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1

Vanderbilt researchers find a protein family key to aging, cancer:  

Cancer.gov

The list of aging-associated proteins known to be involved in cancer is growing longer, according to research by investigators at Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center and the National Institutes of Health. The new study, published Oct. 17 in Cancer Cell, identifies the protein SIRT2 as a tumor suppressor linked to gender-specific tumor development in mice. Along with two other "sirtuin" proteins previously linked to cancer, the new finding suggests the existence of a rare "family" of tumor suppressors.

2

KEY HIGH SCHOOL REFORM STRATEGIES: AN OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH FINDINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank all those who contributed to the production of this report. At MPR Associates, Paula Hudis, Gary Hoachlander, and Elliott Medrich pro- vided insightful review and comments ,on earlier drafts; Shierra Merto provided library research assistance; Andrea Livingston edited the report; and Karyn Madden ,formatted the document. Wewould,also like to acknowledge ,the useful feedback

Mary G. Visher; David Emanuel; Peter Teitelbaum

3

Fox Chase researchers find a compound that targets a key mechanism behind lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia have come one step closer to developing the first treatment to target a key pathway in lymphoma. The new findings were announced at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012 on Tuesday, April 3.

4

UNC researchers find that P Rex-1 protein is key to melanoma metastasis:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center are part of a team that has identified a protein, called P-Rex1, that is key to the movement of cells called melanoblasts. When these cells experience uncontrolled growth, melanoma develops.

5

Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research  

PubMed Central

This review examines research findings in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis in light of the current debate about this chronic multiple?symptom, multiorgan, multisystem illness and the conflicting views in medicine. These issues cannot be separated from the political opinions and assertions that conflict with science and medicine, and will be part of this review as they have enormous consequences for scientific and medical research, patients, clinicians, carers and policy makers.

Hooper, M

2007-01-01

6

Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

2009-01-01

7

Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients who have completed initial cancer treatment (cancer survivors) have been relatively neglected. We need data to help us better understand the needs of this group and to underpin evidence-based service development. Methods: Scoping reviews of research published in the last two decades focussing on the problems faced by cancer survivors, and the effectiveness of interventions for these problems were undertaken. The aim was to identify what we know, what we do not know and opportunities where research could provide new information. We searched for, retrieved and rapidly appraised systematic reviews sourced from the most common electronic databases supplemented by more recently published individual studies. Results: The research evidence is surprisingly limited. We have some knowledge of the prevalence and nature of depression, pain and fatigue in cancer survivors. We know much less about cognitive and physical impairment, employment, financial well-being and relationships. Even where we have evidence, it is mostly of only moderate quality, is most often only for breast cancer and focuses almost exclusively on the early phase of survivorship. We have good evidence for the effectiveness of drug treatments for pain and moderate evidence for fatigue and depression, but not for other symptoms. Interventions based on rehabilitative and self-management approaches remain in the early stages of evaluation. Interpretation: There has been a substantial amount of research describing many of the problems experienced by the cancer survivors. This is strongest in the area of symptoms in the period soon after treatment. However, the quality of the evidence is often poor, and some topics have been little examined. We urgently need data on the natural evolution and scale of the problems of cancer survivors obtained from well-designed, large-scale cohort studies and the robust testing of interventions in clinical trials. Given the current financially constrained research funding environment, we suggest areas in which strategic investment might give findings that have the potential to make a major impact on patient well-being in a 5-year time scale.

Richardson, A; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Foster, C; Stark, D; Armes, J; Brearley, S G; Hodges, L; Hook, J; Jarrett, N; Stamataki, Z; Scott, I; Walker, J; Ziegler, L; Sharpe, M

2011-01-01

8

The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

2012-01-01

9

Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Patients who have completed initial cancer treatment (cancer survivors) have been relatively neglected. We need data to help us better understand the needs of this group and to underpin evidence-based service development.Methods:Scoping reviews of research published in the last two decades focussing on the problems faced by cancer survivors, and the effectiveness of interventions for these problems were undertaken. The

A Richardson; J Addington-Hall; Z Amir; C Foster; D Stark; J Armes; S G Brearley; L Hodges; J Hook; N Jarrett; Z Stamataki; I Scott; J Walker; L Ziegler; M Sharpe

2011-01-01

10

Framing and global health governance: key findings.  

PubMed

Despite widespread agreement that collective action to address shared health challenges across countries is desirable and necessary, the realm of global health governance has remained highly problematic. A key reason for this is the manner in which health issues are presented ('framed'). Because multiple frames are operating simultaneously, confusion and a range of competing policy recommendations and priorities result. Drawing on the previous articles published in this Special Supplement, these key findings explore how health issues are framed, what makes a framing successful, what frames are used for and what effects framing has. PMID:23088193

McInnes, Colin; Lee, Kelley

2012-10-22

11

Institutional Data Management in Higher Education. ECAR Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of institutional data management, which examines the policies and practices by which higher education institutions effectively collect, protect, and use digital information assets to meet academic and business needs. Importantly, it also…

Yanosky, Ronald

2009-01-01

12

Perceptual Tests of an Algorithm for Musical Key-Finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceiving the tonality of a musical passage is a fundamental aspect of the experience of hearing music. Models for determining tonality have thus occupied a central place in music cognition research. Three experiments investigated 1 well-known model of tonal determination: the Krumhansl-Schmuckler key-finding algorithm. In Experiment 1, listeners' percepts of tonality following short musical fragments derived from preludes by Bach

Mark A. Schmuckler; Robert Tomovski

2005-01-01

13

Knowledge translation of research findings  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

2012-01-01

14

Marihuana Research Findings: 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1976 reference report presents the results of research into the health implications of marihuana use for Americans, updating developments since publication of the 1975 Fifth Annual Report to Congress on Marihuana and Health. Following a general summar...

R. C. Peterson

1977-01-01

15

Public key infrastructure for DOE security research  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

1997-06-01

16

Effective radiology dashboards: key research findings.  

PubMed

Innovative organizations have access to information for business intelligence through the objectives displayed in dashboards. In healthcare organizations, where the goal is to improve quality of care along with reducing costs, the radiology department is important from both financial and clinical aspects. Therefore, how to manage this department has critical impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization. Today, since the information in this department not only has different data structure but also is gathered from different data sources, a well defined, comprehensive dashboard can be an effective tool to enhance performance. PMID:23638580

Karami, Mahtab; Safdari, Reza; Rahimi, Azin

17

Business Information: five key findings of a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports five key findings from a survey comparing the use of internal and external information services by business persons in the City of Brisbane. The Business Information: an investigation of its sources and use survey was undertaken on behalf of Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Library's Expert Information Service. The Survey aimed to determine where and how business

Sylvia Lauretta Edwards; Barbara Ewers

1998-01-01

18

Neurobiology of depression: an integrated view of key findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Aims: The objectives of the present review were to summarise the key findings from the clinical literature regarding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and their implications for maximising treatment outcomes. Several neuroan- atomical structures in the prefrontal and limbic areas of the brain are involved in affective regulation. In patients with MDD, alterations in the dynamic patterns

V. Maletic; M. Robinson; T. Oakes; S. Iyengar; S. G. Ball; J. Russell

2007-01-01

19

Key research issues in Clostridium difficile  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes C difficile-associated diarrhea, an important nosocomial infection. Control of this infection remains a challenge, and much needs to be determined about the antimicrobial resistance of the organism, antibiotic stewardship, contamination of the patient environment, and various host factors that determine susceptibility or resistance to infection. A national symposium focusing on C difficile infections, the Clostridium difficile Symposium on Emerging Issues and Research, was hosted on November 23, 2004, by the Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, in partnership with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This symposium, which aimed to summarize key research issues regarding C difficile infections in Canada, had the following objectives: to provide a forum for learning and discussion about C difficile and its impact on the health of Canadians; to identify the key research issues that should be addressed; and to explore potential research funding opportunities and collaboration. The present report summarizes key research issues identified for C difficile infections in Canada by addressing four major themes: diagnosis and surveillance, infection prevention and control, antibiotic stewardship, and clinical management.

Zhanel, George; Hammond, Greg

2005-01-01

20

AN INTEGRATED SYNTHESIS OF KEY AND POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides an overview and initial insights into the findings based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. Many key atmospheric sciences findings have been identified through the research conducted during the last five years as part of t...

21

Ethical Issues in Post-Disaster Clinical Interventions and Research: A Developing World Perspective. Key Findings from a Drafting and Consensus Generation Meeting of the Working Group on Disaster Research and Ethics (WGDRE) 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Disasters, natural or man-made, can occur virtually anytime and anywhere in the world. They bring mass destruction and loss of human lives. The effects of a disaster can be amplified many times in resource poor settings, especially in developing countries.In a post-disaster period, many clinical interventions and a lot of research takes place which focuses on the disaster-affected populations. While

Sarath Edirisingha; Aasim Ahmad; Athula Sumathipala; Chandrani Jayasekera; Dananjaya Waidyaratne; Sandya Srinivasan; Darryl Marcer; Sleman Sutaryo; Aamir Jafarey; Sisira Siribaddana; Sriyakanthi Beneragama; Leonardo D. De Castro; Nandini Kumar; Chesmal Siriwardhana; Anant Bhan

2010-01-01

22

Ethical Issues in Post-Disaster Clinical Interventions and Research: A Developing World Perspective. Key Findings from a Drafting and Consensus Generation Meeting of the Working Group on Disaster Research and Ethics (WGDRE) 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disasters, natural or man-made, can occur virtually anytime and anywhere in the world. They bring mass destruction and loss of human lives. The effects of a disaster can be amplified many times in resource poor settings, especially in developing countries. In a post-disaster period, many clinical interventions and a lot of research takes place which focuses on the disaster-affected populations.

Sarath Edirisingha; Aasim Ahmad; Athula Sumathipala; Chandrani Jayasekera; Dananjaya Waidyaratne; Sandya Srinivasan; Darryl Marcer; Sleman Sutaryo; Aamir Jafarey; Sisira Siribaddana; Sriyakanthi Beneragama; Leonardo D. De Castro; Nandini Kumar; Chesmal Siriwardhana; Anant Bhan

2010-01-01

23

Issues in mHealth: Findings From Key Informant Interviews  

PubMed Central

Background mHealth is enjoying considerable interest and private investment in the United States. A small but growing body of evidence indicates some promise in supporting healthy behavior change and self-management of long-term conditions. The unique benefits mobile phones bring to health initiatives, such as direct access to health information regardless of time or location, may create specific issues for the implementation of such initiatives. Other issues may be shared with general health information technology developments. Objective To determine the important issues facing the implementation of mHealth from the perspective of those within the US health system and those working in mHealth in the United States. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with 27 key informants from across the health and mHealth sectors in the United States. Interviewees were approached directly following an environmental scan of mHealth in the United States or recommendation by those working in mHealth. Results The most common issues were privacy and data security, funding, a lack of good examples of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of mHealth in practice, and the need for more high-quality research. The issues are outlined and categorized according to the environment within which they predominantly occur: policy and regulatory environments; the wireless industry; the health system; existing mHealth practice; and research. Conclusions Many of these issues could be addressed by making the most of the current US health reform environment, developing a strategic and coordinated approach, and seeking to improve mHealth practice.

2012-01-01

24

The abortion assessment project--India: key findings and recommendations.  

PubMed

The Abortion Assessment Project-India, begun in August 2000, is one of the largest studies on abortion ever undertaken in India. This article synthesises the findings of the six facility surveys, two community-based surveys, eight qualitative studies, policy review and commissioned working papers that were produced as part of the project by researchers from across India. Public investment in abortion services nationally was found to be grossly inadequate. 75% of facilities were found in the private sector in the six states and were overwhelmingly perceived to give better services. Although some important changes were made in the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act related to clinic certification and medical abortion, further changes during the second phase of the government's Reproductive and Child Health Programme are recommended, based on this research and state and national-level consultations organised by the project These include integrating abortion services into primary and community health centres, increased investment in public facilities, promoting use of vacuum aspiration and medical abortion, convincing providers to stop using curettage, broadening the base of abortion providers by training paramedics to do first trimester abortions, and reskilling traditional providers to play alternative roles that support women's access to safe abortion services. PMID:15938165

Duggal, Ravi; Ramachandran, Vimala

2004-11-01

25

A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

Wals, Arjen E. J.

2009-01-01

26

Intradistrict Resource Allocation: Key Findings and Policy Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus on school-level performance brought about by the No Child Left Behind Act--as well as recent court cases challenging the use of race in student assignment policies--has brought greater attention to the need to for careful study of the allocation of resources within school districts. This paper describes the policy context, reviews key…

Houck, Eric A.

2011-01-01

27

Finding the key - cell biology and science education.  

PubMed

No international research community, cell biology included, can exist without an educational community to renew and replenish it. Unfortunately, cell biology researchers frequently regard their work as independent of the process of education and see little reason to reach out to science teachers. For cell biology to continue to prosper, I argue that researchers must support education in at least three ways. First, we must view education and research as part of a single scientific community. Second, we should take advantage of new technologies to connect the research laboratory to the classroom. Finally, we must take the initiative in defending the integrity of science teaching, particularly when education is under attack for political or religious reasons. PMID:20863704

Miller, Kenneth R

2010-09-20

28

Key Diagnostic Finding in a Condition with Variable Clinical Presentations  

PubMed Central

This is an interesting case series on a very common genetic condition which are often diagnosed late as clinical signs are inconspicuous. We would like to highlight the principal clinical examination finding which led to diagnosis.

Sukumaran, Anju; Buchlis, John

2013-01-01

29

The National Television Violence Study: Key Findings and Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes findings of the Television Violence Study indicating that the context of much television violence is dangerous to viewers, perpetrators go unpunished in the majority of programs, negative consequences of violence are often ignored, guns feature prominently, and presentation of violence differs greatly across networks and across…

Young Children, 1996

1996-01-01

30

Hewlett Leaders in Student Success: Program Overview and Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2008 and 2009, the Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges (RP Group) worked closely with the Hewlett Foundation to focus attention on excellent work in basic skills education at California's community colleges. Hewlett Leaders in Student Success highlighted innovations by front-runners in California in order to help…

Miller, Margaret

2009-01-01

31

Research Findings on Causes of Academic Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research literature suggests that the decade of the '80s is producing a generation of professors coping with surprisingly high levels of job stress. Key reasons include inadequate participation in governance and institutional planning, work overload, low pay, poor working conditions, inadequate recognition, unrealized career expectations, and…

Seldin, Peter

1987-01-01

32

Asian GangsRecent Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents some recent research findings about Asian gang members. Some of the noteworthy findings are (a) the Asian gang problem is small in comparison with the overall national gang problem; (b) in terms of human developmental or lifespan variables, social variables, and psychological variables, there really is little that can be said to be unique about Asian gang

GEORGE W. KNOX; THOMAS F. McCURRIE

1997-01-01

33

Key Features of Nuclear Research Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

By October 2004, some 672 research reactors had been built. Of these, 274 in 56 countries are in operation today. Such reactors\\u000a are not generally used for producing electrical power, although they have a very high power density in the core requiring\\u000a special design features. They are used for research and training, materials testing, as neutron generators and for production

Bhupendra jasani

34

78 FR 21125 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...transfect HL-60 cells was due to the mutation and not the level of protein present. Specifically: a. Respondent used portions of...agreed not to appeal the ORI findings of research misconduct set forth above. He has agreed, beginning on March 12,...

2013-04-09

35

76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...has taken final action in the following case: Vipul...University of Michigan Medical School: Based on the findings...University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) and additional...Medicine, UMMS, engaged in research misconduct in...colleague's cell culture media, with the...

2011-04-27

36

Space Situational Awareness (SSA) research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is the foundation for space superiority and has become a national priority. Providing full SSA requires knowledge of space and ground assets along with communication links between these assets. It also requires an understanding of potential events and threats that may affect these assets. This paper summarizes the findings resulting from a research environment established to

David Richmond; Valley Forge PA

2008-01-01

37

Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Project: The 1991 Nevada State telephone survey: Key findings  

SciTech Connect

The 1991 Nevada State Telephone Survey was implemented by Decision Research on behalf of the State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) as part of an ongoing socioeconomic impact assessment study. The scope of this survey was considerably smaller than a previous survey conducted in 1989 and focused more upon public evaluations of the Yucca Mountain repository program and the trust Nevadans currently addressing the siting issues. In order to provide place in key public officials who are Longitudinal data on the repository program, the 1991 questionnaire consisted of questions that were used in the 1989 NWPO survey which was conducted by Mountain West Research. As a result, the findings from this survey are compared with analogous items from the 1989 survey, and with the results from a survey commissioned by the Las Vegas Review-Journal and reported in their issue of October 21, 1990. The Review-Journal survey was conducted by Bruce Merri11 of the Arizona State University Media Research Center. A more complete comparison of the 1989 and 1991 surveys sponsored by NWPO is possible since the researchers at Decision Research had access to both these databases. The only source of information for the Review-Journal findings was the articles published in the Fall, 1990. The findings of the 1991 survey show that Nevadans oppose the federal government attempts to locate a high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain. They support a policy of opposition on the part of Nevada officials. They believe that Nevadans should have the final say in whether to accept the repository or not, and they reject the proposition that benefits from the repository program will outweigh the harms. These findings are very similar to survey results from 1989 and 1990 and once again demonstrate very widespread public opposition by Nevadans to the current federal repository program.

Flynn, J.H.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

1991-05-01

38

The return of individual research findings in paediatric genetic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results\\/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research

Kristien Hens; Herman Nys; Jean-Jacques Cassiman; Kris Dierickx

2010-01-01

39

The return of individual research findings in paediatric genetic research.  

PubMed

The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research context: the respect for a participant's autonomy and the duty of the researcher. Concepts such as autonomy and solidarity do not fit easily in the discussion when paediatric biobanks are concerned. Although parents may be allowed to enrol children in minimal risk genetic research on stored tissue samples, they should not be given the option to opt out of receiving important health information. Also, children have a right to an open future: parents do not have the right to access any genetic data that a biobank holds on their children. In this respect, the guidelines on genetic testing of minors are applicable. With regard to the duty of the researcher the question of whether researchers have a more stringent duty to return important health information when their research subjects are children is more difficult to answer. A researcher's primary duty is to perform useful research, a policy to return individual results must not hamper this task. The fact that vulnerable children are concerned, is an additional factor that should be considered when a policy of returning results is laid down for a specific collection or research project. PMID:21059631

Hens, Kristien; Nys, Herman; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Dierickx, Kris

2010-11-08

40

U of M Civil Service Wellness Survey: Finding Out Employees' Health and Wellness Needs. A Report of Key Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Key findings from a wellness survey conducted with University of Minnesota civil service employees are discussed. The survey was designed to provide information to guide future campus health and wellness programming. Four topics were covered: physical fitness/exercise, nutrition, self-improvement/psychological health, and general health/preventive…

Matross, Ron; Roesler, Jon

41

Health effects of uranium: new research findings.  

PubMed

Recent plans for a nuclear renaissance in both established and emerging economies have prompted increased interest in uranium mining. With the potential for more uranium mining worldwide and a growth in the literature on the toxicology and epidemiology of uranium and uranium mining, we found it timely to review the current state of knowledge. Here, we present a review of the health effects of uranium mining, with an emphasis on newer findings (2005-2011). Uranium mining can contaminate air, water, and soil. The chemical toxicity of the metal constitutes the primary environmental health hazard, with the radioactivity of uranium a secondary concern. The update of the toxicologic evidence on uranium adds to the established findings regarding nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and developmental defects. Additional novel toxicologic findings, including some at the molecular level, are now emerging that raise the biological plausibility of adverse effects on the brain, on reproduction, including estrogenic effects, on gene expression, and on uranium metabolism. Historically, most epidemiology on uranium mining has focused on mine workers and radon exposure. Although that situation is still overwhelmingly true, a smaller emerging literature has begun to form around environmental exposure in residential areas near uranium mining and processing facilities. We present and critique such studies. Clearly, more epidemiologic research is needed to contribute to causal inference. As much damage is irreversible, and possibly cumulative, present efforts must be vigorous to limit environmental uranium contamination and exposure. PMID:22435323

Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia

2011-01-01

42

Approaches for Communicating Key Sources of Uncertainty While Reinforcing Core Climate Science Findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Projections of regional-scale climate change have high importance for policymakers, climate-sensitive industries and communities and need to be conveyed in a way that makes key uncertainties clear to non-technical audiences. Uncertainties in climate change projections arise from three primary sources: natural climate fluctuations that over relatively short time scales can amplify or moderate trends resulting from anthropogenic climate change; uncertainties in the climate system's response to a given level of radiative forcing, which is reflected in the range of responses incorporated into global climate model simulations; and uncertainties in future emissions by society, and thus the scale of future radiative forcing. The relative importance of these sources varies across regions, climate indicators and forecast lead times. Public understanding and informed public policy will be well-served by a greater emphasis in future research publications and climate assessments on distinguishing among these sources of uncertainty across regions, climate indicators and forecast lead times. We focus in particular on recommendations to improve the ways in which assessments characterize and communicate key policy-relevant sources of uncertainty in projections of climate change while reinforcing core climate science findings in public-facing documents.

Frumhoff, P. C.; Ekwurzel, B.; McCarthy, J. J.

2011-12-01

43

Online Shopping Behavior: Key Dimensions and Research Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research has emerged related to the online shopping. In this study, the current literature related to media factors that influence online shopping behavior is extensively surveyed by identifying key dimensions. Four dimensions of the online shopping channel, including informativeness, convenience, customer service, and experiential uniqueness, are proposed based on the literature review and expert judgments. In

Dong Shen; Craig A. Kelley; Joseph Richards; Claudia Bridges

2006-01-01

44

Families in PovertyKey Issues in Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The articles in this special issue represent key themes in research on families in poverty. These themes include: There is substantial diversity across poor families, mother-child relationships are crucial to child and parent outcomes, father involvement in these families is often unreliable, social support is very important to these families, interventions targeted toward the poor must be very intensive to

DENNIS K. ORTHNER

1996-01-01

45

Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an online and a printable brochure that provides information on why researchers study animals, how research animals are cared for, the ethics of animal research, cosmetic testing on animals, and how animal research helps people in the context of a diabetes patient.

2010-06-24

46

Technological Entrepreneurship: Key Themes and Emerging Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technological entrepreneurship is a fertile area of research. Scholars from as diverse fields as entrepreneurship, strategy,\\u000a organizational theory, sociology, economics, and psychology have made valuable contributions to this fast growing area. Our\\u000a review of prior research reinforces the importance of prior research findings, while outlining several opportunities for imaginative\\u000a and productive scholarship in this area. We hope that our review

S. A. Zahra; J. C. Hayton

47

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2001 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

48

Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2002 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Inst. for Social Research.

49

Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

2012-01-01

50

The Families of 9-Year-Olds (Growing Up in Ireland Study - Key Findings No. 2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the second in a series of Key Findings from the Growing Up in Ireland study. It summarises some of the facts about 9-year-olds and their families. The family is one of the main influences on a child's development. The more supportive the family, the better the outcomes for the child are likely to be. 'The family' means more

51

Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

2012-01-01

52

Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2002 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Inst. for Social Research.

53

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2001 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

54

Monitoring The Future National Results On Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume presents an overview of the key findings from the 2000 survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, with a particular emphasis on recent trends in the use of the various licit and illicit drugs covered by the study. It also shows trends in th...

L. D. Johnston P. M. O'Malley J. G. Bachman

2001-01-01

55

Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: Key findings and future recommendations.  

PubMed

Many epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution use measurements from central-site monitors as their exposure estimate. However, measurements from central-site monitors may lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to capture exposure variability in a study population, thus resulting in exposure error and biased estimates. Articles in this dedicated issue examine various approaches to predict or assign exposures to ambient pollutants. These methods include combining existing central-site pollution measurements with local- and/or regional-scale air quality models to create new or "hybrid" models for pollutant exposure estimates and using exposure models to account for factors such as infiltration of pollutants indoors and human activity patterns. Key findings from these articles are summarized to provide lessons learned and recommendations for additional research on improving exposure estimation approaches for future epidemiological studies. In summary, when compared with use of central-site monitoring data, the enhanced spatial resolution of air quality or exposure models can have an impact on resultant health effect estimates, especially for pollutants derived from local sources such as traffic (e.g., EC, CO, and NOx). In addition, the optimal exposure estimation approach also depends upon the epidemiological study design. We recommend that future research develops pollutant-specific infiltration data (including for PM species) and improves existing data on human time-activity patterns and exposure to local source (e.g., traffic), in order to enhance human exposure modeling estimates. We also recommend comparing how various approaches to exposure estimation characterize relationships between multiple pollutants in time and space and investigating the impact of improved exposure estimates in chronic health studies. PMID:24084756

Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet; Ebelt Sarnat, Stefanie; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Hodas, Natasha; Rich, David Q; Turpin, Barbara J; Jones, Rena R; Mannshardt, Elizabeth; Kumar, Naresh; Beevers, Sean D; Ozkaynak, Halűk

2013-10-02

56

Can recent innovations in harmonic analysis 'explain' key findings in natural image statistics?  

PubMed

Recently, applied mathematicians have been pursuing the goal of sparse coding of certain mathematical models of images with edges. They have found by mathematical analysis that, instead of wavelets and Fourier methods, sparse coding leads towards new systems: ridgelets and curvelets. These new systems have elements distributed across a range of scales and locations, but also orientations. In fact they have highly direction-specific elements and exhibit increasing numbers of distinct directions as we go to successively finer scales. Meanwhile, researchers in natural scene statistics (NSS) have been attempting to find sparse codes for natural images. The new systems they have found by computational optimization have elements distributed across a range of scales and locations, but also orientations. The new systems are certainly unlike wavelet and Gabor systems, on the one hand because of the multi-orientation and on the other hand because of the multi-scale nature. There is a certain degree of visual resemblance between the findings in the two fields, which suggests the hypothesis that certain important findings in the NSS literature might possibly be explained by the slogan: edges are the dominant features in images, and curvelets are the right tool for representing edges. We consider here certain empirical consequences of this hypothesis, looking at key findings of the NSS literature and conducting studies of curvelet and ridgelet transforms on synthetic and real images, to see if the results are consistent with predictions from this slogan. Our first experiment measures the nonGaussianity of Fourier, wavelet, ridgelet and curvelet coefficients over a database of synthetic and photographic images. Empirically the curvelet coefficients exhibit noticeably higher kurtosis than wavelet, ridgelet, or Fourier coefficients. This is consistent with the hypothesis. Our second experiment studies the inter-scale correlation of wavelet coefficient energies at the same location. We describe a simple experiment showing that presence of edges explains these correlations. We also develop a crude nonlinear 'partial correlation' by considering the correlation between wavelet parents and children after a few curvelet coefficients are removed. When we kill the few biggest coefficients of the curvelet transform, much of the correlation between wavelet subbands disappears--consistent with the hypothesis. We suggest implications for future discussions about NSS. PMID:11563535

Donoho, D L; Flesia, A G

2001-08-01

57

Drugs and sport. Research findings and limitations.  

PubMed

Many types of drugs are used by athletes to improve performance. This paper reviews the literature on 3 categories of drugs: those that enhance performance as stimulants (amphetamines, ephedrine, and cocaine), those that are used to reduce tremor and heart rate (beta-blockers) and those involved in bodyweight gain or loss (anabolic-androgenic steroids, growth hormone, beta 2-agonists, and diuretics). Limitations of research on these drugs as they relate to performance enhancement are also discussed. The numerous studies that have assessed the effects of amphetamines on performance report equivocal results. This may be due to the large interindividual variability in the response to the drug and the small sample sizes used. Most studies, however, show that some individuals do improve exercise performance when taking amphetamines, which may be attributed to their role in masking fatigue. As a stimulant, ephedrine has not been found to improve performance in the few studies available. More recently, ephedrine has been purported to be effective as a fat burner and used by athletes to maintain or improve muscle mass. Although research on individuals with obesity supports the use of ephedrine for fat loss, no studies have been done on athletes. The few studies of cocaine and exercise suggest that little to no performance gains are incurred from cocaine use. Moreover, the sense of euphoria may provide the illusion of better performance when, in actuality, performance was not improved or was impaired. beta-Blockers have been found to reduce heart rate and tremor and to improve performance in sports that are not physiologically challenging but require accuracy (e.g. pistol shooting). However, there is evidence that some individuals may be high responders to beta-blockers to the extent that their heart rate response is so blunted as to impair performance. Although equivocal, several studies have reported that anabolic-androgenic steroids increase muscle size and strength. However, most studies are not well controlled and use insufficient drug doses. One recent well controlled study did find an increase in muscle mass and strength with supraphysiological doses, and the improvements were greater in participants who were also resistance training. There is little information available on the effects of growth hormone on muscle mass or performance in athletes, although data suggest that growth hormone administration does not increase muscle protein synthesis. beta 2-Agonists, such as clenbuterol and salbutamol, when administered orally appear to improve muscular strength due to their potential role in increasing muscle mass. However, studies have not been done using athletes. Diuretics results in a loss of body water and hence bodyweight that can be advantageous for sports with strict bodyweight classifications. There is insufficient evidence on possible performance decrements in the field that could result from dehydration induced by the diuretics. Overall, the most significant concern in studies of drug use is the large inter-individual variability in responses to a drug. Further studies are needed to understand why some individuals are more responsive than others and to assess whether the responses are consistent for a given individual. Most studies of drug effectiveness have not used athletes. The effectiveness of many drugs may be reduced in highly trained athletes because there is a lower margin for improvement. PMID:9421862

Clarkson, P M; Thompson, H S

1997-12-01

58

Dissemination and Implementation of Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-five vocational educators participated in the 18th Annual Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education at Louisiana State University. Presentations included in the document are: (1) "The Research Problem in Agricultural Education" by L. L. Pesson, (2) views on organizing a vocational agricultural education department for effective…

Curtis, Charlie M., Ed.

59

76 FR 63621 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...misconduct in research supported by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes...sequencing on 202 cDNA clones of homeobox genes to confirm their identity and integrity. Through multiple revision of the...

2011-10-13

60

LF to VHF Shipboard Direction Finding Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the work was to design, develop, and evaluate prototype DF antennas, special DF techniques, and DF calibration circuits which provide practical state-of-the-art solutions to the shipboard direction-finding requirements in the HF and low VHF...

T. C. Green R. Lorenz W. M. Sherrill

1969-01-01

61

LF to VHF Shipboard Direction Finding Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is the purpose of the contract to design, develop, and evaluate prototype DF antennas, special DF techniques, and DF calibration circuits which provide practicle state-of-the-art solutions to the shipboard direction finding requirements in the HF and l...

T. C. Green W. M. Sherrill

1969-01-01

62

LF to VHF Shipboard Direction Finding Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is the purpose of the contract to design, develop, and evaluate prototype DF antennas, special DF techniques, and DF calibration circuits which provide practical state-of-the-art solutions to the shipboard direction-finding requirements in the HF and l...

