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Sample records for khaki-ye kamyab ree

  1. REE from EOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Eylee; Park, DaeKil

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that entanglement of formation (EOF) and relative entropy of entanglement (REE) are exactly identical for all two-qubit pure states even though their definitions are completely different. We think this fact implies that there is a veiled connection between EOF and REE. In this context, we suggest a procedure, which enables us to compute REE from EOF without relying on the converse procedure. It is shown that the procedure yields correct REE for many symmetric mixed states such as Bell-diagonal, generalized Vedral-Plenino, and generalized Horodecki states. It also gives a correct REE for less symmetric Vedral-Plenio-type state. However, it is shown that the procedure does not provide correct REE for arbitrary mixed states.

  2. Dr. Eberhard Rees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Dr. Eberhard Rees served as director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from March 1, 1970 until January 19, 1973 when he retired from NASA. Prior to his appointment as Director, Rees served as the Center's deputy director under Dr. Wernher von Braun, 1960-1970. Rees came to the United States as part of the Dr. Wernher von Braun's German Rocket team following World War II. He transferred to Huntsville, Alabama from Fort Bliss, Texas in 1950 to work for the Army's rocket program at Redstone Arsenal. From 1956 to 1960 he served as deputy director of development operations at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency under von Braun. In 1960 Rees was transferred to NASA's Marshall Center.

  3. Mantle metasomatism: the REE story.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.

    1984-01-01

    Refractory rocks with light REE/heavy REE ratios > chondrites are common as xenoliths in basalts and kimberlites and are found in some oceanic peridotite massifs. Structural and major-element geochemical evidence from these rocks suggest that the metasomatic effects resulting in addition of light REE are local and are related to emplacement of partial melts. The melts are represented by dykes of pyroxenites, hydrous minerals and gabbro that were emplaced in mantle peridotites of various origins. Metasomatic interaction between dykes and peridotite wall rock results in light REE enrichment in peridotite and depletion in dykes relative to the original liquid. Differentiation of the intrusions and separation of residual liquids may further enhance the REE exchange and extend the volume of metasomatized peridotite. Differences in the relative abundances of altered peridotite in xenoliths and massifs are seen as a sampling problem rather than a difference in process.-L.diH.

  4. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  5. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  6. Lough Ree Power Station, Lanesboro, Ireland

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2005-08-01

    The peat-fueled, 100-MW Lough Ree power station in the midlands of Ireland marks the beginning of a new era of electricity generation by the Electricity Supply Board. 30% more efficient than the old peat-fired power plant it replaced, Lough Ree uses a circulating fluidized bed boiler from Foster Wheeler to meet very strict air-emissions standards while exploiting an indigenous energy source. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. REE/Fe variations in hydrothermal sediments: Implications for the REE content of seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Olivarez, A.M.; Owen, R.M. )

    1989-03-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal vent solutions exhibit rare earth element (REE) enrichments ranging between one to three orders of magnitude greater than average seawater. To assess the impact of these hydrothermal inputs on ocean chemistry, the authors have examined he behavior of REEs for hydrothermal sediments collected adjacent to two Pacific spreading ridge sites: the East Pacific Rise at 19{degree}S, and the Southern Juan de Fuca Ridge at 45{degree}N. In general, the REE/Fe ratios for both proximal and distal hydrothermal sediments are greater than vent solutions by a factor of 2 to 500, and these ratios increase with increasing distance away from the ridge axis. An evaluation of these results in the context of previous models of REE behavior indicates that, in fact, seawater experiences a net depletion in REEs as a result of hydrothermal activity. This is due primarily to the large scavenging capacity of iron oxyhydroxides which precipitate from these solutions. Such an interpretation explains why the REE content of seawater collected in the vicinity of hydrothermal vents is anomalously lower than normal seawater sampled from a comparable depth.

  8. REE in the Great Whale River estuary, northwest Quebec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    A report on REE concentrations within the estuary of the Great Whale River in northwest Quebec and in Hudson Bay is given, showing concentrations which are less than those predicted by conservative mixing of seawater and river water, indicating removal of REE from solution. REE removal is rapid, occurring primarily at salinities less than 2 percent and ranges from about 70 percent for light REE to no more than 40 percent for heavy REE. At low salinity, Fe removal is essentially complete. The shape of Fe and REE vs. salinity profiles is not consistent with a simple model of destabilization and coagulation of Fe and REE-bearing colloidal material. A linear relationship between the activity of free ion REE(3+) and pH is consistent with a simple ion-exchange model for REE removal. Surface and subsurface samples of Hudson Bay seawater show high REE and La/Yb concentrations relative to average seawater, with the subsurface sample having a Nd concentration of 100 pmol/kg and an epsilon(Nd) of -29.3; characteristics consistent with river inputs of Hudson Bay. This indicates that rivers draining the Canadian Shield are a major source of nonradiogenic Nd and REE to the Atlantic Ocean.

  9. REE patterns of eucrites and their genetic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Masuda, Akimasa

    1986-11-01

    Rare earth element (REE) abundances in eucrites were precisely determined on Juvinas, Pasamonte, Cachari, Stannern and Antarctic eucrites Y-74450,63,D + G; Y-75015,20,E + F; Y-75011,73; Y-790007,61,F; Y-75011,84,D-1 and Y-790007,61,E-4. The last two samples are eucrite clasts from polymict eucrites. The other Antarctic eucrite samples are matrix from polymict eucrites. Like the Stannern eucrite, all of the Antarctic eucrites have relatively high REE abundances. REE abundances in two clast samples are higher than those in the Stannern and matrix samples of the Antarctic eucrites. When REE abundances in the Antarctic eucrites and the Stannern eucrite are normalized by the REE abundance suite of the Juvinas or Pasamonte eucrites, highly linear REE patterns are obtained. For the Juvinas- or Pasamonte-normalized REE patterns of the Antarctic and Stannern eucrites, the inclination of the linear REE patterns increases with increasing REE abundances. These observations suggest that the eucrites with larger REE abundances such as the Stannern and Antarctic eucrites were produced as residual liquid in a fractional crystallization process from the main group of eucrites (e.g., the Juvinas eucrite). On the other hand, the Moore County cumulate eucrite is considered to be a solid phase formed in this process.

  10. Multiple stages of hydrothermal REE remobilization recorded in fluorapatite in the Paleoproterozoic Yinachang Fe-Cu-(REE) deposit, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaochun; Zhou, Mei-Fu

    2015-10-01

    The Yinachang deposit in the Kangdian region, Southwest China, contains large amounts of Fe, Cu and REE, and formed at ˜1700 Ma. In this deposit, there are three stages of alteration and mineralization, including pre-ore Na-(Fe) alteration, Fe-(REE) mineralization, and Cu-(REE) mineralization. In the Fe-(REE) mineralization stage, REE-rich fluorapatite, with total REE concentrations ranging from 10,700 to 34,000 ppm, formed together with magnetite. In the following Cu-(REE) mineralization stage, large amounts of REE, especially LREE, were leached out of the REE-rich fluorapatite due to the interaction between fluorapatite and Cl-, F-, CO2-, and Ca-rich, but REE-unsaturated fluids. The leaching of REE was associated with the removal of Si, Na, Th, U, Pb, and Ba, and modification of the oxygen isotope signature in the fluorapatite. During a ˜840 Ma tectonothermal event, REE-rich fluorapatite underwent the second interaction with oxidized, F-, CO2-, and possibly Cl-rich, but Na- and Ca-deficient fluids. Due to fluid-fluorapatite interaction, REE were removed from the fluorapatite, but were immediately reincorporated into new phases within the fluorapatite. Thus, the altered fluorapatite contains abundant REE mineral inclusions, including bastnäsite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), and minor xenotime-(Y). A very small portion of the LREE were transported out of the fluorapatite, and formed bastnäsite-(Ce) and monazite-(Ce) grains in the vicinity of the altered fluorapatite. In addition to the metasomatism of fluorapatite, allanite and "primary" synchysite-(Ce) from the Cu-(REE) mineralization stage were also altered with variable replacement of allanite by an assemblage of synchysite-(Ce) + chlorite ± bastnäsite-(Ce) and "primary" synchysite-(Ce) by bastnäsite-(Ce). These styles of alteration were possibly synchronous with the second alteration phase of the fluorapatite. This study demonstrates that REE can be mobilized during multiple stages of hydrothermal activities and

  11. Genesis of ion-adsorption type REE ores in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanematsu, K.; Yoshiaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Ion-adsorption type REE deposits, which have been economically mined only in southern China, are predominant supply sources for HREE in the world. The ore bodies consist of weathered granites called ion-adsorption ores. The majority of REE (>50 %) are electrostatically adsorbed onto weathering products in the ores and they can be extracted by ion exchange using an electrolyte solution (e.g., ammonium sulfate solution). Recently the occurrences of ion-adsorption ores have been reported in Indochina, SE Asia. In this study, we discuss geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of parent granites and weathered granites in Thailand in order to reveal the genesis of ion-adsorption ores. Permo-Triassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene granite plutons are distributed from northern Thailand to western Indonesia through eastern Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. They are mostly ilmenite-series calcalkaline biotite or hornblende-biotite granites. REE contents of the granites range from 60 to 600 ppm and they are relatively high in Peninsula Thailand. REE-bearing minerals consist mainly of apatite, zircon, allanite, titanite, monazite and xenotime. Some I-type granites contain REE fluorocarbonate (probably synchysite-(Ce)) in cavities and cracks in feldspars and it is the dominant source of REE for ion-adsorption ores because the fluorocarbonate is easily soluble during weathering. In contrast, insoluble monazite and xenotime are not preferable for ion-adsorption ores although they are common ore minerals of placer REE deposits. Weathered granites show REE contents ranging from 60 to 1100 ppm in Thailand because REE are relatively immobile compared with mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Ca). In the weathered granites, REE are contained in residual minerals and secondary minerals and are adsorbed onto the surface of weathering products. A weathering profile of granite with ion-adsorption type mineralization can be divided into upper and lower parts based on REE enrichment and Ce

  12. Anomalous REE patterns in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: Evidence and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crozaz, Ghislaine; Hsu, Weibiao

    1993-01-01

    We present here a study of Rare Earth Element (REE) microdistributions in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites (EOC's). Although the whole rock REE contents are similar in both unequilibrated and equilibrated chondrites, the host minerals of these refractory elements are different. In the least equilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOC's), the REE reside mainly in glass whereas, in their more equilibrated counterparts, the bulk of the REE is in calcium phosphate, a metamorphic mineral that formed by oxidation of phosphorous originally contained in metal. In the smaller group of enstatite (E) chondrites, calcium phosphate is absent and the phase that contains the highest REE concentrations is a minor mineral, CaS (oldhamite), which contains approximately 50 percent of the total Ca present. In E chondrites, elements typically considered to be lithophiles (such as Ca and Mn) occur in sulfides rather than silicates. This indicates formation under extremely reducing conditions, thus in a region of the solar nebula distinct from those that supplied the more abundant ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites. Previously, we observed a variety of REE patterns in the oldhamite of UEC's; they range from almost flat to some with pronounced positive Eu and Yb anomalies. Here, we searched for complementary REE patterns in other minerals from E chondrites and found them in the major mineral, enstatite. Whenever Eu and Yb anomalies are present in this mineral, they are always negative.

  13. REE-bearing minerals in the Rapakavi Grante, Southern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ani, Thair

    2015-11-01

    The studied rock samples belong to the classic 1615-1645 Ma Wiborg Rapakivi granite terrane of southeastern Finland. Geochemical studies show that the rapakivi granites and associated rocks form metaluminous to peraluminous A-type granites and plot in the "within plate granites (WPG)" field on the tectonic discriminate diagrams from the Onkamaa, Suomenniemi and Luumäki. The rapakivi granite displays enrichment of light over heavy REE (LREE/HREE = 2-34) and usually negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.01 - 1.4). Enrichment in REE in some studied samples is confined to highly fractionated portions of the Rapakivi granite. Fractional crystallization of the evolving fluorite-rich peraluminous granitic magma was accompanied, particularly at later stages by fluid fractionation, which plays an important role in the genesis of the REE-mineralization. The studied rapakivi granites host REE-minerals including monazite-(Ce), allanite (Ce), bastnäsite (Ce), xenotime, thorite and REE-bearing mineral apatite. Monazite and allanite are the most important REE carriers in the studied granites and these minerals are strongly enriched in the LREE.Monazites are hosted in apatite, quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, and biotite. Grain size of monazite is variable ranging from 50 to >100 μm.Monazite contains 48-68 wt% REE2O3, 24.3-29.3 wt% P2O5 and low Th<1.5 wt%ThO2. The Y, REE, U, Th-bearing minerals are not commonly associated with the primary minerals except for Th-bearing minerals, which occur as silicates (e.g. thorite, ThSiO4); and/or replace other elements in the structure of some accessory mineral, especially xenotime, brabantite, zircon, and apatite. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) provides an indication of solid solution series between thorite-xenotimezircon, which are related to hydrothermal solutions enriched in REE, Y, P, U, F, and Zr.

  14. Battery related cobalt and REE flows in WEEE treatment.

    PubMed

    Sommer, P; Rotter, V S; Ueberschaar, M

    2015-11-01

    In batteries associated with waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), battery systems can be found with a higher content of valuable and critical raw materials like cobalt and rare earth elements (REE) relative to the general mix of portable batteries. Based on a material flow model, this study estimates the flows of REE and cobalt associated to WEEE and the fate of these metals in the end-of-life systems. In 2011, approximately 40 Mg REE and 325 Mg cobalt were disposed of with WEEE-batteries. The end-of-life recycling rate for cobalt was 14%, for REE 0%. The volume of waste batteries can be expected to grow, but variation in the battery composition makes it difficult to forecast the future secondary raw material potential. Nevertheless, product specific treatment strategies ought to be implemented throughout the stages of the value chain. PMID:26054962

  15. Multi-collector SIMS analysis of REE in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2003-04-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the utility of rare earth element (REE) analysis of zircon in facilitating a link between U-Pb geochronology and petrogenesis. Such analyses face a number of analytical challenges, notably very low concentration levels of trivalent light REE's (La-Sm) and, for SIMS, interferences from matrix (ZrSiO species on La, Ce and Pr) and light REE oxides on heavy REE. Low mass-resolution SIMS instruments generally use large energy offsets and/or peak deconvolution methods to overcome these problems. Lack of a well-characterised zircon standard means that analyses are generally normalised to synthetic glass standards with energy offsets used to minimise matrix effects. This study reports the application of a multicollector equipped Cameca IMS1270 to analysis of REE in zircon. The IMS1270 multicollector consists of five moveable trolleys which, in the configuration fitted in Stockholm, are each equipped with narrow ion counting electron multipliers (EM's). An extreme dispersion limit from 7.8% to +7.8% relative to axial mass is permitted by the moveable trolleys. At closest approach (ca. 0.48%) simultaneous Pb isotope measurement is possible. A three position exit slit facilitates common nominal mass resolutions between 2400 and 8000. The fixed axial collector with its continuously variable exit slit may be used together with the trolley mounted EM's permitting simultaneous measurement in six detectors. In this latter configuration, used here for REE measurements, the dispersion range from 1.6% to +5.1% is unavailable for the trolleys. The collector configuration used for zircon REE analysis puts the six lightest REE (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu) simultaneously into the five moveable EM's at MRP ca. 3800, adequately resolving ZrSiO interferences, and the fixed axial EM at MRP ca. 1500, the latter measuring 144Nd which is unaffected by molecular interferences. A sample high voltage offset of -45V relative to the centred energy peak (30e

  16. REE in karst bauxites: the Campania example (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondillo, N.; Boni, M.; Balassone, G.; Rollinson, G.

    2012-04-01

    Global production of Rare Earth Element (REE) has dramatically increased in the last years, hence the strong interest to identify new deposits and to understand the processes responsible for their formation. Among REE concentrations related to weathering, the current targets are represented by the ion-adsorption deposit-types, occurring in China, in which REEs are adsorbed onto the surface of clays. Laterites have been also intensively investigated since the discovery of the secondary deposit of Mount Weld (Australia). Most REEs behave as immobile elements in laterites, and tend to be enriched compared to the underlying parent rocks. Many authors debate on a possible REE fractionation along the laterite profiles, resulting in the formation of supergene LREE-minerals. Bauxites are economic Al accumulations, derived from the weathering of alumosilicate-rich parent rocks resulting in the development of laterite profiles. Components as Ca, Mg, K, Si are leached and residual Fe, Al and Ti precipitate in form of hematite>>goethite, gibbsite [Al(OH)3] or amorphous Al hydroxides and anatase. Metabauxites can contain boehmite or diaspore [AlO(OH)]. Chemical composition (including REEs content) of lateritic bauxites generally mirrors the original composition of the parent rock. Geochemistry of REEs in karst bauxites, which lay on carbonate bedrocks and may be also allochthonous to them, is not so straightforward. Cretaceous karst bauxite deposits in the Apennine chain (Southern Italy) are presently uneconomic. A full mineralogical and geochemical study has been performed on several deposits of the Campania district, and three representative profiles have been sampled. In all deposits the bauxite ore has an oolitic-pisolitic texture, but contains also detrital intervals. The mineral association consists of boehmite, kaolinite and hematite, with less goethite and anatase. The main REE-bearing mineral is detrital monazite. In detail, we could detect (SEM) other LREE

  17. Isomorphism of actinides and REE in synthetic ferrite garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livshits, T. S.

    2010-02-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is accompanied by the formation of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW). To increase the safety of handling HLW, it is proposed to extract actinide isotopes (An) and REE from them. These elements may be incorporated into crystalline matrices, e.g., based on ferrites with garnet structure, and then disposed in a geologic repository. The actinide-REE fraction is characterized by a complex composition. In addition to major components (An and REE), Al, Si, Na, and Sn occur therein in small amounts (a few wt %). Possible incorporation of the admixtures into ferrite garnets, as well as their effect on the phase composition of matrices and Th, Ce, Gd, and La contents were studied. It was shown that admixtures enter into garnet by means of isomorphic replacement. The properties of samples change only when admixtures are added in amounts exceeding their concentrations in HLW. The ability of ferrite garnets to accumulate significant amounts of An, REE, and admixture elements makes them suitable for use as matrices in immobilizing actinide-REE HLW of complex composition.

  18. REE and Strontium Partition Coefficients for Nakhla Pyroxenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oe, K.; McKay, G.; Le, L.

    2001-01-01

    We present new partition coefficients for REE and Sr determined using a synthetic melt that crystallizes pyroxenes very similar in composition to Nakhla pyroxene cores. We believe these are the most appropriate partition coefficients to use in studying Nakhla Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract..

