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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Alcoholics Anonymous: Key Research Findings from 2002–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other 12-step programs represent an affordable and widely accessible community-based resource for the estimated 18 million Americans with alcohol-related disorders. While substantiating information regarding 12-step programs remains challenging due to their autonomous structure and emphasis on anonymity, an ever increasing body of research provides a wealth of data regarding AA's efficacy, mechanisms of change, and viability

Shulamith Lala Ashenberg Straussner; Helga Byrne

2009-01-01

2

Fox Chase researchers find a compound that targets a key mechanism behind lymphoma  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia have come one step closer to developing the first treatment to target a key pathway in lymphoma. The new findings were announced at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2012 on Tuesday, April 3.

3

Key Events and Lessons for Managers in a Diverse Workforce: A Report on Research and Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research documented in this report builds on earlier work in the 1980s in the area of on-the-job experiences in developing effective leaders. The current study was designed to answer the following: (1) What are the significant events from which African American managers learn and develop? (2) Are the key events and lessons learned different…

Douglas, Christina A.

4

Student Engagement and Student Outcomes: Key Findings from "CCSSE" Validation Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The findings from 20 years of research on undergraduate education have been unequivocal: The more actively engaged students are--with college faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study--the more likely they are to learn, to stick with their studies, and to attain their academic goals. The existing literature,…

McClenney, Kay; Marti, C. Nathan; Adkins, Courtney

2012-01-01

5

Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

2009-01-01

6

Washington University researchers find key genetic error in family of blood cancers:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers used whole-genome sequencing to identify a critical mutation in some patients with myelodysplastic syndromes that appears to increase the likelihood they will develop acute myeloid leukemia.

7

Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients who have completed initial cancer treatment (cancer survivors) have been relatively neglected. We need data to help us better understand the needs of this group and to underpin evidence-based service development. Methods: Scoping reviews of research published in the last two decades focussing on the problems faced by cancer survivors, and the effectiveness of interventions for these problems were undertaken. The aim was to identify what we know, what we do not know and opportunities where research could provide new information. We searched for, retrieved and rapidly appraised systematic reviews sourced from the most common electronic databases supplemented by more recently published individual studies. Results: The research evidence is surprisingly limited. We have some knowledge of the prevalence and nature of depression, pain and fatigue in cancer survivors. We know much less about cognitive and physical impairment, employment, financial well-being and relationships. Even where we have evidence, it is mostly of only moderate quality, is most often only for breast cancer and focuses almost exclusively on the early phase of survivorship. We have good evidence for the effectiveness of drug treatments for pain and moderate evidence for fatigue and depression, but not for other symptoms. Interventions based on rehabilitative and self-management approaches remain in the early stages of evaluation. Interpretation: There has been a substantial amount of research describing many of the problems experienced by the cancer survivors. This is strongest in the area of symptoms in the period soon after treatment. However, the quality of the evidence is often poor, and some topics have been little examined. We urgently need data on the natural evolution and scale of the problems of cancer survivors obtained from well-designed, large-scale cohort studies and the robust testing of interventions in clinical trials. Given the current financially constrained research funding environment, we suggest areas in which strategic investment might give findings that have the potential to make a major impact on patient well-being in a 5-year time scale.

Richardson, A; Addington-Hall, J; Amir, Z; Foster, C; Stark, D; Armes, J; Brearley, S G; Hodges, L; Hook, J; Jarrett, N; Stamataki, Z; Scott, I; Walker, J; Ziegler, L; Sharpe, M

2011-01-01

8

Nanofluids research: key issues.  

PubMed

Nanofluids are a new class of fluids engineered by dispersing nanometer-size structures (particles, fibers, tubes, droplets) in base fluids. The very essence of nanofluids research and development is to enhance fluid macroscopic and megascale properties such as thermal conductivity through manipulating microscopic physics (structures, properties and activities). Therefore, the success of nanofluid technology depends very much on how well we can address issues like effective means of microscale manipulation, interplays among physics at different scales and optimization of microscale physics for the optimal megascale properties. In this work, we take heat-conduction nanofluids as examples to review methodologies available to effectively tackle these key but difficult problems and identify the future research needs as well. The reviewed techniques include nanofluids synthesis through liquid-phase chemical reactions in continuous-flow microfluidic microreactors, scaling-up by the volume averaging and constructal design with the constructal theory. The identified areas of future research contain microfluidic nanofluids, thermal waves and constructal nanofluids. PMID:20676214

Wang, Liqiu; Fan, Jing

2010-01-01

9

The Relationship of Family Support to Family Outcomes: A Synthesis of Key Findings from Research on Severe Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been a gradual shift from a deficit to a support model for understanding disability over the last two decades. Although more attention is focused on supports at the individual level, policy has provided for the provision of family support. Despite this policy, families' needs for support are on the rise; and research suggests that…

Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Summers, Jean Ann; Gomez, Viviana Aya

2012-01-01

10

Knowledge, ignorance and priorities for research in key areas of cancer survivorship: findings from a scoping review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Patients who have completed initial cancer treatment (cancer survivors) have been relatively neglected. We need data to help us better understand the needs of this group and to underpin evidence-based service development.Methods:Scoping reviews of research published in the last two decades focussing on the problems faced by cancer survivors, and the effectiveness of interventions for these problems were undertaken. The

A Richardson; J Addington-Hall; Z Amir; C Foster; D Stark; J Armes; S G Brearley; L Hodges; J Hook; N Jarrett; Z Stamataki; I Scott; J Walker; L Ziegler; M Sharpe

2011-01-01

11

Perceptual Tests of an Algorithm for Musical Key-Finding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perceiving the tonality of a musical passage is a fundamental aspect of the experience of hearing music. Models for determining tonality have thus occupied a central place in music cognition research. Three experiments investigated 1 well-known model of tonal determination: the Krumhansl-Schmuckler key-finding algorithm. In Experiment 1,…

Schmuckler, Mark A.; Tomovski, Robert

2005-01-01

12

Key findings of the national weatherization evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. The primary goal of the evaluation was to establish whether the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement, to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families-particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy-efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed a five-part study which produced a series of documents evaluating the Program. The objective of this document is to summarize the findings of the five-part National Weatherization Evaluation. The five studies were as follows: (1) Network Study-this study characterized the weatherization network`s leveraging, capabilities, procedures, staff, technologies, and innovations; (2) Resources and Population Study-this study profiled low-income weatherization resources, the weatherized population, and the population remaining to be served; (3) Multifamily Study-this study described the nature and extent of weatherization activities in larger multifamily buildings; (4) Single-family Study-this study estimated the national savings and cost- effectiveness of weatherizing single-family and small multifamily dwellings that use natural gas or electricity for space heating; (5) Fuel-Oil Study-this study estimated the savings and cost-effectiveness of weatherizing single-family homes, located in nine northeastern states, that use fuel oil for space heating. This paper provides a brief overview of each study`s purposes, research methods and most important findings.

Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.

1994-10-01

13

Knowledge translation of research findings  

PubMed Central

Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the likely barriers and facilitators. Although our evidence on the likely effectiveness of different strategies to overcome specific barriers remains incomplete, there is a range of informative systematic reviews of interventions aimed at healthcare professionals and consumers (i.e., patients, family members, and informal carers) and of factors important to research use by policy makers. Summary There is a substantial (if incomplete) evidence base to guide choice of knowledge translation activities targeting healthcare professionals and consumers. The evidence base on the effects of different knowledge translation approaches targeting healthcare policy makers and senior managers is much weaker but there are a profusion of innovative approaches that warrant further evaluation.

2012-01-01

14

Marihuana Research Findings: 1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1976 reference report presents the results of research into the health implications of marihuana use for Americans, updating developments since publication of the 1975 Fifth Annual Report to Congress on Marihuana and Health. Following a general summar...

R. C. Peterson

1977-01-01

15

Your Key To Easier Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to familiarize vocational educators with the purpose and objectives of the Tennessee Research Coordinating Unit (RCU), this handbook serves as a guide in developing researchable ideas and suggests procedures in writing research proposals. The handbook should be of interest to vocational instructors, teacher coordinators, guidance…

Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Occupational Research and Development Coordinating Unit.

16

Teacher Retirement Systems: Research Findings. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief summarizes findings presented at a February 2009 research conference on teacher retirement systems hosted by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College. The 2009 conference was the second in a series of NCPI events focusing on findings from recent research on issues related to…

Hansen, Janet S.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Costrell, Robert M.

2009-01-01

17

Neurobiology of depression: an integrated view of key findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Aims: The objectives of the present review were to summarise the key findings from the clinical literature regarding the neurobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) and their implications for maximising treatment outcomes. Several neuroan- atomical structures in the prefrontal and limbic areas of the brain are involved in affective regulation. In patients with MDD, alterations in the dynamic patterns

V. Maletic; M. Robinson; T. Oakes; S. Iyengar; S. G. Ball; J. Russell

2007-01-01

18

Air Research Program: Key Pathways research track  

EPA Science Inventory

The pathways research track applies animal, cellular, and human studies to discern whether there is a common molecular mechanism (e.g. production of oxidative stress, phosphatase inhibition, disruption of iron homeostasis) through which air pollutants induce toxicity of air pollu...

19

Evaluating Graduate Development: : Key Findings from the Graduate Development Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Graduate Development Project involved a close examination of graduate development in eight UK-based companies over a three-year period. Questionnaire data were obtained from a total of 1,189 graduates in the first few years of their careers, and 677 of their managers. The latter stages of the project involved company-specific development work of various kinds. Key findings are reported concerning

John Arnold; Kate Mackenzie Davey

1994-01-01

20

Human Health Effects of Tetrachloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues  

PubMed Central

Background: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Objectives: We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA’s Toxicological Review of Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene). Methods: The updated assessment of PCE synthesized and characterized a substantial database of epidemiological, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies. Key scientific issues were addressed through modeling of PCE toxicokinetics, synthesis of evidence from neurological studies, and analyses of toxicokinetic, mechanistic, and other factors (tumor latency, severity, and background rate) in interpreting experimental animal cancer findings. Considerations in evaluating epidemiological studies included the quality (e.g., specificity) of the exposure assessment methods and other essential design features, and the potential for alternative explanations for observed associations (e.g., bias or confounding). Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites that contribute to PCE toxicity. The exposure assessment approach—a key evaluation factor for epidemiological studies of bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma—provided suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity. Bioassay data provided conclusive evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Neurotoxicity was identified as a sensitive noncancer health effect, occurring at low exposures: a conclusion supported by multiple studies. Evidence was integrated from human, experimental animal, and mechanistic data sets in assessing adverse health effects of PCE. Conclusions: PCE is likely to be carcinogenic to humans. Neurotoxicity is a sensitive adverse health effect of PCE. Citation: Guyton KZ, Hogan KA, Scott CS, Cooper GS, Bale AS, Kopylev L, Barone S Jr, Makris SL, Glenn B, Subramaniam RP, Gwinn MR, Dzubow RC, Chiu WA. 2014. Human health effects of tetrachloroethylene: key findings and scientific issues. Environ Health Perspect 122:325–334;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307359

Hogan, Karen A.; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Cooper, Glinda S.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Kopylev, Leonid; Barone, Stanley; Makris, Susan L.; Glenn, Barbara; Subramaniam, Ravi P.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Chiu, Weihsueh A.

2014-01-01

21

AN INTEGRATED SYNTHESIS OF KEY AND POLICY RELEVANT FINDINGS FROM EPA'S SUPERSITES PROGRAM AND RELATED STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation provides an overview and initial insights into the findings based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. Many key atmospheric sciences findings have been identified through the research conducted during the last five years as part of t...

22

"State of the Nation": A Discussion of Some of the Project's Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers several of the key findings of the State of the Nation research. Specific reference is made to three areas--impact evaluation, strategic leadership of professional development, and barriers and constraints to effective CPD practice--which are considered with reference to findings from the other TDA-funded projects conducted at…

Earley, Peter

2010-01-01

23

Human Health Effects of Trichloroethylene: Key Findings and Scientific Issues  

PubMed Central

Background: In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. Objectives: We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of TCE in the U.S. EPA’s toxicological review. Methods: In this assessment we synthesized and characterized thousands of epidemiologic, experimental animal, and mechanistic studies, and addressed several key scientific issues through modeling of TCE toxicokinetics, meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies, and analyses of mechanistic data. Discussion: Toxicokinetic modeling aided in characterizing the toxicological role of the complex metabolism and multiple metabolites of TCE. Meta-analyses of the epidemiologic data strongly supported the conclusions that TCE causes kidney cancer in humans and that TCE may also cause liver cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Mechanistic analyses support a key role for mutagenicity in TCE-induced kidney carcinogenicity. Recent evidence from studies in both humans and experimental animals point to the involvement of TCE exposure in autoimmune disease and hypersensitivity. Recent avian and in vitro mechanistic studies provided biological plausibility that TCE plays a role in developmental cardiac toxicity, the subject of substantial debate due to mixed results from epidemiologic and rodent studies. Conclusions: TCE is carcinogenic to humans by all routes of exposure and poses a potential human health hazard for noncancer toxicity to the central nervous system, kidney, liver, immune system, male reproductive system, and the developing embryo/fetus.

Jinot, Jennifer; Scott, Cheryl Siegel; Makris, Susan L.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Dzubow, Rebecca C.; Bale, Ambuja S.; Evans, Marina V.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Keshava, Nagalakshmi; Lipscomb, John C.; Barone, Stanley; Fox, John F.; Gwinn, Maureen R.; Schaum, John; Caldwell, Jane C.

2012-01-01

24

The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010. Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the key findings from "The ECAR Study of Undergraduate Students and Information Technology, 2010". Since 2004, the annual ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of undergraduate students and information technology has sought to shed light on how information technology affects the college experience. We ask…

Smith, Shannon D.; Caruso, Judith Borreson

2010-01-01

25

Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education. Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the key findings from "Responding to Recession: IT Funding and Cost Management in Higher Education", the 2010 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study of how the economic recession is impacting information technology (IT) organizations and operations in higher education. The study was designed to address the…

Goldstein, Philip J.

2010-01-01

26

Research Findings You Can Trust.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight educational practices for improving classroom learning taken from the Department of Education's report "What Works--Research about Teaching and Learning" are reviewed. Reading comprehension, teaching writing, direct instruction, and homework are among the topics covered. (MT)

Instructor, 1986

1986-01-01

27

Issues in mHealth: Findings From Key Informant Interviews  

PubMed Central

Background mHealth is enjoying considerable interest and private investment in the United States. A small but growing body of evidence indicates some promise in supporting healthy behavior change and self-management of long-term conditions. The unique benefits mobile phones bring to health initiatives, such as direct access to health information regardless of time or location, may create specific issues for the implementation of such initiatives. Other issues may be shared with general health information technology developments. Objective To determine the important issues facing the implementation of mHealth from the perspective of those within the US health system and those working in mHealth in the United States. Methods Semistructured interviews were conducted with 27 key informants from across the health and mHealth sectors in the United States. Interviewees were approached directly following an environmental scan of mHealth in the United States or recommendation by those working in mHealth. Results The most common issues were privacy and data security, funding, a lack of good examples of the efficacy and cost effectiveness of mHealth in practice, and the need for more high-quality research. The issues are outlined and categorized according to the environment within which they predominantly occur: policy and regulatory environments; the wireless industry; the health system; existing mHealth practice; and research. Conclusions Many of these issues could be addressed by making the most of the current US health reform environment, developing a strategic and coordinated approach, and seeking to improve mHealth practice.

2012-01-01

28

Editorial Decisions May Perpetuate Belief in Invalid Research Findings  

PubMed Central

Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings.

Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent

2013-01-01

29

Business Information: Five Key Findings of a Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings from a survey comparing the use of internal and external information services by businesspeople in Brisbane (Australia). The survey examined where and how business information is currently sourced, how often and why information is sought from any particular source, and any problems people may have in finding business information.…

Edwards, Sylvia Lauretta; Ewers, Barbara

1998-01-01

30

Supervised, Supported and Indirect Contact Orders: Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child contact with non-resident parents has become a key issue in family law and policy. Within the substantial and growing body of research into how legal systems deal with child contact disputes, there is little empirical data on the use courts make of orders for supervised, supported or indirect contact. This article presents empirical research findings focusing on the use

Alison Perry; Bernadette Rainey

2007-01-01

31

Writing usable qualitative health research findings.  

PubMed

Scholars in diverse health-related disciplines and specialty fields of practice routinely promote qualitative research as an essential component of intervention and implementation programs of research and of a comprehensive evidence base for practice. Remarkably little attention, however, has been paid to the most important element of qualitative studies--the findings in reports of those studies--and specifically to enhancing the accessibility and utilization value of these findings for diverse audiences of users. The findings in reports of qualitative health research are too often difficult to understand and even to find owing to the way they are presented. A basic strategy for enhancing the presentation of these findings is to translate them into thematic statements, which can then in turn be translated into the language of intervention and implementation. Writers of qualitative health research reports might consider these strategies better to showcase the significance and actionability of findings to a wider audience. PMID:22745362

Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer

2012-10-01

32

Reading Research: Notable Findings and Urgent Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the findings and needs of reading research. The areas of research study mentioned include word boundaries, letter names, preschool reading, teacher questioning, critical reading and Negro dialects. Researchers cited include Dolores Durkin, Frank Guszak, Jay Samuels, Guy Bond, A. Sterl Artley, Edward Fry, and Robert…

Smith, Nila Banton

33

Research Findings You Can Trust. Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four findings regarding school effectiveness taken from the Department of Education's report "What Works--Research about Teaching and Learning" are reviewed. Effective schools, school climate, discipline, and teacher collegiality are discussed. (MT)

Instructor, 1986

1986-01-01

34

75 FR 18837 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct...team identified an adapter protein, MNAR, that coordinates interactions between certain nuclear receptors, Src and PI3K and may...

2010-04-13

35

Public key infrastructure for DOE security research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research\\/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER\\/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One

R. Aiken; I. Foster; W. E. Johnston

1997-01-01

36

Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Accounting Association (AAA) lists the print resources and electronic databases where AAA journals are indexed and abstracted at this Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research page. The detailed list includes indexing and abstracting devices for a number of journals -- Accounting Horizons, The Accounting Review, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Journal of the American Taxation Association, Journal of Information Systems, and the Journal of Management Accounting Research -- with date coverage and full-text information included for each.

37

The return of individual research findings in paediatric genetic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results\\/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research

Kristien Hens; Herman Nys; Jean-Jacques Cassiman; Kris Dierickx

2010-01-01

38

Hydrogen and fuel cell stationary applications: Key findings of modelling and experimental work in the HYPER project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the results of the research programme in the HYPER project (Installation Permitting Guidance for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Stationary Applications) [1]. The relevance of scientific findings to installation permitting guidelines (IPG) for small stationary hydrogen and fuel cell systems is discussed. A key aim of the activities was to generate new knowledge in the field of hydrogen

S. Brennan; A. Bengaouer; M. Carcassi; G. Cerchiara; G. Evans; A. Friedrich; O. Gentilhomme; W. Houf; A. Kotchourko; N. Kotchourko; S. Kudriakov; D. Makarov; V. Molkov; E. Papanikolaou; C. Pitre; M. Royle; R. Schefer; G. Stern; A. G. Venetsanos; A. Veser; D. Willoughby; J. Yanez

2011-01-01

39

Researchers Find Japanese Submarine at Pearl Harbor  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earlier this week, researchers from the University of Hawaii and the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab located the remains of a Japanese midget submarine. Found in 1200 feet of water, the submarine was sunk by the USS Ward just an hour before the aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Most important, the discovery of the midget submarine offers concrete physical evidence that the United States did fire the first shot against the Japanese. Previous expeditions to locate the sub, including an effort made in 2000 by the National Geographic Society, had been unsuccessful, largely due to the fact that the area is a military "junkyard" with tons of debris on the ocean floor.For more in-depth information on this story, readers may find the first four news links particularly helpful. The fifth link leads to the Hawaii Underwater Research Lab's Web site that features photographs of the midget sub from the expedition earlier this week. The sixth link is to a Web site dealing with the history and missions of the USS Ward. The final link contains detailed information about the 2000 expedition led by Robert Ballard, with support from the National Geographic Society, to find the midget submarine.

Green, Marcia.

2002-01-01

40

The return of individual research findings in paediatric genetic research.  

PubMed

The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research context: the respect for a participant's autonomy and the duty of the researcher. Concepts such as autonomy and solidarity do not fit easily in the discussion when paediatric biobanks are concerned. Although parents may be allowed to enrol children in minimal risk genetic research on stored tissue samples, they should not be given the option to opt out of receiving important health information. Also, children have a right to an open future: parents do not have the right to access any genetic data that a biobank holds on their children. In this respect, the guidelines on genetic testing of minors are applicable. With regard to the duty of the researcher the question of whether researchers have a more stringent duty to return important health information when their research subjects are children is more difficult to answer. A researcher's primary duty is to perform useful research, a policy to return individual results must not hamper this task. The fact that vulnerable children are concerned, is an additional factor that should be considered when a policy of returning results is laid down for a specific collection or research project. PMID:21059631

Hens, Kristien; Nys, Herman; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Dierickx, Kris

2011-03-01

41

Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.  

PubMed

Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts. PMID:18834752

Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

2008-12-01

42

Patient satisfaction: methodological issues and research findings.  

PubMed

Patient satisfaction plays a significant role in the health care process. It influences the health care seeking behaviour of patients, compliance with treatment and the health outcomes of patients. The use of ill-conceived and limited patient satisfaction questionnaires, in conjunction with inadequate methods of administration, have contributed to the poor reputation of patient satisfaction as an indicator of the quality of health care services. This paper addresses some of the methodological issues related to the measurement of patient satisfaction and describes validated and reliable tools which are available for use by hospitals in Australia. Research findings discussed demonstrate that patients are able to evaluate validly and reliably the quality of both clinical and non-clinical aspects of health care services. Australian health care organisations should implement patient satisfaction as a quality indicator and thereby actively seek to improve the health outcomes of their patients. PMID:10127675

Westbrook, J I

1993-01-01

43

Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research  

MedlinePLUS

... Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc At the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human ...

44

Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides an online and a printable brochure that provides information on why researchers study animals, how research animals are cared for, the ethics of animal research, cosmetic testing on animals, and how animal research helps people in the context of a diabetes patient.

2010-06-24

45

Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

2012-01-01

46

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2001 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

47

Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2002.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents an overview of the key findings from the Monitoring the Future 2002 nationwide survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students. A particular emphasis is placed on recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs. Trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug--which this study has…

Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor. Inst. for Social Research.

48

Vesteinn Thorsson, Ph.D., Reviews Key Findings from the TCGA Study on Colorectal Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Vesteinn Thorsson, Ph.D., Reviews the TCGA Study on Colorectal Cancer Vesteinn Thorsson, Ph.D., Reviews Key Findings from the TCGA Study on Colorectal Cancer You will need Adobe Flash Player 8 or later

49

Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) Project TPACK Survey: Summary of the Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a summary of the key findings of the TTF TPACK Survey developed and administered for the Teaching the Teachers for the Future (TTF) Project implemented in 2011. The TTF Project, funded by an Australian Government ICT Innovation Fund grant, involved all 39 Australian Higher Education Institutions which provide initial teacher…

Finger, Glenn; Jamieson-Proctor, Romina; Cavanagh, Rob; Albion, Peter; Grimbeek, Peter; Bond, Trevor; Fitzgerald, Robert; Romeo, Geoff; Lloyd, Margaret

2013-01-01

50

Russian research capabilities: Findings of site visits  

SciTech Connect

In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.

Wester, D.W.

1994-02-01

51

Online Shopping Behavior: Key Dimensions and Research Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of research has emerged related to the online shopping. In this study, the current literature related to media factors that influence online shopping behavior is extensively surveyed by identifying key dimensions. Four dimensions of the online shopping channel, including informativeness, convenience, customer service, and experiential uniqueness, are proposed based on the literature review and expert judgments. In

Dong Shen; Craig A. Kelley; Joseph Richards; Claudia Bridges

2006-01-01

52

OCLC Search Key Usage Patterns in a Large Research Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of a study performed to determine preferred and effective usage of search keys utilized by OCLC users. The study used the research library facilities of Ohio State University to examine information retrieval behavior for acquisitions and cataloging information. (RAA)

Rastogi, Kunj B.; Morita, Ichiko T.

1981-01-01

53

75 FR 39530 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Investigative Oversight (DIO), ORI found that Gerardo L. Paez, PhD, former postdoctoral fellow, Section of Medical Genetics, UP School of Veterinary Medicine, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Eye Institute...

2010-07-09

54

77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), National Institutes...addition, ORI found that Respondent's intentionally deceptive behavior, including false statements made to the CU institutional...

2012-02-02

55

77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Shane Mayack, former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and...

2012-08-28

56

78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...analysis, ORI found that Dr. Hao Wang, former Associate Professor of Surgery and Pathology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, WU, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases...

2013-11-12

57

77 FR 69627 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Eric J. Smart, former Professor of Pediatrics and Physiology, Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, UK, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National...

2012-11-20

58

76 FR 23599 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ORI) during its oversight review, ORI found that Vipul Bhrigu, PhD, former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Internal Medicine, UMMS, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National...

2011-04-27

59

77 FR 11538 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...conducted by ORI in its oversight review, ORI found that Dr. Michael W. Miller, former Professor and Chair, Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY UMU, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse...

2012-02-27

60

78 FR 14797 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Louis (WUSTL) and Respondent's admission, ORI found that Mr. Adam C. Savine, former doctoral student, Department of Psychology, WUSTL, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH),...

2013-03-07

61

Maori responsiveness in health and medical research: key issues for researchers (part 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Application for contestable government-research funding and ethical approval requires researchers to outline how their intended research project contributes to Maori development or advancement. Methods and Results When formulating their research proposals, the key issues for researchers are research utility, defining Maori, informed consent, confidentiality, issues with human tissues and genetic material, participant remuneration and recognition (koha), intellectual property, and

Andrew Sporle; Jonathan Koea

62

Criticisms of educational research: key topics and levels of analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article is an exploration of the meanings and worthiness of criticism as a significant phenomenon in the evolution of educational research during the 1990s. While drawing on an overview of the vast amount of documents expressing criticisms of educational research in the UK, western and eastern continental Europe and the USA, it summarises the findings of a study based

Alis Oancea

2005-01-01

63

77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...reported in the abstracts are being redone. Specifically, ORI finds that Respondent: Falsified Powerpoint slides and spreadsheets for histomorphometric and microCT results by using the values of HS1 knockout (KO) mice and their controls to...

2012-12-28

64

78 FR 941 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...knowingly and intentionally: Falsely reported research experiments when the results did not exist at the time the grant applications...roughly equivalent to levels in normal neurons, when the experiment was not conducted. Falsified Figure 3 of grant...

2013-01-07

65

Animal Research: Finding Cures, Saving Lives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The U.S. Public Health Service acknowledges that "virtually every medical achievement of the last century has depended directly or indirectly on research with animals." Created by the American Physiological Society, this website helps students learn about and explore the ethics and particulars of animal research. It answers common questions in a straight-forward and accessible manner. It also includes links to other resources to aid in a deeper exploration of the subject.

Society, The A.

66

Osteoarthritis: Research Findings | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoarthritis Research Findings Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Research Findings When osteoarthritis involves the hands, small, bony knobs may appear ...

67

76 FR 47589 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...final action in the following case: Sheng Wang, PhD, Boston University School of Medicine...misconduct findings, ORI found that Dr. Sheng Wang, who has been an Assistant Professor...1. Zhang, B., Faller, D.V., Wang, S. ``HIC1 regulates tumor cell...

2011-08-05

68

76 FR 23600 - Findings of Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PHS found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by falsifying data in Figure 4 of a manuscript submitted to the journal Infection and Immunity (Shin, J.J., Godfrey, H.P., & Cabello, F.C. ``Expression and localization of BmpC...

2011-04-27

69

Adult Cognition: Piagetian Based Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of Jean Piaget, widely recognized as pertinent to childhood cognition, has in recent years generated significant research based on adult samples. Because traditional Piagetian em phasis has been on young children the potential application of Piaget's theory to help in understanding and in explaining adult cognition has not been widely appreciated. Increasing in terest in adult development, however,

Huey B. Long; Kay McCrary; Spencer Ackerman

1979-01-01

70

Educational Research: Biologists Finding Their Voice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the publication of the Dearing report (1997) there has been an increasing emphasis on the quality of teaching and learning provision within higher education institutions (HEIs). This focus on provision has in turn generated much educational research into "approaches" to both teaching practice and student learning within higher education…

Orsmond, Paul

2007-01-01

71

A Common Metric for Integrating Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The choice of a common metric for the meta-analysis (quantitative synthesis) of correlational and experimental research studies is presented and justified. First, a background for the problem of identifying a common metric is presented. Second, the percentage of accounted variance (PAV) is described as the metric of choice, and reasons are given…

Haladyna, Tom

72

Latest research findings from petite sismique trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on a novel in-situ technique known as petite sismique is discussed. This geophysical method is capable of estimating the static deformation modules of a rock mass. The petite-sismique technique utilizes a seismic-refraction survey stressing a correlation between shear-wave frequency and the static deformation modulus. Although the technique was introduced in 1967, petite sismique has not been used extensively due

R. M. Belesky; Z. T. Bieniawski; R. J. Greenfield

1984-01-01

73

Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2011 September 2011 Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle ... as the drugs are taken. New NIAMS-supported research has found that for a subset of patients, ...

74

Handing Over the Keys: A Perspective on Mortgage Default Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the text of the 1992 Presidential Address for the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association. A comparative evaluation of mortgage default research finds that both the residential and commercial markets evolved from informal underwriting rules, to formalized (though unvalidated) ratios and rules of thumb, to early risk ratings based upon empirical evidence, to gener-alizable econometric models

Kerry D. Vandell

1993-01-01

75

Key-linked on-line databases for clinical research.  

PubMed

Separating patient identification data from clinical data and/or information about biomaterial samples is an effective data protection measure, especially in clinical research employing "on-line", i.e., web-based, data capture. In this paper, we show that this specialised technique can be generalised into a network architecture of interconnected on-line databases potentially serving a variety of purposes. The basic idea of this approach consists of maintaining logical links, i.e., common record keys, between corresponding data structures in pairs of databases while keeping the actual key values hidden from clients. For client systems, simultaneous access to corresponding records is mediated by temporary access tokens. At the relational level, these links are represented by arbitrary unique record keys common to both databases. This architecture allows for integration of related data in different databases without replicating or permanently sharing this data in one place. Each participating on-line database can determine the degree of integration by specifying linkage keys only for those data structures that may be logically connected to other data. Logical links can de designed for specific use cases. In addition, each database controls user access by enforcing its own authorisation scheme. Another advantage is that individual database owners retain considerable leeway in adapting to changing local requirements without compromising the integration into the network. Beyond protecting individual subject identification data, this architecture permits splitting a cooperatively used data pool to achieve many kinds of objectives. Application examples could be clinical registries needing subject contact information for follow-up, biomaterial banks with or without genetic information, and automatic or assisted integration of data from electronic medical records into research data. PMID:22874246

Müller, Thomas H

2012-01-01

76

Television Advertising and Children: Issues, Research and Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…

Esserman, June F., Ed.

77

Teacher and Principal Value-Added: Research Findings and Implementation Practices. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes research findings and implementation practices for teacher and principal value-added models (VAMs), as a first step in the Team Pennsylvania Foundation's (Team PA) pilot project to inform the development of a full, statewide model evaluation system. We have selected 21 studies that represent key issues and findings in the…

Lipscomb, Stephen; Teh, Bing-ru; Gill, Brian; Chiang, Hanley; Owens, Antoniya

2010-01-01

78

Current Research Findings on End-of-Life Decision Making among Racially or Ethnically Diverse Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We reviewed the research literature on racial or ethnic diversity and end-of-life decision making in order to identify key findings and provide recommendations for future research. Design and Methods: We identified 33 empirical studies in which race or ethnicity was investigated as either a variable predicting treatment preferences or…

Kwak, Jung; Haley, William E.