T. C. Green W. M. Sherrill

1969-01-01

63

Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

2005-01-01

64

Researching Women's Groups Findings, Limitations, and Recommendations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…

Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.

2005-01-01

65

Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2011 September 2011 Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle ... as the drugs are taken. New NIAMS-supported research has found that for a subset of patients, ...

66

Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue.

Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

2012-01-01

67

Teacher Perceptions of Dissemination of Research on Teaching Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the perceptions of 105 teachers regarding research-on-teaching findings as a resource for instructional improvement. The teachers filled out a 40-item, Likert-scale questionnaire about their perceptions. Teachers value research findings that focus on classroom instruction and think that the findings have practical classroom…

Eaker, Robert E.; Huffman, James O.

68

Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

Esserman, June F., Ed.

69

Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

2005-01-01

70

An Anatomy of European Information Systems Research ECIS 1993ECIS 2002 : Some Initial Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects on European research on information systems as presented during the first ten years of the European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS). Based on an analysis of all papers published in the ECIS proceedings during the period 1993-2002, the paper presents initial findings regarding key aspects of European IS research activity.

Robert D. Galliers; Edgar A. Whitley

2002-01-01

71

Finding the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) in a Bayesian taxonomic key is NP-hard  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an alternative to dichotomous keys, tabular keys are used for taxonomic identification. With the use of computers, keys based on the Bayes formula can also be made available more widely. For the development of a key, the maximum a posterior probability (MAP) for a taxon is important because it allows to evaluate the quality of a key. If it

Urs Fischbacher

1996-01-01

72

Research on Key Management Infrastructure in Cloud Computing Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud customers and providers need to guard against data loss and theft. Encryption of personal and enterprise data is strongly recommended, Strong encryption with key management is one of the core mechanisms that Cloud Computing systems should use to protect data. In cases where the cloud provider must perform key management, in this paper, cloud key management (CKMI) is proposed,

Sun Lei; Dai Zishan; Guo Jindi

2010-01-01

73

Managing incidental findings in human subjects research: analysis and recommendations.  

PubMed

No consensus yet exists on how to handle incidental findings (IFs) in human subjects research. Yet empirical studies document IFs in a wide range of research studies, where IFs are findings beyond the aims of the study that are of potential health or reproductive importance to the individual research participant. This paper reports recommendations of a two-year project group funded by NIH to study how to manage IFs in genetic and genomic research, as well as imaging research. We conclude that researchers have an obligation to address the possibility of discovering IFs in their protocol and communications with the IRB, and in their consent forms and communications with research participants. Researchers should establish a pathway for handling IFs and communicate that to the IRB and research participants. We recommend a pathway and categorize IFs into those that must be disclosed to research participants, those that may be disclosed, and those that should not be disclosed. PMID:18547191

Wolf, Susan M; Lawrenz, Frances P; Nelson, Charles A; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Cho, Mildred K; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Fletcher, Joel G; Georgieff, Michael K; Hammerschmidt, Dale; Hudson, Kathy; Illes, Judy; Kapur, Vivek; Keane, Moira A; Koenig, Barbara A; Leroy, Bonnie S; McFarland, Elizabeth G; Paradise, Jordan; Parker, Lisa S; Terry, Sharon F; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S

2008-01-01

74

Industrial hygiene review of three manufacturing facilities in Senegal: findings and key questions.  

PubMed

An industrial hygiene review was conducted in pesticide, asbestos, and cement manufacturing facilities in Senegal to provide the Senegalese Ministry of Labor with recommendations for improving working conditions. Findings show severe under-reporting of occupational illnesses, and major short-comings in terms of worker training, personal protective equipment use, emergency planning, and other traditional industrial hygiene controls. Despite these findings, a comparison between observed conditions and the proposed Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Safety and Health Program Management standard shows that these companies would probably not be considered grossly non-compliant by U.S. standards, and suggests that strong regulatory enforcement of actual working conditions remains a necessity. This analysis also suggests that compliance with the proposed standard would not in itself assure that such dire shortcomings as were observed could not legally exist here in the United States. Key differences between the political economies of developing nations and the United States suggest that improving working conditions requires a comprehensive planning effort addressing poverty reduction, environmental considerations, and economic growth. Three fundamental questions are proposed which should be addressed to improve working conditions in Senegal. PMID:17208893

Lynch, R M; Mbaye, I

1999-01-01

75

Hospital choice: a summary of the key empirical and hypothetical findings of the 1980s.  

PubMed

The authors review the development of allopathic and osteopathic hospital choice criteria as found in the literature. Several of the findings are based on previously unpublished and uncited work. This comprehensive and up-to-date summary provides a synthesized view of hospital choice and covers the stability of hospital choice factors over time, factors based on type of care, hospital choice influencers, and the special influence of women on hospital choice. Implications for hospital management and marketing executives, and for future research, also are presented. PMID:10303067

Lane, P M; Lindquist, J D

1988-12-01

76

Anorexia nervosa: Recent research findings and implications for clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, recent anorexia nervosa research is reviewed with the specific goal of identifying findings that have bearings\\u000a on clinical management strategies for this particular group of eating disordered patients.

Maria Rĺstam

1994-01-01

77

Public Policy and Product Information. Summary Findings from Consumer Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the findings of an Assessment of Consumer Information Processing Research in Relation to Public Policy Needs. The first section studies the public policy setting. The main body of the digest reviews, examines, and interprets the existi...

G. S. Hutchison

1975-01-01

78

Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

2009-01-01

79

Practical approaches to incidental findings in brain imaging research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decade of empirical work in brain imaging, genomics, and other areas of research has yielded new knowledge about the frequency of incidental findings, investigator responsibility, and risks and benefits of disclosure. Straightforward guidance for handling such findings of possible clini- cal significance, however, has been elusive. In early work focusing on imaging studies of the brain, we suggested that

J. Illes; M. P. Kirschen; E. Edwards; P. Bandettini; M. K. Cho; P. J. Ford; G. H. Glover; J. Kulynych; R. Macklin; D. B. Michael; S. M. Wolf; T. Grabowski; B. Seto

2008-01-01

80

Environmentally Mediated Risks for Psychopathology: Research Strategies and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…

Rutter, Michael

2005-01-01

81

Across the Great Divide: Teachers and Administrators Interpret Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a specially designed forum, 30 teachers and administrators joined a group of researchers to interpret some recent research findings. Discussion groups focused on four issues: teacher and principal morale, specialists and conflict, teacher teams, and "loose coupling" between the district and school. A dynamic exchange of ideas resulted, with…

Rosaler, Jean A.; Deal, Terrence E.

82

Case Western researchers present new findings for glioblastoma  

Cancer.gov

Physician-scientists from University Hospitals (UH), Case Medical Center's Seidman Cancer Center and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine presented new research findings this week at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) in Chicago. One study sought to identify protein biomarkers that can help physicians determine which patients may benefit from standard treatment for GBM.

83

Stem Cell Research and Applications: Findings and Recommendations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These resources are findings and recommendations to stem cell research and applications. Human stem cell research holds enormous potential for contributing to our understanding of fundamental human biology. Although it is not possible to predict the outcomes from basic research, such studies will offer the real possibility for treatments and ultimately for cures for many diseases for which adequate therapies do not exist. This resource is provided by AAAS and ICS.

;

1999-11-01

84

Key Organizational Management and Research Thrusts in Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sabbatical at the University of Aston Management Centre, Birmingham, UK and visits to other similar UK and Dutch centers revealed major thrusts in the nature of organizational and management research in Europe. In general, there is considerable research...

J. G. Hunt

1980-01-01

85

Practical approaches to incidental findings in brain imaging research  

PubMed Central

A decade of empirical work in brain imaging, genomics, and other areas of research has yielded new knowledge about the frequency of incidental findings, investigator responsibility, and risks and benefits of disclosure. Straightforward guidance for handling such findings of possible clinical significance, however, has been elusive. In early work focusing on imaging studies of the brain, we suggested that investigators and institutional review boards must anticipate and articulate plans for handling incidental findings. Here we provide a detailed analysis of different approaches to the problem and evaluate their merits in the context of the goals and setting of the research and the involvement of neurologists, radiologists, and other physicians. Protecting subject welfare and privacy, as well as ensuring scientific integrity, are the highest priorities in making choices about how to handle incidental findings. Forethought and clarity will enable these goals without overburdening research conducted within or outside the medical setting.

Illes, J.; Kirschen, M.P.; Edwards, E.; Bandettini, P.; Cho, M.K.; Ford, P.J.; Glover, G.H.; Kulynych, J.; Macklin, R.; Michael, D.B.; Wolf, S.M.; Grabowski, T.; Seto, B.

2008-01-01

86

Sound and Music Computing: Research Trends and Some Key Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution attempts to give an overview of current research trends and open research problems in the rich field of Sound and Music Computing (SMC). To that end, the field is roughly divided into three large areas related to Sound, Music, and Interaction, respectively, and within each of these, major research trends are briefly described. In addition, for each sub-field

Gerhard Widmer; Davide Rocchesso; Vesa Välimäki; Cumhur Erkut; Fabien Gouyon; Daniel Pressnitzer; Henri Penttinen; Pietro Polotti; Gualtiero Volpe

2007-01-01

87

COMPARABILITY: THE KEY TO THE APPLICABILITY OF FOOD WEB RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

However food webs have always been considered as a central issue of ecology, their value and usefulness are frequently questioned. In this paper, I overview some causes of this skepticism and discuss in which cases two or more food webs can be compared. I suggest that the comparability of different food webs is a key to possible applications. I show

F. JORDÁN

2003-01-01

88

St. Jude study finds a tumor suppressor protein is a key regulator of immune response and balance in mice:  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital scientists have identified a key immune system regulator [in mice], a protein that serves as a gatekeeper in the white blood cells that produce the “troops” to battle specific infections.

89

Key Developments in Endocrine Disrupter Research and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental etiologies involving exposures to chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones are proposed for a number of adverse human health effects, including infertility, abnormal prenatal and childhood development, and reproductive cancers (National Research Council, 1999; World Health Organization, 2002). Endocrine disrupters represent a significant area of environmental research with important implications for human health. This article provides an overview of some

Karen P. Phillips; Warren G. Foster

2008-01-01

90

Authentic Research Immersion Experiences: the Key to Enduring Understandings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Do authentic research experiences have a role in today's classrooms? Where do they fit into the constrained curriculum units and high-stakes testing regimen that define a teacher's world? It is possible, even in today's somewhat narrow teaching environment, to integrate authentic research into the classroom and evolve away from the worksheets and lessons that simply "teach to the test"? Authentic research immersion experiences must be carefully packaged the for classroom use with clear alignment to standards and a learning curve that is not too daunting. By helping teachers to see the value in replacing curricular units with authentic research experiences and designing the research program to fit within a teacher's needs, the rate of successful adoption of the research program becomes much higher. As a result, not only do their students reap the educational rewards of becoming active research participants in the process of science and learn it from the inside out, but the opportunity for the teachers to grow professionally in content and science process knowledge is also an additional benefit. NASA has had and continues to have a significant role in providing these data and mission- related immersion experiences for elementary classrooms through graduate school students.

Klug, S. L.

2007-12-01

91

Timeline of key events in snake venom metalloproteinase research.  

PubMed

It is reasonable to state that snake venom toxinology has been actively pursued for at least the past 400 to 500 years. Early on it was appreciated that the venoms of the Viperidae produced profound local effects, notably hemorrhage. For the past 100 years, with the advent of modern chemistry and biochemistry significant progress has been gained regarding the function, structure and role of the snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) in viperid venom pathogenesis. In this review we provide a concise, chronological presentation of the key significant studies that have led to our current understanding of these intriguing toxins. PMID:19344655

Fox, Jay W; Serrano, Solange M T

2009-01-21

92

Presence of key findings in the medical record prior to a documented high-risk diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background Failure or delay in diagnosis is a common preventable source of error. The authors sought to determine the frequency with which high-information clinical findings (HIFs) suggestive of a high-risk diagnosis (HRD) appear in the medical record before HRD documentation. Methods A knowledge base from a diagnostic decision support system was used to identify HIFs for selected HRDs: lumbar disc disease, myocardial infarction, appendicitis, and colon, breast, lung, ovarian and bladder carcinomas. Two physicians reviewed at least 20 patient records retrieved from a research patient data registry for each of these eight HRDs and for age- and gender-compatible controls. Records were searched for HIFs in visit notes that were created before the HRD was established in the electronic record and in general medical visit notes for controls. Results 25% of records reviewed (61/243) contained HIFs in notes before the HRD was established. The mean duration between HIFs first occurring in the record and time of diagnosis ranged from 19?days for breast cancer to 2?years for bladder cancer. In three of the eight HRDs, HIFs were much less likely in control patients without the HRD. Conclusions In many records of patients with an HRD, HIFs were present before the HRD was established. Reasons for delay include non-compliance with recommended follow-up, unusual presentation of a disease, and system errors (eg, lack of laboratory follow-up). The presence of HIFs in clinical records suggests a potential role for the integration of diagnostic decision support into the clinical workflow to provide reminder alerts to improve the diagnostic focus.

Hoffer, Edward P; Barnett, G Octo; Kim, Richard J; Famiglietti, Kathleen T; Chueh, Henry

2012-01-01

93

Disability travel in the United States: recent research and findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to report and compare the salient findings of recent research on travel by Americans with disabilities. Until 2002, when Open Doors Organization (ODO) sponsored its first nationwide study on travel by adults with disabilities (ODO 2002), conducted by Harris Interactive, there had never been a major, statistically reliable survey on the US disability travel

Laurel Van Horn

2007-01-01

94

Interpreting research findings to guide treatment in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

When applying research findings to individual patients, practitioners can use the PICO approach, which considers characteristics of the patient or population, intervention, comparator or context, and outcome. Patient centred practitioners should however identify the outcomes which are important to individual patients.

Tony Kendrick; Kelsey Hegarty; Paul Glasziou

2008-01-01

95

Educational Financing in Developing Countries: Research Findings and Contemporary Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on contemporary issues of educational financing in developing countries and on available research findings as these relate, or can be related, to these issues. The first two chapters are analytical, examining common educational finance issues and testing the conventional wisdom of certain usual proposals. Chapter 1, "Issues in…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

96

Student as Communication Skills Trainer: From Research to "Concept Keys"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although textbooks are filled with practical communication advice, many students overlook the importance of basing practical advice about communication on quality research. This oversight is important for two reasons. First, given the explosion of self-help remedies focused on communication, students should learn to distinguish between…

Bodie, Graham D.

2008-01-01

97

Researching Treaty Information: An Annotated Guide to Key Reference Sources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed for use with both individual researchers and library instruction classes, this 68-item selective annotated guide lists sources for guides and bibliographies; treatises, digests, citators; treaty texts and their indexes; dictionaries; atlases; style manuals; indexes and abstracts; journals; online databases; and abbreviations. Eleven…

Miller, Gordon W.

1985-01-01

98

Comorbid Forms of Psychopathology: Key Patterns and Future Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to systematically appraise the peer-reviewed literature about clustered forms of psychopathology and to present a framework that can be useful for studying comorbid psychiatric disorders. The review focuses on four of the most prevalent types of mental health problems: anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and substance abuse. The authors summarize existing empirical research on the

Magdalena Cerd; Aditi Sagdeo; Sandro Gale

2008-01-01

99

Assessing the practicality of research findings for clinical practice.  

PubMed

Reading research articles can be challenging, but it also can be stimulating. Once you get a system for reviewing articles and interpreting their worth and value to your practice, you will find much usable information. Reviewing articles with the focus of assessing their importance to clinical practice could be done with a research committee of your local AORN chapter. It also would be an interesting and informational chapter program to have a panel discuss the relevance of two or three studies to perioperative practice. This process and type of information also can be used if your institution is developing research teams. Assessing the practicality of research to your practice is essential. Research is not a mystery; it is the answer to a mystery. It is necessary to the future of perioperative nursing. Change practice with empirical evidence! PMID:10476200

Girard, N

1999-01-01

100

Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a summary of drug use trends from a survey of nearly 50,000 eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth- grade students nationwide. It also includes perceived risk, personal disapproval, and perceived availability of each drug by this group. A synopsis of the methods used in the study and an overview of the key results from the 2006 survey…

Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2007-01-01

101

Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Starting in February 2001, the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) began publishing "Findings" magazine. The publication features research and findings from scholars doing work with funding from the NIGMS. Visitors can browse the archive of the publication by topic or date, and they can also check out the sample articles from the latest edition on the homepage. Recent pieces have included "Drugs from Deep Down", "Mesmerized by Metals", and "Just Found", which talks about potential sunburn treatments. The site also has the "Find More" area, which contains an image gallery, school resources, free slide kits, and interactive games. Also, the "Watch" area contains interviews with scientists like Dr. Kevin Tracey talking about his investigations into sepsis. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive Findings via email.

102

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2011-01-01

103

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975 and is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2012-01-01

104

Reflections of Girls in the Media: A Two-Part Study on Gender and Media. Summary of Key Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pamphlet summarizes the key findings of a two-part study that investigated the messages that young women (age 10 to 17) get from the media. A content analysis examined messages to girls across a range of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine…

1997

105

Pupils' perceptions of foreign language learning in the primary school – findings from the Key Stage 2 Language Learning Pathfinder evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents findings on pupil attitudes towards learning foreign languages in Key Stage 2 (ages 7–11) in primary schools in England. As a consequence of the National Languages Strategy, the University of Warwick was commissioned by the then Department for Education and Skills to undertake an evaluation between 2003 and 2005 of 19 Pathfinder local authorities which were piloting

Cynthia Martin

2012-01-01

106

Finding qualitative research: an evaluation of search strategies  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research makes an important contribution to our understanding of health and healthcare. However, qualitative evidence can be difficult to search for and identify, and the effectiveness of different types of search strategies is unknown. Methods Three search strategies for qualitative research in the example area of support for breast-feeding were evaluated using six electronic bibliographic databases. The strategies were based on using thesaurus terms, free-text terms and broad-based terms. These strategies were combined with recognised search terms for support for breast-feeding previously used in a Cochrane review. For each strategy, we evaluated the recall (potentially relevant records found) and precision (actually relevant records found). Results A total yield of 7420 potentially relevant records was retrieved by the three strategies combined. Of these, 262 were judged relevant. Using one strategy alone would miss relevant records. The broad-based strategy had the highest recall and the thesaurus strategy the highest precision. Precision was generally poor: 96% of records initially identified as potentially relevant were deemed irrelevant. Searching for qualitative research involves trade-offs between recall and precision. Conclusions These findings confirm that strategies that attempt to maximise the number of potentially relevant records found are likely to result in a large number of false positives. The findings also suggest that a range of search terms is required to optimise searching for qualitative evidence. This underlines the problems of current methods for indexing qualitative research in bibliographic databases and indicates where improvements need to be made.

Shaw, Rachel L; Booth, Andrew; Sutton, Alex J; Miller, Tina; Smith, Jonathan A; Young, Bridget; Jones, David R; Dixon-Woods, Mary

2004-01-01

107

A Survey of American Voter Attitudes Concerning Child Care Services: Highlights and Key Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 901 voters was conducted to measure voter attitudes toward child care and, in particular, the Act for Better Child Care Services (ABC). The survey also explored attitudes toward parental leave. Findings indicated that: (1) a majority of Americans think of child care as an urgent need and…

Marttila & Kiley, Inc., Boston, MA.

108

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet presents an overview of the findings pertaining to eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students from the 1999 Monitoring the Future Study. This overview focuses on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also examines trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

109

Finding the "Right" Information: A Search Strategy. Keys to Community Involvement Series: 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whether it is needed for long-range planning or immediate problem-solving, information is inevitably critical to community groups and leaders. This booklet is for individuals and groups who are faced with a need for finding the "right" information for discussion and decision-making. The booklet describes an overall approach to information-seeking…

Hunter, Carolyn

110

Informing CHIP and Medicaid Outreach and Education: Topline Report: Key Findings from a National Survey of Low-Income Parents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes project background, methodology, and research findings from a recently completed (June 2011) survey conducted for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). The purpose of the survey is to inform policy, outreach, and edu...

2011-01-01

111

Integrated management systems in Indian manufacturing organizations : Some key findings from an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The integration of management systems has become a popular subject for research and practice. However, there is a considerable lack of literature on integrated management systems (IMS) in developing countries. This study aims to examine the current status, motivation and perceived benefits of IMS in manufacturing organizations in India. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To examine the status of IMS in

Harjeev K. Khanna; S. C. Laroiya; D. D. Sharma

2010-01-01

112

Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Project: The 1991 Nevada State telephone survey: Key findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1991 Nevada State Telephone Survey was implemented by Decision Research on behalf of the State of Nevada, Agency for Nuclear Projects\\/Nuclear Waste Project Office (NWPO) as part of an ongoing socioeconomic impact assessment study. The scope of this survey was considerably smaller than a previous survey conducted in 1989 and focused more upon public evaluations of the Yucca Mountain

J. H. Flynn; C. K. Mertz; P. Slovic

1991-01-01

113

Transfer Velocity Project: Key Findings on Student Transfer in California Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Which factors promote student transfer from California Community Colleges (CCC) to baccalaureate-granting institutions? How do community college practices support this transition? Which student behaviors and characteristics particularly facilitate their movement to four-year colleges and universities? The Research and Planning Group for…

Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges (RP Group), 2010

2010-01-01

114

A Review of Community of Practice in Organizations: Key Findings and Emerging Themes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research has been conducted in the area of Communities of Practice (CoP) over the past two decades. This concept, introduced and popularized Brown and Duguid (1991), has been applied in practice and has formed the basis of numerous scholarly articles. This paper takes a small step towards reviewing the extant literature on CoPs, focusing only on empirical papers. We

Anukrati Agrawal; K. D. Joshi

2011-01-01

115

Managing incidental findings and research results in genomic research involving biobanks and archived data sets.  

PubMed

Biobanks and archived data sets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings and individual research results of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using "biobank" here to refer both to collections of samples and collections of data). This article reports recommendations from a 2-year project funded by the National Institutes of Health. We analyze the responsibilities involved in managing the return of incidental findings and individual research results in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). We suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When reidentification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and the roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) reidentify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. We suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. This article specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks as well as those already in existence. PMID:22436882

Wolf, Susan M; Crock, Brittney N; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Beskow, Laura M; Cho, Mildred K; Christman, Michael F; Green, Robert C; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M; Koenig, Barbara A; Kohane, Isaac S; Leroy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S; Petersen, Gloria M; Richardson, Henry S; Scott, Joan A; Terry, Sharon F; Wilfond, Benjamin S; Wolf, Wendy A

2012-04-01

116

Novel oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: key trial findings and clinical implications.  

PubMed

Novel oral anticoagulants have the potential to improve stroke prevention in patients who have atrial fibrillation and an elevated risk of stroke by overcoming several limitations of warfarin, such as the need for regular monitoring and dose adjustment, and the existence of multiple drug interactions and dietary restrictions. In recently completed phase III trials in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, common findings for dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban compared with warfarin included: risk reductions for stroke and systemic embolism, significantly fewer hemorrhagic strokes and intracranial hemorrhages, and reductions in mortality, although different trends were seen in several endpoints. However, the trials had important differences in terms of design, populations studied, and statistical analysis that preclude comparison between trials and should be considered when interpreting findings. In this article, data for novel anticoagulants are reviewed and some potential practical implications are highlighted. PMID:23313169

Goette, Andreas

2013-01-11

117

Investigating Ideomotor Cognition with Motorvisual Priming Paradigms: Key Findings, Methodological Challenges, and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

Ideomotor theory claims that perceptual representations of action-effects are functionally involved in the planning of actions. Strong evidence for this claim comes from a phenomenon called motorvisual priming. Motorvisual priming refers to the finding that action planning directly affects perception, and that the effects are selective for stimuli that share features with the planned action. Motorvisual priming studies have provided detailed insights into the processing of perceptual representations in action planning. One important finding is that such representations in action planning have a categorical format, whereas metric representations are not anticipated in planning. Further essential findings regard the processing mechanisms and the time course of ideomotor cognition. Perceptual representations of action-effects are first activated by action planning and then bound into a compound representation of the action plan. This compound representation is stabilized throughout the course of the action by the shielding of all involved representations from other cognitive processes. Despite a rapid growth in the number of motorvisual priming studies in the current literature, there are still many aspects of ideomotor cognition which have not yet been investigated. These aspects include the scope of ideomotor processing with regard to action types and stimulus types, as well as the exact nature of the binding and shielding mechanisms involved.

Thomaschke, Roland

2012-01-01

118

Cardiomyopathy in Friedreich Ataxia: Clinical Findings and Research  

PubMed Central

Friedreich ataxia is the most common human ataxia and results from inadequate production of the frataxin protein, most often due to a triplet expansion in the nuclear FXN gene. The gene cannot be transcribed to generate the messenger RNA for frataxin. Frataxin is an iron-binding protein targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. In its absence, multiple iron-sulfur-dependent proteins in mitochondria and the cytosol lack proper assembly, destroying mitochondrial and nuclear function. Mitochondrial oxidant stress may also participate in ongoing cellular injury. Although progressive and debilitative ataxia is the most prominent clinical finding, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with heart failure is the most common cause of early death in this disease. There is no cure. In this review we cover recent basic and clinical findings regarding the heart in Friedreich ataxia, offer recommendations for clinical management of the cardiomyopathy in this disease, and point out new research directions to advance the field.

Payne, R. Mark; Wagner, Gregory R.

2013-01-01

119

The law of incidental findings in human subjects research: establishing researchers' duties.  

PubMed

Research technologies can now produce so much information that there is significant potential for incidental findings (IFs). These are findings generated in research that are beyond the aims of the study. Current law and federal regulations offer no direct guidance on how to deal with IFs in research, nor is there adequate professional or institutional guidance. We advocate a defined set of researcher duties based on law and ethics and recommend a pathway to be followed in handling IFs in research. This article traces the underlying ethical and legal theories supporting researcher duties to manage IFs, including duties to develop a plan for management in the research protocol, to discuss the possibility of and management plan for IFs in the informed consent process, and to address, evaluate, and ultimately offer to disclose IFs of potential clinical or reproductive significance to research participants when they arise. PMID:18547206

Wolf, Susan M; Paradise, Jordan; Caga-anan, Charlisse

2008-01-01

120

UNC study finds cancer gene family member functions key to cell adhesion and migration  

Cancer.gov

While cancer researchers are learning more of WTX and how its loss contributes to cancer formation, virtually nothing is known of FAM123C or FAM123A, the latter of which is a highly abundant protein within neurons, cells that receive and send messages from the body to the brain and back to the body. A UNC-led team of scientists used sophisticated technologies to identify and describe the protein interactions that distinguish each member of the WTX family. They found that unlike WTX and FAM123C, FAM123A interacts with a specific set of proteins that regulates cell adhesion and migration, processes essential to normal cell functioning and which, when mutated, contribute to human diseases such as cancer or Alzheimer’s.

121

Managing Incidental Findings and Research Results in Genomic Research Involving Biobanks & Archived Datasets  

PubMed Central

Biobanks and archived datasets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using “biobank” here to refer to both collections of samples and collections of data). This paper reports recommendations from a 2-year, NIH-funded project. The authors analyze responsibilities to manage return of IFs and IRRs in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). They suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When re-identification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities: to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) re-identify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. The authors suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and that are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. The paper specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks and biobanks already in existence.

Wolf, Susan M.; Crock, Brittney N.; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P.; Beskow, Laura M.; Cho, Mildred K.; Christman, Michael F.; Green, Robert C.; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Kohane, Isaac S.; LeRoy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J.; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Richardson, Henry S.; Scott, Joan A.; Terry, Sharon F.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Wolf, Wendy A.

2013-01-01

122

The Genetics of Autism: Key Issues, Recent Findings and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD’S) are highly heritable. Consequently, gene discovery promises to help illuminate the pathophysiology of these syndromes, yielding important opportunities for the development of novel treatments and a more nuanced understanding of the natural history of these disorders. Although the underlying genetic architecture of ASD’s is not yet known, the literature demonstrates that it is not, writ large, a monogenic disorder with Mendelian inheritance, but rather a group of complex genetic syndromes with risk deriving from genetic variations in multiple genes. The widely accepted “Common Disease-Common Variant” hypothesis predicts that the risk alleles in ASD’s and other complex disorders will be common in the general population. However, recent evidence from gene discovery efforts in a wide range of diseases raises important questions regarding the overall applicability of the theory and the extent of its usefulness in explaining individual genetic liability. In contrast, considerable evidence points to the importance of rare alleles both with regard to their value in providing a foothold into the molecular mechanisms of ASD and their overall contribution to the population-wide risk. This chapter reviews the origins of the common versus rare variant debate, highlights recent findings in the field, and addresses the clinical implications of both common and rare variant discoveries.

El-Fishawy, Paul; State, Matthew W.

2010-01-01

123

Kidney-pancreas transplantation: assessment of key imaging findings in the acute setting.  

PubMed

For patients with diabetes, insulin therapy can be an effective treatment for years. However, many diabetics eventually develop complications from the disease, including neuropathy, amputations, atherosclerosis, and kidney failure. While kidney failure can be managed with dialysis, difficulties with monitoring fluid intake and diet, bone loss, anemia, and venous access can be problematic for the patient. Due to the decreased life expectancy and difficulties of medical management of patients with diabetes and renal failure, combined renal-pancreas transplantation is an increasingly used option available to type 1 diabetics with concurrent renal failure due to refinements of surgical technique and immunosuppressive therapy. Due to the increasing number of kidney-pancreas transplant patients, longer post-transplant survival, and increasing number of hospitals performing the procedure, more transplant patients are having their care increasingly shifted away from the major transplant centers to general community hospitals. In many kidney-pancreas transplants patients who present to the emergency department for suspected transplant dysfunction, imaging plays a critical initial role in their diagnosis and management. Therefore, it has become increasingly important that community and emergency department radiologists be able to recognize the normal imaging appearance of renal-pancreas transplants and to identify acute findings. PMID:22644061

Heller, Matthew T; Hattoum, Alexander

2012-05-29

124

42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section 93... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93.104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of...

2012-10-01

125

42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93...Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding...

2011-10-01

126

Return of individual research results and incidental findings: facing the challenges of translational science.  

PubMed

The debate over return of individual research results and incidental findings to study participants is a key frontier in research ethics and practice. This is fundamentally a problem of translational science-a question of when information about an individual that is generated in research should be communicated for clinical attention, particularly as technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing are increasingly used in clinical care. There is growing consensus that investigators should offer participants at least those individual findings of high clinical importance and actionability. Increasing attention to what information biobanks and secondary researchers owe people who provide data and specimens offers an opportunity to treat these source individuals as research partners. Cutting-edge issues include return of results in pediatric populations and return to kin and family, both before and after the death of the proband, as well as how to manage incidental findings in clinical sequencing. Progress will require an understanding of the continuum linking research and clinical care and developing standards and models for return. PMID:23875796

Wolf, Susan M

2013-07-15

127

Research Goes To School: How to Find and Use Research for Improving Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to help educators locate the best, most up-to-date research and information available for decision making, this handbook focuses on computer searching of databases, manual searching of materials, and telephone searching of "people networks." A rationale is presented for using research on education and a discussion of where to find…

Newman, Joan; And Others

128

FRESHWATER FINDINGS, 1976-1978. RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, DULUTH, MINNESOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

This bibliography, inclusive from 1976 through 1978 lists all publications authored by personnel of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Some of the research findings were to determine how physical and chemical pollution affects aquatic life; to assess the effects of eco...

