorway tunnel. Fifteen partners from European countries, USA, Canada and Japan participate in the project. The objectives of the research program are to analyze the hydrogeological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties of the Opalinus Clay, to determine the changes induced by the excavation of galleries and by heating of the rock formation, to test sealing and container emplacement techniques and to evaluate and improve suitable investigation techniques. For the safety of deep geological disposal, it is of key importance to understand the processes occurring in the undisturbed argillaceous environment, as well as the processes in a disturbed system, during the operation of the repository. The objectives are related to: 1. Understanding processes and mechanisms in undisturbed clays and 2. Experiments related to repository-induced perturbations. Experiments of the first group are dedicated to: i) Improvement of drilling and excavation technologies and sampling methods; ii) Estimation of hydrogeological, rock mechanical and geochemical parameters of the undisturbed Opalinus Clay. Upscaling of parameters from laboratory to in situ scale; iii) Geochemistry of porewater and natural gases; evolution of porewater over time scales; iv) Assessment of long-term hydraulic transients associated with erosion and thermal scenarios and v) Evaluation of diffusion and retention parameters for long-lived radionuclides. Experiments related to repository-induced perturbations are focused on: i) Influence of rock liner on the disposal system and the buffering potential of the host rock; ii) Self-sealing processes in the excavation damaged zone; iii) Hydro-mechanical coupled processes (e.g. stress redistributions and pore pressure evolution during excavation); iv) Thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes (e.g. heating of bentonite and host rock) and v) Gas-induced transport of radionuclides in porewater and along interfaces in the engineered barrier system. A third research direction is to demonstrate the feasibility of repository construction and long-term safety after repository closure. Demonstration experiments can contribute to improving the reliability of the scientific basis for the safety assessment of future geological repositories, particularly if they are performed on a large scale and with a long duration. These experiments include the construction and installation of engineered barriers on a 1:1 scale: i) Horizontal emplacement of canisters; ii) Evaluation of the corrosion of container materials; repository re-saturation; iii) Sealing of boreholes and repository access tunnels and iv) Long-term monitoring of the repository. References Bossart, P. & Thury, M. (2008): Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Project, Programme 1996 to 2007 and Results. - Rep. Swiss Geol. Surv. 3.

Nussbaum, C. O.; Bossart, P. J.

2012-12-01

346

Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.  

PubMed

The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation. PMID:22382800

Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

2012-04-01

347

Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science  

E-print Network

the mechanisms driving the urban stream syndrome remain unanswered. Identification of key research questions and online survey, 2) holding an open discussion on the questions at the Second Symposium on Urbanization and function responses (e.g., what are the sublethal impacts of urbanization on biota?), characteristics

Rosemond, Amy Daum

348

Increased Attention to Human Sexuality Can Improve HIV–AIDS Prevention Efforts:: Key Research Issues and Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curtailing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic requires the development of effective strategies for helping people reduce high-risk sexual behavior patterns. Because the objective of HIV prevention involves changing how people behave sexually, research findings in human sexuality are extremely pertinent to efforts to promote AIDS risk reduction. Unfortunately, most public health HIV prevention programs rarely reflect findings of human

Jeffrey A. Kelly; Seth C. Kalichman

1995-01-01

349

Key Challenges for Tertiary Education Policy and Research--An Australian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Australia has had a mixed history in the way in which policy research has related to higher education policy. Recognising a history of policy-related research and to some extent research-informed policy-making, Australia has followed the trend of other New Public Management-driven systems of de-emphasising policy-oriented independent research. In…

Goedegebuure, Leo; Schoen, Marian

2014-01-01

350

On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health. PMID:20541086

Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela

2010-05-01

351

Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

2010-01-01

352

Key scientific findings and policy- and health-relevant insights from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies: an integration and synthesis of results.  

PubMed

In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a major air quality program known as the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program. The Supersites Program was a multiyear, $27 million air quality monitoring program consisting of eight regional air quality projects located throughout the United States, each with differing atmospheric pollution conditions resulting from variations in source emissions and meteorology. The overall goal of the program was to elucidate source-receptor relationships and atmospheric processes leading to PM accumulation on urban and regional scales; thus providing the scientific underpinning for modeling and data analysis efforts to support State Implementation Plans and more effective risk management approaches for PM. The program had three main objectives: (1) conduct methods development and evaluation, (2) characterize ambient PM, and (3) support health effects and exposure research. This paper provides a synthesis of key scientific findings from the Supersites Program and related studies. EPA developed 16 science/policy-relevant questions in conjunction with state and other federal agencies, Regional Planning Organizations, and the private sector. These questions were addressed to the extent possible, even given the vast amount of new information available from the Supersites Program, in a series of papers published as a special issue of the Journal of Air & Waste Management Association (February 2008). This synthesis also includes discussions of: (1) initial Supersites Program support for air quality management efforts in specific locations throughout the United States; (2) selected policy-relevant insights, based on atmospheric sciences findings, useful to air quality managers and decision makers planning emissions management strategies to address current and future PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and network planning and implementation; (3) selected health-relevant insights interpreted from atmospheric sciences findings in light of future directions for health and exposure scientists planning studies of the effects of PM on human health; and (4) selected knowledge gaps to guide future research. Finally, given the scope and depth of research and findings from the Supersites Program, this paper provides a reference source so readers can glean a general understanding of the overall research conducted and its policy-relevant insights. Supporting details for the results presented are available through the cited references. An annotated table of contents allows readers to easily find specific subject matter within the text. PMID:19202993

Solomon, Paul A; Hopke, Philip K; Froines, John; Scheffe, Richard

2008-01-01

353

Research on the Caretaking of Children of Incarcerated Parents: Findings and Their Service Delivery Implications.  

PubMed

This paper reviews research findings on caretaking-related problems associated with the absence of parents from the home following incarceration. It focuses on the impact of incarceration on the welfare and adjustment of urban African American children and on the assumption of caretaking responsibilities by other caretakers, principally maternal grandmothers. Noting the complex situational difficulties involved and the potential burdens associated with surrogate parenting in general, and with this population in particular, the service-provider implications of this parenting arrangement are considered in this review. Findings indicate that problems associated with incarceration of parents tend to be intergenerational and vary considerably in complexity and severity. To the extent that they impact the children involved, these issues should be addressed in coordinated service delivery focusing on prevention. PMID:18311320

Hanlon, Thomas E; Carswell, Steven B; Rose, Marc

2007-03-01

354

Research on the Caretaking of Children of Incarcerated Parents: Findings and Their Service Delivery Implications  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews research findings on caretaking-related problems associated with the absence of parents from the home following incarceration. It focuses on the impact of incarceration on the welfare and adjustment of urban African American children and on the assumption of caretaking responsibilities by other caretakers, principally maternal grandmothers. Noting the complex situational difficulties involved and the potential burdens associated with surrogate parenting in general, and with this population in particular, the service-provider implications of this parenting arrangement are considered in this review. Findings indicate that problems associated with incarceration of parents tend to be intergenerational and vary considerably in complexity and severity. To the extent that they impact the children involved, these issues should be addressed in coordinated service delivery focusing on prevention. PMID:18311320

Hanlon, Thomas E.; Carswell, Steven B.; Rose, Marc

2007-01-01

355

Stanford researchers find antibody hinders growth of Gleevec-resistant gastrointestinal tumors in lab tests  

Cancer.gov

An antibody that binds to a molecule on the surface of a rare but deadly tumor of the gastrointestinal tract inhibits the growth of the cancer cells in mice, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine (home of the Stanford Cancer Institute). The effect remains even when the cancer cells have become resistant to other treatments, and the findings may one day provide a glimmer of hope for people with the cancer, known as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, or GIST. The scientists hope to move into human clinical trials of the antibody within two years.

356

Dana-Farber researchers find new culprit in castration-resistant prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have discovered a molecular switch that enables advanced prostate cancers to spread without stimulation by male hormones, which normally are needed to spur the cancer's growth. They say the finding could lead to a new treatment for prostate cancers that are no longer controlled by hormone-blocking drugs. The researchers report in the Dec. 14 issue of Science that the molecular switch occurs in a protein, EZH2, which is increased in these tumors, termed castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC).

357

Recent findings on biosolids cake odor reduction--results of WERF phase 3 biosolids odor research.  

PubMed

The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) has sponsored three phases of a long-term project entitled "Identifying and Controlling Odors in the Municipal Wastewater Environment." The current (third) phase focuses on reduction of odors from dewatered biosolids cakes, and is entitled "Biosolids Processing Modifications for Cake Odor Reduction." This phase encompasses nine research agenda items developed from the results of the prior phase of research (Phase 2), which was completed in December 2003 as WERF Report No. 00-HHE-5T and was entitled "Impacts of In-Plant Parameters on Biosolids Odor Quality." The current phase (Phase 3) was a 2.5-year project, the first half of which was dedicated to testing several of the more promising hypotheses from Phase 2 in the laboratory to help determine the cause-effect relationships of odor generation from biosolids, and to develop odor reduction techniques. It is important to note that this research project covers the reduction or prevention of odorous emissions from dewatered biosolids cake, not odor control by means of containment or adsorption or absorption of malodorous emissions. In the remainder of the Phase 3 project, promising laboratory findings are being applied to biosolids handling processes at one or more wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with the goal of achieving significant cake odor reduction in a realistic, full-scale setting. The Phase 3 laboratory results were used to identify the relative effectiveness of methods for reducing biosolids cake odors, using techniques and measurements of biosolids cake odor production potential that have been developed by the WERF Project Team. Plans to demonstrate the most promising research findings at full-scale biosolids digestion and dewatering facilities constitute the final, fourth phase of the project. Contacts have been made with wastewater treatment facilities that have an interest or need to reduce their biosolids cake odors. The main goal of the next phase of the project will be to match wastewater or biosolids facilities that need to reduce biosolids odors with specific technologies, chemicals, or biological agents, in order to demonstrate the efficacy of promising laboratory findings full scale at a real WWTP. PMID:18821247

Erdal, Zeynep K; Forbes, Robert H; Witherspoon, Jay; Adams, Greg; Hargreaves, Ron; Morton, Rob; Novak, John; Higgins, Matthew

2008-11-01

358

Key Elements and challenges of USEPA?s developing ecological services research program  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past year, EPA?s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has redirected research within the Ecological Services Research Program (ESRP) to focus on ecosystem services and their associated benefits to human well-being. By 2009, all of EPA/ORD?s Ecological Services Resear...