2005-01-01

79

Children's Comprehension Monitoring: Implications of Research Findings for the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on children's comprehension monitoring skills. Discusses implications of research findings for the classroom. Describes procedures for assessing children's comprehension monitoring. Outlines how monitoring strategies can best be taught. Discusses children's readiness for monitoring instruction. (RS)

Zabrucky, Karen; Ratner, Hilary Horn

1990-01-01

80

'Project launch': from research finding to therapeutic product.  

PubMed

Only 0.1-0.5% of new therapy candidates gains marketing approval; just 10-20% of the approved ones ultimately recoup the ~0.6-0.9$USbn invested into their R&D until marketing authorisation. One reason is the high inherent risk of new therapeutic products development. Further reasons are suboptimal decisions during R&D and, too often, lack of adequate experience. To bridge the latter gap, this article succinctly reviews identification of new product opportunities and their patent protection, the resulting commercial opportunity and portfolio valuation, planning and conduct of the ensuing preclinical and clinical tests, as well as therapeutic product registration and price reimbursement, covering risk management as an aside. The article also clarifies the key terms, identifies the main pit falls, highlights the essential requirements for and the goals of different product development steps, to facilitate communication between researchers and developers. By combining public information with personal experience and recommendations the article aims at informing more broadly those who are familiar mainly with some of the (strictly regulated) activities involved in design, development and launch of new therapeutic products, be it that they are medicinal products or medical devices. Taken together, this should support initiation and evolution of new therapeutic products and assist researchers in finding-and better and more smoothly co-operating with-consultants or partners in development and marketing. PMID:23948554

Cevc, Gregor

2014-01-23

81

Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children's vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors’ viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child's age and capacity upon application. Conclusion In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue.

Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher

2012-01-01

82

Finding Intercultural Business Communication Research Sites in Companies (Doing Research).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes important resources for discovering sites for communication research related to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), to help identify appropriate companies and contact them. (SR)

Driskill, Linda; Shaw, Peggy

1994-01-01

83

Cancer researchers translate new laboratory findings to enhance melanoma treatment  

Cancer.gov

Translational researchers from UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC) have published results of two back-to-back studies in the journal Cancer Discovery that provide critical insights into two key areas of how tumors resist BRAF inhibitors: the key cell-signaling pathways BRAF-mutant melanoma cells use to learn how to become resistant to inhibitor drugs, and how the limited focus of BRAF inhibitors allows melanoma cells to evolve and develop drug resistance.

84

Comorbid forms of psychopathology: key patterns and future research directions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to systematically appraise the peer-reviewed literature about clustered forms of psychopathology and to present a framework that can be useful for studying comorbid psychiatric disorders. The review focuses on four of the most prevalent types of mental health problems: anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and substance abuse. The authors summarize existing empirical research on the distribution of concurrent and sequential comorbidity in children and adolescents and in adults, and they review existing knowledge about exogenous risk factors that influence comorbidity. The authors include articles that used a longitudinal study design and used psychiatric definitions of the disorders. A total of 58 articles met the inclusion criteria and were assessed. Current evidence demonstrates a reciprocal, sequential relation between most comorbid pairs, although the mechanisms that mediate such links remain to be explained. Methodological concerns include the inconsistency of measurement of the disorders across studies, small sample sizes, and restricted follow-up times. Given the significant mental health burden placed by comorbid disorders, and their high prevalence across populations, research on the key risk factors for clustering of psychopathology is needed. PMID:18621743

Cerdá, Magdalena; Sagdeo, Aditi; Galea, Sandro

2008-01-01

85

Applications of Classroom Management Research Findings. Research Series No. 154.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the long-term effects of providing a research-based approach to classroom management through a two-phase staff development process. The process was designed to promote teachers' ability to establish and maintain effective classroom groups. Teachers' uses of group-development principles, cooperative-learning strategies, and…

Putnam, Joyce; Barnes, Henrietta

86

Immunotherapy of Cancer: Key Findings and Commentary on the Third Tegernsee Conference  

PubMed Central

Cancer immunotherapy broadly includes active immunization, as in the use of cancer vaccines, passive immunization, such as the use of adoptive cell therapy and antibodies that modulate tumor function, and immunostimulation, using antibodies and small molecules to treat malignancy by activating or unleashing an endogenous immune response against tumor cells. Currently, >100 different monoclonal antibodies are in use or under evaluation for use as therapeutic agents in various malignancies. Active stimulation of the host's immune system holds promise for achieving durable remission of malignant disease and represents a nontoxic method of therapy if tumor-specific effector cells can be selectively targeted. However, no active-specific treatment strategy (i.e., a therapeutic cancer vaccine) has yet found its way into the clinical armamentarium, although several promising recent reports suggest that, for follicular lymphoma, prostate cancer, and melanoma, clinical benefit was shown for the first time in randomized trials with a vaccine approach. Here, we report on the key findings of the Third Tegernsee Conference on Immunotherapy of Cancer (Feldafing, Germany, July 2–4, 2009) and provide short commentaries on data presented at this meeting regarding the future role of cancer vaccines, recent developments in adoptive cellular therapy, ways to improve immunotherapeutic treatment modalities (e.g., by manipulating the tumor microenvironment), and some novel targeted therapies that are well advanced in clinical testing, all of which have implications for future oncology practice.

Winter, Hauke; van den Engel, Natasja K.; Hatz, Rudolf; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Fox, Bernard A.; Weber, Jeffrey S.

2010-01-01

87

Key Observations from the NHLBI Asthma Clinical Research Network  

PubMed Central

The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Asthma Clinical Research Network (ACRN) recently completed its work after 20 years of collaboration as a multicentre clinical trial network. When formed, its stated mission was to perform multiple controlled clinical trials for treating patients with asthma by dispassionately examining new and existing therapies, and to rapidly communicate its findings to the medical community. The ACRN conducted 15 major clinical trials. In addition, clinical data, manual of operations, protocols and template informed consents from all ACRN trials are available via NHLBI BioLINCC (https://biolincc.nhlbi.nih.gov/studies/). This network contributed major insights into the use of inhaled corticosteroids, short-acting and long-acting ß-adrenergic agonists, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and novel agents (tiotropium, colchicine and macrolide antibiotics). They also pioneered studies of the variability in drug response, predictors of treatment response and pharmacogenetics. This review highlights the major research observations from the ACRN that have impacted the current management of asthma.

Szefler, Stanley J; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Israel, Elliot; Denlinger, Loren Clark; Lemanske, Robert F; Calhoun, William; Peters, Stephen P

2013-01-01

88

Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

2009-01-01

89

The Effective Elementary School Principal: Theoretical Bases, Research Findings and Practical Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although much of the current school reform movement relies on the basic assumption of effective elementary school administration, insufficient effort has been made to synthesize key concepts found in organizational theory and management studies with relevant effective schools research findings. This paper attempts such a synthesis to help develop…

Burnett, I. Emett, Jr.; Pankake, Anita M.

90

Trust in Leadership: Meta-Analytic Findings and Implications for Research and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors examined the findings and implications of the research on trust in leadership that has been conducted during the past 4 decades. First, the study provides estimates of the primary relationships between trust in leadership and key outcomes, antecedents, and correlates (k = 106). Second, the study explores how specifying the construct with alternative leadership referents

Donald L. FERRIN; K. T. Dirks

2002-01-01

91

Genetically Informative Research on Adolescent Substance Use: Methods, Findings, and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method: A selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations, and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents is presented.…

Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

92

INTERIM FINDINGS ON THE STATUS OF VISIBILITY RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

This report was prepared in response to the statutory provisions of Section 169B(a) requiring an interim report on the status of visibility research. he document summarizes the results and findings of visibility research published in the refereed literature since the passage of t...

93

Yale researchers find genes behind aggressive endometrial cancer  

Cancer.gov

Yale and Yale Cancer Center researchers have defined the genetic landscape of uterine serous carcinoma (USC) tumors, a chemo-resistant, aggressive form of endometrial cancer, findings that point to new treatment opportunities. The collaborative team—which included researchers with expertise in gynecological cancer, genomics, and computational biology— identified a number of new genes that are frequently mutated in USC.

94

Relationships Always Matter: Findings from a Phenomenological Research Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The research found that relationships are essential to the experience of education whether they are

David Giles

2011-01-01

95

IPCC Climate Change 2013: Mitigation of Climate Change - Key Findings and Lessons Learned  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Working Group III contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Mitigation of Climate Change, examines the results of scientific research about mitigation, with special attention on how knowledge has evolved since the Fourth Assessment Report published in 2007. Throughout, the focus is on the implications of its findings for policy, without being prescriptive about the particular policies that governments and other important participants in the policy process should adopt. The report begins with a framing of important concepts and methods that help to contextualize the findings presented throughout the assessment. The valuation of risks and uncertainties, ethical concepts and the context of sustainable development and equity are among the guiding principles for the assessment of mitigation strategies. The report highlights past trends in stocks and flows of greenhouse gases and the factors that drive emissions at global, regional, and sectoral scales including economic growth, technology or population changes. It provides analyses of the technological, economic and institutional requirements of long-term mitigation scenarios and details on mitigation measures and policies that are applied in different economic sectors and human settlements. It then discusses interactions of mitigation policies and different policy instrument types at national, regional and global governance levels and between economic sectors, The Working Group III report comprises 16 chapters and in assembling this assessment authors were guided by the principles of the IPCC mandate: to be explicit about mitigation options, to be explicit about their costs and about their risks and opportunities vis-à-vis other development priorities, and to be explicit about the underlying criteria, concepts, and methods for evaluating alternative policies.

Sokona, Youba

2014-05-01

96

Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies.

Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O'Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

97

HIV/AIDS risks among Native American drug users: key findings from focus group interviews and implications for intervention strategies.  

PubMed

A multisite study funded through the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Office of Research on Minority Health was conducted in 1996 to determine the HIV/AIDS prevention needs of Native American out-of-treatment drug users. In an effort to recommend directions for HIV/AIDS prevention programming, one component of this study entailed conducting a series of focus groups at each of four sites: Anchorage, Alaska; Denver, Colorado; Flagstaff, Arizona; and Tucson, Arizona. While some site differences were noted, several consistent thematic findings were revealed across all locations. Specifically, focus group members strongly recommended directly involving key members of the Native American community in conducting outreach and intervention activities, involving Native people as the sources of information, and utilizing local and tribally relevant forms of delivering the message. Other consistent themes included getting messages to smaller communities to prevent the potential "annihilation" of tribes, educating youth, and linking alcohol prevention education to HIV/AIDS education. Findings from this study support the idea that future HIV/AIDS prevention programs must take into account subgroup and individual level differences among Native American drug users. PMID:10494353

Baldwin, J A; Trotter, R T; Martinez, D; Stevens, S J; John, D; Brems, C

1999-08-01

98

Becoming a Scientist: Research Findings on STEM Students' Gains from Conducting Undergraduate Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate research is widely believed to enhance STEM students' education and increase their persistence to graduate education and careers in the sciences. Yet until very recently, little evidence from research and evaluation studies was available to substantiate such claims and document what students gain from doing undergraduate research or how these gains come about. We have conducted a three-year qualitative research study of STEM students participating in UR at four liberal arts colleges with a strong tradition of faculty-led summer research apprenticeships. Benefits to students reported by both students and their faculty advisors are categorized into six main categories of gains in skills, knowledge, "thinking like a scientist," career preparation, career development, and personal and professional growth. Student and faculty observations are strongly corroborative, but also differ in interesting ways that reflect the distinct perspectives of each group: students are still in the midst of discovering their own career paths while faculty advisors have observed the later career development of their past research students. While not all students find UR to heighten their interest in graduate school, they do find it a powerful growth experience that clarifies their career ambitions by providing a "real world" experience of science. For students whose interest in science is reinforced, UR has a significant role in their professional socialization into the culture and norms of science, which we call "becoming a scientist," through interactions that draw them into the scientific community and experiences that deepen their understanding of the nature of research. Cumulatively, the qualitative data set of nearly 350 interviews offers a rich portrayal of the UR enterprise from a variety of perspectives. Longitudinal data enable us to track the influence of UR on students' career and education trajectories in the years after college, and comparative data from a group of students who did not undertake UR or pursued alternate experiences reveal the extent to which some benefits of UR may be derived from other experiences. Faculty interviews reveal the costs and benefits to faculty of participating in this intensive form of science education. The presentation will highlight key findings and emphasize their relevance to faculty and program directors undertaking UR or seeking to generate its benefits through other activities.

Hunter, A.; Laursen, S.; Thiry, H.; Seymour, E.

2006-12-01

99

Organizational Social Network Research: Core Ideas and Key Debates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the growing popularity of the social network perspective across diverse organizational subject areas, this review examines the coherence of the research tradition (in terms of leading ideas from which the diversity of new research derives) and appraises current directions and controversies. The leading ideas at the heart of the organizational social network research program include: an emphasis on relations

Martin Kilduff; Daniel J. Brass

2010-01-01

100

Key Lessons about Induction for Policy Makers and Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this chapter is to digest the core chapters of this volume, which draws together some of the most sophisticated thinking on new teacher induction from the last decade. This chapter attends to five key understandings about induction programs, including their context, design, implementation, and outcomes. These understandings emerge…

Wayne, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

101

Informed consent for return of incidental findings in genomic research.  

PubMed

Purpose:Researchers face the dilemma of how to obtain consent for return of incidental findings from genomic research. We surveyed and interviewed investigators and study participants, with the goal of providing suggestions for how to shape the consent process.Methods:We performed an online survey of 254 US genetic researchers identified through the NIH RePORTER database, abstracts from the 2011 American Society of Human Genetics meeting, and qualitative semi-structured interviews with 28 genomic researchers and 20 research participants.Results:Most researchers and participants endorsed disclosure of a wide range of information about return of incidental findings, including risks, benefits, impact on family members, data security, and procedures, for return of results in the event of death or incapacity and for recontact. However, most researchers were willing to devote 30?min or less to this process and expressed concerns that disclosed information would overwhelm participants, a concern shared by many participants themselves.Conclusion:There is a disjunction between the views of investigators and participants about the amount of information that should be disclosed and the practical realities of the research setting, including the time available for consent discussions. This strongly suggests the need for innovative approaches to the informed consent process.Genet Med 16 5, 367-373. PMID:24158054

Appelbaum, Paul S; Waldman, Cameron R; Fyer, Abby; Klitzman, Robert; Parens, Erik; Martinez, Josue; Price, W Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K

2014-05-01

102

Researchers' views on return of incidental genomic research results: qualitative and quantitative findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose Comprehensive genomic analysis including exome and genome sequencing is increasingly being utilized in research studies, leading to the generation of incidental genetic findings. It is unclear how researchers plan to deal with incidental genetic findings. Methods We conducted a survey of the practices and attitudes of 234 members of the US genetic research community and performed qualitative semistructured interviews with 28 genomic researchers to understand their views and experiences with incidental genetic research findings. Results We found that 12% of the researchers had returned incidental genetic findings, and an additional 28% planned to do so. A large majority of researchers (95%) believe that incidental findings for highly penetrant disorders with immediate medical implications should be offered to research participants. However, there was no consensus on returning incidental results for other conditions varying in penetrance and medical actionability. Researchers raised concerns that the return of incidental findings would impose significant burdens on research and could potentially have deleterious effects on research participants if not performed well. Researchers identified assistance needed to enable effective, accurate return of incidental findings. Conclusion The majority of the researchers believe that research participants should have the option to receive at least some incidental genetic research results.

Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Buquez, Brigitte; Wynn, Julia; Waldman, Cameron R.; Phelan, Jo; Parens, Erik; Chung, Wendy K.

2013-01-01

103

Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings, 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides a summary of drug use trends from a survey of nearly 50,000 eighth-, tenth-, and twelfth- grade students nationwide. It also includes perceived risk, personal disapproval, and perceived availability of each drug by this group. A synopsis of the methods used in the study and an overview of the key results from the 2006 survey…

Johnston, Lloyd D., O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2007-01-01

104

Relationships Always Matter: Findings from a Phenomenological Research Inquiry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The…

Giles, David L.

2011-01-01

105

Educational Financing in Developing Countries: Research Findings and Contemporary Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on contemporary issues of educational financing in developing countries and on available research findings as these relate, or can be related, to these issues. The first two chapters are analytical, examining common educational finance issues and testing the conventional wisdom of certain usual proposals. Chapter 1, "Issues in…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

106

Research on Key Technology and Applications for Internet of Things  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet of Things (IOT) has been paid more and more attention by the academe, industry, and government all over the world. The concept of IOT and the architecture of IOT are discussed. The key technologies of IOT, including Radio Frequency Identification technology, Electronic Product Code technology, and ZigBee technology are analyzed. The framework of digital agriculture application based on IOT is proposed.

Chen, Xian-Yi; Jin, Zhi-Gang

107

Key Developments in Endocrine Disrupter Research and Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental etiologies involving exposures to chemicals that mimic endogenous hormones are proposed for a number of adverse human health effects, including infertility, abnormal prenatal and childhood development, and reproductive cancers (National Research Council, 1999; World Health Organization, 2002). Endocrine disrupters represent a significant area of environmental research with important implications for human health. This article provides an overview of some

Karen P. Phillips; Warren G. Foster

2008-01-01

108

Criticisms of Educational Research: Key Topics and Levels of Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article is an exploration of the meanings and worthiness of criticism as a significant phenomenon in the evolution of educational research during the 1990s. While drawing on an overview of the vast amount of documents expressing criticisms of educational research in the UK, western and eastern continental Europe and the USA, it summarises the…

Oancea, Alis

2005-01-01

109

Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

Piotrowski, Chris

2013-01-01

110

Finding and optimising the key factors for the multiple-response manufacturing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of modern technology, manufacturing processes became so sophisticated that a single quality characteristic cannot reflect the true product quality. Thus, it is essential to perform the key factor analysis for the manufacturing process with multiple-input (factors) and multiple-output (responses). In this paper, an integrated approach of using the desirability function in conjunction with the Mahalanobis-Taguchi-Gram Schmit (MTGS)

Jeh-Nan Pan; Jianbiao Pan; Chun-Yi Lee

2009-01-01

111

How nonprofit human service organizations manage their funding sources: key findings and policy implications.  

PubMed

Major findings and policy implications on how nonprofit social service organizations manage their funding relations are summarized. Data from in-depth case studies of six medium-sized social service organizations with distinctive funding profiles yielded findings on the major contingencies associated with controlling fees, the volatility of donations, and the driving force of public funding relationships for funders (public and private), nonprofit managers, and the role of nonprofit organizations. PMID:10120435

Gronbjerg, K A

1991-01-01

112

Managing incidental findings in exome sequencing for research.  

PubMed

Exome sequencing for research has become available for broadly based genomic studies as well as smaller targeted investigations. New exome research projects being considered will intentionally process a large amount of common and rare DNA variation for the purpose of finding specific links between genotype and phenotype. However, the risks of uncovering a clinically relevant incidental finding are not uniform across projects but are highly dependent on the question being asked and exactly how it is intended to be answered.Factors that influence the possibility of revealing a clinically relevant incidental DNA variation include the following: The overall design of the study and the number of participants involved, the mode of inheritance of the phenotype including whether the phenotype is likely to have a monogenic or a complex inheritance, whether the study is assessing a known list of genes or not, and whether the causative DNA variation is likely to be rare or common. Importantly, differing bioinformatics DNA variant filtering strategies strongly influence the odds of discovering an incidental finding. This chapter provides a framework for understanding and assessing the likelihood of discovering clinically relevant, incidental DNA variations that are not directly related to the question being addressed in a particular exome research project. It also outlines DNA variant filtering and functional informatics approaches that can investigate specific genomic questions while minimizing the risks of uncovering an incidental finding. PMID:24870138

Hinchcliffe, Marcus J

2014-01-01

113

Researchers discover key mutation in acute myeloid leukemia;  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have discovered mutations in a particular gene that affects the treatment prognosis for some patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive blood cancer that kills 9,000 Americans annually.

114

US-EC Biotech Task Force Keys on Research, Collaboration  

NSF Publications Database

... representative from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's research service on the 24-member task ... Institutes of Health, Department of Agriculture, Department of Energy, the State Department and the ...

115

Writing implementation research grant proposals: ten key ingredients  

PubMed Central

Background All investigators seeking funding to conduct implementation research face the challenges of preparing a high-quality proposal and demonstrating their capacity to conduct the proposed study. Applicants need to demonstrate the progressive nature of their research agenda and their ability to build cumulatively upon the literature and their own preliminary studies. Because implementation science is an emerging field involving complex and multilevel processes, many investigators may not feel equipped to write competitive proposals, and this concern is pronounced among early stage implementation researchers. Discussion This article addresses the challenges of preparing grant applications that succeed in the emerging field of dissemination and implementation. We summarize ten ingredients that are important in implementation research grants. For each, we provide examples of how preliminary data, background literature, and narrative detail in the application can strengthen the application. Summary Every investigator struggles with the challenge of fitting into a page-limited application the research background, methodological detail, and information that can convey the project’s feasibility and likelihood of success. While no application can include a high level of detail about every ingredient, addressing the ten ingredients summarized in this article can help assure reviewers of the significance, feasibility, and impact of the proposed research.

2012-01-01

116

Research Infusion Collaboration: Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.

Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda

2004-01-01

117

Facilities, Finances, & Staffing: Key Findings from NACE's 2001 "Career Services Survey."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents findings from the 2001 "Career Services Survey" conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Survey focuses on the facilities, finances, and staffing of college and university career services offices. Where possible, results are compared with results of previous career services surveys. (GCP)

Nagle, Rhea A.

2001-01-01

118

Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents an overview of the findings pertaining to eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students from the 1999 Monitoring the Future Study. This overview focuses on recent trends in the use of various licit and illicit drugs. It also examines trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug, which…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.

119

A Survey of American Voter Attitudes Concerning Child Care Services: Highlights and Key Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A national telephone survey of a representative sample of 901 voters was conducted to measure voter attitudes toward child care and, in particular, the Act for Better Child Care Services (ABC). The survey also explored attitudes toward parental leave. Findings indicated that: (1) a majority of Americans think of child care as an urgent need and…

Marttila & Kiley, Inc., Boston, MA.

120

Higher professional education for general medical practitioners: key informant interviews and focus group findings.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: If higher professional education (HPE) for general practitioners (GPs) is to be implemented, then key stakeholders will need to be supportive. AIM: To investigate stakeholders' beliefs about the concept of HPE, its funding, and relationships to education and care. METHOD: Interviews were conducted using a topic guide with a health authority (HA) representative, the Local Medical Committee Chair, the Medical Audit Advisory Group Chair, a GP tutor from each of the six health authorities in the old South West region, and a senior member of the three academic GP departments and the two Royal College of General Practitioners faculties in the region. Focus groups were held with GP registrars on both vocational training schemes (VTSs) and on the one HPE course in the region. These were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed for emergent themes that were triangulated with the ideas expressed in the focus groups; the same topic guide was used for both. RESULTS: Of 29 key informants, 24 were interviewed. Six focus groups were held (the one HPE group and five out of the nine VTSs), after which no new ideas emerged. There is a transition period, after becoming a new principal (NP) and before becoming a fully competent independent GP, during which NPs need support. Benefits would include receiving peer support to reduce stress during the transition, enhanced non-clinical competencies, becoming a better skilled GP, avoiding the negative personal impact of a career as a GP, and helping recruitment. To improve patient care there must be a link between education and service provision. Funding is the major consideration in setting HPE; mixed funding is best coming from top-sliced General Medical Services (GMS), the HA, and regional educational funds. Barriers might include NPs' practice workload, their enthusiasm, and their partners' attitudes. The other key is a local enthusiast to initiate a course and coordinate the 'players'. The curriculum would be principally non-clinical and should be agreed by learners and the course tutor together, taking advice from various interested parties. CONCLUSION: There is a need for HPE for new NPs. It will require funding external to individual practices or NPs and a local enthusiast. Top-slicing of GMS funds is one source of funding, with additional funds from regional education and HAs. HPE must be related to service provision, to NP needs, and to vocational training.

Smith, L F; Eve, R; Crabtree, R

2000-01-01

121

Researchers discover key mutation in acute myeloid leukemia  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have discovered mutations in a particular gene that affects the treatment prognosis for some patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), an aggressive blood cancer that kills 9,000 Americans annually. The scientists report their results in the Nov. 11, 2010, online issue of The New England Journal of Medicine.

122

Comorbid Forms of Psychopathology: Key Patterns and Future Research Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to systematically appraise the peer-reviewed literature about clustered forms of psychopathology and to present a framework that can be useful for studying comorbid psychiatric disorders. The review focuses on four of the most prevalent types of mental health problems: anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and substance abuse. The authors summarize existing empirical research on the

Magdalena Cerd; Aditi Sagdeo; Sandro Gale

2008-01-01

123

UCSD researchers find enzyme accelerates malignant stem cell cloning in chronic myeloid leukemia  

Cancer.gov

An international team, headed by researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, has identified a key enzyme in the reprogramming process that promotes malignant stem cell cloning and the growth of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a cancer of the blood and marrow that experts say is increasing in prevalence. The findings are published in the Dec. 24 online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). UCSD is home to the Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center.

124

Supporting Primary and Secondary Beginning Teachers Online: Key Findings of the Education Alumni Support Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During 2005, the Education Alumni Support Project (EdASP) (Maxwell, Smith, Baxter, Boyd, Harrington, Jenkins, Sargeant & Tamatea 2006) provided online support for University of New England (UNE) graduand, and later, graduate, teachers as they commenced their careers. The project was based on research which reported that many beginning teachers did…

Maxwell, T. W.; Harrington, I.; Smith, H. J.

2010-01-01

125

Transfer Velocity Project: Key Findings on Student Transfer in California Community Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which factors promote student transfer from California Community Colleges (CCC) to baccalaureate-granting institutions? How do community college practices support this transition? Which student behaviors and characteristics particularly facilitate their movement to four-year colleges and universities? The Research and Planning Group for California…

Research and Planning Group for California Community Colleges (RP Group), 2010

2010-01-01

126

A Review of Community of Practice in Organizations: Key Findings and Emerging Themes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable research has been conducted in the area of Communities of Practice (CoP) over the past two decades. This concept, introduced and popularized Brown and Duguid (1991), has been applied in practice and has formed the basis of numerous scholarly articles. This paper takes a small step towards reviewing the extant literature on CoPs, focusing only on empirical papers. We

Anukrati Agrawal; K. D. Joshi

2011-01-01

127

Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.  

PubMed

Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. PMID:24246718

Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

2014-05-01

128

Finding qualitative research: an evaluation of search strategies  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research makes an important contribution to our understanding of health and healthcare. However, qualitative evidence can be difficult to search for and identify, and the effectiveness of different types of search strategies is unknown. Methods Three search strategies for qualitative research in the example area of support for breast-feeding were evaluated using six electronic bibliographic databases. The strategies were based on using thesaurus terms, free-text terms and broad-based terms. These strategies were combined with recognised search terms for support for breast-feeding previously used in a Cochrane review. For each strategy, we evaluated the recall (potentially relevant records found) and precision (actually relevant records found). Results A total yield of 7420 potentially relevant records was retrieved by the three strategies combined. Of these, 262 were judged relevant. Using one strategy alone would miss relevant records. The broad-based strategy had the highest recall and the thesaurus strategy the highest precision. Precision was generally poor: 96% of records initially identified as potentially relevant were deemed irrelevant. Searching for qualitative research involves trade-offs between recall and precision. Conclusions These findings confirm that strategies that attempt to maximise the number of potentially relevant records found are likely to result in a large number of false positives. The findings also suggest that a range of search terms is required to optimise searching for qualitative evidence. This underlines the problems of current methods for indexing qualitative research in bibliographic databases and indicates where improvements need to be made.

Shaw, Rachel L; Booth, Andrew; Sutton, Alex J; Miller, Tina; Smith, Jonathan A; Young, Bridget; Jones, David R; Dixon-Woods, Mary

2004-01-01

129

Diversity: Key to Success of Research Teams of The Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A presentation from the invited speaker, Dr. Patricia Molina, given at the APS/NIDDK Minority Travel Fellow Luncheon during EB 2008. Dr. Molina highlights studies showing that diversity in work environments improves the quality of research. She points out that APSÃÂs strategic directions to promote the advancement of underrepresented minority students, and encouraged those in attendance to recognize their essential role in the increasingly global scientific community.

2008-03-21

130

MIT-led study finds turning on key enzyme blocks tumor formation  

Cancer.gov

Unlike ordinary cells, cancer cells devote most of their energy to reproducing themselves. To do this, they must trigger alternative metabolic pathways that produce new cellular building blocks, such as DNA, carbohydrates and lipids. Chemical compounds that disrupt an enzyme critical to this metabolic diversion prevent tumors from forming in mice, according to an MIT-led study appearing online in Nature Chemical Biology on Aug. 26. MIT is home to the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research.

131

Efficient hit-finding approaches for histone methyltransferases: the key parameters.  

PubMed

For many novel epigenetics targets the chemical ligand space and structural information were limited until recently and are still largely unknown for some targets. Hit-finding campaigns are therefore dependent on large and chemically diverse libraries. In the specific case of the histone methyltransferase G9a, the authors have been able to apply an efficient process of intelligent selection of compounds for primary screening, rather than screening the full diverse deck of 900 000 compounds to identify hit compounds. A number of different virtual screening methods have been applied for the compound selection, and the results have been analyzed in the context of their individual success rates. For the primary screening of 2112 compounds, a FlashPlate assay format and full-length histone H3.1 substrate were employed. Validation of hit compounds was performed using the orthogonal fluorescence lifetime technology. Rated by purity and IC(50) value, 18 compounds (0.9% of compound screening deck) were finally considered validated primary G9a hits. The hit-finding approach has led to novel chemotypes being identified, which can facilitate hit-to-lead projects. This study demonstrates the power of virtual screening technologies for novel, therapeutically relevant epigenetics protein targets. PMID:21990582

Ahrens, Thomas; Bergner, Andreas; Sheppard, David; Hafenbradl, Doris

2012-01-01

132

NOAA atmospheric baseline observatories provide key data for researchers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GREENLAND—Brian Vasel, an admitted “Poley” who has overwintered twice at the South Pole, is drawn to ice sheets. That's a good thing for him: Two of the six atmospheric baseline observatories that he oversees as field operations manager for the Global Monitoring Division of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) are located on ice sheets, one at the South Pole and the other at Summit Station, in central Greenland, atop 3.2 kilometers of ice. All of the NOAA atmospheric baseline observatories (ABOs)—including those at Barrow, Alaska; Trinidad Head, Calif.; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; and American Samoa—were strategically selected for their unique locations to conduct a variety of atmospheric and solar measurements. For instance, Summit Station is a high-latitude, high-altitude site that is in the free troposphere, and the site in American Samoa is in the Intertropical Convergence Zone, Vasel noted.

Showstack, Randy

2011-08-01

133

Interprofessional social and emotional intelligence skills training: study findings and key lessons.  