  19. Vapour transport of rare earth elements (REE) in volcanic gas: Evidence from encrustations at Oldoinyo Lengai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, C. D.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2008-10-01

    Fumarolic encrustations and natrocarbonatite lava from the active crater of Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania, were sampled and analysed. Two types of encrustation were distinguished on the basis of their REE content, enriched (~ 2800-5600 × [REE chondrite]) and depleted (~ 100-200 × [REE chondrite]) relative to natrocarbonatite (1700-1900 × [REE chondrite]. REE-enriched encrustations line the walls of actively degassing fumaroles, whereas REE-depleted encrustations occur mainly along cracks in and as crusts on cooling natrocarbonatite lava flows; one of the low REE encrustation samples was a stalactite from the wall of a possible fumarole. The encrustations are interpreted to have different origins, the former precipitating from volcanic gas and the latter from meteoric/ground water converted to steam by the heat of the overlying lava flow(s). REE-profiles of encrustations and natrocarbonatite are parallel, suggesting that there was no preferential mobilization of specific REE by either volcanic vapour or meteoric water vapour. The elevated REE-content of the first group of encrustations suggests that direct REE-transport from natrocarbonatite to volcanic vapour is possible. The REE trends observed in samples precipitating directly from the volcanic vapour cannot be explained by dry volatility based on the available data as there is no evidence in the encrustation compositions of the greatly enhanced volatility predicted for Yb and Eu. The observed extreme REE-fractionation with steep La/Sm slopes parallel to those of the natrocarbonatite reflects solvation and complexation reactions in the vapour phase that did not discriminate amongst the different REE or similar transport of REE in both the natrocarbonatite magma and its exsolving vapour. The low concentrations of REE in the encrustations produced by meteoric vapour suggest that the temperature was too low or that this vapour did not contain the ligands necessary to permit significant mobilization of the REE.

  20. Systematic Investigation of REE Mobility and Fractionation During Continental Shale Weathering Along a Climate Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.; Ma, L.; Dere, A. L. D.; White, T.; Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) have been identified as strategic natural resources and their demand in the United States is increasing rapidly. REE are relatively abundant in the Earth's crust, but REE deposits with minable concentrations are uncommon. One recent study has pointed to the deep-sea REE-rich muds in the Pacific Ocean as a new potential resource, related to adsorption and concentration of REE from seawater by hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite (Kato et al., 2010). Finding new REE deposits will be facilitated by understanding global REE cycles: during the transformation of bedrock into soils, REEs are leached into natural waters and transported to oceans. At present, the mechanisms and factors controlling release, transport, and deposition of REE - the sources and sinks - at Earth's surface remain unclear. Here, we systematically studied soil profiles and bedrock in seven watersheds developed on shale bedrock along a climate transect in the eastern USA, Puerto Rico and Wales to constrain the mobility and fractionation of REE during chemical weathering processes. In addition, one site on black shale (Marcellus) bedrock was included to compare behaviors of REEs in organic-rich vs. organic-poor shale end members under the same environmental conditions. Our investigation focused on: 1) the concentration of REEs in gray and black shales and the release rates of REE during shale weathering, 2) the biogeochemical and hydrological conditions (such as redox, dissolved organic carbon, and pH) that dictate the mobility and fractionation of REEs in surface and subsurface environments, and 3) the retention of dissolved REEs on soils, especially onto secondary Fe/Al oxyhydroxides and phosphate mineral phases. This systematic study sheds light on the geochemical behaviors and environmental pathways of REEs during shale weathering along a climosequence.

  1. The first data on the vertical REE distribution in taiga soils of the Russian Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryanin, S. V.; Sorokina, O. A.

    2015-10-01

    Coarse humic brown soils formed on different rocks under natural conditions of southern taiga of the Upper Priamur'e were studied. Concentration and distribution of REE in organic-mineral and metamorphic soil horizons were estimated. Soils inherit REE distribution in underlying rocks sitll at lower concentrations. The maximal REE concentrations are found in metamorphic soil horizon and the lowest ones in humic-accumulative. Soil formation processes have an effect on REE concentration in soils, but do not change their distribution.

  2. Rees algebras, Monomial Subrings and Linear Optimization Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Luis A.

    2010-06-01

    In this thesis we are interested in studying algebraic properties of monomial algebras, that can be linked to combinatorial structures, such as graphs and clutters, and to optimization problems. A goal here is to establish bridges between commutative algebra, combinatorics and optimization. We study the normality and the Gorenstein property-as well as the canonical module and the a-invariant-of Rees algebras and subrings arising from linear optimization problems. In particular, we study algebraic properties of edge ideals and algebras associated to uniform clutters with the max-flow min-cut property or the packing property. We also study algebraic properties of symbolic Rees algebras of edge ideals of graphs, edge ideals of clique clutters of comparability graphs, and Stanley-Reisner rings.

  3. Fractionation mechanisms of rare earth elements (REEs) in hydroponic wheat: an application for metal accumulation by plants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Liang, Tao; Zhang, Chaosheng; Huang, Zechun; Xie, Yaning; Chen, Tongbin

    2006-04-15

    Fractionations of rare earth elements (REEs) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were observed through application of exogenous mixed REEs under hydroponic conditions. Middle REE (MREE), light REE (LREE), and heavy REE (HREE) enrichments were found in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, accompanied by the tetrad effect (an effect that can cause a split of REE patterns into four consecutive segments) in these organs. Investigations into REE speciation in roots and in the xylem sap with X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and nanometer-sized TiO2 adsorption techniques, associated with other controlled experiments, demonstrated that REE fractionations in wheat were caused by the combined effects of chemical precipitation, cell wall absorption, and solution complexation by organic ligands in the xylem vessels. REE fractionations in wheat, which were derived from the small differences of chemical properties across REE series, may reflect a sensitive internal chemical environment that influences plant accumulation for REEs and their analogues actinide radionuclides. PMID:16683609

  4. REE incorporation and behaviour in aquatic turtles as a consequence of environmental exposure and biological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censi, P.; Randazzo, L. A.; D'Angelo, S.; Cuttitta, A.; Saiano, F.

    2012-04-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) contents in Emys trinacris have been investigated for the first time in order to recognise effects of the chemistry of the environment on the composition of biological fluids. Representing radionuclides a potential health risk for living organisms in case of incorporation in tissues and being REE geochemical analogues of actinides in hydrosphere, this study was focused on investigation of REE behaviour in whole blood and esoskeleton of selected individuals of Emys trinacris. The choice of this species is related to its amphibian character that allowed us to evidence environmental stress in terms of composition of environmental freshwaters whose REE compositions were investigated and compared with blood samples. Moreover effects induced by different environmental conditions were investigated collecting samples in two sites characterised by absence of an anthropogenic signature (GT site) and subjected to strong anthropogenic pressure in terms of wastewater input (SIC site), respectively. In both sites REE contents in whole blood samples of studied turtles are quite similar even if in GT site the highest REE contents have been recognised. Shale-normalised REE patterns show very similar REE behaviour with light REE (LREE) enrichments with respect to heavier REE (HREE), mainly in samples from anthropized site. If REE concentrations in whole blood are normalised to the composition of environmental waters, calculated REE patterns show upward concave shapes centred on Gd that are more pronounced in samples from GT site because their patterns are more enriched in LREE. The last features observed in blood samples from GT can be related to larger REE contents occurred in environmental water from this site with respect to waters collected in SIC site, suggesting that a relationship occurs between REE contents in environmental and biological fluids. Since MREE depletions were observed in waters experiencing phosphate crystallization, observed REE

  5. Expanding the REE Partitioning Database for Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. This is taken as evidence of a large-scale differentation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were later derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Some plagioclase grains in a lunar impact rock (60635) have been reported to display a negative Eu anomaly, or in some cases single grains display both positive and neagtive anomalies. Cathodoluminescence images reveal that some crystals have a negative anomaly in the core and positive at the rim, or vice versa, and the negative anomalies are not associated with crystal overgrowths. Oxygen fugacity is known to affect Eu partitioning into plagioclase, as under low fO2 conditions Eu can be divalent, and has an ionic radius similar to Ca2+ - significant in lunar samples where plagioclase compositions are predominantly anorthitic. However, there are very few experimental studies of rare earth element (REE) partitioning in plagioclase relevant to lunar magmatism, with only two plagioclase DEu measurements from experiments using lunar materials, and little data in low fO2 conditions relevant to the Moon. We report on REE partitioning experiments on lunar compositions. We investigate two lunar basaltic compositions, high-alumina basalt 14072 and impact melt breccia 60635. These samples span a large range of lunar surface bulk compositions. The experiments are carried out at variable fO2 in 1 bar gas mixing furnaces, and REE are analysed by and LA-ICP-MS. Our results not only greatly expand the existing plagioclase DREE database for lunar compositions, but also investigate the significance of fO2 in Eu partitioning, and in the interpretation of Eu anomalies in lunar materials.

  6. EXAFS study on the cause of enrichment of heavy REEs on bacterial cell surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Mika; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2010-10-01

    Rare earth element (REE) pattern is a unique geochemical tracer and has been measured for various natural materials. Among these, the REE distribution pattern between bacteria and water exhibits anomalous enrichment in the heavy REE (HREE) part, which can act as a signature of bacteria-related materials in natural samples. In this study, the REE binding site on the cell surface of a Gram-positive bacterium ( Bacillus subtilis) responsible for HREE enrichment has been identified using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) coupled with a study of the variation in REE distribution patterns. The EXAFS data showed that the HREEs form complexes with multiple phosphate site (including phosphoester site) with a larger coordination number (CN) at lower REE-bacteria ratios ([REE]/[bac]), while light and middle REEs form complexes to the phosphate site with a lower CN. The fraction coordinated to carboxylate increased for all REEs with increasing [REE]/[bac] ratio. On the other hand, the enrichment of HREE in the REE distribution patterns of the bacteria was less marked with increasing [REE]/[bac] ratio. This result is consistent with the EXAFS data, because the REE pattern of surface complex with multiple phosphate in a reference material exhibits a monotonous increase for heavier REE, while phosphate surface complex with a low CN and a carboxylate site reach a maximum around Sm and Eu. Based on these results, it is clear that the REE are primarily bound to the phosphate site and subsequently to the carboxylate site on the bacterial cell surface. Regarding the pH dependence in the range (3 < pH < 7), both the EXAFS and REE pattern data indicate that the fraction of REE-carboxylate increased as the pH increases. The results above obtained for B. subtilis were also valid for Escherichia coli, a Gram-negative bacterium, showing that similar phosphate and carboxylate sites are also available in the cell walls of E. coli, or other Gram negative bacteria. In all our

  7. REE mobility during the alteration of Carbonatite and their economic potential.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marien, Christian; Dijkstra, Arjan; Wilkins, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The supply risk of Rare Earth Elements is an unpredictable economic factor for the future application and development of modern technology for the EU. Therefore a better understanding of REE mobilisation during hydrothermal alteration of Carbonatites is essential for a safer supply of REE in general. The hydrothermal alteration of Carbonatite within the Fen Complex (Norway) forms a fine grained red hematized rock type, called Rødbergite, which is partially enriched in REE. The variation of REE within the Rødbergite is poorly understood and problematic for any future REE exploitation from Rødbergite. A genetic model of the formation of Rødbergite will provide more information about the economic potential of Rødbergite. The gradual transformation of carbonatite to Rødbergite is not easily observable due to sparse outcrop in the Fen Complex. A fresh road cut near the Bjørndallen farm (Fen Complex) provides a unique insight to the progressive hydrothermal alteration from carbonatite to Rødbergite and is therefore crucial for a genetic model of the formation of Rødbergite. 14 Samples were taken along the profile. The mineralogical, geochemical and textural characterization of the samples using the SEM as well as major-, trace- and isotopic elemental data revealed the breakdown of the primary minerals due to the infiltration of an oxidizing fluid along grain boundaries. The primary REE-minerals in unaltered Carbonatite are REE fluorocarbonates. With the increasing alteration to Rødbergite REE fluorocarbonates are progressively replaced by hematite. In contrast, monazite - a REE-phosphate - is the dominant REE mineral species in the Rødbergite. A transitional Rødbergite sample shows apatite aggregates with a strong preferential concentration of monazite along the rim of the apatite aggregates. This observation provides strong evidence for the solution of REE in the primary rock (carbonatite) by fluids and later precipitation of REE along phosphate bearing

  8. REE compositions in fossil vertebrate dental tissues indicate biomineral preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žigaite, Ž.; Kear, B.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Jeffries, T.; Blom, H.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth element (REE) abundances have been measured in a number of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic dental tissues using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Fossil vertebrates analysed comprise scales and tesserae of Silurian and Devonian acanthodians, chondrichthyans, galeaspids, mongolepids, thelodonts, as well as teeth of Cretaceous lungfish and marine reptiles. The evaluation of fossil preservation level has been made by semi-quantitative spot geochemistry analyses on fine polished teeth and scale thin sections, using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Fossil teeth and scales with significant structure and colour alteration have shown elevated heavy element concentrations, and the silicification of bioapatite has been common in their tissues. Stable oxygen isotope measurements (δ18O) of bulk biomineral have been conducted in parallel, and showed comparatively lower heavy oxygen values in the same fossil tissues with stronger visible alteration. Significant difference in REE concentrations has been observed between the dentine and enamel of Cretaceous plesiosaurs, suggesting the enamel to be more geochemically resistant to diagenetic overprint.

  9. Ion microprobe investigation of plagioclase and orthopyroxene from lunar Mg-suite norites: Implications for calculating parental melt REE concentrations and for assessing postcrystallization REE redistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papike, J.J.; Fowler, G.W.; Shearer, C.K.; Layne, G.D.

    1996-10-01

    The lunar Mg-suite, which includes dunites, troctolites, and norites, makes up to 20-30% of the Moon`s crust down to a depth of {approximately}60 km. The remainder is largely anorthosite. This report focuses on norites (which consist mostly of orthopyroxene and plagioclase) because we have found that both phases are effective recorders of their parental melt compositions. In an earlier report, we analyzed orthopyroxene from twelve samples (three from Apollo 14, two from A-15, and seven from A-17) by orthopyroxene from twelve samples (three from Apollo 14, two from A-15, and seven from A-17) by SIMS for eight REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb). Inversion of these data to estimated melt compositions yielded extremely high REE concentrations similar to KREEP. In this study, we report SIMS REE data for plagioclase from these same twelve samples. The major objective of this study is to estimate parental REE concentrations from both orthopyroxene and plagioclase data to see if both data inversions produce concordant from both orthopyroxene and plagioclase data to see if both data inversions produce concordant melt compositions and thus better constrain the composition of melts parental to Mg-suite norites. The estimated REE concentrations from both phases show some evidence of slight postcrystallization REE redistribution. Comparison of the observed ratio of REE for pyroxene/plagioclase to the ratio of the Ds for pyroxene/plagioclase is consistent with REE redistribution which involves LREE diffusing from pyroxene into plagioclase and HREE diffusing from plagioclase into pyroxene. However, apparently these postcrystallization exchanges have not seriously affected our ability to estimate melt REE concentrations. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. REE speciation in low-temperature acidic waters and the competitive effects of aluminum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gimeno, Serrano M.J.; Auque, Sanz L.F.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous competitive speciation of dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) in acidic waters (pH 3.3 to 5.2) has been evaluated by applying the PHREEQE code to the speciation of water analyses from Spain, Brazil, USA, and Canada. The main ions that might affect REE are Al3+, F-, SO42-, and PO43-. Fluoride, normally a significant complexer of REEs, is strongly associated with Al3+ in acid waters and consequently has little influence on REEs. The inclusion of aluminum concentrations in speciation calculations for acidic waters is essential for reliable speciation of REEs. Phosphate concentrations are too low (10-4 to 10-7 m) to affect REE speciation. Consequently, SO42- is the only important complexing ligand for REEs under these conditions. According to Millero [Millero, F.J., 1992. Stability constants for the formation of rare earth inorganic complexes as a function of ionic strength. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 56, 3123-3132], the lanthanide sulfate stability constants are nearly constant with increasing atomic number so that no REE fractionation would be anticipated from aqueous complexation in acidic waters. Hence, REE enrichments or depletions must arise from mass transfer reactions. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct dating and characterization of the Pope's Hill REE Deposit, Labrador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chafe, A. N.; Hanchar, J. M.; Fisher, C.; Piccoli, P. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Dimmell, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Pope's Hill rare earth element (REE) trend (PHT) is located approximately 100 km southwest of Happy Valley-Goose Bay, along the Trans Labrador Highway, in central Labrador. Whole-rock geochemical analyses of the main REE-bearing unit indicate total rare earth element contents ranging from 1 to 22 weight percent (wt%) REE3+. The REE-enriched unit is hosted within a hydrothermally altered syenite, trending northeast and traceable for approximately 2.8km. Samples of ore, host rock, and country rock, were collected from throughout the trend in order to: 1) quantify which phases concentrate the REE and their abundances and distribution in the ore; and 2) use in situ LA-ICPMS and ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and in situ Sm-Nd isotopes using LA-MC-ICPMS in monazite from the ore and host rock to constrain the timing of mineralization and determine the source of the REE. These data will help develop predictive models for this type of mineral deposit elsewhere. The PHT is defined as the host syenite and REE-enriched segregations; two contrasting lithologies. The rare earth element minerals (REE) occur in millimeter- to centimeter-scale pods that are locally discontinuous. The REE are hosted in a variety of silicate, phosphate, carbonate, and niobate phases; with a majority hosted in allanite(-Ce), titanite(-Ce), monazite(-Ce), britholite(-Ce); and a minor percentage in REE-carbonates and fergusonite(-Nd). Both apatite and titanite occur in two different compositional forms that range in chemistry from end-member stoichiometric apatite and titanite to highly REE-enriched - apatite-britholite and titanite(-Ce), where chemical substitutions, such as Si4+ + REE3+ substitute for Ca2+ + P5+ in apatite and REE3+ + Fe3+ substitute for Ca2+ + Ti4+ in titanite in order to incorporate up to ~40 wt% REE2O3 in both minerals. The U-Pb geochronology indicate that allanite, titanite(-Ce), monazite and fergusonite crystallized from ~1060 to ~940 Ma, a period spanning ~120 Ma. Sm-Nd tracer

  12. Partitioning in REE-saturating minerals - Theory, experiment, and modelling of whitlockite, apatite, and evolution of lunar residual magmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    1993-01-01

    Compositions, including REEs determined by ion microprobe, of apatite and whitlockite in lunar rock assemblages rich in incompatible trace elements, are presented. Concentrations of REEs in lunar whitlockites are high, ranging from about 1.2 to 2.1 REEs (lanthanides + Y) per 56 oxygens. This slightly exceeds the level of two REE atoms per 56 oxygens at which the dominant substitution theoretically becomes saturated. This saturation effect leads to whitlockite REE(3+) D values at typical lunar whitlockite REE concentrations which are 30-40 percent lower than the D values at low concentrations. The halogen-to-phosphorous ratio in lunar melts is a key factor determining the REE distribution with crystalline assemblages. As long as P and REE concentrations of melts are in KREEP-like proportions, one or both of the phosphates will saturate in melts at similar REE concentrations.

  13. Crystallization process of zircon and fergusonite during hydrothermal alteration in Nechalacho REE deposit, Thor Lake, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kon, Y.; Tsunematsu, M.