359

Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

Dubosarsky, Mia D.

360

Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

361

Judges' views of child sexual abuse: evaluating beliefs against research findings in a Finnish sample.  

PubMed

Beliefs impact our decision-making and different professionals have been shown to have beliefs about child sexual abuse (CSA) that do not coincide with scientific findings. In the present study, judges' beliefs regarding CSA were explored. Finnish judges (N = 104) answered a questionnaire about CSA related issues as well as questions regarding their professional experience of CSA cases. The judges held both correct and incorrect beliefs; while their CSA prevalence estimates were rather well in line with research findings, half of the participants estimated that no professionals use suggestive methods when interviewing children and more than 40% thought suggestive methods can be useful when trying to get a child to tell about real events. Judges correctly assumed symptoms cannot be used to assess a CSA case, however, the majority thought play observations were appropriate means for evaluating such suspicions. Experience seemed to lead to more confidence in their own expertise but not in an actual increase in knowledge, namely, judges thought themselves more expert when more experienced although their expertise as measured by the questionnaire did not improve. Overall, the judges had both correct and erroneous beliefs but while experience did not improve the situation, gaining information about CSA did. More research about the beliefs of judges and how such beliefs impact legal decision-making is needed. PMID:25040839

Korkman, Julia; Svanbäck, Jatta; Finnilä, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka

2014-10-01

362

42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section...respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the...misconduct or seeks to impose or enforce HHS administrative actions, other than...

2011-10-01

363

42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section...respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the...misconduct or seeks to impose or enforce HHS administrative actions, other than...

2013-10-01

364

42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section...respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the...misconduct or seeks to impose or enforce HHS administrative actions, other than...

2014-10-01

365

42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section...respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the...misconduct or seeks to impose or enforce HHS administrative actions, other than...

2012-10-01

366

Digital animation as a method to disseminate research findings to the community using a community-based participatory approach.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has garnered increasing interest over the previous two decades as researchers have tackled increasingly complex health problems. In academia, professional presentations and articles are major ways that research is disseminated. However, dissemination of research findings to the people and communities who participated in the research is many times forgotten. In addition, little scholarly literature is focused on creative dissemination of research findings to the community using CBPR methods. We seek to fill this gap in the literature by providing an exemplar of research dissemination and partnership strategies that were used to complete this project. In this paper, we present a novel approach to the dissemination of research findings to our targeted communities through digital animation. We also provide the foundational thinking and specific steps that were taken to select this specific dissemination product development and distribution strategy. PMID:22395365

Vaughn, Nicole A; Jacoby, Sara F; Williams, Thalia; Guerra, Terry; Thomas, Nicole A; Richmond, Therese S

2013-03-01

367

Application of research findings and summary of research needs: Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle.  

PubMed

Updated research findings with acidosis, feedlot bloat, liver abscesses, and sudden death syndromes were presented at the Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle. Possible industry applications include the need to establish guidelines for use of clostridial vaccines in feedlot cattle, further assessment of the relationship between acidosis and polioencephalomalacia, examination of the effects of various ionophores on the incidence of metabolic disorders, and evaluation of the effects of feed bunk management and limit- and restricted-feeding programs on the incidence of metabolic disorders. A multidisciplinary approach among researchers, consulting nutritionists and veterinarians, and feedlot managers will be required for effective progress in research and in the application of research findings. Areas suggested for further research include 1) assessment of feed consumption patterns and social behavior of cattle in large-pen, feedlot settings; 2) evaluation of the relationship between feed intake management systems (feed bunk management programs, limit- and programmed-feeding) and the incidence of metabolic disorders, including delineation of the role of variability in feed intake in the etiology of such disorders; 3) efforts to improve antemortem and postmortem diagnosis, and to establish standardized regional or national epidemiological databases for various metabolic disorders; 4) ascertaining the accuracy of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and determining the relationship of previous health history of animals to the incidence of metabolic disorders; 5) further defining ruminal and intestinal microbiology as it relates to metabolic disorders and deeper evaluation of metabolic changes that occur with such disorders; 6) continued appraisal of the effects of grain processing and specific feed ingredients and nutrients on metabolic disorders, and development of new feed additives to control or prevent these disorders; and 7) application of biotechnology to develop grain varieties with altered nutrient degradation profiles that decrease the propensity for disastrous acid loads in the rumen, feed-grade enzymes and probiotics that modify nutrient digestion or microbial profiles in the rumen and intestine, and specific strains of ruminal bacteria and protozoa that alter ruminal and metabolic conditions that may precipitate metabolic disorders. PMID:9464915

Galyean, M L; Eng, K S

1998-01-01

368

Subsonic Transonic Applied Refinements By Using Key Strategies - STARBUKS In the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several upgrade projects have been completed at the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility over the last 1.5 years in an effort defined as STARBUKS - Subsonic Transonic Applied Refinements By Using Key Strategies. This multi-year effort was undertaken to improve NTF's overall capabilities by addressing Accuracy and Validation, Productivity, and Reliability areas at the NTF. This presentation will give a brief synopsis of each of these efforts.

Paryz, Roman W.

2014-01-01

369

Exome Sequencing and Unrelated Findings in the Context of Complex Disease Research: Ethical and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Exome sequencing has identified the causes of several Mendelian diseases, although it has rarely been used in a clinical setting to diagnose the genetic cause of an idiopathic disorder in a single patient. We performed exome sequencing on a pedigree with several members affected with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in an effort to identify candidate variants predisposing to this complex disease. While we did identify some rare variants that might predispose to ADHD, we have not yet proven the causality for any of them. However, over the course of the study, one subject was discovered to have idiopathic hemolytic anemia (IHA), which was suspected to be genetic in origin. Analysis of this subject’s exome readily identified two rare non-synonymous mutations in PKLR gene as the most likely cause of the IHA, although these two mutations had not been documented before in a single individual. We further confirmed the deficiency by functional biochemical testing, consistent with a diagnosis of red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Our study implies that exome and genome sequencing will certainly reveal additional rare variation causative for even well-studied classical Mendelian diseases, while also revealing variants that might play a role in complex diseases. Furthermore, our study has clinical and ethical implications for exome and genome sequencing in a research setting; how to handle unrelated findings of clinical significance, in the context of originally planned complex disease research, remains a largely uncharted area for clinicians and researchers. PMID:21794208

Lyon, Gholson J.; Jiang, Tao; Van Wijk, Richard; Wang, Wei; Bodily, Paul Mark; Xing, Jinchuan; Tian, Lifeng; Robison, Reid J.; Clement, Mark; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Moore, Barry; Glessner, Joseph T.; Elia, Josephine; Reimherr, Fred; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Yandell, Mark; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wang, Jun; Johnson, William Evan; Wei, Zhi; Wang, Kai

2012-01-01

370

A Plan for the Next Generation of HIV Prevention Research: Seven Key Policy Investigative Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although HIV prevention research has accomplished much over the last 2 decades, significant challenges remain. The accomplishments have included rapid progression through various stages of research--from descriptive to clinical trials--and the fielding of several Phase 3 trials with biological endpoints. The challenges include developing…

Coates, Thomas J.; Szekeres,Gregory

2004-01-01

371

Key Challenges and New Trends in Battery Research (2011 EFRC Forum)  

ScienceCinema

Jean-Marie Tarascon, Professor at the University de Picardie Jules Verne, France, was the fourth speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Tarascon recounted European basic research activates in electrical energy storage. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several ?grand challenges? and use-inspired ?basic research needs? recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

Tarascon, Jean Marie (University de Picardie Jules Verne, France)

2012-03-14

372

A Nursing Informatics Research Agenda for 2008–18: Contextual Influences and Key Components  

PubMed Central

The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Research Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities reported a decade ago. The authors focus on three specific aspects of context - genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technologies - that must be considered in formulating a nursing informatics research agenda. These influences are illustrated using the significant issue of healthcare associated infections (HAI). A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008–18 must expand users of interest to include interdisciplinary researchers; build upon the knowledge gained in nursing concept representation to address genomic and environmental data; guide the reengineering of nursing practice; harness new technologies to empower patients and their caregivers for collaborative knowledge development; develop user-configurable software approaches that support complex data visualization, analysis, and predictive modeling; facilitate the development of middle-range nursing informatics theories; and encourage innovative evaluation methodologies that attend to human-computer interface factors and organizational context. PMID:18922269

Bakken, Suzanne; Stone, Patricia W.; Larson, Elaine L.

2008-01-01

373

Identifying Key Priorities for Future Palliative Care Research Using an Innovative Analytic Approach  

PubMed Central

Using an innovative approach, we identified research priorities in palliative care to guide future research initiatives. We searched 7databases (2005–2012) for review articles published on the topics of palliative and hospice–end-of-life care. The identified research recommendations (n = 648) fell into 2 distinct categories: (1) ways to improve methodological approaches and (2) specific topic areas in need of future study. The most commonly cited priority within the theme of methodological approaches was the need for enhanced rigor. Specific topics in need of future study included perspectives and needs of patients, relatives, and providers; underrepresented populations; decision-making; cost-effectiveness; provider education; spirituality; service use; and inter-disciplinary approaches to delivering palliative care. This review underscores the need for additional research on specific topics and methodologically rigorous research to inform health policy and practice. PMID:25393169

Riffin, Catherine; Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Warmington, Marcus; Adelman, Ronald D.; Reid, M. C.