PubMed

Frequently changing demands in health care systems have focused attention on the need for emotional competence (EC) - social and emotional intelligence skills, to adapt efficiently, responsively and productively. This paper reports on findings from a workshop that introduced practical EC skills to nearly 1000 participants in education, medicine, mental health and substance abuse counseling. The holistic EC presentations were designed to teach concepts and principles providing each participant with the opportunity for individualized learning. Ninety percent of the participants rated these presentations as valuable and useful. Following this positive response, the approach was adapted to train health professionals serving diverse populations. This report shares our experience teaching various professionals and describes preliminarily testing of the adapted EC training program on a small group of health professionals, whose responsibilities included teamwork, program design, teaching clients and patients EC basics to support healthy practices and self-care. Their positive response supports the need for expanded study and further investigation. PMID:24164409

Flowers, Loma Kaye; Thomas-Squance, Ruth; Brainin-Rodriguez, Jo Ellen; Yancey, Antronette K

2014-03-01

134

UNC study finds cancer gene family member functions key to cell adhesion and migration  

Cancer.gov

While cancer researchers are learning more of WTX and how its loss contributes to cancer formation, virtually nothing is known of FAM123C or FAM123A, the latter of which is a highly abundant protein within neurons, cells that receive and send messages from the body to the brain and back to the body. A UNC-led team of scientists used sophisticated technologies to identify and describe the protein interactions that distinguish each member of the WTX family. They found that unlike WTX and FAM123C, FAM123A interacts with a specific set of proteins that regulates cell adhesion and migration, processes essential to normal cell functioning and which, when mutated, contribute to human diseases such as cancer or Alzheimer’s.

135

The Genetics of Autism: Key Issues, Recent Findings and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD’S) are highly heritable. Consequently, gene discovery promises to help illuminate the pathophysiology of these syndromes, yielding important opportunities for the development of novel treatments and a more nuanced understanding of the natural history of these disorders. Although the underlying genetic architecture of ASD’s is not yet known, the literature demonstrates that it is not, writ large, a monogenic disorder with Mendelian inheritance, but rather a group of complex genetic syndromes with risk deriving from genetic variations in multiple genes. The widely accepted “Common Disease-Common Variant” hypothesis predicts that the risk alleles in ASD’s and other complex disorders will be common in the general population. However, recent evidence from gene discovery efforts in a wide range of diseases raises important questions regarding the overall applicability of the theory and the extent of its usefulness in explaining individual genetic liability. In contrast, considerable evidence points to the importance of rare alleles both with regard to their value in providing a foothold into the molecular mechanisms of ASD and their overall contribution to the population-wide risk. This chapter reviews the origins of the common versus rare variant debate, highlights recent findings in the field, and addresses the clinical implications of both common and rare variant discoveries.

El-Fishawy, Paul; State, Matthew W.

2010-01-01

136

The Key Role of Educational Research in the Development and Evaluation of the National Numeracy Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors contest a politician's claim that the National Numeracy Strategy (NNS) in English primary schools has been an undisputed success with no contribution from educational researchers. First, the key role of researchers and research in the development of the NNS is outlined. Then there is a description of the Leverhulme Numeracy Research

Brown, Margaret; Askew, Mike; Millett, Alison; Rhodes, Valerie

2003-01-01

137

Tectonic history of Sweetgrass Arch, Montana and Alberta-key to finding new hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

The Sweetgrass arch of northwestern Montana and southern Alberta is a major ancient structural feature. Initial anticlinal emplacement occurred during the early Paleozoic and was parallel with the cratonic margin. Strong uplift followed by peneplanation occurred during the Late Jurassic and basal Cretaceous during the westward drifting of the North American plate following the breakup of Pangea. During Cretaceous and early Tertiary times, the Sweetgrass arch was quiescent, but was rejuvenated in mid to late Tertiary, upwarped by a basement flexure to its present structural configuration: a 200 mi (322 km) long, north-plunging anticline showing 10,000 ft (350 m) of structural relief. Midway down its plunge, the anticline is offset 30 mi (48 km) by a right-lateral transcurrent fault. During Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary, plutonic uplifts were emplaced on the east flank, forming traps for oil then migrating updip from the Williston and Alberta basins. Oil and gas accumulated in Mississippian, Jurassic, and basal Cretaceous reservoirs in structural and stratigraphic traps around these plutonic uplifts. Subsequent late Tertiary doming of the Sweetgrass arch tilted the earlier structural traps and drained them, resulting in remigration of much of the oil and gas to the crest of the arch. The tilting failed to destroy many of the stratigraphic traps. As a result, down the flanks of the Sweetgrass arch are many frozen stratigraphic traps including Cut Bank field, the largest single-pay stratigraphic trap in the north Rockies. On the crest are large structure accumulations of remigrated oil at Kevin Sunburst and Pondera. Evidence of remigration is recorded by live oil show tracks in the reservoirs and remnant gas caps throughout the area of earlier accumulations. A potential exists for finding new frozen traps on the flanks and remigrated oil accumulations on or near the crest of the Sweetgrass arch.

Shepard, W. Shepard, B.

1985-05-01

138

Psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations (voices): current status and key directions for future research.  

PubMed

This report from the International Consortium on Hallucinations Research considers the current status and future directions in research on psychological therapies targeting auditory hallucinations (hearing voices). Therapy approaches have evolved from behavioral and coping-focused interventions, through formulation-driven interventions using methods from cognitive therapy, to a number of contemporary developments. Recent developments include the application of acceptance- and mindfulness-based approaches, and consolidation of methods for working with connections between voices and views of self, others, relationships and personal history. In this article, we discuss the development of therapies for voices and review the empirical findings. This review shows that psychological therapies are broadly effective for people with positive symptoms, but that more research is required to understand the specific application of therapies to voices. Six key research directions are identified: (1) moving beyond the focus on overall efficacy to understand specific therapeutic processes targeting voices, (2) better targeting psychological processes associated with voices such as trauma, cognitive mechanisms, and personal recovery, (3) more focused measurement of the intended outcomes of therapy, (4) understanding individual differences among voice hearers, (5) extending beyond a focus on voices and schizophrenia into other populations and sensory modalities, and (6) shaping interventions for service implementation. PMID:24936081

Thomas, Neil; Hayward, Mark; Peters, Emmanuelle; van der Gaag, Mark; Bentall, Richard P; Jenner, Jack; Strauss, Clara; Sommer, Iris E; Johns, Louise C; Varese, Filippo; García-Montes, José Manuel; Waters, Flavie; Dodgson, Guy; McCarthy-Jones, Simon

2014-07-01

139

42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Requirements for findings of research misconduct. 93.104 Section 93... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93.104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of...

2012-10-01

140

The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance.  

PubMed

The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on "cleaning the streets", has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

Thomson, Nick; Leang, Supheap; Chheng, Kannarath; Weissman, Amy; Shaw, Graham; Crofts, Nick

2012-01-01

141

Reading Journal Articles for Comprehension Using Key Sentences: An Exercise for the Novice Research Student  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…

Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.

2013-01-01

142

Vulnerable Children's Access to Examinations at Key Stage 4. Research Report RR639  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research project was commissioned by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) in 2004 to examine barriers to vulnerable children accessing examinations at the end of key stage 4 and to identify strategies employed to overcome these barriers. Key groups of vulnerable children identified by the DfES included: (1) Looked-after children;…

Kendall, Sally; Johnson, Annie; Martin, Kerry; Kinder; Kay

2005-01-01

143

Texas A&M University-Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences-Florida Keys Research: Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past decade, researchers from Texas A&M University have been working in collaboration with groups including the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission to promote "the recovery of several endangered species in the Florida Keys, namely Florida Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri), silver rice rat (Oryzomys palustris natator), and Key Largo woodrat (Neotoma floridana smalli)." This Florida Keys Research program website offers downloadable publications in the form of journal articles, theses, and one dissertation. The 219-page dissertation on Florida Key deer population ecology was authored by Dr. Roel R. Lopez (now assistant professor for the program) in December of 2001. The site's three listed theses (all submitted between August and December of 2003) include a 239-page publication regarding the distribution of the Lower Keys marsh rabbit; an 83-page publication about Key Largo woodrat ecology, and a 154-page publication concerning Florida Key deer management strategies. Currently, the site's 17 listed journal articles primarily address issues concerning Florida Key deer.

144

ALPBP Project Research Component: Summary of Research Findings and Final Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Persons (ALPBP) project research component and provides a summary of the findings of the other six components of the study. The summary of the research component includes an outline of the goals, activities, and requests for proposals. After the introduction, the following…

Rivera, Charlene

145

A meta analysis of ISO 9001:2000 researchfindings and future research proposals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review and classify the main findings of the studies undertaken on ISO 9001:2000 certified companies and to present future research proposals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A comprehensive literature review is carried out focusing on research papers published in academic literature. Both, the most recently published papers as well as those concerned only with

Evangelos L. Psomas; Christos V. Fotopoulos

2009-01-01

146

Online Information Exchanges for Parents of Children With a Rare Health Condition: Key Findings From an Online Support Community  

PubMed Central

Background The Internet provides new opportunities for parents of children with difficult illnesses and disabilities to find information and support. The Internet is particularly important for caregivers of children with special needs due to numerous health-related decisions they face. For at-risk populations, online support communities can become key settings and channels for health promotion and communication. Objective This study is an initial exploration of the information-seeking and information-provision processes present in an online support community, which is an area of opportunity and interest for Internet-based medical research and practice. The aim of this study was to explore and describe information-related processes of uncertainty management in relationship to clubfoot. Specifically, the study explored interpersonal communication (information seeking and provision) in an online support community serving the needs of parents of children with clubfoot. Methods The study population consisted of messages posted to an online community by caregivers (parents) of children with clubfoot. The theoretical framework informing the study was the Uncertainty Management Theory (UMT). The study used content analysis to explore and categorize the content of 775 messages. Results Women authored 664 of 775 messages (86%) and men authored 47 messages (6%). Caregivers managed uncertainty through information seeking and provision behaviors that were dynamic and multilayered. The ratio of information-seeking messages to information-provision responses was 1 to 4. All five types of information-seeking behaviors proposed by Brashers’ schema were identified, most of them being correlated. Information seeking using direct questions was found to be positively correlated to self-disclosure (r=.538), offering of a candidate answer (r=.318), and passive information seeking (r=.253). Self-disclosure was found to be positively correlated to provision of a candidate answer (r=.324), second-guessing (r=.149), and passive information seeking (r=.366). Provision of a candidate answer was found to be positively correlated with second-guessing (r=.193) and passive information seeking (r=.223). Second-guessing was found to be positively correlated to passive information seeking (r=.311). All correlations reported above were statistically significant (P<0.01). Of the 775 messages analyzed, 255 (33%) identified a medical professional or institution by name. Detailed medical information was provided in 101 (13%) messages, with the main source of information identified being personal experience rather than medical sources. Conclusion Online communities can be an effective channel for caregivers, especially women, to seek and offer information required for managing clubfoot-related uncertainty. To enhance communication with parents, health care institutions may need to invest additional resources in user-friendly online information sources and online interactions with caregivers of children with special illnesses such as clubfoot. Furthermore, explorations of information-seeking and information-provision behaviors in online communities can provide valuable data for interdisciplinary health research and practice.

Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John; Andsager, Julie; Morcuende, Jose A

2013-01-01

147

Next generation sequencing in psychiatric research: what study participants need to know about research findings.  

PubMed

The use of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in psychiatric genetics research and its potential to generate individual research results will likely have far reaching implications for predictive and diagnostic practices. The extent of this impact may not be easily understood by psychiatric research participants during the consent process. The traditional consent process for studies involving human subjects does not address critical issues specific to NGS research, such as the return of results. We examined which type of research findings should be communicated, how this information should be conveyed during the consent process and what guidance is required by researchers and IRBs to help psychiatric research participants understand the peculiarities, the limits and the impact of NGS. Strong standards are needed to ensure appropriate use of data generated by NGS, to meet participants' expectations and needs, and to clarify researchers' duties regarding the disclosure of data and their subsequent management. In the short term, researchers and IRBs need to be proactive in revising current consent processes that deal with the disclosure of research findings. PMID:23725748

Mathieu, Ghislaine; Groisman, Iris Jaitovich; Godard, Beatrice

2013-10-01

148

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...findings affecting research and development contracting. 335.071...Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 335.071 ...findings affecting research and development contracting. OPDIV...

2013-10-01

149

42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative...

2013-10-01

150

42 CFR 93.501 - Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative...

2012-10-01

151

42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires...a significant departure from accepted practices of the relevant research community; and (b) The...

2010-10-01

152

42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires...a significant departure from accepted practices of the relevant research community; and (b) The...

2009-10-01

153

42 CFR 93.104 - Requirements for findings of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires...a significant departure from accepted practices of the relevant research community; and (b) The...

2013-10-01

154

A prospective key informant surveillance system to measure maternal mortality - findings from indigenous populations in Jharkhand and Orissa, India  

PubMed Central

Background In places with poor vital registration, measurement of maternal mortality and monitoring the impact of interventions on maternal mortality is difficult and seldom undertaken. Mortality ratios are often estimated and policy decisions made without robust evidence. This paper presents a prospective key informant system to measure maternal mortality and the initial findings from the system. Methods In a population of 228 186, key informants identified all births and deaths to women of reproductive age, prospectively, over a period of 110 weeks. After birth verification, interviewers visited households six to eight weeks after delivery to collect information on the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods, as well as birth outcomes. For all deaths to women of reproductive age they ascertained whether they could be classified as maternal, pregnancy related or late maternal and if so, verbal autopsies were conducted. Results 13 602 births were identified, with a crude birth rate of 28.2 per 1000 population (C.I. 27.7–28.6) and a maternal mortality ratio of 722 per 100 000 live births (C.I. 591–882) recorded. Maternal deaths comprised 29% of all deaths to women aged 15–49. Approximately a quarter of maternal deaths occurred ante-partum, a half intra-partum and a quarter post-partum. Haemorrhage was the commonest cause of all maternal deaths (25%), but causation varied between the ante-partum, intra-partum and post-partum periods. The cost of operating the surveillance system was US$386 a month, or US$0.02 per capita per year. Conclusion This low cost key informant surveillance system produced high, but plausible birth and death rates in this remote population in India. This method could be used to monitor trends in maternal mortality and to test the impact of interventions in large populations with poor vital registration and thus assist policy makers in making evidence-based decisions.

Barnett, Sarah; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Borghi, Jo; Rath, Suchitra; Costello, Anthony

2008-01-01

155

1998 National Gun Policy Survey of the National Opinion Research Center: Research Findings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research in 1999 released a final report based on the research findings of a national survey on gun policies. The 64-page study reports on topics such as the regulation of firearms, gun ownership and use, knowledge and attitudes toward guns, gun violence, and safety issues. The report includes thirteen statistical tables and concludes that the American public strongly supports "legislation to regulate firearms, make guns safer, and reduce the accessibility of firearms to criminals and children."

Smith, Tom W.

156

HIV research in Australia: linking basic research findings with clinical and public health outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a population of only 20 million and sustained low prevalence of HIV infection in Australia, Australian researchers have provided many substantial original findings to the fields of HIV pathogenesis, treatment and prevention. More recently, Australian clinicians and scientists have turned their attention to assisting other countries in developing effective responses, particularly within the Asia-Pacific region. It is therefore fitting

Sharon R Lewin; John M Kaldor; David A Cooper

2006-01-01

157

Legal Interventions in Family Violence: Research Findings and Policy Implications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research has shed considerable light on family violence and various efforts to combat it within the justice system. Much of the research has direct, practical application for prosecutors, judges, defense attorneys, victim/witness advocates, and mem...

1998-01-01

158

Drug treatment careers A conceptual framework and existing research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

While outcomes for any single intervention are important to determine, the long-term evaluation of multiple, sequential interventions is at least equally important. One strategy for examining this process is that of the treatment career. A treatment careers perspective applies a longitudinal dynamic approach to identify and understand key factors influencing the development of, and transitions in the course of, drug

Yih-Ing Hser; M. Douglas Anglin; Christine Grella; Douglas Longshore; Michael L. Prendergast

1997-01-01

159

Advancing Research Into Affective Factors in Mathematics Learning: Clarifying Key Factors, Terminology and Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on affective factors in the learning of mathematics is difficult to interpret because of differences and inconsistencies in terminology and measurement. To advance research in this field of affect, I compare and clarify terminology, and reconcile scales for measurement by examining the factors and research instruments targeted by four research teams. The findings reveal two distinct broad primary

Patricia C. Cretchley

2008-01-01

160

Key focal areas for bridging the fields of aging and disability: findings from the growing older with a disability conference  

PubMed Central

Based upon research presented at the 2011 Festival of International Conferences on Caregiving, Disability, Aging and Technology (FICCDAT)—and specifically the Growing Older with a Disability (GOWD) conference, this paper identifies areas where bridging building between aging and disability is needed to support older adults aging into or with disabilities. Five focal areas emerged: 1) The Need to Forward Bridging Between Aging and Disability Sectors, 2) Theoretical Frameworks of Individual Aging that Facilitate Bridging, 3) Bridging through Consumer Participation and Involvement, 4) Bridging Through Knowledge Transfer and 5) Bridging Opportunities in Long-Term Supports and Services and Assistive Technologies. Discussion of themes is provided within both international and Canadian contexts, reflecting the interests of FICCDAT and GOWD organizers in discussing how to improve bridging in Canada. Findings from this report form the basis of the Toronto Declaration on Bridging Aging and Disability Policy, Practice, and Research.

Naidoo, Vishaya; Putnam, Michelle; Spindel, Andria

2012-01-01

161

Applying Ad Hoc Institutional Research Findings to College Strategic Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Environmental scanning, enrollment forecasting, budget analyses, and institutional effectiveness assessment are examples of the explicit contributions institutional research offices make to campus strategic planning.

Clagett, Craig A.

2004-01-01

162

"Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

Coulter, Cathy A.

2009-01-01

163

Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and Giftedness: Overexcitability Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past 20 years, a significant body of literature has emerged focusing on the application of Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration (TPD) to the study of gifted individuals. Although much of this literature is prescriptive, some research reports spanning this time period are available. A perusal of research on TPD's applicability…

Mendaglio, Sal; Tillier, William

2006-01-01

164

Gate Valve and Motor-Operator Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated...

R. Steele K. G. DeWall J. C. Watkins M. J. Russell D. Bramwell

1995-01-01

165

The current structure of key actors involved in research on land and soil degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land and soil conservation topics, the final mandate of the United Convention to Combat desertification in drylands, have been diagnosed as still suffering from a lack of guidance. On the contrary, climate change and biodiversity issues -the other two big subjects of the Rio Conventions- seem to progress and may benefit from the advice of international panels. Arguably the weakness of policy measures and hence the application of scientific knowledge by land users and stakeholders could be the expression of an inadequate research organization and a lack of ability to channel their findings. In order to better understand the size, breadth and depth of the scientific communities involved in providing advice to this convention and to other bodies, this study explores the corpus of international publications dealing with land and/or with soils. A database of several thousands records including a significant part of the literature published so far was performed using the Web of Science and other socio-economic databases such as FRANCIS and CAIRN. We extracted hidden information using bibliometric methods and data mining applied to these scientific publications to map the key actors (laboratories, teams, institutions) involved in research on land and on soils. Several filters were applied to the databases in combination with the word "desertification". The further use of Tetralogie software merges databases, analyses similarities and differences between keywords, disciplines, authors and regions and identifies obvious clusters. Assessing their commonalities and differences, the visualisation of links and gaps between scientists, organisations, policymakers and other stakeholders is possible. The interpretation of the 'clouds' of disciplines, keywords, and techniques will enhance the understanding of interconnections between them; ultimately this will allow diagnosing some of their strengths and weaknesses. This may help explain why land and soil degradation remains a serious global problem that lacks sufficient attention. We hope that this study will contribute to clarify the scientific landscape at stake to remediate possible weaknesses in the future.

Escadafal, Richard; Barbero, Celia; Exbrayat, Williams; Marques, Maria Jose; Ruiz, Manuel; El Haddadi, Anass; Akhtar-Schuster, Mariam

2013-04-01

166

Research progresses on the key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in maize.  

PubMed

Sucrose, as the major product of photosynthesis, is a vital metabolite and signaling molecule in higher plants. Three enzymes are responsible for the synthesis, transport, and degradation of sucrose. In this article, the gene structure, expression and regulation, and the physiological functions of the key enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism in maize are reviewed, moreover, the existing problems of the sucrose metabolism research were discussed in detail, and we present our ideas for future research. PMID:23318271

Ren, Xiaodong; Zhang, Junjie

2013-03-01

167

Researchers Find Order, Beauty in Chaotic Chemical Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Deterministic chaos which involves orderly motion is discussed. Presented is the history of chaos and two tests for chaos. Practical applications and predictions of the long-term significance of chaos research are discussed. (KR)

Borman, Stu

1991-01-01

168

MIT researchers find new technology may enable earlier cancer diagnosis  

Cancer.gov

A new technology developed at MIT may help to make biomarker detection much easier. The researchers, led by Sangeeta Bhatia, have developed nanoparticles that can home to a tumor and interact with cancer proteins to produce thousands of biomarkers.

169

Find the Expert at the Agricultural Research Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service now offers a feature where users can directly ask questions of Agricultural experts. Searching is possible in three ways: Keyword, Broad Subject Area, or Research Area. Typical search results include lists of experts with contact addresses, including email. With subject areas ranging from Air Quality and Mitigation to Weeds, this service adds a nice notch in the measuring stick of improved scientific communication.

170

Key findings and clinical implications from The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma: Outcomes and Treatment Regimens (TENOR) study.  

PubMed

Patients with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma are an understudied population but account for considerable asthma morbidity, mortality, and costs. The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma: Outcomes and Treatment Regimens (TENOR) study was a large, 3-year, multicenter, observational cohort study of 4756 patients (n=3489 adults ? 18 years of age, n=497 adolescents 13-17 years of age, and n=770 children 6-12 years of age) with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma. TENOR's primary objective was to characterize the natural history of disease in this cohort. Data assessed semiannually and annually included demographics, medical history, comorbidities, asthma control, asthma-related health care use, medication use, lung function, IgE levels, self-reported asthma triggers, and asthma-related quality of life. We highlight the key findings and clinical implications from more than 25 peer-reviewed TENOR publications. Regardless of age, patients with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma demonstrated high rates of health care use and substantial asthma burden despite receiving multiple long-term controller medications. Recent exacerbation history was the strongest predictor of future asthma exacerbations. Uncontrolled asthma, as defined by the 2007 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines' impairment domain, was highly prevalent and predictive of future asthma exacerbations; this assessment can be used to identify high-risk patients. IgE and allergen sensitization played a role in the majority of severe or difficult-to-treat asthmatic patients. PMID:22694932

Chipps, Bradley E; Zeiger, Robert S; Borish, Larry; Wenzel, Sally E; Yegin, Ashley; Hayden, Mary Lou; Miller, Dave P; Bleecker, Eugene R; Simons, F Estelle R; Szefler, Stanley J; Weiss, Scott T; Haselkorn, Tmirah

2012-08-01

171

Using Research: A Key to Elementary School Mathematics, The Research from 1970: What Did It Add?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of research reported in 1970, which might be used by the elementary teacher in facilitating mathematics learning is presented. There are 16 basic categories of research included: teaching mathematical operations; children's perception of geometric representation; curriculum sequencing; teaching of non-decimal numeration; variables which…

Suydam, Marilyn N.; Weaver, J. Fred

172

Incorporating Research Findings into Standards and Requirements for Space Medicine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.

Duncan, J. Michael

2006-01-01

173

THE IMPACT OF TELEVISION, METHODS AND FINDINGS IN PROGRAM RESEARCH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SURVEY AND TESTING TECHNIQUES USED BY THE BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION IN THE YEARS 1952-63 TO ANSWER QUESTIONS OF INTEREST TO TELEVISION PLANNERS INDICATE METHODOLOGY FOR FUTURE PLANNING RESEARCH. TO ANSWER THE BASIC QUESTION--WHAT PEOPLE ARE AVAILABLE FOR WATCHING AND LISTENING--BBC USED THE METHOD OF HAVING 2981 MEMBERS OF A NATIONAL SAMPLE…

BELSON, W.A.

174

Finding a place for genomics in health disparities research.  

PubMed

The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not previously possible. The potential for genomic strategies to help in addressing population-level disparities therefore needs to be carefully evaluated. Using 3 examples from current research, we argue that the best way to maximize the benefits of population-based genomic investigations, and mitigate potential harms, is to direct research away from the identification of genetic causes of disparities and instead focus on applying genomic methodologies to the development of clinical and public health tools with the potential to ameliorate healthcare inequities, direct population-level health interventions or inform public policy. Such a transformation will require close collaboration between transdisciplinary teams and community members as well as a reorientation of current research objectives to better align genomic discovery efforts with public health priorities and well-recognized barriers to fair health care delivery. PMID:22488458

Fullerton, S M; Knerr, S; Burke, W

2012-01-01

175

Action Research: Finding Solutions To Help Limited English Speakers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An action research project was designed to improve the English oral language skills of students of limited English proficiency (LEP) and their academic achievement. Thirty students were randomly chosen from 70 Hispanic fifth graders who enrolled in a voluntary program. Instruction was given using a contextualized environment. Within this…

Moore, Rock D.; Fetterolf, Dee

176

Electrical Distribution. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas

177

Pneumonia: New Prediction Model Proves Promising. Research Findings for Clinicians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new clinical prediction model can help clinicians determine the most appropriate care for newly diagnosed cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The model recently was announced by a team of researchers supported through a grant from the Federal A...

M. J. Fine W. N. Kapoor

1997-01-01

178

FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must use Q...

179

FINDING THE BALANCE - QUALITY ASSURANCE REQUIREMENTS VS. RESEARCH NEEDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigators often misapply quality assurance (QA) procedures and may consider QA as a hindrance to developing test plans for sampling and analysis. If used properly, however, QA is the driving force for collecting the right kind and proper amount of data. Researchers must...

180

Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: research findings and clinical directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, methamphetamine has appeared in mass quantities, in part, because of the ease and cost efficiency of manufacturing. With this increase in availability, the use of methamphetamine has increased significantly. The purpose of this article is to describe the existing treatment options for methamphetamine abuse and provide recommendations for practitioners and researchers. Methamphetamine abuse adversely impacts

Margaret Cretzmeyer; Mary Vaughan Sarrazin; Diane L. Huber; Robert I. Block; James A. Hall

2003-01-01

181

Commercial Photography. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of commercial photography, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train photographic technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…

Brown, Ted; Sappe', Hoyt

182

Finding a Place for Genomics in Health Disparities Research  

PubMed Central

The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not previously possible. The potential for genomic strategies to help in addressing population-level disparities therefore needs to be carefully evaluated. Using 3 examples from current research, we argue that the best way to maximize the benefits of population-based genomic investigations, and mitigate potential harms, is to direct research away from the identification of genetic causes of disparities and instead focus on applying genomic methodologies to the development of clinical and public health tools with the potential to ameliorate healthcare inequities, direct population-level health interventions or inform public policy. Such a transformation will require close collaboration between transdisciplinary teams and community members as well as a reorientation of current research objectives to better align genomic discovery efforts with public health priorities and well-recognized barriers to fair health care delivery.

Fullerton, S.M.; Knerr, S.; Burke, W.

2012-01-01

183

Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

2011-01-01

184

Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…

Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

2011-01-01

185

Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs To Reduce Teen Pregnancy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…

Kirby, Douglas

186

The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups: Preliminary Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses preliminary research results that indicate placement of children (n=216) with emotional/behavioral difficulties into a Nurture Group has a positive effect on a significant proportion of pupils. There is also evidence that the parents of children in Nurture Groups benefit from the positive progress made by their children.…

Cooper, Paul; Arnold, Ray; Boyd, Eve

2001-01-01

187

Instrumentation Technology. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of…

Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

188

Finding Community: A Guide to Community Research and Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For those concerned with contemporary social problems, whether as students, members of community groups, or individual citizens, this book attempts not only to describe the issues, but also to offer some starting points for local research and action. As an educational tool, it is based on the belief that a good way to learn about a community is to…

Jones, W. Ron; And Others

189

Researchers Find That Childhood Sarcoma Increases Risk of Blood Clots  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, have determined that children and young adults with a form of cancer called sarcoma are at increased risk of having a thromboembolic event (TE) in their veins.

190

Pain, Nicotine, and Smoking: Research Findings and Mechanistic Considerations  

PubMed Central

Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent two highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Although interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, research on the topic of pain, nicotine, and tobacco smoking has increased dramatically over the past five years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, the current review extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these two conditions. Research in the broad area of pain and smoking was first dichotomized into investigations of either "effects of smoking on pain" or "effects of pain on smoking." We then integrated the extant literature to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain, increased smoking, and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Finally, we proposed directions for future research, and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence to support the notions that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions, and that the experience of pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation.

Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.

2011-01-01

191

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2010-10-01

192

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2011-10-01

193

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2010-10-01

194

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2011-10-01

195

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410...

2012-10-01

196

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2013-10-01

197

NIAMS-Supported Research Finds New Genetic Links to Juvenile Arthritis  

MedlinePLUS

... 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2013 June 2013 NIAMS-Supported Research Finds New Genetic Links to Juvenile Arthritis New research supported by the NIH’s National Institute of Arthritis ...

198

42 CFR 93.404 - Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404...

2012-10-01

199

42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410...

2013-10-01

200

42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411...

2013-10-01

201

Black and Conservative: Finding a Place. A Symposium on Alan L. Keyes'"Masters of the Dream".  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents commentaries from Clark Kent Ervin, A. J. Williams-Meyers, and Paul T. Murray on Alan L. Keyes'"Masters of the Dream: The Strength and Betrayal of Black America" (1995). They respond to Keyes' controversial assertions, among which is that the Great Society movement and liberalism have undermined black progress that today's conservative…

Ervin, Clark Kent; And Others

1995-01-01

202

Gate valve and motor-operator research findings  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).

Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

1995-09-01

203

Translating research findings into practice - the implementation of kangaroo mother care in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Research findings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous research findings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. Methods A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous research findings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Results Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68?%) scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of ‘evidence of practice’ by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of ‘evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.’ The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14.64. Conclusion The KMC Ghana initiative demonstrated how research findings regarding successful outreach for the implementation of KMC could be transferred to a different context by making context-appropriate adaptations to the model.

2012-01-01

204

Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. Technical Appendix. NCEE 2014-4010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document represents the technical appendix intended to accompany "Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4010." Contents include: (1) Summary of Related, Non-Peer-Reviewed Studies; (2) Methods for Comparing Findings

Max, Jeffrey; Glazerman, Steven

2014-01-01

205

Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: A translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve

Kathleen T. Galvin; Les Todres

2011-01-01

206

Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.  

PubMed

Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies. PMID:22827348

Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

2012-08-01

207

Findings of the US Research Needs Workshop on the Topic of Fusion Power  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) conducted a Research Needs Workshop, referred to as ReNeW, in June 2009. The information developed at this workshop will help OFES develop a plan for US fusion research during the ITER era, roughly the next two decades. The workshop was organized in five Themes, one of which was Harnessing Fusion Power (or Fusion Power for short). The top level goal of the Fusion Power Theme was to identify the research needed to develop the knowledge to design and build, with high confidence, robust and reliable systems that can convert fusion products to useful forms of energy in a reactor environment, including a self-sufficient supply of tritium fuel. Each Theme was subsequently subdivided into Panels to address specific topics. The Fusion Power Panel topics were: fusion fuel cycle; power extraction; materials science; safety and environment; and reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability (RAMI). Here we present the key findings of the Fusion Power Theme.

Meier, W R; Raffray, A R; Kurtz, R J; Morley, N B; Reiersen, W T; Sharpe, P; Willms, S

2009-09-16

208

Great lakes research--important human health findings and their impact on ATSDR's Superfund research program.  