    2012-04-01

    The core samples of two drill holes, which penetrate sub-horizontal mineralized horizons at Nechalacho REE deposit in the Proterozoic Thor Lake syenite, Canada, were studied in order to clarify magmatic and hydrothermal processes that enriched HFSE (e.g. Zr, Nb, Y and REE). Zircon is the most common REE minerals in Nechalacho REE deposit. The zircon is divided into five types as follows: Type-1 zircon occurs as single grain in phlogopite and the chondrite-normalized REE pattern is characterized by a steeply-rising slope from the LREE to the HREE with a positive Ce-anomaly and negative Eu-anomaly. This chemical characteristic is similar to that of igneous zircon. Type-2 zircon consists of HREE-rich magmatic porous core and LREE-Nb-F-rich hydrothermal rim. This type zircon is mostly included in phlogopite and fluorite, and occasionally in microcline. Type-3 zircon is characterized by euhedral to anhedral crystal, occurring in a complex intergrowth with REE fluorocarbonates. Type-3 zircons have high contents of REE, Nb and fluorine. Type-4 zircon consists of porous-core and -rim zones, but their chemical compositions are similar to each other. This type zircon is a subhedral crystal rimmed by fergusonite. Type-5 zircon is characterized by smaller, porous and subhedral to anhedral crystals. The interstices between small zircons are filled by fergusonite. Type-4 and -5 zircons show low REE and Nb contents. Occurrences of these five types of zircon are different according to the depth and degree of the alteration by hydrothermal solutions rich in F- and CO3 of the two drill holes, which permit a model for evolution of the zircon crystallization in Nechalacho REE deposit as follows: (1) type-1 (single magmatic zircon) is formed in miaskitic syenite. (2) LREE-Nb-F-rich hydrothermal zircon formed around HREE-rich magmatic zircon (type-2 zircon); (3) type-3 zircon crystallized thorough F and CO3-rich hydrothermal alteration of type-2 zircon which formed the complex

  14. Diffusion of REE, Hf and Sr in Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remmert, P.; Dohmen, R.; Chakraborty, S.

    2008-12-01

    We have determined diffusion coefficients of the rare earth elements Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Lu, and also of Sr and Hf, in single crystals of natural olivine at atmospheric pressure, at an oxygen fugacity of 10-5 Pa and a temperature of 1275 °C. Sources of diffusants were thin films of olivine composition doped with the relevant elements. Thin films were produced by PLD (pulsed laser deposition) and RBS (Rutherford backscattering) was used to measure thickness and stoichiometry of the films as well as to analyze the concentration profiles. The concentration profiles were numerically fitted to yield the following diffusion coefficients (D, in m2/s): log DCe: -19.61 ± 0.21; log DNd: -19.54 ± 0.11; log DSm: -19.15 ± 0.05; log DEu: -19.10; log DLu: -19.00, log DHf: -20.23 ± 0.07; log DSr: -18.7. Diffusion coefficients of the rare-earth elements increase from Ce to Lu, demonstrating the role of ionic radius in controlling diffusion because all REE are trivalent. The tetravalent and divalent cations hafnium and strontium diffuse an order of magnitude slower and faster, respectively, than the REE in olivine. This highlights the important influence of ionic charge on diffusion rates. The diffusion coefficients of the REE are slower by a few orders of magnitudes than the diffusion rate of Cr in olivine [1]. The rates found in this study are slower than those assumed by a model [2] for compositional modification of melt inclusions in olivine. Use of our data in their calculations indicates that it will take longer to modify the composition of melt inclusions in olivine (millions of years rather than thousands of years) but the fractionation of HREE from LREE will be larger. [1] Ganguly J, Ito M (2006) Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 70, 799-809. [2] Cottrell E, Spiegelman M, Langmuir CH (2002) Geochem Geophys Geosyst, doi:10.1029/2001GC000205

  15. Comparing REE distribution in GEMAS agricultural soils and FOREGS topsoils-subsoils in Italy and Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosino, Paola; Sadeghi, Martiya; Andersson, Madelen; Albanese, Stefano; Dinelli, Enrico; Valera, Paolo; Ladenberger, Anna; Morris, George; Uhlbäck, Jo; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2014-05-01

    Scientific interest on Rare Earth Elements (REEs)-bearing media is increasing as a consequence of the rapidly growing demand of these important chemical resources, which are currently used in a large number of technical applications. In this study, Italian and Swedish REE data from the FOREGS database on topsoil and subsoils samples have been compared to the distribution of REEs in the GEMAS samples of agricultural soil (Ap), pertaining to regularly ploughed land to a depth of 20 cm. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was carried out to identify patterns within both data sets. Investigation of the spatial distribution of REEs in FOREGS topsoil-subsoil and GEMAS Ap media for both countries revealed the prominent role of the geogenic component in the general REE geochemical pattern of the three solid media. Despite a similar REE content in the underlying parent material or bedrocks (alkaline igneous rocks, both intrusive and effusive in Italy, alkaline granites and pegmatites in Sweden), several distinct differences emerged between the two countries driven by climate, topography, age of the rock units and sediments, presence of mineralisations, type of soils and presence of glacial deposits. GEMAS agricultural soils form both countries show higher REEs contents than the corresponding subsoils and topsoils, which could be ascribed to the analytical method specifically set for REEs and the last generation ICP-MS instrument used by SGS Lab to analyze REEs in Ap soils. The REE content in Italian topsoil and subsoil is similar and there is a good agreement between the topsoils and Ap soils, which were collected from similar depth. Swedish subsoil is on the contrary more enriched in REEs with respect to topsoil, and Ap soils even display REE contents higher than subsoils. This anomalous REE concentrations in agricultural soil may originate from the fact that most of the arable land in Sweden has been located on glacial and postglacial deposits, rich in clay which has

  16. Influence of phosphate on mobility and adsorption of REEs during weathering of granites in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanematsu, Kenzo; Kon, Yoshiaki; Imai, Akira

    2015-11-01

    The Permo-Jurassic North Thai (NT) Granites and the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Western Province (WP) Granites in Thailand are contrasting in terms of tectonic settings and chemical compositions. The NT Granites, which are dominated by S-type features, are characterized by lower SiO2 contents and higher P2O5 contents than the WP Granites in this study. In order to compare the mobility and adsorption of rare earth elements (REEs) during weathering of the two granite suites, geochemical analyses were conducted on the granite and weathered granites. The weathered WP Granites show wider ranges of REEs + Y (REY) contents, percentages of ion-exchangeable REY and Ce anomalies than the weathered NT Granites. These results indicate that REEs were less mobile during weathering of the NT Granites than those of the WP Granites. The low mobility of REEs can be explained by the occurrences of residual monazite and secondary REE phosphates which immobilize REEs during weathering. Therefore, in the weathered NT Granites, REEs are mostly contained in the phosphate minerals. In contrast, the weathered WP Granites are dominated by ion-exchangeable REEs (adsorbed REEs) which are likely to exist on the surface of clays. Previous studies and our study results suggest that the ion-exchangeable REEs in the weathered granites were probably sourced from weatherable allanite, titanite, apatite and/or REE fluorocarbonate, and rarely from monazite and zircon, which are resistant to weathering. The weathered granites of low phosphate contents potentially show high percentages of ion-exchangeable REY, although they can be influenced by the degree of hydrothermal alteration or weathering of granites.

  17. REE Sorption Study of Seived -50 +100 Mesh Fraction of Media #1 in Brine #1 at Different Concentrations of REE at 70C

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-06-29

    This dataset shows the sorption capacities of smaller grain size (-50 +100 mesh) of media #1 in brine #1 at different starting concentrations of REE's at elevated temperature of 70C. The experimental conditions are 2g of -50 +100 mesh media #1 to 150mL of REE solution at concentartions of .2ppm each, 2ppm each, and 20ppm each. The pH of the solution is 5.5, and the temperature was at 70C.

  18. High-Pressure Rare Earth Disilicates REE2Si 2O 7( REE=Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd): Type K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleet, Michael E.; Liu, Xiaoyang

    2001-10-01

    A new structure type (K) is reported for the disilicates of Nd, Sm, Eu, and Gd made at high pressure. Crystals of type K were synthesized at 10 GPa, 1600-1700°C in an MA6/8 superpress and used for single-crystal X-ray structure study by Kappa CCD diffractometry at room temperature. Crystal data are: monoclinic, space group P21/n, Z=4; Nd2Si2O7-a=6.6658(2), b=6.7234(3), c=12.3975(6) Å, β=102.147(3)°, V=543.2 Å3, R=0.029, and Dx=5.584 g/cm3; Sm2Si2O7-a=6.6039(3), b=6.6849(3), c=12.3069(5) Å, β=102.489(3)°, V=530.4 Å3, R=0.038, and Dx=5.871 g/cm3; Eu2Si2O7-a=6.5777(3), b=6.6652(4), c=12.2668(8) Å, β=102.671(4)°, V=524.7 Å3, R=0.030, and Dx=5.976 g/cm3; Gd2Si2O7-a=6.5558(4), b=6.6469(4), c=12.2394(6) Å, β=102.844(3)°, V=520.0 Å3, R=0.026, and Dx=6.166 g/cm3. The type K structure is built from a diorthosilicate group [Si2O7] interconnected by REE3+ cations in eightfold coordination with oxygen. The bridging oxygen (Si-O-Si) bond angle of the diorthosilicate group of rare earth disilicates stable at 1 bar (types A to G) is related to spatial accommodation of the REE3+ cation and ranges from 130 to 135° in the light rare earth disilicates (types A, F, G) to 180° in Lu2Si2O7 (type C). Volume reduction in the high-pressure type K structure is achieved largely by closure of the Si-O-Si bond angle to 122.7-124.4°, through rigid body rotation of the two SiO4 tetrahedra. This also permits a marginal increase in the average coordination of the REE3+ cation.

  19. High REE and Y concentrations in Co-Cu-Au ores of the Blackbird district, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of 11 samples of strata-bound Co-Cu-Au ore from the Blackbird district in Idaho shows previously unknown high concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and Y, averaging 0.53 wt percent ???REE + Y oxides. Scanning electron microscopy indicates REE and Y residence in monazite, xenotime, and allanite that form complex intergrowths with cobaltite, suggesting coeval Co and REE + Y mineralization during the Mesoproterozoic. Occurrence of high REE and Y concentrations in the Blackbird ores, together with previously documented saline-rich fluid inclusions and Cl-rich biotite, suggest that these are not volcanogenic massive sulfide or sedimentary exhalative deposits but instead are iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits. Other strata-bound Co deposits of Proterozoic age in the North American Cordillera and elsewhere in the world may have potential for REE and Y resources. IOCG deposits with abundant light REE should also be evaluated for possible unrecognized heavy REE and Y mineralization. ?? 2006 by Economic Geology.

  20. Trace element and REE geochemistry of Red Butte, Oregon: a gold-bearing hot spring system

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C.S.; Cummings, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Red Butte, 60 km south of Vale, Oregon is an Au-bearing hot spring deposit of intercalated lacustrine and fluvial Mio-Pliocene volcaniclastic sediments and basalt flows. Topography of the butte is controlled by a 30-60 m thick cap of silicified sediments which is cut by N and NW-trending faults. Anomalous Au, As, Sb, and Hg occur in fault controlled quartz veins, quartz-adularia veins, silicified sediments and rarely in calcite-quartz veins cutting basalt. Distribution of these elements away from the veins is controlled by permeability of the host rock. REE concentrations were normalized to chondritic abundances for 73 sediment, basalt, and vein samples. Silicified sediments from the butte top and unsilicified sediments from the east slope of the butte have similar LREE enriched patterns with strong negative Eu anomalies reflecting their felsic volcanic source. Silicified sediments are depleted in all REEs relative to fresh sediments indicating dilution by silica deposition. Basalt REE patterns are much closer to chondritic ratios. Patterns of veined basalt mirror those for fresh basalts but are relatively depleted in all REEs. Quartz-adularia and quartz veins have REE abundances 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than fresh sediments, and REE patterns unlike either the sediments or basalts. Mobility of REEs in the hydrothermal fluid is seen in La/Sm and Sa/Yb ratios of the veins. The La/Sm ratio for sediments averages 3.70. In veins this ratio drops to 1.65. The average La/Yb ratio is 9.1 in sediments and falls to 1.65 in quartz veins. Fluids depositing quartz and adularia in veins carried REEs in low abundance and deposited them in ratios that do not reflect the host rock. Any movement of REEs in host rock may have been masked by original high REE content combined with silica dilution.

  1. Experimental mineral/liquid partition coefficients of the rare earth elements /REE/, Sc and Sr for perovskite, spinel and melilite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasawa, H.; Schreiber, H. D.; Morris, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental determinations of the mineral/liquid partition coefficients of REE (La, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Yb and Lu), Sc and Sr are reported for the minerals perovskite, spinel and melilite in synthetic systems. Perovskite concentrates light REE with respect to the residual liquid but shows no preference for heavy REE. Spinel greatly discriminates against the incorporation of REE, especially light REE, into its crystal structure. The partition of REE into melilite from a silicate liquid is quite dependent upon both the bulk melt and melilite solid-solution (gehlenite and akermanite components) compositions. As such, melilite can be enriched in REE or will reject REE with corresponding strong negative or strong positive Eu anomalies, respectively.

  2. Some Remarks on the Interpretation of the REE-in-two-Mineral Thermobarometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, C.; Liang, Y.; Yao, L.; Dygert, N. J.; Wang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Distributions of REE between mantle minerals depend on temperature, pressure and mineral compositions, and can be used as thermobarometers. We have developed a REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer, a REE-in-garnet-clinopyroxene thermobarometer, and a REE-in-plagioclase-augite thermometer for ultramafic and mafic rocks. These trace element based two-mineral thermobarometers are built on parameterized lattice strain models for mineral-melt REE partitioning that we independently calibrated using published data from mineral-melt partitioning experiments. The physical meanings of calculated temperatures and pressures can be understood in terms of the average closure temperatures and closure pressures of REE in cooling bi-mineralic systems. Because trivalent REE diffuse slower than divalent Ca-Fe-Mg in minerals, the REE-based thermobarometers may record early thermal event(s), whereas the major element based thermometers may record more recent thermal events in closed systems that experienced cooling. A number of geological and geodynamic processes can result in decreases in temperature and possibly pressure over time: mantle upwelling beneath mid-ocean ridge spreading centers or in response to lower crust delamination, exhumation, heat loss to country rock from crustal magma chambers. For shallow level intrusive or extrusive mafic rocks, temperatures derived from the REE-in-plagioclase-augite thermometer may correspond to plagioclase saturation temperature. Hence application of REE- and Ca-Fe-Mg based thermobarometers to the same samples can shed new insight into the thermal history of mafic and ultramafic rocks. Initial applications of the REE-in-two-mineral thermobarometers to Earth and planetary samples have lead to a number of interesting observations which we will summarize in this presentation. However, care and caution must be exercised when processing and interpreting data from REE-in-two-mineral thermobarometers. Common issues include inaccuracies in REE data

  3. Heterogeneous rare earth element (REE) patterns and concentrations in a fossil bone: Implications for the use of REE in vertebrate taphonomy and fossilization history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Celina A.; Macpherson, G. L.; González, Luis A.; Grandstaff, David E.

    2010-05-01

    A bone fragment (CGDQ-3) of Falcariusutahensis, a therizinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, contained within a carbonate nodule, was analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in order to investigate REE variability within a thin-walled phalanx. Previous studies have found depth-related REE pattern variations; however, in CGDQ-3 variation occurs along the circumference of the bone. NASC-normalized REE patterns and concentrations vary between two apparent end members. A light-REE enriched (LREE) pattern, similar to solution ICP-MS analysis of this bone, characterizes approximately two-thirds of the bone fragment. Total REE concentrations are high and do not vary significantly from the periosteal surface to the medullar surface. Conversely, the remaining one-third of the bone has REE patterns that are MREE-depleted and low in total REE concentrations. REE concentrations in this part of the bone do not vary significantly from the periosteal to the medullar surface. A positive Ce anomaly is found throughout the entire bone, and is greatest within the LREE-enriched portion of the bone. This, in combination with the LREE-enrichment, suggests that the bone fossilized under reducing conditions. The distance between the LREE-enriched and MREE-depleted regions is less than 1 mm. Isotopic and petrographic analyses of the bone and surrounding carbonate matrix suggest the REE patterns in the bone were the result of partial fossilization/incomplete filling of micro-pore spaces around bone crystallites in an environment with changing redox conditions. The lower, MREE-depleted part of the bone fossilized contemporaneously with a pendant cement that formed on the underside of the bone in the vadose zone. Formation of the pendant cement restricted water flow through the bone, isolating the lower portion, which incorporated a MREE-depleted pattern. The upper part of the bone (LREE-enriched side) fossilized under

  4. Duality and genetic significance of REE speciation in tourmaline from tin deposits of the Far East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelikova, N. V.; Balashov, F. V.; Bychkova, Ya. V.; Minervina, E. A.; Korostelev, P. G.; Magazina, O. L.; Bortnikov, N. S.

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of REEs and some minor elements in tourmalines of different associations and deposits of the Russian Far East is studied by the methods of ICP-MS, ICP-MS with laser ablation and scanning electron microscopy. The duality of REE speciation in tourmaline is established: in high-temperature varieties, most REEs (mainly HREEs) are incorporated in rare minerals (monazite, xenotime, zircon, and F-Ce-Y carbonate), whereas hydrothermal ores are characterized by isomorphic incorporation of LREEs in the mineral structure, as well as by a fine admixture of zircon at the expense of detrital clasts in flyschoid rocks with the zones of tourmalinization.

  5. Origin of REE mineralization in the Bastnäs-type Fe-REE-(Cu-Mo-Bi-Au) deposits, Bergslagen, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtstam, Dan; Andersson, Ulf B.; Broman, Curt; Mansfeld, Joakim

    2014-09-01

    The Bastnäs-type deposits, with mineral assemblages of Fe oxides, Ca-Mg silicates, rare earth element (REE) silicates, REE fluorocarbonates, and Cu-Fe-Mo-Bi sulfides, are associated with marble horizons in a strongly Na, K, and/or Mg altered, metavolcanic succession, over a distance of at least 80 km in a SW-NE trending zone in western Bergslagen. Two subtypes occur: (1) enriched (relative to the other type) in light REE (LREE) and Fe, exemplified by the Bastnäs and Rödbergsgruvan deposits, and (2) enriched in heavy REE (HREE), Y, Mg, Ca, and F, represented by deposits in the Norberg district. Bastnäsite hosts primary fluid H2O-CO2 inclusions with salinities of 6-29 eq. wt% CaCl2 and with total homogenization temperatures (Th tot) of ca. 300-400 °C. Subtype 2 has late-stage fluorite with fluid inclusions that show 1-16 eq. wt% NaCl and Th tot of ca. 90-150 °C. Molybdenite Re-Os ages obtained from three deposits are 1,904 ± 6, 1,863 ± 4, and 1,842 ± 4 Ma. Nd isotopic data from five different REE minerals yielded no defined isochron, but a range in ɛNd (1.88 Ga) of +0.2 to +1.6. The oxygen isotope values (δ18OSMOW) of dolomite and calcite from the associated REE-mineralized skarn and recrystallized carbonate assemblages lie in the range 6.1-8.6 ‰, overlapping with those of the host marbles. Carbon isotope values (δ13CPDB) show typical magmatic signatures of -6.7 to -4.4 ‰, while the host marbles group around ca. -2.4 ‰. The sulfur isotope (δ34SCDT) values of associated sulfides range between -10.8 and +0.2 ‰. The combined evidence suggests REE mineralization, beginning at 1.9 Ga, from mainly Svecofennian, juvenile magmatic (>400 °C) fluids carrying Si, F, Cl, S, CO2, and the REE in addition to other metals; mineralization occurred through reactions with dolomitic layers in the supracrustal units coevally with regional metasomatic alteration associated with fluid circulation through an extensive active volcano-plutonic complex.