129

Disclosure and management of research findings in stem cell research and banking: policy statement.  

PubMed

Prompted by an increased interest of both research participants and the patient advocacy community in obtaining information about research outcomes and on the use of their biological samples; the international community has begun to debate the emergence of an ethical 'duty' to return research results to participants. Furthermore, the use of new technologies (e.g., whole-genome and -exome sequencing) has revealed both genetic data and incidental findings with possible clinical significance. These technologies together with the proliferation of biorepositories, provide a compelling rationale for governments and scientific institutions to adopt prospective policies. Given the scarcity of policies in the context of stem cell research, a discussion on the scientific, ethical and legal implications of disclosing research results for research participants is needed. We present the International Stem Forum Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement and trust that it will stimulate debate and meet the concerns of researchers and research participants alike. PMID:22594334

Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M; Andrews, Peter W; Bredenoord, Annelien; Colman, Alan; Hin, Lee Eng; Hull, Sara; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Sipp, Douglas; Stacey, Glyn; Wahlstrom, Jan; Zeng, Fanyi

2012-05-01

130

Pain, nicotine, and smoking: research findings and mechanistic considerations.  

PubMed

Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, we extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these 2 conditions. The extant literature was 1st dichotomized into investigations of either effects of smoking on pain or effects of pain on smoking. We then integrated these findings to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain and increased smoking. Finally, we proposed directions for future research and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions and that pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:21967450

Ditre, Joseph W; Brandon, Thomas H; Zale, Emily L; Meagher, Mary M

2011-11-01

131

The Identification, Definition, and Measurement of Key Variables in Wait Time Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wait time, or the pauses between questions and responses, has been demonstrated to be an important factor influencing classroom learning. This paper reviews the key variables that have emerged in wait time research over the past 20 years. Progress in defining and measuring wait time has resulted in improved methodology for wait time research

Gooding, C. Thomas; And Others

132

The research of some key technologies on the application of WebGIS in ITS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, based on the discussion of WebGIS characteristics, some key technologies of the integration of WebGIS and ITS were expounded, these technologies includes network mode, the research of metadata search and operation, data structure analysis and data security scheme research.

Zhizhou Wu; Xiaoguang Yang; Zhizhong Li

2003-01-01

133

Key trends in basic and application-oriented research on nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key trends in basic and application-oriented research on nanomaterials are considered. It is noted that some studies are now carried out abroad and in domestic laboratories, while some other are to be initiated in the near future. It is emphasized that effective research in the field in question is possible only provided that laboratories are equipped with advanced instrumentation.

Tretyakov, Yuri D.; Goodilin, Eugene A.

2009-09-01

134

Clinical Research: NIH Has Implemented Key Provisions of the Clinical Research Enhancement Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As the National Institute of Health's (NIH) overall budget has grown, more attention has focused on its support of clinical research. For many years there have been concerns that clinical research proposals are viewed less favorably than basic research du...

2002-01-01

135

A practical approach to incidental findings in neuroimaging research  

PubMed Central

Objective: We describe the systematic approach to incidental findings (IFs) used at the Mind Research Network (MRN) where all MRI scans receive neuroradiologist interpretation and participants are provided results. Methods: From 2004 to 2011, 8,545 MRI scans were acquired by 45 researchers. As mandated by MRN?s external institutional review board, all structural sequences were evaluated by a clinical neuroradiologist who generated a report that included recommendations for referral if indicated. Investigators received a copy of their participants' reports, which were also mailed to participants unless they specifically declined. To better understand the impact of the radiology review process, a financial analysis was completed in addition to a follow-up phone survey to characterize participant perceptions regarding receiving their MRI scan results. Results: The radiologist identified IFs in 34% of the 4,447 participants. Of those with IFs (n = 1,518), the radiologist recommended urgent or immediate referral for 2.5% and routine referral for 17%. For 80.5%, no referral was recommended. Estimated annual cost for this approach including support for the neuroradiologist, medical director, and ancillary staff is approximately $60,000 or $24/scan. The results of the retrospective phone survey showed that 92% of participants appreciated receiving their MRI report, and the majority stated it increased their likelihood of volunteering for future studies. Conclusions: Addressing IFs in a cost-effective and consistent manner is possible by adopting a policy that provides neuroradiology interpretation and offers participant assistance with clinical follow-up when necessary. Our experience suggests that an ethical, institution-wide approach to IFs can be implemented with minimal investigator burden.

Holdsworth, M.T.; Aine, C.; Calhoun, V.D.; de La Garza, R.; Feldstein Ewing, S.W.; Hayek, R.; Mayer, A.R.; Kiehl, K.A.; Petree, L.E.; Sanjuan, P.; Scott, A.; Stephen, J.; Phillips, J.P.

2011-01-01

136

Designing a knowledge transfer and exchange strategy for the Alberta Depression Initiative: contributions of qualitative research with key stakeholders  

PubMed Central

Background Depressive disorders are highly prevalent and of significant societal burden. In fall 2004, the 'Alberta Depression Initiative' (ADI) research program was formed with a mission to enhance the mental health of the Alberta population. A key expectation of the ADI is that research findings will be effectively translated to appropriate research users. To help ensure this, one of the initiatives funded through the ADI focused specifically on knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE). The objectives of this project were first to examine the state of the KTE literature, and then based on this review and a set of key informant interviews, design a KTE strategy for the ADI. Methods Face to face interviews were conducted with 15 key informants familiar with KTE and/or mental health policy and programs in Alberta. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the constant comparison method. Results This paper reports on findings from the qualitative interviews. Respondents were familiar with the barriers to and facilitators of KTE as identified in the existing literature. Four key themes related to the nature of effective KTE were identified in the data analysis: personal relationships, cultivating champions, supporting communities of practice, and building receptor capacity. These recommendations informed the design of a contextually appropriate KTE strategy for the ADI. The three-phased strategy involves preliminary research, public workshops, on-going networking and linkage activities and rigorous evaluation against pre-defined and mutually agreed outcome measures. Conclusion Interest in KTE on the part of ADI has led to the development of a strategy for engaging decision makers, researchers, and other mental health stakeholders in an on-going network related to depression programs and policy. A similarly engaged process might benefit other policy areas.

Mitton, Craig; Adair, Carol E; McKenzie, Emily; Patten, Scott; Waye-Perry, Brenda; Smith, Neale

2009-01-01

137

Online Information Exchanges for Parents of Children With a Rare Health Condition: Key Findings From an Online Support Community  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet provides new opportunities for parents of children with difficult illnesses and disabilities to find information and support. The Internet is particularly important for caregivers of children with special needs due to numerous health-related decisions they face. For at-risk populations, online support communities can become key settings and channels for health promotion and communication. Objective This study is an initial exploration of the information-seeking and information-provision processes present in an online support community, which is an area of opportunity and interest for Internet-based medical research and practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe information-related processes of uncertainty management in relationship to clubfoot. Specifically, the study explored interpersonal communication (information seeking and provision) in an online support community serving the needs of parents of children with clubfoot. Methods The study population consisted of messages posted to an online community by caregivers (parents) of children with clubfoot. The theoretical framework informing the study was the Uncertainty Management Theory (UMT). The study used content analysis to explore and categorize the content of 775 messages. Results Women authored 664 of 775 messages (86%) and men authored 47 messages (6%). Caregivers managed uncertainty through information seeking and provision behaviors that were dynamic and multilayered. The ratio of information-seeking messages to information-provision responses was 1 to 4. All five types of information-seeking behaviors proposed by Brashers’ schema were identified, most of them being correlated. Information seeking using direct questions was found to be positively correlated to self-disclosure (r=.538), offering of a candidate answer (r=.318), and passive information seeking (r=.253). Self-disclosure was found to be positively correlated to provision of a candidate answer (r=.324), second-guessing (r=.149), and passive information seeking (r=.366). Provision of a candidate answer was found to be positively correlated with second-guessing (r=.193) and passive information seeking (r=.223). Second-guessing was found to be positively correlated to passive information seeking (r=.311). All correlations reported above were statistically significant (P<0.01). Of the 775 messages analyzed, 255 (33%) identified a medical professional or institution by name. Detailed medical information was provided in 101 (13%) messages, with the main source of information identified being personal experience rather than medical sources. Conclusion Online communities can be an effective channel for caregivers, especially women, to seek and offer information required for managing clubfoot-related uncertainty. To enhance communication with parents, health care institutions may need to invest additional resources in user-friendly online information sources and online interactions with caregivers of children with special illnesses such as clubfoot. Furthermore, explorations of information-seeking and information-provision behaviors in online communities can provide valuable data for interdisciplinary health research and practice.

Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John; Andsager, Julie; Morcuende, Jose A

2013-01-01

138

Interdisciplinary, translational, and community-based participatory research: finding a common language to improve cancer research.  

PubMed

Preventing cancer, downstaging disease at diagnosis, and reducing mortality require that relevant research findings be translated across scientific disciplines and into clinical and public health practice. Interdisciplinary research focuses on using the languages of different scientific disciplines to share techniques and philosophical perspectives to enhance discovery and development of innovations; (i.e., from the "left end" of the research continuum). Community-based participatory research (CBPR), whose relevance often is relegated to the "right end" (i.e., delivery and dissemination) of the research continuum, represents an important means for understanding how many cancers are caused as well as for ensuring that basic science research findings affect cancer outcomes in materially important ways. Effective interdisciplinary research and CBPR both require an ability to communicate effectively across groups that often start out neither understanding each other's worldviews nor even speaking the same language. Both demand an ability and willingness to treat individuals from other communities with respect and understanding. We describe the similarities between CBPR and both translational and interdisciplinary research, and then illustrate our points using squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus as an example of how to deepen understanding and increase relevance by applying techniques of CBPR and interdisciplinary engagement. PMID:19336548

Hebert, James R; Brandt, Heather M; Armstead, Cheryl A; Adams, Swann A; Steck, Susan E

2009-03-31

139

Finding a Mentor for High School Independent Scientific Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Being involved with scientific research in high school is rewarding and fun. Research enables students to: (1) learn in depth about a particular area; (2) meet other students who are also enthusiastic about learning and who have done amazing research; and (3) earn scholarships for college if the research is entered in competitions. Completing a…

Hess, Amber

2008-01-01

140

42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative...

2012-10-01

141

42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS...

2011-10-01

142

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting...Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING...determinations and findings affecting research and development...

2011-10-01

143

Research findings from synthetic character research: possible implications for interactive communication with robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers findings from synthetic character research using virtual learning environments. Children aged 8-11 years interacted with FearNot, a software package that deals with the social problem of bullying in schools. Following the interaction, children participated in classroom discussion forums, a method we have developed to assist children in verbalizing their views and perspectives. This approach enables the exploration

Lynne Hall; Sarah Woods; Kerstin Dautenhahn

2004-01-01

144

Identifying Trainers' Knowledge of Training Transfer Research Findings--Closing the Gap between Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Training professionals were surveyed concerning their knowledge of transfer of training research. Survey items were developed from an integrative literature review based on empirical findings of factors that directly or indirectly (through learning) influence training transfer. Survey results suggest that training professionals are in agreement…

Hutchins, Holly M.; Burke, Lisa A.

2007-01-01

145

Identifying key issues in environmental wetland research using scaling and uncertainty analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantification of the response of wetlands to environmental change and of climate change to wetland processes, is a pressing, but complex, issue. Findings of widely diverse investigations have to be generalised to identify the key issues and the gaps in knowledge. Two tools for generalisation, scaling and uncertainty analysis, were applied here to two case studies and act as stepping

Peter van Bodegom; Chris Bakker; Hugo Denier van der Gon

2004-01-01

146

Basic Skills Resource Center: Report on the Preliminary Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five interrelated research efforts on learning strategies are conducted through the Basic Skills Resource Center. This report contains papers presented by the five principal investigators at the American Educational Research Association 1984 Annual Meetin...

R. P. Russo

1985-01-01

147

Speaking up about Advocacy: Findings from a Partnership Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a partnership research project carried out by a research team consisting of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities. The research explored people's understandings of advocacy and identified gaps in advocacy provision for people with learning disabilities and their families. Four focus…

Chapman, Melanie; Bannister, Susan; Davies, Julie; Fleming, Simon; Graham, Claire; Mcmaster, Andrea; Seddon, Angela; Wheldon, Anita; Whittell, Bridget

2012-01-01

148

Speaking up about Advocacy: Findings from a Partnership Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a partnership research project carried out by a research team consisting of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities. The research explored people's understandings of advocacy and identified gaps in advocacy provision for people with learning disabilities and their families. Four focus…

Chapman, Melanie; Bannister, Susan; Davies, Julie; Fleming, Simon; Graham, Claire; Mcmaster, Andrea; Seddon, Angela; Wheldon, Anita; Whittell, Bridget

2012-01-01

149

Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

1989-01-01

150

Scoping the Field: Identifying Key Research Priorities in HIV and Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this project was to identify key research priorities related to HIV and rehabilitation. We conducted a scoping\\u000a study which included a literature review of published and grey literature, followed by focus group and interview consultations\\u000a with 28 participants including people living with HIV, researchers, educators, clinicians, and policy makers with expertise\\u000a in HIV and rehabilitation. Qualitative content

Kelly O’Brien; Annette Wilkins; Elisse Zack; Patricia Solomon

2010-01-01

151

The influence of sociocultural factors on organ donation and transplantation in Korea: findings from key informant interviews.  

PubMed

Although brain death was formally recognized in Korea in 2000 for the purpose of organ donation, traditional Confucian-based thought still prevails. The aim of this study was to explore sociocultural perspectives that influence health professionals' attitudes and perceptions regarding organ donation. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nine key informants from three major hospitals providing transplant services in South Korea. Several themes were identified as barriers to organ donation: Confucianism, misunderstandings and myths, organs as spare for selling, lack of clarity in the definition of death in the new legislation, and limited medical insurance coverage. It remains difficult for brain death to be accepted as true death, and there is currently a poor rate of organ procurement. Findings of the study will help identify socioculturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance and accessibility of organ transplantation among South Koreans. PMID:15070497

Kim, Jung Ran; Elliott, Doug; Hyde, Cheryl

2004-04-01

152

Good Research and Faculty Buy-in: 2 Keys to Effective Marketing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Effective marketing requires more than a sleek new logo. This article presents excerpts of an online discussion on the dos and don'ts of college marketing with Mary R. Stagaman, associate vice president for external relations at the University of Cincinnati. In this discussion, she noted that good research and faculty buy-in are the two keys to…

Blumenstyk, Goldie

2008-01-01

153

Status of Research on Key LMR (Liquid-Metal-Cooled Reactor) Safety Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a review of research on key US reactor safety issues in liquid-metal-cooled reactors (LMRs) over the past decade. The discussion is structured into two time domains: 1) the FFTF/CRBRP era, which featured a mixed oxide fuel system, and ...

A. E. Waltar L. W. Deitrich

1988-01-01

154

Theoretical justification of sampling choices in international marketing research: key issues and guidelines for researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling in the international environment needs to satisfy the same requirements as sampling in the domestic environment, but there are additional issues to consider, such as the need to balance within-country representativeness with cross-national comparability. However, most international marketing research studies fail to provide theoretical justification for their choice of sampling approach. This is because research design theory and sampling

N L Reynolds; A C Simintiras; A Diamantopoulos

2003-01-01

155

Theoretical justification of sampling choices in international marketing research: key issues and guidelines for researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling in the international environment needs to satisfy the same requirements as sampling in the domestic environment, but there are additional issues to consider, such as the need to balance within-country representativeness with cross-national comparability. However, most international marketing research studies fail to provide theoretical justification for their choice of sampling approach. This is because research design theory and sampling

N L Reynolds; A C Simintiras; A Diamantopoulos

156

Can Findings of Qualitative Research in Education be Generalized?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most qualitative researchers do not recommend generalization from qualitative studies, as this research is not based on random\\u000a samples and statistical controls. The objective of this study is to explore the degree to which in-service teachers understand\\u000a the controversial aspects of generalization in both qualitative and quantitative educational research and as to how this can\\u000a facilitate problems faced by the

Mansoor Niaz

2007-01-01

157

Empirical Findings and Suggestions for Future Research on Organizational Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a companion piece to Technical Report No 7 (AD-785 003) from this grant. It reviews the research in organizational communication completed and in progress suggests some directions future research might take, and mentions how the results of t...

K. H. Roberts C. A. O'Reilly

1974-01-01

158

Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and Giftedness: Overexcitability Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 20 years, a significant body of literature has emerged focusing on the application ofDabrowski's theory ofpositive disintegration (TPD) to the study ofgifted individuals. Although much of this literature is prescriptive, some research reports spanning this time period are available. A perusal of research on TPD's appli- cability to gifted individuals indicates that the focus has been Dabrowski's

Sal Mendaglio

159

Family Caregiving and the Elderly: Policy Recommendations and Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is designed to assist in the formulation of public policy as it relates to older people and their families by setting forth a comprehensive research-based framework to guide future public action in this area. It is intended for use by public officials, agency administrators, researchers, and academicians, as well as members of the…

New York State Office for the Aging, Albany.

160

"Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

Coulter, Cathy A.

2009-01-01

161

Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and Giftedness: Overexcitability Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|During the past 20 years, a significant body of literature has emerged focusing on the application of Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration (TPD) to the study of gifted individuals. Although much of this literature is prescriptive, some research reports spanning this time period are available. A perusal of research on TPD's applicability…

Mendaglio, Sal; Tillier, William

2006-01-01

162

Gate Valve and Motor-Operator Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated...

R. Steele K. G. DeWall J. C. Watkins M. J. Russell D. Bramwell

1995-01-01

163

Key focal areas for bridging the fields of aging and disability: findings from the growing older with a disability conference  

PubMed Central

Based upon research presented at the 2011 Festival of International Conferences on Caregiving, Disability, Aging and Technology (FICCDAT)—and specifically the Growing Older with a Disability (GOWD) conference, this paper identifies areas where bridging building between aging and disability is needed to support older adults aging into or with disabilities. Five focal areas emerged: 1) The Need to Forward Bridging Between Aging and Disability Sectors, 2) Theoretical Frameworks of Individual Aging that Facilitate Bridging, 3) Bridging through Consumer Participation and Involvement, 4) Bridging Through Knowledge Transfer and 5) Bridging Opportunities in Long-Term Supports and Services and Assistive Technologies. Discussion of themes is provided within both international and Canadian contexts, reflecting the interests of FICCDAT and GOWD organizers in discussing how to improve bridging in Canada. Findings from this report form the basis of the Toronto Declaration on Bridging Aging and Disability Policy, Practice, and Research.

Naidoo, Vishaya; Putnam, Michelle; Spindel, Andria

2012-01-01

164

Researchers find nanodiamonds could improve effectiveness of breast cancer treatment  

Cancer.gov

UCLA researchers and collaborators have developed a potentially more effective treatment for "triple-negative" breast cancer that uses nanoscale, diamond-like particles called nanodiamonds. Nanodiamonds are between 4 and 6 nanometers in diameter and are shaped like tiny soccer balls. Byproducts of conventional mining and refining operations, the particles can form clusters following drug binding and have the ability to precisely deliver cancer drugs to tumors, significantly improving the drugs' desired effect. UCLA is home to the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center. The research team included contributors from the NanoCarbon Research Institute in Nagano, Japan and UC San Francisco, home of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center.

165

Considerations in presenting, interpreting, and reviewing research findings.  

PubMed

By disseminating reports of well-conducted research in peer-reviewed journals, investigators regularly provide valuable information and insights to other professionals. Prospective authors of such reports should be aware that submitted manuscripts undergo considerable scrutiny and analysis by reviewers and editors as part of the publication cycle and, later, by readers for whom the information is intended. Therefore, when a researcher becomes an author, he or she should attempt to be as complete as possible in meeting the needs of those audiences. In this article, we discuss problems often found in research reports submitted to peer-reviewed journals so that investigators may improve the quality of their manuscripts. PMID:9188398

Niemcryk, S J; Glascoff, D W

1997-03-01

166

Profiling Entrepreneurial Veterans: A Summary of Research Findings. Volume 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the research reported here is to develop a profile of entrepreneurial veteran alumni of business schools and to examine the relationship between military service, especially combat service, and the entrepreneurial motivations and behaviors ...

D. J. Messmer

1986-01-01

167

Training Through Distance Learning: An Assessment of Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report offers a review of the literature on the effectiveness of distance learning as applied to training. Most research in distance learning was found to be anecdotal, focusing on education rather than training. When effectiveness was measured, it w...

R. A. Wisher M. V. Champagne J. L. Pawluk A. Eaton D. M. Thornton

1999-01-01

168

MIT researchers find new technology may enable earlier cancer diagnosis  

Cancer.gov

A new technology developed at MIT may help to make biomarker detection much easier. The researchers, led by Sangeeta Bhatia, have developed nanoparticles that can home to a tumor and interact with cancer proteins to produce thousands of biomarkers.

169

MD Anderson researchers find coupling of proteins promotes glioblastoma development:  

Cancer.gov

Two previously unassociated proteins known to be overly active in a variety of cancers bind together to ignite and sustain malignant brain tumors, a research team led by scientists at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center reports this week in the journal Cancer Cell. This research is the first to connect FoxM1 to a molecular signaling cascade that regulates normal neural stem cells...

170

Research and clinical findings--a wholistic view.  

PubMed

Valuable information is available to clinicians both from research articles, and reports from clinicians. Both sources have limitations. Research, with the exception of longitudinal studies, tends to isolate a variable or two from the whole, limiting its usefulness. Clinical techniques reported are sometimes biased, and perform well for certain therapists in certain settings, and not so well for others. Interrelationships are important among variables such as dentition, anatomy, physiology, oral muscle functions, oral rest postures, eating, and speech. Each affects the others. Equally important are interrelationships among all the specialists who treat patients with orofacial myofunctional disorders. A wholistic approach to the evaluation and treatment of orofacial disorders is advocated. PMID:23362748

Hanson, Marvin L

2012-11-01

171

Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

2011-01-01

172

Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

2011-01-01

173

Electrical Distribution. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas

174

Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

Kirby, Douglas

175

The Career Development Inventory in Review: Psychometric and Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A literature review on the Career Development Inventory since 1979 found support for its sensitivity and specificity as a measure of readiness to make educational and vocational choices. Research is needed on its predictive validity. Revision should address increasing the reliability of the two cognitive scales. (63 references) (SK)

Savickas, Mark L.; Hartung, Paul J.

1996-01-01

176

Journals Find Many Images in Research Are Faked  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Kristin Roovers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania with a bright career ahead of her--a trusted member of a research laboratory at the medical school studying the role of cell growth in diabetes. When an editor of "The Journal of Clinical Investigation" did a spot-check on one of her images for an article in 2005,…

Young, Jeffrey R.

2008-01-01

177

Television in Northern Ireland secondary schools: Research findings and implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors provide an interim report on current research into television usage in the Northern Ireland secondary sector, including provision, subject and departmental usage and school and teacher reactions to such use. Underlying attitudes are suggested and implications drawn that promote the teaching of television in the secondary level curriculum.

C. W. J. Crouch; J. J. Collins

1984-01-01

178

Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

2011-01-01

179

Meta-analysis: synthesizing research findings in ecology and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing number of empirical studies performed in ecology and evolution creates a need for quantitative summaries of research domains to generate higher-order conclusions about general trends and patterns. Recent developments In meta-analysis (the area of statistics that is designed for summarizing and analyzing multiple independent studies) have opened up new and exciting possibilities. Unlike more traditional qualitative and narrative

Göran Arnqvist; David Wooster

1995-01-01

180

Emergency Medical Services. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of emergency medical services (EMS), established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train paramedics. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I;…

Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

181

Finding a Place for Genomics in Health Disparities Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not

S. M. Fullerton; S. Knerr; W. Burke

2012-01-01

182

Finding the Public in Consumer Research: A Reply to Ward.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses Ward's analysis of letters sent to the Federal Trade Commission about children's advertising. Advocates that public opinion research concerning consumer protection issues should include information on the degree to which consumers are informed of their fundamental rights with respect to the consumer issues being studied. (CB)|

August, William; Charren, Peggy

1984-01-01

183

Instrumentation Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose…

Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

184

Research on Interest in Science: Theories, Methods, and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical…

Krapp, Andreas; Prenzel, Manfred

2011-01-01

185

Dental Laboratory Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…

Sappe', Hoyt; Smith, Debra S.

186

Presenting technical information: A survey of research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews research investigations into various aspects of the presentation of technical information. It considers the objectives of different readers who may be consulting the information as a reference work or who may need to assimilate the information in its entirety. Ways of using headings, summaries and questions to achieve these differing objectives are discussed. The review also considers

Patricia Wright

1977-01-01

187

Finding Community: A Guide to Community Research and Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is…

Jones, W. Ron; And Others

188

Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: research findings and clinical directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, methamphetamine has appeared in mass quantities, in part, because of the ease and cost efficiency of manufacturing. With this increase in availability, the use of methamphetamine has increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to describe the existing treatment options for methamphetamine abuse and provide recommendations for practitioners and researchers. Methamphetamine abuse adversely impacts

Margaret Cretzmeyer; Mary Vaughan Sarrazin; Diane L. Huber; Robert I. Block; James A. Hall

2003-01-01

189

Status of research on key LMR (liquid-metal-cooled reactor) safety issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of research on key US reactor safety issues in liquid-metal-cooled reactors (LMRs) over the past decade. The discussion is structured into two time domains: 1) the FFTF\\/CRBRP era, which featured a mixed oxide fuel system, and 2) the present era which emphasizes passive safety and a renewed emphasis on metal fuel. Issues in the FFTF

A. E. Waltar; L. W. Deitrich

1988-01-01

190

Research Findings on Radiation Hormesis and Radon Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.

Hattori, Sadao

1999-06-06

191

Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences (SURE): First Findings  

PubMed Central

In this study, I examined the hypothesis that undergraduate research enhances the educational experience of science undergraduates, attracts and retains talented students to careers in science, and acts as a pathway for minority students into science careers. Undergraduates from 41 institutions participated in an online survey on the benefits of undergraduate research experiences. Participants indicated gains on 20 potential benefits and reported on career plans. Over 83% of 1,135 participants began or continued to plan for postgraduate education in the sciences. A group of 51 students who discontinued their plans for postgraduate science education reported significantly lower gains than continuing students. Women and men reported similar levels of benefits and similar patterns of career plans. Ethnic groups did not significantly differ in reported levels of benefits or plans to continue with postgraduate education.

2004-01-01

192

Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: research findings and clinical directions.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, methamphetamine has appeared in mass quantities, in part, because of the ease and cost efficiency of manufacturing. With this increase in availability, the use of methamphetamine has increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to describe the existing treatment options for methamphetamine abuse and provide recommendations for practitioners and researchers. Methamphetamine abuse adversely impacts physical functioning, brain functioning and cognition, social support and social networks, and behavioral functioning. Negative consequences have also been documented to the environment and communities. In the studies reviewed on effective treatments, interventions consisted of aversion therapy, medication, psychosocial treatment, and case management. Each specific treatment is described as connected with an overall drug treatment program. If methamphetamine abuse continues to increase and the consequences continue to be so devastating, researchers and clinicians could advance the field by particular focus on the treatment of this type of drug use. PMID:12810148

Cretzmeyer, Margaret; Sarrazin, Mary Vaughan; Huber, Diane L; Block, Robert I; Hall, James A

2003-04-01

193

Research team finds a new breast cancer susceptibility gene  

Cancer.gov

A team of researchers led by co-principal investigators from the Hunstman Cancer Institute, the University of Utah, and the University of Melbourne, Australia, have found that mutations in a gene called XRCC2 cause increased breast cancer risk, according to a study published online in the American Journal of Human Genetics. The study looked at families that have a history of the disease but do not have mutations in the currently known breast cancer susceptibility genes.

194

A Normative Study of Children's Drawings: Preliminary Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each created a Human Figure Drawing

Sarah P. Deaver

2009-01-01

195

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2012-10-01

196

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410...

2012-10-01

197

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues...

2011-10-01

198

Gate valve and motor-operator research findings  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

1995-09-01

199

Translating research findings into practice - the implementation of kangaroo mother care in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Research findings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous research findings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. Methods A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous research findings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Results Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68?%) scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of ‘evidence of practice’ by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of ‘evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.’ The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14.64. Conclusion The KMC Ghana initiative demonstrated how research findings regarding successful outreach for the implementation of KMC could be transferred to a different context by making context-appropriate adaptations to the model.

2012-01-01

200

Great lakes research--important human health findings and their impact on ATSDR's Superfund research program.  

PubMed

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, commonly known as Superfund. ATSDR is the principal United States federal public health agency involved with issues of public health and applied science concerning the human health impact of living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste site, or emergencies resulting from unplanned releases of hazardous substances into community environments. In pursuing these mandates, ATSDR's mission is to prevent exposure and adverse human health effects and diminished quality of life associated with exposure to hazardous substances from waste sites, unplanned releases, and other sources of pollution present in the environment. There are more than 2,000 toxic substances found at hazardous waste sites in the United States. ATSDR has developed a prioritized list of 275 substances that pose the greatest hazard to human health. In conducting its work ATSDR has identified data gaps in knowledge about the toxicity of various hazardous substances as well as gaps in human exposure characterization. As part of its mandate, ATSDR initiated a Substance-Specific Applied Research Program (SSARP) to address these data gaps. The ATSDR Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program (GLHHERP) is a congressionally-mandated research program that characterizes exposure to persistent toxic substances and investigates the potential for adverse health outcome in at-risk populations. The research findings from this program in the areas of exposure, sociodemographic data, and health effects have significant public health implications for ATSDR's Superfund research activities. PMID:12018016

Hicks, Heraline E; De Rosa, Christopher T

2002-03-01

201

Discovery research: the scientific challenge of finding new antibiotics.  