PubMed

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, commonly known as Superfund. ATSDR is the principal United States federal public health agency involved with issues of public health and applied science concerning the human health impact of living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste site, or emergencies resulting from unplanned releases of hazardous substances into community environments. In pursuing these mandates, ATSDR's mission is to prevent exposure and adverse human health effects and diminished quality of life associated with exposure to hazardous substances from waste sites, unplanned releases, and other sources of pollution present in the environment. There are more than 2,000 toxic substances found at hazardous waste sites in the United States. ATSDR has developed a prioritized list of 275 substances that pose the greatest hazard to human health. In conducting its work ATSDR has identified data gaps in knowledge about the toxicity of various hazardous substances as well as gaps in human exposure characterization. As part of its mandate, ATSDR initiated a Substance-Specific Applied Research Program (SSARP) to address these data gaps. The ATSDR Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program (GLHHERP) is a congressionally-mandated research program that characterizes exposure to persistent toxic substances and investigates the potential for adverse health outcome in at-risk populations. The research findings from this program in the areas of exposure, sociodemographic data, and health effects have significant public health implications for ATSDR's Superfund research activities. PMID:12018016

Hicks, Heraline E; De Rosa, Christopher T

2002-03-01

209

Sense of Place In Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism: An Evaluation and Assessment of Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Understanding sense of place and related concepts often presents challenges for both managers and researchers. Inconsistent application of terms, questions regarding their origin, and a lack of awareness of research findings contribute to the ambiguity of...

J. Farnum T. Hall L. E. Kruger

2005-01-01

210

Effect of Alcohol on Human Performance: A Classification and Integration of Research Findings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development and evaluation of systems for describing and classifying tasks which can improve generalization of research results about human performance is essential for organizing, communicating and implementing these research findings. The present re...

G. D. Greenbaum J. M. Levine

1973-01-01

211

Refinement of the Stetler/Marram Model for Application of Research Findings to Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The revised Stetler model of research utilization has six phases: preparation, validation, comparative evaluation, decision making, translation/application, and evaluation. It can be used to facilitate application of nursing research findings at the practitioner level. (JOW)

Stetler, Cheryl B.

1994-01-01

212

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System 4 2009-10-01...and findings affecting research and development contracting...Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ...CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

2009-10-01

213

48 CFR 335.071 - Special determinations and findings affecting research and development contracting.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01...and findings affecting research and development contracting...Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ...CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...

2010-10-01

214

Genetically informative research on adolescent substance use: methods, findings and challenges  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an overview of the genetic epidemiology of substance use and misuse in adolescents. Method We present a selective review of genetically informative research strategies, their limitations and key findings examining issues related to the heritability of substance use and substance use disorders in children and adolescents. Results Adoption, twin and extended family designs have established there is a strong heritable component to liability to nicotine, alcohol and illicit drug dependence in adults. However, shared environmental influences are relatively stronger in youth samples and at earlier stages of substance involvement (e.g., use). There is considerable overlap in the genetic influences associated with the abuse/ dependence across drug classes while shared genetic influences also contribute to the commonly observed associations between substance use disorders and both externalizing and, to a lesser extent, internalizing psychopathology. Rapid technological advances have made the identification of specific gene variants that influence risks for substance use disorders feasible and linkage and association (including genomewide association studies) have identified promising candidate genes implicated in the development of substance use disorders. Conclusions Studies using genetically informative research designs, including those that examine aggregate genetic factors and those examining specific gene variants, individually and in interaction with environmental influences, offer promising avenues not only for delineating genetic effects on substance use disorders but also for understanding the unfolding of risk across development and the interaction between environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of these disorders.

Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana; Heath, Andrew C.

2010-01-01

215

Incidental Computer Tomography Radiologic Findings through Research Participation in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although variation exists in the classification and practice of managing clinical findings in research, emerging views suggest that researchers bear some responsibility in the management of incidental findings. This study contributes to the documentation of the population characteristics and prevalence of medical findings incidental to research participation, specifically findings related to coronary calcium scores and computed tomography (CT) scans that investigated cardiovascular disparities in an asymptomatic population. Methods A total of 571 asymptomatic adult participants were recruited in the North Texas Healthy Heart Study. Participants completed a 16-slice CT scan of the heart and abdomen. Findings of radiology reports and 3 years of follow-up documentation were reviewed. Results A total of 246 clinically apparent findings were identified in 169 asymptomatic participants (32.9% of participants who completed a CT scan). Another 245 participants (48%) had findings of unknown significance, a total of 307 findings. At least 4 cases in this study led to a clinically significant intervention. Conclusion Although CT scans were completed for research purposes, study procedures resulted in the diagnosis and treatment of individuals who were previously asymptomatic. Potential clinical benefits in imaging research are moderated by considerations regarding possible harm and costs resulting from uncertain findings and the use of CT scans for nonclinical purposes. The continued development of protocols for the handling of incidental findings in research and the establishment of guidelines are needed to ensure that research procedures mirror the best interests of participants.

Espinoza, Anna; Malone, Kendra; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Fulda, Kimberly G.; Cardarelli, Roberto

2014-01-01

216

Monitoring the Future. National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2009. NIH Publication Number 10-7583  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monitoring the Future (MTF) is a long-term study of American adolescents, college students, and adults through age 50. It has been conducted annually by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research since its inception in 1975. It is supported under a series of investigator-initiated, competing research grants from the National…

Johnston, Lloyd D.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Schulenberg, John E.

2010-01-01

217

Pupils' Perceptions of Foreign Language Learning in the Primary School--Findings from the Key Stage 2 Language Learning Pathfinder Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings on pupil attitudes towards learning foreign languages in Key Stage 2 (ages 7-11) in primary schools in England. As a consequence of the National Languages Strategy, the University of Warwick was commissioned by the then Department for Education and Skills to undertake an evaluation between 2003 and 2005 of 19…

Martin, Cynthia

2012-01-01

218

Fox Chase analysis finds more cutting-edge cancer research supported by industry  

Cancer.gov

Nearly half of the research presented at ASCO’s annual meeting last year came from researchers with ties to companies, and the amount appears to be increasing every year, according to new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center. The new findings will be presented this year at the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting on Monday, June 4.

219

Practice-Based Research Networks, Part I: Clinical Laboratories to Generate and Translate Research Findings Into Effective Patient Care  

PubMed Central

Context To improve patient care, athletic training clinicians and researchers should work together to translate research findings into clinical practice. Problems with patient care observed in clinical practice should be translated into research frameworks, where they can be studied. Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) provide a compelling model for linking clinicians and researchers so they can conduct translational research to improve patient care. Objective To describe (1) the translational research model, (2) practice-based research as a mechanism for translating research findings into clinical practice, (3) the PBRN model and infrastructure, (4) the research potential using the PBRN model, and (5) protection of human participants in PBRN research. Description Translational research is the process of transforming research findings into health behavior that ultimately serves the public and attempts to bridge the gap between research and clinical practice. Practice-based research represents the final step in the translational research continuum and describes research conducted by providers in clinical practices. The PBRNs are characterized by an organizational framework that transcends a single site or study and serves as the clinical research “laboratory” for conducting comparative-effectiveness studies using patient-oriented measures. The PBRN approach to research has many benefits, including enhanced generalizability of results, pooling of resources, rapid patient recruitment, and collaborative opportunities. However, multisite research also brings challenges related to the protection of human participants and institutional review board oversight. Clinical and Research Advantages Athletic training studies frequently include relatively few participants and, consequently, are able to detect only large effects. The incidence of injury at a single site is sufficiently low that gathering enough data to adequately power a treatment study may take many years. Collaborative efforts across diverse clinical practice environments can yield larger patient samples to overcome the limitations inherent in single-site research efforts.

Sauers, Eric L.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich; Bay, R. Curtis

2012-01-01

220

Processes and factors involved in decisions regarding return of incidental genomic findings in research  

PubMed Central

Purpose Studies have begun exploring whether researchers should return incidental findings in genomic studies, and if so, which findings should be returned; however, how researchers make these decisions— the processes and factors involved—has remained largely unexplored. Methods We interviewed 28 genomics researchers in-depth about their experiences and views concerning the return of incidental findings. Results Researchers often struggle with questions concerning which incidental findings to return and how to make those decisions. Multiple factors shape their views, including information about the gene variant (e.g., pathogenicity and disease characteristics), concerns about participants’ well-being and researcher responsibility, and input from external entities. Researchers weigh the evidence, yet they face conflicting pressures, with relevant data frequently being unavailable. Researchers vary in who they believe should decide: participants, principal investigators, institutional review boards, and/or professional organizations. Contextual factors can influence these decisions, including policies governing return of results by institutions and biobanks and the study design. Researchers vary in desires for: guidance from institutions and professional organizations, changes to current institutional processes, and community- wide genetics education. Conclusion These data, the first to examine the processes by which researchers make decisions regarding the return of genetic incidental findings, highlight several complexities involved and have important implications for future genetics research, policy, and examinations of these issues.

Klitzman, Robert; Buquez, Brigitte; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Chung, Wendy K.

2014-01-01

221

Transforming Public Schools: A Synthesis of Research Findings from UCLA's Center X  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how one university-based center, UCLA's Center X, has worked to prepare and sustain urban educators over the past 16 years. Synthesizing findings from more than 20 articles, papers, books, and dissertations that report on Center X's work, we argue that three key activities are necessary to spur change and ensure a…

Quartz, Karen Hunter; Priselac, Jody; Franke, Megan Loef

2009-01-01

222

Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection  

SciTech Connect

Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Lab. in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

1994-07-01

223

Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

Micklich, Bradley J.; Fink, Charles L.; Yule, Thomas J.

1994-10-01

224

Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research

White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

2010-01-01

225

The key-role of instrumentation for the new generation of research reactors  

SciTech Connect

Experimental reactors have been indispensable since the beginning of the use of nuclear energy to support many important fields of industry and research: safety, lifetime management and operation optimisation of nuclear power plants, development of new types of reactors with improved resources and fuel cycle management, medical applications, material development for fusion... Over the last decade, modifications of the operational needs and the ageing of the nuclear facilities have led to several closures and time is coming for new key European Experimental Reactors (EER) within a European and International Framework. Projects like MYRRHA and JHR are underway to define and implement a new consistent EER policy: - Meeting industry and public needs, keeping a high level of scientific expertise; - With a limited number of EER, specified within a rational compromise between specialisation, complementarities and back-up capacities; - To be put into effective operation in this or the next decade. These new projects will give to the scientific community high performances allowing innovative fields of R and D. A new generation of instrumentation to address new phenomena and that allows better on-line investigation of some key physical parameters is necessary to achieve these challenges. One initiative to progress in this direction is the Joint Instrumentation Laboratory between CEA and SCK.CEN which has already given significant results and patents. Major scientific challenges to achieve in the field of instrumentation for this new generation of European Research Reactors have to be investigated and are described in this paper as well as a short description of the JHR and MYRRHA reactors that will be serving as flexible irradiation facilities for testing them. (authors)

Bignan, G.; Villard, J. F.; Destouches, C. [CEA Cadarache Research Centre (France); Baeten, P.; Vermeeren, L.; Michiels, S. [SCK.CEN Mol Research Centre (Belgium)

2011-07-01

226

Australian mental health consumers' priorities for research: Qualitative findings from the SCOPE for Research project.  

PubMed

Background? There is growing acceptance of the importance of the consumer viewpoint in mental health research. Previous studies have identified differences in research priorities between researchers and mental health consumers in Australia defined broadly. However, little is known about the research priorities of consumers with specific mental health conditions. Objective? The aim of this study was to explore Australian mental health consumers' priorities for depression and bipolar disorder research. Design? Focus groups with consumers and individual telephone interviews with consumer advocates. Participants were asked to discuss the topics they believed were priorities for depression or bipolar disorder research. Transcripts were thematically analysed using NVivo 7. Setting and Participants? Ten people with depression and 19 with bipolar disorder participated in face-to-face focus groups held in three Australian capital cities. Five participants with each disorder participated in online focus groups. Five Australian consumer advocates with experience of depression and six with experience of bipolar disorder were individually interviewed by telephone. Results? Participants raised a broad variety of topics for research. The most salient themes included the need for research on medication, and lifestyle and psychosocial influences on depression and bipolar disorder. Conclusions? Participants' priorities reflect an interest in a holistic approach to mental health research that examines the influences of everyday life and psychosocial influences both on the development and on the management of these disorders. Their focus was on research that explores individualized care and the active role that consumers can play in their own care and recovery. PMID:22221624

Banfield, Michelle A; Barney, Lisa J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen M

2014-06-01

227

Neuroimaging of Nicotine Dependence: Key Findings and Application to the Study of Smoking-Mental Illness Comorbidity  

PubMed Central

Modern neuroimaging techniques offer the opportunity to non-invasively study neuroanatomical and neurofunctional correlates of nicotine dependence and its treatment. In the present review, the most widely used neuroimaging techniques—magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and functional MRI (fMRI)—are briefly described and their strengths and limitations discussed. The use of these techniques has resulted in new insights into the neuropharmacology of tobacco addiction. Studies comparing smokers and nonsmokers have shown that smokers have less grey matter density in frontal brain regions and greater concentrations of nicotinic receptors. Research on the effects of smoking a cigarette confirms that smoking leads to the release of dopamine in brain reward areas and to nicotinic receptor binding. Studies of smoking abstinence have identified functional brain correlates of increased reactivity to smoking-related cues, and worsening of concentration. To date, neuroimaging studies of nicotine dependence among individuals with mental illness have focused almost exclusively on schizophrenia. A conceptual/methodological framework for studying dual diagnosis using neuroimaging measures is provided with the aim of spurring additional research in this area.

McClernon, F. Joseph

2009-01-01

228

A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes--Statistical Significance versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used to quantify the degree of practical significance of study results. This paper gives an introduction to the computation and interpretation of effect sizes from the perspective of the consumer of the research literature. The key points made are: (1) "ES" is a useful indicator of the…

Hojat, Mohammadreza; Xu, Gang

2004-01-01

229

A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes – Statistical Significance Versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used toquantify the degree of practical significanceof study results. This paper gives anintroduction to the computation andinterpretation of effect sizes from theperspective of the consumer of the researchliterature. The key points made are:1. ES is a useful indicator of the practical(clinical) importance of research resultsthat can be operationally defined frombeing ``negligible'' to

Mohammadreza Hojat; Gang Xu

2004-01-01

230

Summary of: Continuing professional development and application of knowledge from research findings: a qualitative study of general dental practitioners.  

PubMed

Objectives To explore general dental practitioners' opinions about continuing professional development (CPD) and potential barriers to translating research findings into clinical dental practice.Design Qualitative focus group and interviews.Subjects, setting and methods Four semi-structured interviews and a single focus group were conducted with 11 general dental practitioners in North East England.Outcome measure Transcripts were analysed using the constant comparative method to identify emergent themes.Results The key theme for practitioners was a need to interact with colleagues in order to make informed decisions on a range of clinical issues. For some forms of continuing professional development the value for money and subsequent impact upon clinical practice was limited. There were significant practice pressures that constrained the ability of practitioners to participate in certain educational activities. The relevance of some research findings and the formats used for their dissemination were often identified as barriers to their implementation in general dental practice.Conclusions There are a number of potential barriers that exist in general dental practice to the uptake and implementation of translational research. CPD plays a pivotal role in this process and if new methods of CPD are to be developed consideration should be given to include elements of structured content and peer review that engages practitioners in a way that promotes implementation of contemporary research findings. PMID:24923943

White, Deborah

2014-06-13

231

Continuing professional development and application of knowledge from research findings: a qualitative study of general dental practitioners.  

PubMed

Objectives To explore general dental practitioners' opinions about continuing professional development (CPD) and potential barriers to translating research findings into clinical dental practice.Design Qualitative focus group and interviews.Subjects, setting and methods Four semi-structured interviews and a single focus group were conducted with 11 general dental practitioners in North East England.Outcome measure Transcripts were analysed using the constant comparative method to identify emergent themes.Results The key theme for practitioners was a need to interact with colleagues in order to make informed decisions on a range of clinical issues. For some forms of continuing professional development the value for money and subsequent impact upon clinical practice was limited. There were significant practice pressures that constrained the ability of practitioners to participate in certain educational activities. The relevance of some research findings and the formats used for their dissemination were often identified as barriers to their implementation in general dental practice.Conclusions There are a number of potential barriers that exist in general dental practice to the uptake and implementation of translational research. CPD plays a pivotal role in this process and if new methods of CPD are to be developed consideration should be given to include elements of structured content and peer review that engages practitioners in a way that promotes implementation of contemporary research findings. PMID:24923961

Stone, S J; Holmes, R D; Heasman, P A; McCracken, G I

2014-06-13

232

FRESHWATER FINDINGS, 1979-1982: RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LABORATORY, DULUTH, MINNESOTA  

EPA Science Inventory

This report contains citations of publications for the years 1979-1982 on research conducted or supported by the Environmental Research Laboratory-Duluth. All published material has been organized into two major categories: (1) Journal Articles, Book Chapters, Proceedings, etc., ...

233

Looking Back To Find a Vision: Exploring the Emancipatory Potential of Teacher Research. Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the limitations of experimental studies of learning and the emergence of alternative paradigms such as constructivism. Examines the growth of teacher research and its historical influences, including Montessori, Dewey's Progressive Movement, and Lucy Sprague Mitchell. Discusses current trends in teacher research, asserting that it is…

Crawford, Patricia A.; Cornett, Jeffrey

2000-01-01

234

Researchers Find that Tumor Stem Cells are Good Models for Brain Tumor Research  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found that tumor stem cell lines derived directly from human glioblastoma brain tumors are a better model to study the biology and physiology of glioblastomas than are cancer cell lines that have been commonly used in cancer research laboratories.

235

Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed

Paul M Wilson; Mark Petticrew; Mike W Calnan; Irwin Nazareth

2010-01-01

236

Processing remote sensing data with artificial neural networks: filtration, stratification, finding key indices and filling gaps in data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Choosing long-term optimal strategy of interaction between human and biosphere is impossible without developing mathematical simulations of biosphere processes which provide adequate prediction of climate dynamics For verification such biosphere simulations is inevitable to use all available data of ground-based and remote sensing observations Unfortunately both types of data are often incomplete there are lacunas considering spatial and time dimensions caused by various reasons A set of computational tools based on fast methods of nonlinear multidimensional regression that traditionally called artificial neural networks was designed With the help of this set is possible to solve problems of preprocessing remote sensing data -- filtration stratification filling gaps and finding invariants or significant characteristics of big arrays of numerical information In the frames of that work was developed software complex which allows revealing time and spatial global distribution of organic pigments along with characteristics of long-time trends of chlorophyll concentration in various biological and geographical conditions Algorithms were not only coded as a stand-alone program but also implemented in computational complexes to achieve better portability and ability of parallel computation In the paper samples of processing remote sensing data with considered set of programs are described

Shchemel, A.; Ivanova, Yu.

237

FEEDBACK OF RESEARCH FINDINGS FOR VACCINE TRIALS: EXPERIENCES FROM TWO MALARIA VACCINE TRIALS INVOLVING HEALTHY CHILDREN ON THE KENYAN COAST  

PubMed Central

Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an ‘ethical imperative’ or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account.

Gikonyo, Caroline; Kamuya, Dorcas; Mbete, Bibi; Njuguna, Patricia; Olotu, Ally; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Vicki; Molyneux, Sassy

2013-01-01

238

‘Geo’chemical research: A key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland…), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case supporting how radionuclide transfer is represented in the performance assessment model. The objective here is to illustrate how geochemical research contributes to this process and, above all, to identify a certain number of subjects which should be treated in priority.

Altmann, Scott

2008-12-01

239

'Geo'chemical research: a key building block for nuclear waste disposal safety cases.  

PubMed

Disposal of high level radioactive waste in deep underground repositories has been chosen as solution by several countries. Because of the special status this type waste has in the public mind, national implementation programs typically mobilize massive R&D efforts, last decades and are subject to extremely detailed and critical social-political scrutiny. The culminating argument of each program is a 'Safety Case' for a specific disposal concept containing, among other elements, the results of performance assessment simulations whose object is to model the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. Public and political confidence in performance assessment results (which generally show that radionuclide release will always be at acceptable levels) is based on their confidence in the quality of the scientific understanding in the processes included in the performance assessment model, in particular those governing radionuclide speciation and mass transport in the geological host formation. Geochemistry constitutes a core area of research in this regard. Clay-mineral rich formations are the subjects of advanced radwaste programs in several countries (France, Belgium, Switzerland...), principally because of their very low permeabilities and demonstrated capacities to retard by sorption most radionuclides. Among the key processes which must be represented in performance assessment models are (i) radioelement speciation (redox state, speciation, reactions determining radionuclide solid-solution partitioning) and (ii) diffusion-driven transport. The safety case must therefore demonstrate a detailed understanding of the physical-chemical phenomena governing the effects of these two aspects, for each radionuclide, within the geological barrier system. A wide range of coordinated (and internationally collaborated) research has been, and is being, carried out in order to gain the detailed scientific understanding needed for constructing those parts of the Safety Case supporting how radionuclide transfer is represented in the performance assessment model. The objective here is to illustrate how geochemical research contributes to this process and, above all, to identify a certain number of subjects which should be treated in priority. PMID:19008019

Altmann, Scott

2008-12-12

240

Technology to Support Writing by Students with Learning and Academic Disabilities: Recent Research Trends and Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The trends and findings from a descriptive analysis of 25 years of research studies examining the effectiveness of technology to support the compositional writing of students with learning and academic disabilities are presented. A corpus of 85 applied research studies of writing technology effectiveness was identified from among 249 items in the…

Peterson-Karlan, George R.

2011-01-01

241

Methods, Findings, and History in Attitude-Behavior Research: A Rejoinder to Hanson.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews Hanson's findings that laboratory research tends to demonstrate a positive correlation between attitudes and behavior while field research does not. This article, by adding date of publication, shows that the trend over time, presumably because of improved methodology, is toward more positive correlations in both settings. (Author/JAC)

Piliavin, Jane Allyn

1981-01-01

242

Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks  

PubMed Central

Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity. Given the current emphasis on enhancing the uptake of knowledge about the effects of interventions into routine practice, funders could consider encouraging researchers to adopt a theoretically-informed approach to their research dissemination.

2010-01-01

243

Research and Teaching: An Investigation of the Evolution of High School and Undergraduate Student Researchers' Understanding of Key Science Ethics Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school and undergraduate research students were surveyed over the 10-week period of their summer research programs to investigate their understanding of key concepts in science ethics and whether their understanding changed over the course of their summer research experiences. Most of the students appeared to understand the issues relevant to…

Mabrouk, Patricia Ann

2013-01-01

244

DIII-D research towards resolving key issues for ITER and steady-state tokamaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DIII-D research program is addressing key ITER research needs and developing the physics basis for future steady-state tokamaks. Pellet pacing edge-localized mode (ELM) control in the ITER configuration reduces ELM energy loss in proportion to 1/fpellet by inducing ELMs at up to 12× the natural ELM rate. Complete suppression of ELMs with resonant magnetic perturbations has been extended to the q95 expected for ITER baseline scenario discharges, and long-duration ELM-free QH-mode discharges have been produced with ITER-relevant co-current neutral-beam injection (NBI) using external n = 3 coils to generate sufficient counter-Ip torque. ITER baseline discharges at ?N ˜ 2 and scaled NBI torque have been maintained in stationary conditions for more than four resistive times using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) for tearing mode suppression and disruption avoidance; active tracking with steerable launchers and feedback control catch these modes at small amplitude, reducing the ECCD power required to suppress them. Massive high-Z gas injection into disruption-induced 300-600 kA 20 MeV runaway electron (RE) beams yield dissipation rates ˜10× faster than expected from e-e collisions and demonstrate the possibility of benign dissipation of such REs should they occur in ITER. Other ITER-related experiments show measured intrinsic plasma torque in good agreement with a physics-based model over a wide range of conditions, while first-time main-ion rotation measurements show it to be lower than expected from neoclassical theory. Core turbulence measurements show increased temperature fluctuations correlated with sharply enhanced electron transport when \

Hill, D. N.; the DIII-D Team

2013-10-01

245

Key Topics for High-Lift Research: A Joint Wind Tunnel/Flight Test Approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future high-lift systems must achieve improved aerodynamic performance with simpler designs that involve fewer elements and reduced maintenance costs. To expeditiously achieve this, reliable CFD design tools are required. The development of useful CFD-based design tools for high lift systems requires increased attention to unresolved flow physics issues. The complex flow field over any multi-element airfoil may be broken down into certain generic component flows which are termed high-lift building block flows. In this report a broad spectrum of key flow field physics issues relevant to the design of improved high lift systems are considered. It is demonstrated that in-flight experiments utilizing the NASA Dryden Flight Test Fixture (which is essentially an instrumented ventral fin) carried on an F-15B support aircraft can provide a novel and cost effective method by which both Reynolds and Mach number effects associated with specific high lift building block flows can be investigated. These in-flight high lift building block flow experiments are most effective when performed in conjunction with coordinated ground based wind tunnel experiments in low speed facilities. For illustrative purposes three specific examples of in-flight high lift building block flow experiments capable of yielding a high payoff are described. The report concludes with a description of a joint wind tunnel/flight test approach to high lift aerodynamics research.

Fisher, David; Thomas, Flint O.; Nelson, Robert C.

1996-01-01

246

Becoming an Engineering Education Researcher: Finding Pathways toward Interdisciplinarity. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interdisciplinary thinking is gaining momentum as an important topic for empirical investigation, particularly in regard to how crossing disciplinary boundaries can enrich teaching and learning across fields. There is a need for researchers who can think and work at the interdisciplinary interface. However, despite increased attention given to…

Allendoerfer, Cheryl; Adams, Robin; Bell, Philip; Fleming, Lorraine; Leifer, Larry

2007-01-01

247

Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations  

PubMed Central

Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts.

Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

2011-01-01

248

A Systematic Review on the Designs of Clinical Technology: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Human factors (HF) studies are increasingly important as technology infuses into clinical settings. No nursing research reviews exist in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review on designs of clinical technology, 34 articles with 50 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were classified into three categories based on HF research goals. The majority of studies evaluated effectiveness of clinical design; efficiency was fewest. Current research ranges across many interface types examined with no apparent pattern or obvious rationale. Future research should expand types, settings, participants; integrate displays; and expand outcome variables.

PhD, Greg Alexander; Staggers, Nancy

2010-01-01

249

Effective teaching practices for students with and without learning difficulties: Issues and implications surrounding key findings and recommendations from the national inquiry into the teaching of literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of what is commonly claimed as ‘effective teaching practice’ and implemented during the early and middle years in Australian schools, for either mainstream students or for those experiencing learning difficulties, is not grounded in findings from evidence?based research. Issues surrounding ‘effective teaching practice’ came into particularly sharp focus during the 2004–2005 National Inquiry into the Teaching of Literacy (NITL).

Ken Rowe

2006-01-01

250

Do Disadvantaged Students Get Less Effective Teaching? Key Findings from Recent Institute of Education Sciences Studies. NCEE Evaluation Brief. NCEE 2014-4010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lack of researcher consensus on how to measure disadvantaged students' access to effective teaching has made it challenging for practitioners to draw lessons from the data. This brief aims to help policymakers understand the emerging evidence by synthesizing findings from three peer-reviewed studies that collectively span 17 states. The…

Max, Jeffrey; Glazerman, Steven

2014-01-01

251

Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory, Switzerland-Research Program And Key Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Argillaceous formations generally act as aquitards because of their low hydraulic conductivities. This property, together with the large retention capacity of clays for cationic contaminants and the potential for self-sealing, has brought clay formations into focus as potential host rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. Excavated in the Opalinus Clay formation, the Mont Terri underground rock laboratory in the Jura Mountains of NW Switzerland is an important international test site for researching clay formations. Research is carried out in the underground facility, which is located adjacent to the security gallery of the Mont Terri motorway tunnel. Fifteen partners from European countries, USA, Canada and Japan participate in the project. The objectives of the research program are to analyze the hydrogeological, geochemical and rock mechanical properties of the Opalinus Clay, to determine the changes induced by the excavation of galleries and by heating of the rock formation, to test sealing and container emplacement techniques and to evaluate and improve suitable investigation techniques. For the safety of deep geological disposal, it is of key importance to understand the processes occurring in the undisturbed argillaceous environment, as well as the processes in a disturbed system, during the operation of the repository. The objectives are related to: 1. Understanding processes and mechanisms in undisturbed clays and 2. Experiments related to repository-induced perturbations. Experiments of the first group are dedicated to: i) Improvement of drilling and excavation technologies and sampling methods; ii) Estimation of hydrogeological, rock mechanical and geochemical parameters of the undisturbed Opalinus Clay. Upscaling of parameters from laboratory to in situ scale; iii) Geochemistry of porewater and natural gases; evolution of porewater over time scales; iv) Assessment of long-term hydraulic transients associated with erosion and thermal scenarios and v) Evaluation of diffusion and retention parameters for long-lived radionuclides. Experiments related to repository-induced perturbations are focused on: i) Influence of rock liner on the disposal system and the buffering potential of the host rock; ii) Self-sealing processes in the excavation damaged zone; iii) Hydro-mechanical coupled processes (e.g. stress redistributions and pore pressure evolution during excavation); iv) Thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical coupled processes (e.g. heating of bentonite and host rock) and v) Gas-induced transport of radionuclides in porewater and along interfaces in the engineered barrier system. A third research direction is to demonstrate the feasibility of repository construction and long-term safety after repository closure. Demonstration experiments can contribute to improving the reliability of the scientific basis for the safety assessment of future geological repositories, particularly if they are performed on a large scale and with a long duration. These experiments include the construction and installation of engineered barriers on a 1:1 scale: i) Horizontal emplacement of canisters; ii) Evaluation of the corrosion of container materials; repository re-saturation; iii) Sealing of boreholes and repository access tunnels and iv) Long-term monitoring of the repository. References Bossart, P. & Thury, M. (2008): Mont Terri Rock Laboratory. Project, Programme 1996 to 2007 and Results. - Rep. Swiss Geol. Surv. 3.

Nussbaum, C. O.; Bossart, P. J.

2012-12-01

252

Organising health research systems as a key to improving health: the World Health Report 2013 and how to make further progress  

PubMed Central

The World Health Report 2013 provides a major boost to the health research community and, in particular, to those who believe that health research will make its greatest impact on improving health when it is organised through a systems approach. The World Health Report 2013, Research for Universal Health Coverage, starts with three key messages. Firstly, that universal health coverage, with full access to high-quality services, needs research evidence if it is to be achieved; second, all nations should conduct and use research; and finally, the report states that systems are needed to develop national research agendas, to raise funds, to strengthen research capacity, and to make effective use of research findings. Each of these themes is elaborated in the report and supported by extensive references. In this editorial, we first outline the key messages from the World Health Report 2013 and highlight the contributions made by papers from our journal, Health Research Policy and Systems. In addition, we discuss very recent papers that advance some issues even further. In particular, we consider new evidence both on how to achieve financial protection for those who use health services, and on whether healthcare professionals and organisations who engage in research provide an improved healthcare performance. Finally, we propose additional perspectives that add to the impressive body of evidence and analyses presented in the report. Specifically, we suggest that considering the needs of various stakeholders, as attempted in the UK, in parallel with analysing how to fulfil essential functions, should boost the prospects of successfully building and strengthening health research systems. This is important because research is vital for achieving universal health coverage, and consequently for improving the health of millions of people.