2015-01-01

374

Improving Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities: The Results of Three Research Syntheses. Keys to Successful Learning: A National Summit on Research in Learning Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents three brief papers that summarize three meta-analytic research syntheses of instruction for students with learning disabilities. The first paper is "Intervention Research for Students with Learning Disabilities" by H. Lee Swanson. Findings that resulted from a review of 272 studies are grouped into those on most effective…

National Center for Learning Disabilities, Inc., New York, NY.

375

Summary of Key Research Findings Leading up to MOR2 Project Ecological Findings from 1994-1995 Fieldwork in Bayankhongor Aimag  

E-print Network

now. Climate Change, Dzud and Their Impacts and Policy Implications 2010 · In 2010 we conducted case declines in pasture productivity and species diversity, but attributed these to changes in climate or see/forest steppe and steppe, increasing distance from water points is associated with an increase in palatable

376

Research on key techniques of nanometer scale macro-micro dual-drive precision positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of science and technology, high precision of positioning platform is needed in many areas, for example, cell fusing in biology and precision surgery in medical area. In such areas, both high efficiency and high precision are needed in some cases, for example, semiconductor processing equipment, super precision lathe etc. In a word, precision positioning platform becomes an important tool in exploring microscope world. Precision positioning platform is a key element in microscope operation. Macro/micro dual-drive precision positioning is a key technique in high-efficiency high-precision area. By such techniques, large distance and high precision can get. In order to realize nanometer scale macro/micro dual-drive precision positioning there are some key problems. First, system structure of macro/micro combination precision positioning platform is worthy to work on. Another key work is realization method of micrometer scale macroscope motion and nanometer scale microscope motion. The third is mechanics, drive, detection and control techniques in nanometer scale positioning of piezoelectric ceramics drive, in which realization of nanometer scale microscope positioning and micro drive is important by solving hysteresis, creep deformation and non-linearity in piezoelectric ceramics driving. To solve hysteresis problem, instead of traditional Preisach algorithm, a new type hysteresis model with simple computation and identification is needed. The inverse model is also easily to get. So we can present new control method to solve hysteresis and creep deformation problem based on this inverse model. Another way, hysteresis and creep deformation problem exist in traditional voltage-feedback power source for piezoelectric ceramics. To solve this problem, a new type current feedback power source for piezoelectric ceramics is presented. In the end, a macro-micro dual-drive super precision positioning mechanism is presented. Combining macro with micro actuator, a system with large workspace and high resolution of motion is presented. The linear direct-drive motor is used in the macroscope motion and high frequency PZT-driven microscope stage is embedded in the motor and compensates the position error. A high-resolution linear encoder is integrated into the closed-loop feedback, which is used to measure the position of the end-effect in microscope scale.

Xie, Xiaohui; Du, Ruxu

2007-12-01

377

Small parts aspiration, ingestion, and choking in small children: findings of the small parts research project.  

PubMed

Obtaining information on current child injury trends and their associated issues is an important factor in developing products that meet or surpass acceptable toy safety boundaries. Understanding these boundaries helps determine safe product design characteristics that reduce the risk of product-related injury. Inchcape Testing Services developed a Small Parts Aspiration, Ingestion, and Choking Hazards Research Project, independent of an ongoing consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) project. The project's purpose was to determine, independent of CPSC, whether a more stringent small parts regulatory standard was necessary and, if so, to ensure that the standard was determined objectively. This article reports on the project's findings relating to critical characteristics (size, shape, and consistency) relative to the victim's age, of objects responsible for child choking injuries and fatalities. PMID:8693159

Rider, G; Wilson, C L

1996-06-01

378

Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme. PMID:18494648

Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

2008-01-01

379

University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute researchers identify key oncoprotein found in Merkel Cell Carcinoma:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) have identified the oncoprotein that allows a common and usually harmless virus to transform healthy cells into a rare but deadly skin cancer called Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC).

380

The Case for Pre-K in Education Reform: A Summary of Program Evaluation Findings. Research Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For state and federal officials seeking to improve school performance, 50 years of evidence shows that high-quality, voluntary pre-kindergarten is among the best strategies for education reform. This brief from Pew's Pre-K Now initiative highlighted findings from evaluations of state-funded Pre-K programs that continue to document gains in key

Wat, Albert

2010-01-01

381

Unanticipated findings in pediatric neuroimaging research: Prevalence of abnormalities and process for reporting and clinical follow-up.  

PubMed

MRI is a powerful tool to evaluate brain anatomy and function in normal children and its use in research applications has steadily increased. As imaging technology improves, and sensitivity to brain pathology increases, unanticipated (and potentially clinically important) findings on research neuroimaging studies will also increase. We evaluated the prevalence and type of unanticipated and potentially clinically significant imaging findings in a group of 114 normal children enrolled in an ongoing MRI imaging study of normal brain development for the Pediatric Functional Neuroimaging Research Network. Brain imaging findings were classified using standardized scales developed for the Network and findings were reported to participants and their primary healthcare provider according to a standard reporting pathway. Classification scales, reporting processes, and illustrated examples of findings are included and discussed. Unanticipated imaging findings were identified in approximately 12.5 % of children participating in this study. PMID:25403715

Kaiser, Drew; Leach, James; Vannest, Jennifer; Schapiro, Mark; Holland, Scott

2015-03-01

382

Assessing the acceptability of NORPLANT implants in four countries: findings from focus group research.  

PubMed

In 1986-87, a qualitative research project was conducted in the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Indonesia, and Thailand to expand understanding of the acceptability of NORPLANT contraceptive implants beyond inferences made on the basis of continuation rates. In each of the four study sites, focus group discussions or in-depth interviews were held with potential acceptors, current NORPLANT users, discontinuers, husbands of women in these three groups, and service providers. Nonclinical participants generally had little formal education and lived primarily in urban or semi-urban areas where NORPLANT has been available for at least five years. The study focused on attitudes, perceptions, and experiences of each group regarding NORPLANT implants. Results suggest that factors having an impact on the acceptability of NORPLANT implants fall into three general categories: medical/technical, cultural/religious, and informational/educational. This article discusses each of these categories, including programmatic implications of the findings, and puts forward recommendations for enhancing NORPLANT introduction efforts on the basis of these findings. PMID:2112794

Zimmerman, M; Haffey, J; Crane, E; Szumowski, D; Alvarez, F; Bhiromrut, P; Brache, V; Lubis, F; Salah, M; Shaaban, M

1990-01-01

383

Specific language impairment in children: research findings and their therapeutic implications.  

PubMed

This paper reports the findings from a research project investigating a subgroup of specifically language-impaired (SLI) children. The subgroup of SLI children consists of those characterised by persisting grammatical deficits in comprehension and expression of language. The paper summarises the findings in order to highlight the therapeutic implications from the investigations. The main focus of the investigations was to characterise the SLI children's grammatical knowledge of sentence comprehension, specifically their ability to learn the semantic and syntactic properties of verbs. In addition, an investigation of verbal short-term memory (STM) was carried out, and an analysis was undertaken of the expressive morpho-grammatical characteristics of the children. The investigations revealed that the SLI children did not differ in their STM abilities from children carefully matched on language abilities. Thus, the data do not provide support for therapy directed at increasing auditory memory with an aim of improving expression or comprehension of sentences. It is hypothesised that the SLI children have a deficit in syntactic representations and are unable to specify the structural relationships between constituents in syntax. The implications of the study are that this subgroup of SLI children may be unable to use syntactic cues to help learn semantic properties of verbs, but semantic cues may facilitate learning the syntactic properties of verbs. PMID:8241580

van der Lely, H K

1993-01-01

384

Clique-Finding for Heterogeneity and Multidimensionality in Biomarker Epidemiology Research: The CHAMBER Algorithm  

PubMed Central

Background Commonly-occurring disease etiology may involve complex combinations of genes and exposures resulting in etiologic heterogeneity. We present a computational algorithm that employs clique-finding for heterogeneity and multidimensionality in biomedical and epidemiological research (the “CHAMBER” algorithm). Methodology/Principal Findings This algorithm uses graph-building to (1) identify genetic variants that influence disease risk and (2) predict individuals at risk for disease based on inherited genotype. We use a set-covering algorithm to identify optimal cliques and a Boolean function that identifies etiologically heterogeneous groups of individuals. We evaluated this approach using simulated case-control genotype-disease associations involving two- and four-gene patterns. The CHAMBER algorithm correctly identified these simulated etiologies. We also used two population-based case-control studies of breast and endometrial cancer in African American and Caucasian women considering data on genotypes involved in steroid hormone metabolism. We identified novel patterns in both cancer sites that involved genes that sulfate or glucuronidate estrogens or catecholestrogens. These associations were consistent with the hypothesized biological functions of these genes. We also identified cliques representing the joint effect of multiple candidate genes in all groups, suggesting the existence of biologically plausible combinations of hormone metabolism genes in both breast and endometrial cancer in both races. Conclusions The CHAMBER algorithm may have utility in exploring the multifactorial etiology and etiologic heterogeneity in complex disease. PMID:19287484

Mushlin, Richard A.; Gallagher, Stephen; Kershenbaum, Aaron; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

2009-01-01

385

Rape treatment outcome research: empirical findings and state of the literature.  

PubMed

This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla

2009-07-01

386

Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions--findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study.  