PubMed

The dwindling supply of new antibiotics largely reflects regulatory and commercial challenges, but also a failure of discovery. In the 1990s the pharmaceutical industry abandoned its classical ways of seeking antibiotics and instead adopted a strategy that combined genomics with high-throughput screening of existing compound libraries. Too much emphasis was placed on identifying targets and molecules that bound to them, and too little emphasis was placed on the ability of these molecules to permeate bacteria, evade efflux and avoid mutational resistance; moreover, the compound libraries were systematically biased against antibiotics. The sorry result is that no antibiotic found by this strategy has yet entered clinical use and many major pharmaceutical companies have abandoned antibiotic discovery. Although a raft of start-up companies-variously financed by venture capital, charity or public money--are now finding new antibiotic compounds (some of them very promising in vitro or in early trials), their development through Phase III depends on financial commitments from large pharmaceutical companies, where the discouraging regulatory environment and the poor likely return on investment remain paramount issues. PMID:21700626

Livermore, David M

2011-06-23

202

Application of neural networks to seismic signal discrimination research findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research focused on identification and collection of a suitable database, identification of parametric representation of the time series seismic waveforms, and the training and testing of neural networks for seismic event classification. It was necessary to utilize seismic events that had a high degree of reliability for accurate training of the neural networks. The seismic waveforms were obtained from the Center for Seismic Studies and were organized into smaller databases for training and classification purposes. Unprocessed seismograms were not well suited for presentation to a neural network because of the large number of data points required to represent a seismic event in the time domain. The parametric representation of the seismic events in some cases provided adequate information for accurate event classification, while significantly reducing the minimum size of the neural network. Various networks have achieved classification rates ranging from 88 percent classification of three class problem to 75 percent for the 5 class problem. The results vary dependent on the number of classes and the method of parametric transformations utilized. Multiple tests were performed in order to statistically average the training and classification rates. Test summaries presented and individual test results are given in the appendix.

Cercone, James A.; Clark, W. M.; Fuller, J. J.; Goodman, Stephan; Smith, Don J.

1994-04-01

203

Disclosing incidental findings in brain research: The rights of minors in decision-making.  

PubMed

MRI is used routinely in research with children to generate new knowledge about brain development. The detection of unexpected brain abnormalities (incidental findings; IFs) in these studies presents unique challenges. While key issues surrounding incidence and significance, duty of care, and burden of disclosure have been addressed substantially for adults, less empirical data and normative analyses exist for minors who participate in minimal risk research. To identify ethical concerns and fill existing gaps, we conducted a comprehensive review of papers that focused explicitly on the discovery of IFs in minors. The discourse in the 21 papers retrieved for this analysis amply covered practical issues such as informed consent and screening, difficulties in ascertaining clinical significance, the economic costs and burden of responsibility on researchers, and risks (physical or psychological). However, we found little discussion about the involvement of minors in decisions about disclosure of IFs in the brain, especially for IFs of low clinical significance. In response, we propose a framework for managing IFs that integrates practical considerations with explicit appreciation of rights along the continuum of maturity. This capacity-adjusted framework emphasizes the importance of involving competent minors and respecting their right to make decisions about disclosure. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013;38:1009-1013. Š 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24006134

Di Pietro, Nina C; Illes, Judy

2013-09-04

204

Findings of the US research needs workshop on the topic of fusion power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: Fusion Fuel Cycle; Power Extraction; Materials Science; Safety and Environment; and Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

W. R. Meier; A. R. Raffray; R. J. Kurtz; N. B. Morley; W. T. Reiersen; Phil Sharpe; S. Willms

2010-12-01

205

Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

2009-09-16

206

Understanding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies: key issues.  

PubMed

Pricing policies such as taxes and subsidies are important tools in preventing and controlling a range of threats to public health. This is particularly so in tobacco and alcohol control efforts and efforts to change dietary patterns and physical activity levels as a means of addressing increases in noncommunicable diseases. To understand the potential impact of pricing policies, it is critical to understand the nature of price elasticities for consumer products. For example, price elasticities are key parameters in models of any food tax or subsidy that aims to quantify health impacts and cost-effectiveness. We detail relevant terms and discuss key issues surrounding price elasticities to inform public health research and intervention studies. PMID:24028228

Nghiem, Nhung; Wilson, Nick; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

2013-09-12

207

Researching the meaning of life: finding new sources of hope.  

PubMed

The purpose of the paper is to discuss means of assisting terminally ill patients in seeking for sources of meaning and hope, alongside the acknowledgment that their lifespan is short.Psycho-spiritual aspects make a substantial component patients suffering from incurable illness have to deal with. Evaluating and mapping the causes and expressions of psychological--spiritual suffering may assist in tailoring appropriate strategies of distress relief. Therefore, interventions should be given in accordance with their specific focus of difficulties, as well as with wishes and needs. Appropriate interventions in palliative psychotherapeutic rapport are inspired by identifying new sources for meaning in current life (sometimes, aided by past experiences or future visions). Reinforcing sources for meaning may attempt in providing patients amongst:--equilibrium, between suffering and sorrow (which sometimes take over the patient's world), and on the other hand, new experiences, sense of satisfaction and fulfillment. Individual's acknowledgment that he is not completely withdrawn from the circle of life, and yet significance and fulfillment in life still exists. For a holistic meaning ? centered intervention it is advisable to simultaneously integrate two central axes: the existential analysis, inspired by concepts driven from Frenkl's Logotherapy, such as freedom of choice, personal responsibility, inner truth, hope and transcendentalism; the operative axis, enhancing meaning and hope by assisting patient's wishes come true. Patients are aware, many times, that those wishes may be their last one, therefore perceive their fulfillment as crucial for their sense of meaning. Moreover, those wishes may elevate patient and family's spirit and reduce risk of demoralization. Whereas existential--spiritual interventions are recommended to be given by qualified professional therapists, the operation of fulfilling wishes is feasible by everyone, from family members to multi-disciplinary staff. Case illustrations for meaning--centered interventions will be discussed in the course of the paper. Cultural and traditional differences within the Israeli society, expressed in themes of work with patients, will lead to the conclusion, that there are many creative ways for researching meaning of life and sources for hope. PMID:20590354

Alon, Shirly

2010-04-01

208

Major Clinical Applications of Research Findings Accomplished at General Clinical Research Centers (GCRCs): Advances in Hypertension, May 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was undertaken in order to examine the contribution of the Division of Research Resources' GCRCs over the past 20 years to major clinical applications of research findings. The GCRC Program Advisory Committee identified areas of significant me...

T. L. Goodfriend A. V. Chobanian H. D. Itskovitz M. I. New W. G. Walker

1983-01-01

209

Major Clinical Applications of Research Findings Accomplished at General Clinical Research Centers (GCRCs): Advances in Diabetes, December 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was undertaken in order to examine the contribution of the Division of Research Resources' GCRCs over the past 20 years to major clinical applications of research findings. The GCRC Program Advisory Committee identified areas of significant m...

B. M. Babior J. A. Archer R. P. Eaton J. W. Ensinck J. B. Field

1982-01-01

210

Major Clinical Applications of Research Findings Accomplished at General Clinical Research Centers (GCRCs): Advances in Neuroendocrine Sciences, March 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was undertaken in order to examine the contribution of the Division of Research Resources' GCRCs over the past 20 years to major clinical applications of research findings. The GCRC Program Advisory Committee identified areas of significant me...

C. S. Hollander W. F. Crowley A. G. Frantz L. A. Frohman M. J. Kreek

1983-01-01

211

Major Clinical Applications of Research Findings Accomplished at General Clinical Research Centers (GCRCs): Advances in Perinatology, March 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project was undertaken in order to examine the contribution of the Division of Research Resources' GCRCs over the past 20 years to major clinical applications of research findings. The GCRC Program Advisory Committee identified areas of significant me...

E. R. Stiehm D. C. DeVivo A. W. Brann D. A. Fisher W. A. Hodson

1984-01-01

212

Practicing Psychologists’ Knowledge of General Psychotherapy Research Findings: Implications for Science–Practice Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

If you are a therapist, how knowledgeable are you and how knowledgeable do you need to be about psychotherapy research findings? In this study, the authors examined practicing psychologists’ knowledge of general psychotherapy research findings. Results revealed that some psychologists showed excellent familiarity with this body of outcome research, but many did not achieve this standard. Not infrequently, psychologists believed

Charles M. Boisvert; David Faust

2006-01-01

213

Substance abuse treatment providers' involvement in research is associated with willingness to use findings in practice  

PubMed Central

Using a national sample (n = 571) of substance abuse treatment providers affiliated with the Clinical Trials Network, we examined the contribution of several factors – demographic, attitudes and involvement in research – toward providers’ willingness to use research findings in practice. The sample included medical staff, social workers, psychologists and counselors. Using a multiple linear regression model, we examined the impact of involvement in research and willingness to use research findings in practice. Providers involved in research were more willing to use findings in practice (p<.001). Latino/as were less willing (p<.05). Providers with favorable attitudes toward evidence-based practices and whose agencies supported professional growth were more willing to use findings (p<.01). Involvement in research may enhance providers’ willingness to use findings in practice and improve quality of services. Results underscore the need for providing opportunities for all providers to engage in substance abuse treatment research, particularly racial/ethnic minority providers.

Pinto, Rogerio M.; Yu, Gary; Spector, Anya Y.; Gorroochurn, Prakash; McCarty, Dennis

2010-01-01

214

Refinement of the Stetler/Marram Model for Application of Research Findings to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised Stetler model of research utilization has six phases: preparation, validation, comparative evaluation, decision making, translation/application, and evaluation. It can be used to facilitate application of nursing research findings at the practitioner level. (JOW)

Stetler, Cheryl B.

1994-01-01

215

Sense of Place In Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism: An Evaluation and Assessment of Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding sense of place and related concepts often presents challenges for both managers and researchers. Inconsistent application of terms, questions regarding their origin, and a lack of awareness of research findings contribute to the ambiguity of...

J. Farnum T. Hall L. E. Kruger

2005-01-01

216

Practice-Based Research Networks, Part I: Clinical Laboratories to Generate and Translate Research Findings Into Effective Patient Care  

PubMed Central

Context To improve patient care, athletic training clinicians and researchers should work together to translate research findings into clinical practice. Problems with patient care observed in clinical practice should be translated into research frameworks, where they can be studied. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a compelling model for linking clinicians and researchers so they can conduct translational research to improve patient care. Objective To describe (1) the translational research model, (2) practice-based research as a mechanism for translating research findings into clinical practice, (3) the PBRN model and infrastructure, (4) the research potential using the PBRN model, and (5) protection of human participants in PBRN research. Description Translational research is the process of transforming research findings into health behavior that ultimately serves the public and attempts to bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Practice-based research represents the final step in the translational research continuum and describes research conducted by providers in clinical practices. The PBRNs are characterized by an organizational framework that transcends a single site or study and serves as the clinical research “laboratory” for conducting comparative-effectiveness studies using patient-oriented measures. The PBRN approach to research has many benefits, including enhanced generalizability of results, pooling of resources, rapid patient recruitment, and collaborative opportunities. However, multisite research also brings challenges related to the protection of human participants and institutional review board oversight. Clinical and Research Advantages Athletic training studies frequently include relatively few participants and, consequently, are able to detect only large effects. The incidence of injury at a single site is sufficiently low that gathering enough data to adequately power a treatment study may take many years. Collaborative efforts across diverse clinical practice environments can yield larger patient samples to overcome the limitations inherent in single-site research efforts.

Sauers, Eric L.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Bay, R. Curtis

2012-01-01

217

Communicating Academic Research Findings to IS Professionals: An Analysis of Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because research find ings often do not have direct or immediate relevance to IS professionals in indus- try, the question arises as to how those findings should be disseminated to them in a suitable form at such time as they do become relevant. A central argument of this paper is that the traditional mecha- nisms whereby academic researchers disseminate their

Michael Lang

2003-01-01

218

Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

Bell, Nancy D.

2011-01-01

219

Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Yule, Thomas J.

1994-10-01

220

Applied Research on Quantum Key Distribution Technology in Distributed Space TT&C Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum key distribution technology is an emerging technology, which uses quantum mechanics properties of micro-particles. The progress of quantum key distribution can generate the quantum key which can be kept strictly confidential. The application of quantum key distribution technology in distributed space TT & C network can improve the existing communication environment and enhance communications security. This article will

Chang-qing Gong; Yuan-qing Bai; Hong-yuan Zhou; Jian-li Feng

2009-01-01

221

Current progress in network research: toward reference networks for key model organisms.  

PubMed

The collection of multiple genome-scale datasets is now routine, and the frontier of research in systems biology has shifted accordingly. Rather than clustering a single dataset to produce a static map of functional modules, the focus today is on data integration, network alignment, interactive visualization and ontological markup. Because of the intrinsic noisiness of high-throughput measurements, statistical methods have been central to this effort. In this review, we briefly survey available datasets in functional genomics, review methods for data integration and network alignment, and describe recent work on using network models to guide experimental validation. We explain how the integration and validation steps spring from a Bayesian description of network uncertainty, and conclude by describing an important near-term milestone for systems biology: the construction of a set of rich reference networks for key model organisms. PMID:17728341

Srinivasan, Balaji S; Shah, Nigam H; Flannick, Jason A; Abeliuk, Eduardo; Novak, Antal F; Batzoglou, Serafim

2007-08-29

222

Monitoring the Future. National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication Number 10-7583  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2010-01-01

223

Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication No. 10-7583  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2010-01-01

224

Success factors in key accounts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper seeks to present research that examines the success factors for key accounts within firms, i.e. what factors lead to successful versus unsuccessful key accounts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data from a consulting firm are analyzed to examine the success factors for key accounts within firms. Findings – The results suggest that marketers' relational assets, personal\\/social bonds, dissatisfaction, and

Arun Sharma

2006-01-01

225

Pupils' Perceptions of Foreign Language Learning in the Primary School--Findings from the Key Stage 2 Language Learning Pathfinder Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents findings on pupil attitudes towards learning foreign languages in Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11) in primary schools in England. As a consequence of the National Languages Strategy, the University of Warwick was commissioned by the then Department for Education and Skills to undertake an evaluation between 2003 and 2005 of 19…

Martin, Cynthia

2012-01-01

226

Pupils' Perceptions of Foreign Language Learning in the Primary School--Findings from the Key Stage 2 Language Learning Pathfinder Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings on pupil attitudes towards learning foreign languages in Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11) in primary schools in England. As a consequence of the National Languages Strategy, the University of Warwick was commissioned by the then Department for Education and Skills to undertake an evaluation between 2003 and 2005 of 19…

Martin, Cynthia

2012-01-01

227

Tulane Family Planning Operations Research in the English Speaking Caribbean: Final Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operations research in the area of family planning has proved useful in identifying barriers to contraceptive use, resolving these problems, and testing new approaches to service delivery. The results of operations research in six English-speaking Caribbe...

J. T. Bertrand P. Russell-Brown E. Landry

1986-01-01

228

Enhancing the Interpretation of "Significant" Findings: The Role of Mixed Methods Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present essay outlines how mixed methods research can be used to enhance the interpretation of significant findings. First, we define what we mean by significance in educational evaluation research. With regard to quantitative-based research, we define the four types of significance: statistical significance, practical significance, clinical…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

2004-01-01

229

Preliminary Findings of Learning Gains for Adult Learners with Developmental Disabilities. Research Brief No. 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Public perception of adults with developmental disabilities realizing learning gains often remains illusive. This paper highlights key findings in achievement in basic skills for adults with mental retardation on a functional assessment in a life skills context for three program years (2003-2006). In this study the time period between the pre-…

Posey, Virginia; Jacobsen, Jared

2007-01-01

230

Transforming Public Schools: A Synthesis of Research Findings from UCLA's Center X  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a…

Quartz, Karen Hunter; Priselac, Jody; Franke, Megan Loef

2009-01-01

231

Transforming Public Schools: A Synthesis of Research Findings from UCLA'S Center X  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a high-quality, stable workforce: (1) Firmly embed

Jody Priselac; Megan Loef Franke

2009-01-01

232

Key challenges and ways forward in researching the “good death”: qualitative in-depth interview and focus group study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To understand key challenges in researching end of life issues and identify ways of overcoming these.Design Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with researchers and focus groups with people affected by cancer.Participants An international sample of 32 researchers; seven patients with experience of cancer; and four carers in south east Scotland.Results Researchers highlighted the difficulty of defining the end of

Marilyn Kendall; Fiona Harris; Kirsty Boyd; Aziz Sheikh; Scott A Murray; Duncan Brown; Ian Mallinson; Nora Kearney; Allison Worth

2007-01-01

233

Utility of qualitative research findings in evidence-based public health practice.  

PubMed

Epidemiological data, derived from quantitative studies, provide important information about the causes, prevalence, risk correlates, treatment and prevention of diseases, and health issues at a population level. However, public health issues are complex in nature and quantitative research findings are insufficient to support practitioners and administrators in making evidence-informed decisions. Upshur's Synthetic Model of Evidence (2001) situates qualitative research findings as a credible source of evidence for public health practice. This article answers the following questions: (1) where does qualitative research fit within the paradigm of evidence-based practice and (2) how can qualitative research be used by public health professionals? Strategies for using qualitative research findings instrumentally, conceptually, and symbolically are identified by applying Estabrooks' (1999) conceptual structure of research utilization. Different research utilization strategies are illustrated through the use of research examples from the field of work on intimate partner violence against women. Recommendations for qualitative researchers disseminating findings and for public health practitioners/policy makers considering the use of qualitative findings as evidence to inform decisions are provided. PMID:16684207

Jack, Susan M

234

Breast Cancer Highlights: Key Findings from the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium: A U.S. Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium has become one of the leading forums for communication of important discoveries in breast cancer research. Over the past couple of years, seminal, practice-changing results have been presented at this meeting. The aromatase inhibitors represent the most effective endocrine interven- tions for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor- positive breast cancer. Their introduction into the

MASSIMO CRISTOFANILLI; GABRIEL N. HORTOBÁGYI

235

5th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention: summary of key research and implications for policy and practice – Operations research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operations research was added as a fourth scientific track to the pathogenesis conference series at the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2009) in recognition of the importance of this growing research field and the need for applied research to inform and evaluate the scale up of some key interventions in HIV treatment, care and prevention.

Rodney Kort

2010-01-01

236

Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed

Paul M Wilson; Mark Petticrew; Mike W Calnan; Irwin Nazareth

2010-01-01

237

Twenty-Six Key Research Questions in Urban Stream Ecology: An Assessment of the State of the Science (Journal Article)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract. Urban streams have been the focus of much research in recent years, but many questions about the mechanisms driving the urban stream syndrome remain unanswered. Identification of key research questions is an important step toward effective, efficient management of urba...

238

Twenty-six key research questions in urban stream ecology: an assessment of the state of the science  

EPA Science Inventory

Although urban streams have been the focus of much research activity in recent years, there remain many unanswered questions about the mechanisms driving the â??urban stream syndrome.â? Identification of these key research questions is an important step toward effective, efficient ...

239

Freshwater findings, 1979-1982: research publications of the Environmental Research Laboratory, Duluth, Minnesota  

SciTech Connect

This report contains citations of publications for the years 1979-1982 on research conducted or supported by the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. All published material has been organized into two major categories: (1) Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Proceedings, etc., and (2) EPA Research Reports. The report is organized by year with all journal articles, book chapters, proceedings, etc., for a given year appearing before the EPA research reports for the same year; within each category publications are listed alphabetically by author. Authors of the publications listed include ERL-Duluth laboratory staff members and scientists at universities, in industry, and at other facilities who received research funding under the auspices of the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. Limited quantities of reprints are available for those articles identified by ERL-Duluth reprint number in parentheses following the citation. These can be obtained by writing to: Librarian, ERL-Duluth, U.S. EPA, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN 55804. EPA research reports can be obtained by writing to: National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22151. All other articles are not available from ERL-Duluth or NTIS, but can be found in most major libraries.

Highland, T.; Curtis, C.

1983-10-01

240

DIII-D research towards resolving key issues for ITER and steady-state tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DIII-D research program is addressing key ITER research needs and developing the physics basis for future steady-state tokamaks. Pellet pacing edge-localized mode (ELM) control in the ITER configuration reduces ELM energy loss in proportion to 1/fpellet by inducing ELMs at up to 12× the natural ELM rate. Complete suppression of ELMs with resonant magnetic perturbations has been extended to the q95 expected for ITER baseline scenario discharges, and long-duration ELM-free QH-mode discharges have been produced with ITER-relevant co-current neutral-beam injection (NBI) using external n = 3 coils to generate sufficient counter-Ip torque. ITER baseline discharges at ?N ˜ 2 and scaled NBI torque have been maintained in stationary conditions for more than four resistive times using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) for tearing mode suppression and disruption avoidance; active tracking with steerable launchers and feedback control catch these modes at small amplitude, reducing the ECCD power required to suppress them. Massive high-Z gas injection into disruption-induced 300-600 kA 20 MeV runaway electron (RE) beams yield dissipation rates ˜10× faster than expected from e-e collisions and demonstrate the possibility of benign dissipation of such REs should they occur in ITER. Other ITER-related experiments show measured intrinsic plasma torque in good agreement with a physics-based model over a wide range of conditions, while first-time main-ion rotation measurements show it to be lower than expected from neoclassical theory. Core turbulence measurements show increased temperature fluctuations correlated with sharply enhanced electron transport when \

Hill, D. N.; the DIII-D Team

2013-10-01

241

These Schools Join Forces to Share the Research Load--And Their Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Small school systems can conduct effective research and evaluation programs by forming university-based consortia of school systems that perform these functions and share findings. Mississippi State University conducts such a task force program approach with member schools. (CJH)|

Henson, Kenneth T.; Saterfiel, Thomas H.

1986-01-01

242

Summary of Research Findings on the Military General Educational Development Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes and integrates the findings of research studies dealing with the military General Educational Development (GED) program. The major areas covered include: (1) the field conduct of the GED PROGRAM, (2) characteristics of GED program p...

E. A. Waller

1976-01-01

243

Alcohol Use Disorders, Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... and adolescents years after they were exposed to alcohol in the womb. That is according to a ...

244

Researchers Find New Cause of Cardiac Damage After Heart Attack in Type 1 Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... Up forJoslin Newsletters News Release Joslin researchers find new cause of cardiac damage after heart attack in type 1 diabetes Study reveals new targets for diagnosis and therapy Boston – June 13, ...

245

Research Goes To School: How to Find and Use Research for Improving Schools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Designed to help educators locate the best, most up-to-date research and information available for decision making, this handbook focuses on computer searching of databases, manual searching of materials, and telephone searching of 'people networks.' A ra...

J. Newman

1983-01-01

246

Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

PubMed Central

Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination.

2010-01-01

247

Feedback of research findings for vaccine trials: experiences from two malaria vaccine trials involving healthy children on the Kenyan Coast.  

PubMed

Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an 'ethical imperative' or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account. PMID:23433355

Gikonyo, Caroline; Kamuya, Dorcas; Mbete, Bibi; Njuguna, Patricia; Olotu, Ally; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Vicki; Molyneux, Sassy

2013-02-21

248

Fourth-Grade Researchers: Helping Children Develop Strategies for Finding and Using Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Finds significant improvements (at both a Title I school and a middle-income school) in fourth-grade students' ability to find and use information after a year of research-strategy instruction that was integrated with the demands of inquiry-based content-area projects, rather than skills taught out of context. (SR)

Dreher, Mariam Jean; Davis, Kathryn Ann; Waynant, Priscilla; Clewell, Suzanne F.

1998-01-01

249

A Transdisciplinary Approach to Training: Preliminary Research Findings Based on a Case Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the benefits, barriers and challenges of the transdisciplinary approach to training, and to present findings of a case analysis. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on the research findings of an experimental training program for Greek local government managers co-funded by the European…

Bimpitsos, Christos; Petridou, Eugenia

2012-01-01

250

The Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes: Comparing and Contrasting Findings from Quantitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field that has relied heavily on qualitative case studies we are now seeing a growing number of books and articles reporting findings from statistical research. In this article we compare and contrast findings from two major contributions.1 These studies converge on several important conclusions, and we begin by briefly reviewing these. But there are differences as well. Some

Helmut Breitmeier; Arild Underdal; Oran R. Young

251

[Research on the method of stress assessment--from the research findings of 2010].  

PubMed

The Japanese Society for Occupational Mental Health has conducted research on assessment of the psychological load (i.e., stress) among workers. Investigations were conducted three times, and those were contract research projects assigned by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. In this project, the author was the primary researcher. In the latest research, a survey utilizing the Live Event Method was performed extensively nationwide; the survey covered 10,494 subjects (including 1,977 females) from all types of industry and occupation. The objective of this research was to reevaluate the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet used as an evaluation basis for the "Certification of workers' compensation related to mental disorders from psychological load." Two previous research investigations, conducted in 2002 and 2006, had suggested the need for such reevaluation. The outcomes revealed that, the longer the monthly overtime working hours, the higher the stress scores (in the range of 0 to 10), and the lower the appearance rate of stress. Subjects who performed 140 hours or more of overtime work per month, which fell under the category of "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," showed 6.3 points, which was markedly high, and ranked fourth in the survey with 63 assessment items. The category, "Extremely Excessive Overtime Work," includes two working hour ranges, 120 hours or more and 160 hours or more; those working hour ranges were defined in the revision based on the latest research. Monthly overtime work of 120 hours or more, but less than 140 hours, was ranked ninth and scored 6.3 points. Monthly overtime work of 80 hours or more, but less than 100 hours, scored 5.3 points with a frequency of 14.2%. Based on the above results, new assessment items were added to the Psychological Load Assessment Sheet. This paper addresses and studies the issues explained above. PMID:23346811

Natsume, Makoto

2012-01-01

252

Research on a New Key-Frame Extraction Algorithm of Printing Video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scenes and contents of printing video almost describes the operation, usage and running of printing machines. Based on these features of printing video, this paper introduces some approaches of key-frame extraction. In commonly used traditional algorithms, key-frame extraction algorithms based on average histogram and based on shot boundary are described in detail. Moreover, this paper proposes a novel approach of key-frame extraction based on average frame-difference. The experimental results indicate that the new approach is very effective and efficient for extracting key-frames of printing video.

You, Fucheng; Chen, Yujie

253

APPLICABILITY OF GENERAL EDUCATION RESEARCH FINDINGS IN CAREER AND TECHNICAL TEACHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Findings from an earlier study of traditional preservice teacher education were the basis of a research framework developed to examine an alternative inservice teacher education program. The investigation assessed the utility of this framework in a career and technical environment. The qualitative case study design used 5 research questions reflecting the concepts identified in the earlier study. Data derived from

C. Gloria Heberley

254

Methods, Findings, and History in Attitude-Behavior Research: A Rejoinder to Hanson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews Hanson's findings that laboratory research tends to demonstrate a positive correlation between attitudes and behavior while field research does not. This article, by adding date of publication, shows that the trend over time, presumably because of improved methodology, is toward more positive correlations in both settings. (Author/JAC)|

Piliavin, Jane Allyn

1981-01-01

255

Research Off limits and Underground: Street Corner Methods for Finding Invisible Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates research methods for studies of school drop-outs and push-outs, populations that are very difficult\\u000a to find since they no longer have an institutional affiliation. The work argues that street corner research, which was in\\u000a favor among the early urban researchers of the Chicago school, may have a renewed role in these investigations. The details\\u000a of street corner

Lizbet Simmons

2007-01-01

256

Nutrition and Growth: Recent Research Findings and Research Priorities. Matrix No. 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research indicates that low income adults and infants in the United States are more likely to be overweight than undernourished. Very possibly, the assumptions upon which food supplement programs are based are ill-founded. While many of the currently operating broadly conceived supplemental food programs achieve desirable collateral…

Graham, George G.

257

Disclosing incidental findings in genetics contexts: A review of the empirical ethical research.  

PubMed

The disclosure of incidental findings, also called unsolicited findings, unexpected results, and secondary variants, is increasingly recognised as an issue in clinical and research genetics contexts. The rise of next generation sequencing methods has only intensified the issue, increasing the likelihood of incidental findings appearing. This review focuses on empirical research on the ethical issues involved. Electronic databases were searched for articles covering quantitative and qualitative research on the ethical issues involved in the disclosure of incidental findings in clinical and research genetics contexts. 16 articles were ultimately accepted for review. Data was extracted and synthesised on the factors that should be taken into account during the decision-making process surrounding the disclosure of an incidental finding in a genetics context. These factors include the possibility of disclosure, various practical and technical factors, and various ethical factors. We suggest the development of a decision-making tree, involving an exploration of the practical and ethical concerns raised by the studies. This is in our view the best way of handling the wide variety of both possible incidental findings and parties interested in the disclosure of incidental findings. PMID:24036277

Christenhusz, Gabrielle M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Dierickx, Kris

2013-09-11

258

Increasing syringe access and HIV prevention in California: findings from a survey of local health jurisdiction key personnel.  

PubMed

This article presents results from the first survey of California local health jurisdictions (LHJs) subsequent to passage of legislation that allows for over-the-counter pharmacy sales of syringes. In 2004 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 1159 (SB1159) into law to "prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne disease among drug users, their sexual partners and their children." This legislation permits counties and cities to authorize a local disease prevention demonstration project (DPDP). Once authorized, a DPDP permits individuals to legally purchase and possess up to ten syringes from registered pharmacies without a doctor's prescription. From June to August 2005, we surveyed health departments in all 61 LHJs to assess implementation status of SB1159. Fifty-seven (93%) LHJs responded. Nine (16%) had approved a DPDP by August 2005, 17 (30%) were in the process of obtaining authorization, and 18 (32%) anticipated that SB1159 would never be authorized in their LHJ. Among LHJs that do not plan to approve a DPDP (n = 18), the reasons included: strong community opposition (41%), competing priorities (35%), law enforcement opposition (29%), and little or no interest among pharmacies (29%). In LHJs that have authorized a DPDP, 31.4% of pharmacies registered to legally sell nonprescription syringes. Preliminary results indicate that local coalitions, comprised of public health, waste management and pharmacy officials, have been instrumental in facilitating DPDP authorization. Further research is needed to identify facilitators and barriers to adopting SB1159, to identify areas for improving technical assistance to implementers, and to assess the public health impact of the legislation. PMID:17151941

Stopka, Thomas J; Garfein, Richard S; Ross, Alessandra; Truax, Steven R

2007-01-01

259

Increasing Syringe Access and HIV Prevention in California: Findings from a Survey of Local Health Jurisdiction Key Personnel  

PubMed Central

This article presents results from the first survey of California local health jurisdictions (LHJs) subsequent to passage of legislation that allows for over-the-counter pharmacy sales of syringes. In 2004 Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed Senate Bill 1159 (SB1159) into law to “prevent the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other blood-borne disease among drug users, their sexual partners and their children.” This legislation permits counties and cities to authorize a local disease prevention demonstration project (DPDP). Once authorized, a DPDP permits individuals to legally purchase and possess up to ten syringes from registered pharmacies without a doctor’s prescription. From June to August 2005, we surveyed health departments in all 61 LHJs to assess implementation status of SB1159. Fifty-seven (93%) LHJs responded. Nine (16%) had approved a DPDP by August 2005, 17 (30%) were in the process of obtaining authorization, and 18 (32%) anticipated that SB1159 would never be authorized in their LHJ. Among LHJs that do not plan to approve a DPDP (n?=?18), the reasons included: strong community opposition (41%), competing priorities (35%), law enforcement opposition (29%), and little or no interest among pharmacies (29%). In LHJs that have authorized a DPDP, 31.4% of pharmacies registered to legally sell nonprescription syringes. Preliminary results indicate that local coalitions, comprised of public health, waste management and pharmacy officials, have been instrumental in facilitating DPDP authorization. Further research is needed to identify facilitators and barriers to adopting SB1159, to identify areas for improving technical assistance to implementers, and to assess the public health impact of the legislation.