2013-01-01

253

Research on the key technology and application of the packet transmission network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In proportion to the rapid development of telecommunication service, Telecom Operators already have made a strategic transition from "Network, Communication Operators" into "integrated information service provider" to provide customer with varied information service, such as the BT "21st century plan", "Next" plan proposed by France Telecom, FNE and BMS plan by Australia Telstra, RANE Programs by NTT. Domestic Carries also made strategic transition plans. And the priority of network transition is to find the way to build a unified and integrated network supporting carrier-grade Ethernet service also compatible with the conventional network service. The division of the service results in the Packet transmission, namely packet technology, makes Packet-based Transmission Network keeping the virtues of transmission network. The virtues are good scalability, varied operation and maintenance, high-speed protection switching, connection-oriented feature, and building up connection with NMS. At the same time, it adds some characteristics to adapt the statistical multiplexing in the packet service, for instance: connection-oriented label switching, QoS mechanism, dynamic and flexible control plane. The Packet Transmission Network (PTN) can be divided into four layers: packet transmission channel layer (PTC), packet transmission path layer (PTP), and optional packet transmission section Layer (PTS) and physical layer. The key technologies of PTN are as follows: the connection-oriented based label transmission and the statistical multiplexing on packet switching. The use of layer and sub-domain is to provide good scalability. Supporting for fault detection and performance testing and other Operation, Management and Maintenance (OAM) function, linear protection switching, ring protection, dynamics survival technology of pre-placed re-route, QoS, circuit emulation for TDM service, ATM based on PWE3 technique, and MAC layer or physical layer based packet clock synchronization. The application PTN could be convergence of packet service in MAN, such ads DSLAM backhauling, wireless Backhauling and so on. PTN can also take replace the core router in the core network to carry out the high efficient transmission of packet service.

Yun, Xiang; Wang, Zhong

2009-08-01

254

Can Research Findings Help School Systems Obtain the Most Bang from the Construction Bucks?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on educational facilities is important to help industry and school districts make decisions on funding and maintaining good educational environments for their students. This paper presents findings from three syntheses of 232 studies on educational facilities and funding decisions, followed by discussions of practical solutions designed…

Earthman, Glen I.; Lemasters, Linda K.

255

Niacin Doesn't Reduce Heart Problems, May Create Some, Research Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Niacin Doesn't Reduce Heart Problems, May Create Some, Research Finds Talk with your doctor about whether or not you should keep taking it, expert advises (*this news item will not be available after 10/14/2014) Wednesday, July 16, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages B ...

256

A Simple Syllogism-Solving Test: Empirical Findings and Implications for "g" Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been reported that the ability to solve syllogisms is highly "g"-loaded. In the present study, using a self-administered shortened version of a syllogism-solving test, the "BAROCO Short," we examined whether robust findings generated by previous research regarding IQ scores were also applicable to "BAROCO Short" scores. Five…

Shikishima, Chizuru; Yamagata, Shinji; Hiraishi, Kai; Sugimoto, Yutaro; Murayama, Kou; Ando, Juko

2011-01-01

257

New Findings and Future Directions for Subjective Well-Being Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent findings on subjective well-being (SWB) are presented, and I describe the important questions for future research that these raise. Worldwide predictors of SWB such as social support and fulfillment of basic needs have been uncovered, and there are large differences in SWB between societies. A number of culture-specific predictors of SWB…

Diener, Ed

2012-01-01

258

Using Interactive Technology to Disseminate Research Findings to a Diverse Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demonstrates how case stories can be used to disseminate the findings of several case studies on negotiating accommodations in the workplace. It highlights the power of interactive technology and of the partnership between the researchers and the Canadian Council for Rehabilitation and Work (CCRW). The paper describes the process of…

Stockley, Denise; Beyer, Wanda; Hutchinson, Nancy; DeLugt, Jennifer; Chin, Peter; Versnel, Joan; Munby, Hugh

2009-01-01

259

Summary of Research Findings on the Military General Educational Development Program. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes and integrates the finding of research studies dealing with the military General Educational Development (GED) program. The major areas covered include (1) the field conduct of the GED program, (2) characteristics of GED program participants, (3) a comparison of the utility of the GED certificate with that of the high school…

Waller, Earl A.

260

The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next to alcohol, marijuana is the most widely used drug among college students. Recent surveys of high reliability indicate that within the college age group approximately 21 million have smoked marijuana, and several millions smoke it daily. Research findings document clearly that marijuana has distinct adverse biological and psychological effects, even when smoked in moderate doses, and for short periods

Armand M. Nicholi Jr

1983-01-01

261

Kimmel Cancer Center researchers find biomarker links clinical outcome with new model of lethal tumor metabolism  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have demonstrated for the first time that the metabolic biomarker MCT4 directly links clinical outcomes with a new model of tumor metabolism that has patients “feeding” their cancer cells. Their findings were published online March 15 in Cell Cycle.

262

Public Understanding of Cognitive Neuroscience Research Findings: Trying to Peer beyond Enchanted Glass  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the appeal of cognitive neuroscience research to the general public within the context of the deep puzzles involved in using our minds to understand how our minds work. It offers a few promising examples of findings that illuminate the ways of the mind and reveal these workings to be counter-intuitive with our subjective…

Grotzer, Tina A.

2011-01-01

263

Are Educational Research Findings Useful for Curricular/Instructional Decisions? A Skeptical View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Currently, findings of educational research are of little consequence to the curricular/instructional decisions of social studies teachers. Four basic conditions have created this inconsistency. (1) Since social studies teaching takes place among value and factual assumptions, decisions about educational practice are based more on value judgments…

Shaver, James P.

264

Key challenges and ways forward in researching the "good death": qualitative in-depth interview and focus group study  

PubMed Central

Objective To understand key challenges in researching end of life issues and identify ways of overcoming these. Design Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with researchers and focus groups with people affected by cancer. Participants An international sample of 32 researchers; seven patients with experience of cancer; and four carers in south east Scotland. Results Researchers highlighted the difficulty of defining the end of life, overprotective gatekeeping by ethics committees and clinical staff, the need to factor in high attrition rates associated with deterioration or death, and managing the emotions of participants and research staff. People affected by cancer and researchers suggested that many people nearing the end of life do want to be offered the chance to participate in research, provided it is conducted sensitively. Although such research can be demanding, most researchers believed it to be no more problematic than many other areas of research and that the challenges identified can be overcome. Conclusions The continuing taboos around death and dying act as barriers to the commissioning and conduct of end of life research. Some people facing death, however, may want to participate in research and should be allowed to do so. Ethics committees and clinical staff must balance understandable concern about non-maleficence with the right of people with advanced illness to participate in research. Despite the inherent difficulties, end of life research can be conducted with ethical and methodological rigour. Adequate psychological support must be provided for participants, researchers, and transcribers.

Harris, Fiona; Boyd, Kirsty; Sheikh, Aziz; Murray, Scott A; Brown, Duncan; Mallinson, Ian; Kearney, Nora; Worth, Allison

2007-01-01

265

Defining the "community" in community consultation for emergency research: findings from the community VOICES study.  

PubMed

This article explores the application of the concept "community consultation" in the context of emergency medical research. Emergency medicine researchers are permitted, by the World Medical Association regulations and in the United States by U.S. Federal Regulations, to conduct emergency medical research on individuals with a life-threatening condition without obtaining their consent or that of their surrogates if certain conditions are met. Among these conditions is the requirement that researchers observe a number of special protections for the participants, including "community consultation and notification" prior to the initiation of such studies. The term "community" is not defined clearly and the process for conducting community consultations is not specified in these regulations. This study explores the feasibility of conducting community consultation in the context of emergency medical research by examining: research participant's definitions of community in New York, the factors that help shape their definitions of community and the people they would authorize to render participation decisions on their behalves. Findings from this study suggest that participants' definitions of community vary as a function of the purpose of the definition and the demographics of the respondents. Most significantly, this study reveals that although respondents can identify potential spokespersons for their communities, these community spokespersons were rarely identified as those who should have decision-making authority in medical emergencies. Finally, this article explores the implications of these findings for the definition of community as it applies to community consultation for emergency medical research. PMID:18237833

Ragin, Deborah Fish; Ricci, Edmund; Rhodes, Rosamond; Holohan, Jennifer; Smirnoff, Margaret; Richardson, Lynne D

2008-03-01

266

[What happens to children and adolescents with mental disorders? Findings from long-term outcome research].  

PubMed

Research on the long-term outcome of mental disorders originating in childhood and adolescence is an important part of developmental psychopathology. After a brief sketch of relevant terms of outcome research, the first part of this review reports findings based on heterotypic cohort studies. The major second part of this review presents findings based on long-term outcome studies dealing with homotypic diagnostic groups. In particular, the review focuses on the course and prognosis of ADHD, anxiety disorders, depression, conduct disorders, eating disorders, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and selective mutism. Findings mainly support the vulnerability hypothesis regarding mental disorders with early manifestation in childhood and adolescence as frequent precursors of mental disorders in adulthood. The discussion focuses on the impact of early manifesting disorders in the frame of general mental morbidity and of the effect of interventions, which is not yet sufficiently discernible. PMID:24240498

Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

2013-11-01

267

Research from the Model Spinal Cord Injury Systems: findings from the current 5-year grant cycle.  

PubMed

This issue of the Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is dedicated to current research findings of the Model Spinal Cord Injury Systems (MSCIS) program. The MSCIS grants were established by the Rehabilitation Services Administration in the 1970s. Now administered by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research within the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services in the US Department of Education, the program has included 27 spinal cord injury centers in the United States over the years. In the current 5-year grant cycle (2000-2005), there are 16 designated regional MSCIS centers. In addition to establishing a comprehensive system of care, the grantees contribute patient data to the National Spinal Cord Injury Database (which now contains data on 30,532 subjects with follow-up of up to 30 y). In addition, the MSCIS grants enable the conduct of site-specific and collaborative research projects. To highlight the research findings of the program, the MSCIS have produced a special dissemination effort during each of the previous 5 grant cycles, with this issue of the Archives representing the latest of these endeavors. This article provides a brief history of the MSCIS program and highlights the important findings of the 17 original research articles contained in this issue. PMID:15520967

Lammertse, Daniel P; Jackson, Amie B; Sipski, Marca L

2004-11-01

268

Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: a translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice.  

PubMed

We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve the communicative concern to express phenomena relevant to caring practice in ways that appeal to the 'head, hand and heart'. The paper first offers some thoughts about the complex kind of knowledge relevant to caring that is not only technical or propositional, but actionable and aesthetically moving as well. We call this kind of knowledge 'embodied relational understanding'. Further, the paper outlines the development of one way of serving a more aesthetic phenomenology whereby research findings can be faithfully and evocatively translated into more empathically impactful expressions. We call this process 'embodied interpretation'. It is guided by an epistemological framework grounded in the philosophies of Gadamer and Gendlin. We finally illustrate the process with reference to the experience of living after Stroke, and consider the value of this translational process for nursing education and practice. PMID:20863496

Galvin, Kathleen T; Todres, Les

2011-04-01

269

Global Energy Technology Strategy: Addressing Climate Change Phase 2 Findings from an international Public-Private Sponsored Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This book examines the role of global energy technology in addressing climate change. The book considers the nature of the climate change challenge and the role of energy in the issue. It goes on to consider the implications for the evolution of the global energy system and the potential value of technology availability, development and deployment. Six technology systems are identified for special consideration: CO2 capture and storage, Biotechnology, Hydrogen systems, Nuclear energy, Wind and solar energy, and End-use energy technologies. In addition, consideration is given to the role of non-CO2 gases in climate change as well as the potential of technology development and deployment to reduce non-CO2 emissions. Present trends in energy R&D are examined and potentially fruitful avenues for research. The book concludes with a set of key findings.

Edmonds, James A.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Smith, Steven J.; Runci, Paul J.; Clarke, Leon E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Stokes, Gerald M.

2007-05-01

270

42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405...

2012-10-01

271

42 CFR 93.405 - Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions...FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the...Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405...

2013-10-01

272

The crystalline revolution :ISO's finding opens a new research field, "astro-mineralogy"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicate minerals were known to be a main component of dust in space, but detecting them in a crystallised state has been a surprise. It allows the identification of precise silicates in astronomical objects, which will open "a totally new field in astronomy: astro-mineralogy. This is the crystalline revolution", said the author, Dutch astronomer Rens Waters of Amsterdam university. "It's really fantastic, this possibility of identifying the silicates. Before ISO everybody thought that all silicates in space were amorphous, without a well-ordered internal structure; that means you cannot differentiate among the many different silicates existing. Now we can try to identify them and track their presence in different regions. A whole new research field is starting", said Rens Waters, who brought to the press conference samples of several terrestrial crystalline silicates: olivine and pyroxene, the most common silicates on Earth. Crystals give key clues about the physical conditions and evolutionary history of crystal-bearing objects. The precise mechanisms for crystal-making are now being researched now very actively in the laboratories, although some working-hypotheses are already being used. For instance, crystals can be made by heating the material to temperatures above 1 300 degrees Centigrade and then cooling it down slowly. Those found so far by ISO are at -170 degrees Centigrade, both in stellar envelopes and in protoplanetary discs. In the case of the old stars -red giant stars, where crystals are found to account for as much as 20% of all the surrounding dust, astronomers think that that the high temperatures near the star triggered the crystallisation of the silicates. In the protoplanetary discs some experts postulate that electric shocks - like lightning flashes - heated the dust, which cooled afterwards. "The crystals detected by ISO in these discs have a size of about a thousandth of a millimetre. They collide with each other, forming bigger and bigger bodies. Models predict that in about ten to one hundred million years they will make planets", Waters says. "In fact, crystalline silicates are very common in our own Solar System. You also have them in the comet Hale Bopp!". The reason why crystalline silicates had not been detected before in stars has to do with their low temperatures. Cold material emits mostly infrared light, which means an infrared space telescope like ESA's ISO was needed. The two high-resolution spectrometers on-board the satellite, able to detect the 'chemical fingerprint' of the crystals, did the rest. Astronomers are sure about the discovery because those chemical fingerprints, the spectra, can be compared in laboratories with spectra from crystalline silicates found on Earth. This method has demonstrated the crystalline structure and has even already allowed the identification of some of the crystals, such as forsterite and enstatite. However, crystalline silicates are a large family and their chemical signatures can be very similar; to enlarge the list of precise crystals more work will be needed, say experts in space chemistry. That is just one of the open questions requiring lab work. There's at least another one: crystalline silicates are found around old stars, in protoplanetary disks and in our own Solar System, but not in the space among the stars; astronomers can't explain it yet. "Crystalline silicates are synthesised around the stars; then that dust goes into the interstellar space, and enriches the raw material out of which more stars and planets will form. So you would expect crystals also to be in the interstellar medium! Crystals will certainly make us learn a lot...", says Waters. "This finding shows that ISO is really unveiling the chemistry of the Universe", says ESA astronomer Alberto Salama, chairman of the workshop about ISO results in spectroscopy held this week at ESA's Villafranca station in Madrid where the results were presented to the scientific community. "This is becoming more and more a 'hot

2000-02-01

273

Increased Attention to Human Sexuality Can Improve HIV–AIDS Prevention Efforts:: Key Research Issues and Directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curtailing the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic requires the development of effective strategies for helping people reduce high-risk sexual behavior patterns. Because the objective of HIV prevention involves changing how people behave sexually, research findings in human sexuality are extremely pertinent to efforts to promote AIDS risk reduction. Unfortunately, most public health HIV prevention programs rarely reflect findings of human

Jeffrey A. Kelly; Seth C. Kalichman

1995-01-01

274

ONLINE CONTENT A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008-18: Contextual influences and key components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Re- search Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities re- ported a decade ago. The authors focus on 3 specific aspects of context—genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technolo- gies—that must

Suzanne Bakken; Patricia W. Stone; Elaine L. Larson

275

U-M researchers find driver of breast cancer stem cell metastasis  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center have found that a cancer gene linked to aggressive spread of the disease promotes breast cancer stem cells. The finding implies a new way to target the behavior of these lethal cells. The finding involves the cancer gene RhoC, which has previously been shown to promote metastasis of many types of cancer. RhoC levels increase as breast cancer progresses and high levels of RhoC are associated with worse patient survival.

276

Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

2010-01-01

277

Research on Key Technology for the Global Goods Tracing Informational Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper focuses on building key technology of high-efficiency logistics on global logistics informational Platform, such as common sharing of global information in the process of production, transportation and storing or withdrawal based on internet technology, collection of real time information about goods and vehicles by ZigBee node, the connection of nodal operation and logistical management platform by the network

WANG XIAOYONG; FANG YUEFENG; XIAO SIYOU; JIFANG LI

278

Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the p...

B. J. Micklich C. L. Fink T. J. Yule

1994-01-01

279

The Four Key Factors for Commercializing Research: The Case of a Young University in a Region in Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated factors in the successful commercialization of public research from higher education and then applied the ideas gleaned from a review of several case studies to the case of a young French university. Findings show the importance of close interaction between academic research and a wealthy local economy, lacking in the case of the…

Laperche, Blandine

2002-01-01

280

Integrating findings of traditional medicine with modern pharmaceutical research: the potential role of linked open data  

PubMed Central

One of the biggest obstacles to progress in modern pharmaceutical research is the difficulty of integrating all available research findings into effective therapies for humans. Studies of traditionally used pharmacologically active plants and other substances in traditional medicines may be valuable sources of previously unknown compounds with therapeutic actions. However, the integration of findings from traditional medicines can be fraught with difficulties and misunderstandings. This article proposes an approach to use linked open data and Semantic Web technologies to address the heterogeneous data integration problem. The approach is based on our initial experiences with implementing an integrated web of data for a selected use-case, i.e., the identification of plant species used in Chinese medicine that indicate potential antidepressant activities.

2010-01-01

281

Integrating findings of traditional medicine with modern pharmaceutical research: the potential role of linked open data.  

PubMed

One of the biggest obstacles to progress in modern pharmaceutical research is the difficulty of integrating all available research findings into effective therapies for humans. Studies of traditionally used pharmacologically active plants and other substances in traditional medicines may be valuable sources of previously unknown compounds with therapeutic actions. However, the integration of findings from traditional medicines can be fraught with difficulties and misunderstandings. This article proposes an approach to use linked open data and Semantic Web technologies to address the heterogeneous data integration problem. The approach is based on our initial experiences with implementing an integrated web of data for a selected use-case, i.e., the identification of plant species used in Chinese medicine that indicate potential antidepressant activities. PMID:21167050

Samwald, Matthias; Dumontier, Michel; Zhao, Jun; Luciano, Joanne S; Marshall, Michael Scott; Cheung, Kei

2010-01-01

282

Findings and accomplishments of ATSDR's Superfund-mandated Substance-Specific Applied Research Program.  

PubMed

Priority research needs determined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) for the agencies top-ranked hazardous substances are being filled via regulatory mechanisms, private sector voluntarism, and university-based research. To date, 17 studies have been completed, 12 are ongoing, and 12 are currently planned. Under the direction of the Substance-Specific Applied Research Program (SSARP), ATSDR-supported research has filled research needs that significantly improved the information base available for making appropriate public health decisions. With the knowledge and understanding gained from this research, health professionals are better able to identify and interdict significant exposure and mitigate toxicity when exposure occurs. Thus, the SSARP has played, and continues to play, a vital role in contributing towards improving ATSDR's efforts to meet its mission and goals in environmental public health. In addition to addressing research needs of interest to ATSDR, findings from the program have contributed to the overall scientific knowledge about the effects of toxic substances in the environment. PMID:12018014

Stevens, Yee-Wan; Williams-Johnson, Mildred M; De Rosa, Christopher T; Cibulas, William

2002-03-01

283

Finding middle ground: negotiating university and tribal community interests in community-based participatory research.  

PubMed

Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been hailed as an alternative approach to one-sided research endeavors that have traditionally been conducted on communities as opposed to with them. Although CBPR engenders numerous relationship strengths, through its emphasis on co-sharing, mutual benefit, and community capacity building, it is often challenging as well. In this article, we describe some of the challenges of implementing CBPR in a research project designed to prevent cardiovascular disease among an indigenous community in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and how we addressed them. Specifically, we highlight the process of collaboratively constructing a Research Protocol/Data Sharing Agreement and qualitative interview guide that addressed the concerns of both university and tribal community constituents. Establishing these two items was a process of negotiation that required: (i) balancing of individual, occupational, research, and community interests; (ii) definition of terminology (e.g., ownership of data); and (iii) extensive consideration of how to best protect research participants. Finding middle ground in CBPR requires research partners to examine and articulate their own assumptions and expectations, and nurture a relationship based on compromise to effectively meet the needs of each group. PMID:22530859

Mohammed, Selina A; Walters, Karina L; Lamarr, June; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Fryberg, Sheryl

2012-06-01

284

Identifying key patient demographics and organizational factors that contribute to health center participation in research.  

PubMed

Federally Qualified Health Centers are well positioned for translational research given their diverse patient population, unique characteristics, and community knowledge. This was the first national survey that assessed their research activities. Those with research experience were more likely to be urban and Health Care for the Homeless grantees and had more patients, minority patients, and physicians relative to nonphysician providers, enabling services providers, Medicaid revenues per Medicaid patient, and total revenues per patient than health centers with no experience and no future interest in research. Only enabling services providers to patient ratios and total patients remained significant after controlling for other factors. PMID:24887526

Shin, Peter; Sharac, Jessica; Beeson, Tishra; Proser, Michelle; Jester, Michelle

2014-01-01

285

Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis

Bradley J. Micklich; Charles L. Fink; Thomas J. Yule

1994-01-01

286

Incidental Findings: A Common Law Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal regulations governing human subjects research do not address key questions raised by incidental neuroimaging findings, including the scope of a researcher's disclosure with respect to the possibility of incidental findings and the question of whether a researcher has an affirmative legal duty to seek, detect and report incidental findings. The scope of researcher duties may, however, be mapped with

Stacey A. Tovino

2009-01-01

287

Key Challenges and New Trends in Battery Research (2011 EFRC Forum)  

ScienceCinema

Jean-Marie Tarascon, Professor at the University de Picardie Jules Verne, France, was the fourth speaker in the May 26, 2011 EFRC Forum session, "Global Perspectives on Frontiers in Energy Research." In his presentation, Professor Tarascon recounted European basic research activates in electrical energy storage. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss "Science for our Nation's Energy Future." In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several ?grand challenges? and use-inspired ?basic research needs? recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.

Tarascon, Jean Marie (University de Picardie Jules Verne, France)

2012-03-14

288

A Nursing Informatics Research Agenda for 2008-18: Contextual Influences and Key Components  

PubMed Central

The context for nursing informatics research has changed significantly since the National Institute of Nursing Research-funded Nursing Informatics Research Agenda was published in 1993 and the Delphi study of nursing informatics research priorities reported a decade ago. The authors focus on three specific aspects of context - genomic health care, shifting research paradigms, and social (Web 2.0) technologies - that must be considered in formulating a nursing informatics research agenda. These influences are illustrated using the significant issue of healthcare associated infections (HAI). A nursing informatics research agenda for 2008–18 must expand users of interest to include interdisciplinary researchers; build upon the knowledge gained in nursing concept representation to address genomic and environmental data; guide the reengineering of nursing practice; harness new technologies to empower patients and their caregivers for collaborative knowledge development; develop user-configurable software approaches that support complex data visualization, analysis, and predictive modeling; facilitate the development of middle-range nursing informatics theories; and encourage innovative evaluation methodologies that attend to human-computer interface factors and organizational context.

Bakken, Suzanne; Stone, Patricia W.; Larson, Elaine L.

2008-01-01

289

Language of instruction in Tanzania: Why are research findings not heeded?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of language of instruction (LOI) and its effects on education in Tanzanian secondary education has been widely researched since the early 1980s. In 2009, the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training proposed a new education and training policy that allows English to be used as LOI from nursery school to tertiary education. The proposed policy goes against what researchers in this area have recommended over the years. In the light of the proposed policy, the author of this article felt the need to review studies done on LOI in Tanzania from 1974 to date, aiming to eliminate or greatly reduce the negative effects of the policy on education in Tanzania. Quoting examples, the paper demonstrates students' levels of proficiency in English; suggests reasons why governmental policy has over time ignored research findings; and recommends as well as proposes the way forward.

Qorro, Martha A. S.

2013-06-01

290

Virtualization of Research Universities: Raising the Right Questions to Address Key Functions of the Institution. Research & Occasional Paper Series. CSHE.6.03  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the variety of information and communication technology (ICT) applications at traditional universities and to integrate them into a holistic picture of the institution. Using the distinction of three key elements of scholarly activity (research, publication, education), it suggests a functional…

Pfeffer, Thomas

2003-01-01

291

Research on key techniques of nanometer scale macro-micro dual-drive precision positioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the development of science and technology, high precision of positioning platform is needed in many areas, for example, cell fusing in biology and precision surgery in medical area. In such areas, both high efficiency and high precision are needed in some cases, for example, semiconductor processing equipment, super precision lathe etc. In a word, precision positioning platform becomes an important tool in exploring microscope world. Precision positioning platform is a key element in microscope operation. Macro/micro dual-drive precision positioning is a key technique in high-efficiency high-precision area. By such techniques, large distance and high precision can get. In order to realize nanometer scale macro/micro dual-drive precision positioning there are some key problems. First, system structure of macro/micro combination precision positioning platform is worthy to work on. Another key work is realization method of micrometer scale macroscope motion and nanometer scale microscope motion. The third is mechanics, drive, detection and control techniques in nanometer scale positioning of piezoelectric ceramics drive, in which realization of nanometer scale microscope positioning and micro drive is important by solving hysteresis, creep deformation and non-linearity in piezoelectric ceramics driving. To solve hysteresis problem, instead of traditional Preisach algorithm, a new type hysteresis model with simple computation and identification is needed. The inverse model is also easily to get. So we can present new control method to solve hysteresis and creep deformation problem based on this inverse model. Another way, hysteresis and creep deformation problem exist in traditional voltage-feedback power source for piezoelectric ceramics. To solve this problem, a new type current feedback power source for piezoelectric ceramics is presented. In the end, a macro-micro dual-drive super precision positioning mechanism is presented. Combining macro with micro actuator, a system with large workspace and high resolution of motion is presented. The linear direct-drive motor is used in the macroscope motion and high frequency PZT-driven microscope stage is embedded in the motor and compensates the position error. A high-resolution linear encoder is integrated into the closed-loop feedback, which is used to measure the position of the end-effect in microscope scale.

Xie, Xiaohui; Du, Ruxu

2007-12-01

292

University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute researchers identify key oncoprotein found in Merkel Cell Carcinoma:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) have identified the oncoprotein that allows a common and usually harmless virus to transform healthy cells into a rare but deadly skin cancer called Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC).

293

Technological research of differential phase shift keying receiver in the satellite-to-ground laser communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser communication links between satellite and ground remains a bottleneck problem that has not been solved in free space communication network now. Atmospheric disturbances have badly influenced the wave-front of signal light and destroyed the integrality of optical phase, so the bit error rate (BER) is increased at the receiving terminal in the space-to-ground laser communication. With conventional coherent reception, the contrast of coherent light increased dramatically, and transmission efficiency of Space to ground laser communication decreased. Receiving technology based on differential phase shift keying (DPSK) is proposed here to overcome the effects of atmosphere here. Differential phase shift keying without the integrality and compensation of the optical phases, is suited for high rate space to ground communication links due to its immunity of the wavefront of a beam passing atmosphere. A Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer is used for differential delay which is equal to the one bit period. The differential data information can be obtained from the optical phase changes. Differential phase modulation technique can be a promising optical receiving technology.

Ma, Xiaoping; Sun, Jianfeng; Zhi, Yanan; Liu, Liren

2012-10-01

294

NASA Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Mission: Significant Findings and Evolving Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission has had an extremely productive four years since its launch in December 2001. During this time, TIMED observations have provided an unprecendented view of the basic structure of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere-Mesosphere (ITM) system and also documented the impacts of the tropospheric and stratospheric weather, varying solar EUV radiation and x-ray flares, geomagnetic storms powered by solar corona mass ejections, and the powerful high speed streams of energetic particles. This paper gives a summary of TIMED's scientific accomplishments over the past four years, its significant findings and current evolving research topics.

Yee, J.; Christensen, A.; Russell, J.; Killeen, T.; Woods, T.; Kozyra, J.; Smith, A.; Fritts, D.; Forbes, J.; Mayr, H.; Solomon, S.; Talaat, E.; Paxton, L.; Mlynczak, M.

2005-12-01

295

Dana-Farber researchers find new culprit in castration-resistant prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute have discovered a molecular switch that enables advanced prostate cancers to spread without stimulation by male hormones, which normally are needed to spur the cancer's growth. They say the finding could lead to a new treatment for prostate cancers that are no longer controlled by hormone-blocking drugs. The researchers report in the Dec. 14 issue of Science that the molecular switch occurs in a protein, EZH2, which is increased in these tumors, termed castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC).

296

Signature Concepts of Key Researchers in Higher Education Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early career university teachers often have limited experience of the higher education literature making it difficult for them to identify what ideas have become central to justifying what university teachers ought to be doing in higher education teaching and learning. A review of the research literature in journals focused on teaching and…

Kandlbinder, Peter

2013-01-01

297

Key Implementation Considerations for Executing Evidence-Based Programs: Project Overview. ASPE Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In April 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE) hosted a Forum, Emphasizing Evidence-Based Programs for Children and Youth, to convene the nation's leading practitioners and researchers with experience using and evaluating an array of evidence-based…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2013

2013-01-01

298

Identifying tier one key suppliers.  

PubMed

In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base. PMID:23615061

Wicks, Steve

2013-01-01

299

Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

Dubosarsky, Mia D.

300

Small is useful in endocrine disrupter assessment—four key recommendations for aquatic invertebrate research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we enter the 21st “biocentury”, with issues such as biodiversity and biotechnology growing in public profile, it is important\\u000a to reflect on the immense ecological, medical and economic importance of invertebrates. Efforts to understand the diverse\\u000a biology of invertebrates come from many directions, including Nobel Prize winning developmental biology, research to control\\u000a insects that threaten human health and food

Thomas H. Hutchinson

2007-01-01

301

The research and development on Pu'er tea fermentation automatic control technology and key equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper carried out the research on Pu'er fermentation automatic control process, using engineering and biotechnology and the application of parameters in the critical link of Pu'er tea quality formation. Pu'er tea fermentation plant design were optimized; the tide proportion before Pu'er tea fermentation had been carried out accurate quantitative and automatic control study; the temperature and humidity of Pu'er

Yunzhan Huang; Hongjie Zhou; Tongqiang Xiong; Yongjie Zhao

2010-01-01

302

Key Technology Research on Open Architecture for The Sharing of Heterogeneous Geographic Analysis Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the increasing development of cloud computing technologies laid critical foundation for efficiently solving complicated geographic issues. However, it is still difficult to realize the cooperative operation of massive heterogeneous geographical models. Traditional cloud architecture is apt to provide centralized solution to end users, while all the required resources are often offered by large enterprises or special agencies. Thus, it's a closed framework from the perspective of resource utilization. Solving comprehensive geographic issues requires integrating multifarious heterogeneous geographical models and data. In this case, an open computing platform is in need, with which the model owners can package and deploy their models into cloud conveniently, while model users can search, access and utilize those models with cloud facility. Based on this concept, the open cloud service strategies for the sharing of heterogeneous geographic analysis models is studied in this article. The key technology: unified cloud interface strategy, sharing platform based on cloud service, and computing platform based on cloud service are discussed in detail, and related experiments are conducted for further verification.

Yue, S. S.; Wen, Y. N.; Lv, G. N.; Hu, D.