PubMed

This qualitative study used questionnaires to scope and explore 'healthy universities' activity taking place within English higher education institutions (HEIs). The findings revealed a wealth of health-related activity and confirmed growing interest in the healthy universities approach--reflecting an increasing recognition that investment for health within the sector will contribute not only to health targets but also to mainstream agendas such as staff and student recruitment, experience and retention; and institutional and societal productivity and sustainability. However, they also suggested that, while there is growing understanding of the need for a comprehensive whole system approach to improving health within higher education settings, there are a number of very real challenges--including a lack of rigorous evaluation, the difficulty of integrating health into a 'non-health' sector and the complexity of securing sustainable cultural change. Noting that health and well-being remain largely marginal to the core mission and organization of higher education, the article goes on to reflect on the wider implications for future research and policy at national and international levels. Within England, whereas there are Healthy Schools and Healthy Further Education Programmes, there is as yet no government-endorsed programme for universities. Similarly, at an international level, there has been no systematic investment in higher education mirroring the comprehensive and multifaceted Health Promoting Schools Programme. Key issues highlighted are: securing funding for evaluative research within and across HEIs to enable the development of a more robust evidence base for the approach; advocating for an English National Healthy Higher Education Programme that can help to build consistency across the entire spectrum of education; and exploring with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) the feasibility of developing an international programme. PMID:21495435

Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

2010-09-01

387

UNC researchers engineer 'protein switch' to dissect role of cancer’s key players  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have “rationally rewired” some of the cell’s smallest components to create proteins that can be switched on or off by command. These “protein switches” can be used to interrogate the inner workings of each cell, helping scientists uncover the molecular mechanisms of human health and disease. In the first application of this approach, the UNC researchers showed how a protein called Src kinase influences the way cells extend and move, a previously unknown role that is consistent with the protein’s ties to tumor progression and metastasis. UNC is home to the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.

388

Overview...Other Mathematical Topics, Set B. Using Research: A Key to Elementary School Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin provides an overview of research studies which relate to the teaching of certain mathematical topics in the elementary school. The studies cited pertain directly to the following questions: (1) What measurement and geometry is included in textbooks and programs? (2) What do children know about geometry and measurement? (3) What can…

Suydam, Marilyn N.; Weaver, J. Fred

389

Using Research to Inform Practice in Urban Schools: 10 Key Strategies for Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop schools that are self-renewing learning organizations, we must ensure that teaching staffs are properly prepared and trained by making a commitment to provide professional development opportunities reflecting the best we can offer from the knowledge base. Similarly, if we are to affect sustained school improvement efforts, practitioners and researchers must continuously share and exchange this knowledge base with

Helené L. B. Hodges

1996-01-01

390

Collaboration Is Key: Librarians and Composition Instructors Analyze Student Research and Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes a collaborative research project between two composition instructors and two librarians that analyzed citation patterns among students in the First-year Composition Program at the University of Georgia. Built upon earlier bibliometric studies, this study seeks not only to examine a large data set of citations--larger than was…

Barratt, Caroline Cason; Nielsen, Kristin; Desmet, Christy; Balthazor, Ron

2009-01-01

391

Key Implementation Considerations for Executing Evidence-Based Programs: Project Overview. ASPE Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) hosted a Forum, Emphasizing Evidence-Based Programs for Children and Youth, to convene the nation's leading practitioners and researchers with experience using and evaluating an array of evidence-based…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2013

2013-01-01

392

Informal Research and Development for Agricultural Development--Key Roles for Agricultural and Extension Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informal research and development (R & D) is defined as any small-scale, decentralized agricultural or extension education program that involves the population of learners in the process of planning, implementation, and evaluation of a learning process. It involves simple experimentation with potential solutions to common problems. The presence of…

Kitinoja, Lisa

393

Understanding the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Scientifically Based Research. NCREL Quick Key 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a result of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, schools and districts are seeking information to identify, plan, and implement federally funded programs and practices that have been proven to be effective through scientifically based research (SBR). The purpose of this brochure is to help administrators, educators, parents, and…

Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2004

2004-01-01

394

Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

395

Signature Concepts of Key Researchers in North American Higher Education Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Universities in the English-speaking world share a common ancestry that extends back to medieval times. From these beginnings universities quickly developed distinctive qualities as they became integrated within different social and cultural systems of their home societies. A number of comparisons of higher education research have shown major…

Kandlbinder, Peter

2015-01-01

396

Signature Concepts of Key Researchers in Higher Education Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early career university teachers often have limited experience of the higher education literature making it difficult for them to identify what ideas have become central to justifying what university teachers ought to be doing in higher education teaching and learning. A review of the research literature in journals focused on teaching and…

Kandlbinder, Peter

2013-01-01

397

St. Jude researchers find that unhealthy habits more than double risk of metabolic syndrome in childhood cancer survivors  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital study finds that few adult survivors of childhood cancer follow a heart-healthy lifestyle that protects against heart disease, diabetes and other health problems.

398

Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings  

PubMed Central

Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical—maybe even a legal—obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

McGuire, Amy L.; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma’n H.; Clayton, Ellen Wright

2014-01-01

399

Summaries of Conference Papers, Theme 1, Research Findings. International Conference on Evaluation and Research in Educational Television and Radio (Milton Keynes, England, April 9-13, 1976).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational television and radio research and evaluation findings are the subject of 25 papers summarized in this document. Seven papers deal with evaluation of research projects in educational television and radio. Four papers on adult education and two on educational technology in teacher training are also summarized. Research in teaching with…

Open Univ., Walton, Bletchley, Bucks (England).

400

Huntsman researchers find that reduced kidney function is associated with higher risk of renal and urothelial cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers who investigated the level of kidney function and subsequent cancer risk in more than one million adults have found that reduced glomerular filtration rate is a key measure of reduced kidney function and chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for renal and urothelial cancer but not other cancer types.

401

UC Davis researchers find that a double-headed motor protein offers new targets in cancer treatment  

Cancer.gov

The structure of a key part of the machinery that allows cells to divide has been identified by researchers at the University of California, Davis, opening new possibilities for throwing a wrench in the machine and blocking runaway cell division in cancer.

402

Research on key technologies of high repetition rate optical frequency comb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of laser technology and astronomy, optical frequency comb (OFC), as a special kind of laser source, is widely used in the fields of laser ranging, spectroscopy and precision measurement. Especially in astrometry, the use of OFC in wavelength calibration is significance for the development of modern astronomy. However, the current calibration light source from 350nm to 400nm is not available, and the repetition frequency of direct output of the OFC is too low. This paper intends to obtain 390nm OFC by the use of frequency multiplication of 1560nm laser, and research on the methods to improve repetition frequency by Fabry-Perot filter technology. Relevant techniques and methods are improved through the research on experiments.

Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yao

2015-01-01

403

The Research and Implementation of Vehicle Bluetooth Hands-free Devices Key Parameters Downloading Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to facilitate Bluetooth function realization and information can be effectively tracked in the process of production, the vehicle Bluetooth hands-free devices need to download such key parameters as Bluetooth address, CVC license and base plate numbers, etc. Therefore, it is the aim to search simple and effective methods to download parameters for each vehicle Bluetooth hands-free device, and to control and record the use of parameters. In this paper, by means of Bluetooth Serial Peripheral Interface programmer device, the parallel port is switched to SPI. The first step is to download parameters is simulating SPI with the parallel port. To perform SPI function, operating the parallel port in accordance with the SPI timing. The next step is to achieve SPI data transceiver functions according to the programming parameters of options. Utilizing the new method, downloading parameters is fast and accurate. It fully meets vehicle Bluetooth hands-free devices production requirements. In the production line, it has played a large role.

Zhang, Xiao-bo; Wang, Zhi-xue; Li, Jian-xin; Ma, Jian-hui; Li, Yang; Li, Yan-qiang

404

Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

Not Available

2012-02-01

405

Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks: a key service for diagnosis and research on rare diseases  

PubMed Central

Several examples have always illustrated how access to large numbers of biospecimens and associated data plays a pivotal role in the identification of disease genes and the development of pharmaceuticals. Hence, allowing researchers to access to significant numbers of quality samples and data, genetic biobanks are a powerful tool in basic, translational and clinical research into rare diseases. Recently demand for well-annotated and properly-preserved specimens is growing at a high rate, and is expected to grow for years to come. The best effective solution to this issue is to enhance the potentialities of well-managed biobanks by building a network. Here we report a 5-year experience of the Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks (TNGB), a non-profit association of Italian repositories created in 2008 to form a virtually unique catalogue of biospecimens and associated data, which presently lists more than 750 rare genetic defects. The process of TNGB harmonisation has been mainly achieved through the adoption of a unique, centrally coordinated, IT infrastructure, which has enabled (i) standardisation of all the TNGB procedures and activities; (ii) creation of an updated TNGB online catalogue, based on minimal data set and controlled terminologies; (iii) sample access policy managed via a shared request control panel at web portal. TNGB has been engaged in disseminating information on its services into both scientific/biomedical - national and international - contexts, as well as associations of patients and families. Indeed, during the last 5-years national and international scientists extensively used the TNGB with different purposes resulting in more than 250 scientific publications. In addition, since its inception the TNGB is an associated member of the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure and recently joined the EuroBioBank network. Moreover, the involvement of patients and families, leading to the formalization of various agreements between TNGB and Patients’ Associations, has demonstrated how promoting Biobank services can be instrumental in gaining a critical mass of samples essential for research, as well as, raising awareness, trust and interest of the general public in Biobanks. This article focuses on some fundamental aspects of networking and demonstrates how the translational research benefits from a sustained infrastructure. PMID:24004821

2013-01-01

406

Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

Zhou, Jun

2012-01-01

407

Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders' perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were…

Odhiambo, George; Hii, Amy

2012-01-01

408

Determinants of nursing home costs in Florida: policy implications and support in national research findings.  

PubMed Central

Descriptive and econometric analysis of the major nonquality determinants of nursing home costs for Florida shows that mean costs, size, and occupancy rate increased between 1971 and 1976, that per diem costs and occupancy rate were inversely related, and that the per diem cost was lower in rural than in urban areas. Regression of the data shows that--next to inflation, as expressed by the Consumer Price Index--the occupancy rate accounts for most of the variation in per diem costs, followed by size, urban-rural location, and by type of control. The hypothetical "optimal," defined as lowest cost-size range, was calculated to be more than 350 beds. Recent research substantiates most of these findings. Medicaid Cost Reports from Florida's nursing homes were the source of the information analyzed; by 1976, the sixth year of the study, the data base covered nearly 9 of 10 licensed beds in the State. Some policy implications can be drawn from the analysis. Reductions in per diem costs could be achieved by higher occupancy rates, especially in the larger nursing homes, and a reduction in the rate of inflation would reduce the rate of increase in nursing home costs. PMID:6815706

Traxler, H G

1982-01-01

409

Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

Fields, J. M.