  6. Origin of REE mineralization in the Bastnäs-type Fe-REE-(Cu-Mo-Bi-Au) deposits, Bergslagen, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtstam, Dan; Andersson, Ulf B.; Broman, Curt; Mansfeld, Joakim

    2014-12-01

    The Bastnäs-type deposits, with mineral assemblages of Fe oxides, Ca-Mg silicates, rare earth element (REE) silicates, REE fluorocarbonates, and Cu-Fe-Mo-Bi sulfides, are associated with marble horizons in a strongly Na, K, and/or Mg altered, metavolcanic succession, over a distance of at least 80 km in a SW-NE trending zone in western Bergslagen. Two subtypes occur: (1) enriched (relative to the other type) in light REE (LREE) and Fe, exemplified by the Bastnäs and Rödbergsgruvan deposits, and (2) enriched in heavy REE (HREE), Y, Mg, Ca, and F, represented by deposits in the Norberg district. Bastnäsite hosts primary fluid H2O-CO2 inclusions with salinities of 6-29 eq. wt% CaCl2 and with total homogenization temperatures ( Th tot) of ca. 300-400 °C. Subtype 2 has late-stage fluorite with fluid inclusions that show 1-16 eq. wt% NaCl and Th tot of ca. 90-150 °C. Molybdenite Re-Os ages obtained from three deposits are 1,904 ± 6, 1,863 ± 4, and 1,842 ± 4 Ma. Nd isotopic data from five different REE minerals yielded no defined isochron, but a range in ɛNd (1.88 Ga) of +0.2 to +1.6. The oxygen isotope values (δ18OSMOW) of dolomite and calcite from the associated REE-mineralized skarn and recrystallized carbonate assemblages lie in the range 6.1-8.6 ‰, overlapping with those of the host marbles. Carbon isotope values (δ13CPDB) show typical magmatic signatures of -6.7 to -4.4 ‰, while the host marbles group around ca. -2.4 ‰. The sulfur isotope (δ34SCDT) values of associated sulfides range between -10.8 and +0.2 ‰. The combined evidence suggests REE mineralization, beginning at 1.9 Ga, from mainly Svecofennian, juvenile magmatic (>400 °C) fluids carrying Si, F, Cl, S, CO2, and the REE in addition to other metals; mineralization occurred through reactions with dolomitic layers in the supracrustal units coevally with regional metasomatic alteration associated with fluid circulation through an extensive active volcano-plutonic complex.

  7. Mineral recorders of pegmatite internal evolution: REE contents of tourmaline from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Papike, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    Trace rare earth elements (REE) have been determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis for tourmaline samples from an internally zoned, rare-element, granitic pegmatite, located in the Black Hills, South Dakota. The Total REE concentrations range from 40 ppm-0.2 ppm, and are highest in tourmaline from the exomorphic halo (country rock) and pegmatite border zone. Chondrite-normalized patterns are highly fractionated from light REE to heavy REE; and REE concentrations decrease in tourmaline from the outer wall zone and first intermediate zone, through the inner wall zone and third intermediate zone, to lowest levels in the pegmatite core. The REEs, as recorded by tourmaline, appear to behave compatibly in this pegmatite system due to early crystallization of apatite and other possible REE-sink minerals. The large range of REE concentrations and differences in slopes of chondrite-normalized patterns probably also reflect significant changes in the structural state of the pegmatite melt, caused by changes in pH/sub 2/O and other volatiles (B, F, P) as crystallization progressed. Tourmaline samples that appear to have been fluid-derived are HREE-depleted relative to coexisting silicate-melt-derived tourmaline. Tourmaline does not exhibit any strong preference for specific REEs, rather its REE content appears to reflect the REE content of the medium from which the tourmaline crystallized.

  8. Cancer vaccines: looking to the future. Interview by Jenaid Rees.

    PubMed

    Apostolopoulos, Vasso

    2013-10-01

    Interview by Jenaid Rees (Commissioning Editor) Vasso Apostolopoulos has been working in the field of cancer vaccines since 1991, and human clinical trials on her work have been conducted since 1994. Her work has been at the forefront of scientific research into the development of a vaccine for cancer and she has received over 90 awards and honours in recognition of her achievements. Some notable awards include, the Premier's Award for medical research, was named Young Australian of the Year (Victoria), recipient of the Channel 10/Herald Sun Young Achiever of the Year Award as well as being awarded the Order of Brigadier General of the Phoenix Battalion by the Greek President. In 1998 Apostolopoulos received the NHMRC CJ Martin Research Fellowship and worked at the Scripps Research Institute in California, USA, for 3.5 years and returned to the Austin Research Institute (VIC, Australia), and headed the Immunology and Vaccine Laboratory receiving the NHMRC RD Wright Fellowship. Upon her return to Australia, Apostolopoulos received the Victorian Tall Poppy Award, the Bodossaki Foundation Academic Prize, was inducted into the Victorian Honour roll of Women, was a torchbearer for the Melbourne leg of the International Athens 2004 Olympic Torch Relay, was named Woman of the Year, and is an Australia Day Ambassador. Her contribution into cancer research, vaccines and immunology has been extensive - publishing over 200 scientific papers and books, an inventor on 14 patents and collaborates with over 50 national and international Research Institutes and Universities. Her current research interests are in the development of new improved cancer vaccines and new modes of antigen delivery for immune stimulation. She is also interested in chronic diseases treatment and prevention through immunotherapy. She serves on the Editorial Board for Expert Review of Vaccines. PMID:24093953

  9. The influence of solution chemistry on REE uptake by Ulva lactuca L. in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, John K., Jr.; Byrne, Robert H.

    1990-06-01

    Simultaneous uptake of Ce(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Yb(III), and Zn(II) by an organic substrate, Ulva lactuca L., was examined in seawater. REE behavior was observed to be strongly dependent on solution complexation. Over a range of carbonate ion concentrations between 10 -6 mol kg-soln -1 and 7 × 10 -3 mol kg-soln -1, the affinity of Ulva lactuca for Gd(III) decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude. The influence of carbonate complexation on REE solid/solution distributions was much larger for Yb(III) than for Gd(III) and was larger for Gd(III) than for Ce(III). At carbonate ion concentrations greater than about 6 × 10 -5molkg- soln-1, REE solid/solution partition coefficients, DT( M) = ( REEactivityg-1Ulva)/( REEactivityg-1seawater) exhibited the order Ce(III) > Eu(III) > Gd(III) > Yb(III). At carbonate ion concentrations less than about 3 × 10 =-5molkg- soln-1, the affinity of Ulva lactuca L. for REEs exhibited the order Eu( III) > Gd( III) > Ce( III) > Yb( III). Our partition coefficient observations are in general accord with shale-normalized REE abundance patterns in seawater. Adsorption by organic substrates can produce heavy REE enrichments in seawater relative to the LREEs, Gd(III) solution enrichments relative to Eu(III), and, at relatively low carbonate ion concentrations, enrichments of very light REEs compared to their immediate neighbors. The behavior of Zn(II) in our study differed considerably from the REEs. The partition of Zn(II) between Ulva and seawater is not strongly dependent on carbonate ion concentration.

  10. Chemical characteristic of R chondrites in the light of P, REEs, Th and U abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rahat; Shirai, Naoki; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), Th, U and P were determined in 15 Rumuruti (R)-type chondrites and the Allende CV chondrite. Repeated analyses of Allende for REEs, Th and U by ICP-MS and P by ICP-AES, and comparisons of these data with literature values ensure high reproducibility (precision) and reliability (accuracy) of acquired data. CI-normalized REE abundances in R chondrites are slightly enriched in heavy REEs with a small, positive Ce anomaly, in contrast to Allende. CI-normalized Pr/Tm and Nd/Yb ratios show a positive correlation, suggesting the heterogeneous mixing of two components (CI-like and refractory-rich materials) during the accretion of the R chondrite parent body. A Ce anomaly, however, was likely homogeneously present in the nebula. A mean Th/U ratio of R chondrites is 3.81 ± 0.13 (1 σ), which is 5.1% higher than the CI ratio. Probably, the Th-U fractionation was inherited from the nebula from which the R chondrite parent body formed. Besides the Th-U fractionation, REEs and Th-U are heterogeneously fractionated in R chondrites, for which parent body processing is assumed to be the cause. A mean P content of R chondrites (1254 μg/g) is higher than for any ordinary chondrite and is close to the EL mean. There appears to be a negative correlation between P and REEs contents in R chondrites. It is probable that REEs were diluted by extraneously supplied, REEs-depleted and P-containing materials (schreibersite or metal). This process must have occurred heterogeneously during accretion so that the heterogeneity of P-containing materials was preserved in the R chondrite parent body and individual R chondrites.

  11. REE Behavior During Anhydrite and Gypsum Formations of the Kuroko Type Massive Sulfide-Sulfate Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Yasumasa; Shikazono, Naotatsu

    2006-05-01

    The Sr and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations and Sr isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of anhydrite and gypsum have been determined for samples from the Matsumine, Shakanai and Hanaoka Kuroko-type massive sulfide-sulfate deposits in the Hokuroku District in Akita Pref. in northern Japan. The anhydrite samples exhibit two styles of chondrite-normalized REE patterns; one with a decrease from light to heavy REEs (Type I), and another with a light REE-depleted pattern with peak in Sm (Type II). The Sr content of Type I anhydrite is higher than that of Type II. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of all anhydrite samples are intermediate between that of middle Miocene seawater and that of country rocks. 87Sr/86Sr of Type I anhydrite is closer to Miocene seawater, and that of Type II is closer to the country rocks. Based on the Sr data obtained by this study and previous reports on geochemical data on the Kuroko mineralization, geochemical environment of anhydrite formation was investigated. However, from that investigation, it is inferred that REE fractionation would not occur during the primary anhydrite precipitation. Gypsum, which partially replaces anhydrite in the Kuroko deposits, also exhibits two distinct chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Because LREEs are likely to be more easily mobilized during the secondary process such as dissolution and re-crystallization, it is hypothesized that LREE release from Type I anhydrite, resulting in the formation of secondary Type II anhydrite with LREE depleted profiles.

  12. Rare earth elements (REEs) in the tropical South Atlantic and quantitative deconvolution of their non-conservative behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xin-Yuan; Plancherel, Yves; Saito, Mak A.; Scott, Peter M.; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2016-03-01

    This study presents new concentration measurements of dissolved rare earth elements (dREEs) along a full-depth east-west section across the tropical South Atlantic (∼12°S), and uses these data to investigate the oceanic cycling of the REEs. Enrichment of dREEs, associated with the redox cycling of Fe-Mn oxides, is observed in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) off the African shelf. For deeper-waters, a multi-parameter mixing model was developed to deconvolve the relative importance of physical transport (i.e., water mass mixing) from biogeochemical controls on the dREE distribution in the deep Atlantic. This approach enables chemical processes involved in REE cycling, not apparent from the measurements alone, to be distinguished and quantified. Results show that the measured dREE concentrations below ∼1000 m are dominantly controlled (>75%) by preformed REE concentrations resulting from water mass mixing. This result indicates that the linear correlation between dREEs and dissolved Si observed in Atlantic deep waters results from the dominantly conservative behavior of these tracers, rather than from similar chemical processes influencing both dREEs and Si. Minor addition of dREEs (∼10% of dNd and ∼5% of dYb) is observed in the deep (>∼4000 m) Brazil Basin, resulting from either remineralization of particles in-situ or along the flow path. Greater addition of dREEs (up to 25% for dNd and 20% for dYb) is found at ∼1500 m and below ∼4000 m in the Angola Basin near the African continental margin. Cerium anomalies suggest that different sources are responsible for these dREE addition plumes. The 1500 m excess is most likely attributed to dREE release from Fe oxides, whereas the 4000 m excess may be due to remineralization of calcite. Higher particulate fluxes and a more sluggish ocean circulation in the Angola Basin may explain why the dREE excesses in this basin are significantly higher than that observed in the Brazil Basin. Hydrothermal venting over the

  13. Comparison of fluorite geochemistry from REE deposits in the Panxi region and Bayan Obo, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Cheng; Taylor, Rex N.; Li, Wenbo; Kynicky, Jindrich; Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Song, Wenlei

    2012-09-01

    Panxi region in west Sichuan province is one of the most economically significant REE mineralization belts in China, and includes the large Maoniuping and Daluxiang deposits and the minor Lizhuang deposit. The REE mineralization in these deposits is spatially and temporally associated with carbonatite-syenite complexes. Large proportional fluorites and REE minerals occurring as veins intrude Cretaceous granite and Oligocene syenite in Maoniuping, and Oligocene syenite and carbonatite in Lizhuang, and Miocene syenite in Daluxiang. Fluorite is also one of main gangue minerals in the world-class Bayan Obo REE deposit. We present a comparison of the trace element and isotopic compositions of fluorites from four REE deposits in the Panxi region and Bayan Obo. The fluorites from Maoniuping and Daluxiang are characterized by variable REE patterns, with either LREE enrichment or LREE depletion relative to MREE. Typically they have a larger range in La/Ho compared to Y/Ho ratios, and pronounced positive Y anomaly relative to chondrite-normalized REE patterns. Their REE distribution patterns are controlled by fluoride-complexes and the loss of separate LREE-rich minerals. Different Y/Ho (ca. 73 vs. 108) and initial Sr isotopic (ca. 0.7061 vs. 0.7077) ratios are observed between the fluorites from Maoniuping and Daluxiang, reflecting their different source compositions. This contrasts with the fluorites from Maoniuping and Lizhuang, which have similar initial Sr isotopes, and appear to be cogenetic. However, the Lizhuang fluorite shows a consistent depletion of LREE relative to MREE, as well as lower Y/Ho ratios and higher HREE content than that in Maoniuping. In this respect the Lizhuang fluorite may have precipitated from a late-stage fluid following abundant fluorite and REE mineral deposition in Maoniuping. Carbonate, more than fluoride complexing, appears to have a stronger control on REE fractionation in the Lizhuang fluorites. The fluorites from three deposits in Panxi

  14. REE mineralization in the carbonatites of the sung valley ultramafic-alkaline-carbonatite complex, Meghalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadiq, Mohd.; Ranjith, A.; Umrao, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    The Early Cretaceous Sung Valley Ultramafic-Alkaline-Carbonatite (SUAC) complex intruded the Proterozoic Shillong Group of rocks and located in the East Khasi Hills and West Jaintia Hills districts of Meghalaya. The SUAC complex is a bowl-shaped depression covering an area of about 26 km2 and is comprised serpentinised peridotite forming the core of the complex with pyroxenite rim. Alkaline rocks are dominantly ijolite and nepheline syenite, occur as ring-shaped bodies as well as dykes. Carbonatites are, the youngest intrusive phase in the complex, where they form oval-shaped bodies, small dykes and veins. During the course of large scale mapping in parts of the Sung Valley complex, eleven carbonatite bodies were delineated. These isolated carbonatite bodies have a general NW-SE and E-W trend and vary from 20-125 m long and 10-40 m wide. Calcite carbonatite is the dominant variety and comprises minor dolomite and apatite and accessory olivine, magnetite, pyrochlore and phlogopite. The REE-bearing minerals identified in the Sung Valley carbonatites are bastnäsite-(Ce), ancylite-(Ce), belovite-(Ce), britholite-(Ce) and pyrochlore that are associated with calcite and apatite. The presence of REE carbonates and phosphates associated with REE-Nb bearing pyrochlore enhances the economic potential of the Sung Valley carbonatites. Trace-element geochemistry also reveals an enrichment of LREEs in the carbonatites and average ΣREE value of 0.102% in 26 bed rock samples. Channel samples shows average ΣREE values of 0.103 wt%. Moreover, few samples from carbonatite bodies has indicated relatively higher values for Sn, Hf, Ta and U. Since the present study focuses surface evaluation of REE, therefore, detailed subsurface exploration will be of immense help to determine the REE and other associated mineralization of the Sung Valley carbonatite prospect.

  15. Temporal variations in the export of REE in boreal catchments of varying character and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, S.; Lidman, F.; Mörth, M.; Björkvald, L.; Laudon, H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter and iron colloids have a large impact on the mobilisation of trivalent elements such as aluminium (Al), rare earth elements (REE) and actinides. Recent results of the relative importance of these colloids are diverging though (POURRET et al., 2007); STEINMANN and STILLE, 2008) and there is a general lack of information of the importance of flow pathways and landscape type on the relative importance of the various colloidal fractions that mobilizes REE from the catchment soils. In this study we present the data of water chemical analysis of a series of catchments with varying size and character but all within the boreal zone. Two speciation techniques and two column separation methods involving ion exchange were used to quantify the causes for the temporal variation of the dissolved amounts of trivalent ions in these water courses. Our study indicates that REE export is controlled mostly by landscape type while changes in the acid-base character of organic matter are of minor importance. Changes in flow pathways in a riparian zone in one of the studied areas in a forested site may be used to decipher the effect of chemical versus physical processes for the mobilisation of REE and aluminium and open up the possibility for a quantitative modelling of the varying sources of REE. Iron and aluminium are mobilized together with organic matter in varying amounts in different landscape types and this affects the REE export from the various landscape elements. While the amount of strongly bound aluminium mobilized from the catchments usually correlate positively with any of the REE this is not the case for strongly bound iron. Fractionation patterns of REE are discussed and the observed binding of REE to organic matter was modelled using the speciation program WHAM VI (TIPPING, 1998). Pourret O., Davranche M., Gruau G., and Dia A. (2007) Organic complexation of rare earth elements in natural waters: Evaluating model calculations from ultrafiltration data

  16. Heterovalent substitutions in garnet and their implications for diffusion of Y+REEs and alkalis (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, W. D.; Gale, J. D.; Wright, K.