Garfein, Richard S.; Ross, Alessandra; Truax, Steven R.

2006-01-01

260

Psychometric evaluation of a questionnaire and primary healthcare nurses' attitudes towards research and use of research findings.  

PubMed

AIM: This article investigates attitudes towards and awareness of research and use of research findings among primary healthcare nurses, determinants of attitudes and evaluation of psychometric properties of an instrument measuring nurses' attitudes. BACKGROUND: The production of new knowledge is ongoing and the amount of research of relevance for health care has increased, but there remains a gap between what is known and what is done in practice. To enhance evidence-based practice and patient safety, the use of research findings needs to be encouraged and promoted. METHOD: An explanatory study using a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005-2006. The survey included items about background data and the instrument attitudes towards and awareness of research and development in nursing. 1054 nurses participated in the study. Factor analyses and Cronbach's alpha were used to evaluate internal structure and internal consistency of the instrument. RESULT: The nurses generally held positive attitudes towards research. Although most of the nurses reported using research in practice, 37% claimed that they never or rarely used research findings. Half of the respondents perceived they had the ability to analyse scientific reports/articles. This ability and research use were significant determinants of attitudes. Factor analysis of the scale resulted in a three-factor solution, which differs from the seven-factor structure previously identified by the originators of the instrument. CONCLUSION: Our results support the view that implementation of research is a complex process involving several factors. The different factor structure identified suggests that further work is needed on this instrument. PMID:23517064

Nilsson Kajermo, Kerstin; Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Falk, Ulla; Wändell, Per; Törnkvist, Lena

2013-03-20

261

Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations  

PubMed Central

Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts.

Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

2011-01-01

262

Incidental findings in genetic research and clinical diagnostic tests: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Incidental findings arise when clinically relevant genetic information about a research participant or patient is identified outside the scope of the original research objective or diagnostic test being performed. These findings can relate to carrier status for a heritable condition, misattributed paternity or increased susceptibility to a medical condition. The decision whether to disclose these findings to the research subject or patient is underpinned by many ethical, moral, and potentially legal considerations. There is an urgent need for definitive guidelines for researchers and healthcare professionals. We performed a systematic review of the relevant literature concerning the disclosure of incidental findings, based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendations, using the prescribed flowchart and checklist. At initial screening, 473 articles were retrieved. The inclusion and exclusion criteria aimed at obtaining data that were relevant and of sufficient quality were applied and a total of four relevant studies were identified, comprising 2,680 individual participants and 1,023 guidance documents. Major themes emerging from the included articles include patient autonomy, patient welfare, harmful secrets, and genetic literacy. The lack of relevant studies emphasizes the urgent need for empirical investigations into the disclosure or non-disclosure of genetic incidental findings, and the provision of guidelines to assist healthcare professionals and researchers. PMID:23166054

Jackson, Leigh; Goldsmith, Lesley; O'Connor, Anita; Skirton, Heather

2012-11-19

263

A systematic review of the designs of clinical technology: findings and recommendations for future research.  

PubMed

Human factors (HF) studies are increasingly important as technology infuses into clinical settings. No nursing research reviews exist in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review on designs of clinical technology, 34 articles with 50 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were classified into 3 categories on the basis of HF research goals. The majority of studies evaluated effectiveness of clinical design; efficiency was fewest. Current research ranges across many interface types examined with no apparent pattern or obvious rationale. Future research should expand types, settings, and participants; integrate displays; and expand outcome variables. PMID:19707093

Alexander, Greg; Staggers, Nancy

264

Ethical consideration of incidental findings on adult brain MRI in research  

PubMed Central

Objective: To characterize the frequency and severity of incidental findings in brain MRIs of young and older adult research volunteers, and to provide an evaluation of the ethical challenges posed by the detection of such findings. Methods: The authors reviewed 151 research MRI scans obtained retrospectively from subjects recruited to studies as healthy volunteers. Incidental findings were classified into four categories: no referral, routine, urgent, or immediate referral. p Values for significance were computed from ?2 tests of contingency. Results: Of 151 studies, the authors found an overall occurrence of incidental findings having required referral of 6.6%. By age, there were more findings in the older cohort (aged >60 years) than in the younger cohort (p < 0.05) and in more men than women in the older cohort (p < 0.001). Three of four (75%) findings in the younger cohort were classified in the urgent referral category; 100% of the findings in the older cohort were classified as routine (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The significant presence but different characteristics of incidental findings in young and older subjects presumed to be neurologically healthy suggest that standards of practice are needed to guide investigators in managing and communicating their discovery.

Illes, J.; Rosen, A.C.; Huang, L.; Goldstein, R.A.; Raffin, T.A.; Swan, G.; Atlas, S.W.

2006-01-01

265

Translating research findings to promote peace: moving from "field to forum" with verbatim theatre.  

PubMed

Peace, both personal and global, resides in understanding. Verbatim theatre is introduced as a vehicle for translating research findings to promote understanding and thereby, promote health. By shifting our translation lens from "bench to bedside" to "field to forum," new opportunities arise for moving nursing research-findings to an engaged audience. Stories from Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima survivors were woven into the verbatim performance, With Their Voices Raised. Analysis of audience members' reflections after the performance suggests that verbatim theatre created a connection based in openness, engagement, and trust that informed understanding and raised awareness about peace processes. PMID:23907299

Liehr, Patricia; Morris, Kate; Leavitt, Mary Ann; Takahashi, Ryutaro

266

ONLINE CONTENT A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18: Contextual influences and key components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Re- search Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities re- ported a decade ago. The authors focus on 3 specific aspects of context—genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technolo- gies—that must

Suzanne Bakken; Patricia W. Stone; Elaine L. Larson

267

"Race to Top" Said to Lack Key Science: Scant Evidence for Policies, Researchers Tell Ed. Dept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In comments on the proposed federal guidelines for stimulus funds, some researchers say there's no evidence for the policies touted. Among education researchers, one complaint about the U.S. Department of Education under former President George W. Bush was that it relentlessly promoted "scientific research in education," while at the same time…

Viadero, Debra

2009-01-01

268

Increased attention to human sexuality can improve HIV-AIDS prevention efforts: key research issues and directions.  

PubMed

Curtailing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic requires the development of effective strategies for helping people reduce high-risk sexual behavior patterns. Because the objective of HIV prevention involves changing how people behave sexually, research findings in human sexuality are extremely pertinent to efforts to promote AIDS risk reduction. Unfortunately, most public health HIV prevention programs rarely reflect findings of human sexuality research. In this article, research is reviewed in the areas of the relationship contexts of sexuality, including variations in monogamy, condom use in affectionate versus casual relationships, sexual communication, and coercion; the modification of sexual behavior repertoires; substance use in relation to sexual intercourse; and sexual schema and scripts relevant to HIV risk. Policy and training issues related to human sexuality may have hindered efforts to incorporate sexuality research findings in HIV prevention programs. Advances and refinements in the success of HIV prevention efforts are likely if research on human sexuality is better integrated in AIDS prevention programs. PMID:8543713

Kelly, J A; Kalichman, S C

1995-12-01

269

Research on some key issues in engineering safety management of rail transit signal system  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the high security requirement of rail transit signal system, the paper studied the engineering safety management theory of foreign advanced rail transit signal system, summarized the risk control process of rail transit signal system with the characteristic of china's rail transit signal system and focused on some key issues in the risk control process. Using of ALARP principle

Ya-dong Zhang; Jin Guo

2010-01-01

270

Key Technology Research on the Flexible Welding Line for Multi-model Automobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper shows that establishing the flexible multi- model welding line (FMWL) is necessary, which is the key technology for the flexible production. In this paper, some measures for implementing the flexible welding line for multi- model automobile were proposed from several aspects, such as process planning, switching mechanism, the robot interactive simulation, and automatic integrated control. And the modular

Xianghong Yang

2011-01-01

271

The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next to alcohol, marijuana is the most widely used drug among college students. Recent surveys of high reliability indicate that within the college age group approximately 21 million have smoked marijuana, and several millions smoke it daily. Research findings document clearly that marijuana has distinct adverse biological and psychological effects, even when smoked in moderate doses, and for short periods

Armand M. Nicholi Jr

1983-01-01

272

Research Paper: Knowledge-based Methods to Help Clinicians Find Answers in MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesLarge databases of published medical research can support clinical decision making by providing physicians with the best available evidence. The time required to obtain optimal results from these databases using traditional systems often makes accessing the databases impractical for clinicians. This article explores whether a hybrid approach of augmenting traditional information retrieval with knowledge-based methods facilitates finding practical clinical advice

Charles A Sneiderman; Dina Demner-Fushman; Marcelo Fiszman; Nicholas C. Ide; Thomas C. Rindflesch

2007-01-01

273

New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

Diener, Ed

2012-01-01

274

Recent Findings on Frontline Long-Term Care Workers: A Research Synthesis 1999-2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the synthesis paper is to review, summarize, and discuss the significance of available research findings on the frontline long-term care (LTC) workforce since 1999, in both home and community-based and nursing home settings. This paper buil...

2004-01-01

275

Can Research Findings Help School Systems Obtain the Most Bang from the Construction Bucks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed…

Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

276

Can Research Findings Help School Systems Obtain the Most Bang from the Construction Bucks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed…

Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

277

Kimmel Cancer Center researchers find biomarker links clinical outcome with new model of lethal tumor metabolism  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have demonstrated for the first time that the metabolic biomarker MCT4 directly links clinical outcomes with a new model of tumor metabolism that has patients “feeding” their cancer cells. Their findings were published online March 15 in Cell Cycle.

278

Strategic niche management and sustainable innovation journeys: theory, findings, research agenda, and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses empirical findings and conceptual elaborations of the last 10 years in strategic niche management research (SNM). The SNM approach suggests that sustainable innovation journeys can be facilitated by creating technological niches, i.e. protected spaces that allow the experimentation with the co-evolution of technology, user practices, and regulatory structures. The assumption was that if such niches were constructed

Johan Schot; Frank W. Geels

2008-01-01

279

Characteristics of Child Victims of Physical Violence: Research Findings and Clinical Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews recent empirical studies that examine the short- and long-term sequelae of physical child maltreatment (PCM). Assesses the current status of research examining PCM's impact on children's development and psychosocial functioning. Major findings are discussed in the context of pertinent qualifications of existing evidence. (over 140…

Kolko, David J.

1992-01-01

280

Educative Accountability Policies for Tasmania's Locally Managed Schools: Interim Policy Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes interim findings of a policy research project in Tasmania, Australia, aimed at producing educative accountability options for identifying processes and criteria to improve learning, teaching, and leadership. Identifies preferred accountability criteria and processes in Tasmania's locally managed school district, maps patterns of…

Macpherson, R. J. S.

1996-01-01

281

Using Interactive Technology to Disseminate Research Findings to a Diverse Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demonstrates how case stories can be used to disseminate the findings of several case studies on negotiating accommodations in the workplace. It highlights the power of interactive technology and of the partnership between the researchers and the Canadian Council for Rehabilitation and Work (CCRW). The paper describes the process of…

Stockley, Denise; Beyer, Wanda; Hutchinson, Nancy; DeLugt, Jennifer; Chin, Peter; Versnel, Joan; Munby, Hugh

2009-01-01

282

A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

2011-01-01

283

Research-Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Research Doctorate Programs in the Biomedical Sciences: Selected Findings from the NRC Assessment" examines data on the biomedical sciences programs to gather additional insight about the talent, training environment, outcomes, diversity, and international participation in the biomedical sciences workforce. This report supports an earlier…

Lorden, Joan F., Ed.; Kuh, Charlotte V., Ed.; Voytuk, James A., Ed.

2011-01-01

284

Religion, Spirituality, and Medicine: Research Findings and Implications for Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of scientific research suggests connec- tions between religion, spirituality, and both mental and physical health. The findings are particularly strong in patients with severe or chronic illnesses who are having stressful psychologic and social changes, as well as existential struggles related to meaning and purpose. Recent studies indicate that religious beliefs influence med- ical decisions, such as

Harold G. Koenig

2004-01-01

285

Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

Grotzer, Tina A.

2011-01-01

286

Alternative Interpretations of Findings in Cognitive Preference Research in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reinterpreted are findings obtained from cognitive preference test (CPT) literature and the author's personal research, in which the author states that data lend themselves to alternative explanations, not necessarily connected with cognitive preferences, and perhaps related more to "familiarity with content." Several suggestions for further CPT…

Jungwirth, Ehud

1980-01-01

287

Multisociety Task Force for Critical Care Research: Key Issues and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background: Research in critical care extends from the bench to the bedside, involving multiple departments, specialties, and funding organizations. Because of this diversity, it has been difficult for all stakeholders to collectively identify challenges and establish priorities. Objective: To define a comprehensive agenda for critical care research using input from a broad range of stakeholders to serve as a blueprint for future initiatives. Methods: The Critical Care Societies Collaborative (CCSC), consisting of the leadership of the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN), the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), joined the U.S. Critical Illness and Injury Trials Group (USCIITG) in forming a task force to define a comprehensive critical care research agenda. This group of 25 identified experts was divided into subgroups to address basic, translational, clinical, implementation, and educational research. The subgroups met via conference calls, and the entire task force met in person for a 2-day session. The result was a detailed discussion of the research priorities that served as the basis for this report. Results: The task force identified challenges, specific priority areas, and recommendations for process improvements to support critical care research. Additionally, four overarching themes emerged: (1) the traditional “silo-ed” approach to critical care research is counterproductive and should be modified; (2) an approach that more effectively links areas of research (i.e., basic and translational research, or clinical research and implementation) should be embraced; (3) future approaches to human research should account for disease complexity and patient heterogeneity; and (4) an enhanced infrastructure for critical care research is essential for future success. Conclusions: This document contains the themes/recommendations developed by a large, multiprofessional cross-section of critical care scientists, clinicians, and educators. It provides a unique framework for future research in critical care medicine.

Deutschman, Clifford S.; Ahrens, Tom; Cairns, Charles B.; Sessler, Curtis N.; Parsons, Polly E.

2012-01-01

288

Molecular Research in Oil Palm, the Key Oil Crop for the Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) produces more than five times the yield of oil\\/year\\/hectare of any annual oil crop. In consequence, it represents a\\u000a key species for meeting future vegetable oil needs (both for food and for industry) against the background of a rising world\\u000a population. As it is a tree crop and naturally out-crossing current planting material is,

Sean Mayes; Farah Hafeez; Zuzana Price; Don MacDonald; Norbert Billotte; Jeremy Roberts

289

Key Challenges and New Trends in Battery Research (2011 EFRC Forum)  

ScienceCinema

Jean-Marie Tarascon, Professor at the University de Picardie Jules Verne, France, was the fourth speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Tarascon recounted European basic research activates in electrical energy storage. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

290

A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18: contextual influences and key components.  

PubMed

The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Research Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities reported a decade ago. The authors focus on 3 specific aspects of context--genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technologies--that must be considered in formulating a nursing informatics research agenda. These influences are illustrated using the significant issue of healthcare associated infections (HAI). A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18 must expand users of interest to include interdisciplinary researchers; build upon the knowledge gained in nursing concept representation to address genomic and environmental data; guide the reengineering of nursing practice; harness new technologies to empower patients and their caregivers for collaborative knowledge development; develop user-configurable software approaches that support complex data visualization, analysis, and predictive modeling; facilitate the development of middle-range nursing informatics theories; and encourage innovative evaluation methodologies that attend to human-computer interface factors and organizational context. PMID:18922269

Bakken, Suzanne; Stone, Patricia W; Larson, Elaine L

291

Key Challenges and New Trends in Battery Research (2011 EFRC Forum)  

SciTech Connect

Jean-Marie Tarascon, Professor at the University de Picardie Jules Verne, France, was the fourth speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Tarascon recounted European basic research activates in electrical energy storage. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several “grand challenges” and use-inspired “basic research needs” recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

Tarascon, Jean Marie (University de Picardie Jules Verne, France)

2011-05-26

292

Diapers to Car Keys: The State of Spirituality, Religion and Work Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The a priori “newness” of research in the spirituality, religion and work (SRW) field has been generally accepted, even though the domain of SRW credibly overlaps with well-established inquiry traditions, such as education, psychology, and theology. Because of this multi-disciplinary nature of SRW, we asked: How truly new is research work in this domain? Following the philosophy of science literature,

Charles J. Fornaciari; Kathy Lund Dean

2004-01-01

293

A Nursing Informatics Research Agenda for 2008-18: Contextual Influences and Key Components  

PubMed Central

The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Research Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities reported a decade ago. The authors focus on three specific aspects of context - genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technologies - that must be considered in formulating a nursing informatics research agenda. These influences are illustrated using the significant issue of healthcare associated infections (HAI). A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008–18 must expand users of interest to include interdisciplinary researchers; build upon the knowledge gained in nursing concept representation to address genomic and environmental data; guide the reengineering of nursing practice; harness new technologies to empower patients and their caregivers for collaborative knowledge development; develop user-configurable software approaches that support complex data visualization, analysis, and predictive modeling; facilitate the development of middle-range nursing informatics theories; and encourage innovative evaluation methodologies that attend to human-computer interface factors and organizational context.

Bakken, Suzanne; Stone, Patricia W.; Larson, Elaine L.

2008-01-01

294

Joint Venture Manufacturing in China-Key Opportunities for Operations Management Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT International joint venture,manufacturing,is important,for both,the Chinese economy and the large number,of foreign companies,which,are investing,in China. A literature survey,investigated,previous,research,in this area from,both,Western,and,Chinese researchers,(and published,in either English or Chinese). By reviewing,the extant

Zhang Lihong; Keith Goffin

295

Findings in ESL: A Quick Reference to Findings of CAAL Research on ESL Programs at Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Between 2004 and 2008, the Council for Advancement of Adult Literacy (CAAL) published four lengthy research reports on projects to examine the nature and effectiveness of Adult Education English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs at several community colleges. The research was conducted by field studies, interviews, and the review of a large…

Chisman, Forrest P.

2008-01-01

296

A Review of Methodological Characteristics of Research Published in Key Journals in Higher Education: Implications for Graduate Research Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professional journals serve an important function within most disciplines as they offer a mechanism for professional communication. In the field of higher education, research on methodological characteristics of the published literature has been sparse. This study used content analysis to identify the types of research designs and analytical…

Hutchinson, Susan R.; Lovell, Cheryl D.

2004-01-01

297

A Review of Methodological Characteristics of Research Published in Key Journals in Higher Education: Implications for Graduate Research Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professional journals serve an important function within most disciplines as they offer a mechanism for professional communication. In the field of higher education, research on methodological characteristics of the published literature has been sparse. This study used content analysis to identify the types of research designs and analytical approaches utilized most often in 3 leading higher education journals during 5

Susan R. Hutchinson; Cheryl D. Lovell

2004-01-01

298

Contextualizing CBPR: Key Principles of CBPR meet the Indigenous research context  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses two questions regarding the use of Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches with tribal communities. First, how do “gold standard” CBPR principles hold up when applied to Native American communities and what additional contextual information is necessary to understand and work with these principles in this setting? Second, what additional principles or recommendations are helpful for researchers interested in conducting research using a CBPR approach with tribal communities? We studied a variety of literature sources on CBPR and Native health research to answer these questions. We are unaware of any publications that contextualize CBPR principles for working with specific populations. This information has direct application for conducting research with tribal communities, and confirms the importance of using CBPR approaches in this setting.

LaVeaux, Deborah; Christopher, Suzanne

2009-01-01

299

42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405...

2012-10-01

300

Funding considerations for the disclosure of genetic incidental findings in biobank research.  

PubMed

The use of biobanks in biomedical research has grown considerably in recent years. As a result of the increasing analysis of tissue samples stored in biobanks, there has also been an increase in the probability of discovering-in addition to the research target-incidental findings (IF). We identified 23 laws, policies and guidelines from international, regional and national organizations that provide guidance or identify the need for the disclosure of IF to research participants. We analyzed these instruments to determine their contemplation of the funding considerations for the disclosure of IF, examining their guidance for who discloses and the extent of researcher responsibilities. We found that the available normative documents provide little guidance to researchers and biobanks for how they should address cost and funding concerns associated with IF disclosure. It is therefore essential that the research and policy communities think through the financial implications of imposing an ethical responsibility to disclose IF. Concerted efforts should be made by policymakers, ethicists, researchers, clinicians and research institutions to develop detailed funding recommendations, potentially universal in application, to aid in the disclosure of IF, and we provide recommendations on steps that can be taken to ensure full consideration of these issues. PMID:23662709

Black, L; Avard, D; Zawati, Mh; Knoppers, Bm; Hébert, J; Sauvageau, G

2013-06-10

301

Integrated Research in Natural Resources: The Key Role of Problem Framing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Integrated research is about achieving holistic understanding of complex biophysical and social issues and problems. It is driven by the need to improve understanding about such systems and to improve resource management by using the results of integrated...

R. N. Clark G. H. Stankey

2006-01-01

302

Evidence synthesis as the key to more coherent and efficient research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Systematic review and meta-analysis currently underpin much of evidence-based medicine. Such methodologies bring order to previous research, but future research planning remains relatively incoherent and inefficient. METHODS: To outline a framework for evaluation of health interventions, aimed at increasing coherence and efficiency through i) making better use of information contained within the existing evidence-base when designing future studies; and

Alexander J Sutton; Nicola J Cooper; David R Jones

2009-01-01

303

Population studies: return of research results and incidental findings Policy Statement.  

PubMed

The Public Population Project in Genomics and Society (PłG) is a not-for profit international consortium with members from more than 40 countries. Its objective is to lead, catalyze, and co-ordinate international efforts and expertise in order to optimize the use of population studies, biobanks, research databases, and other similar health and social science research infrastructures. The year 2011-2012 witnessed a plethora of special issues of journals on the return of results but few discussed the particular situation of population studies that serve as resources for future unspecified research. PłG considers it important to propose a policy that distinguishes between the contexts of population research and disease (clinical) research involving patients and then delineates actual and future obligations. The objectives of this Policy Statement are to: (1) delineate the particular characteristics of population studies, (2) distinguish the circumstances surrounding access by researchers to such studies, and (3) develop a framework for the return of research results and incidental findings. PMID:22781095

Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Deschęnes, Mylčne; Zawati, Ma'n H; Tassé, Anne Marie

2012-07-11

304

Integrating findings of traditional medicine with modern pharmaceutical research: the potential role of linked open data.  

PubMed

One of the biggest obstacles to progress in modern pharmaceutical research is the difficulty of integrating all available research findings into effective therapies for humans. Studies of traditionally used pharmacologically active plants and other substances in traditional medicines may be valuable sources of previously unknown compounds with therapeutic actions. However, the integration of findings from traditional medicines can be fraught with difficulties and misunderstandings. This article proposes an approach to use linked open data and Semantic Web technologies to address the heterogeneous data integration problem. The approach is based on our initial experiences with implementing an integrated web of data for a selected use-case, i.e., the identification of plant species used in Chinese medicine that indicate potential antidepressant activities. PMID:21167050

Samwald, Matthias; Dumontier, Michel; Zhao, Jun; Luciano, Joanne S; Marshall, Michael Scott; Cheung, Kei

2010-12-17

305

Do Farm-to-School Programs Make a Difference? Findings and Future Research Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm-to-school programs are increasing in number across the United States, yet research and evaluation of programs is limited, with only a few studies published in refereed journals. For this article we reviewed 38 studies and report on 15 studies that met the inclusion criteria. These preliminary findings are related to the impacts of farm-to-school programs on behavior of students, school

Anupama Joshi; Andrea Misako Azuma; Gail Feenstra

2008-01-01

306

Characteristics of Child Victims of Physical ViolenceResearch Findings and Clinical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews recent empirical studies that examine the short- and long-term sequelae of physical child maltreatment (PCM). The current status of research examining the impact of PCM on children's development (e.g., medical, cognitive) and psychosocial functioning (e.g., psychiatric disorders, behavioral, interpersonal, academic, affective) is reviewed. Major findings are discussed in the context of pertinent qualifications of existing evidence. To

DAVID J. KOLKO

1992-01-01

307

Behavioral Science in Video Games for Children's Diet and Physical Activity Change: Key Research Needs  

PubMed Central

Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-change procedures in video games, the mechanisms that account for changes obtained, and the groups in which these interventions work best. Such research will permit the optimal design of serious video games for diabetes and obesity prevention in the future.

Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

2011-01-01

308

Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: key research needs.  

PubMed

Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-change procedures in video games, the mechanisms that account for changes obtained, and the groups in which these interventions work best. Such research will permit the optimal design of serious video games for diabetes and obesity prevention in the future. PMID:21527086

Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard

2011-03-01

309

What are the key research and development topics in the field of e-business logistics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes) commissioned us to study what should be the major research and development areas regarding the logistics of electronic business. The method of study consisted of five elements: the creation of a preliminary e-logistics vision; a focus interviews of 65 e-business and logistics experts; defining the preliminary vision based on the interviews; a panel

Jaana Auramo; Anna Aminoff; Mikko Punakivi

310

Informal Research and Development for Agricultural Development--Key Roles for Agricultural and Extension Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informal research and development (R & D) is defined as any small-scale, decentralized agricultural or extension education program that involves the population of learners in the process of planning, implementation, and evaluation of a learning process. It involves simple experimentation with potential solutions to common problems. The presence of…

Kitinoja, Lisa

311

Key Implementation Considerations for Executing Evidence-Based Programs: Project Overview. ASPE Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In April 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) hosted a Forum, Emphasizing Evidence-Based Programs for Children and Youth, to convene the nation's leading practitioners and researchers with experience using and evaluating an array of evidence-based…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2013

2013-01-01

312

Collaboration Is Key: Librarians and Composition Instructors Analyze Student Research and Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes a collaborative research project between two composition instructors and two librarians that analyzed citation patterns among students in the First-year Composition Program at the University of Georgia. Built upon earlier bibliometric studies, this study seeks not only to examine a large data set of citations--larger than was…

Barratt, Caroline Cason; Nielsen, Kristin; Desmet, Christy; Balthazor, Ron

2009-01-01

313

Understanding the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001: Scientifically Based Research. NCREL Quick Key 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a result of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001, schools and districts are seeking information to identify, plan, and implement federally funded programs and practices that have been proven to be effective through scientifically based research (SBR). The purpose of this brochure is to help administrators, educators, parents, and…

Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), 2004

2004-01-01

314

Next-generation digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems: Key technologies and research trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last two decades, digital television terrestrial broadcasting (DTTB) systems have been deployed worldwide. With the approval of the fourth DTTB standard called Digital Television\\/ Terrestrial Multimedia Broadcasting (DTMB) by International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in December 2011, the research on first-generation DTTB standards is coming to an end. Recently, with the rapid progress of advanced signal processing technologies, nextgeneration

Linglong Dai; Zhaocheng Wang; Zhixing Yang

2012-01-01

315

Collaboration Is Key: Librarians and Composition Instructors Analyze Student Research and Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes a collaborative research project between two composition instructors and two librarians that analyzed citation patterns among students in the First-year Composition Program at the University of Georgia. Built upon earlier bibliometric studies, this study seeks not only to examine a large data set of citations--larger than was…

Barratt, Caroline Cason; Nielsen, Kristin; Desmet, Christy; Balthazor, Ron

2009-01-01

316

Key Messages from a Decade of Water Quality Research into Roof Collected Rainwater Supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research program into the quality of water supply from rainwater tanks over the last decade at the University of Newcastle in Australia has provided insights into water quality processes operating in rainwater tanks. A rainwater treatment train has been identified that includes processes in first flush devices, rainwater tanks and hot water services including the action of biofilms and

Peter J Coombes; Hugh Dunstan; Anthony Spinks; Craig Evans; Tracy Harrison

317

Workforce development: using role delineation research findings for policy-making and professional practice.  

PubMed

For the health education profession in the United States, role delineation research has been ongoing to identify valid professional competencies as the basis for workforce development. During 1998-2004, a multi-phase national research study, the National Health Educator Competencies Update Project (CUP), was designed to re-verify the role of the entry-level health educator, and further define and verify the role of advanced level health educators. The CUP findings are the evidence that has influenced the professional preparation, credentialing, and professional development of health educators. The lessons learned include the importance of employing role delineation research with a discipline-specific representative sample to appropriately affect workforce development and sustainability through an empirically-based model. PMID:21450972

Taub, Alyson; Gilmore, Gary D; Olsen, Larry K

2011-03-01

318

A Synthesis and Reflection on the Research Findings from a Statewide Undergraduate Program To Prepare Specialist Mathematics and Science Teachers (The Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There is considerable interest in preparing science teachers who can implement reform-based practices in schools. However, there are relatively few research programs that have systematically studied the implementation of this teaching innovation over extended time (i.e., the entire undergraduate experience and the first few years of full time teaching practice). One extended research program since 1993 that has examined this critical issue in teacher preparation has been carried out in a National Science Foundation funded project in the Collaboratives for the Excellence in Teacher Preparation Program (CETP), the Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation (MCTP). This session synthesizes and reflects on the key research insights coming from over twenty separate studies conducted within the MCTP Research Program over nine years. A significant finding is that the MCTP new teachers maintain their reform-based orientation over time even as they report that they find many school environments resistant to reform-based practices.

Preparation, The M.

2009-12-04

319

Incidental findings in neuroimaging research: a framework for anticipating the next frontier.  

PubMed

While strategies for handling unusual and possibly clinically significant anatomical findings on brain scans of research volunteers have been developed and implemented across neuroimaging laboratories worldwide, few concrete steps have been taken to consider the next frontier: functional anomalies. Drawing on the genetics literature, early work in neuroimaging considered actionability to be a driving force for determining if and when findings should be disclosed to individuals in whom they are detected, as inherent uncertainty raises potential ethical dilemmas of misdiagnosing and mislabelling people as patients. Here we consider the possibility of incidental findings in brain function during the resting state. Our approach does not anchor the resting state as the sine qua non of functional incidental findings, but as a path to thinking about where they may emerge in the future and how our professional communities need to think about thinking about them. We suggest that considering the issues proactively today, within a framework that is maximally flexible and open to modification, is better than responding reactively after the fact and with no framework at all. We argue that there is a duty to consider possible incidental findings despite the ambiguities of data interpretation, while working hard to prevent unnecessary alarm. PMID:22378134

Scott, Nadia A; Murphy, Timothy H; Illes, Judy

2012-02-01

320

Management of incidental findings during imaging research in "healthy" volunteers: current UK practice  

PubMed Central

Objectives Incidental findings (IF) are becoming increasingly common due to the proliferation of imaging research. IFs can be life-changing for “healthy” volunteers. This study examined variation in IF management in UK research studies of healthy volunteers, including comparison with ethical and legal guidelines, thus providing baseline data and informing future practice. Methods Questionnaire of participant background [medical/non-medical; radiologist/non-radiologist; years as principal investigator (PI)], type of research (involving children or not), institutional policy, volunteer information, radiologist involvement in reporting scans and IF disclosure mechanisms. Investigator's current and perceived “ideal” practice was examined. Participants were PIs performing imaging research of healthy volunteers approved by UK ethics committees (2006–2009). Results 63/146 (43%) surveys completed. 54/61 (88.5%) had site-specific guidelines. Information commonly provided to volunteers should IF be found: personal data (51/62; 82%), contingency plans (54/62; 87%) and disclosure to general practitioner (GP)/treating physician (47/62; 76%). PIs used different strategies for image review. Commonest: radiologist reports research scans only when researcher suspicious of IF [15/57 (26%) compared with 5/28 (16%) in ideal practice]. Commonest ideal reporting strategy: routine reporting by specialist radiologists [9/28 (29%) compared with 8/57 (14%) in current practice]. 49/56 (87.5%) have a standardised disclosure contingency plan, usually involving GP. PIs most commonly disclosed IFs to volunteers when judged relevant (27/58; 47%), most commonly face to face (22/54; 41%), by volunteer's GP (26/60; 43%). Background of PI influenced consent, reporting and disclosure practice. Conclusion There is wide variation in handling IFs in UK imaging research. Much of the current practice contravenes the vague existing legal and ethical guidelines, and is unlikely to be in the best interests of volunteers or researchers.