1985-01-01

410

New research models and novel signal analysis in studies on preterm labor: a key to progress?  

PubMed

Preterm labor affects up to 20% of pregnancies, is considered a main cause of associated neonatal morbidity and mortality and is responsible for neonatal care costs of multimillion euros. In spite of that, the commercial market for this clinical indication is rather limited, which may be also related to high liability. Consequently, with only a few exceptions, preterm labor is not in the orbit of great interest of the pharmaceutical industry. Coordinated effort of research community may bring the change and help required to reduce the influence of this multifactorial syndrome on society. Between the novel techniques that are being explored in a SAFE (The Special Non-Invasive Advances in Fetal and Neonatal Evaluation Network) group, there are new research models of preterm labor as well as novel methodology of analysis of biological signals. In this article, we briefly describe new clinical and nonclinical human models of preterm labor as well as summarize some novel methods of data processing and analysis that may be used in the context of preterm labor. PMID:17570166

Pierzynski, Piotr; Oczeretko, Edward; Laudanski, Piotr; Laudanski, Tadeusz

2007-01-01

411

Exploring Variations in Teachers' Work, Lives and Their Effects on Pupils: Key Findings and Implications from a Longitudinal Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the research design of a large-scale, longitudinal research study in England intended to describe and explore variations in teachers' work, lives and their effects on pupils' educational outcomes. The study, funded by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and incorporated into the Teaching and Learning Research

Sammons, Pam; Day, Christopher; Kington, Alison; Gu, Qing; Stobart, Gordon; Smees, Rebecca

2007-01-01

412

Thomas Jefferson University researchers find new biomarker to identify hepatitis B-infected patients at risk for liver cancer  

Cancer.gov

Hepatitis B-infected patients with significantly longer telomeres—the caps on the end of chromosomes that protect our genetic data— were found to have an increased risk of getting liver cancer compared to those with shorter ones, according to findings presented by researchers at Jefferson’s Kimmel Cancer Center at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2012.

413

Changing the behavior of healthcare professionals: the use of theory in promoting the uptake of research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: The uptake of research findings into routine health care is a haphazard and unpredictable process. The usefulness of the results of implementation studies is limited, due in part to the lack of an underlying framework of the important dimensions of research studies in this area and the healthcare settings within which they are conducted,and may,subsequently be used. Study

Martin Eccles; Jeremy Grimshaw; Anne Walker; Marie Johnston; Nigel Pitts

414

Molecular locks and keys: the role of small molecules in phytohormone research  

PubMed Central

Plant adaptation, growth and development rely on the integration of many environmental and endogenous signals that collectively determine the overall plant phenotypic plasticity. Plant signaling molecules, also known as phytohormones, are fundamental to this process. These molecules act at low concentrations and regulate multiple aspects of plant fitness and development via complex signaling networks. By its nature, phytohormone research lies at the interface between chemistry and biology. Classically, the scientific community has always used synthetic phytohormones and analogs to study hormone functions and responses. However, recent advances in synthetic and combinational chemistry, have allowed a new field, plant chemical biology, to emerge and this has provided a powerful tool with which to study phytohormone function. Plant chemical biology is helping to address some of the most enduring questions in phytohormone research such as: Are there still undiscovered plant hormones? How can we identify novel signaling molecules? How can plants activate specific hormone responses in a tissue-specific manner? How can we modulate hormone responses in one developmental context without inducing detrimental effects on other processes? The chemical genomics approaches rely on the identification of small molecules modulating different biological processes and have recently identified active forms of plant hormones and molecules regulating many aspects of hormone synthesis, transport and response. We envision that the field of chemical genomics will continue to provide novel molecules able to elucidate specific aspects of hormone-mediated mechanisms. In addition, compounds blocking specific responses could uncover how complex biological responses are regulated. As we gain information about such compounds we can design small alterations to the chemical structure to further alter specificity, enhance affinity or modulate the activity of these compounds. PMID:25566283

Fonseca, Sandra; Rosado, Abel; Vaughan-Hirsch, John; Bishopp, Anthony; Chini, Andrea

2014-01-01

415

Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

LaBanca, Frank

2008-01-01

416

Uncovering Treatment Burden as a Key Concept for Stroke Care: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with chronic disease may experience complicated management plans requiring significant personal investment. This has been termed ‘treatment burden’ and has been associated with unfavourable outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the qualitative literature on treatment burden in stroke from the patient perspective. Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: stroke, treatment burden, patient experience, and qualitative methods. We searched: Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO. We tracked references, footnotes, and citations. Restrictions included: English language, date of publication January 2000 until February 2013. Two reviewers independently carried out the following: paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis, as informed by Normalization Process Theory. Sixty-nine papers were included. Treatment burden includes: (1) making sense of stroke management and planning care, (2) interacting with others, (3) enacting management strategies, and (4) reflecting on management. Health care is fragmented, with poor communication between patient and health care providers. Patients report inadequate information provision. Inpatient care is unsatisfactory, with a perceived lack of empathy from professionals and a shortage of stimulating activities on the ward. Discharge services are poorly coordinated, and accessing health and social care in the community is difficult. The study has potential limitations because it was restricted to studies published in English only and data from low-income countries were scarce. Conclusions Stroke management is extremely demanding for patients, and treatment burden is influenced by micro and macro organisation of health services. Knowledge deficits mean patients are ill equipped to organise their care and develop coping strategies, making adherence less likely. There is a need to transform the approach to care provision so that services are configured to prioritise patient needs rather than those of health care systems. Systematic Review Registration International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42011001123 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23824703

Gallacher, Katie; Morrison, Deborah; Jani, Bhautesh; Macdonald, Sara; May, Carl R.; Montori, Victor M.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Batty, G. David; Eton, David T.; Langhorne, Peter; Mair, Frances S.

2013-01-01

417

Ten key research issues for integrated and sustainable wastewater reuse in the Middle East.  

PubMed

Wastewater management is not limited to the technology used to collect and treat wastewater. It begins with the early planning phase of building a society and includes considerations of how that society will grow. Therefore, history, culture, religion, and socioeconomy are important components to include in any relevant and integrated studies of wastewater management and reuse. Engineering, health, chemistry, biology, food production, cultural heritage, and the needs of people of all ages should be considered together when making management decisions regarding issues so intimately tied with humanity as water and sanitation. Other escalating challenges such as poverty, food, and water scarcity, migration and instability, flooding and catastrophes, diseases and mortality, etc. should also be considered as part of wastewater management and reuse planning. Emerging contaminants could be associated with the urbanization, modernization, and industrialization of several countries. Several arid countries have developed water security strategies where wastewater reuse is a major component. The existing wastewater treatment technologies in these countries are, in most cases, unable to remove such contaminants which may affect irrigation waters, industrial products, groundwater, etc. People would have to accept that the food on their tables could be irrigated with treated wastewater that they generated a few months ago, even if very advanced technologies were used to treat it. The purpose of this review is to highlight multidisciplinary areas of research on wastewater and to propose applicable and affordable mechanisms by which we may consider wastewater as a legitimate resource. PMID:25427896

Shomar, Basem; Dare, Anne

2014-11-28

418

Directions for future research in project management: The main findings of a UK government-funded research network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) agreed to fund a research network –Rethinking Project Management – to define a research agenda aimed at enriching and extending the subject of project management beyond its current conceptual foundations. The main argument for the proposed Network highlighted the growing critiques of project management theory and the need for

Mark Winter; Charles Smith; Peter Morris; Svetlana Cicmil

2006-01-01

419

Purdue study finds "label-free" imaging tool tracks nanotubes in cells, blood for biomedical research:  

Cancer.gov

Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new imaging tool for tracking structures called carbon nanotubes in living cells and the bloodstream, which could aid efforts to perfect their use in biomedical research and clinical medicine.

420

Sanford-Burnham researchers find RNA molecules in urine, tissue that detect prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute have identified a set of RNA molecules that are detectable in tissue samples and urine of prostate cancer patients, but not in normal healthy individuals.

421

Turning a negative into a positive: Researchers find promising use for excessive nitrate  

E-print Network

Dr. Cristine Morgan, Texas AgriLife Research soil scientist, takes soil cores for nitrate analysis before the drip irrigation system was installed. Story by Kathy Wythe Turning a negative into a positive Researchers fi nd promising use... for excessive nitrate For 30 years, farmers in northwest central Texas have known that high level of nitrates in irrigation water from the Seymour Aquifer is a problem. Now, with research conducted by Texas AgriLife Research scientists, that problem may...