    2013-12-01

    Lattice-dynamics calculations in the static limit suggest that large trivalent ions (Y+REEs) are incorporated into garnet primarily by means of substitutions that introduce menzerite and alkali components. The diffusion mechanisms implied by this finding explain otherwise puzzling aspects of recent determinations of diffusion rates for Y+REEs and Li in natural systems, bolstering confidence in the validity of those rates. Several substitution schemes have been proposed to provide the charge-balance required for incorporation of trivalent Y+REEs substituting for divalent cations in dodecahedral sites in aluminosilicate garnet: (1) YAG components, with tetrahedral Al; (2) vacancy components, with one unoccupied dodecahedral site for each two trivalent ions; (3) alkali components, with dodecahedral Na or Li; (4) menzerite components, with octahedral Mg or Fe; and (5) Y2Li components, with octahedral Li compensating for a pair of Y+REE ions. The relative energetic costs of these substitutions were evaluated in pyrope, almandine, spessartine and grossular by means of lattice-dynamics calculations at T = 0 K and P = 0 GPa, using well-established force-field potentials, and referencing exchange energies to the lattice energies of binary oxides as sources/sinks for the exchanged ions. Energies calculated for the incorporation of menzerite and alkali components are appreciably lower than those for the YAG component, and very substantially lower than those for the other components. Provided that the relative energetic costs are similar at elevated T and P to those in the static limit (testing of this assumption is currently underway), the menzerite and alkali substitutions should predominate in natural aluminosilicate garnets, the YAG substitution should play only a subordinate role, and the other substitutions should be near-negligible. As a result, diffusion mechanisms for Y+REEs in garnet require that motion of these elements must be coupled to transport of either

  17. Formation of the world's largest REE deposit through protracted fluxing of carbonatite by subduction-derived fluids

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Ming-Xing; Liu, Yu-Long; Williams, Ian S.; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Yang, Xiao-Yong; Ding, Xing; Wei, Gang-Jian; Xie, Lu-Hua; Deng, Wen-Feng; Sun, Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Rare Earth Elements (REE) are essential to modern society but the origins of many large REE deposits remain unclear. The U-Th-Pb ages, chemical compositions and C, O and Mg isotopic compositions of Bayan Obo, the world's largest REE deposit, indicate a protracted mineralisation history with unusual chemical and isotopic features. Coexisting calcite and dolomite are in O isotope disequilibrium; some calcitic carbonatite samples show highly varied δ26Mg which increases with increasing Si and Mg; and ankerite crystals show decreases in Fe and REE from rim to centre, with highly varied REE patterns. These and many other observations are consistent with an unusual mineralisation process not previously considered; protracted fluxing of calcitic carbonatite by subduction-released high-Si fluids during the closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean. The fluids leached Fe and Mg from the mantle wedge and scavenged REE, Nb and Th from carbonatite, forming the deposit through metasomatism of overlying sedimentary carbonate.

  18. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating and REE abundance of biogenic apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Y.; Terada, K.; Ueki, S.

    2001-12-01

    If the direct U-Pb dating of a fossil itself is possible, the method could have great impact on stratigraphic studies in establishing the absolute chronology of sedimentary sequences. Micro fossil ?conodont? are candidates for this purpose since they consist of apatite (Ca2(PO5)3 (F,Cl,OH)), which would uptake U, Th and Pb after sedimentation no longer than a few million years and is supposed to remain closed to U and Pb under relatively low effective closure temperature. We report here results of direct ion microprobe U-Th-Pb dating of two conodonts; Trichognathus from Kinderhookian stage of Mississippian sedimentary sequence from Illinois Basin region in North America and Panderodus from a Llandoverian sedimentary sequence on Langkawi Island, northern Malaysia. Secondary purpose of the study is to indicate in situ analysis of all REE on the same spots of U-Pb measurements. Samples were cast into epoxy resin discs with a few grains of standard apatite, PRAP, derived from an alkaline rock of Prairie Lake circular complex in the Canadian Shield and polished until they were exposed through their mid-sections. U, Th and REE abundances, and Pb isotopic compositions were measured by using SHRIMP installed at Hiroshima University. Thirteen spots on Trichognathus yield a 238U/206Pb isochron age of 323+/-36 Ma, which is consistent with the depositional and early diagenetic ages. Fifteen spots on Panderodus give 232Th/208Pb isochron age of 429+/-50 Ma, which is again comparable to an early Silurian. Shale-normalized REE of Trichognathus shows a broadly flat pattern from light to middle REE and a decrease from middle to heavy REE with negative anomalies of Ce and Eu. In contrast Panderodus indicates a concave-shape pattern with middle REE enrichment. These characteristics are probably due to a different formation environment as suggested by other workers.

  19. Rare earth elements (REEs): effects on germination and growth of selected crop and native plant species.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philippe J; Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E

    2014-02-01

    The phytotoxicity of rare earth elements (REEs) is still poorly understood. The exposure-response relationships of three native Canadian plant species (common milkweed, Asclepias syriaca L., showy ticktrefoil, Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. and switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L.) and two commonly used crop species (radish, Raphanus sativus L., and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L.) to the REEs lanthanum (La), yttrium (Y) and cerium (Ce) were tested. In separate experiments, seven to eight doses of each element were added to the soil prior to sowing seeds. Effects of REE dose on germination were established through measures of total percent germination and speed of germination; effects on growth were established through determination of above ground biomass. Ce was also tested at two pH levels and plant tissue analysis was conducted on pooled samples. Effects on germination were mostly observed with Ce at low pH. However, effects on growth were more pronounced, with detectable inhibition concentrations causing 10% and 25% reductions in biomass for the two native forb species (A. syriaca and D. canadense) with all REEs and on all species tested with Ce in both soil pH treatments. Concentration of Ce in aboveground biomass was lower than root Ce content, and followed the dose-response trend. From values measured in natural soils around the world, our results continue to support the notion that REEs are of limited toxicity and not considered extremely hazardous to the environment. However, in areas where REE contamination is likely, the slow accumulation of these elements in the environment could become problematic. PMID:23978671

  20. Mobilization and redistribution of REEs and thorium in a syenitic lateritic profile: A mass balance study

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, J.J.; Pagel, M.; Herbillon ); Rosin, C. )

    1993-09-01

    REE-Th geochemistry and mineralogy have been studied in a lateritic profile derived from a syenite at Akongo in SW Cameroon. REE and Th mass balance calculations for the host-rock minerals show that at least 70% of the LREEs and 50% of the HREEs are contained in allanite, apatite, titanite, and epidote and at least 50% of the Th is controlled by the same accessory materials which represent about 2 wt% of the unaltered syenite. These accessory phases are destroyed during the first stages of weathering causing most of the REEs and Th to be rapidly released into the soil. Comparison of the variation in the Zr, Ti, and Th content as a function of the apparent density of the different zones of the saprolite shows that Th is the least mobile element. The presence of secondary thorianite (ThO[sub 2]), the etched surface on zircon grains, and the presence of Ti in secondary cerianite support this geochemical interpretation. The concentration of thorium was, therefore, chosen as invariant relative to the concentration of the other elements, especially the REEs, in mass balance calculations. Most of the REEs are leached in the iron-rich upper horizons (loose nodular horizon, iron crust, and top of mottled clay horizon). Where the groundwater table moves (saprolite and bottom of the mottled clay horizon), the REEs are fractionated and redistributed. There is a juxtaposition of leached and accumulation zones with precipitation of LREE aluminous hydrated phosphates. This study supports the existence of two different cycles for the redistribution of elements in the soil: (1) as dissolved ions in the saprolite horizon, and (2) as individual particles in the upper part of the profile.

  1. Hydrothermal REE and Zr Ore Forming Processes in Peralkaline Granitic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysi, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Anorogenic peralkaline igneous systems display extreme enrichment of REE and Zr with a hydrothermal overprint leading to post-magmatic metal mobilization. Strange Lake in Canada, for example, is a mid-Proterozoic peralkaline granitic intrusion and host to a world-class REE-Zr deposit with >50 Mt ore (>1.5 wt.% REE and >3 wt.% Zr). In contrast to porphyry systems, peralkaline systems are poorly understood and hydrothermal metal mobilization models are only in the early stage of their development. This is partly due to the paucity of thermodynamic data for REE-bearing minerals and aqueous species, and the complexity of the hydrothermal fluids (enrichment of F, P and Cl), which make it difficult to develop thermodynamic models of metal partitioning. This study aims to show the link between alteration stages and metal mobilization using Strange Lake as a natural laboratory and combine these observations with numerical modeling. Four types of alteration were recognized at Strange Lake: i) alkali (i.e. K and Na) metasomatism related to interaction with NaCl-bearing orthomagmatic fluids, ii) acidic alteration by HCl-HF-bearing fluids originating from the pegmatites followed by iii) aegirinization of the border of the pegmatites and surrounding granites and by iv) pervasive Ca-F-metasomatism. The acidic alteration accounts for most of the hydrothermal metal mobilization in and outward from the pegmatites, whereas the Ca-F-metasomatism led to metal deposition and resulted from interaction of an acidic F-rich fluid with a Ca-bearing fluid. Numerical simulations of fluid-rock reactions with saline HCl-HF-bearing fluids at 400 °C to 250 °C indicate that temperature, availability of F/Cl and pH limit the mobility of Zr and REE. Fluids with pH <2 led to the formation of quartz and fluorite in the core of the pegmatites and to an increase in the stability of REE chloride species favorable for REE mobilization. The mobilization of Zr was favored at low temperature with the

  2. Use of arsenic and REE in black shales as potential environmental tracers in hydraulic fracturing operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Torres, M. E.; Haley, B. A.; McKay, J. L.; Algeo, T. J.; Hakala, A.; Joseph, C.; Edenborn, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    Black shales commonly targeted for shale gas development were deposited under low oxygen concentrations, and typically contain high As levels. The depositional environment governs its solid-phase association in the sediment, which in turn will influence degree of remobilization during hydraulic fracturing. Organic carbon (OC), trace element (TE) and REE distributions have been used as tracers for assessing deep water redox conditions at the time of deposition in the Midcontinent Sea of North America (Algeo and Heckel, 2008), during large-scale oceanic anoxic events (e.g., Bunte, 2009) and in modern OC-rich sediments underlying coastal upwelling areas (e.g., Brumsack, 2006). We will present REE and As data from a collection of six different locations in the continental US (Kansas, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kentucky, North Dakota and Pennsylvania), ranging in age from Devonian to Upper Pennsylvanian, and from a Cretaceous black shale drilled on the Demerara Rise during ODP Leg 207. We interpret our data in light of the depositional framework previously developed for these locations based on OC and TE patterns, to document the mechanisms leading to REE and As accumulation, and explore their potential use as environmental proxies and their diagenetic remobilization during burial, as part of our future goal to develop a predictive evaluation of arsenic release from shales and transport with flowback waters. Total REE abundance (ΣREE) ranged from 35 to 420 ppm in an organic rich sample from Stark shale, KS. PAAS-normalized REE concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 7, with the highest enrichments observed in the MREE (Sm to Ho). Neither the ΣREE nor the MREE enrichments correlated with OC concentrations or postulated depositional redox conditions, suggesting a principal association with aluminosilicates and selective REE fractionation during diagenesis. In the anoxic reducing environments in which black shales were deposited, sulfide minerals such as FeS2 trap aqueous arsenic in the

  3. Timescales and mechanisms of REE and Hf uptake in fossil bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herwartz, Daniel; Tütken, Thomas; Münker, Carsten; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Stoll, Brigitte; Sander, P. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) patterns of fossil bones and teeth are widely used as proxies for provenance, taphonomy, and palaeoenvironment. In order to investigate if fossil bones behave as closed systems over geologic time, REE profiles were analysed by LA-ICPMS along cross sections of 54 bones from various well-characterised and well-dated settings. These include terrestrial and marine diagenetic environments, covering Early Triassic to Holocene ages. In general, all fossil bones exhibit the highest REE concentrations at the outer rim, gradually decreasing by up to four orders of magnitude toward the inner bone cortex. Intra-bone REE concentration gradients decrease significantly from Quaternary via Tertiary to Mesozoic specimens, suggesting long term REE uptake and open system behaviour of fossil bone. This view is further corroborated by 176Lu- 176Hf dating of selected samples, all yielding significantly younger ages than the known chronostratigraphic ages. Hence, there is clear evidence for long term open system behaviour of fossil bones with respect to REE, which is in marked contrast to currently accepted models suggesting that REE uptake is only early diagenetic. Although unexpected, statistically significant four to seven point isochrons are observed for four fossil dinosaur bone samples and one Upper Triassic Mastodonsaurus tooth with MSWDs ranging from 0.083 to 4.5. Notably, mobility of Lu alone cannot account for the observed age patterns. Assuming constant Lu uptake rates over time, the radiometric ages should only be as low as half of the chronostratigraphic age. However, a six-point isochron defined by subsamples of a single Upper Triassic Mastodonsaurus tooth yields an age of 65.2 ± 1.1 Ma (MSWD = 0.68), much younger than half of the stratigraphic age (ca. 234 Ma). Hence, Hf must also undergo late diagenetic exchange. Likely mechanisms to account for the presence of statistically meaningful isochrons as well as for the late diagenetic exchange of both

  4. REE Zonation in Garnet: new insights from combined Thermodynamic and Diffusion Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, C.; Konrad-Schmolke, M.

    2013-12-01

    Compositional variation in garnet provides an excellent record of element transport within their host rocks, as it precisely reflects the interplay between thermodynamically-controlled nutrient demand and kinetically-constrained element availability during growth. Element availability is controlled by (1) the thermodynamically controlled element distribution among co-existing phases and (2) by matrix transport properties. Our task is to distinguish between factors controlling the availability of major- and trace-elements and to quantify their diffusion length scales but this is hindered by the fact that the interplay of different rate-limiting factors on garnet growth and composition are not fully understood. These processes comprise: (1) fractional garnet crystallisation, which continuously changes the effective, i.e. reacting, bulk rock chemistry (EBC), which in turn influences garnet proportion, growth rate and composition; (2) kinetically-controlled element availability, such that grain boundary diffusion in the host rock's interconnecting transport matrix (ITM) or surface processes in reacting phases cannot keep pace with the material required for garnet nucleation and growth in homogeneous thermodynamic equilibrium with the coexisting phase assemblage and (3) reaction-controlled trace element availability in the host rock, which is often reflected in discontinuous trace element zoning patterns in garnet. A 1D diffusion and reaction model was developed to investigate REE distribution patterns in garnet. It combines PERPLEX thermodynamic forward modelling for a bulk rock composition along a P-T-path with control of diffusion rates in the matrix fluid which acts as a transport medium in the intergranular space. Initial REE distribution is controlled by standard distribution coefficients. Reactant phases are the source of REE and product minerals fractionate REE from the transport medium. Thus the uptake of REE in garnet is regulated by: (1) thermodynamically

  5. Mineral chemistry of Rare Earth Element (REE) mineralization, Browns Ranges, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; O'Rielly, Daniel; Wilson, Robin; Das, Kevin; Wade, Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    ‘Green energy futures’ are driving unprecedented demand for Rare Earth Elements (REE), underpinning significant exploration activity worldwide. Understanding how economic REE concentrations form is critical for development of exploration models. REE mineralisation in the Browns Ranges, Gordon Downs Region, Western Australia, comprises xenotime-dominant mineralisation hosted within Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary units (Browns Range Metamorphics). Mineralogical, petrographic and mineral-chemical investigation, including trace element analysis by Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy, gives insights into the mineralogical distribution and partitioning of REE, and also provides evidence for the genetic evolution of the Browns Range REE mineralisation via a succession of hydrothermal processes. Two main REE-bearing minerals are identified: xenotime [(Y,REE)PO4], which is HREE selective; and subordinate florencite [(REEAl3(PO4)2(OH)6] which is LREE selective. Two morphological generations of xenotime are recognised; compositions are however consistent. Xenotime contains Dy (up to 6.5 wt.%), Er (up to 4.35 wt.%), Gd (up to 7.56 wt.%), Yb (up to 4.65 wt.%) and Y (up to 43.3 wt.%). Laser Ablation ICP-MS element mapping revealed a subtle compositional zoning in some xenotime grains. LREE appear concentrated in the grain cores or closest to the initial point of growth whereas HREE, particularly Tm, Yb and Lu, are highest at the outer margins of the grains. The HREE enrichment at the outer margins is mimicked by As, Sc, V, Sr, U, Th and radiogenic Pb. Florencite is commonly zoned and contains Ce (up to 11.54 wt.%), Nd (up to 10.05 wt.%) and La (up to 5.40 wt.%) and is also notably enriched in Sr (up to 11.63 wt.%) and Ca. Zircon (which is not a significant contributor of REEs overall due to its low abundance in the rocks) is also enriched in REE (up to 13 wt.% ΣREE) and is the principal host of Sc (up to 0.8 wt.%). Early, coarse

  6. REE partitioning between apatite and melt in a peralkaline volcanic suite, Kenya Rift Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macdonald, R.; Baginski, B.; Belkin, H.E.; Dzierzanowski, P.; Jezak, L.

    2009-01-01

    Electron microprobe analyses are presented for fluorapatite phenocrysts from a benmoreite-peralkaline rhyolite volcanic suite from the Kenya Rift Valley. The rocks have previously been well characterized petrographically and their crystallization conditions are reasonably well known. The REE contents in the M site increase towards the rhyolites, with a maximum britholite component of ~35 mol.%. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are rather flat between La and Sm and then decrease towards Yb. Sodium and Fe occupy up to 1% and 4%, respectively, of the M site. The major coupled substitution is REE3+ + Si4+ ??? Ca2+ + P5+. The substitution REE3+ + Na+ ??? 2Ca2+ has been of minor importance. The relatively large Fe contents were perhaps facilitated by the low fo2 conditions of crystallization. Zoning is ubiquitous and resulted from both fractional crystallization and magma mixing. Apatites in some rhyolites are relatively Y-depleted, perhaps reflecting crystallization from melts which had precipitated zircon. Mineral/glass (melt) ratios for two rhyolites are unusually high, with maxima at Sm (762, 1123). ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  7. Optical spectra and luminescence of REE and TRU for analytical purposes in chloride melts

    SciTech Connect

    Aloy, A.S.; Gorshkov, N.G.; Nekhoroshkov, S.N.; Osipenko, A.G.; Mayorshin, A.A.

    2013-07-01

    This paper analyzes absorption spectra of molten salts containing some of the actinide and rare-earth elements (REE) and evaluated the prospects of using the individual transitions to control the composition of the spent molten salts using adsorption and luminescence spectroscopy from the standpoint of the theory of Judd-Ofelt. It is shown that the fluorescent method can be recommended only for the monitoring of the degree of purification of the molten salt from the REE in the final stage, when only trace amounts of fission products are in the molten salt. In this case, the content of REE in the molten process is much smaller than that of the used model samples and that eliminates the problem of a significant decrease in the population levels of fluorescent Eu{sup 3+} by quenching impurities. In addition, the presence of salt in the matrix of americium and curium can cause self-luminescence of Eu{sup 3+} due to alpha disintegration energy of transuranics, which also complicates the quantitative measurement of luminescence for the determination of REE.