Booth, T C; Waldman, A D; Wardlaw, J M; Taylor, S A; Jackson, A

2012-01-01

321

UNC researchers engineer 'protein switch' to dissect role of cancer’s key players  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine have “rationally rewired” some of the cell’s smallest components to create proteins that can be switched on or off by command. These “protein switches” can be used to interrogate the inner workings of each cell, helping scientists uncover the molecular mechanisms of human health and disease. In the first application of this approach, the UNC researchers showed how a protein called Src kinase influences the way cells extend and move, a previously unknown role that is consistent with the protein’s ties to tumor progression and metastasis. UNC is home to the Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center.

322

Competency, confidence and conflicting evidence: key issues affecting health visitors' use of research evidence in practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Health visitors play a pivotal position in providing parents with up-to-date evidence-based care on child health. The recent controversy over the safety of the MMR vaccine has drawn attention to the difficulties they face when new research which raises doubts about current guidelines and practices is published. In the aftermath of the MMR controversy, this paper investigates the sources

Shona Hilton; Helen Bedford; Michael Calnan; Kate Hunt

2009-01-01

323

Small is useful in endocrine disrupter assessment—four key recommendations for aquatic invertebrate research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we enter the 21st “biocentury”, with issues such as biodiversity and biotechnology growing in public profile, it is important\\u000a to reflect on the immense ecological, medical and economic importance of invertebrates. Efforts to understand the diverse\\u000a biology of invertebrates come from many directions, including Nobel Prize winning developmental biology, research to control\\u000a insects that threaten human health and food

Thomas H. Hutchinson

2007-01-01

324

Findings of the US research needs workshop on the topic of fusion power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Of?ce of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in ?ve Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high con?dence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-suf?cient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address speci?c topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: Fusion Fuel Cycle; Power Extraction; Materials Science; Safety and Environment; and Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key ?ndings of the Fusion Power Theme.

Meier, Wayne R.; Raffray, R.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Morley, Neil B.; Reiersen, Wayne T.; Sharpe, Phil; Willms, Scott

2010-12-01

325

On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.  

PubMed

Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health. PMID:20541086

Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela

2010-05-01

326

Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks: a key service for diagnosis and research on rare diseases  

PubMed Central

Several examples have always illustrated how access to large numbers of biospecimens and associated data plays a pivotal role in the identification of disease genes and the development of pharmaceuticals. Hence, allowing researchers to access to significant numbers of quality samples and data, genetic biobanks are a powerful tool in basic, translational and clinical research into rare diseases. Recently demand for well-annotated and properly-preserved specimens is growing at a high rate, and is expected to grow for years to come. The best effective solution to this issue is to enhance the potentialities of well-managed biobanks by building a network. Here we report a 5-year experience of the Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks (TNGB), a non-profit association of Italian repositories created in 2008 to form a virtually unique catalogue of biospecimens and associated data, which presently lists more than 750 rare genetic defects. The process of TNGB harmonisation has been mainly achieved through the adoption of a unique, centrally coordinated, IT infrastructure, which has enabled (i) standardisation of all the TNGB procedures and activities; (ii) creation of an updated TNGB online catalogue, based on minimal data set and controlled terminologies; (iii) sample access policy managed via a shared request control panel at web portal. TNGB has been engaged in disseminating information on its services into both scientific/biomedical - national and international - contexts, as well as associations of patients and families. Indeed, during the last 5-years national and international scientists extensively used the TNGB with different purposes resulting in more than 250 scientific publications. In addition, since its inception the TNGB is an associated member of the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure and recently joined the EuroBioBank network. Moreover, the involvement of patients and families, leading to the formalization of various agreements between TNGB and Patients’ Associations, has demonstrated how promoting Biobank services can be instrumental in gaining a critical mass of samples essential for research, as well as, raising awareness, trust and interest of the general public in Biobanks. This article focuses on some fundamental aspects of networking and demonstrates how the translational research benefits from a sustained infrastructure.

2013-01-01

327

Informed consent for living donation: a review of key empirical studies, ethical challenges and future research.  

PubMed

Given the organ scarcity, live organ donation is increasingly considered a viable alternative for kidney and liver transplantation. Yet living donation challenges the ethical principle of nonmaleficence by subjecting healthy individuals to medical, psychosocial and unknown risks. Therefore, transplant providers, policy-makers and donors are committed to ensuring that prospective donors provide adequate informed consent to undergo the procedure. Informed consent for living donation is ethically required as a means of demonstrating respect for donor's autonomy and protecting their safety. However, all elements of informed consent are fraught with difficulties due to the unique nature of the donation process and outcome. This paper reviews empirical research on informed consent for live kidney donors (LKD) and live liver donors (LLD) for both adult and pediatric recipients. As this review shows, studies that empirically assessed the quality of informed consent elements reveal considerable variability and deficiencies across the informed consent process, suggesting the need for improvement. This review highlights challenges to each element of consent for both LKDs and LLDs, and situates trends within broader policy contexts, ethical debates and avenues for future innovative research. PMID:22594620

Gordon, E J

2012-05-17

328

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and its key role in environmental research.  

PubMed

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is arguably the most powerful and versatile tool in modern science. It has the capability to solve complex structures and interactions in situ even in complex heterogeneous multiphase samples such as soil, plants, and tissues. NMR has vast potential in environmental research and can provide insight into a diverse range of environmental processes at the molecular level be it identifying the binding site in human blood for a specific contaminant or the compositional dynamics of soil with climate change. Modern NMR-based metabonomics is elucidating contaminant toxicity and toxic mode of action rapidly and at sub lethal concentrations. Combined modern NMR approaches provide a powerful framework to better understand carbon cycling and sustainable agriculture, as well as contaminant fate, bioavailability, toxicity, sequestration, and remediation. PMID:22909253

Simpson, Andre J; Simpson, Myrna J; Soong, Ronald

2012-08-30

329

Network structure and the role of key players in a translational cancer research network: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Translational research networks are a deliberate strategy to bridge the gulf between biomedical research and clinical practice through interdisciplinary collaboration, supportive funding and infrastructure. The social network approach examines how the structure of the network and players who hold important positions within it constrain or enable function. This information can be used to guide network management and optimise its operations. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of a translational cancer research network (TCRN) in Australia over its first year, identify the key players within the network and explore these players' opportunities and constraints in maximising important network collaborations. Methods and analysis This study deploys a mixed-method longitudinal design using social network analysis augmented by interviews and review of TCRN documents. The study will use network documents and interviews with governing body members to explore the broader context into which the network is embedded as well as the perceptions and expectations of members. Of particular interest are the attitudes and perceptions of clinicians compared with those of researchers. A co-authorship network will be constructed of TCRN members using journal and citation databases to assess the success of past pre-network collaborations. Two whole network social network surveys will be administered 12?months apart and parameters such as density, clustering, centrality and betweenness centrality computed and compared using UCINET and Netdraw. Key players will be identified and interviewed to understand the specific activities, barriers and enablers they face in that role. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals were obtained from the University of New South Wales, South Eastern Sydney Northern Sector Local Health Network and Calvary Health Care Sydney. Results will be discussed with members of the TCRN, submitted to relevant journals and presented as oral presentations to clinicians, researchers and policymakers.

Cunningham, Frances C; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

330

Emerging Frontiers in Pancreatic Cancer Research: Elaboration of Key Genes, Cells and the Extracellular Milieu  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review We review recent literature with a view to forge an integrative understanding of the molecular, cellular and extracellular milieu of pancreatic cancer, and discuss them in the context of development of novel, personalized therapeutic options. Recent findings Pancreatic tumorigenesis, examined using genetically engineered mouse models, appears to be driven by local inflammation, in concert with the ‘big four’ mutations involving oncogenic KRAS, SMAD4, CDKN2A, and TP53, through induction of EMT and cancer stem cells, and accompanied by metastasis. High throughput sequencing of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) as well as neuroendocrine tumors and rarer subtypes of cancers of the pancreas have revealed several novel mutations in genes like PALB2, GNAS, DAXX, ATRX, SWI/SNF pathway related, and in genes in the ubiquitin dependent pathways such as USP9X. Therapeutic targeting of the tumor-stroma axis by cytokines and immune response modulators and the role of autophagy in pancreatic cancer are some other salient themes explored in the recent publications. Summary Recent publications shed new light on the mutational landscape of pancreatic cancer and further delineate the distinctive pancreatic cancer-stroma ecosystem as determined by the dynamic interplay of inflammation, hallmark mutations, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells.

Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Wei, Iris; Simeone, Diane M.

2013-01-01

331

Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

Dubosarsky, Mia D.

332

Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Middle School: Opportunities, Constraints, and Key Processes  

PubMed Central

Late childhood and early adolescence represent a critical transition in the developmental and academic trajectory of youth, a time in which there is an upsurge in academic disengagement and psychopathology. PAR projects that can promote youth’s sense of meaningful engagement in school and a sense of efficacy and mattering can be particularly powerful given the challenges of this developmental stage. In the present study, we draw on data from our own collaborative implementation of PAR projects in secondary schools to consider two central questions: (1) How do features of middle school settings and the developmental characteristics of the youth promote or inhibit the processes, outcomes, and sustainability of the PAR endeavor? and (2) How can the broad principles and concepts of PAR be effectively translated into specific intervention activities in schools, both within and outside of the classroom? In particular, we discuss a participatory research project conducted with 6th and 7th graders at an urban middle school as a means of highlighting the opportunities, constraints, and lessons learned in our efforts to contribute to the high-quality implementation and evaluation of PAR in diverse urban public schools.

Ritterman, Miranda L.; Wanis, Maggie G.

2010-01-01

333

The disclosure of incidental genomic findings: an "ethically important moment" in pediatric research and practice.  

PubMed

Although there are numerous position papers on the issues and challenges surrounding disclosure of incidental genomic findings involving children, there is very little research. To fill this gap, the purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of multiple professional (N?=?103) and public (N?=?63) stakeholders using both interviews and focus groups. Using qualitative analysis, we identified one overarching theme, "It's hard for us; it's hard for them," and three subthemes/questions: "What to disclose?," "Who gets the information?," and "What happens later?" Perspectives differed between professional (Institutional Review Board chairs, clinicians, and researchers) and public stakeholders. While professionals focused on the complexities of what to disclose, the lay public stated that parents should have all information laid out for them. Professionals pondered multiple parent and child situations, while the public identified parents as informational gatekeepers who know their children best. Professionals described the potential requirement for follow-up over time as a logistical "nightmare," while the public believed that parents have the responsibility for managing their children's health information over time. However, the parent role as gatekeeper was seen as time limited and in need of professional support and backup. Our findings present a case for needed dialogue around what we propose as an "ethically important moment," with the goal of protecting and respecting the viewpoints of all stakeholders when policies regarding children are developed. PMID:23572417

Driessnack, Martha; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Downing, Nancy; Hanish, Alyson; Shah, Lisa L; Alasagheirin, Mohammed; Simon, Christian M; Williams, Janet K

2013-04-10

334

Key scientific findings and policy- and health-relevant insights from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies: an integration and synthesis of results.  

PubMed

In 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a major air quality program known as the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program. The Supersites Program was a multiyear, $27 million air quality monitoring program consisting of eight regional air quality projects located throughout the United States, each with differing atmospheric pollution conditions resulting from variations in source emissions and meteorology. The overall goal of the program was to elucidate source-receptor relationships and atmospheric processes leading to PM accumulation on urban and regional scales; thus providing the scientific underpinning for modeling and data analysis efforts to support State Implementation Plans and more effective risk management approaches for PM. The program had three main objectives: (1) conduct methods development and evaluation, (2) characterize ambient PM, and (3) support health effects and exposure research. This paper provides a synthesis of key scientific findings from the Supersites Program and related studies. EPA developed 16 science/policy-relevant questions in conjunction with state and other federal agencies, Regional Planning Organizations, and the private sector. These questions were addressed to the extent possible, even given the vast amount of new information available from the Supersites Program, in a series of papers published as a special issue of the Journal of Air & Waste Management Association (February 2008). This synthesis also includes discussions of: (1) initial Supersites Program support for air quality management efforts in specific locations throughout the United States; (2) selected policy-relevant insights, based on atmospheric sciences findings, useful to air quality managers and decision makers planning emissions management strategies to address current and future PM National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and network planning and implementation; (3) selected health-relevant insights interpreted from atmospheric sciences findings in light of future directions for health and exposure scientists planning studies of the effects of PM on human health; and (4) selected knowledge gaps to guide future research. Finally, given the scope and depth of research and findings from the Supersites Program, this paper provides a reference source so readers can glean a general understanding of the overall research conducted and its policy-relevant insights. Supporting details for the results presented are available through the cited references. An annotated table of contents allows readers to easily find specific subject matter within the text. PMID:19202993

Solomon, Paul A; Hopke, Philip K; Froines, John; Scheffe, Richard

2008-01-01

335

Exome Sequencing and Unrelated Findings in the Context of Complex Disease Research: Ethical and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Exome sequencing has identified the causes of several Mendelian diseases, although it has rarely been used in a clinical setting to diagnose the genetic cause of an idiopathic disorder in a single patient. We performed exome sequencing on a pedigree with several members affected with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in an effort to identify candidate variants predisposing to this complex disease. While we did identify some rare variants that might predispose to ADHD, we have not yet proven the causality for any of them. However, over the course of the study, one subject was discovered to have idiopathic hemolytic anemia (IHA), which was suspected to be genetic in origin. Analysis of this subject’s exome readily identified two rare non-synonymous mutations in PKLR gene as the most likely cause of the IHA, although these two mutations had not been documented before in a single individual. We further confirmed the deficiency by functional biochemical testing, consistent with a diagnosis of red blood cell pyruvate kinase deficiency. Our study implies that exome and genome sequencing will certainly reveal additional rare variation causative for even well-studied classical Mendelian diseases, while also revealing variants that might play a role in complex diseases. Furthermore, our study has clinical and ethical implications for exome and genome sequencing in a research setting; how to handle unrelated findings of clinical significance, in the context of originally planned complex disease research, remains a largely uncharted area for clinicians and researchers.

Lyon, Gholson J.; Jiang, Tao; Van Wijk, Richard; Wang, Wei; Bodily, Paul Mark; Xing, Jinchuan; Tian, Lifeng; Robison, Reid J.; Clement, Mark; Lin, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ying; Moore, Barry; Glessner, Joseph T.; Elia, Josephine; Reimherr, Fred; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Yandell, Mark; Hakonarson, Hakon; Wang, Jun; Johnson, William Evan; Wei, Zhi; Wang, Kai

2012-01-01

336

Research on Family Engagement in Preventive Interventions: Toward Improved Use of Scientific Findings in Primary Prevention Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective strategies for family engagement are essential in the implementation of models directed toward the application of research findings to primary prevention practice. Although there has been limited investigation of family engagement in preventive interventions for general populations, the research has yielded several preliminary findings that warrant further study. Notably, families in eligible general populations can differ to a significant

Richard Spoth; Cleve Redmond

2000-01-01

337

Strengthening government health and family planning programs: findings from an action research project in rural Bangladesh.  

PubMed

An ongoing study at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) is based on the premise that public sector health and family planning programs can be improved through an assessment of the dysfunctional aspects of their operations, the development of problem-solving capabilities, and the transfer of strategies successfully tested in a small-scale pilot project. This paper reports findings from a field trial implemented in a subunit of the project area at an early stage of the project. Operational barriers to public sector program implementation are discussed with regard to the quantity of work, the quality of work, supplies and facilities, integration of health and family planning, and leadership, supervision, and decision making. Initial results of the ICDDR,B intervention on these managerial processes are also indicated. PMID:6495361

Simmons, R; Phillips, J F; Rahman, M

338

Dilemmas in Youth Employment Programming: Findings from the Youth Research and Technical Assistance Project. Volumes I and II. Research and Evaluation Report Series 92-C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 2-volume set contains 10 papers, 5 in each volume, that review and evaluate findings from the Youth Research and Technical Assistance Project, whose purpose was not only to explore studies and evaluations related to youth training and employment programs but also to provide a broader synthesis of evidence, findings, and research from related…

Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

339

Identifying Key Research Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every school that attempts to integrate technology into its curriculum knows that this effort consumes dollars in the school budget and hours of teacher time. School leaders invest in these resources because they believe that technology can help address meaningful learning problems. Yet, in many cases, their beliefs about the potential of…

Knezek, Gerald; Christensen, Rhonda; Bell, Lynn; Bull, Glen

2006-01-01

340

Rape Treatment Outcome Research: Empirical Findings and State of the Literature  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery.

Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

2009-01-01

341

Rape treatment outcome research: empirical findings and state of the literature.  

PubMed

This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla

2009-04-17

342

“Impact? What impact?” Epidemiological research findings in the public domain: a case study from north-east England  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects on the dissemination of potentially controversial research evidence about industrial air pollution and health in north-east England. It draws on a participant observation study of the local impact of a four-year epidemiological research programme in Teesside. The difficulties in and obstacles to disseminating research findings are explored. It may thus be described as a study of the

S. Moffatt; P. Phillimore; E. Hudson; D. Downey

2000-01-01

343

Key issues and challenges in developing a pedagogical intervention in the simulation skills center--an action research study.  

PubMed

Simulation skills centers (SSC) are considered important learning arenas for preparing and qualifying nursing students. Limited clinical placements and claims of diminished learning opportunities raise concerns that newly educated nurses lack proficiency in many psychomotor skills. Accordingly, there is an increased focus on learning in the SSC. However, it has been questioned if the pedagogical underpinning of teaching and learning in the SSC is missing or unclear. At a bachelor nursing education in Norway, there was a desire to change practice and enhance learning in the SSC by systematic use of The Model of Practical Skill Performance (Bjřrk and Kirkevold, 2000). A participatory action research design was chosen. A pedagogical intervention was developed and implemented in 2010 in a cohort of eighty-seven first year bachelor nursing students during their basic nursing skill course. The intervention is shortly described. This article reports key issues and challenges that emerged during development of the new intervention. Data to inform the study were collected via thorough meeting minutes and the project leader's logbook, and analyzed using fieldnotes analysis. Six key issues and challenges were identified. These are presented and discussed consecutively in light of their importance for development and implementation of the new intervention. PMID:23642302

Reierson, Inger Ĺse; Hvidsten, Anne; Wighus, Marianne; Brungot, Solvor; Bjřrk, Ida Torunn

2013-04-30

344

Role of "external facilitation" in implementation of research findings: a qualitative evaluation of facilitation experiences in the Veterans Health Administration  

PubMed Central

Background Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects. Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Methods A post-hoc evaluation was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews to examine the concept of facilitation across several multi-site QUERI implementation studies. The interview process is based on a technique developed in the field of education, which systematically enhances learning through experience by stimulating recall and reflection regarding past complex activities. An iterative content analysis approach relative to a set of conceptually-based interview questions was used for data analysis. Findings Findings suggest that facilitation, within an implementation study initiated by a central change agency, is a deliberate and valued process of interactive problem solving and support that occurs in the context of a recognized need for improvement and a supportive interpersonal relationship. Facilitation was described primarily as a distinct role with a number of potentially crucial behaviors and activities. Data further suggest that external facilitators were likely to use or integrate other implementation interventions, while performing this problem-solving and supportive role. Preliminary Conclusions This evaluation provides evidence to suggest that facilitation could be considered a distinct implementation intervention, just as audit and feedback, educational outreach, or similar methods are considered to be discrete interventions. As such, facilitation should be well-defined and explicitly evaluated for its perceived usefulness within multi-intervention implementation projects. Additionally, researchers should better define the specific contribution of facilitation to the success of implementation in different types of projects, different types of sites, and with evidence and innovations of varying levels of strength and complexity.

Stetler, Cheryl B; Legro, Marcia W; Rycroft-Malone, Joanne; Bowman, Candice; Curran, Geoffrey; Guihan, Marylou; Hagedorn, Hildi; Pineros, Sandra; Wallace, Carolyn M

2006-01-01

345

Empowerment and Indigenous Australian health: a synthesis of findings from Family Wellbeing formative research.  

PubMed

This paper employs a thematic qualitative analysis to synthesise seven discrete formative evaluation reports of an Indigenous Australian family empowerment programme across four study settings in Australia's Northern Territory and Queensland between 1998 and 2005. The aim of the study, which involved a total of 148 adult and 70 school children participants, is to develop a deeper understanding of the contribution of community empowerment education programmes to improving Indigenous health, beyond the evidence derived from the original discrete micro evaluative studies. Within a context beset by trans-generational grief and despair resulting from colonisation and other discriminatory government policies, across the study sites, the participants demonstrated enhanced capacity to exert greater control over factors shaping their health and wellbeing. Evident in the participants' narratives was a heightened sense of Indigenous and spiritual identity, respect for self and others, enhanced parenting and capacity to deal with substance abuse and violence. Changes at the personal level influenced other individuals and systems over time, highlighting the ecological or multilevel dimensions of empowerment. The study reveals the role of psychosocial empowerment attributes as important foundational resources in helping people engage and benefit from health and other behaviour modification programmes, and take advantage of any reforms made within macro policy environments. A key limitation or challenge in the use of psychosocial empowerment programmes relates to the time and resources required to achieve change at population level. A long-term partnership approach to empowerment research that creatively integrates micro community empowerment initiatives with macro policies and programmes is vital if health gains are to be maximised. PMID:19804554

Tsey, Komla; Whiteside, Mary; Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Wilson, Andrew

2009-10-04

346

Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration…

Zhou, Jun

2012-01-01

347

78 FR 23255 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...administrative matters pending at HHS. ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of...

2013-04-18

348

Gas Load Research Workshop: Workshop Proceedings and Findings. Held in Madison, Wisconsin on September 14-15, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the discussions and findings that took place during the GRI Gas Load Research Workshop. Topics addressed at the workshop included the market and regulatory trends driving the increasing need for load and customer information; the role ...

S. Shaffer G. Wikler R. Oscar

1994-01-01

349

Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

Fields, J. M.

1985-04-01

350

Moderate use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis during pregnancy: new approaches and update on research findings.  

PubMed

Interest in fetal origins of adverse offspring outcomes has grown extensively in the last decade. This has resulted in many published studies focusing on exposure in utero to substances and human offspring outcomes. Exposure to maternal substance use in pregnancy is believed to be a preventable hazard, and is therefore a main issue for public health concern and policy. However, an important question in human studies remains whether prenatal substance use exposure has an aetiological role in pathways to adverse developmental and behavioural outcomes via teratological effects. Recent insights and developments in research methodology will aid the adequate and more refined testing of associations between prenatal substance use and offspring outcomes. In particular, novel approaches could assist in disentangling the exposure to substance effects from correlated risk factors. The purpose of this manuscript is therefore to provide an overview of methodological issues involved in studies that focus on the association between maternal substance use during pregnancy and offspring's outcomes, to describe novel approaches to test these associations, and present some examples of new and well-designed studies and discuss their findings. PMID:19394419

Huizink, Anja C

2009-04-24

351

Finding common ground in team-based qualitative research using the convergent interviewing method.  

PubMed

Research councils, agencies, and researchers recognize the benefits of team-based health research. However, researchers involved in large-scale team-based research projects face multiple challenges as they seek to identify epistemological and ontological common ground. Typically, these challenges occur between quantitative and qualitative researchers but can occur between qualitative researchers, particularly when the project involves multiple disciplinary perspectives. The authors use the convergent interviewing technique in their multidisciplinary research project to overcome these challenges. This technique assists them in developing common epistemological and ontological ground while enabling swift and detailed data collection and analysis. Although convergent interviewing is a relatively new method described primarily in marketing research, it compares and contrasts well with grounded theory and other techniques. The authors argue that this process provides a rigorous method to structure and refine research projects and requires researchers to identify and be accountable for developing a common epistemological and ontological position. PMID:16954531

Driedger, S Michelle; Gallois, Cindy; Sanders, Carrie B; Santesso, Nancy

2006-10-01

352

Creative and Critical Thinking in the Context of Problem Finding and Problem Solving: A Research Among Students in Primary School  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present research we are studying (on a sample of 153 students 6th grade) the relationship between the two forms of thinking: critical and creative, in the context of problem finding and problem solving situations. Our hypothesis is that when there is a change in the context of study (problem solving- problem finding), then the students' creative and critical

Fotis Kousoulas; Georgia Mega

353

Exploring Variations in Teachers' Work, Lives and Their Effects on Pupils: Key Findings and Implications from a Longitudinal Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the research design of a large-scale, longitudinal research study in England intended to describe and explore variations in teachers' work, lives and their effects on pupils' educational outcomes. The study, funded by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and incorporated into the Teaching and Learning Research…

Sammons, Pam; Day, Christopher; Kington, Alison; Gu, Qing; Stobart, Gordon; Smees, Rebecca

2007-01-01

354

Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders' perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were…

Odhiambo, George; Hii, Amy

2012-01-01

355

Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

LaBanca, Frank

2008-01-01

356

Changing the behavior of healthcare professionals: the use of theory in promoting the uptake of research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objective: The uptake of research findings into routine health care is a haphazard and unpredictable process. The usefulness of the results of implementation studies is limited, due in part to the lack of an underlying framework of the important dimensions of research studies in this area and the healthcare settings within which they are conducted,and may,subsequently be used. Study

Martin Eccles; Jeremy Grimshaw; Anne Walker; Marie Johnston; Nigel Pitts

357

An Integration of Research Findings from Investigations of Pictorial Stimulus Complexity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper reviews research on pictorial stimulus complexity in instructional materials, examining still iconic visuals in particular. Five phases are proposed to assist in the integration of this research for generating useful hypotheses: (1) establishme...

J. F. Angert

1980-01-01

358

Kids in Research: Your Child Can Help Find Cures at the NIH Clinical Center  

MedlinePLUS

... of the research team who are searching for better ways to understand and treat diseases. Their participation is critical for improving health today and in future generations. Print our Kids in Research flyer (388 ...

359

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities...S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues §...

2011-10-01

360

76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by ORI during its oversight review, ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude, engaged in misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of...

2011-06-09

361

Initial pre-stress finding procedure and structural performance research for Levy cable dome based on linear adjustment theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cable-strut structural system is statically and kinematically indeterminate. The initial pre-stress is a key factor for\\u000a determining the shape and load carrying capacity. A new numerical algorithm is presented herein for the initial pre-stress\\u000a finding procedure of complete cable-strut assembly. This method is based on the linear adjustment theory and does not take\\u000a into account the material behavior. By

Li-mei Zhang; Wu-jun Chen; Shi-lin Dong

2007-01-01

362

ORI findings of scientific misconduct in clinical trials and publicly funded research, 1992–2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Since 1992 the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) had reviewed investigations of scientific misconduct in research funded by the US Public Health Service (PHS). ORI defined scientific misconduct as “fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, or other practices that seriously deviate from those that are commonly accepted within the scientific community for proposing, conducting, or reporting research”.Purpose The purpose of this study

Sandra M Reynolds

2004-01-01

363

The Ethical Maze: Finding an Inclusive Path towards Gaining Children's Agreement to Research Participation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the UK, the ethics of engaging in sociological research directly involving children have primarily been shaped by definitions of "competence". While this has been a crucial guideline for researchers in shaping the concept of informed consent, it has also acted, perhaps inadvertently, as a way of excluding particular children from the research…

Cocks, Alison J.

2006-01-01

364

How does psychotherapy work? Findings of the San Francisco psychotherapy research group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideally, psychotherapy research should reflect the complexity of the therapy process and have significant bearing on practice. As an example of such an ideal, the work of the San Francisco Psychotherapy Research Group is described and the Control?Mastery theory of Joseph Weiss and Harold Sampson is discussed. Two empirical studies, one from an earlier phase of the research and the

Robert Shilkret; Cynthia J. Shilkret

1993-01-01

365

The Hermeneutic Dialogic: Finding Patterns midst the "Aporia" of the Artist/Researcher/Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers one researcher's challenge of marking his progress in reading/studying Jacques Derrida's "Aporias" (1993) by what he calls the continual hermeneutic of making meaning. The paper places the "Aporias" reading in the setting of a weekly research group whose research cycle was creating meaning in and out of the work being done and…

de Cosson, Alex

366

Teaching, Learning and Assessing HRD: Findings from a BMAF/UFHRD Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This paper seeks to analyse and explore the results of a research project, which aimed to identify recent and current research on TLA within HRD programmes. From that base the project also intended to identify areas for future research and a basis for establishing a Special Interest Group. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive…

Sambrook, Sally; Stewart, Jim

2010-01-01

367

'Information is information': a public perspective on incidental findings in clinical and research genome-based testing.  