Wythe, Kathy

2009-01-01

422

Teaching, Learning and Assessing HRD: Findings from a BMAF/UFHRD Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse and explore the results of a research project, which aimed to identify recent and current research on TLA within HRD programmes. From that base the project also intended to identify areas for future research and a basis for establishing a Special Interest Group. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive…

Sambrook, Sally; Stewart, Jim

2010-01-01

423

ORI findings of scientific misconduct in clinical trials and publicly funded research, 1992–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Since 1992 the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) had reviewed investigations of scientific misconduct in research funded by the US Public Health Service (PHS). ORI defined scientific misconduct as “fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research”.Purpose The purpose of this study

Sandra M Reynolds

2004-01-01

424

Formal Training, Personal Experience, and the Ability to Predict Research Findings in Social Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the past have found that personal experience and formal training lead to better accuracy when predicting research outcomes in areas of psychology. Personal experience and formal training were compared in this study on the ability of students to predict research outcomes in social psychology. Students completed questionnaires that measured their social engagement (a proxy to personal experience), their

Carrie Quarterman

2007-01-01

425

The Hermeneutic Dialogic: Finding Patterns midst the "Aporia" of the Artist/Researcher/Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers one researcher's challenge of marking his progress in reading/studying Jacques Derrida's "Aporias" (1993) by what he calls the continual hermeneutic of making meaning. The paper places the "Aporias" reading in the setting of a weekly research group whose research cycle was creating meaning in and out of the work being done and…

de Cosson, Alex

426

Research and Teaching of Dairy Cattle Well Being: Finding Synergy Between Ethology and Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiology is a tool used to identify and quantify risk factors that contribute to the state of health or disease. In addition, the maintenance of health and recognition of nonhuman animal welfare are both key principles of health management. Animal welfare and ethology provide important contributions to our ability to understand and improve health. As such, there can be a

Todd F. Duffield; Ken E. Leslie; Kerry D. Lissemore; Suzanne T. Millman

2009-01-01

427

Summary Report on Action Research: A Summary of Findings on a Series of Action Research Projects Conducted by Goshen Community Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the findings of an analysis of a series of action research projects conducted by Goshen Community Schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. During the 2008-2009 school year, 40 teachers participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to which a six step approach to direct vocabulary…

Haystead, Mark W.

2009-01-01

428

Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact the public, and refine their science with teachers in the field.

Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

2013-12-01

429

Invited commentary: How can we reconcile the findings of Keyes et al.'s study with the experience of our patients in clinical practice?  

PubMed

Although the accompanying study by Keyes et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(9):1378-1388) shows us that women currently using hormonal contraception (HC) have better scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and report fewer suicide attempts, it does not show us that HC protects women from mood disorders or that HC is free of the mood-related side effects which cause high rates of discontinuation. The groups compared in the Keyes et al. study were different in many ways; the women using HC were younger, were more likely to engage in positive health behaviors, and had lower depression scores at each prior interview. Women with mood disorders are more likely to avoid or discontinue HC and more likely to experience worsening mood while on HC. The negative mood-related side effects experienced by women using HC (irritability and lability) are not captured by a screening tool for clinical depression, such as the depression scale used in this study. The database used in this study was longitudinal and multiwave, so the authors could have compared changes in depressive symptoms among women who switched from hormonal to nonhormonal contraceptive methods (and vice versa) across different waves. Only if the same women experienced greater levels of depressive symptoms after discontinuing HC and fewer symptoms when they restarted HC could we conclude that HC may protect women from mood disorders. PMID:24043434

Wiebe, Ellen R

2013-11-01

430

Key issues and challenges in developing a pedagogical intervention in the simulation skills center--an action research study.  

PubMed

Simulation skills centers (SSC) are considered important learning arenas for preparing and qualifying nursing students. Limited clinical placements and claims of diminished learning opportunities raise concerns that newly educated nurses lack proficiency in many psychomotor skills. Accordingly, there is an increased focus on learning in the SSC. However, it has been questioned if the pedagogical underpinning of teaching and learning in the SSC is missing or unclear. At a bachelor nursing education in Norway, there was a desire to change practice and enhance learning in the SSC by systematic use of The Model of Practical Skill Performance (Bjørk and Kirkevold, 2000). A participatory action research design was chosen. A pedagogical intervention was developed and implemented in 2010 in a cohort of eighty-seven first year bachelor nursing students during their basic nursing skill course. The intervention is shortly described. This article reports key issues and challenges that emerged during development of the new intervention. Data to inform the study were collected via thorough meeting minutes and the project leader's logbook, and analyzed using fieldnotes analysis. Six key issues and challenges were identified. These are presented and discussed consecutively in light of their importance for development and implementation of the new intervention. PMID:23642302

Reierson, Inger Åse; Hvidsten, Anne; Wighus, Marianne; Brungot, Solvor; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

2013-07-01

431

WHO Atlas on Global Resources for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities 2007: Key Findings Relevant for Low- and Middle-Income Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Health Organization (WHO) Atlas-ID project was designed to collect, compile, and disseminate information on intellectual disabilities (ID) services and resources from across the world. This paper aims at selecting findings in the Atlas-ID that can be used as a tool for advocacy, human rights awareness, development planning, and…

Mercier, Celine; Saxena, Shekhar; Lecomte, Jocelin; Cumbrera, Marco Garrido; Harnois, Gaston

2008-01-01

432

Still in the Shadows with Their Future Uncertain. A Report on Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), 2011. Summary of Key Findings and a Call to Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of the fiftieth anniversary of President Kennedy's call to action back in 1961, The Arc wanted to know if people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are still living in the shadows. So, they launched a national online survey, Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), from July 22, 2010 to October 31,…

Anderson, Lynda; Larson, Sheryl A.; Wuorio, Allise; Lakin, K. Charlie

2011-01-01

433

Improving Hawaiian and Filipino Involvement in Clinical Research Opportunities: Qualitative Findings from Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

Objective Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Participants Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Design Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Conclusions Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community. PMID:16312944

Gollin, Lisa X.; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Perez, John; Easa, David; Calderón, José L.

2006-01-01

434

NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study  

MedlinePLUS

... find Resveratrol helps protect against cardiovascular disease in animal study June 3, 2014 Resveratrol, a compound found ... translatable to humans. Multiple studies on resveratrol in animal models, however, have presented ample evidence to support ...

435

Key Research Results Achievement  

E-print Network

-film photovoltaics (PV). Networks made of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), metallic NWs, and graphene thin Transparent Conductors Have Potential for Thin-Film Photovoltaics Possible alternatives to transparent processable, inherently flexible, and potentially have lower raw material costs (particularly for carbon

436

Adjuvant Therapy of Primary Breast Cancer: A Review of Key Findings from the 7th International Conference, St. Gallen, February 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer research has developed at a rapid pace over the last decades. Recent discoveries promise to provide individualized treatment options, increased long-term survival for women with breast cancer, and the possibility of moving toward curative intent in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Age, race, tumor size, histological tumor type, axillary nodal status, standardized pathological grade, and hormone-recep- tor

MATTI S. AAPRO

437

Broad Claims from Slender Findings: Early Literacy Research and Educational Policy Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of state educational policymaking revealed a number of instances where assertions have been made about what the "research says" in offering support for particular policies; however, in many of these instances the available research seems to have been distorted or exaggerated in order to better leverage particular policy proposals. The role…

Allington, Richard L.

438

UC Irvine researchers find a cause of chemotherapy resistance in melanoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers with UC Irvine’s Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified a major reason why melanoma is largely resistant to chemotherapy. The researchers found a genetic pathway in melanoma cells that inhibits the cellular mechanism for detecting DNA damage wrought by chemotherapy, thereby building up tolerance to cancer-killing drugs.

439

A Comparative Study of International Cultural and Ethical Values: Preliminary Findings and Research Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the preliminary results of an ongoing international research project to identify the cultural values and beliefs of business students and executives in several different countries and analyze the relationship between culture and reasons behind business decisions. First, we describe a research project to assess business decisions, based on established theories of ethics. Second, we describe a model

Stephen J. J. McGuire; Angeles Lillian; Y. Fok; Kern Kwong

440

Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

1995-01-01

441

Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings.

Laura J Damschroder; David C Aron; Rosalind E Keith; Susan R Kirsh; Jeffery A Alexander; Julie C Lowery

2009-01-01

442

Concepts of School Effectiveness as Derived from Research Strategies: Differences in the Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The methodological parameters of evaluative research studies help to identify a conceptualization of the phenomenon under investigation. Holistic critiques that identify the conceptual models under which the research was conducted shed light on the validity of the disparate inferences made from a number of studies of schools and school…

Airasian, Peter W.; And Others

443

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE NERL RESEARCH TRIANGLE PARK PARTICULATE MATTER PANEL STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Research Triangle Park (RTP) Particulate Matter (PM) Panel Study. This study represents a one year investigation of PM and related co-pollutants involving two dist...

444

Finding the Rose Among the Thorns: Some Thoughts on Integrating Media Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis procedure was used to review research on pictorial effectiveness which focused on the use of static iconic visuals in instructional materials. The purpose of this exploratory study was to provide a means for forming future hypotheses based upon a quantitative aggregation of past research. The study was concerned with differential…

Angert, Jay F.; Clark, Francis E.

445

A review of telework research: findings, new directions, and lessons for the study of modern work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Telework has inspired research in disciplines ranging from transportation and urban planning to ethics, law, sociology, and organizational studies. In our review of this literature, we seek answers to three questions: who participates in telework, why they do, and what happens when they do? Who teleworks remains elusive, but research suggests that male professionals and female clerical workers predominate.

Diane E. Bailey; Nancy B. Kurland

2002-01-01

446

Cold Spring Harbor researchers find immunogenic mutations in tumor genomes correlate with increased patient survival  

Cancer.gov

Developing immunotherapies for cancer is challenging because of significant variability among tumors and diversity in human immune types. In a study published online today in Genome Research , researchers examined the largest collection of tumor samples to date to predict patient-specific survival

447

Research: Value-Added Assessment Findings--Poor Kids Get Poor Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Summer 2004 issue of Research Points, a four-page flier from the American Educational Research Association, opens with the fundamental case for value-added assessment: Today's accountability systems place the blame on schools for inadequate student academic achievement, which seems unfair to many people. They believe that family background and…

Bracey, Gerald W.

2004-01-01

448

Classroom Teaching Skills. The Research Findings of the Teacher Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book describes some of the research undertaken during the Teacher Education Project, a four and one-half year research and development project undertaken by the Universities of Nottingham, Leicester, and Exeter (Great Britain) and funded by the Department of Education and Science. This project involved observation of over 1,000 lessons and…

Wragg, E. C., Ed.

449

Roswell Park-led study finds most cancer research trials do not assess participants’ tobacco use  

Cancer.gov

While tobacco use can significantly hamper cancer treatment, few cancer researchers are incorporating tobacco assessment into their clinical studies. That’s the conclusion a group of investigators led by researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute drew from a recent survey of cancer clinical trials.

450

Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy--key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey.  