  8. [Study on the Geochemical Anomalies Identification of REE Based on HJ-1A-HSI].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-gan; Wang, Mei-juan; Li, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The characteristic spectral bands of REE do not vary with the occurrence state, cannot be used to identify mineral species, but can prove the existence of its own. Here we report the spectrum characteristics of REE and their compounds by remote sensing wave band from visible light-near infrared, with the quantitative relationship between the contents of REE and absorption index of characteristic spectral bands. The experimental study was carried out in Bayan Obo area, Inner Mongolia. Spectrums and Nd contents of typical rock and ore samples were gathered and analyzed. There is positive correlation between the Nd content, the absorption depth and absorption index of different spectrum characteristics (correlation coefficient > 0.778). Moreover, the correlation between absorption index of 726-772 nm band and Nd content is the best, at 0. 937. As mentioned above, the quantitative model and the inversion information remote sensing geochemical anomaly of Nd were built by the band of HJ-1A-HIS hyperspectral remote sensing data. Our results consistent with 1:200,000 stream sediment geochemical anomalies of Nd. The model provides a new means for rapid extract regional geochemical anomalies of REE. PMID:26978930

  9. Major, trace and REE geochemistry of recent sediments from lower Catumbela River (Angola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinha, Manuela; Silva, M. G.; Cabral Pinto, Marina M. S.; Carvalho, Paula Cristina S.

    2016-03-01

    The mineralogy, texture, major, trace and rare earth elements, from recent sediment samples collected in the lower Catumbela River, were analysed in this study to characterize and discuss the factors controlling its geochemistry and provide data that can be used as tracers of Catumbela River inputs to the Angolan continental shelf. The sediments are mainly sands and silty-sands, but sandy-silt also occurs and the mineralogy is composed of quartz, feldspar, phyllosilicates, magnetite, ilmenite and also carbonates when the river crosses limestones and marls in the downstream sector. The hydraulic sorting originates magnetite-ilmenite and REE-enriched minerals placers. The mineralogy of the sediments is controlled by the source rocks and the degree of chemical weathering is lower than erosion. The texture is mainly controlled by location. There is enrichment in all the analysed trace elements in the fine grained, clay minerals and Fe-oxy-hydroxides rich sediments, compared to the coarse grained and quartz plus feldspar rich ones. The coarse grained sediments (without the placers) are impoverished in ΣREE when compared with UCC and NASC compositions, while the fine grained sediments have ΣREE contents similar to UCC and NASC. The placers have ΣREE contents up to 959.59 mg/kg. The source composition is the dominant factor controlling the REE geochemistry of the analysed sediments as there is no difference in the (La/Yb)N, (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios in coarse and fine grained sediments. The sorting of magnetite, ilmenite, zircon, throrite, thorianite, rutile and titanite explain the HREE/LREE enriched patterns of the coarse grained sediments.

  10. Neodymium isotopic study of rare earth element sources and mobility in hydrothermal Fe oxide (Fe-P-REE) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, J.D.; Marikos, M.A.; Barton, M.D.; Johnson, D.A.

    2000-03-01

    Rare earth element (REE)-enriched, igneous-related hydrothermal Fe-oxide hosted (Fe-P-REE) systems from four areas in North America have been analyzed for their neodymium iosotopic composition to constrain REE sources and mobility in these systems. The Nd isotopic results evidence a common pattern of REE concentration from igneous sources despite large differences in age (Proterozoic to Tertiary), tectonic setting (subduction vs. intraplate), and magmatic style (mafic vs. felsic). In the Middle Proterozoic St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeastern Missouri, {epsilon}{sub Nd} for Fe-P-REE (apatite, monazite, xenotime) deposits ranges from +3.5 to +5.1, similar to associated felsic to intermediate igneous rocks of the same age ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = +2.6 to +6.2). At the mid-Jurassic Humboldt mafic complex in western Nevada, {epsilon}{sub Nd} for Fe-P-REE (apatite) mineralization varies between +1.1 and +2.4, similar to associated mafic igneous rocks ({minus}1.0 to +3.5). In the nearby Cortez Mountains in central Nevada, mid-Jurassic felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks ({epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}2.0 to {minus}4.4) are associated with Fe-P-REE (apatite-monazite) mineralization having similar {epsilon}{sub Nd}({minus}1.7 to {minus}2.4). At Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico, all assemblages analyzed in this Tertiary rhyolite-hosted Fe oxide deposit have identical isotopic compositions with {epsilon}{sub Nd} = {minus}2.5. These data are consistent with coeval igneous host rocks being the primary source of REE in all four regions, and are inconsistent with a significant contribution of REE from other sources. Interpretations of the origin of these hydrothermal systems and their concomitant REE mobility must account for nonspecialized igneous sources and varied tectonic settings.

  11. Neodymium isotopic study of rare earth element sources and mobility in hydrothermal Fe-oxide (Fe-P-REE) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, James D.; Marikos, Mark A.; Barton, Mark D.; Johnson, David A.

    2000-03-01

    Rare earth element (REE)-enriched, igneous-related hydrothermal Fe-oxide hosted (Fe-P-REE) systems from four areas in North America have been analyzed for their neodymium isotopic composition to constrain REE sources and mobility in these systems. The Nd isotopic results evidence a common pattern of REE concentration from igneous sources despite large differences in age (Proterozoic to Tertiary), tectonic setting (subduction vs. intraplate), and magmatic style (mafic vs. felsic). In the Middle Proterozoic St. Francois Mountains terrane of southeastern Missouri, ɛ Nd for Fe-P-REE (apatite, monazite, xenotime) deposits ranges from +3.5 to +5.1, similar to associated felsic to intermediate igneous rocks of the same age (ɛ Nd = +2.6 to +6.2). At the mid-Jurassic Humboldt mafic complex in western Nevada, ɛ Nd for Fe-P-REE (apatite) mineralization varies between +1.1 and +2.4, similar to associated mafic igneous rocks (-1.0 to +3.5). In the nearby Cortez Mountains in central Nevada, mid-Jurassic felsic volcanic and plutonic rocks (ɛ Nd = -2.0 to -4.4) are associated with Fe-P-REE (apatite-monazite) mineralization having similar ɛ Nd (-1.7 to -2.4). At Cerro de Mercado, Durango, Mexico, all assemblages analyzed in this Tertiary rhyolite-hosted Fe oxide deposit have identical isotopic compositions with ɛ Nd = -2.5. These data are consistent with coeval igneous host rocks being the primary source of REE in all four regions, and are inconsistent with a significant contribution of REE from other sources. Interpretations of the origin of these hydrothermal systems and their concomitant REE mobility must account for nonspecialized igneous sources and varied tectonic settings.

  12. Microbially mediated formation of a new REE enriched Mn-oxide, Ytterby mine, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, Susanne; Allard, Bert; Rattray, Jayne E.; Callac, Nolwenn; Skelton, Alasdair; Ivarsson, Magnus; Karlsson, Stefan; Sjöberg, Viktor; Dupraz, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of a black substance seeping from fractured bedrock in a subterranean tunnel revealed a new, microbially mediated, secondary manganese oxide mineralisation, highly enriched in rare earth elements (REEs). This tunnel is dry and at shallow depth and was built to convert the former Ytterby mine, known for the discovery of yttrium (Y), scandium (Sc) and five rare earth elements, into a fuel deposit for the Swedish Armed Forces. As the type locality of these rare earth elements, the Ytterby mine gave its name to yttrium, ytterbium, erbium and terbium. Geochemical analysis shows that the substance is enriched in REEs with concentrations one to two orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding rocks. Elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction establish that the main component is a manganese oxide of the birnessite type (general formula: [Na,Ca]0.5[Mn(III),Mn(IV)]2O4xAq). There are also minor fractions of calcite, some other manganese oxides, feldspars, quartz and about 1% organic matter, but no iron oxides. Leaching studies (sequential and selective) were performed in order to establish how the minor components are associated with the matrix (in the lattice or merely adsorbed on the outer surface). It shows that the Ytterby birnessite contains about 1% REEs in the lattice, as well as calcium but no sodium. Formation of birnessite by manganese oxidizing bacteria is well-known (e.g. Tebo et al, 2004). Quantitative PCR shows that the total number of bacteria in the Ytterby substance is in the order 1010 cells per g substance while the water feeding the fracture has in the order of 106 cells per ml groundwater. qPCR data further confirm that manganese oxidizing microorganisms are present and that the abundance varies with the seasons. Analysis of the precipitated manganese using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the substance is composed of two or more components, with one part having a biogenic signature. The occurrence of C31 to C35

  13. REE Mineralization in Kiruna-type Magnetite-Apatite Ore Deposits: Magmatism and Metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlov, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite-apatite ore bodies of the Kiruna type occur worldwide and are generally associated with volcanic rocks or volcanism. They also show strong evidence of extensive metasomatism over a wide P-T range. Notable examples include the Kiirunavaara ore body, northern Sweden (Harlov et al., 2002, Chem. Geol., 191, 47-72); the Grängesberg ore body, central Sweden (Jonsson et al., 2010, NGF abstracts, vol 1, 88-89); the Mineville ore body, Adirondacks, New York, USA (McKeown and Klemc, 1956, U.S. Geol Sur Bull (1956), pp. 9-23); the Pea Ridge ore body, SE Missouri, USA (Kerr, 1998, MS Thesis, Univ. Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada 113 pp); the Jurassic Marcona ore body in south-central Peru (Chen et al., 2010, Econ Geol, 105, 1441-1456); and a collection of ore bodies from the Bafq Region, central Iran (Daliran et al., 2010, Geol. Assoc. Canada, Short Course Notes, v. 20, p.147-159). In these ore bodies, low Th and U monazite, xenotime, allanite, REE carbonates, and/or REE fluorides are commonly associated with the apatite as inclusions, rim grains, or as independent grains in the surrounding mineral matrix. High contrast BSE imaging, coupled with EMPA and LA-ICPMS, indicates that the apatite has experienced fluid-induced alteration in the form of (Y+REE) + Na + Si + Cl depletion implying that it served as the source for the (Y+REE) (e.g. Kiirunavaara, northern Sweden; Harlov et al., 2002). Formation of monazite and xenotime associated with fluorapatite, as inclusions or rim grains, has experimentally been demonstrated to originate from the fluorapatite as the result of fluid-aided, coupled dissolution-reprecipitation processes (Harlov et al., 2005, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 150, 268-286). This is explains the low Th and U content of the monazite and xenotime. Fluid sources could range from 700-900 °C, residual, acidic (HCl, H2HSO4) grain boundary fluids, remaining after the last stages of ore body crystallization, to later stage, cooler (< 600 °C) (H2O-CO2-(Na

  14. Trace element and REE composition of five samples of the Yucca Mountain calcite-silica deposits. Special report No. 8

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, D.

    1993-07-01

    The attached materials document the results of part of a recent effort of geochemical sampling and analysis at Yucca Mountain and nearby regions. The efforts come as a result of interest in comprehensive analyses of rare earth elements (REE), lanthanum (La) through lutecium (Lu). Several additional, non-REE analyses were obtained as well. Commercially available REE analyses have proved to be insufficiently sensitive for geochemical purposes. Dr. Roman Schmitt at the Radiation Center at Oregon State University in Corvallis was sent five samples as a trial effort. The results are very encouraging. The purpose of compiling Dr. Schmitt`s report and the other materials is to inform the sponsor of his independent observations of these results and other information that sent to him. To provide a more complete appreciation of the utility of REE analyses a copy of Dave Vaniman`s recent article is included in which he notes that REE analyses from Yucca Mountain indicate the occurrence of two distinctly different REE patterns as do several other chemical parameters of the calcite-silica deposits. Our four samples with high equivalent CaCO{sub 3} were collected from sites we believe to be spring deposits. One sample, 24D, is from southern Crater Flat which is acknowledged by U.S.G.S. investigators to be a spring deposit. All four of these samples have REE patterns similar to those from the saturated zone reported by Vaniman.

  15. Geological and geochemical characteristics in the paleo-weathering crust sedimentary type REE deposits, western Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lingjie; Zhang, Zhengwei; Li, Yujiao; You, Fuhua; Wu, Chengquan; Zheng, Chaofei

    2013-09-01

    A supergene REE deposit closely interrelated with the weathering of the Emeishan basalt formation was produced in the Xuanwei formation, the overlying stratum of the late Permian Emeishan basalt formation in West Guizhou, China. The host strata consist primarily of offwhite kaolinite clay rock and/or grayish black carbonaceous shale. Mineralogical analyses reveal that kaolinites are the major minerals in REE ores with small amounts of smectite, illite, boehmite, hornblende, pyrophyllite, calcite, dolomite and/or iron-bearing minerals, with a certain proportion of feldspar, quartz crystal debris and noncrystal debris. Geochemical analyses reveal high enrichment of trace elements like Cu, Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf. The host strata feature considerable lithological variability, close interrelation of the REE grade with the lithology and uneven spatial distribution of the REE ores, which are mostly found in Lufang, Maojiaping and Zhangsigou profiles of Weining County and can be as thick as 20 m. Of the five stratigraphic profiles, 48% have their whole-rock ∑REE higher than 1000 ppm. The REE in this framework consists primarily of ion adsorbed phases and REE-rich residual independent mineral phases. Comprehensive analyses suggest that the source may not only include the Emeishan basalt, but the intermediate acid volcanic rocks evolved from the Emeishan basalt in the later periods; the hydrothermal alteration subsequently imposed on the host strata might have boosted the mineralization of the rare earth. The preliminary genetic model should have been: the denudation product from the weathering of the parent rock was migrated to the sea-continental margin at the continent side carrying huge quantities of REE with it and was preserved by the quick marine transgression. The host strata consist primarily of kaolinite clay rock and/or carbonaceous shale, which are so far believed to be a sedimentary type REE deposit closely interrelated with weathering effect.

  16. Geochemical constraints on the genesis of the Bayan Obo Fe Nb REE deposit in Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Yong; Sun, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Yu-Xu; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2009-03-01

    Trace element and isotopic compositions of carbonate from ore bodies, country rock which hosts the ore bodies (H8 dolomite), a carbonatite dyke exposed in Dulahala near Bayan Obo, and rare earth element (REE)-rich dolomite in Bayan Obo have been determined to understand the genesis of the Bayan Obo Fe-Nb-REE ore deposit, the world's largest resource of REE. The REE and trace element distribution patterns of samples from the REE-rich carbonatite dykes are identical to those of mineralized carbonate rocks, indicating a genetic linkage between the REE-rich carbonatite and mineralization in this region. By contrast, carbon and oxygen isotopes in the mineralized carbonate varied significantly, δ 13C = -7.98‰ to -1.12‰, δ 18O = 8.60-25.69‰, which are distinctively different from those in mantle-derived carbonatite. Abnormal isotopic fractionations between dolomite and calcite suggest that these two minerals are in disequilibrium in the carbonatite dyke, ore bodies, and H8 marble from Bayan Obo. This isotopic characteristic is also found in mineralized sedimentary marine micrite from Heinaobao, ˜25 km southeast of the Bayan Obo Fe-Nb-REE ore deposit. These facts imply that the carbonate minerals in the Bayan Obo deposit have resulted from sedimentary carbonate rocks being metasomatised by mantle-derived fluids, likely derived from a REE-enriched carbonatitic magma. The initial Nd isotope values of ore bodies and carbonatite dykes are identical, indicating that ore bodies, carbonatite dykes and veins may have a similar REE source.

  17. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs) on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E.; Parsons, Jessica L.; Ellis, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium) on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L.) DC., Panicum virgatum L.) and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L.) in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50) causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18) fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12) falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that phytotoxicity may be a

  18. Uptake and Effects of Six Rare Earth Elements (REEs) on Selected Native and Crop Species Growing in Contaminated Soils.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David; Boutin, Céline; Allison, Jane E; Parsons, Jessica L; Ellis, Deanna M

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have become increasingly important metals used in modern technology. Processes including mining, oil refining, discarding of obsolete equipment containing REEs, and the use of REE-containing phosphate fertilizers may increase the likelihood of environmental contamination. However, there is a scarcity of information on the toxicity and accumulation of these metals to terrestrial primary producers in contaminated soils. The objective of this work was to assess the phytotoxicity and uptake from contaminated soil of six REEs (chloride forms of praseodymium, neodymium, samarium, terbium, dysprosium, and erbium) on three native plants (Asclepias syriaca L., Desmodium canadense (L.) DC., Panicum virgatum L.) and two crop species (Raphanus sativus L., Solanum lycopersicum L.) in separate dose-response experiments under growth chamber conditions. Limited effects of REEs were found on seed germination and speed of germination. Effects on aboveground and belowground biomass were more pronounced, especially for the three native species, which were always more sensitive than the crop species tested. Inhibition concentrations (IC25 and IC50) causing 25 or 50% reductions in plant biomass respectively, were measured. For the native species, the majority of aboveground biomass IC25s (11 out of 18) fell within 100 to 300 mg REE/kg dry soil. In comparison to the native species, IC25s for the crops were always greater than 400 mg REE/kg, with the majority of results (seven out of 12) falling above 700 mg REE/kg. IC50s were often not detected for the crops. Root biomass of native species was also affected at lower doses than in crops. REE uptake by plants was higher in the belowground parts than in the above-ground plant tissues. Results also revealed that chloride may have contributed to the sensitivity of the native species, Desmodium canadense, one of the most sensitive species studied. Nevertheless, these results demonstrated that phytotoxicity may be a

  19. Cause of large negative Eu anomaly in the highly evolved A-type granites with REE tetrad pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Asahara, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Lee, M.; Lee, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    REE tetrad pattern with strongly large negative Eu anomaly is one of the specific geochemical phenomena observed in the highly evolved, fractionated granite or A-type granite. The large negative Eu anomaly from the highly evolved or fractionated granites related with REE tetrad effect was discussed in a lot of literatures (e.g. [1] Muecke and Clarke, 1981; [2] Irber, 1999; [3] Jahn et al., 2001). Recently, Lee et al.[4] also suggested that Eu anomalies and REE tetrad pattern from the highly fractionated A-type Muamsa and Weolaksan granites in the Okcheon Metamorphic Belt, Korea, might be associated with a fractionation between the residual melt and a coexisting aqueous high temperature fluid. Their origin and geochemical significance are ongoing yet. In order to clarify cause of large negative Eu anomaly in the granite with REE tetrad effect more clearly, we reanalyzed REE abundance of the Muamsa and Weolaksan granites using MC-ICP-MS at the origins laboratory of the University of Chicago. We also measured REE abundances of the constituent minerals using quadruple ICP-MS at the Korea Polar Research Institute. In this report, we show the re-analyzed REE data from the whole rock as well as new REE data from constituent minerals of the granite with REE tetrad effect. Then, we discuss the cause of large negative Eu anomaly in the highly evolved granite with REE tetrad effect. Especially, the granites with very large negative Eu anomaly also show large negative Ce anomaly. Lee et al. [4] mentioned that negative Ce anomalies were formed after granite emplacement. However, our new data indicate that negative Ce anomaly might be formed during the same geochemical process with very large negative Eu anomaly. This suggests that the REE tetrad effect may be related with a change of oxidation state during a magma evolution. Therefore, we will discuss REE tetrad effect, negative Eu and Ce anomaly as an indicator for the change of oxidation state of magma during the emplacement

  20. Partition coefficients of Hf, Zr, and REE between zircon, apatite, and liquid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fujimaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Concentration ratios of Hf, Zr, and REE between zircon, apatite, and liquid were determined for three igneous compositions: two andesites and a diorite. The concentration ratios of these elements between zircon and corresponding liquid can approximate the partition coefficient. Although the concentration ratios between apatite and andesite groundmass can be considered as partition coefficients, those for the apatite in the diorite may deviate from the partition coefficients. The HREE partition coefficients between zircon and liquid are very large (100 for Er to 500 for Lu), and the Hf partition coefficient is even larger. The REE partition coefficients between apatite and liquid are convex upward, and large (D=10-100), whereas the Hf and Zr partition coefficients are less than 1. The large differences between partition coefficients of Lu and Hf for zircon-liquid and for apatite-liquid are confirmed. These partition coefficients are useful for petrogenetic models involving zircon and apatite. ?? 1986 Springer-Verlag.