2013-10-01

303

Findings from a Yearlong Job Exchange: A Mentor Teacher's Bill of Rights in Teacher Education. Reading Research Report No. 74.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After teaching and conducting research in each other's worlds for a year, a high school English teacher and a university teacher educator could never be the same. With their colleagues, they developed a model yearlong teacher education program founded on three key principles: equality of school and university participants; teacher research; and…

Hudson-Ross, Sally; McWhorter, Patti

304

Low-Temperature Biodiesel Research Reveals Potential Key to Successful Blend Performance (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Relatively low-cost solutions could improve reliability while making biodiesel blends an affordable option. While biodiesel has very low production costs and the potential to displace up to 10% of petroleum diesel, until now, issues with cold weather performance have prevented biodiesel blends from being widely adopted. Some biodiesel blends have exhibited unexplained low-temperature performance problems even at blend levels as low as 2% by volume. The most common low-temperature performance issue is vehicle stalling caused by fuel filter clogging, which prevents fuel from reaching the engine. Research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) reveals the properties responsible for these problems, clearing a path for the development of solutions and expanded use of energy-conserving and low-emissions alternative fuel. NREL researchers set out to study the unpredictable nature of biodiesel crystallization, the condition that impedes the flow of fuel in cold weather. Their research revealed for the first time that saturated monoglyceride impurities common to the biodiesel manufacturing process create crystals that can cause fuel filter clogging and other problems when cooling at slow rates. Biodiesel low-temperature operational problems are commonly referred to as 'precipitates above the cloud point (CP).' NREL's Advanced Biofuels team spiked distilled soy and animal fat-derived B100, as well as B20, B10, and B5 biodiesel blends with three saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) at concentration levels comparable to those of real-world fuels. Above a threshold or eutectic concentration, the SMGs (monomyristin, monopalmitin, and monostearin) were shown to significantly raise the biodiesel CP, and had an even greater impact on the final melting temperature. Researchers discovered that upon cooling, monoglyceride initially precipitates as a metastable crystal, but it transforms over time or upon slight heating into a more stable crystal with a much lower solubility and higher melting temperature - and with increased potential to cause vehicle performance issues. This explains why fuel-filter clogging typically occurs over the course of long, repeated diurnal cooling cycles. The elevated final melting points mean that restarting vehicles with clogged filters can be difficult even after ambient temperatures have warmed to well above CP. By examining how biodiesel impurities affect filtration and crystallization during warming and cooling cycles, NREL researchers uncovered an explanation for poor biodiesel performance at low temperatures. The observation of a eutectic point, or a concentration below which SMGs have no effect, indicates that SMGs do not have to be completely removed from biodiesel to solve low-temperature performance problems.

Not Available

2012-02-01

305

Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks: a key service for diagnosis and research on rare diseases  

PubMed Central

Several examples have always illustrated how access to large numbers of biospecimens and associated data plays a pivotal role in the identification of disease genes and the development of pharmaceuticals. Hence, allowing researchers to access to significant numbers of quality samples and data, genetic biobanks are a powerful tool in basic, translational and clinical research into rare diseases. Recently demand for well-annotated and properly-preserved specimens is growing at a high rate, and is expected to grow for years to come. The best effective solution to this issue is to enhance the potentialities of well-managed biobanks by building a network. Here we report a 5-year experience of the Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks (TNGB), a non-profit association of Italian repositories created in 2008 to form a virtually unique catalogue of biospecimens and associated data, which presently lists more than 750 rare genetic defects. The process of TNGB harmonisation has been mainly achieved through the adoption of a unique, centrally coordinated, IT infrastructure, which has enabled (i) standardisation of all the TNGB procedures and activities; (ii) creation of an updated TNGB online catalogue, based on minimal data set and controlled terminologies; (iii) sample access policy managed via a shared request control panel at web portal. TNGB has been engaged in disseminating information on its services into both scientific/biomedical - national and international - contexts, as well as associations of patients and families. Indeed, during the last 5-years national and international scientists extensively used the TNGB with different purposes resulting in more than 250 scientific publications. In addition, since its inception the TNGB is an associated member of the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure and recently joined the EuroBioBank network. Moreover, the involvement of patients and families, leading to the formalization of various agreements between TNGB and Patients’ Associations, has demonstrated how promoting Biobank services can be instrumental in gaining a critical mass of samples essential for research, as well as, raising awareness, trust and interest of the general public in Biobanks. This article focuses on some fundamental aspects of networking and demonstrates how the translational research benefits from a sustained infrastructure.

2013-01-01

306

Magnetic Reconnection, a Key Self-Organization Process in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas: Recent Research Progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic reconnection is a phenomenon of nature in whichmagnetic field lines change their topology and convert magnetic energy to plasma particles by acceleration and heating. The process can stretch out over time or occur quite suddenly. It is one of the most fundamental processes at work in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Magnetic reconnection occurs everywhere: In solar flares; coronal mass ejections; the earth's magnetosphere; in the star forming galaxies; and in plasma fusion devices. This paper reviews the most recent progress in the research of magnetic reconnection.

Yamada, M.

307

Evidence-Based Policy and Practice: The Role of the State in Advancing Criminal Justice Research, Findings from the Researcher. Practitioner Partnerships Study (RPPS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There is growing awareness that evidence-based practice and policy are critical to reducing crime. The findings reported here from the Researcher-Practitioner Partnerships Study (RPPS) demonstrate promise for the development of future research collaborati...

B. A. Hunter B. S. Fisher T. P. Sullivan

2013-01-01

308

Research on Family Engagement in Preventive Interventions: Toward Improved Use of Scientific Findings in Primary Prevention Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective strategies for family engagement are essential in the implementation of models directed toward the application of research findings to primary prevention practice. Although there has been limited investigation of family engagement in preventive interventions for general populations, the research has yielded several preliminary findings that warrant further study. Notably, families in eligible general populations can differ to a significant

Richard Spoth; Cleve Redmond

2000-01-01

309

Network structure and the role of key players in a translational cancer research network: a study protocol  

PubMed Central

Introduction Translational research networks are a deliberate strategy to bridge the gulf between biomedical research and clinical practice through interdisciplinary collaboration, supportive funding and infrastructure. The social network approach examines how the structure of the network and players who hold important positions within it constrain or enable function. This information can be used to guide network management and optimise its operations. The aim of this study was to describe the structure of a translational cancer research network (TCRN) in Australia over its first year, identify the key players within the network and explore these players' opportunities and constraints in maximising important network collaborations. Methods and analysis This study deploys a mixed-method longitudinal design using social network analysis augmented by interviews and review of TCRN documents. The study will use network documents and interviews with governing body members to explore the broader context into which the network is embedded as well as the perceptions and expectations of members. Of particular interest are the attitudes and perceptions of clinicians compared with those of researchers. A co-authorship network will be constructed of TCRN members using journal and citation databases to assess the success of past pre-network collaborations. Two whole network social network surveys will be administered 12?months apart and parameters such as density, clustering, centrality and betweenness centrality computed and compared using UCINET and Netdraw. Key players will be identified and interviewed to understand the specific activities, barriers and enablers they face in that role. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals were obtained from the University of New South Wales, South Eastern Sydney Northern Sector Local Health Network and Calvary Health Care Sydney. Results will be discussed with members of the TCRN, submitted to relevant journals and presented as oral presentations to clinicians, researchers and policymakers.

Cunningham, Frances C; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

310

Informationist programme in support of biomedical research: a programme description and preliminary findings of an evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background The informationist programme at the Library of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, USA has grown to 14 informationists working with 40 clinical and basic science research teams. Purpose This case report, intended to contribute to the literature on informationist programmes, describes the NIH informationist programme including implementation experiences, the informationists' training programme, their job responsibilities and programme outcomes. Brief description The NIH informationist programme was designed to enhance the library's service capacity. Over time, the steps for introducing the service to new groups were formalized to ensure support by leadership, the team being served and the library. Job responsibilities also evolved from traditional library roles to a wide range of knowledge management activities. The commitment by the informationist, the team and the library to continuous learning is critical to the programme's success. Results/outcomes NIH scientists reported that informationists saved them time and contributed to teamwork with expert searching and point-of-need instruction. Process evaluation helped refine the programme. Evaluation method High-level, preliminary outcomes were identified from a survey of scientists receiving informationist services, along with key informant interviews. Process evaluation examined service implementation, informationists' training, and service components. Anecdotal evidence has also indicated a favorable response to the programme.

Whitmore, Susan C.; Grefsheim, Suzanne F.; Rankin, Jocelyn A.

2008-01-01

311

Uncovering Treatment Burden as a Key Concept for Stroke Care: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with chronic disease may experience complicated management plans requiring significant personal investment. This has been termed ‘treatment burden’ and has been associated with unfavourable outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the qualitative literature on treatment burden in stroke from the patient perspective. Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: stroke, treatment burden, patient experience, and qualitative methods. We searched: Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO. We tracked references, footnotes, and citations. Restrictions included: English language, date of publication January 2000 until February 2013. Two reviewers independently carried out the following: paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis, as informed by Normalization Process Theory. Sixty-nine papers were included. Treatment burden includes: (1) making sense of stroke management and planning care, (2) interacting with others, (3) enacting management strategies, and (4) reflecting on management. Health care is fragmented, with poor communication between patient and health care providers. Patients report inadequate information provision. Inpatient care is unsatisfactory, with a perceived lack of empathy from professionals and a shortage of stimulating activities on the ward. Discharge services are poorly coordinated, and accessing health and social care in the community is difficult. The study has potential limitations because it was restricted to studies published in English only and data from low-income countries were scarce. Conclusions Stroke management is extremely demanding for patients, and treatment burden is influenced by micro and macro organisation of health services. Knowledge deficits mean patients are ill equipped to organise their care and develop coping strategies, making adherence less likely. There is a need to transform the approach to care provision so that services are configured to prioritise patient needs rather than those of health care systems. Systematic Review Registration International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42011001123 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Gallacher, Katie; Morrison, Deborah; Jani, Bhautesh; Macdonald, Sara; May, Carl R.; Montori, Victor M.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Batty, G. David; Eton, David T.; Langhorne, Peter; Mair, Frances S.

2013-01-01

312

Cross-pollination of research findings, although uncommon, may accelerate discovery of human disease genes  

PubMed Central

Background Technological leaps in genome sequencing have resulted in a surge in discovery of human disease genes. These discoveries have led to increased clarity on the molecular pathology of disease and have also demonstrated considerable overlap in the genetic roots of human diseases. In light of this large genetic overlap, we tested whether cross-disease research approaches lead to faster, more impactful discoveries. Methods We leveraged several gene-disease association databases to calculate a Mutual Citation Score (MCS) for 10,853 pairs of genetically related diseases to measure the frequency of cross-citation between research fields. To assess the importance of cooperative research, we computed an Individual Disease Cooperation Score (ICS) and the average publication rate for each disease. Results For all disease pairs with one gene in common, we found that the degree of genetic overlap was a poor predictor of cooperation (r2=0.3198) and that the vast majority of disease pairs (89.56%) never cited previous discoveries of the same gene in a different disease, irrespective of the level of genetic similarity between the diseases. A fraction (0.25%) of the pairs demonstrated cross-citation in greater than 5% of their published genetic discoveries and 0.037% cross-referenced discoveries more than 10% of the time. We found strong positive correlations between ICS and publication rate (r2=0.7931), and an even stronger correlation between the publication rate and the number of cross-referenced diseases (r2=0.8585). These results suggested that cross-disease research may have the potential to yield novel discoveries at a faster pace than singular disease research. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the frequency of cross-disease study is low despite the high level of genetic similarity among many human diseases, and that collaborative methods may accelerate and increase the impact of new genetic discoveries. Until we have a better understanding of the taxonomy of human diseases, cross-disease research approaches should become the rule rather than the exception.

2012-01-01

313

Participatory Action Research (PAR) in Middle School: Opportunities, Constraints, and Key Processes  

PubMed Central

Late childhood and early adolescence represent a critical transition in the developmental and academic trajectory of youth, a time in which there is an upsurge in academic disengagement and psychopathology. PAR projects that can promote youth’s sense of meaningful engagement in school and a sense of efficacy and mattering can be particularly powerful given the challenges of this developmental stage. In the present study, we draw on data from our own collaborative implementation of PAR projects in secondary schools to consider two central questions: (1) How do features of middle school settings and the developmental characteristics of the youth promote or inhibit the processes, outcomes, and sustainability of the PAR endeavor? and (2) How can the broad principles and concepts of PAR be effectively translated into specific intervention activities in schools, both within and outside of the classroom? In particular, we discuss a participatory research project conducted with 6th and 7th graders at an urban middle school as a means of highlighting the opportunities, constraints, and lessons learned in our efforts to contribute to the high-quality implementation and evaluation of PAR in diverse urban public schools.

Ritterman, Miranda L.; Wanis, Maggie G.

2010-01-01

314

Hypnotic approaches for chronic pain management: clinical implications of recent research findings.  

PubMed

The empirical support for hypnosis for chronic pain management has flourished over the past two decades. Clinical trials show that hypnosis is effective for reducing chronic pain, although outcomes vary between individuals. The findings from these clinical trials also show that hypnotic treatments have a number of positive effects beyond pain control. Neurophysiological studies reveal that hypnotic analgesia has clear effects on brain and spinal-cord functioning that differ as a function of the specific hypnotic suggestions made, providing further evidence for the specific effects of hypnosis. The research results have important implications for how clinicians can help their clients experience maximum benefits from hypnosis and treatments that include hypnotic components. PMID:24547802

Jensen, Mark P; Patterson, David R

2014-01-01

315

Targeted intervention research studies on sexually transmitted diseases (STD): methodology, selected findings and implications for STD service delivery and communications.  

PubMed

Targeted intervention research (TIR) studies were performed in five African countries (Senegal, Ethiopia, Benin, Morocco, and Swaziland) to improve the utilization of a community perspective in sexually transmitted disease (STD) programs. TIR, conducted by program managers with the aid of a multidisciplinary technical advisory group, examines factors at five levels of analysis (individual, social network, organization, community, and policy) through a variety of qualitative methods. The TIR studies indicated that patients' conceptions of normal versus abnormal health are fundamental to the process of interpreting symptoms and subsequently seeking care. The interpretation of STD symptoms varied across settings (e.g., vaginal lesions and discharge were considered signs of healing in Morocco and Benin), but increasing pain and discomfort were key triggers to seeking treatment. The concept of sexual transmission was blended with other causes such as violation of religious or moral codes, consumption of certain foods, and supernatural forces. Care-seeking tended to reflect an ordered yet loosely constructed process of elimination in pursuit of symptom relief, beginning with alternative regimens. Barriers to biomedical STD care included the need for husband's permission, costs, confidentiality concerns, long waits in public clinics, and fear of judgmental health provider attitudes. Overall, the findings highlight the importance of location-specific strategies aimed at increasing prompt care-seeking at qualified biomedical facilities. PMID:9792369

Field, M L; Price, J; Niang, C; N'tcha, J; Zwane, I T; Lurie, M; Nxumalo, M; Dialmy, A; Manhart, L; Gebre, A; Saidel, T; Dallabetta, G

1998-01-01

316

Rape treatment outcome research: empirical findings and state of the literature.  

PubMed

This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla

2009-07-01

317

Rape Treatment Outcome Research: Empirical Findings and State of the Literature  

PubMed Central

This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery.

Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

2009-01-01

318

Role of "external facilitation" in implementation of research findings: a qualitative evaluation of facilitation experiences in the Veterans Health Administration  

PubMed Central

Background Facilitation has been identified in the literature as a potentially key component of successful implementation. It has not, however, either been well-defined or well-studied. Significant questions remain about the operational definition of facilitation and about the relationship of facilitation to other interventions, especially to other change agent roles when used in multi-faceted implementation projects. Researchers who are part of the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) are actively exploring various approaches and processes, including facilitation, to enable implementation of best practices in the Veterans Health Administration health care system – the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes a systematic, retrospective evaluation of implementation-related facilitation experiences within QUERI, a quality improvement program developed by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. Methods A post-hoc evaluation was conducted through a series of semi-structured interviews to examine the concept of facilitation across several multi-site QUERI implementation studies. The interview process is based on a technique developed in the field of education, which systematically enhances learning through experience by stimulating recall and reflection regarding past complex activities. An iterative content analysis approach relative to a set of conceptually-based interview questions was used for data analysis. Findings Findings suggest that facilitation, within an implementation study initiated by a central change agency, is a deliberate and valued process of interactive problem solving and support that occurs in the context of a recognized need for improvement and a supportive interpersonal relationship. Facilitation was described primarily as a distinct role with a number of potentially crucial behaviors and activities. Data further suggest that external facilitators were likely to use or integrate other implementation interventions, while performing this problem-solving and supportive role. Preliminary Conclusions This evaluation provides evidence to suggest that facilitation could be considered a distinct implementation intervention, just as audit and feedback, educational outreach, or similar methods are considered to be discrete interventions. As such, facilitation should be well-defined and explicitly evaluated for its perceived usefulness within multi-intervention implementation projects. Additionally, researchers should better define the specific contribution of facilitation to the success of implementation in different types of projects, different types of sites, and with evidence and innovations of varying levels of strength and complexity.

Stetler, Cheryl B; Legro, Marcia W; Rycroft-Malone, Joanne; Bowman, Candice; Curran, Geoffrey; Guihan, Marylou; Hagedorn, Hildi; Pineros, Sandra; Wallace, Carolyn M

2006-01-01

319

Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

Zhou, Jun

2012-01-01

320

UC Davis researchers find that a double-headed motor protein offers new targets in cancer treatment  

Cancer.gov

The structure of a key part of the machinery that allows cells to divide has been identified by researchers at the University of California, Davis, opening new possibilities for throwing a wrench in the machine and blocking runaway cell division in cancer.

321

Huntsman researchers find that reduced kidney function is associated with higher risk of renal and urothelial cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers who investigated the level of kidney function and subsequent cancer risk in more than one million adults have found that reduced glomerular filtration rate is a key measure of reduced kidney function and chronic kidney disease is an independent risk factor for renal and urothelial cancer but not other cancer types.

322

St. Jude researchers find that unhealthy habits more than double risk of metabolic syndrome in childhood cancer survivors  

Cancer.gov

St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital study finds that few adult survivors of childhood cancer follow a heart-healthy lifestyle that protects against heart disease, diabetes and other health problems.

323

Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings.  

PubMed

Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical-maybe even a legal-obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

McGuire, Amy L; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma'n H; Clayton, Ellen Wright

2014-05-01

324

Gas Load Research Workshop: Workshop Proceedings and Findings. Held in Madison, Wisconsin on September 14-15, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the discussions and findings that took place during the GRI Gas Load Research Workshop. Topics addressed at the workshop included the market and regulatory trends driving the increasing need for load and customer information; the role ...

S. Shaffer G. Wikler R. Oscar

1994-01-01

325

NINE KEY FUNCTIONS FOR A HUMAN SUBJECTS PROTECTION PROGRAM FOR COMMUNITY-ENGAGED RESEARCH: POINTS TO CONSIDER1  

PubMed Central

The Ethical Conduct of Community-engaged research (CEnR), of which the Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) model is the partnership model most widely discussed in the CEnR literature and is the primary model we draw upon in this discussion, requires an integrated and comprehensive human subjects protection (HSP) program that addresses the additional concerns salient to CEnR where members of a community are both research partners and participants. As delineated in the federal regulations, the backbone of a HSP program is the fulfillment of nine functions: (1) minimize risks; (2) reasonable benefit-risk ratio; (3) fair subject selection; (4) adequate monitoring; (5) informed consent; (6) privacy and confidentiality; (7) conflicts of interest; (8) address vulnerabilities; and (9) HSP training. The federal regulations, however, do not consider the risks and harms that may occur to groups, and these risks have not traditionally been included in the benefit: risk analysis nor have they been incorporated into an HSP framework. We explore additional HSP issues raised by CEnR within these nine ethical functions. Various entities exist that can provide HSP—the investigator, the Institutional Review Board, the Conflict of Interest Committee, the Research Ethics Consultation program, the Research Subject Advocacy program, the Data and Safety Monitoring Plan, and the Community Advisory Board. Protection is best achieved if these entities are coordinated to ensure that no gaps exist, to minimize unnecessary redundancy, and to provide checks and balances between the different entities of HSP and the nine functions that they must realize. The document is structured to provide a “points-to-consider” roadmap for HSP entities to help them adequately address the nine key functions necessary to provide adequate protection of individuals and communities in CEnR.

Ross, Lainie Friedman; Loup, Allan; Nelson, Robert M.; Botkin, Jeffrey R.; Kost, Rhonda; Smith, George R.; Gehlert, Sarah

2010-01-01

326

78 FR 23255 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...administrative matters pending at HHS. ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of...

2013-04-18

327

Research on the effect of noise at different times of day: Models, methods and findings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Social surveys of residents' responses to noise at different times of day are reviewed. Some of the discrepancies in published reports about the importance of noise at different times of day are reduced when the research findings are classified according to the type of time of day reaction model, the type of time of day weight calculated and the method which is used to estimate the weight. When the estimates of nighttime weights from 12 studies are normalized, it is found that they still disagree, but do not support stronger nighttime weights than those used in existing noise indices. Challenges to common assumptions in nighttime response models are evaluated. Two of these challenges receive enough support to warrant further investigation: the impact of changes in numbers of noise events may be less at night than in the day and nighttime annoyance may be affected by noise levels in other periods. All existing social survey results in which averages of nighttime responses were plotted by nighttime noise levels are reproduced.

Fields, J. M.

1985-01-01

328

Key issues and challenges in developing a pedagogical intervention in the simulation skills center--an action research study.  

PubMed

Simulation skills centers (SSC) are considered important learning arenas for preparing and qualifying nursing students. Limited clinical placements and claims of diminished learning opportunities raise concerns that newly educated nurses lack proficiency in many psychomotor skills. Accordingly, there is an increased focus on learning in the SSC. However, it has been questioned if the pedagogical underpinning of teaching and learning in the SSC is missing or unclear. At a bachelor nursing education in Norway, there was a desire to change practice and enhance learning in the SSC by systematic use of The Model of Practical Skill Performance (Bjørk and Kirkevold, 2000). A participatory action research design was chosen. A pedagogical intervention was developed and implemented in 2010 in a cohort of eighty-seven first year bachelor nursing students during their basic nursing skill course. The intervention is shortly described. This article reports key issues and challenges that emerged during development of the new intervention. Data to inform the study were collected via thorough meeting minutes and the project leader's logbook, and analyzed using fieldnotes analysis. Six key issues and challenges were identified. These are presented and discussed consecutively in light of their importance for development and implementation of the new intervention. PMID:23642302

Reierson, Inger Åse; Hvidsten, Anne; Wighus, Marianne; Brungot, Solvor; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

2013-07-01

329

Exploring Variations in Teachers' Work, Lives and Their Effects on Pupils: Key Findings and Implications from a Longitudinal Mixed-Method Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the research design of a large-scale, longitudinal research study in England intended to describe and explore variations in teachers' work, lives and their effects on pupils' educational outcomes. The study, funded by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) and incorporated into the Teaching and Learning Research

Sammons, Pam; Day, Christopher; Kington, Alison; Gu, Qing; Stobart, Gordon; Smees, Rebecca

2007-01-01

330

Supporting Effective Communication and Workflows in Social Science Research: Findings and Summary of a Group Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the end of 2010, at an event hosted by SAGE and facilitated by the Research Information Network, a group of academic librarians and doctoral researchers came together to discuss the provision of information services for researchers in the social sciences. The event was designed to both explore ways of improving the provision and consumption of information during the research

Bernie Folan

2012-01-01

331

Impact of Problem Finding on the Quality of Authentic Open Inquiry Science Research Projects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully…

LaBanca, Frank

2008-01-01

332

Thomas Jefferson University researchers find new biomarker to identify hepatitis B-infected patients at risk for liver cancer  

Cancer.gov

Hepatitis B-infected patients with significantly longer telomeres—the caps on the end of chromosomes that protect our genetic data— were found to have an increased risk of getting liver cancer compared to those with shorter ones, according to findings presented by researchers at Jefferson’s Kimmel Cancer Center at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Annual Meeting 2012.

333

Directions for future research in project management: The main findings of a UK government-funded research network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2003 the UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) agreed to fund a research network –Rethinking Project Management – to define a research agenda aimed at enriching and extending the subject of project management beyond its current conceptual foundations. The main argument for the proposed Network highlighted the growing critiques of project management theory and the need for

Mark Winter; Charles Smith; Peter Morris; Svetlana Cicmil

2006-01-01

334

Key Understandings in School Mathematics: 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first in a series which draws on findings from Nunes, Watson and Bryant (2009): "Key understandings in school mathematics: a report to the Nuffield Foundation." The Nuffield report is soundly based on research about how children learn some of the concepts involved in mathematics. In this series of articles the author takes key

Watson, Anne

2010-01-01

335

Key Stakeholders' Perceptions of Effective School Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been limited research on how teachers, parents and students perceive effective school leadership in practice. The purpose of this article is to present some of the findings derived from a study of key stakeholders' perceptions of effective school leadership. Key stakeholders were identified as teachers, students and parents. Data were…

Odhiambo, George; Hii, Amy

2012-01-01

336

Research findings working with the p53 and Rb1 targeted osteosarcoma mouse model  

PubMed Central

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common bone cancer in children and young adults. The etiology of osteosarcoma is currently unknown. Besides the predominant osteoblasts, the presence of cartilage forming chondrocytes within its tumor tissues suggests a role of chondrogenesis in osteosarcoma development. Runx2 is a master transcription factor both for osteoblast differentiation and for chondrocyte maturation. Interestingly, RUNX2 has been shown to directly interact with p53 and Rb1, two genes essential for osteosarcoma development in mice. However the in vivo relevance of Runx2 during osteosarcoma progression has not been elucidated. We have recently shown that targeting Runx2 expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes delays chondrocyte maturation. It has also been shown that osteoblast-specific deletion of p53 and Rb1 genes developed osteosarcoma in mice. Here, we report our recent research findings using these osteosarcoma mouse models as well as human osteosarcoma tissues. We have detected high-level RUNX2 expression in human osteoblastic osteosarcoma, while chondroblastic osteosarcoma is predominant with chondroid matrix. To minimize the effect of strain difference, we have backcrossed osterix-Cre mice onto congenic FVB/N genetic background. We also detected low-GC content (36%) in sequence around the floxed Rb1 gene and demonstrated that addition of BSA into the reaction system increases the efficiency of PCR genotyping of floxed Rb1 gene. Finally, we successfully generated multiple osteosarcoma mouse models with or without Runx2 transgenic background. These mice showed heterogeneous osteosarcoma phenotypes and marker gene expression. Characterization of these mice will facilitate understanding the role of Runx2 in osteosarcoma pathogenesis and possibly, for osteosarcoma treatment.

Lu, Yaojuan; Gitelis, Steven; Lei, Guanghua; Ding, Ming; Maki, Carl; Mira, Ranim R; Zheng, Qiping

2014-01-01

337

INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): overview and key principles.  

PubMed

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) dominate disease burdens globally and poor nutrition increasingly contributes to this global burden. Comprehensive monitoring of food environments, and evaluation of the impact of public and private sector policies on food environments is needed to strengthen accountability systems to reduce NCDs. The International Network for Food and Obesity/NCDs Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) is a global network of public-interest organizations and researchers that aims to monitor, benchmark and support public and private sector actions to create healthy food environments and reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities. The INFORMAS framework includes two 'process' modules, that monitor the policies and actions of the public and private sectors, seven 'impact' modules that monitor the key characteristics of food environments and three 'outcome' modules that monitor dietary quality, risk factors and NCD morbidity and mortality. Monitoring frameworks and indicators have been developed for 10 modules to provide consistency, but allowing for stepwise approaches ('minimal', 'expanded', 'optimal') to data collection and analysis. INFORMAS data will enable benchmarking of food environments between countries, and monitoring of progress over time within countries. Through monitoring and benchmarking, INFORMAS will strengthen the accountability systems needed to help reduce the burden of obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities. PMID:24074206

Swinburn, B; Sacks, G; Vandevijvere, S; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Neal, B; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; L'abbé, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Walker, C

2013-10-01

338

Florida Keys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

Size: 51.6 by 29.7 kilometers ( 32.0 by 18.4 miles) Location: 24.7 degrees North latitude, 81.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1, 2, and 3 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Date Acquired: October 28, 2001

2002-01-01

339

Kids in Research: Your Child Can Help Find Cures at the NIH Clinical Center  

MedlinePLUS

... For You? Search The Studies Clinical Studies FAQs Volunteering Newsletter Patient Information Kids in Research Researchers/Physicians ... website provides several resources to help determine if volunteering in a clinical trial is right for your ...

340

76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...by ORI during its oversight review, ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude, engaged in misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of...

2011-06-09

341

Purdue study finds "label-free" imaging tool tracks nanotubes in cells, blood for biomedical research:  

Cancer.gov

Purdue University researchers have demonstrated a new imaging tool for tracking structures called carbon nanotubes in living cells and the bloodstream, which could aid efforts to perfect their use in biomedical research and clinical medicine.

342

99 Jumpstarts to Research: Topic Guides for Finding Information on Current Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, created by three reference librarians, teaches the beginning researcher good research habits. It provides names of tools students should consult for a well-rounded, well-researched paper on a controversial issue in the news. Books, specialized databases, online resources, and agencies to contact are all included. Each "jumpstart" has…

Whitley, Peggy; Olson, Catherine; Goodwin, Susan Williams

343

Impact of Research Findings and Recommendations in Urban School Districts: A Case Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A gap exists between educational research results and new educational programs. In the absence of either an increase in the supply of professional change agents to fill this gap or a proliferation of applied development centers, it is the researcher, or the professor, who must, along with teachers and administrators, utilize research to engineer…

Steinhoff, Carl R.; Owens, Robert G.

344

Finding Direction When the Ground Is Moving: Science Education Research in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is in the nature of a journey that it must start somewhere; it is in the nature of research that it must have a focus. The authors begin this review with a summary of science education research that has been done in South Africa over past decades, and the focuses it has chosen. They then critique the research, focusing on the following…

Malcolm, Cliff; Alant, Busi

2004-01-01

345

Finding a Canon and Core: Meditations on the Preparation of Teacher Educator-Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author explores seven "unanswered questions" concerning the preparation of future teacher educator-researchers. She considers five questions concerning the substance of doctoral preparation: what the new generation of teacher-researchers would need to know about teacher education, relevant disciplines, research methodologies,…

Wilson, Suzanne M.

2006-01-01

346

Teachers' Approaches to Finding and Using Research Evidence: An Information Literacy Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The use of research evidence produced by others is seen as central to the reflective practice of school teachers. There have been many recent UK initiatives aimed at improving access to research evidence, but there are still concerns about the lack of engagement by teachers. Previous research has looked at this issue from different…

Williams, Dorothy; Coles, Louisa

2007-01-01

347

The Hermeneutic Dialogic: Finding Patterns midst the "Aporia" of the Artist/Researcher/Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers one researcher's challenge of marking his progress in reading/studying Jacques Derrida's "Aporias" (1993) by what he calls the continual hermeneutic of making meaning. The paper places the "Aporias" reading in the setting of a weekly research group whose research cycle was creating meaning in and out of the work being done and…

de Cosson, Alex

348

Formal Training, Personal Experience, and the Ability to Predict Research Findings in Social Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the past have found that personal experience and formal training lead to better accuracy when predicting research outcomes in areas of psychology. Personal experience and formal training were compared in this study on the ability of students to predict research outcomes in social psychology. Students completed questionnaires that measured their social engagement (a proxy to personal experience), their

Carrie Quarterman

2007-01-01

349

Challenge: Reframing, communicating, and finding relevance. Solution: Teachers on the research team  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) is a program in which K-12 teachers spend 2-6 weeks participating in hands-on field research experiences in the polar regions. The goal of PolarTREC is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing K-12 educators and polar researchers together. Program data has illuminated a crucial dynamic that increases the potential for a successful climate change science campaign. We contend that the inclusion of a teacher into the field research campaign can tackle challenges such as reframing climate change science to better address the need for a particular campaign, as well as garnering the science project the necessary support through effective, authentic, and tangible communication efforts to policymakers, funders, students, and the public. The program evaluation queried researchers on a.) the teachers' primary roles in the field b.) the impact teachers on the team's field research, and c.) the teachers' role conducting outreach. Additionally, researchers identified the importance of the facilitator, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS), as an integral component to the challenge of providing a meaningful broader impact statement to the science proposal. Researchers reported the value of explaining their science, in-situ, allowed them to reframe and rework the objectives of the science project to attain meaningful outcomes. More than half of the researchers specifically noted that one of the strengths of the PolarTREC project is its benefit to the scientific process. The researchers also viewed PolarTREC as an essential outreach activity for their research project. Other researchers said that the outreach provided by their teacher also improved the research project's public image and articulated complex ideas to the public at large. This presentation will speak to the practices within the PolarTREC program and how researchers can meet outreach expectations, impact the public, and refine their science with teachers in the field.