PubMed

The potential for genomic incidental findings is increasing with the use of genome-based testing. At the same time approaches to clinical decision making are shifting to shared decision-making models involving both the healthcare community and the public. The public's voice has been nearly absent in discussions on managing incidental findings. We conducted nine focus groups and nine interviews (n?=?63) with a broad cross-section of lay public groups to elucidate public viewpoints on incidental findings that could occur as a result of genome-based testing in clinical and research situations. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants wanted incidental findings disclosed to them whether or not these were clinical or research findings. Participants used different terms to define and describe incidental findings; they wanted to know that incidental findings are possible and be given a choice to learn about them. Personal utility was an important reason for disclosure, and participants believed that managing information is a shared responsibility between professionals and themselves. Broad public input is needed in order to understand and incorporate the public's perspective on management of incidental findings as disclosure guidelines, and policies are developed in clinical and research settings. PMID:23590238

Daack-Hirsch, S; Driessnack, M; Hanish, A; Johnson, V A; Shah, L L; Simon, C M; Williams, J K

2013-05-03

368

A selective analysis of empirical findings in networked learning research in higher education: Questing for coherence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have attempted two ambitious tasks. We have undertaken a wide-ranging survey of the Network learning (NL) literature, and tried to identify the emerging themes of this work. We have selected three of these themes, and in each case tried to identify the main theoretical perspectives in use, the main directions of the studies, and the key

Maarten de Laat; Victor Lally; Robert-Jan Simons; Etienne Wenger

2006-01-01

369

Finding Ways to Teach to Students with FASD: A Research Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines a unique educational program designed for youth with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder [FASD] in Alberta, Canada. Care was taken to include the participants' voice in this case study resulting in key insights and strategies for working with youth and/or students struggling with FASD. Using observation notes, survey and interview…

Edmonds, Kelly; Crichton, Susan

2008-01-01

370

On the Relevance of Research Findings in Cognitive Neuroscience to Educational Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their target article, Byrnes and Fox (1998) argue that many of the recent findings from the field of cognitive neuroscience have particular importance for education. In our commentary, we lend support to their contention by reporting on some of our work that has potential relevance to the proposed interface between cognitive neuroscience and education. Specifically, we discuss the findings

Michael W. O'Boyle; Harwant S. Gill

1998-01-01

371

5th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention: summary of key research and implications for policy and practice - Operations research  

PubMed Central

Operations research was added as a fourth scientific track to the pathogenesis conference series at the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2009) in recognition of the importance of this growing research field and the need for applied research to inform and evaluate the scale up of some key interventions in HIV treatment, care and prevention. Several studies demonstrated how task shifting and the decentralization of health services can leverage scarce health care resources to support scale-up efforts. For example, a Ugandan study comparing home-based and facility-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery found that both delivered equivalent clinical outcomes, but home-based delivery resulted in substantial cost savings to patients; and a retrospective cohort analysis of an HIV care programme in Lesotho demonstrated that devolving routine patient management to nurses and trained counsellors resulted in impressive gains in annual enrolment, retention in care and other clinical indicators. Studies also demonstrated how the use of trained counsellors and public health advisors could effectively expand both clinical and public health capacity in low-income settings. Studies evaluating the impact of integrating HIV and TB care resulted in improved treatment outcomes in coinfected populations, the development of environmental interventions to reduce TB transmission, and uncovering of the extent of multi-drug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB and XDR-TB) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Some mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness studies presented at this meeting addressed interventions to increase retention in care, and strengthened the evidentiary basis for universal voluntary testing and immediate ART on reducing HIV transmission; debate continued about the relative merits of clinical versus laboratory monitoring. Finally, a provocative plenary presentation outlined the shortfalls of current prevention interventions and argued for more cost-effectiveness analyses to guide the selection of interventions for maximum benefit.

2010-01-01

372

Improving Hawaiian and Filipino Involvement in Clinical Research Opportunities: Qualitative Findings from Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

Objective Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Participants Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Design Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Conclusions Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community.

Gollin, Lisa X.; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Perez, John; Easa, David; Calderon, Jose L.

2006-01-01

373

Invited Commentary: How Can We Reconcile the Findings of Keyes et al.'s Study With the Experience of Our Patients in Clinical Practice?  

PubMed

Although the accompanying study by Keyes et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178(9):1378-1388) shows us that women currently using hormonal contraception (HC) have better scores on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and report fewer suicide attempts, it does not show us that HC protects women from mood disorders or that HC is free of the mood-related side effects which cause high rates of discontinuation. The groups compared in the Keyes et al. study were different in many ways; the women using HC were younger, were more likely to engage in positive health behaviors, and had lower depression scores at each prior interview. Women with mood disorders are more likely to avoid or discontinue HC and more likely to experience worsening mood while on HC. The negative mood-related side effects experienced by women using HC (irritability and lability) are not captured by a screening tool for clinical depression, such as the depression scale used in this study. The database used in this study was longitudinal and multiwave, so the authors could have compared changes in depressive symptoms among women who switched from hormonal to nonhormonal contraceptive methods (and vice versa) across different waves. Only if the same women experienced greater levels of depressive symptoms after discontinuing HC and fewer symptoms when they restarted HC could we conclude that HC may protect women from mood disorders. PMID:24043434

Wiebe, Ellen R

2013-09-15

374

Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

1995-01-01

375

What They Take with Them: Findings from the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through the Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project (PWTARP), the authors have set out to explore and document what peer tutors take with them from their training and experience. The Peer Writing Tutor Alumni Research Project has made it possible for the authors to sample and analyze more systematically the reflections of 126 former tutors…

Hughes, Bradley; Gillespie, Paula; Kail, Harvey

2010-01-01

376

Young Women, Local Authority Care and Selling Sex: Findings from Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers, practitioners and policy makers have noted the disproportionate number of young women with backgrounds of local authority care who are involved in commercial sex. However, the lack of knowledge about why this occurs means that there is little evidence with which to develop interventions. This article describes research that explored young women’s routes into the sex industry from local

Maddy Coy

2008-01-01

377

Fourth-Grade Researchers: Helping Children Develop Strategies for Finding and Using Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the effectiveness of research strategy instruction that is integrated with the demands of inquiry-based content-area projects, rather than the typical teaching of research-related skills out of context. The study was conducted at two elementary schools, one a Title I school with a high percentage of poor readers, the other a…

Dreher, Mariam Jean; Davis, Kathryn Ann; Waynant, Priscilla; Clewell, Suzanne F.

378

Classroom Analysis: Concepts, Findings, and Applications. DPA Helsinki Investigations III. Research Bulletin No. 56.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers exploring facets of the teaching process are presented in this report. The papers are part of the Didactic Process Analysis (DPA) Helsinki research project. The DPA research team, composed of educators investigating instructional processes, has, since 1967, examined taxonomies and classifications of teaching processes. The first…

Komulainen, Erkki, Ed.; Kansanen, Pertti, Ed.

379

UC Irvine researchers find a cause of chemotherapy resistance in melanoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers with UC Irvine’s Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified a major reason why melanoma is largely resistant to chemotherapy. The researchers found a genetic pathway in melanoma cells that inhibits the cellular mechanism for detecting DNA damage wrought by chemotherapy, thereby building up tolerance to cancer-killing drugs.

380

Scientific identity of “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing : Findings and queries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe the “scientific identity” of the “top” research journals in the broader discipline of marketing by examining the methodological approaches and the geographical affiliations of authors published in selected journals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A sample of “top” research journals in marketing is selected on the basis of expert opinion and journal ranking

Göran Svensson; Thomas Helgesson; Terje Slĺtten; Bĺrd Tronvoll

2008-01-01

381

Challenges and Solutions for Libraries in Serving Entrepreneurship Needs: Findings from ProQuest Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many variations in programs and stages of development exist with regard to entrepreneurship in higher education academic institutions; however, there do appear to be common areas of information needed to support study, teaching, and research. To identify the information needs necessary to support the study of entrepreneurship, ProQuest undertook a comprehensive research effort in late 2006 with higher education institutions

Karen Resch Mckeown

2010-01-01

382

Living to Tell the Tale: Researching Politically Controversial Topics and Communicating the Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Doing politically controversial research on education issues at the statewide level presents a host of human problems in addition to technical, scientific ones. Drawing on research experience in a highly charged political context, this paper suggests practical strategies for gaining access, developing legitimacy, and communicating information in order to influence policymakers. We emphasize the importance of forming a steering committee

Judith Kleinfeld; G. Williamson McDiarmid

1986-01-01

383

A review of telework research: findings, new directions, and lessons for the study of modern work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Telework has inspired research in disciplines ranging from transportation and urban planning to ethics, law, sociology, and organizational studies. In our review of this literature, we seek answers to three questions: who participates in telework, why they do, and what happens when they do? Who teleworks remains elusive, but research suggests that male professionals and female clerical workers predominate.

Diane E. Bailey; Nancy B. Kurland

2002-01-01

384

WHO Atlas on Global Resources for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities 2007: Key Findings Relevant for Low- and Middle-Income Countries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The World Health Organization (WHO) Atlas-ID project was designed to collect, compile, and disseminate information on intellectual disabilities (ID) services and resources from across the world. This paper aims at selecting findings in the Atlas-ID that can be used as a tool for advocacy, human rights awareness, development planning, and…

Mercier, Celine; Saxena, Shekhar; Lecomte, Jocelin; Cumbrera, Marco Garrido; Harnois, Gaston

2008-01-01

385

Application of Employee Turnover Research Findings to the Underground Mining Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several significant problems associated with employee turnover among underground miners are described in the Bureau of Mines report. The report presents the results of empirical research on employee turnover in other industries and describes and critiques...

R. H. Peters

1986-01-01

386

Harvard and Baylor researchers find new target for aggressive cancer gene:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found a way to kill human cells hijacked by a genetic accelerator that puts cancer cells into overdrive: the Myc oncogene. The discovery reveals new drug targets for Myc-driven cancers, which tend to be particularly aggressive.

387

Understanding the jigsaw of evidence-based dentistry. 3. Implementation of research findings in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part one1 of this three-part series provided an overview of evidence-based dentistry (EBD), provided one definition of EBD and, having introduced the EBD matrix, concentrated on the research synthesis part of the jigsaw puzzle. Part two2 focused on the middle row of this puzzle, the dissemination of research results. This final article deals with perhaps the most vital but the

Nigel Pitts

2004-01-01

388

Research for Key Techniques of Geophysical Recognition System of Hydrocarbon-induced Magnetic Anomalies Based on Hydrocarbon Seepage Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrocarbon seepage effects can cause magnetic alteration zones in near surface, and the magnetic anomalies induced by the alteration zones can thus be used to locate oil-gas potential regions. In order to reduce the inaccuracy and multi-resolution of the hydrocarbon anomalies recognized only by magnetic data, and to meet the requirement of integrated management and sythetic analysis of multi-source geoscientfic data, it is necessary to construct a recognition system that integrates the functions of data management, real-time processing, synthetic evaluation, and geologic mapping. In this paper research for the key techniques of the system is discussed. Image processing methods can be applied to potential field images so as to make it easier for visual interpretation and geological understanding. For gravity or magnetic images, the anomalies with identical frequency-domain characteristics but different spatial distribution will reflect differently in texture and relevant textural statistics. Texture is a description of structural arrangements and spatial variation of a dataset or an image, and has been applied in many research fields. Textural analysis is a procedure that extracts textural features by image processing methods and thus obtains a quantitative or qualitative description of texture. When the two kinds of anomalies have no distinct difference in amplitude or overlap in frequency spectrum, they may be distinguishable due to their texture, which can be considered as textural contrast. Therefore, for the recognition system we propose a new “magnetic spots” recognition method based on image processing techniques. The method can be divided into 3 major steps: firstly, separate local anomalies caused by shallow, relatively small sources from the total magnetic field, and then pre-process the local magnetic anomaly data by image processing methods such that magnetic anomalies can be expressed as points, lines and polygons with spatial correlation, which includes histogram-equalization based image display, object recognition and extraction; then, mine the spatial characteristics and correlations of the magnetic anomalies using textural statistics and analysis, and study the features of known anomalous objects (closures, hydrocarbon-bearing structures, igneous rocks, etc.) in the same research area; finally, classify the anomalies, cluster them according to their similarity, and predict hydrocarbon induced “magnetic spots” combined with geologic, drilling and rock core data. The system uses the ArcGIS as the secondary development platform, inherits the basic functions of the ArcGIS, and develops two main sepecial functional modules, the module for conventional potential-field data processing methods and the module for feature extraction and enhancement based on image processing and analysis techniques. The system can be applied to realize the geophysical detection and recognition of near-surface hydrocarbon seepage anomalies, provide technical support for locating oil-gas potential regions, and promote geophysical data processing and interpretation to advance more efficiently.

Zhang, L.; Hao, T.; Zhao, B.

2009-12-01

389

Key Understandings in School Mathematics: 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the second of three articles that draw on findings from Nunes, Watson and Bryant (2009): "Key understandings in school mathematics: a report to the Nuffield Foundation". The report was soundly based on research about how children learn mathematics, much of it done in the UK in the '80s. Most of the findings about algebra are very…

Watson, Anne

2010-01-01

390

Measuring stock and change in the GB countryside for policy--key findings and developments from the Countryside Survey 2007 field survey.  

PubMed

Countryside Survey is a unique large scale long-term monitoring programme investigating stock and change of habitats, landscape features, vegetation, soil and freshwaters of Great Britain. Repeat field surveys combine policy and scientific objectives to provide evidence on how multiple aspects of the environment are changing over time, a key goal of international science in the face of profound human impacts on ecosystems. Countryside Survey 2007 (CS2007), the fifth survey since 1978, retained consistency with previous surveys, whilst evolving in line with technological and conceptual advances in the collection and integration of data to understand landscape change. This paper outlines approaches taken in the 2007 survey and its subsequent analysis and presents some of the headline results of the survey and their relevance for national and international policy objectives. Key changes between 1998 and 2007 included: a) significant shifts in agricultural land cover from arable to grassland, accompanied by increases in the area of broadleaved woodland, b) decreases in the length of managed hedges associated with agricultural land, as a proportion deteriorated to lines of trees and c) increases in the areas and numbers of wet habitats (standing open water, ponds) and species preferring wetter conditions (1998-2007 and 1978-2007). Despite international policy directed at maintaining and enhancing biodiversity, there were widespread decreases in species richness in all linear and area habitats, except on arable land, consistent with an increase in competitive and late successional species between 1998 and 2007 and 1978 and 2007. Late successional and competitive species: Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), Hawthorn (Cratageous monogyna) and Bramble (Rubus fruticosus), in the top ten recorded species recorded in 2007, all increased between 1998 and 2007. The most commonly recorded species in CS (1990, 1998 and 2007) was agricultural Ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Increases in both water quality and soil pH were in line with policy aimed at addressing previous deterioration of both. Headwater streams broadly showed continued improvements in biological quality from 1998 to 2007, continuing trends seen since 1990. In soils, there were significant increases in soil pH between 1998 and 2007 consistent with recovery from acidification. PMID:23010623

Norton, L R; Maskell, L C; Smart, S S; Dunbar, M J; Emmett, B A; Carey, P D; Williams, P; Crowe, A; Chandler, K; Scott, W A; Wood, C M

2012-09-23

391

The Journey of the Counselor and Therapist: Research Findings and Perspectives on Professional Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes a reformulation of the main findings and perspectives from a cross-sectional and longitudinal qualitative study of the development of 100 counselors and therapists. The results are presented as a phase model and as a formulation of 14 themes of counselor\\/therapist development. The following six phases are described: The phases of the lay helper, the beginning student, the

Michael H. Rřnnestad; Thomas M. Skovholt

2003-01-01

392

Qualitative Research on School Inclusion: What Do We Know? What Do We Need To Find Out?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper summarizes findings of a 3-year study assessing outcomes for 35 children (preschool to high school aged) with mild to severe disabilities in inclusive educational settings. Additionally, the study looked at "connected" pairs of children--each pair including a child with and a child without a disability. It identified three main areas…

Staub, Debbie

393

Fox Chase researchers find that most Medicare patients wait weeks before breast cancer surgery  

Cancer.gov

Although patients may feel anxious waiting weeks from the time of their first doctor visit to evaluate their breast until they have breast cancer surgery, new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center show that these waits are typical in the United States. Results were published on Monday, November 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

394

Economic downturns and population mental health: research findings, gaps, challenges and priorities.  

PubMed

Prior research suggests that the current global economic crisis may be negatively affecting population mental health. In that context, this paper has several goals: (1) to discuss theoretical and conceptual explanations for how and why economic downturns might negatively affect population mental health; (2) present an overview of the literature on the relationship between economic recessions and population mental health; (3) discuss the limitations of existing empirical work; and (4) highlight opportunities for improvements in both research and practice designed to mitigate any negative impact of economic declines on the mental health of populations. Research has consistently demonstrated that economic crises are negatively associated with population mental health. How economic downturns influence mental health should be considered in policies such as social protection programs that aim to promote recovery. PMID:20836907

Zivin, K; Paczkowski, M; Galea, S

2010-09-14

395

Behavioral history: A definition and some common findings from two areas of research.  

PubMed

Behavioral history research includes studies that (a) permit assessment of a prior experimental condition on a subsequent one, (b) show either short-lived or permanent effects, and (c) produce effects that are observable in ongoing behavior or that may be unobservable until special test conditions are introduced. We review experiments within both the conventional experimental analysis of behavior and behavioral pharmacology in order to identify commonalities and differences in the outcomes of conceptually similar experiments. We suggest that a deeper understanding of the necessary and sufficient conditions for producing history effects will emerge from these complementary research efforts. PMID:22478310

Tatham, T A; Wanchisen, B A

1998-01-01

396

Bonus Awards for Teachers in Texas' Performance Pay Program: Findings from the First Round of TEEG Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A recent report published by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) presents findings from the second-year of a multi-year evaluation of the Texas Educator Excellence Grant (TEEG) program, a statewide educator incentive program that operated in Texas. As part of this evaluation report, researchers examined how first-year TEEG…

National Center on Performance Incentives, 2009

2009-01-01

397

Group supervision in psychotherapy. Main findings from a Swedish research project on psychotherapy supervision in a group format  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training. During the last decades, group supervision has been a frequently used format in many countries. Until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to summarise and discuss main findings from a research project which used questionnaires to collect

Marie-Louise Ögren; Eva C. Sundin

2009-01-01

398

Experiences of racism and discrimination among migrant care workers in England: Findings from a mixed-methods research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports part of the findings of research undertaken between 2007 and 2009 that aimed to investigate the contribution made by migrant workers to the care workforce in England. The study involved analysis of national statistics on social care and social workers and semi-structured interviews with a wide range of stakeholders, including ninety six migrant care workers. The interviews

Martin Stevens; Shereen Hussein; Jill Manthorpe

2011-01-01

399

Qualitative Cancer Genetic Counseling Research, Part II: Findings from a Exploratory Ethnographic Study in a Cancer Clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a report of the preliminary findings of a brief exploratory ethnographic study in a cancer diagnosis and treatment clinic. The main research purpose was to explore the meaning of cancer and cancer treatment to patients themselves and to their relatives and close friends. The methods are described in detail in a paper focusing on the experiences of being

June A. Peters; Carol L. McAllister; Wendy S. Rubinstein

2001-01-01

400

The World of the British "Hifz" Class Student: Observations, Findings and Implications for Education and Further Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on ethnographic fieldwork that took place in 2004 in a boys' "hifz" class which met in a north-east London mosque. Drawing on the results of semi-participant observations and semi-structured interviews, the research findings are collated under five themes: the routines and rhythms of the "hifz" class; routes into the "hifz"…

Gent, Bill

2011-01-01

401

Comparative modeling of CCRL1, a key protein in masked immune diseases and virtual screening for finding inhibitor of this protein  

PubMed Central

Human CCRL1 belongs to the family of silent chemokine receptors. This transmembrane protein plays a role in blunting function of chemokines through binding to them. This will attenuate immune responses. Interaction between CCRL1 and CCL21 determines this immune extinction. Thus inhibiting the action of this atypical chemokine seems to stimulate immune responses especially in the case of suppressed and immune deficient conditions. In this study we predicted 3D structure of CCRL1 using comparative modeling and Hiddebn Markov Model algorithm. Final predicted model optimized by Modeller v9.8 and minimized regarding energy level using UCSF chimera candidate version1.5.3. ClasPro webserver was used to find interacting residues between CCRL1 and CCL21. Interacting residues were used as target for chemical inhibitors by simulated docking study. For finding potential inhibitors, library of KEGG compounds screened and 97 obtained chemicals docked against interacting residues between CCRL1- CCL21 and MolDock was used as docking scoring function. Results indicated that Hexadecanal is a potential inhibitor of CCRL1- CCL21 interaction. Inhibition of this interaction will increase intercellular level of CCl21 and interaction between CCL21 and CCR7 causes immune potentiaiton.

Behjati, Mohaddeseh; Torktaz, Ibrahim; Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Easton, Andrew J

2012-01-01

402

Neuromodulatory Approaches for Chronic Pain Management: Research Findings and Clinical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lines of evidence provide preliminary support for the role that brain state, measured via electroencephalogram (EEG), may play in chronic pain. First, research has identified a link between brain EEG activity and the experience of pain. Second, there are a number of published studies documenting the beneficial effects of interventions that impact the cortical activity associated with chronic pain.

Mark P. Jensen; Leslie H. Sherlin; Shahin Hakimian; Felipe Fregni

2009-01-01

403

Colorectal Cancer Screening in Older Men and Women: Qualitative Research Findings and Implications for Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the formative research for developing interventions to increase colorectal cancer screening in men and women aged 50 and older, 14 focus groups were conducted to identify (1) knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer screening, (2) barriers to screening, and (3) strategies for motivating and supporting behavior change. Participants had either private insurance or

Carolyn Beeker; Joan Marie Kraft; Brian G. Southwell; Cynthia M. Jorgensen

2000-01-01

404

NASA Research Focuses on Yellowstone's Hot Springs and Compares Findings to Rocks from Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Astrobiology Institute website features an article by the Yellowstone Park Foundation focusing on NASA's latest thermophile research and its contributions to outreach education in Yellowstone National Park. The site also provides a number of useful links through the NAI portal site including a teacher's page, student's page, and additional NAI articles and newsletters.

Foundation, Yellowstone P.; Institute, Nasa A.

405

The ABCs of Keeping on Track to Graduation: Research Findings from Baltimore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study of graduation outcomes in Baltimore uses multivariate analysis of longitudinal student cohort data to examine the impact of factors identified in previous research as early warning indicators of a dropout outcome. Student cohort files were constructed from longitudinal administrative data (following all first-time 2004-2005 and…

Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew

2013-01-01

406

Penn researchers find Epstein Barr-like virus infects and may cause cancer in dogs  

Cancer.gov

...A team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine and Penn's Perelman School of Medicine has the first evidence that an Epstein Barr-like virus can infect and may also be responsible for causing lymphomas in man's best friend.

407

What Teacher Characteristics Affect Student Achievement? Findings from Los Angeles Public Schools. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teacher effectiveness is typically measured by traditional teacher qualification standards, such as experience, education, and scores on licensure examinations. RAND researchers found no evidence that these standards have a substantial effect on student achievement in Los Angeles public elementary, middle, and high schools. Alternative measures…

Giglio, Kate

2010-01-01

408

Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

409

Maximizing the Learning Value of Tests in Technology Education Classes: A Summary of Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of the learning in technology education is hands-on and best assessed via techniques other than traditional tests. Rubrics have become increasingly recognized as the best means of evaluating student efforts and accomplishments in projects, group work, presentations, various types of research papers, videotapes, web pages, and many other…

Haynie, W. J., III

2008-01-01

410

MD Anderson researchers find that chemotherapy is as effective before breast cancer surgery as after  

Cancer.gov

Whether chemotherapy is given before or after breast-conserving therapy does not have an impact on long-term local-regional outcomes, suggesting treatment success is due more to biologic factors than chemotherapy timing, according to a study by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

411

UNC and other researchers find that gene expression improves the definition of a breast cancer subtype  

Cancer.gov

A study conducted by the Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology in conjunction with the GEICAM cooperative group and other American and Canadian researchers, including UNC, has led to a change in the definition of hormone-sensitive breast tumors

412

Socioeconomic Status and the Undergraduate Engineering Experience: Preliminary Findings from Four American Universities. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students of lower socioeconomic status (SES) tend to be underrepresented in American higher education, particularly at four-year institutions and more selective universities. Education researchers have shown that in the four year period following high school, low SES students are less likely to persist to a bachelor's degree or have graduate…

Donaldson, Krista; Lichtenstein, Gary; Sheppard, Sheri

2008-01-01

413

Jefferson researchers find that cancer information on Wikipedia is accurate, but not very readable:  

Cancer.gov

It is a commonly held that information on Wikipedia should not be trusted, since it is written and edited by non-experts without professional oversight. But researchers from the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have found differently, according to a study published online Sept. 15 in the Journal of Oncology Practice.

414

Penn researchers find contralateral prophylactic mastectomy offers limited gains to life expectancy for breast cancer patients:  

Cancer.gov

Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), a procedure that removes the unaffected breast in patients with cancer in one breast, provides only a modest increase in life expectancy, according to a new study by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

415

Requirements Engineering as Creative Problem Solving: A Research Agenda for Idea Finding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This vision paper frames requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. Its purpose is to enable requirements researchers and practitioners to recruit relevant theories, models, techniques and tools from creative problem solving to understand and support requirements processes more effectively. It uses 4 drivers to motivate the case for requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. It then

Neil A. M. Maiden; Sara Jones; Inger Kristine Karlsen; Roger Neill; Konstantinos Zachos; Alastair Milne

2010-01-01

416

Some Research Findings on Fidelity of Training Devices for Fixed Procedures Tasks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research was performed to determine the effects on proficiency development of using devices of less-than-perfect fidelity for training a lengthy fixed procedure. The fidelity of a training device was the degree to which it resembled that tactical equipmen...

J. A. Cox R. O. Wood L. M. Boren H. W. Thorne

1964-01-01

417

Finding God in Wellworth High School: More Legitimations of Story-Making as Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A curious piece of ironic, partially-dramatised auto/ethnography, this paper reflects an ongoing attempt to explore the vapid certainties of my own faith, some of the brittle discomforts of contemporary schooling, and the possibilities of a social science research methodology which can artfully assemble on the same stage belief, empirics and…

Clough, Peter

2009-01-01

418

The costs of drug abuse consequences: A summary of research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to provide researchers, clinicians, and policymakers with a common source of published cost estimates for drug abuse consequences. Across the broad range of potential complications associated with drug abuse, some of the cost elements are specific and directly related to drug abuse per se (e.g., drug treatment costs), while other items may be related

Michael T. French; Robert F. Martin

1996-01-01

419

Respite care for Alzheimer's families: Research findings and their relevance to providers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project to evaluate a respite care program for caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease and related conditions provided information relevant to service providers of respite care. Providers must under-stand the psychological needs of caregivers that enter into their willingness to use respite care. Caregiving equity, caregiving modeling, the moral imperative of caregiving, caregiving as a challenge, caregiving as

M. Powell Lawton; Elaine Brody; Avalie Saperstein

1989-01-01

420

Portrayal of personality in Victorian novels reflects modern research findings but amplifies the significance of agreeableness  

Microsoft Academic Search

All literature embodies an implicit theory of personality and human nature (Hogan, 1976). The research described here investigates the implicit personality theory embedded in the behavior of 435 characters in 143 canonical Victorian novels. Characters were rated on the Web by 519 scholars and students of 19th-century British literature. Ratings included the characters’ goals, success in achieving goals, mate preferences

John A. Johnson; Joseph Carroll; Jonathan Gottschall; Daniel Kruger

2011-01-01

421

Washington University researchers find that mass prostate cancer screenings don’t reduce death:  

Cancer.gov

There’s new evidence that annual prostate cancer screening does not reduce deaths from the disease, even among men in their 50s and 60s and those with underlying health conditions, according to new research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

422

Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Review of Research and Preliminary Findings with Juvenile Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that as the severity of adolescent behavior problems increases (e.g., violence, drug and alcohol abuse, risky sexual behavior) the risk of suicidal behavior also increases. This is evident in the high rates of suicidal threats, gestures, and attempts in incarcerated youth (Hayes, 2009), including sexual and nonsexual offenders. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), an empirically validated therapy for the

Megan O'Leary; Stephanie Dunkel; Leticia Baker; Amy Mikolajewski; Therese Skubic Kemper

423

The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis…

Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

2012-01-01

424

Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

2007-01-01

425

Understanding resistance to sex and race-based affirmative action: A review of research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The public discussion of affirmative action appears to be complicated by disagreements regarding definitions and by the lack of a theoretical framework from which to begin to understand this complex public policy. The present review attempts to synthesize the available research into a model from which resistance to affirmative action can be understood. Within the model, resistance to affirmative action

Kelli Cook

1995-01-01

426

University of Wisconsin researchers find a new form of cell division  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center have discovered a new form of cell division in human cells. They believe it serves as a natural back-up mechanism during faulty cell division, preventing some cells from going down a path that can lead to cancer.

427

Researchers Find Biological Factors that May Drive Prostate Tumor Aggressiveness in African-American Men  

Cancer.gov

Researchers analyzing prostate tumors have identified differences in gene expression (the degree to which individual genes are turned on or off) between African-American and European-American men that show the existence of distinct tumor microenvironments (the area that includes the tumor and the surrounding non-cancerous tissue) in these two patient groups.

428

A Selected Review of the Underpinnings of Ethics for Human Performance Technology Professionals--Part One: Key Ethical Theories and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a review of the key ethical theories and relevant empirical research relating to the practice of human performance technology. Topics addressed include ethics, morals, business ethics, ethics officers, empiricism versus normative ethical theory, consequentialism, utilitarianism, nonconsequentialism, Kohlberg model of cognitive moral…

Dean, Peter J.

1993-01-01

429

World Bank: Harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings  

PubMed Central

The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them.

Simms, Ben

2013-01-01

430

Dispositional Factors in the Use of Social Networking Sites: Findings and Implications for Social Computing Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents findings of a study that relates dispositional factors such as extroversion, stability, self-esteem and\\u000a narcissism to the use of social networking sites (SNSs). Each of these dispositional factors is shown to be related to different\\u000a types of usage of SNSs. It is argued that attempts to model the use of SNSs and thereby target particular information to

Peter A. Bibby

2008-01-01

431

The North American long-term soil productivity experiment: Findings from the first decade of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

First decade findings on the impacts of organic matter removal and soil compaction are reported for the 26 oldest installations in the nation-wide network of long-term soil productivity sites. Complete removal of surface organic matter led to declines in soil C concentration to 20cm depth and to reduced nutrient availability. The effect is attributed mainly to the loss of the

Robert F. Powers; D. Andrew Scott; Felipe G. Sanchez; Richard A. Voldseth; Deborah Page-Dumroese; John D. Elioff; Douglas M. Stone

2005-01-01

432

Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Microbially mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30?years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past 5?years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided.

Semrau, Jeremy D.

2011-01-01

433

New Study Finds Increasing Gender Equity at U.S. Research Institutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Women and men faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics for the most part have comparable opportunities within major U.S. research universities, according to a report released 2 June by the U.S. National Research Council (NRC). The report found that gender does not appear to have been a factor in a number of important career transitions and outcomes, including hiring for tenure track and tenure positions and promotions. “That is probably going to be surprising to many people. It was surprising to our own panel. And it may not have been the case if we had done the study in 1985 instead of 2005,” said Claude Canizares, cochair of the NRC committee that prepared the report, entitled Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty.

Showstack, Randy

2009-06-01

434

Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings  

PubMed Central

The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missing data and chose a Bayesian data augmentation method. We were able to summarize, rank, and compare the effects of each of the 10 factors on medication adherence. This is a promising methodological development in the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research.

Crandell, Jamie L.; Voils, Corrine I.; Chang, YunKyung; Sandelowski, Margarete

2010-01-01

435

Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort  

PubMed Central

Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort.

Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

1995-01-01

436

Minorities and energy: a review of recent findings and a guide to future research  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the results of the research on minority energy consumption and expenditures being conducted by Argonne National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy's Office of Minority Economic Impact. After summarizing what was known about minorities and energy prior to 1982, the paper briefly reviews current research results in the areas of minority residential and transportation energy use patterns, energy policy assessments, and minority energy business development. The results suggest that, when income and location (transportation) or climate (residential) are statistically controlled, black households differ from nonblack households in their ability or willingness to make long-term capital investments in energy-efficient consumer durables (e.g., automobiles and appliances). Two hypotheses to explain these results are proposed, relating to the culture of minority poverty and structural constraints. Implications of the current results and proposed hypotheses are then briefly discussed.

Throgmorton, J.A.; Bernard, M.J. III

1986-01-01

437

Dana-Farber researchers find experimental graft-versus-host disease treatment equivalent to standard care in phase 3 trial  

Cancer.gov

An experimental drug combination for preventing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was not significantly better than the standard regimen on key endpoints, according to a report of a phase 3 trial at the American Society of Hematology annual meeting. The combination of two immunosuppressive compounds – tacrolimus plus sirolimus – did not provide a statistically significant, GVHD-free survival benefit over the long-used standard of care, tacrolimus plus methotrexate, said researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute who led the multi-center trial.

438

Researchers Find that a Small Molecule Can Activate an Important Cancer Suppressor Gene  

Cancer.gov

By activating a cancer suppressor gene, a small molecule called nutlin-3a can block cancer cell division, according to researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health. This activation of the p53 gene leads to cellular senescence, a process by which cells lose their ability to grow and divide. An opportunity for new genetic mutations occurs each time a cell divides, so limiting the number of cell divisions in a cancer cell inhibits tumor progression.

439

Reflective Teaching in Social Work Education: Findings from a Participatory Action Research Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a feminist-informed reflective teaching project enacted by a group of social work faculty at Texas State University–San Marcos. Utilizing Schon's notion of reflection-in-action, faculty formed a participatory action research group to implement reflective techniques to further their professional development as new teachers and better prepare social work students for practice in the social work profession. This project

Christine Lynn Norton; Amy Russell; Betsy Wisner; John Uriarte

2011-01-01

440

Finding the Right Metaphor: Restructuring, Realigning, and Repackaging Today's Research Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

To change from collection-centric to user-centered research libraries and to survive in tough economic times, libraries face 2 major challenges: 1st, libraries need to change how they are viewed by their constituencies so they are seen as indispensable; and 2nd, libraries need to help the librarians and staff change their own mental models of their roles to remain relevant in

Joan Giesecke

2010-01-01

441

When Findings Collide: Examining Survey vs. Interview Data in Leadership Education Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to determine the impact of an agricultural leadership program on rural community development beyond self-report survey data typically collected for program evaluation. Participants in the study were graduates of the program from 1982 to 2002 (N=290). Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used. Each participant was asked to complete a then-post survey that addressed

Leah J. Wall; Kathleen D. Kelsey

442

Emory University researchers find new pathway for regulation of blood vessel growth in cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University have identified a new function for a gene that normally prevents the development of cancer. Scientists had known that the gene, which encodes a protein called p14 ARF, works inside the cell to control proliferation and division. The Winship team discovered that p14 ARF also regulates tumor-induced angiogenesis, the process by which growing cancers attract new blood vessels.

443

Dietary fiber future directions: integrating new definitions and findings to inform nutrition research and communication.  

PubMed

The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that the research community agrees upon physiological effects for which there is substantial scientific agreement, e.g., fibers' effects on laxation and gut health, on attenuating blood lipids and blood glucose and insulin, and in promoting fermentation in the large bowel. The definition also necessitates the delineation of research protocols to prove the benefits of various isolated and synthesized fibers. These should emanate from evidence-based reviews that fairly weigh epidemiological data while considering that added fibers are not reflected in many food composition databases. They then should include well-controlled, randomized, control trials and utilize animal studies to determine mechanisms. Agreement on many study variables such as the type of subject and the type of baseline diet that best fits the question under investigation will also be needed. Finally, the definition establishes that all types of fiber can address the severe fiber consumption gap that exists throughout the world by recognizing that the combination of fiber-rich and -fortified foods increases fiber intake while allowing consumers to stay within allowed energy levels. PMID:23319118

Jones, Julie Miller

2013-01-01

444

Mapping the inputs, analyses, and outputs of biobank research systems to identify sources of incidental findings and individual research results for potential return to participants.  

PubMed

Progress in the debate over returning incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) to research participants who provide specimens and data to biobanks in genetic and genomic research requires a new tool to allow comparison across heterogeneous biobank research systems and in-depth analysis of the sources and types of findings generated for potential return. This article presents a new visual mapping tool to allow systematic and standardized depiction of (i) the specimens initially collected, (ii) the materials and data sets then created, (iii) the analyses then performed, and finally (iv) the genetic and genomic results generated, including potential IFs and IRRs. For any individual biobank research system, this sequence of four maps can be created to anticipate the sources and types of IFs and IRRs to be generated, to plan how to handle them, and then to manage them responsibly over time. We discuss how this four-map tool was created and describe its application to four national biobank systems, thereby demonstrating that this tool can provide a common platform to visualize biobank content, anticipate how IFs and IRRs will arise in a biobank research context, and inform policy development. PMID:22382801

Bemmels, Heather R; Wolf, Susan M; Van Ness, Brian

2012-03-01

445

Mapping the inputs, analyses, and outputs of biobank research systems to identify sources of incidental findings and individual research results for potential return to participants  

PubMed Central

Progress in the debate over returning incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) to research participants who provide specimens and data to biobanks in genetic and genomic research requires a new tool to allow comparison across heterogeneous biobank research systems and in-depth analysis of the sources and types of findings generated for potential return. This paper presents a new visual mapping tool to allow systematic and standardized depiction of (1) the specimens initially collected, (2) the materials and datasets then created (3) the analyses then performed, and finally (4) the genetic and genomic results generated, including potential IFs and IRRs. For any individual biobank research system, this sequence of four maps can be created to anticipate the sources and types of IFs and IRRs to be generated, to plan how to handle them, and then to manage them responsibly over time. The authors show how this 4-map tool was created, then apply this tool to 4 national biobank systems, demonstrating that this tool can provide a common platform to visualize biobank content, anticipate how IFs and IRRs will arise in a biobank research context, and inform policy development.

Bemmels, Heather R.; Wolf, Susan M.; Van Ness, Brian

2013-01-01

446

Event history analysis of groups: the findings of an on-going research project.  

PubMed

"The event history approach...is applied using individual longitudinal data. Ideally, however, each individual itinerary would be situated in as broad a context as possible, and the analysis of individual demographic processes would take account of the close or competing events affecting the individual's contact circle. In event history modelling, a shift from the individual to their entourage, for both data collection and analysis, implies a reconsideration of the choice of entities for longitudinal monitoring. A compromise must be reached between conceptual operationality and analytical consistency, in terms of both theory and models: this article presents the formal developments, then the more applied results from this on-going research [using French data]." (EXCERPT) PMID:12157953

Lelievre, E; Bonvalet, C; Bry, X

1998-01-01

447

Dissemination of Quality-of-Care Research Findings to Breast Oncology Surgeons  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In this era of rapidly evolving clinical knowledge, clinicians need to be aware of current research and how it might affect their practice. The Internet is a widely available, under-assessed tool for providing this information. In this two-phase pilot study, a novel Web site (www.cansortsurgeons.org) was developed to specifically disseminate relevant clinical information to community breast oncology surgeons. Methods: The first phase targeted a sample of community surgeons identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results catchment areas in Los Angeles, CA and Detroit, MI. The second phase broadened availability by linking the site through the American College of Surgeons (ACoS) Commission on Cancer (CoC) homepage. An eight-question, Web-based survey was used to obtain feedback regarding the Web site's utility and potential application to clinical practice. Journal continuing medical education credit was also offered through ACoS. Results: For phase 1, of the 315 community surgeons invited to view the site, 114 (36%) participated in the study and 98 (86%) responded to the survey. Overall, there was a strongly supportive response, with 79 (81%) recommending the site to other clinicians. For phase 2, of the 516 site hits, 411 came from the ACoS site. Only 10 individuals completed the survey during this phase, but all positively endorsed the utility of the site. Conclusion: The implication for clinical practice is that the Internet is a useful tool for providing relevant clinical research to providers. In the future, this could be tailored to an individual's needs, aiding synthesis and, hopefully, improving the quality of clinical care.

Shiovitz, Stacey; Gay, Ashley; Morris, Arden; Graff, John J.; Katz, Steven J.; Hawley, Sarah T.

2011-01-01

448

Factors Predicting the Use of Technology: Findings From the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics,

Sara J. Czaja; Neil Charness; Arthur D. Fisk; Christopher Hertzog; Sankaran N. Nair; Wendy A. Rogers; Joseph Sharit

2006-01-01

449

Landslide susceptibility mapping for rural development: Case studies and research findings from the Himalayas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2002 landslides caused a reported 346 human fatalities in the Himalayan Kingdom of Nepal. Over the last decade the total reported deaths due to landslides has exceeded 900. During the past 2-3 years in neighbouring Bhutan landslides have caused extensive damage to roads and other infrastructure, also leading to significant loss of life. Landslides, therefore, are major considerations in the siting of new infrastructure, the maintenance of existing facilities and the protection of rural communities and road users in the Himalayan region. Despite this, there is extremely limited information available on landslide hazards in the region, and the situation is a particular concern in Nepal and Bhutan. The Landslide Risk Assessment Project was established in 2000 to investigate cause-effect relationships in landslide occurrence and to develop simple techniques of landslide susceptibility mapping. A total of over 1300 landslides have been mapped from remote sensing and field surveys in six study areas in Nepal and Bhutan. GIS has been used to compare the spatial distribution of these landslides with a range of geological, terrain and land use factors. The research has shown that consistent relationships can be found between the location of landslides and rock type, geological structure, slope steepness and terrain classification. The results have positive implications for the assessment of landslide susceptibility for rural development planning in areas where limited data already exist.

Hearn, J.; Petley, D. N.

2003-04-01

450

Factors predicting the use of technology: findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE).  

PubMed

The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18-91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579

Czaja, Sara J; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N; Rogers, Wendy A; Sharit, Joseph

2006-06-01

451

Relationships hold the key to trustworthy and productive translational science: recommendations for expanding community engagement in biomedical research.  

PubMed

Good relationships between research institutions and communities are an essential, but often neglected, part of the infrastructure of translational science. In an effort to create greater interest among translational science researchers in cultivating relationships with community members, we report the results of a workshop we convened to learn how relationships vital to research are best created and sustained. We highlight common barriers and challenges that hinder relationships. We also provide recommendations that individual research institutions and teams can use to expand and strengthen their relationships with community members. The improved relationships between universities and communities that could result from their implementation should build greater public trust in biomedical research, lead to a stronger commitment to see it succeed, and engender shared values and commitments that will give rise to new rewards, recognition and admonishment to sustain those values and commitments over time, all of which would facilitate translational science. PMID:23919367

Yarborough, Mark; Edwards, Kelly; Espinoza, Paula; Geller, Gail; Sarwal, Alok; Sharp, Richard; Spicer, Paul

2013-01-14

452

Witness for Wellness: preliminary findings from a community-academic participatory research mental health initiative.  

PubMed

Quality improvement programs promoting depression screening and appropriate treatment can significantly reduce racial and ethnic disparities in mental-health care and outcomes. However, promoting the adoption of quality-improvement strategies requires more than the simple knowledge of their potential benefits. To better understand depression issues in racial and ethnic minority communities and to discover, refine, and promote the adoption of evidence-based interventions in these communities, a collaborative academic-community participatory partnership was developed and introduced through a community-based depression conference. This partnership was based on the community-influenced model used by Healthy African-American Families, a community-based agency in south Los Angeles, and the Partners in Care model developed at the UCLA/RAND NIMH Health Services Research Center. The integrated model is described in this paper as well as the activities and preliminary results based on multimethod program evaluation techniques. We found that combining the two models was feasible. Significant improvements in depression identification, knowledge about treatment options, and availability of treatment providers were observed among conference participants. In addition, the conference reinforced in the participants the importance of community mobilization for addressing depression and mental health issues in the community. Although the project is relatively new and ongoing, already substantial gains in community activities in the area of depression have been observed. In addition, new applications of this integrated model are underway in the areas of diabetes and substance abuse. Continued monitoring of this project should help refine the model as well as assist in the identification of process and outcome measures for such efforts. PMID:16681126

Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Jones, Loretta; Fackler-Lowrie, Nicole; Ellison, Marcia; Booker, Theodore; Jones, Felica; McDaniel, Sharon; Moini, Moraya; Williams, Kamau R; Klap, Ruth; Koegel, Paul; Wells, Kenneth B

2006-01-01

453

Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?  

PubMed Central

This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media.

Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

2012-01-01

454

Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population.

Dong, XinQi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Wong, Bernarda; Skarupski, Kimberly A.; Simon, Melissa A.

2010-01-01

455

Assessing the Health Needs of Chinese Older Adults: Findings from a Community-Based Participatory Research Study in Chicago's Chinatown.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to examine the cultural views of healthy aging, knowledge and barriers to services, and perception of health sciences research among community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Chicago's Chinatown. This qualitative study is guided by the Precede-Proceed conceptual model with community-based participatory research design. Data analysis is based on eight focus group interviews with Chinese older (age 60+) adults (n = 78). We used a grounded theory framework to systematically guide the thematic structure of our data. Findings show participants described cultural conception of health in terms of physical function, psychological well-being, social support, and cognitive function. The availability, affordability, and cultural barriers towards health care services were major negative enabling factors that inhibit participants from fulfilling health needs. Perception and knowledge of health sciences research were also discussed. This study has implications for the delivery of culturally appropriate health care services to the Chinese aging population. PMID:21253522

Dong, Xinqi; Chang, E-Shien; Wong, Esther; Wong, Bernarda; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Simon, Melissa A

2011-01-03

456

America after 3PM: Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each day in America, millions of kids go home to an empty house after school. In recent years, the growth of quality, affordable afterschool programs--programs that keep kids safe, inspire learning and help working families--has begun to offer parents of these children positive alternatives. Over the past five years, afterschool programs have…

Afterschool Alliance, 2009

2009-01-01

457

Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and short-lived episodes of mania like symptoms  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or short-lived episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations.

Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris

2013-01-01

458

Intersection of biobanking and clinical care: should discrepant diagnoses and pathological findings be returned to research participants?  

PubMed

Diagnostic discrepancies occur when the diagnosis made on a biospecimen during the course of review at a biobank differs from the original clinical diagnosis. These diagnostic discrepancies detected during biobanking present unique challenges that are distinct from other types of research results or incidental findings. The proposed process for reporting diagnostic discrepancies or pathological incidental findings identified through a quality assurance evaluation at the biobank includes verification of the biospecimen identity, verification of the diagnosis within the biobank, and re-review of the case by the pathologist at the biospecimen collection site. If the pathologist at the biobank and the original pathologist do not reach agreement, an impartial and knowledgeable third party is consulted. The decision as to whether and how to notify research participants of any confirmed changes in diagnosis would be determined by institutional procedures. Implementation of this proposed process will require clear delineation of the roles and responsibilities of all involved parties in order to promote excellence in patient care and ensure that researchers have access to biospecimens of requisite quality.Genet Med 2012:14(4):417-423. PMID:22344228

Lockhart, Nicole C; Yassin, Rihab; Weil, Carol J; Compton, Carolyn C

2012-02-16

459

Research on the key technology of update of land survey spatial data based on embedded GIS and GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the actual needs of the second land-use survey and the PDA's characteristics of small volume and small memory, it can be analyzed that the key technology of the data collection system of field survey based on GPS-PDA is the read speed of the data. In order to enhance the speed and efficiency of the analysis of the spatial data on mobile devices, we classify the layers of spatial data; get the Layer-Grid Index by getting the different levels and blocks of the layer of spatial data; then get the R-TREE index of the spatial data objects. Different scale levels of space are used in different levels management. The grid method is used to do the block management.

Chen, Dan; Liu, Yanfang; Yu, Hai; Xia, Yin

2009-10-01

460

Communication is the Key to Success in Pragmatic Clinical Trials in Practice-based Research Networks (PBRNs).  

PubMed

Effective communication is the foundation of feasibility and fidelity in practice-based pragmatic research studies. Doing a study with practices spread over several states requires long-distance communication strategies, including E-mails, faxes, telephone calls, conference calls, and texting. Compared with face-to-face communication, distance communication strategies are less familiar to most study coordinators and research teams. Developing and ensuring comfort with distance communications requires additional time and use of different talents and expertise than those required for face-to-face communication. It is necessary to make sure that messages are appropriate for the medium, clearly crafted, and presented in a manner that facilitates practices receiving and understanding the information. This discussion is based on extensive experience of 2 groups who have worked collaboratively on several large, federally funded, pragmatic trials in a practice-based research network. The goal of this article is to summarize lessons learned to facilitate the work of other research teams. PMID:24004709

Bertram, Susan; Graham, Deborah; Kurland, Marge; Pace, Wilson; Madison, Suzanne; Yawn, Barbara P

461

Making a Bigger Deal of the Smaller Words: Function Words and Other Key Items in Research Writing by Chinese Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In many mainland Chinese universities, undergraduate students specializing in English language and applied linguistics are required to write a dissertation, in English, of about 5000 words exploring some aspect of original research. This is a task which is of considerable difficulty not only at the genre or discourse level but also at the…

Lee, David Y. W.; Chen, Sylvia Xiao

2009-01-01

462

Environmental and Energy Study Conference Special Report: Federal Research and Development Key to Energy Future, Panel Agrees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increased federal spending for energy research and development is crucial to securing a future less dependent on foreign oil, more protective of the environment and better able to meet growing energy demands, a panel of energy experts agreed at a recent s...

1991-01-01

463

Musical Development and Learning Characteristics of Students: A Compilation of Key Points from the Research Literature Organized by Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Development involves progressive changes in knowledge and abilities that occur across the life span. Current research on musical abilities suggests that the development of skills necessary for musicality begins in utero and continues through adulthood. Many of these skills, such as the ability to carry a tune, move in time to music, and respond…

Gooding, Lori; Standley, Jayne M.

2011-01-01

464

The Extension Service as Key Mechanism for Research and Services Delivery for Prevention of Mental Health Disorders in Rural Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extension service associated with each state's land grant institution is an important resource for both programming and conducting research for the prevention of mental health disorders. This paper briefly outlines the history and structure of the extention service and gives examples of relevant programming across the country related to mental health. Although this programming is relevant to both rural

Virginia K. Molgaard

1997-01-01

465

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'Consulting communities' to inform policy?  

PubMed Central

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation.

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-01-01

466

Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'Consulting communities' to inform policy.  

PubMed

The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for the approach adopted in this study to strengthen community consultation. PMID:24034967

Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

2013-08-03

467

Key issues in essential tremor genetics research: Where are we now and how can we move forward?  

PubMed Central

Background Genetics research is an avenue towards understanding essential tremor (ET). Advances have been made in genetic linkage and association: there are three reported ET susceptibility loci, and mixed but growing data on risk associations. However, causal mutations have not been forthcoming. This disappointing lack of progress has opened productive discussions on challenges in ET and specifically ET genetics research, including fundamental assumptions in the field. Methods This article reviews the ET genetics literature, results to date, the open questions in ET genetics and the current challenges in addressing them. Results Several inherent ET features complicate genetic linkage and association studies: high potential phenocopy rates, inaccurate tremor self-reporting, and ET misdiagnoses are examples. Increasing use of direct examination data for subjects, family members, and controls is one current response. Smaller moves towards expanding ET phenotype research concepts into non-tremor features, clinically disputed ET subsets, and testing phenotype features instead of clinical diagnosis against genetic data are gradually occurring. The field has already moved to considering complex trait mechanisms requiring detection of combinations of rare genetic variants. Hypotheses may move further to consider novel mechanisms of inheritance, such as epigenetics. Discussion It is an exciting time in ET genetics as investigators start moving past assumptions underlying both phenotype and genetics experimental contributions, overcoming challenges to collaboration, and engaging the ET community. Multicenter collaborative efforts comprising rich longitudinal prospective phenotype data and neuropathologic analysis combined with the latest in genetics experimental design and technology will be the next wave in the field.

Testa, Claudia M.

2013-01-01

468

Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Quality of Life for Older Adults with Serious Mental Illness: Recent Findings and Future Research Directions  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review The projected increase of Americans age 65 years and older will have an unprecedented impact on the health care delivery system. As a result, new models to support individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) will become increasingly more important. This selective overview highlights recent reports addressing psychosocial functioning and interventions for older adults with SMI. Recent Findings Recently published descriptive studies suggest that poor functional outcomes and lower quality of life among older people with SMI are strongly associated with social isolation, depression, cognitive impairment, and chronic medical illness. Recent research on psychosocial interventions include evaluations of three different models of skills training, a supported employment intervention, and cognitive remediation. This research establishes psychosocial rehabilitation as feasible and potentially effective in improving functioning and quality of life in older adults with SMI. Summary Several important directions for future research focused on older adults with SMI are suggested by this overview. They include: individually tailored rehabilitation, interventions that optimize social integration and decrease depressive symptoms, techniques that blend cognitive remediation with vocational rehabilitation, and integration of health promotion with psychosocial rehabilitation.

Bartels, Stephen J.; Pratt, Sarah

2011-01-01

469

H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions\\u000a among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities.\\u000a Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs\\u000a to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the

Jamie M Zoellner; Carol C Connell; Michael B Madson; Bo Wang; Vickie Blakely Reed; Elaine Fontenot Molaison; Kathleen Yadrick

2011-01-01

470

A study of the influence of a researched-based rationale on science teachers' beliefs and practices across key stages of teacher development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent reforms in science education have shifted their attention towards teacher education. Although studies have been conducted to investigate science teacher education programs in the United States, few studies have explored the way in which teacher education programs can be used to support beginning science teachers as they progress from their formal teacher preparation into the early years of their career. Many educators have proposed that although learning to teach takes place along a continuum of professional development experiences and programs, extraneous factors existing within school communities minimize the impact of science teacher preparation programs. This study has three purposes: the exploration of science teachers' current teaching beliefs and practices at key stages of the teacher development continuum; the determination of how these beliefs and practices have evolved over time since their formal teacher preparation; and an investigation of the influence of a research-based rationale for teaching science on teachers' beliefs and practices across key stages of the teacher development continuum. The research participants involved in this qualitative research study consisted of twelve individuals divided equally into three cohorts that represent key stages of the science teacher development continuum. Throughout the study, the participants were interviewed regarding their teaching beliefs and practices and observed teaching science lessons in an effort to determine what influence, if any, the research-based rationale has on science teachers at varying stages of their teaching career. This study contributes to the growing literature on how to adequately prepare and support science teachers at all stages of development. The outcomes of this study suggest that although the research-based rationale experience was perceived as a strongly influential experience impacting teachers' pedagogical beliefs and practices, the actual teaching practices are not consistent with teachers' proposed beliefs. Several social and cultural factors were reported as having an influence on classroom behaviors. The results yielded from this study call for further research investigations to be conducted on how to best implement professional development experiences during preservice teacher education programs that will have lasting impacts throughout teachers' careers.

Diana, Thomas Joseph, Jr.

471

Rhetorical Analysis of Science Policy Literature, 1960-1990. (1) Basic Research Goals: A Comparison of Political Ideologies. (2) Basic Research Goals: Perceptions of Key Political Figures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) project on basic research for the 1990's the report provides a rhetorical analysis of science policy literature from 1960-1990. The document consists of two separate reports. The first considers the inf...

D. S. Birdsell H. W. Simons

1990-01-01

472

Reducing Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) by Building Community Capacity: A Summary of Washington Family Policy Council Research Findings  

PubMed Central

Community capacity for organization and collaboration has been shown to be a powerful tool for improving the health and well-being of communities. Since 1994 the Washington State Family Policy Council has supported the development of community capacity in 42 community public health and safety networks. Community networks bring local communities together to restructure natural supports and local resources to meet the needs of families and children, and increase cross-system coordination and flexible funding streams to improve local services and policy. In this study, researchers sought to demonstrate the strong impact of the community networks’ capacity to interrupt health and social problems. Findings suggest that community networks reduce health and safety problems for the entire community population. Further, community networks with high community capacity reduced adverse childhood experiences (ACE) in young adults ages 18–34.

Hall, Judy; Porter, Laura; Longhi, Dario; Becker-Green, Jody; Dreyfus, Susan

2012-01-01

473

An eight-year snapshot of geospatial cancer research (2002-2009): clinico-epidemiological and methodological findings and trends.  

PubMed

Geographic information systems (GIS) offer a very rich toolbox of methods and technologies, and powerful research tools that extend far beyond the mere production of maps, making it possible to cross-link and study the complex interaction of disease data and factors originating from a wide range of disparate sources. Despite their potential indispensable role in cancer prevention and control programmes, GIS are underrepresented in specialised oncology literature. The latter has provided an impetus for the current review. The review provides an eight-year snapshot of geospatial cancer research in peer-reviewed literature (2002-2009), presenting the clinico-epidemiological and methodological findings and trends in the covered corpus (93 papers). The authors concluded that understanding the relationship between location and cancer/cancer care services can play a crucial role in disease control and prevention, and in better service planning, and appropriate resource utilisation. Nevertheless, there are still barriers that hinder the wide-scale adoption of GIS and related technologies in everyday oncology practice. PMID:20589539

Boulos, Dina N Kamel; Ghali, Ramy R; Ibrahim, Ezzeldin M; Boulos, Maged N Kamel; AbdelMalik, Philip

2010-06-30

474

Key Nutrients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

475

Federal Medical and Disability Program Costs Associated with Diabetes, 2005. Summary of Methods and Key Findings. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes is a growing threat to the nation’s health that has serious and costly complications. This paper looks behind the $79.7 billion estimates for 2005 of medical and disability costs to the federal government cited in Mathematica’s main study. The estimates include $2.5 billion in disability payments associated with diabetes and $77.2 billion in increased medical costs. Nearly 80 percent

Marsha Gold; Craig Thornton; Allison Hedley; Cheryl Fahlman; Suzanne Felt-Lisk; Bob Weathers; Thomas Croghan

2007-01-01

476

Carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise in adolescents: research findings, ethical issues and suggestions for the future.  

PubMed

In the last decade, research has begun to investigate the efficacy of carbohydrate supplementation for improving aspects of physical capacity and skill performance during sport-specific exercise in adolescent team games players. This research remains in its infancy, and further study would be beneficial considering the large youth population actively involved in team games. Literature on the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance is scarce, limited to shooting accuracy in adolescent basketball players and conflicting in its findings. Between-study differences in the exercise protocol, volume of fluid and carbohydrate consumed, use of prior fatiguing exercise and timing of skill tests may contribute to the different findings. Conversely, initial data supports carbohydrate supplementation in solution and gel form for improving intermittent endurance running capacity following soccer-specific shuttle running. These studies produced reliable data, but were subject to limitations including lack of quantification of the metabolic response of participants, limited generalization of data due to narrow participant age and maturation ranges, use of males and females within the same sample and non-standardized pre-exercise nutritional status between participants. There is a lack of consensus regarding the influence of frequently consuming carbohydrate-containing products on tooth enamel erosion and the development of obesity or being overweight in adolescent athletes and non-athletes. These discrepancies mean that the initiation or exacerbation of health issues due to frequent consumption of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents cannot be conclusively refuted. Coupled with the knowledge that consuming a natural, high-carbohydrate diet -3-8 hours before exercise can significantly alter substrate use and improve exercise performance in adults, a moral and ethical concern is raised regarding the direction of future research in order to further knowledge while safeguarding the health and well-being of young participants. It could be deemed unethical to continue study into carbohydrate supplementation while ignoring the potential health concerns and the possibility of generating similar performance enhancements using natural dietary interventions. Therefore, future work should investigate the influence of pre-exercise dietary intake on the prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise performance of adolescents. This would enable quantification of whether pre-exercise nutrition can modulate exercise performance and, if so, the optimum dietary composition to achieve this. Research could then combine this knowledge with ingestion of carbohydrate-containing products during exercise to facilitate ethical and healthy nutritional guidelines for enhancing the exercise performance of adolescents. This article addresses the available evidence regarding carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent, high-intensity exercise in adolescent team games players. It discusses the potential health concerns associated with the frequent use of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents and how this affects the research ethics of the field, and considers directions for future work. PMID:22901040

Phillips, Shaun M

2012-10-01

477

Gender Research in the National Institute on Drug Abuse National Treatment Clinical Trials Network: A Summary of Findings  

PubMed Central

Background The NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) was established to foster translation of research into practice in substance abuse treatment settings. The CTN provides a unique opportunity to examine in multi-site, translational clinical trials, the outcomes of treatment interventions targeting vulnerable sub-groups of women; the comparative effectiveness of gender-specific protocols to reduce risk behaviors; and gender differences in clinical outcomes. Objectives To review gender-related findings from published CTN clinical trials and related studies from January, 2000 through March, 2010. Methods CTN studies were selected for review if they focused on treatment outcomes or services for special populations of women with substance use disorders (SUDs) including those with trauma histories, pregnancy, co-occurring eating and other psychiatric disorders and HIV risk behaviors; or implemented gender-specific protocols. Results The CTN has randomized 11,500 participants (41% women) across 200 clinics in 24 randomized clinical trials in community settings, of which 4 have been gender-specific. This paper summarizes gender-related findings from CTN clinical trials and related studies, focusing on trauma histories, pregnancy, co-occurring eating and other psychiatric disorders, and HIV risk behaviors. Conclusions These published studies have expanded the evidence base regarding interventions for vulnerable groups of women with SUDs as well as gender-specific interventions to reduce HIV risk behaviors in substance using men and women. The results also underscore the complexity of accounting for gender in the design of clinical trials and analysis of results. Scientific Relevance To fully understand the relevance of gender-specific moderators and mediators of outcome, it is essential that future translational studies adopt more sophisticated approaches to understanding and measuring gender-relevant factors and plan sample sizes that are adequate to support more nuanced analytic methods.

Greenfield, Shelly F.; Rosa, Carmen; Putnins, Susan I.; Green, Carla A.; Brooks, Audrey J.; Calsyn, Donald A.; Cohen, Lisa R.; Erickson, Sarah; Gordon, Susan M.; Haynes, Louise; Killeen, Therese; Miele, Gloria; Tross, Susan; Winhusen, Theresa

2011-01-01

478

Food irradiation: Key research needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of foods with ionizing radiation reduces microbial infection and insect infestations, inhibits sprouting, and delays maturation, thereby extending the shelf life of foods. The treatment of different types of foods with ionizing radiation for specific purposes is accepted in several countries, although it is prohibited in others. The US Food and Drug Administration has established regulations to allow the

Morehouse

1993-01-01