  1. DEMNUni: ISW, Rees-Sciama, and weak-lensing in the presence of massive neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Carmelita; Petkova, Margarita; Dolag, Klaus

    2016-07-01

    We present, for the first time in the literature, a full reconstruction of the total (linear and non-linear) ISW/Rees-Sciama effect in the presence of massive neutrinos, together with its cross-correlations with CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals. The present analyses make use of all-sky maps extracted via ray-tracing across the gravitational potential distribution provided by the ``Dark Energy and Massive Neutrino Universe'' (DEMNUni) project, a set of large-volume, high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations, where neutrinos are treated as separate collisionless particles. We correctly recover, at 1–2% accuracy, the linear predictions from CAMB. Concerning the CMB-lensing and weak-lensing signals, we also recover, with similar accuracy, the signal predicted by Boltzmann codes, once non-linear neutrino corrections to HALOFIT are accounted for. Interestingly, in the ISW/Rees-Sciama signal, and its cross correlation with lensing, we find an excess of power with respect to the massless case, due to free streaming neutrinos, roughly at the transition scale between the linear and non-linear regimes. The excess is ~ 5 – 10% at l ~ 100 for the ISW/Rees-Sciama auto power spectrum, depending on the total neutrino mass Mν, and becomes a factor of ~ 4 for Mν = 0.3 eV, at l ~ 600, for the ISW/Rees-Sciama cross power with CMB-lensing. This effect should be taken into account for the correct estimation of the CMB temperature bispectrum in the presence of massive neutrinos.

  2. Rearrangement of REE's in Austin Glen Fm. (Ord. ), Ulster Co. , NY

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, B.; McLennan, S.M.; Hanson, G.N. . Dept. of ESS)

    1993-03-01

    Austin Glen turbidites are part of the allochthonous Taconic sequence of the Appalachian foreland basin. Graywackes in the sequence are rich in quartz, sedimentary rock fragments and carbonate, but have little feldspar. The abundant matrix makes it difficult to recognize volcanic components. REE patterns and Nd isotopes were analyzed to distinguish the relative abundance of volcanic versus older crustal components. REE patterns for shales and graywackes in a hundred-meter section are characterized by variable LREE-enrichment. An inclined array was expected on the f[sub Sm/Md] [minus] [var epsilon][sub Nd] diagram resulting from mixed sources. The vertical array shows that the samples had the same Nd-isotopic composition at 470 Ma. The restricted [var epsilon][sub Nd] of 8.0 [plus minus] 0.4 indicates the provenance was dominated by older crustal components that likely had similar Sm/Nd. The large variation in f[sub Sm/Nd] requires rearrangement of the REEs during sedimentary processes or early diagenesis at about 470 Ma.

  3. The role of natural solidification paths on REE partitioning between clinopyroxene and melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlato, P.; Mollo, S.; Blundy, J. D.; Iezzi, G.; Tiepolo, M.

    2014-03-01

    We document for the first time the role played by natural solidification paths on the partitioning of rare earth elements (REE) between clinopyroxene and melt. To do this, we investigated the compositional variation of clinopyroxenes formed under increasing cooling rate conditions from core to rim of a dike at Mt. Etna volcano. As the rate of cooling increases, clinopyroxenes are progressively depleted in Si + Ca + Mg counter-balanced by enrichments in Al + Na + Ti. Consequently, the concentration of REE in clinopyroxene increases due to an increased ease of locally balancing the excess charge at the M2 site as the number of surrounding tetrahedral aluminium atoms increases. Since Aliv in clinopyroxene is a charge-balancing cation for REE, the partition coefficients (DREE) measured at the dike chilled margin are distinctly higher than those from the dike interior. We conclude that, in naturally solidifying magmas, kinetically controlled cation substitution reactions can be treated in terms of the energetics of the various charge-imbalanced configurations. This finding is corroborated by the near-parabolic dependence of DREE on cation radius due to charge-balance mechanisms described by the lattice strain model.

  4. Evidence for pressure dependence of the peak position in the REE mineral/melt partition patterns of clinopyroxene

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.Q. Univ. of Tokyo ); Masuda, A.; Shimizu, H. ); Xie, G.H. )

    1992-04-01

    Major element compositions, REE abundances, and strontium and neodymium isotope ratios were measured for three megacrysts of garnet, five of clinopyroxene, one of amphibole and the host alkali basalts from two volcanoes in northeastern China. Strontium and neodymium isotopic data and major elements (Fe and Mg) indicate a cognate origin of megacrysts and host lavas. Logarithmic values of REE partition coefficients for these minerals were found to vary parabolically with ionic radius, and hence the REEs in these three minerals are considered to substitute primarily into only one lattice site of each mineral. The ionic radius (optimum radius) defined by the position of peak top of the parabola is variable. Based on the REE partition coefficient data for both experimental and naturally existing clinopyroxene/melt pairs, the change of the optimum radius may be interpreted to be mainly pressure dependent.

  5. Parameterized Lattice Strain Models for REE Partitioning between Amphibole and Silicate Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, K.; Liang, Y.; Sun, C.; Jackson, C.; Saal, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of REE between amphibole and silicate melt is important for understanding a variety of igneous processes involving amphibole. In general, amphibole-melt REE partition coefficients (DREE) depend on pressure (P), temperature (T), and compositions of amphibole and melt. A previous study parameterized the DREE in amphibole-melt solely as a function of melt composition [1]. Here, we use published REE partitioning data between amphibole and basaltic melt, the lattice strain model [2], and non-linear least squares regression method to parameterize key partitioning parameters in the lattice strain model (D0, r0, and E) as a function of P, T, and both amphibole and melt compositions. We focus on experimental data obtained by LA-ICP-MS and ion probe, and experiments close to equilibrium. Amphiboles and coexisting melts from the 38 experiments that we compiled span a wide range of compositions with the Mg# of amphibole and melt ranging from 36 to 100 and 15 to 99, respectively. Two models, which give nearly identical results, are explored in this study. In the first model, D0 is a function of T and amphibole composition: it negatively correlates with T and MgM1,2,3 content in amphibole, and positively correlates with TiM1,2,3 content in amphibole. In the second model, D0 is solely a function of the melt composition: it negatively correlates with the mole fraction of Ca in the melt. Interestingly, r0 and E are both constant and identical between the two models, suggesting D0 in the two models are equivalent. The latter allows us to develop a new thermometer for amphibole-melt equilibria. As an independent test, we compared model-derived temperatures with those reported in the phase equilibrium experiments. The predicted temperatures are within ±41°C on average of the reported temperatures, adding confidence to our parameterizations of D0. Our two parameterized lattice strain models can be used to model REE fractionation between amphibole and basaltic melts

  6. Sorption of REE and TPE from HNO{sub 3} solutions on strong-acid sulfonated cation exchanger KU-2

    SciTech Connect

    Chuveleva, E.A.; Kharitonov, O.V.; Firsova, L.A.

    1995-05-01

    Sorption of rare earths (REE) on the strong-acid sulfonated cation exchanger KU-2 is studied as a function of the solution acidity (0.1-2.0 M HNO{sub 3}) and REE concentration. In concentrated nitrate solutions where M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} and M(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +} can form and be sorbed by the cation exchanger, the capacity of the exchanger seems to increase by 20%.

  7. REE-bearing minerals in a Ti-rich vein from the Adamello contact aureole (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieré, Reto; Williams, C. Terry

    1992-10-01

    Zirconolite, aeschynite-(Ce), titanite and apatite have been found as minor or accessory minerals in a Ti-rich (TiO2=2.1 4.5 wt.%) hydrothermal vein occurring in dolomite marbles at the contact with a tonalite intrusion of the Tertiary Adamello batholith (northern Italy). The vein consists of four distinct mineral zones, comprising from margin to center: (1) forsterite+calcite, (2) pargasite+calcite+titanite+sulfides, (3) phlogopite +calcite+titanite+sulfides, and (4) titanian clinohumite +spinel+calcite+sulfides. Zirconolite occurs in two vein zones only: in the phlogopite zone it is invariably anhedral, often corroded, and exhibits complex chemical zonation patterns. In the titanian clinohumite zone zirconolite is idiomorphic and characterized by a pronounced discontinous chemical zoning, but shows no evidence of corrosion. The considerable compositional variation observed for zirconolite (in wt.%: ∑(REE2O3)=0.74 16.8, UO2=0.59 24.0, ThO2=0.67 17.1) is due to the zoning, and may be attributed to four major substitutions described by the exchange vectors: 1. (Th, U) (Mg, Fe2+) Ca-1 Ti-1 2. REE Al Ca-1 Ti-1 3. REE Fe2+ (Nb, Ta) Ca-1 Ti-1 4. Hf Zr-1 Exchange vector (2) is effective at total REE2O3 contents up to approximately 5 wt.%, whereas vector (3) is operating at higher concentrations. Both titanite and aeschynite-(Ce) exhibit, like zirconolite, complex chemical zonation patterns which document that the trace element content of the metasomatic fluid was variable during the vein-forming process. As indicated by thermodynamic analysis of the phase assemblages, the vein zones containing the REE-bearing minerals formed at 500 600°C (Ptotal≈2 kbar) from a reducing fluid rich in H2S, HCl°, HF° and phosphorus, but relatively poor in CO2(XCO 2 ≈0.2). Geochemical and isotopic data are consistent with the interpretation of the fluid as being derived from the nearby tonalite intrusion. The abundance of idiomorphic fluor-apatite as well as textural relations

  8. Florencite-(La) with fissiogenic REEs from a natural fission reactor at Bangombe, Gabon

    SciTech Connect

    Janeczek, J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1996-09-01

    Florecite-(La) (La/Ce = 1.09) with fissiogenic REEs and florecite-(Ce) (La/Ce = 0.62) have been identified in illite from the clay mantle surrounding a natural, 2 Ga fission reactor at Bangombre and in sandstone beneath the reactor zone, respectively. Florencite-(Ce) is apparently unrelated to nuclear processes and occurs with monazite-(Ce), apatite, TiO{sub 2} (probably anatase), zircon, and illite. Grains of florencite-(Ce) contain inclusions of thorite, chalcopyrite, and galena. Florencite-(La) was found 5 cm from the {open_quotes}core{close_quotes} of the reactor and contains inclusions of galena and U-Ti-bearing phases. Secondary uraninite and coffinite have precipitated on some of the florencite grains. The chemical composition of florencite-(La) as determined by electron microprobe analysis is (La{sub 0.38}Ce{sub 0.35}Nd{sub 0.06}Sm{sub 0.01}-Ca{sub 0.03}Sr{sub 0.17})(Al{sub 2.98}Fe{sub 0.02}{sup 3+})(PO{sub 4})[PO{sub 3.80}(OH){sub 0.20}](OH){sub 6}. Secondary ion mass spectrometry revealed that between 27 and 30% of Nd and 67 and 71% of Sm in florencite-(La) is fissiogenic. The presence of fissiogenic REEs in {open_quotes}florencite{close_quotes} from the reactor zone in Bangombe and their preferential concentration in florencite relative to the bulk sample of clay demonstrate that aluminous phosphates may have played a more significant role in the fixation of fissiogenic REES released from uraninite after the sustained fission reactions than sorption onto clays. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. REE, trace elements, Sr, Pb, C, and O isotopes in a zoned skarn ore deposit

    SciTech Connect

    Langmuir, C.; LeHuray, A.; Fairbanks, R.; Meinert, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Groundhog skarn in the Central Mining District, New Mexico, is zoned along its >2km length adjacent to a dike swarm which trends NE toward the Santa Rita porphyry Cu deposit. Isotopes and trace elements in whole rocks and mineral separates from skarn and adjacent carbonate allow the study of the source of the metals and the systematics of trace element behavior in a skarn system. (1) /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios are uniform (.7083 +/- 1) in the carbonate host, but they range up to .714 in hydrothermal calcite and pyx from the skarn, values distinct from both Santa Rita (.706) and carbonate. (2) delta/sup 18/O (SMOW) in carbonate ranges from (+6.3 -+ 23) and is correlated positively with delta/sup 13/C (-5.6-+2.4) and negatively with /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr. Several trace elements also correlate with delta/sup 18/O. (3) Pb isotopes in galenas lie on the regression line for southwestern New Mexico Proterozoic crust. PbS from the skarn closest to Santa Rita has isotope ratios identical to PbS from the Santa Rita pit. (4) Most of the REE are not in gar or pyx. REE abundances are <1X chondrites after HC1 leaches, but in unleached samples can be >20X chondrites. All pyx separates have deep negative Ce and very deep Eu anomalies. Sr isotopes show that neither Santa Rita magma nor carbonate is the sole source of Sr. Pb isotopes are consistent with a Santa Rita source. The Ce anomaly suggests a seawater source for the REE. The data show that many of the metals in the skarn are not derived from the Santa Rita porphyry, and suggest that different elements may be derived from different source rocks.

  10. Temperatures and cooling rates recorded in REE in coexisting pyroxenes in ophiolitic and abyssal peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, Nick; Liang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    Mantle peridotites from ophiolites are commonly interpreted as having mid-ocean ridge (MOR) or supra-subduction zone (SSZ) affinity. Recently, an REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer was developed (Liang et al., 2013) that has higher closure temperatures (designated as TREE) than major element based two-pyroxene thermometers for mafic and ultramafic rocks that experienced cooling. The REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer has the potential to extract meaningful cooling rates from ophiolitic peridotites and thus shed new light on the thermal history of the different tectonic regimes. We calculated TREE for available literature data from abyssal peridotites, subcontinental (SC) peridotites, and ophiolites around the world (Alps, Coast Range, Corsica, New Caledonia, Oman, Othris, Puerto Rico, Russia, and Turkey), and augmented the data with new measurements for peridotites from the Trinity and Josephine ophiolites and the Mariana trench. TREE are compared to major element based thermometers, including the two-pyroxene thermometer of Brey and Köhler (1990) (TBKN). Samples with SC affinity have TREE and TBKN in good agreement. Samples with MOR and SSZ affinity have near-solidus TREE but TBKN hundreds of degrees lower. Closure temperatures for REE and Fe-Mg in pyroxenes were calculated to compare cooling rates among abyssal peridotites, MOR ophiolites, and SSZ ophiolites. Abyssal peridotites appear to cool more rapidly than peridotites from most ophiolites. On average, SSZ ophiolites have lower closure temperatures than abyssal peridotites and many ophiolites with MOR affinity. We propose that these lower temperatures can be attributed to the residence time in the cooling oceanic lithosphere prior to obduction. MOR ophiolites define a continuum spanning cooling rates from SSZ ophiolites to abyssal peridotites. Consistent high closure temperatures for abyssal peridotites and the Oman and Corsica ophiolites suggests hydrothermal circulation and/or rapid cooling events (e.g., normal

  11. The effect of particulate dissolution on the neodymium (Nd) isotope and Rare Earth Element (REE) composition of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Christopher R.; Jones, Morgan T.; Oelkers, Eric H.; Pradoux, Catherine; Jeandel, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    The exchange of material between particulates and seawater along the continental margins, a process commonly referred to as boundary exchange, is thought to play a significant role in controlling the neodymium (Nd) isotope and Rare Earth Element (REE) composition of the oceans. This study provides experimental verification of this concept by quantifying the effect of particulate dissolution in seawater on dissolved ɛNd and REE compositions. Three closed-system experiments were performed using basaltic particulate material of riverine, estuarine and marine origin. The release of Nd from this basaltic material increased the ɛNd composition of seawater in all three experiments, with a ɛNd value close to that of the associated sediment being achieved within 80 days in all experiments. Mass balance indicates that up to 0.4% of Nd from the particulate phase was released to the seawater over the duration of these experiments, and that the rate of release varied according to particulate origin and surface area. Progressive variations in the PAAS normalised REE patterns, as well as the Eu and Ce anomalies and La/Yb ratio, demonstrate that REEs were also transferred from the basaltic particulates to seawater during the experiments. Despite evidence for the release of REEs from the particulate material, dissolved REE abundances decreased during the experiments, and are thought to reflect incorporation into the REE-phosphate mineral rhabdophane. Together these experimental results confirm that elemental release from basaltic sediments on the ocean margins is a significant marine flux that can have a major control on the composition of seawater.

  12. Inter- and intra-crystal REE variations in apatite from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Papike, J.J.; Shearer, C.K. ); Shimizu, N. )

    1989-02-01

    Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) have been measured on a suite of apatite crystals from an internally zoned granitic pegmatite enriched in Li, B, Be, F, Nb, Ta, Sn and U with a Cameca IMS 3f ion microprobe using energy filtering. An apatite specimen from the Tin Mountain pegmatite, analyzed previously by isotope dilution, was used as a standard. The chondrite-normalized pattern determined with the ion microprobe closely matches the pattern determined by isotope dilution, with maxima at Sm and Dy, and minima at Nd and Er. Apatite samples from the Bob Ingersoll pegmatite show a large range of REE patterns and concentrations. In one case, apatite crystals within millimeters show differences in REE concentrations and pattern shapes, including a switch from positive to negative Eu anomalies. These effects may be coupled with non-ideal partitioning of REE in a heterogeneous mixture of melt, aqueous fluid and crystals. REE concentrations in apatite samples from the different pegmatite zones indicate a large variation in outer zones, high concentrations near the pegmatite core, and very low concentration in the core. Patterns are flat to slightly inclined (Ce/Yb: 1 to 5), and most samples have positive Eu anomalies. The magnitude of positive Eu anomalies decreases with inward position in the pegmatite, possibly indicating a progressive increase in {line integral}O{sub 2}, and a sharp increase may be indicated by systematic Ce depletion in apatite from the pegmatite core. REE-specific volatile complexes may contribute to variations, including unusual kinks, observed in REE patterns of apatite from mineral assemblages in upper parts of the pegmatite.

  13. Sm-Nd isotopic systematics and REE abundance studies of the ALH-765 eucrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, N.; Tatsumoto, M.; Coffrant, D.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of Sm-Nd systematics and REE concentrations were carried out for the whole rock and mineral separates from the ALH-765 meteorite. A Sm-Nd age of 4.52 + or - 0.09 (2 sigma) b.y. and an initial Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio of 0.50675 + or 0.00011 (2 sigma) have been obtained. The previously reported Ce irregularities have been re-examined in this work. The large Ce anomalies and some minor Sm-Nd system disturbances observed for the meteorite may be interpreted as results of terrestrial weathering effects.