Bartholow, S.; Warburton, J.

2013-12-01

350

Summary Report on Action Research: A Summary of Findings on a Series of Action Research Projects Conducted by Goshen Community Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the findings of an analysis of a series of action research projects conducted by Goshen Community Schools at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. During the 2008-2009 school year, 40 teachers participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to which a six step approach to direct vocabulary…

Haystead, Mark W.

2009-01-01

351

Special session - linking research findings on engineering student learning and engineering teaching: Implications for engineering education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this special interactive session is to engage attendees in (1) knitting the results of two linked studies (of engineering undergraduates and engineering faculty) into the larger body of engineering education scholarship and (2) developing ways of thinking about these findings that can be used to inform engineering education program planning and classroom practice. The findings are from

Cynthia Atman; Lorraine Fleming; Deborah Kilgore; Ron Miller; Sheri Sheppard; Karl Smith; Reed Stevens; Ruth Streveler; Jennifer Turns

2008-01-01

352

On the Relevance of Research Findings in Cognitive Neuroscience to Educational Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their target article, Byrnes and Fox (1998) argue that many of the recent findings from the field of cognitive neuroscience have particular importance for education. In our commentary, we lend support to their contention by reporting on some of our work that has potential relevance to the proposed interface between cognitive neuroscience and education. Specifically, we discuss the findings

Michael W. O'Boyle; Harwant S. Gill

1998-01-01

353

Paths to Work in Rural Places: Key Findings and Lessons from the Impact Evaluation of the Future Steps Rural Welfare-to-Work Program. Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping low-income families in rural areas find gainful employment and achieve economic self-sufficiency is an ongoing policy concern. The Rural Welfare-to-Work Strategies demonstration is using rigorous experimental designs to build knowledge about how to help low-income families in rural areas strive toward sustained employment and…

Meckstroth, Alicia; Burwick, Andrew; Ponza, Michael; Marsh, Shawn; Novak, Tim; Phillips, Shannon; Diaz-Tena, Nuria; Ng, Judy

2006-01-01

354

Cold Spring Harbor researchers find immunogenic mutations in tumor genomes correlate with increased patient survival  

Cancer.gov

Developing immunotherapies for cancer is challenging because of significant variability among tumors and diversity in human immune types. In a study published online today in Genome Research , researchers examined the largest collection of tumor samples to date to predict patient-specific survival

355

Roswell Park-led study finds most cancer research trials do not assess participants’ tobacco use  

Cancer.gov

While tobacco use can significantly hamper cancer treatment, few cancer researchers are incorporating tobacco assessment into their clinical studies. That’s the conclusion a group of investigators led by researchers at Roswell Park Cancer Institute drew from a recent survey of cancer clinical trials.

356

UC Irvine researchers find a cause of chemotherapy resistance in melanoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers with UC Irvine’s Chao Family Comprehensive Cancer Center have identified a major reason why melanoma is largely resistant to chemotherapy. The researchers found a genetic pathway in melanoma cells that inhibits the cellular mechanism for detecting DNA damage wrought by chemotherapy, thereby building up tolerance to cancer-killing drugs.

357

How College Affects Students: Findings and Insights from Twenty Years of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 14 chapters of this book review and synthesize research on the influence of college on students. Chapter 1 provides a detailed discussion of the evolution of research on college outcomes as an area of study, outlines the conceptual framework that guided the review, and provides a general overview of the study. Chapter 2 summarizes the major…

Pascarella, Ernest T.; Terenzini, Patrick T.

358

A SEMINAR ON COMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH FINDINGS AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-DAY SEMINAR BROUGHT TOGETHER 40 RESEARCH SPECIALISTS IN COMMUNICATIONS, DIRECTORS OF SCHOOL-COMMUNITY RELATIONS, SCHOOL SUPERINTENDENTS, AND PROFESSORS OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION. OBJECTIVES OF THE SEMINAR WERE--(1) TO REVIEW AND SYNTHESIZE SOME OF THE OUTSTANDING RESEARCH IN MASS COMMUNICATION MEDIA, (2) TO POINT OUT THE IMPLICATIONS OF…

FEHR, GEORGE N., JR.; KINDRED, LESLIE W.

359

Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behaviors of Movers and Stayers: Findings from a Controlled Research Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews of research on deinstitutionalization show that investigators have focused primarily on adaptive behavior changes of "movers," while paying minimal attention to "stayers." Analysis of their research also revealed some methodological problems. We assessed 150 movers and 150 stayers in 1994, before deinstitutionalization began in 1997. We…

Lerman, Paul; Apgar, Dawn Hall; Jordan,Tameeka

2005-01-01

360

Broad Claims from Slender Findings: Early Literacy Research and Educational Policy Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of state educational policymaking revealed a number of instances where assertions have been made about what the "research says" in offering support for particular policies; however, in many of these instances the available research seems to have been distorted or exaggerated in order to better leverage particular policy proposals. The role…

Allington, Richard L.

361

Desperately Seeking Data: Methodological Complications in Researching "Hard to Find" Young People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores challenges arising from research (Daniels & Macnab, 2004), which sought to identify young people aged 14-16 years who were emotionally vulnerable and not in receipt of educational provision within two local UK authorities. Two particular challenges are identified in this research. The first was the challenge of defining the…

Macnab, Natasha; Visser, John; Daniels, Harry

2007-01-01

362

Still in the Shadows with Their Future Uncertain. A Report on Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), 2011. Summary of Key Findings and a Call to Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of the fiftieth anniversary of President Kennedy's call to action back in 1961, The Arc wanted to know if people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are still living in the shadows. So, they launched a national online survey, Family and Individual Needs for Disability Supports (FINDS), from July 22, 2010 to October 31,…

Anderson, Lynda; Larson, Sheryl A.; Wuorio, Allise; Lakin, K. Charlie

2011-01-01

363

Trying to compensate. Latest ranking of CEO compensation finds stock options still key to pay as experts monitor for effects of SEC rule changes.  

PubMed

Despite past outcries from critics, stock options continue to play a starring, albeit smaller, role in compensation for CEOs at top companies, based on research by accounting professor Steven Balsam, left. Read about the 30 healthcare executives who brought home the biggest pay packages in our annual ranking of CEOs' compensation. PMID:17824144

Galloro, Vince; Vesely, Rebecca; Zigmond, Jessica

2007-07-30

364

Dana-Farber researchers find that marker may predict response to ipilimumab in advanced melanoma  

Cancer.gov

Dana-Farber researchers found that in patients with advanced melanoma using the immunotherapy ipilimumab, presence of higher levels of the protein VEGF in the blood was associated with a poorer response.

365

UCSD researchers find that cancer cells co-opt immune response to escape destruction  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that tumor cells use stress signals to subvert responding immune cells, exploiting them to actually boost conditions beneficial to cancer growth.

366

UC Davis research finds newer radiation therapy technology improves patients' quality of life:  

Cancer.gov

Patients with head and neck cancers who have been treated with newer, more sophisticated radiation therapy technology enjoy a better quality of life than those treated with older radiation therapy equipment, a study by UC Davis researchers has found.

367

UCSD researchers find that anti-psychotic medications offer new hope in the battle against glioblastoma  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that FDA-approved anti-psychotic drugs possess tumor-killing activity against the most aggressive form of primary brain cancer, glioblastoma.

368

UCSF researchers find that a sugary coating on cells may drive aggressive cancers  

Cancer.gov

A research team led by UC San Francisco scientists has shown that cancer-induced structural changes in a sugary coating ensheathing cells can promote mechanical interactions that fuel tumor growth and metastasis.

369

Atmospheric Science Goes to Ground: Researchers Present New Findings on the Natural Hydrogen Cycle  

NSF Publications Database

... from methane, the researchers were able to calculate that the soil uptake of hydrogen is as high as ... excess previously observed. "A more accurate molecular hydrogen budget may have important ...

370

Hopkins researchers find that a vaccine can reprogram pancreatic cancers to respond to immunotherapy  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have developed and tested a vaccine that triggered the growth of immune cell nodules within pancreatic tumors, essentially reprogramming these intractable cancers and potentially making them vulnerable to immune-based therapies.

371

NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect against Cardiovascular Disease in Animal Study  

MedlinePLUS

... problems, according to an NIA study in nonhuman primates. Specifically, researchers found resveratrol prevented arterial stiffening and ... Central Arterial Wall Inflammation and Stiffening in Nonhuman Primates, Cell Metabolism (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10. ...

372

NIH Researchers Find Resveratrol Helps Protect Against Diabetes in Animal Study  

MedlinePLUS

... diet. In a new study of non-human primates, researchers have found that resveratrol counters some of ... high sugar diet on the pancreas, protecting these primates from developing diabetes. A healthy pancreas responds to ...

373

Moffitt researchers find potential new therapeutic target for treating non-small cell lung cancer  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center have found a potential targeted therapy for patients with tobacco-associated non-small cell lung cancer. It is based on the newly identified oncogene IKBKE, which helps regulate immune response.

374

Duke researchers find that combining treatments boosts some smokers’ ability to quit  

Cancer.gov

Combining two smoking cessation therapies is more effective than using just one for male and highly nicotine-dependent smokers who weren't initially helped by the nicotine patch, according to researchers at Duke Medicine.

375

Harvard and Baylor researchers find new target for aggressive cancer gene:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers have found a way to kill human cells hijacked by a genetic accelerator that puts cancer cells into overdrive: the Myc oncogene. The discovery reveals new drug targets for Myc-driven cancers, which tend to be particularly aggressive.

376

Key considerations for the success of Medical Education Research and Innovation units in Canada: unit director perceptions.  

PubMed

Growth in the field of medical education is evidenced by the proliferation of units dedicated to advancing Medical Education Research and Innovation (MERI). While a review of the literature discovered narrative accounts of MERI unit development, we found no systematic examinations of the dimensions of and structures that facilitate the success of these units. We conducted qualitative interviews with the directors of 12 MERI units across Canada. Data were analyzed using qualitative description (Sandelowski in Res Nurs Health 23:334-340, 2000). Final analysis drew on Bourdieu's (Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1977; Media, culture and society: a critical reader. Sage, London, 1986; Language and symbolic power. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1991) concepts of field, habitus, and capital, and more recent research investigating the field of MERI (Albert in Acad Med 79:948-954, 2004; Albert et al. in Adv Health Sci Educ 12:103-115, 2007). When asked about the metrics by which they define their success, directors cited: teaching, faculty mentoring, building collaborations, delivering conference presentations, winning grant funding, and disseminating publications. Analyzed using Bourdieu's concepts, these metrics are discussed as forms of capital that have been legitimized in the MERI field. All directors, with the exception of one, described success as being comprised of elements (capital) at both ends of the service-research spectrum (i.e., Albert's PP-PU structure). Our analysis highlights the forms of habitus (i.e., behaviors, attitudes, demeanors) directors use to negotiate, strategize and position the unit within their local context. These findings may assist institutions in developing a new-or reorganizing an existing-MERI unit. We posit that a better understanding of these complex social structures can help units become savvy participants in the MERI field. With such insight, units can improve their academic output and their status in the MERI context-locally, nationally, and internationally. PMID:24452441

Varpio, Lara; Bidlake, Erin; Humphrey-Murto, Sue; Sutherland, Stephanie; Hamstra, Stanley J

2014-08-01

377

New findings and a new species of the genus Ammothea (Pycnogonida, Ammotheidae), with an updated identification key to all Antarctic and sub-Antarctic species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specimens of the pycnogonid genus Ammothea collected during the Polarstern cruise XXIII/8 (23 November 2006-30 January 2007) were studied. Nine species were recognized in this collection: Ammothea bentartica, A. bicorniculata, A. carolinensis, A. clausi, A. longispina, A. minor, A. spinosa, A. striata and A. tibialis. Three of them ( A. bentartica, A. bicorniculata and A. tibialis) are reported for the second time, enlarging their known geographical and bathymetric range. In the present contribution, the observed morphological variability of all collected Ammothea species is described and discussed. For the identification and description of the material, different museum specimens were consulted. Among them, we have consulted part of the Discovery collection housed at the Natural History Museum in London. That material was initially identified by Isabella Gordon, a reputed author in the field of pycnogonid taxonomy. A new species, based on a museum specimen previously highly confused in the literature, is proposed in the present contribution as Ammothea isabellae n. sp. The new taxon is compared with its closest congeners, especially with A. longispina and A. stylirostris. Finally, we propose an updated dichotomous key to species covering all currently known Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Ammothea species.

Cano-Sánchez, E.; López-González, P. J.

2014-03-01

378

Emerging Answers: Research Findings on Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy (Summary)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on May 30, 2001, by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, this new report by Dr. Douglas Kirby reviews some 250 studies on teen pregnancy programs. The review finds that long-term programs have made a genuine difference in teen pregnancy, abortion, and birth rates, the last of which is now at its lowest level recorded. Kirby's study also finds no evidence that "abstinence-only" programs are effective or that sex education that covers contraception increases sexual activity. At the site, visitors may download a 21-page summary of the report, the press release, a FAQ, and related information.

Kirby, Douglas

2001-01-01

379

Research on Middleware of Automatic Finding and Integration of Deep Web Query Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the Deep Web technologies are analyzed and discussed, and a middleware of finding and integrating Deep Web query interface automatically is proposed. This middleware extracts the attributes of query interfaces and judges them whether interfaces of Web databases by computing the similarity between them; it can also cluster query interfaces and construct an integrated query interface. This

Peiguang Lin; Chao Lv; Ku Jin

2008-01-01

380

The Contributions of Culture and Ethnicity To New Zealand Mental Health Research Findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & material: In the last five years a number of studies have been conducted in specialist psychiatric and primary care populations in New Zealand which have allowed comparisons in terms of clinical phenomena and therapeutic experiences between Mâori (the indigenous people of New Zealand) and non-Mâori. These studies were reviewed in terms of the methodology used, their major findings

Rees Tapsell; Graham Mellsop

2007-01-01

381

Fox Chase researchers find that most Medicare patients wait weeks before breast cancer surgery  

Cancer.gov

Although patients may feel anxious waiting weeks from the time of their first doctor visit to evaluate their breast until they have breast cancer surgery, new findings from Fox Chase Cancer Center show that these waits are typical in the United States. Results were published on Monday, November 19 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

382

What Administrative Help in Preparing Research Proposals Do Professors Find Useful?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of this study indicate that: (1) faculty deem the general service area of proposal budgeting as being the most important kind of assistance, and (2) faculty value the importance of having seed money available for pre-proposal activities as their highest priority. (Author/AM)

Harty, Harold

1977-01-01

383

The Educational Administration of the Self-Taught Higher Education Examination in China: Findings from Field Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on field research conducted in 1999-2000 in three of the larger cities in China (Wuhan, Xiamen and Shantou). It explores the workings of the educational service of the self-taught higher education examination (STE) that emerged in China in the early 1980s. Findings from questionnaires, in-depth interviews, observations and…

Gao, Guijuan

2003-01-01

384

Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

385

UTSW researchers find that inherited mutated gene raises lung cancer risk for women, those who never smoked  

Cancer.gov

People who have an inherited mutation of a certain gene have a high chance of getting lung cancer — higher, even, than heavy smokers with or without the inherited mutation, according to new findings by cancer researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center.

386

The Educational Context and Outcomes for High School Students with Disabilities: Overview of the Study and Findings. Research Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research report discusses findings from descriptive studies that investigated the context and outcomes of educational programs for students with disabilities who were expected to receive standard high-school diplomas. The nine high schools included three in urban areas, three in suburban areas, and three in rural areas. Principals, special…

Schumaker, Jean B.; Deshler, Donald D.; Lenz, B. Keith; Bulgren, Janis A.; Davis, Betsy; Grossen, Bonnie; Marquis, Janet

387

Finding Context: What Today's College Students Say about Conducting Research in the Digital Age. Project Information Literacy Progress Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report of preliminary findings and analysis from student discussion groups held on 7 U.S. campuses in Fall 2008, as part of Project Information Literacy. Qualitative data from discussions with higher education students across the country suggest that conducting research is particularly challenging. Students' greatest challenges are related to…

Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.

2009-01-01

388

Emanuel Miller Lecture: Attachment Insecurity, Disinhibited Attachment, and Attachment Disorders--Where Do Research Findings Leave the Concepts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Despite the evidence on anomalous attachment patterns, there has been a tendency to interpret most of these as reflecting differences in security/insecurity. Methods: Empirical research findings are reviewed in relation to attachment/insecurity as evident in both infancy and later childhood, disorganised attachment, inhibited…

Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

2009-01-01

389

UC Davis researchers find oropharyngeal cancer patients with HPV have a more robust response to radiation therapy  

Cancer.gov

UC Davis cancer researchers have discovered significant differences in radiation-therapy response among patients with oropharyngeal cancer depending on whether they carry the human papillomavirus (HPV), a common sexually transmitted virus. The findings, published online today in The Laryngoscope Journal, could lead to more individualized radiation treatment regimens, which for many patients with HPV could be shorter and potentially less toxic.

390

The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes the practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research in personnel selection. On the basis of meta-analytic findings, this article presents the validity of 19 selection procedures for predicting job performance and training performance and the validity of paired combinations of general mental ability (GMA) and Ihe 18 other selection procedures. Overall, the 3 combinations with

Frank L. Schmidt; John E. Hunter

1998-01-01

391

Advancing care for traumatic brain injury: findings from the IMPACT studies and perspectives on future research.  

PubMed

Research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is challenging for several reasons; in particular, the heterogeneity between patients regarding causes, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome. Advances in basic science have failed to translate into successful clinical treatments, and the evidence underpinning guideline recommendations is weak. Because clinical research has been hampered by non-standardised data collection, restricted multidisciplinary collaboration, and the lack of sensitivity of classification and efficacy analyses, multidisciplinary collaborations are now being fostered. Approaches to deal with heterogeneity have been developed by the IMPACT study group. These approaches can increase statistical power in clinical trials by up to 50% and are also relevant to other heterogeneous neurological diseases, such as stroke and subarachnoid haemorrhage. Rather than trying to limit heterogeneity, we might also be able to exploit it by analysing differences in treatment and outcome between countries and centres in comparative effectiveness research. This approach has great potential to advance care in patients with TBI. PMID:24139680

Maas, Andrew I R; Murray, Gordon D; Roozenbeek, Bob; Lingsma, Hester F; Butcher, Isabella; McHugh, Gillian S; Weir, James; Lu, Juan; Steyerberg, Ewout W

2013-12-01

392

Fbis report. Science and technology: China. Broef introduction to the state key laboratories and engineering research centers established in universities of China, September 1, 1995  

SciTech Connect

In order to enhance the quality and productivity of research in strategic areas relevant to long-term economic and social development and nurture a body of creative young scientists, the State Planning Commission (SPC) of the People`s Republic of China has established a number of State Key Laboratories (SKLs) in some universities and research institutes since 1984, equipped with advanced equipment and instruments for enhancing basic and applied research. This book contains an introduction to the 44 SEDC-supported SKLs, 57 SKLs which are funded by the key Studies Development Projects Loan from the World Bank, 52 research laboratories supported by the State Education Commission (SEDC) of the P.R. China, and the 14 National Engineering Research Centers (NERCs) supported by the SPC: Total 153 laboratories and 14 NERCs.

NONE

1995-09-01

393

Perspective on everyday technologies for Alzheimer's care: research findings, directions, and challenges.  

PubMed

The Everyday Technologies for Alzheimer's Care (ETAC) initiative was launched by the Alzheimer's Association and Intel Corporation in 2003 to identify and fund promising research in the use of technology--especially information and communication technologies (ICTs)--for monitoring, diagnosing, and treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). Agilent Technologies joined the initiative in 2005. In October 2006, representatives of the three partners, together with ETAC award grantees, met to review the most recent research, and discuss how current and developing technologies can address growing needs in Alzheimer's care. PMID:19595942

Dishman, Eric; Carrillo, Maria C

2007-07-01

394

World Bank: Harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings  

PubMed Central

The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them.

Simms, Ben

2013-01-01

395

Collaboration in Teaching and Learning. Findings from the Innovative Approaches Research Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Innovative Approaches Research Project (IARP) develops instructional models for language minority students. The project focuses on dropout prevention, instruction of exceptional students, math and science instruction, and literacy. IARP implemented four model programs: (1) Partners for Valued Youth: Dropout Prevention Strategies for At-Risk…

Rivera, Charlene; Zehler, Annette

396

Strategies for Improving Rehearsal Technique: Using Research Findings to Promote Better Rehearsals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Music education researchers and conducting pedagogues have identified numerous behaviors that contribute to increased verbal and nonverbal teaching effectiveness of conductors on the podium. This article is a review of literature concerning several conductor behaviors that may (a) increase the effectiveness of rehearsals, (b) enhance the…

Silvey, Brian A.

2014-01-01

397

Finding Voice through Teacher-Student Collaboration in a Feminist Research Project: Long-Term Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a feminist classroom an instructor who acts as an "interested party" rather than an authority, fosters an environment of care and connection which can result in life-changing discoveries for the participants. Drawing on David Bleich's conception of a "socially generous research" that removes hierarchical barriers between teacher and student, a…

Fey, Marion Harris

398

University of Wisconsin researchers find a new form of cell division  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center have discovered a new form of cell division in human cells. They believe it serves as a natural back-up mechanism during faulty cell division, preventing some cells from going down a path that can lead to cancer.

399

Researchers Find Biological Factors that May Drive Prostate Tumor Aggressiveness in African-American Men  

Cancer.gov

Researchers analyzing prostate tumors have identified differences in gene expression (the degree to which individual genes are turned on or off) between African-American and European-American men that show the existence of distinct tumor microenvironments (the area that includes the tumor and the surrounding non-cancerous tissue) in these two patient groups.

400

UNC and other researchers find that gene expression improves the definition of a breast cancer subtype  

Cancer.gov

A study conducted by the Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology in conjunction with the GEICAM cooperative group and other American and Canadian researchers, including UNC, has led to a change in the definition of hormone-sensitive breast tumors

401

Adults' Informal Learning: Definitions, Findings, Gaps, and Future Research. NALL Working Paper #21.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper on adult informal learning is divided into four sections. Section 1 examines different conceptions of informal learning and the issues and limitations associated with alternative definitions of informal learning. Section 2 is a review of empirical research on the estimated extent, role, and outcomes of informal learning and posited…

Livingstone, D. W.

402

Northwestern researchers find lower dosage CT-guided lung biopsy protocol maintains quality, minimizes exposure  

Cancer.gov

New guidelines for CT-guided biopsies of lung nodules significantly reduce radiation exposure allowing individuals the benefit of the procedure, which may cut down on overall lung cancer deaths. This research is being presented at the Society of Interventional Radiology's 37th Annual Scientific Meeting in San Francisco, Calif.

403

California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines a study on the extent to which California's teacher preparation programs were preparing candidates for teaching critical thinking and problem-solving skills in elementary and secondary schools. Researchers conducted interviews with education and subject matter faculty in private and public colleges and universities. Results…

Paul, Richard W.; Elder, Linda; Bartell, Ted

404

Penn researchers find contralateral prophylactic mastectomy offers limited gains to life expectancy for breast cancer patients:  

Cancer.gov

Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), a procedure that removes the unaffected breast in patients with cancer in one breast, provides only a modest increase in life expectancy, according to a new study by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

405

Job Fairs in America's State Prisons: Summary of Findings on Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Job Fairs have taken on an increasingly important role in correctional education and transition programming. The Federal Bureau of Prisons has been instrumental in promoting mock job fairs in all federal prison facilities. The focus of this research project was to understand how widespread the use of job fairs is in state prisons and correctional…

Oswald, Joyce

2005-01-01

406

The Challenge of Finding Faculty Time for Applied Research Activities in Ontario Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore how the role of Ontario college faculty has evolved since the advent of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act of 2000 and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act of 2002 in terms of whether or not the decision to create a research culture at the colleges included making time…

Rosenkrantz, Otte

2013-01-01

407

Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

McClennen, Joan C.

2005-01-01

408

UCSF researchers find that longer telomeres could be linked to risk of brain cancer  

Cancer.gov

New genomic research led by UC San Francisco scientists reveals that two common gene variants that lead to longer telomeres, the caps on chromosome ends thought by many scientists to confer health by protecting cells from aging, also significantly increase the risk of developing the deadly brain cancers known as gliomas.

409

Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

2010-01-01

410

Resources. Some Findings and Conjectures from Recent Research into Resource Development and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The triannual newsletter, "Resources", published by Resources for the Future (RfF) typically contains excerpts from recent research in the area of natural resource development, conservation, and use. Announcements are also made of recent publications by RfF. Those interested in receiving the newsletter regularly should request that their name be…

Resources for the Future, Inc., Washington, DC.

411

Barriers in implementing research findings in cancer care: the Greek registered nurses perceptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored Greek nurses’ perceptions of the barriers to research utilization faced in every day practice. The barriers between nurses working in cancer and general hospitals, as well as between those employed at central and provincial hospitals were compared. The study used a cross-sectional design and data were collected using the “Barriers Scale” (Funk et al., 1991a, Applied Nursing

Elisabeth Patiraki; Chrysoula Karlou; Despina Papadopoulou; Ageliki Spyridou; Chrysoula Kouloukoura; Elpida Bare; Anastasios Merkouris

2004-01-01

412

Building the Future Students' Blended Learning Experiences from Current Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Between March 2007 and February 2009, the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) funded a Learners Journeys project at the University of Hertfordshire. This was part of their second phase of investment in research into the Learners' Experiences through their E-Learning Programme and was known as LXP2. STROLL (STudent Reflections On Lifelong…

Jefferies, Amanda; Hyde, Ruth

2010-01-01

413

Finding and using journal-article components: Impacts of disaggregation on teaching and research practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a study into the use of discrete journal article components, particularly tables and figures extracted from published scientific journal articles, and their application to teaching and research. Sixty participants were introduced to and asked to perform searches in a journal article component prototype that presents individual tables and figures as the items returned in

Robert J. Sandusky; Carol Tenopir

2008-01-01

414

Kimmel Cancer Center researchers find drugs targeting chromosomal instability may fight a particular breast cancer subtype  

Cancer.gov

A team of researchers at Jefferson's Kimmel Cancer Center has shown in a study published online Feb. 6 in the Journal of Clinical Investigation that the oncogene cyclin D1 may promote a genetic breakdown known as chromosomal instability (CIN). CIN is a known, yet poorly understood culprit in tumor progression.

415

Jefferson researchers find that cancer information on Wikipedia is accurate, but not very readable:  

Cancer.gov

It is a commonly held that information on Wikipedia should not be trusted, since it is written and edited by non-experts without professional oversight. But researchers from the Kimmel Cancer Center at Jefferson have found differently, according to a study published online Sept. 15 in the Journal of Oncology Practice.

416

Urban Environmental Factors and Personal Well-Being; Findings of Exploratory and Methodological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the conceptual scheme for this research study, urban environments were viewed as related to personal well-being by control-seeking and support-seeking behaviors and the psychological consequences of obtaining these goals. Measures of predispositions to these behaviors were found to be related to observed behavior variables. Predispositions to…

Griffin, Robert M., Jr.; And Others

417

Finding the Right Path: Researching Your Way to Discovery. Professional Growth Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended for use by teachers, librarians, parents, and elementary school students, this book provides 115 pathfinders to a variety of subjects to guide a student's research and broaden a child's interest base. Each pathfinder (i.e., collection of resources on a given topic) includes: a description of the subject; the Dewey Decimal numbers specific…

Sutter, Lynne; Sutter, Herman

418

Johns Hopkins researchers find that chronic inflammation is linked to high-grade prostate cancer  

Cancer.gov

Men who show signs of chronic inflammation in non-cancerous prostate tissue may have nearly twice the risk of actually having prostate cancer than those with no inflammation, according to results of a new study led by researchers from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center.

419

Institutions' Limits on Sharing of Research Findings Prompt Debate; Chilling Effect on Science Predicted.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the rush to profit from patented discoveries, university officials and professors are becoming more protective of research results. Although scholars are outraged at refusals to share discoveries, some critics in industry and academe say the outcry results from greed. A standard contract is being designed to facilitate information exchange.…

Grassmuck, Karen

1991-01-01

420

MD Anderson researchers find that chemotherapy is as effective before breast cancer surgery as after  

Cancer.gov

Whether chemotherapy is given before or after breast-conserving therapy does not have an impact on long-term local-regional outcomes, suggesting treatment success is due more to biologic factors than chemotherapy timing, according to a study by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.

421

Research Agenda: Finding Ways to Create More Options for Parent Involvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at problems involving parents of handicapped children in the educational decision making process and suggests areas of needed research. Mediation is suggested as a means to keep parents involved in decision making and to reduce the adversarial and costly nature of due process hearings. (SB)

Yoshida, Roland K.

1982-01-01

422

Georgetown researchers examine nipple sparing mastectomy cases and find no recurrent or new cancers:  

Cancer.gov

A new study suggests some women needing a lumpectomy or mastectomy to treat their breast cancer have another potential option that is safe and effective, say researchers at Georgetown. They say the procedure known as a nipple sparing mastectomy is also a viable surgical option for women who choose to have their breasts removed because of their increased risk of developing the disease.

423

Neuromodulatory Approaches for Chronic Pain Management: Research Findings and Clinical Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lines of evidence provide preliminary support for the role that brain state, measured via electroencephalogram (EEG), may play in chronic pain. First, research has identified a link between brain EEG activity and the experience of pain. Second, there are a number of published studies documenting the beneficial effects of interventions that impact the cortical activity associated with chronic pain.

Mark P. Jensen; Leslie H. Sherlin; Shahin Hakimian; Felipe Fregni

2009-01-01

424

Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

2011-01-01

425

Can we find solutions with people? Participatory action research with small organic producers in Andalusia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and medium-scale organic farmers from the official certification system; to

Mamen Cuéllar-Padilla; Ángel Calle-Collado

426

Penn researchers find genetically modified T cells cause sustained remissions in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia:  

Cancer.gov

Researchers from the University of Pennsylvania's Abramson Cancer Center and Perelman School of Medicine have shown sustained remissions of up to a year among a small group of advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients treated with genetically engineered versions of their own T cells.

427

Fox Chase researchers find that targeted therapy extends progression-free survival for advanced ovarian cancer:  

Cancer.gov

A new Phase 3 clinical trial conducted by the Gynecologic Oncology Group showed that a targeted therapy called bevacizumab (Avastin) effectively delayed the progression of advanced ovarian cancer. Patients with newly diagnosed advanced ovarian cancer now typically undergo surgery and chemotherapy, but the new research suggests an additional avenue of treatment.