PubMed

Countryside Survey is a unique large scale long-term monitoring programme investigating stock and change of habitats, landscape features, vegetation, soil and freshwaters of Great Britain. Repeat field surveys combine policy and scientific objectives to provide evidence on how multiple aspects of the environment are changing over time, a key goal of international science in the face of profound human impacts on ecosystems. Countryside Survey 2007 (CS2007), the fifth survey since 1978, retained consistency with previous surveys, whilst evolving in line with technological and conceptual advances in the collection and integration of data to understand landscape change. This paper outlines approaches taken in the 2007 survey and its subsequent analysis and presents some of the headline results of the survey and their relevance for national and international policy objectives. Key changes between 1998 and 2007 included: a) significant shifts in agricultural land cover from arable to grassland, accompanied by increases in the area of broadleaved woodland, b) decreases in the length of managed hedges associated with agricultural land, as a proportion deteriorated to lines of trees and c) increases in the areas and numbers of wet habitats (standing open water, ponds) and species preferring wetter conditions (1998-2007 and 1978-2007). Despite international policy directed at maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, there were widespread decreases in species richness in all linear and area habitats, except on arable land, consistent with an increase in competitive and late successional species between 1998 and 2007 and 1978 and 2007. Late successional and competitive species: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Hawthorn (Cratageous monogyna) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), in the top ten recorded species recorded in 2007, all increased between 1998 and 2007. The most commonly recorded species in CS (1990, 1998 and 2007) was agricultural Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Increases in both water quality and soil pH were in line with policy aimed at addressing previous deterioration of both. Headwater streams broadly showed continued improvements in biological quality from 1998 to 2007, continuing trends seen since 1990. In soils, there were significant increases in soil pH between 1998 and 2007 consistent with recovery from acidification. PMID:23010623

Norton, L R; Maskell, L C; Smart, S S; Dunbar, M J; Emmett, B A; Carey, P D; Williams, P; Crowe, A; Chandler, K; Scott, W A; Wood, C M

2012-12-30

451

New findings and a new species of the genus Ammothea (Pycnogonida, Ammotheidae), with an updated identification key to all Antarctic and sub-Antarctic species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specimens of the pycnogonid genus Ammothea collected during the Polarstern cruise XXIII/8 (23 November 2006-30 January 2007) were studied. Nine species were recognized in this collection: Ammothea bentartica, A. bicorniculata, A. carolinensis, A. clausi, A. longispina, A. minor, A. spinosa, A. striata and A. tibialis. Three of them ( A. bentartica, A. bicorniculata and A. tibialis) are reported for the second time, enlarging their known geographical and bathymetric range. In the present contribution, the observed morphological variability of all collected Ammothea species is described and discussed. For the identification and description of the material, different museum specimens were consulted. Among them, we have consulted part of the Discovery collection housed at the Natural History Museum in London. That material was initially identified by Isabella Gordon, a reputed author in the field of pycnogonid taxonomy. A new species, based on a museum specimen previously highly confused in the literature, is proposed in the present contribution as Ammothea isabellae n. sp. The new taxon is compared with its closest congeners, especially with A. longispina and A. stylirostris. Finally, we propose an updated dichotomous key to species covering all currently known Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Ammothea species.

Cano-Sánchez, E.; López-González, P. J.

2014-03-01

452

Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

453

Research Interests: Outside of life (plants and animals) I find process plasmas to be the most complex and  

E-print Network

of the processes. For example an inductively coupled etch plasma using Cl2 as the feed gas is clearly different. In addition, I have developed two novel plasma sources in which I can readily change plasma heating (sourceResearch Interests: Outside of life (plants and animals) I find process plasmas to be the most

Goeckner, Matthew

454

UTSW researchers find that inherited mutated gene raises lung cancer risk for women, those who never smoked  

Cancer.gov

People who have an inherited mutation of a certain gene have a high chance of getting lung cancer — higher, even, than heavy smokers with or without the inherited mutation, according to new findings by cancer researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center.

455

The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and Ihe 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with

Frank L. Schmidt; John E. Hunter

1998-01-01

456

Finding Context: What Today's College Students Say about Conducting Research in the Digital Age. Project Information Literacy Progress Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report of preliminary findings and analysis from student discussion groups held on 7 U.S. campuses in Fall 2008, as part of Project Information Literacy. Qualitative data from discussions with higher education students across the country suggest that conducting research is particularly challenging. Students' greatest challenges are related to…

Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.

2009-01-01

457

Research settings in industrial and organizational psychology: Are findings in the field more generalizable than in the laboratory?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors analyzed for content all the empirical articles from the 1966, 1970, and 1974 volumes of the Journal of Applied Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, and Personnel Psychology to determine the types of organizations, Ss, and dependent measures studied. Contrary to the common belief that field settings provide for more generalization of research findings than laboratory settings do,

Robert L. Dipboye; Michael F. Flanagan

1979-01-01

458

UC Davis researchers find oropharyngeal cancer patients with HPV have a more robust response to radiation therapy  

Cancer.gov

UC Davis cancer researchers have discovered significant differences in radiation-therapy response among patients with oropharyngeal cancer depending on whether they carry the human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted virus. The findings, published online today in The Laryngoscope Journal, could lead to more individualized radiation treatment regimens, which for many patients with HPV could be shorter and potentially less toxic.

459

Bonus Awards for Teachers in Texas' Performance Pay Program: Findings from the First Round of TEEG Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this evaluation report, researchers examined how first-year TEEG schools…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

2009-01-01

460

UCSF researchers find that a sugary coating on cells may drive aggressive cancers  

Cancer.gov

A research team led by UC San Francisco scientists has shown that cancer-induced structural changes in a sugary coating ensheathing cells can promote mechanical interactions that fuel tumor growth and metastasis.

461

UCLA researchers find that lens-free microscope can detect cancer at the cellular level  

Cancer.gov

UCLA researchers have developed a lens-free microscope that can be used to detect the presence of cancer or other cell-level abnormalities with the same accuracy as larger and more expensive optical microscopes.

462

U of Pittsburgh researchers potentially find a better way to track emerging cell therapies using MRIs  

Cancer.gov

Researchers describe the first human tests of using a perfluorocarbon (PFC) tracer in combination with non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track therapeutic immune cells injected into patients with colorectal cancer.

463

Duke researchers find that combining treatments boosts some smokers’ ability to quit  

Cancer.gov

Combining two smoking cessation therapies is more effective than using just one for male and highly nicotine-dependent smokers who weren't initially helped by the nicotine patch, according to researchers at Duke Medicine.

464

MIT researchers find new evidence for how a rare form of liver cancer arises  

Cancer.gov

Using new sequencing technology that enables large-scale analysis of DNA damage-associated mutations, MIT researchers have pinpointed the specific type of DNA damage that may be responsible for this mutation.

465

Dana-Farber researchers find that marker may predict response to ipilimumab in advanced melanoma  

Cancer.gov

Dana-Farber researchers found that in patients with advanced melanoma using the immunotherapy ipilimumab, presence of higher levels of the protein VEGF in the blood was associated with a poorer response.

466

Duke researchers find that new immune therapy successfully treats brain tumors in mice  

Cancer.gov

Using an artificial protein that stimulates the body's natural immune system to fight cancer, a research team at Duke Medicine has engineered a lethal weapon that kills brain tumors in mice while sparing other tissue.

467

Duke researchers find that older breast cancer patients still get radiation despite limited benefit  

Cancer.gov

Women over the age of 70 who have certain early-stage breast cancers overwhelmingly receive radiation therapy despite published evidence that the treatment has limited benefit, researchers at Duke Medicine report.

468

UCLA researchers develop new screening system to find brain cancer stem cell killers:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers with UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have developed and used a high-throughput molecular screening approach that identifies and characterizes chemical compounds that can target the stem cells that are responsible for creating deadly brain tumors.

469

Albert Einstein researchers find that a chemical stem cell signature predicts treatment response for AML  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center have found a chemical “signature” in blood-forming stem cells that predicts whether patients with acute myeloid leukemia will respond to chemotherapy.

470

Columbia University researchers find that Blacks and Hispanics are at higher risk for precancerous colorectal polyps  

Cancer.gov

Blacks and Hispanics have a significantly higher risk of developing precancerous colorectal polyps compared with whites, according to a study by researchers at New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center.

471

PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE DETROIT EXPOSURE AND AEROSOL RESEARCH STUDY (DEARS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) has completed its first monitoring season (summer 2005) and is progressing toward initiation of its second season (February 2005). The assistance obtained from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality has been instr...

472

UC Davis research finds newer radiation therapy technology improves patients' quality of life:  

Cancer.gov

Patients with head and neck cancers who have been treated with newer, more sophisticated radiation therapy technology enjoy a better quality of life than those treated with older radiation therapy equipment, a study by UC Davis researchers has found.

473

Hopkins researchers find that a new cancer-fighting strategy would harden cells to prevent metastasis  

Cancer.gov

Existing cancer therapies are geared toward massacring tumor cells, but Johns Hopkins researchers propose a different strategy: subtly hardening cancer cells to prevent them from invading new areas of the body.

474

UTHSC researchers find that improved screening means new targets for pediatric neuroblastoma therapies  

Cancer.gov

A researcher at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio unveils the important role of microRNAs in regulating neuroblastoma development, pointing to new therapeutic possibilities.

475

UCLA researchers find intestinal bacteria are linked to white blood cell cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from UCLA's Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center have discovered that specific types of bacteria that live in the gut are major contributors to lymphoma, a cancer of the white blood cells that are part of the human immune system.

476

Harvard and Baylor researchers find new target for aggressive cancer gene:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found a way to kill human cells hijacked by a genetic accelerator that puts cancer cells into overdrive: the Myc oncogene. The discovery reveals new drug targets for Myc-driven cancers, which tend to be particularly aggressive.