428

Research on College Science Teaching. Part II: Findings and Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies and discusses some areas of research and practice that are of current interest or utility at the college level. Areas discussed include instructional objectives, advance organizers, self-pacing and audio-tutorial systems, teacher behavior, and evaluation instrumentation. (GS)

Koran, John J.; And Others

1975-01-01

429

Washington University researchers find that mass prostate cancer screenings don’t reduce death:  

Cancer.gov

There’s new evidence that annual prostate cancer screening does not reduce deaths from the disease, even among men in their 50s and 60s and those with underlying health conditions, according to new research led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

430

NASA Research Focuses on Yellowstone's Hot Springs and Compares Findings to Rocks from Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Astrobiology Institute website features an article by the Yellowstone Park Foundation focusing on NASA's latest thermophile research and its contributions to outreach education in Yellowstone National Park. The site also provides a number of useful links through the NAI portal site including a teacher's page, student's page, and additional NAI articles and newsletters.

Foundation, Yellowstone P.; Institute, Nasa A.

431

Penn researchers find Epstein Barr-like virus infects and may cause cancer in dogs  

Cancer.gov

...A team of researchers from the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine and Penn's Perelman School of Medicine has the first evidence that an Epstein Barr-like virus can infect and may also be responsible for causing lymphomas in man's best friend.

432

Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Adolescents: Review of Research and Preliminary Findings with Juvenile Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that as the severity of adolescent behavior problems increases (e.g., violence, drug and alcohol abuse, risky sexual behavior) the risk of suicidal behavior also increases. This is evident in the high rates of suicidal threats, gestures, and attempts in incarcerated youth (Hayes, 2009), including sexual and nonsexual offenders. Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), an empirically validated therapy for the

Megan O'Leary; Stephanie Dunkel; Leticia Baker; Amy Mikolajewski; Therese Skubic Kemper

433

University of Washington researchers find community effort brings lasting drop in smoking, delinquency, drug use:  

Cancer.gov

Tenth graders in towns using Communities That Care [a prevention system developed by University of Washington researchers] were less likely to have tried drinking or smoking compared with teens living in towns that had not adopted the system. Delinquent behavior, including stealing, vandalism and physical fights, decreased too.

434

Are physicians willing to ration health care? Conflicting findings in a systematic review of survey research?  

PubMed Central

Background Several quantitative surveys have been conducted internationally to gather empirical information about physicians’ general attitudes towards health care rationing. Are physicians ready to accept and implement rationing, or are they rather reluctant? Do they prefer implicit bedside rationing that allows the physician–patient relationship broad leeway in individual decisions? Or do physicians prefer strategies that apply explicit criteria and rules? Objectives To analyse the range of survey findings on rationing. To discuss differences in response patterns. To provide recommendations for the enhancement of transparency and systematic conduct in reviewing survey literature. Methods A systematic search was performed for all English and non-English language references using CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE. Three blinded experts independently evaluated title and abstract of each reference. Survey items were extracted that match with: (i) willingness to ration health care or (ii) preferences for different rationing strategies. Results 16 studies were eventually included in the systematic review. Percentages of respondents willing to accept rationing ranged from 94% to 9%. Conclusions The conflicting findings among studies illustrate important ambivalence in physicians that has several implications for health policy. Moreover, this review highlights the importance to interpret survey findings in context of the results of all previous relevant studies.

Strech, Daniel; Persad, Govind; Marckmann, Georg; Danis, Marion

2013-01-01

435

Nanotoxicology and nanotechnology: new findings from the NIEHS and Superfund Research Program scientific community.  

PubMed

Abstract Nanomaterials are characterized by their small size (i.e., nanometer scale) and can be engineered from nearly any chemical substance, creating materials that differ in composition, particle size, shape, and surface coatings. These materials are often seen as a "double-edged sword" by having properties that make them potentially beneficial in product development, drug delivery, and remediation of hazardous substances, but these same properties may result in interaction with biological systems and potential effects in the environment. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is interested in both the potential risks associated with exposure to these materials, while harnessing the power of engineered nanomaterials to improve public health. This presentation will consist of discussion of nanoparticle studies by NIEHS researchers and the extramural community and its efforts to develop cross-agency initiatives to solve the many vexing issues associated with nanomaterials. For example, researchers from the NIEHS National Toxicology Program (NTP) are evaluating a number of nanomaterial classes in comprehensive toxicology studies. NIEHS also has an extensive extramural research grant portfolio consisting of the Nano Grand Opportunities (Nano GO) Program and NIEHS Centers for Nanotechnology Health Implications Research (NCNHIR) Consortium consisting of U19 and U01 Cooperative Centers. Furthermore, the NIEHS Superfund Research Program (SRP), which supports a network of university (P42, R01), small business (SBIR/STTR), and training grants (R25), provides funding to grantees evaluating the toxicology of nanomaterials, developing new or improved nanotechnologies to monitor and remediate hazardous substances, and training professionals in the use of these of materials. The NIEHS's Worker Education Branch also offers educational materials for training workers on risks of nanotechnology in laboratories, manufacturing facilities, at hazardous waste cleanup sites, and during emergency responses. In conclusion, this presentation will stimulate dialogue regarding the need for more research on these complex materials and serve as a resource about the wide variety of ongoing studies on nanomaterials at NIEHS that will contribute to the determination of risk associated with this class of compounds. PMID:24695034

Carlin, Danielle J

2014-01-01

436

Do nurses really care? Some unwelcome findings from recent research and inquiry.  

PubMed

This paper examines the position of nursing as a caring profession, in terms of an ethical code that stresses collegial relationships, a sense of obligation to a clientele that is realized in terms of expert service, and a clearly defined body of research-derived knowledge as the basis for practice. It also investigates the substance of the claim that nursing has tended to arrogate to itself another operational distinction-its exclusive capacity to blend physical and emotional support into care. A review of recent research and investigation, undertaken in a number of countries, suggests that nursing as practiced, rather than as theorized, fails to fulfil its wider professional aspirations, and to fulfil its caring rhetoric. A related paper will consider how the absorption of nursing into higher education might begin to play a part in developing and consolidating the professionalization of nursing. PMID:9146203

Fletcher, J

1997-01-01

437

Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings  

PubMed Central

The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missing data and chose a Bayesian data augmentation method. We were able to summarize, rank, and compare the effects of each of the 10 factors on medication adherence. This is a promising methodological development in the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research.

Crandell, Jamie L.; Voils, Corrine I.; Chang, YunKyung; Sandelowski, Margarete

2010-01-01

438

Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Microbially mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30?years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past 5?years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided.

Semrau, Jeremy D.

2011-01-01

439

A lesson from Japan: Research and development efficiency is a key element of pharmaceutical industry consolidation process.  

PubMed

Scholarly attention to pharmaceutical companies' ability to sustain research and development (R&D) productivity has increased as they increasingly handle business challenges. Furthermore, the deterioration of R&D productivity has long been considered a major cause of mergers and acquisitions (M&As). This study attempts to investigate quantitatively the possible causes of the deterioration and the relationship between the deterioration and M&As by examining the Japanese pharmaceutical industry. Japan from 1980 to 1997 is an ideal case because of the availability of official data, but more importantly the significant changes in its business environment at the time. Using the Malmquist Index and data envelopment analysis, we measured the deterioration of R&D productivity from 1980 to 1997 based on a sample of 15 Japanese companies. Two lessons can be learned from Japan's case. First, to sustain R&D productivity over the long term, companies should use licensing activities and focus on the dominant therapeutic franchises. Second, if a company fails significantly to catch up with the benchmark, it is likely to pursue an M&A or seek an alternative way to improve R&D productivity. These findings appear similar to the current situation of the global pharmaceutical industry, although Japan pursued more licensing activities than M&A to improve R&D productivity. PMID:24647159

Shimura, Hirohisa; Masuda, Sachiko; Kimura, Hiromichi

2014-01-01

440

UCBerkeleyNews: Cables Hold Promise in Protecting Existing Buildings from Bombs, Researchers Find  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A civil engineering professor at the University of California at Berkeley is working on a novel way of maintaining a building's structural stability after an earthquake or terrorist bomb. The team of researchers working with the professor have designed and tested a system that uses cables for backup support in case main support beams failed. An overview of the system is provided in a February 20, 2003 news article.

Yang, Sarah.

2003-01-01

441

UC San Diego researchers find an enzyme that offers new therapeutic target for cancer drugs  

Cancer.gov

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have uncovered a new signal transduction pathway specifically devoted to the regulation of alternative RNA splicing, a process that allows a single gene to produce or code multiple types of protein variants. The discovery, published in the June 27, 2012 issue of Molecular Cell, suggests the new pathway might be a fruitful target for new cancer drugs. The University of California, San Diego is home to the Moores Comprehensive Cancer Center.

442

Researchers Find that a Small Molecule Can Activate an Important Cancer Suppressor Gene  

Cancer.gov

By activating a cancer suppressor gene, a small molecule called nutlin-3a can block cancer cell division, according to researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health. This activation of the p53 gene leads to cellular senescence, a process by which cells lose their ability to grow and divide. An opportunity for new genetic mutations occurs each time a cell divides, so limiting the number of cell divisions in a cancer cell inhibits tumor progression.

443

Hopkins researchers find that cancer cells feed on sugar-free diet:  

Cancer.gov

Cancer cells have been long known to have a “sweet tooth,” using vast amounts of glucose for energy and for building blocks for cell replication.   Now, a study by a team of researchers at Johns Hopkins and elsewhere shows that lymph gland cancer cells called B cells can use glutamine in the absence of glucose for cell replication and survival, particularly under low-oxygen conditions, which are common in tumors.

444

Stanford University researchers find that dual-action protein better restricts blood vessel formation:  

Cancer.gov

In a paper published online Aug. 8 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers at Stanford University describe the creation of a new type of engineered protein that is significantly more effective at preventing the formation of blood vessels by targeting not one, but two of the chemical receptors that control the creation of new capillaries -- a process known as angiogenesis. The study shows that the new protein blocks both receptors.

445

Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested\\u000a but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of\\u000a identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence.\\u000a Recognizing that not all factors

Jamie L. Crandell; Corrine I. Voils; YunKyung Chang; Margarete Sandelowski

2011-01-01

446

Dietary fiber future directions: integrating new definitions and findings to inform nutrition research and communication.  

PubMed

The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that the research community agrees upon physiological effects for which there is substantial scientific agreement, e.g., fibers' effects on laxation and gut health, on attenuating blood lipids and blood glucose and insulin, and in promoting fermentation in the large bowel. The definition also necessitates the delineation of research protocols to prove the benefits of various isolated and synthesized fibers. These should emanate from evidence-based reviews that fairly weigh epidemiological data while considering that added fibers are not reflected in many food composition databases. They then should include well-controlled, randomized, control trials and utilize animal studies to determine mechanisms. Agreement on many study variables such as the type of subject and the type of baseline diet that best fits the question under investigation will also be needed. Finally, the definition establishes that all types of fiber can address the severe fiber consumption gap that exists throughout the world by recognizing that the combination of fiber-rich and -fortified foods increases fiber intake while allowing consumers to stay within allowed energy levels. PMID:23319118

Jones, Julie Miller

2013-01-01

447

Dietary Fiber Future Directions: Integrating New Definitions and Findings to Inform Nutrition Research and Communication12  

PubMed Central

The CODEX Alimentarius definition of dietary fiber includes all nondigestible carbohydrate polymers with a degree of polymerization of 3 or more as dietary fiber with the proviso that they show health benefits. The global definition, if accepted by all authoritative bodies, offers a chance for international harmonization in research, food composition tables, and food labeling. Its nonacceptance highlights problems that may develop when definitions vary by region. The definition requires that the research community agrees upon physiological effects for which there is substantial scientific agreement, e.g., fibers’ effects on laxation and gut health, on attenuating blood lipids and blood glucose and insulin, and in promoting fermentation in the large bowel. The definition also necessitates the delineation of research protocols to prove the benefits of various isolated and synthesized fibers. These should emanate from evidence-based reviews that fairly weigh epidemiological data while considering that added fibers are not reflected in many food composition databases. They then should include well-controlled, randomized, control trials and utilize animal studies to determine mechanisms. Agreement on many study variables such as the type of subject and the type of baseline diet that best fits the question under investigation will also be needed. Finally, the definition establishes that all types of fiber can address the severe fiber consumption gap that exists throughout the world by recognizing that the combination of fiber-rich and -fortified foods increases fiber intake while allowing consumers to stay within allowed energy levels.

Jones, Julie Miller

2013-01-01

448

New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines and places is essential if we are to develop viable measures and approaches to soil and water conservation across the globe. In this paper we will provide an overview of the topics that are addressed in this session and give an overview of the current research in this field and using the insights we will aim to present a new research agenda oriented towards a significant impact in economic and environmental sustainability.

Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

2014-05-01

449

Generic findings of the review of emergency plans at research and test reactors  

SciTech Connect

Final reviews that identify deficiencies and areas needing improvement or that conclude with a finding of acceptability have been completed for 70% of the plans to date. The results from these reviews and evaluations reflect that approximately 50% of the plans do not fully satisfy all of the planning standards specified in the guidance criteria. The adequacy and effectiveness of the licensee's overall total emergency preparedness program will be determined from either onsite appraisals or the routine inspection program. The benefits from the program are the identification and subsequent correction of deficiencies resulting in assurance that adequate planning has been done and protection is provided for licensee employees and members of the general public.

Bates, Gene [Emergency Preparedness Branch, Div. of Emergency Preparedness and Engineering Response, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

1984-07-01

450

Panel discussion review: session four--assessing biological plausibility of epidemiological findings in air pollution research.  

PubMed

In December 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored a 2-day workshop on "Interpretation of Epidemiologic Studies of Multipollutant Exposure and Health Effects" in Chapel Hill, NC. The final session at this workshop was devoted to assessing the biological plausibility of epidemiological findings with regard to criteria air pollutants. The presentations and the panel contributions of this last session primarily focused on controlled exposure studies and led to wide-ranging discussions, some of which were provocative. The panel summary provides some guidance to future evaluations of the biological plausibility of the epidemiological reports on criteria pollutants and is intended to stimulate thinking, without drawing any definitive conclusions. This paper does not approach, nor was it intended to approach, the more formal analytical approach such as that used in EPA's development of its Science Assessment Document for the criteria pollutants. PMID:18079771

Brown, James S; Graham, Judith A; Chen, Lung Chi; Postlethwait, Edward M; Ghio, Andrew J; Foster, W Michael; Gordon, Terry

2007-12-01

451

Antiretroviral Adherence Interventions: Translating Research Findings to the Real World Clinic  

PubMed Central

The success of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV infection is compromised primarily by failure to maintain optimal levels of adherence over the long term. Recent reviews suggest behavioral interventions to promote ART adherence can have significant effects, but these tend to be small and to diminish over time; sustained improvements in biomarkers are particularly elusive. In this article, we update current reviews, focusing specifically on the 13 studies evaluating behavioral interventions to promote ART adherence published since September 2007. We describe the range of intervention strategies employed and qualitatively summarize findings of their efficacy. In conclusion, we consider implications and offer strategies for enhancing adherence in clinic-based HIV care prior to ART initiation, at initiation, and over the course of treatment.

Amico, K. Rivet; Smith, Laramie; Nelson, Kimberly

2013-01-01

452

The educational gradient in marital disruption: a meta-analysis of European research findings.  

PubMed

A large number of empirical studies have investigated the effects of women's education on union dissolution in Europe, but results have varied substantially. This paper seeks to assess the relationship between educational attainment and the incidence of marital disruption by systematizing the existing empirical evidence. A quantitative literature review (a meta-analysis) was conducted to investigate the temporal change in the relationship, net of inter-study differences. The results point to a weakening of the positive educational gradient in marital disruption over time and even to a reversal in the direction of this gradient in some countries. The findings also show that the change in the educational gradient can be linked to an increase in access to divorce. Finally, the results suggest that women's empowerment has played an important role in changing the educational gradient, while the liberalization of divorce laws has not. PMID:24279466

Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta; Vignoli, Daniele

2014-01-01

453

PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarE For the Higher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA…), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME. Although the server is maintained by a french institution, it is completely open to international contributions in the academic domainb. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. This first presentation is call for (further) contributions from the HEP community.

Hoffmann, Dirk; Romier, Geneviève

2012-12-01

454

Cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin testing in threatened preterm labour--translating research findings into clinical practice.  

PubMed

A retrospective audit was undertaken involving 70 women with a singleton pregnancy who attended hospital with symptoms of threatened preterm labour prior to 34 weeks' gestation and who had a bedside fetal fibronectin (FFN) Membrane Immunoassay Kit Test (Adeza Biomedical) performed. The aim of the study was to determine if the results of the FFN test when used in routine clinical practice would be similar to those of a previous research study (1) that was performed at the same centre, and whether or not knowledge of the result of the FFN test might influence clinical management. The audit revealed that the sensitivity of the FFN test in the prediction of delivery prior to 34 weeks' gestation was 90%, the specificity was 82%, whilst the positive and negative predictive values were 45% and 98% respectively. These results were very similar to those of the previous, blinded research study. Compared to women with a negative FFN test, more women with a positive FFN test received corticosteroids (100% versus 71%, p=0.02) and tocolysis (35% versus 12%, p=0.04) and more remained in hospital longer than 24 hours (85% versus 56%, p=0.1). PMID:9890218

Chuileannain, F N; Bell, R; Brennecke, S

1998-11-01

455

PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarEFor theHigher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA...), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME by more than 900 contributors. Although the server is maintained by a French institution, it is open to international contributions in the academic domain. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas (presently more than 2000) registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. The project has been presented to the HEP community in 2012 for the first time [1]. This is an update of the status and a call for (further) contributions.

Bénassy, O.; Caron, C.; Ferret-Canape, C.; Cheylus, A.; Courcelle, E.; Dantec, C.; Dayre, P.; Dostes, T.; Durand, A.; Facq, A.; Gambini, G.; Geahchan, E.; Helft, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Ingarao, M.; Joly, P.; Kieffer, J.; Larré, J.-M.; Libes, M.; Morris, F.; Parmentier, H.; Pérochon, L.; Porte, O.; Romier, G.; Rousse, D.; Tournoy, R.; Valeins, H.

2014-06-01

456

[Importance of diabetic nephropathy in childhood. Clinical findings and basic research in recent decades].  

PubMed

Over the past decades diabetes mellitus is becoming a global pandemic affecting more than 371 million people worldwide. Parallel with the increasing prevalence of type 1 diabetes, there is a growing number of type 2 diabetes cases among children and adolescents that poses new challenges to pediatricians. Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major causes of end stage renal disease, developing in approximately 30% of diabetic patients. However, overt nephropathy is rare in childhood; screening and ongoing assessment for the earliest manifestation of renal injury is extremely important in this young population, as well. Although in the past decades intensive research activity focused on understanding of the pathomechanism of diabetic nephropathy and invention of new therapeutic approaches, prevention and definitive care are still urgently needed. The clinical section of the article summarizes the present state of epidemiology, diagnosis and current therapies of childhood diabetic nephropathy. Then, the authors discuss the state of basic research and show a few promising targets for drug development. PMID:24440726

Fekete, Andrea; Vannay, Ádám

2014-01-26

457

Measuring Masculinity in Research on Men of Color: Findings and Future Directions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between masculinity and the health of US men of color aged 18 years and older. We identified 22 population-based studies that included a measure of masculinity and a measure of health behavior, mental health, or physical health. The associations between masculinity and health were complex and varied by construct and health outcome, though they generally were significant in the hypothesized directions. Future research should explore the centrality of masculinity versus other identities and characteristics, how the relationship between masculinity and health varies by health outcome, and the identification of the conceptions and aspects of masculinity that are most relevant to and associated with specific health behaviors and health outcomes.

Gunter, Katie; Watkins, Daphne C.

2012-01-01

458

Combination pharmacotherapies for stimulant use disorder: a review of clinical findings and recommendations for future research.  

PubMed

Despite concerted efforts to identify a pharmacotherapy for managing stimulant use disorders, no widely effective medications have been approved. Innovative strategies are necessary to develop successful pharmacotherapies for stimulant use disorders. This manuscript reviews human laboratory studies and clinical trials to determine whether one such strategy, use of combination pharmacotherapies, holds promise. The extant literature shows that combination pharmacotherapy produced results that were better than placebo treatment, especially with medications shown to have efficacy as monotherapies. However, many studies did not compare individual constituents to the combination treatment, making it impossible to determine whether combination treatment is more effective than monotherapy. Future research should systematically compare combined treatments with individual agents using medications showing some efficacy when tested alone. PMID:24716825

Stoops, William W; Rush, Craig R

2014-05-01

459

Disaster media coverage and psychological outcomes: descriptive findings in the extant research.  

PubMed

This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and forms of media coverage (television, newspapers, radio, internet) studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both man-made and natural events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other forms of media coverage that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional media forms especially newer forms such as social media. PMID:25064691

Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Rahman, Ambreen

2014-09-01

460

TMI (Three Mile Island)-2 defueling conditions and summary of research findings  

SciTech Connect

The Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident was severe, with extensive melting of fuel, release of fission products, and relocation of a large quantity of molten fuel material onto the reactor vessel lower head. This molten material challenged the integrity of the reactor vessel, which remained intact. The post-accident condition of the plant presented an extremely difficult and complex plant recovery. Core defueling necessitated the development and use of tools and the application of methods not used previously in the nuclear industry. During the past 9 years, the TMI-2 accident has been a unique, invaluable source of information for improving and expanding the base of knowledge on severe accidents in power reactors. This paper presents the plant's post-accident condition, summarizes the primary results of research on progression of core damage and fission product behavior during the accident, and discusses the approach to defueling the reactor.

Eidam, G.R.; Tolman, E.L.; Broughton, J.M.; McCardell, R.K.; Stratton, W.R.

1988-01-01

461

Skin Findings in Newborns and Their Relationship with Maternal Factors: Observational Research  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous lesions are commonly seen in the newborn period and exhibit inconsistency from the skin lesions of an adult. Objective The present study was carried out with an aim to determine the frequency of physiologic and pathologic cutaneous findings in newborns. Methods Typically, 1234 newborns were included in this study. A questionnaire about maternal gestational history, maternal and family history was issued to the parents of each newborn. The presence of cutaneous lesions was recorded. Results Overall, 642 (52%) of the newborns were male and 592 (48%) were female. Typically, 831 newborns (67.3%) had at least one cutaneous lesion. The prevalence of genital hyperpigmentation and milia was significantly higher in males. In premature newborns, the pervasiveness of cutis marmorata and genital hyperpigmentation was found to be significantly higher. Caput succedaneum, transient neonatal pustular melanosis and cyanosis appeared predominantly in vaginally born infants. Erythema toxicum neonatorum was seen in infants, who were born by cesarean section. The predominance of Mongolian spots and erythema toxicum neonatorum were significantly higher in the newborns of the multiparous mothers; however, caput succedaneum was significantly higher in newborns of the primiparous mothers. Conclusion A number of studies about neonatal dermatoses have been carried out involving different methods in various countries. We consider that our study may be useful in literature, as it has been carried out involving large number of maternal parameters.

Gul, Ulker; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla; Gonul, Muzeyyen

2013-01-01

462

The Role of the Internet in Patient-Practitioner Relationships: Findings from a Qualitative Research Study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies suggest that there has been an increase in the use of the Internet by patients in many Western societies. However, despite the many texts available on health and the Internet, not much is known about how much patients actually use the Internet to look up health information in their daily lives. We know little about what meaning this activity has for their experience of health and illness, and for their relationship with health-care practitioners. Objective To explore patients' and practitioners' use of the Internet and to consider whether use of the Internet is changing relationships between patients and health-care practitioners. Method The study used qualitative interviews and observations of patient–practitioner interaction. Our purposive sample of 47 patients (32 women and 15 men) had all had contact with the health services for information/treatment in relation to hormone replacement therapy (HRT)/menopause and Viagra/erectile dysfunction. The setting for the research was in general practitioners' surgeries, specialist clinics and patients' homes in the United Kingdom. Participants reflected a wide range of socio-economic groups, but most were white and British born, which, given the ethnic make-up of the town in which we conducted the research, was not surprising. In addition to patients, we interviewed 10 health-care practitioners (4 consultant doctors, 3 GPs, 2 specialist nurses, and a psychologist) about their own health information seeking practices (HISPs) and those of their patients. Results Use of the Internet can increase patients' knowledge about their health conditions, although patients in our study were often too overwhelmed by the information available on the Internet to make an informed decision about their own care. Patients have a great deal of trust in their health-care practitioners. Health-care practitioners need to improve their own skills in Internet use. Hype around Internet use by patients appears to exceed the reality of Internet use. Conclusions Our qualitative study suggests that use of the Internet is contributing to subtle changes in the relationship between health-care practitioners and their patients, rather than effecting the dramatic transformation some people envisage for it.

Henwood, Flis; Wyatt, Sally

2004-01-01

463

Folate and Homocysteine Phenotypes: Comparative Findings Using Research and Clinical Laboratory Data  

PubMed Central

Objectives A low folate/high homocysteine phenotype is associated with several pathologies, including spina bifida and cardiovascular disease. Folate and total homocysteine (tHcy) measurements are used clinically to assess risk and the need for folic acid supplementation and in research to investigate the metabolic basis of disease. Red blood cell (RBC) folate, the best indicator of long-term folate status, is usually measured as “total” folate. However, different folate derivatives support distinct biochemical functions, suggesting a need to develop more precise methods. This study was designed to evaluate a method based on stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography–multiple reaction monitoring/mass spectrometry (LC-MRM/MS). Design and Methods We used LC-MRM/MS to quantify the RBC folate derivatives 5- methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-THF), tetrahydrofolate (THF), and 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF) in pre-menopausal women. The concentrations of each folate derivative was assessed for utility in predicting tHcy levels, and compared to folate and tHcy measurements derived by routine clinical laboratory methods. Results LC-MRM/MS was qualitatively and quantitatively superior to routine clinical laboratory methods for determining folate and tHcy concentrations. RBC 5-CH3-THF had a reciprocal relationship with tHcy (p=0.0003), whereas RBC THF and RBC 5,10-methenylTHF had direct relationships (p=0.01, 0.04 respectively). In combination, these three variables accounted for 42% of the variation in tHcy. Conclusions Robust methods for measuring RBC 5-CH3-THF would improve the utility of folate/homocysteine phenotyping in patient management. The use of LC-MRM/MS would allow studies of hyperhomocysteinemia and diseases associated with a low folate/high homocysteine phenotype to be performed with less measurement error and greater statistical power to generate data with the potential to elucidate the etiologic mechanisms of complex diseases and traits.

Mitchell, Laura E.; Morales, Megan; Khartulyari, Stefanie; Huang, Yuehua; Murphy, Kristen; Mei, Minghau; Von Feldt, Joan M.; Blair, Ian A.; Whitehead, Alexander S.

2014-01-01

464

Participatory Action Research in Public Mental Health and a School of Nursing: Qualitative Findings from an Academic-Community Partnership  

PubMed Central

Summary An academic-community partnership between a school of nursing (SON) at a public university (the University of Virginia, or UVA) and a public mental health clinic developed around a shared goal of finding an acceptable shared decision making (SDM) intervention targeting medication use by persons with serious mental illness. The planning meetings of the academic-community partnership were recorded and analyzed. Issues under the partnership process included 1) clinic values and priorities, 2) research agenda, 3) ground rules, and 4) communication. Issues under the SDM content included: 1) barriers, 2) information exchange, 3) positive aspects of shared decision making, and 4) technology. Using participatory-action research (PAR), the community clinic was able to raise questions and concerns throughout the process, be actively involved in research activities (such as identifying stakeholders and co-leading focus groups), participate in the reflective activities on the impact of SDM on practice and policy, and feel ownership of the SDM intervention.

Mahone, Irma H.; Farrell, Sarah P.; Hinton, Ivora; Johnson, Robert; Moody, David; Rifkin, Karen; Moore, Kenneth; Becker, Marcia; Barker, Margaret

2011-01-01

465

Identifying Trustworthy Experts: How Do Policymakers Find and Assess Public Health Researchers Worth Consulting or Collaborating With?  

PubMed Central

This paper reports data from semi-structured interviews on how 26 Australian civil servants, ministers and ministerial advisors find and evaluate researchers with whom they wish to consult or collaborate. Policymakers valued researchers who had credibility across the three attributes seen as contributing to trustworthiness: competence (an exemplary academic reputation complemented by pragmatism, understanding of government processes, and effective collaboration and communication skills); integrity (independence, “authenticity”, and faithful reporting of research); and benevolence (commitment to the policy reform agenda). The emphases given to these assessment criteria appeared to be shaped in part by policymakers' roles and the type and phase of policy development in which they were engaged. Policymakers are encouraged to reassess their methods for engaging researchers and to maximise information flow and support in these relationships. Researchers who wish to influence policy are advised to develop relationships across the policy community, but also to engage in other complementary strategies for promoting research-informed policy, including the strategic use of mass media.

Haynes, Abby S.; Derrick, Gemma E.; Redman, Sally; Hall, Wayne D.; Gillespie, James A.; Chapman, Simon; Sturk, Heidi

2012-01-01

466

America after 3PM: Key Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each day in America, millions of kids go home to an empty house after school. In recent years, the growth of quality, affordable afterschool programs--programs that keep kids safe, inspire learning and help working families--has begun to offer parents of these children positive alternatives. Over the past five years, afterschool programs have…

Afterschool Alliance, 2009

2009-01-01

467

Key Findings of AAP Store Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of the Association of American Publishers "College Bookstore Marketing Survey" in the fall of 1976 are summarized. The intent was to improve college textbook publisher services to college stores in the areas of order fulfillment, publication scheduling, print quantities, shipping, billing, and processing of returns. (LBH)

Melendes, Bob; And Others

1977-01-01

468

PTSD onset and course following the World Trade Center disaster: findings and implications for future research  

PubMed Central

Objective We sought to identify common risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) onset and course, including delayed, persistent, and remitted PTSD following a major traumatic exposure. Method Based on a prospective study of New York City adults following the World Trade Center disaster (WTCD), we conducted baseline interviews with 2,368 persons one year after this event and then at follow-up 1 year later to evaluate changes in current PTSD status based on DSM-IV criteria. Results Baseline analysis suggested that current PTSD, defined as present if this occurred in the past 12 months, was associated with females, younger adults, those with lower self-esteem, lower social support, higher WTCD exposure, more lifetime traumatic events, and those with a history of pre-WTCD depression. At follow-up, current PTSD was associated with Latinos, non-native born persons, those with lower self-esteem, more negative life events, more lifetime traumatic events, and those with mixed handedness. Classifying respondents at follow-up into resilient (no PTSD time 1 or 2), remitted (PTSD time 1, not 2), delayed (no PTSD time 1, but PTSD time 2), and persistent (PTSD both time 1 and 2) PTSD, revealed the following: compared to resilient cases, remitted ones were more likely to be female, have more negative life events, have greater lifetime traumatic events, and have pre-WTCD depression. Delayed cases were more likely to be Latino, be non-native born, have lower self-esteem, have more negative life events, have greater lifetime traumas, and have mixed handedness. Persistent cases had a similar profile as delayed, but were the only cases associated with greater WTCD exposures. They were also likely to have had a pre-WTCD depression diagnosis. Examination of WTCD-related PTSD at follow-up, more specifically, revealed a similar risk profile, except that handedness was no longer significant and WTCD exposure was now significant for both remitted and persistent cases. Conclusion PTSD onset and course is complex and appears to be related to trauma exposure, individual predispositions, and external factors not directly related to the original traumatic event. This diagnostic classification may benefit from additional conceptualization and research as this relates to changes in PTSD status over time.

Boscarino, Joseph A.; Adams, Richard E.

2009-01-01

469

Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background: Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: To check if a thesis resulted in a publication, we searched: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. Results: One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. Conclusion: This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals. There is also a great necessity to build capacity in scientific writing among university students in Cameroon.

Munung, NS; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

2014-01-01