477

Moffitt researchers find potential new therapeutic target for treating non-small cell lung cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have found a potential targeted therapy for patients with tobacco-associated non-small cell lung cancer. It is based on the newly identified oncogene IKBKE, which helps regulate immune response.

478

Hopkins researchers find that injected bacteria can shrink tumors in rats, dogs and humans  

Cancer.gov

A modified version of the Clostridium novyi bacterium can produce a strong and precisely targeted anti-tumor response in rats, dogs and now humans, according to a new report from Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center researchers.

479

UPenn researchers find radiation plus hormone therapy prolongs survival for older men with prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Adding radiation treatment to hormone therapy saves more lives among older men with locally advanced prostate therapy than hormone therapy alone, according to a new study in the Journal of Clinical Oncology this week from Penn Medicine researchers.

480

Hunstman researchers find that a rare cancer exposes possible route to new treatments  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah discovered the unusual role of lactate in the metabolism of alveolar soft part sarcoma, a rare, aggressive cancer that primarily affects adolescents and young adults.

481

Duke researchers find that prostate cancer’s penchant for copper may be a fatal flaw  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Duke Medicine have found a way to kill prostate cancer cells by delivering a trove of copper along with a drug that selectively destroys the diseased cells brimming with the mineral, leaving non-cancer cells healthy.

482

Columbia U researchers find that generic medications boost adherence to breast cancer therapy  

Cancer.gov

A study by Columbia University Medical Center researchers has found that the introduction of generic aromatase inhibitors, which are considerably less expensive than their brand-name counterparts, increased treatment adherence by 50 percent.

483

UCSD researchers find that anti-psychotic medications offer new hope in the battle against glioblastoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that FDA-approved anti-psychotic drugs possess tumor-killing activity against the most aggressive form of primary brain cancer, glioblastoma.

484

Hopkins researchers find that a vaccine can reprogram pancreatic cancers to respond to immunotherapy  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed and tested a vaccine that triggered the growth of immune cell nodules within pancreatic tumors, essentially reprogramming these intractable cancers and potentially making them vulnerable to immune-based therapies.

485

Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy (Summary)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on May 30, 2001, by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, this new report by Dr. Douglas Kirby reviews some 250 studies on teen pregnancy programs. The review finds that long-term programs have made a genuine difference in teen pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates, the last of which is now at its lowest level recorded. Kirby's study also finds no evidence that "abstinence-only" programs are effective or that sex education that covers contraception increases sexual activity. At the site, visitors may download a 21-page summary of the report, the press release, a FAQ, and related information.

Kirby, Douglas

2001-01-01

486

Understanding the jigsaw of evidence-based dentistry. 3. Implementation of research findings in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part one1 of this three-part series provided an overview of evidence-based dentistry (EBD), provided one definition of EBD and, having introduced the EBD matrix, concentrated on the research synthesis part of the jigsaw puzzle. Part two2 focused on the middle row of this puzzle, the dissemination of research results. This final article deals with perhaps the most vital but the

Nigel Pitts

2004-01-01

487

Research-informed evidence and support for road safety legislation: findings from a national survey.  

PubMed

Public opinion is influential in the policymaking process, making it important to understand the factors that influence popular support or opposition to public health policies. Researchers and policymakers tend to agree that scientific evidence can inform decision-making, but this influence has not been explored sufficiently, especially in the area of injury prevention. This paper considers the potential for the communication of evidence-based research and public health data to influence opinion about legislation that could reduce road-related injury. We conducted a nationally-representative online survey to assess public attitudes toward four road-safety laws; ignition interlock, school zone red-light cameras, restrictions on infotainment systems, and children's bicycle helmets. For each law, we assessed initial support and then provided a research-informed statistic on either the injury risk posed or the law's efficacy reducing risk and re-examined the law's support or opposition. The survey was completed by 2397 U.S. adults. Each law was initially supported by a majority of respondents, with greatest support for ignition interlock (74.4%) and children's bicycle helmets (74.8%). Exposure to research-informed statements increased legislative support for 20-30% of respondents. Paired analyses demonstrate significant increases toward supportive opinions when comparing responses to the initial and research-informed statements. The study demonstrates considerable public support for evidence-based road-related laws. Overall support was augmented by exposure to research data. Injury prevention practitioners can capitalize on this support in efforts to build support for legislation that would prevent injury. Researchers should be encouraged to expand their efforts to share research results with both the public and policymakers. PMID:25215926

Smith, Katherine Clegg; Debinski, Beata; Pollack, Keshia; Vernick, Jon; Bowman, Stephen; Samuels, Alicia; Gielen, Andrea

2014-12-01

488

Overview of findings from the World Trade Center Disaster Outcome Study: recommendations for future research after exposure to psychological trauma.  

PubMed

In this article we review findings from the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) Outcomes Study, a prospective cohort study of 2,368 New York City (NYC) adults funded by the National Institutes of Health after the September 11 attacks. The findings reported were based on a baseline survey conducted one year after the disaster and a follow-up conducted two years post-disaster. One of the goals of this research was to assess the effectiveness of post-disaster treatments received by NYC residents following the attacks. Among the major findings of this study were the relatively small increase in mental health service utilization and the fact that only brief worksite interventions seemed to be an effective post-disaster treatment intervention. Specifically, those who received more conventional post-disaster interventions, such as formal psychotherapy sessions and/or psychotropic medicines, seemed to have poorer outcomes. Since this study was designed to assess treatment outcomes, use advanced measurement techniques, and incorporate propensity score matching to control for bias, these treatment findings were unexpected and raised clinical questions. Additional findings were also discussed related to minority group members, alcohol abuse, the onset and course of posttraumatic stress disorder post-disaster and other findings. Future research is recommended to resolve the issues raised by this important study, especially as this relates to treatment outcomes. PMID:19278144

Boscarino, Joseph A; Adams, Richard E

2008-01-01

489

Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

Background Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. Methods During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. Results A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n?=?24), English (n?=?20), Hindi (n?=?20), and Urdu (n?=?20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n?=?43) and men (n?=?41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as “incidental research participants”, the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. Conclusions This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This investigation illustrates how potential research participants perceive research participation. Fundamentally, Western ethical research principles were applicable, but required flexibility and culturally informed adaptations. PMID:24495499

2014-01-01

490

Conclusions: Overview of Findings from the ERA Study, Inferences, and Research Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this monograph, the authors have brought the findings of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study up to age 15 years and, in so doing, have focused especially on the question of whether there are deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs) that differ meaningfully from other forms of psychopathology. For this purpose, their main…

Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

2010-01-01

491

76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...by falsely labeling lane 5 to represent papain digestion of the [alpha]VBS peptide, and by falsely inserting a band in lane 3 to represent the [alpha]VBS peptide. ORI issued a charge letter enumerating the above findings of misconduct...

2011-06-09

492

Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: Qualitative findings from research in English communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy

Lisa Arai

493

Fox Chase researchers find that most Medicare patients wait weeks before breast cancer surgery  

Cancer.gov

Although patients may feel anxious waiting weeks from the time of their first doctor visit to evaluate their breast until they have breast cancer surgery, new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center show that these waits are typical in the United States. Results were published on Monday, November 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

494

The Contributions of Culture and Ethnicity To New Zealand Mental Health Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & material: In the last five years a number of studies have been conducted in specialist psychiatric and primary care populations in New Zealand which have allowed comparisons in terms of clinical phenomena and therapeutic experiences between Mâori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) and non-Mâori. These studies were reviewed in terms of the methodology used, their major findings

Rees Tapsell; Graham Mellsop

2007-01-01

495

Informed Consent for Exome Sequencing Research in Families with Genetic Disease: The Emerging Issue of Incidental Findings  

PubMed Central

Genomic sequencing technology is increasingly used in genetic research. Studies of informed consent for exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) research have largely involved hypothetical scenarios or healthy individuals enrolling in population-based studies. Studies have yet to explore the consent experiences of adults with inherited disease. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 15 adults recently enrolled in a large-scale ES/GS study (11 affected adults, four parents of affected children). Our study had two goals: (1) to explore three theoretical barriers to consent for ES/GS research (interpretive/technical complexity, possibility of incidental findings, and risks of loss of privacy); and (2) to explore how interviewees experienced the consent process. Interviewees could articulate study goals and processes, describe incidental findings, discuss risks of privacy loss, and reflect on their consent experience. Few expected the study would identify the genetic cause of their condition. All elected to receive incidental findings. Interviewees acknowledged paying little attention to potential implications of incidental findings in light of more pressing goals of supporting research regarding their own medical conditions. Interviewees suggested that experience living with a genetic condition prepared them to adjust to incidental findings. Interviewees also expressed little concern about loss of confidentiality of study data. Some experienced the consent process as very long. None desired reconsent prior to return of study results. Families with inherited disease likely would benefit from a consent process in which study risks and benefits were discussed in the context of prior experiences with genetic research and genetic disease. PMID:25251809

Bergner, Amanda L.; Bollinger, Juli; Raraigh, Karen S.; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Blout, Carrie Lynn; Telegrafi, Aida Bytyci; James, Cynthia A.

2015-01-01

496

Steps to Strengthen Ethics in Organizations: Research Findings, Ethics Placebos, and What Works  

PubMed Central

Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization’s misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

Pope, Kenneth S.

2015-01-01

497

Steps to strengthen ethics in organizations: research findings, ethics placebos, and what works.  

PubMed

Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization's misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change. PMID:25602131

Pope, Kenneth S

2015-01-01

498

Amyloid Treatment and Research Program key research findings: Definition of the electron microscopic structure and x-ray diffraction pattern of amyloid  

E-print Network

amyloidosis using casein injections, permitting testing of AA amyloid formation and treatment in a controlled laboratory environment. Identification of the protein deposits in familial amyloidosis as transthyretin of amyloidosis. Characterization of the protein deposits in dialysis-associated amyloidosis as 2- microglobulin

Finzi, Adrien

499

What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures of…

Giglio, Kate

2010-01-01

500

Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

2010-01-01