  14. Behaviour of REEs in a tropical estuary and adjacent continental shelf of southwest coast of India: Evidence from anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepulal, P. M.; Kumar, T. R. Gireesh; Sujatha, C. H.

    2012-10-01

    The distribution and accumulation of the rare earth elements (REE) in the sediments of the Cochin Estuary and adjacent continental shelf were investigated. The rare earth elements like La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu and the heavy metals like Mg, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, U, Th were analysed by using standard analytical methods. The Post-Archean Australian Shale composition was used to normalise the rare earth elements. It was found that the sediments were more enriched with the lighter rare earth elements than the heavier ones. The positive correlation between the concentrations of REE, Fe and Mn could explain the precipitation of oxyhydroxides in the study area. The factor analysis and correlation analysis suggest common sources of origin for the REEs. From the Ce-anomalies calculated, it was found that an oxic environment predominates in all stations except the station No. 2. The Eu-anomaly gave an idea that the origin of REEs may be from the feldspar. The parameters like total organic carbon, U/Th ratio, authigenic U, Cu/Zn, V/Cr ratios revealed the oxic environment and thus the depositional behaviour of REEs in the region.

  15. REE and other trace and major elements in the topsoil layer of Santiago island, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Rosa; Prudêncio, M. Isabel; Rocha, Fernando; Cabral Pinto, Marina M. S.; Silva, M. Manuela V. G.; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    Geochemistry of major, trace and rare earth elements (REEs) of soils of Santiago island (Cape Verde) has been done in order to characterize soils developed on volcanic rocks and Quaternary sediments, contributing to the establishment of a geochemical atlas of the island. Sampling was made according to the recommendations of the IGCP 259 ("International Geochemical Mapping"). REE clearly differentiate soils with contrasting parent materials, particularly carbonatites-related soils, where lower MREE/LREE and MREE/HREE ratios were found, associated with higher contents of Ba, Th and U. Total contents of Cs, As and Ga are associated with the finer soils. The percentage of Fe, Co, Mn and Sc extracted using aqua regia increased with increase of the clay size proportion. Concerning potentially pollutant elements, As contents increase with decreasing particle size, and very high concentrations of Cr were found in some soils. However, As is less available in the finer soils and the percentages of extraction of Cr are low, limiting eventual environmental and health effects in the Santiago island.

  16. Hf, Zr, and REE partition coefficients between ilmenite and liquid - Implications for lunar petrogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Fujimaki, H.; Nakamura, N.; Tatsumoto, M.; Mckay, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    Partition coefficients (D) between ilmenite and coexisting liquid were determined under near-lunar conditions for Hf, Zr, and REE. Through isotope dilution analysis, ilmenite D values of 0.41 and 0.33 were obtained for Hf and Zr respectively, values significantly lower than those of ilmenite from a kimberlite megacryst. Partition coefficients of REE for the synthesized ilmenite are slightly smaller than those of ilmenite from the kimberlite megacryst, and the lunar (Lu) partition coefficient is 0.056. These results suggest that ilmenite was significant in the lunar-Hf evolution of lunar mare basalts. Using lunar and Hf D values for ilmenite, the Lu-Hf evolution of lunar cumulates and the coexisting magma was examined for various crystallization sequences. The Lu-Hf variation trend of most high-Ti mare basalts is explained by a small degree of partial cumulate melting, though a higher degree is required to explain the variation of very low-Ti basalts, green glass, and Apollo 12 low-Ti basalts. Apollo 15 low-Ti basalts may require chromite crystallization as well.

  17. Non-Gaussianity and the CMB bispectrum: Confusion between primordial and lensing-Rees-Sciama contribution?

    SciTech Connect

    Mangilli, Anna; Verde, Licia

    2009-12-15

    We revisit the predictions for the expected cosmic microwave background bispectrum signal from the cross-correlation of the primary-lensing-Rees-Sciama signal; we point out that it can be a significant contaminant to the bispectrum signal from primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type. This non-Gaussianity, usually parametrized by the non-Gaussian parameter f{sub NL}, arises, for example, in multifield inflation. In particular both signals are frequency-independent, and are maximized for nearly squeezed configurations. While their detailed scale-dependence and harmonic imprints are different for generic bispectrum shapes, we show that, if not included in the modeling, the primary-lensing-Rees-Sciama contribution yields an effective f{sub NL} of 10 when using a bispectrum estimator optimized for local non-Gaussianity. Considering that expected 1-{sigma} errors on f{sub NL} are <10 from forthcoming experiments, we conclude that the contribution from this signal must be included in future constraints on f{sub NL} from the cosmic microwave background bispectrum.

  18. Discrimination of sediment provenance in the Yellow Sea: Secondary grain-size effect and REE proxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hoi-Soo; Lim, Dhongil; Jeong, Do-Hyun; Xu, Zhaokai; Li, Tiegang

    2016-06-01

    This study analyzed grain size and elemental concentrations (Al, Mg, Fe, and rare earth elements (REEs)) in 91 surface sediments to elucidate sediment provenance in the Yellow Sea. Elemental concentrations were normalized by Al concentration (Celement/CAl) to minimize the sediment grain-size effect (GSE). However, noticeable linear relationships between Al concentration (or mean grain size) and the ratio (e.g., Mg/Al or Fe/Al) appeared unexpectedly in pair diagrams. The spatial distribution patterns of Fe/Al and Mg/Al ratios were also similar to the pattern of mean grain size. This implies that the GSE was not removed completely, even after the normalization process. Thus, great care must be taken when applying the ratios of Celement/CAl as a proxy of sediment provenance. To improve provenance discrimination of the sediments in the Yellow Sea, the difference between the REE distribution patterns of Chinese and Korean river sediments, expressed as δ (δ = REE∗(La) - REE∗(Lu)), was calculated, and the spatial distribution patterns of the δ values were mapped. The δ values gradually increased from the western to the eastern part of the Yellow Sea, except for low δ values in the southeastern part of the Yellow Sea. This result indicates that the majority of Chinese and Korean river sediments are accumulating near to their respective coasts, except for a deposit along the southwestern coast of Korea in which a considerable amount of sediment from Chinese rivers has been accumulating.

  19. The evolution of immiscible silicate and fluoride melts: Implications for REE ore-genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, O.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Proterozoic peralkaline Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada) exhibits extreme enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE), including the rare earth elements (REE), particularly in pegmatites. On the basis of a study of melt inclusions, we proposed recently that fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility played an important and perhaps dominant role in concentrating the REE within the pluton. Here we present further evidence for silicate-fluoride immiscibility at Strange Lake from a sample of the hypersolvus granite, which contains an inclusion composed largely of REE and HFSE minerals. The inclusion (∼5 cm in diameter) comprises a narrow rim containing chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon in a fluorite matrix, a core of fluorbritholite-(Ce) and bastnäsite-(Ce) and a transition zone between the rim and the core consisting of a fine-grained intergrowth of bastnäsite-(Ce), gagarinite-(Y) and fluorite. We propose that the inclusion formed as a result of silicate-fluoride immiscibility, which occurred early in the emplacement history of the Strange Lake pluton, and that it represents the fluoride melt. After separation of the two melts, the boundary between them acted as a locus of crystallisation, where crystals formed repeatedly due to heterogeneous (surface catalysed) nucleation. Zircon crystallised shortly after melt phase separation, and was followed by the growth of perthite together with arfvedsonite and quartz. As a result, the silicate melt surrounding the fluoride inclusion became enriched in volatiles that facilitated crystallisation of progressively larger crystals in the inclusion; large crystals of arfvedsonite and perthite were succeeded by even larger crystals of quartz. Massive crystallisation of chevkinite-(Ce) followed, forming the rim of the inclusion. The fluoride melt, which constituted the matrix to the silicate minerals and chevkinite-(Ce), crystallised after chevkinite-(Ce), forming fluorbritholite-(Ce) and fluorite. Aqueous fluid

  20. Al-26, Pu-244, Ti-50, REE, and trace element abundances in hibonite grains from CM and CV meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahey, A. J.; Goswami, J. N.; McKeegan, K. D.; Zinner, E.

    1987-02-01

    Hibonites from the CM meteorites Murchison, Murray, and Cold Bokkeveld, and hibonites and Ti-rich pyroxene from the CV chondrite Allende are studied. Electron microprobe measurements of major element concentrations and track and ion probe measurements of Mg and Ti isotopic ratios, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace element abundances are analyzed. Correlations between isotopic anomalies in Ti, Al-26, Pu-244, and Mg-26(asterisk) are examined. Ti isotopic anomalies are compared with REE and trace element abundance patterns. Reasons for the lack of Al-26 in the hibonites are investigated and discussed. It is observed that there is no correlation between the Ti isotopic compositions, and the presence of Mg-26(asterisk), Pu-244, and REE and trace element patterns in individual hibonite samples. The data reveal that hibonites are not interstellar dust grains but formed on a short time scale and in localized regions of the early solar system.

  1. Al-26, Pu-244, Ti-50, REE, and trace element abundances in hibonite grains from CM and CV meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, A. J.; Mckeegan, K. D.; Zinner, E.; Goswami, J. N.

    1987-01-01

    Hibonites from the CM meteorites Murchison, Murray, and Cold Bokkeveld, and hibonites and Ti-rich pyroxene from the CV chondrite Allende are studied. Electron microprobe measurements of major element concentrations and track and ion probe measurements of Mg and Ti isotopic ratios, rare earth elements (REEs), and trace element abundances are analyzed. Correlations between isotopic anomalies in Ti, Al-26, Pu-244, and Mg-26(asterisk) are examined. Ti isotopic anomalies are compared with REE and trace element abundance patterns. Reasons for the lack of Al-26 in the hibonites are investigated and discussed. It is observed that there is no correlation between the Ti isotopic compositions, and the presence of Mg-26(asterisk), Pu-244, and REE and trace element patterns in individual hibonite samples. The data reveal that hibonites are not interstellar dust grains but formed on a short time scale and in localized regions of the early solar system.

  2. Closure temperature in cooling bi-mineralic systems: I. Definition and with application to REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lijing; Liang, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Closure temperature is an important concept to many diffusion related problems involving cooling. The basic idea and formulation were outlined in the seminal work of Dodson for cooling mono-mineralic systems. The Dodson's equation has been widely used to calculate closure temperatures for igneous and metamorphic rocks that contain more than one mineral. The purpose of this study is to examine closure temperatures in cooling bi-mineralic systems and to investigate the physical meaning of temperatures calculated using the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer. We conduct numerical simulations of diffusive redistribution of trace elements between two coexisting minerals under prescribed cooling using temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients and mineral-mineral partition coefficients. Following Dodson's treatment, the closure temperature in bi-mineralic systems can be defined by the evolution of either average trace element concentrations in the two minerals or their ratio. The latter defines an effective partition coefficient. Closure temperatures calculated based on the two definitions are compared for a range of cooling rates, grain sizes, mineral proportions, and temperature-dependent partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients. Temperatures defined by the effective partition coefficient are recommended. Application to diffusive redistribution of rare earth elements (REE) in orthopyroxene-clinopyroxene systems demonstrates that closure temperature differences among REE are small and hence their average value may be used as the closure temperature for the cooling two-pyroxene system. The average closure temperature of REE in the two-pyroxene system is essentially the same as the temperature calculated using the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer and practically independent of pyroxene modal abundance in the system. Differences in temperatures calculated using the REE- and major element-based two-pyroxene thermometers can be used to infer cooling rate of two

  3. U-Th-Pb ion microprobe analysis of monazite from the Paleoproterozoic Karrat rare earth element (REE) deposit, western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, A.; Grove, M.; Bird, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The Karrat rare earth element (REE) deposit is located at 72°N on the Niaqornakavsak peninsula of Qeqertarssuq Island on the western coast of Greenland. Metasomatic alteration of an amphibolite host rock by carbonatite derived fluids resulted in REE mineralization in the Karrat Isfjord area. REE in the mineralization are primarily found in bastnasite, allanite, and monazite. In-situ analysis of monazite was conducted on samples obtained from three sites of mineralization: (1) the primary deposit at Niaqornakavsak consisting of a single distinct ~30m thick unit; (2) at Umiamako Nuna 7 km to the east of Niaqornakavsak where the majority of REE mineralization occurs within the first 20m of the surface; and (3) a 6m thick REE-rich vein 100m below the surface at Umiamako Nuna. Formation ages for monazite at Niaqornakavsak, Umiamako Nuna (surface), and Umiamako Nuna (vein) have been calculated using 207Pb/206Pb, 206Pb/238U, and 208Pb/232Th isotope ratios. Multiple isotope ratios were examined to determine the ideal method of monazite analysis based on the inherent issues of low U content of monazite, difficulties measuring 204Pb, common Pb corrections, and peak interferences resulting from high concentrations of REE. 208Pb/232Th analysis resulted in the best precision and smallest spread of values. Energy filtering was applied to 208Pb/232Th analyses in an effort to reduce interferences at several peaks. Although all three isotope ratio analyses result in a Paleoproterozoic age similar to the timing of convergence of the North Atlantic craton, Rae craton, and Aasiat domain as well as the emplacement of the Prøven Igneous Complex in Greenland (1.95-1.80Ga), the values range between 1.7-1.9Ga depending on the isotope ratio.

  4. Characterization of REE-Bearing Minerals and Synthetic Materials Using High Resolution Ultraviolet to Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefen, T. M.; Livo, K. E.; Giles, S. A.; Lowers, H. A.; Swayze, G. A.; Taylor, C. D.; Verplanck, P. L.; Emsbo, P.; Koenig, A.; Mccafferty, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Diagnostic crystal field 4fn-4fn transition features in the ultraviolet (UV) to near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum have been observed in many common rare earth element (REE)-bearing minerals. The partial filling of the 4f electron shell combined with a shielding effect caused by the fully filled 5s25p6-electron shells, which weaken any effects from external magnetic or electric fields on the electrons, makes rare earth ions unique. The narrow absorption features occur as a result of parity forbidden transitions and crystal field splitting of the trivalent REEs, and since they are well shielded, only subtle wavelengths shifts are seen in their spectral features. Synthetic single REE phosphates, carbonates, oxides, hydroxides and glasses have been measured in the lab to help identify absorption band positions that are characteristic of each REE as they occur in different minerals. Because spectral resolution is critical to identifying shifts in the absorption band positions, these materials have been measured on several different high resolution spectrometers. Using a combination of Ocean Optics USB 2000+ UV-VIS, USB2000+ VIS-NIR and ASD FS 4 spectrometers we have characterized REE-bearing materials from 0.2 to 2.5 microns with a spectral resolution of ~2 nm between 0.2 and 1.0 microns and 11 to 12 nm between 1.0 and 2.5 microns. Results to date suggest that wavelength shifts and variations in the degree of crystal field splitting allow spectral differentiation between REE-bearing minerals. To support these results, a comprehensive suite of marine phosphates, paleo-beach placers, IOCG deposits, alkaline to peralkaline igneous complexes, pegmatites associated with alkaline magmas and carbonatite intrusives, have been measured and included in our database. Core, rock chips, billets, sediment samples and grab samples were manually scanned to identify the most intense or spectrally different REE features. While REE-bearing minerals have been

  5. Pc 5 Spectral Density at ULTIMA stataions and its Radial Diffusion Coefficients for REE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, A.; Tokunaga, T.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Mann, I. R.; Chi, P. J.; Engebretson, M. J.; Yumoto, K.

    2009-12-01

    Pc 5 magnetic pulsations with frequencies between 1.67 and 6.67 mHz, are believed to contribute to the Relativistic Electron Enhancement (REE) in the outer radiation belt during magnetic storms. Ground-based observations suggested that high-speed solar wind and large-amplitude Pc 5 waves with a long duration during the storm recovery phase are closely associated with the production of relativistic electrons [Baker et al., 1998; Rostoker et al., 1998; Mathie and Mann, 2000; O’Brien et al., 2001, 2003]. On the other hand, many relativistic electron acceleration mechanisms have been proposed theoretically. They are separated roughly into two themes: in situ acceleration at L lower than 6.6 by wave particle interactions (as internal source acceleration mechanisms) [Liu et al., 1999; Summers et al., 1999; Summers and Ma, 2000] and acceleration by radial diffusion to transport and accelerate a source population of electrons from the outer to the inner magnetosphere (as external source acceleration mechanisms) [Elkington et al., 1999, 2003; Hudson et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2001]. One possible external source acceleration mechanism is the resonant interaction with ULF toroidal and poloidal waves. In order to verify which of the two mechanisms is more effective for the REE, we have to examine the time variation of electron phase space density. Electron phase space density is not directly measured, but we can estimate radial diffusion coefficients using observational electric and magnetic data. The goal of this paper is to get more reliable radial diffusion coefficient from ground-based observational magnetic field and to show reasonability of it for radial diffusion model. We use the global magnetometer data obtained from ULTIMA (Ultra Large Terrestrial International Magnetic Array, see http://www.serc.kyushu-u.ac.jp/ultima/ultima.html) stations, to precisely define the radial diffusion timescales. The ULTIMA includes McMAC, CARISAM, 210MM and MAGDAS/CPMN magnetometer

  6. The Obtaining of Nano Oxide Systems SiO2-REE with Alkoxide Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelina, Anna; Grinberg, Evgenii

    A lot of oxides systems with REE as dopants are used in catalytic processes in organic synthesis. They are very perspectives as thermostable coating in aerospace technics. These systems are usually based on silicon or aluminium oxides and doped with rare-earth elements. This systems can be produced by different methods. One of the most perspective of them is “sol-gel”-method with silicium, aluminium and rare-earth alkoxides as a precursor of doped silica and alumina, or their derivatives. Thus the obtaining of composite SiO _{2} - REE oxide materials by the hydrolysis doped with rare-earth elements was suggested. Some of alcoholate derivatives such as El(OR)n were used in this processes. The SiO _{2}- REE oxides were precipitated during the sol-gel process, where tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as used as SiO _{2} sources. Also it is known that alkoxides of alkali metals, including lithium alkoxides, are widely used in industry and synthetic chemistry, as well as a source of lithium in various mixed oxide compositions, such as lithium niobate, lithium tantalate or lithium silicate. Therefore, we attempted to obtain the lithium silicate, which is also doped with rare-earth elements. Lithium silicate was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane with lithium alkoxide. Lithium alkoxide were synthesized by dissolving at metal in the corresponding alcohol are examined. The dependence of the rate of dissolving of the metal on the method of mixing of the reaction mixture and the degree of metal dispersion was investigated. The mathematical model of the process was composed and also optimization of process was carried out. Some oxide SiO _{2}, Al _{2}O _{3} and rare-earth nanostructured systems were obtained by sol-gel-method. The size of particle was determined by electron and X-ray spectroscopy and was in the range of 5 - 15 nm. Purity of this oxide examples for contaminating of heavy metals consists n.(1E-4...1E-5) wt%. Sols obtained by this method may be used

  7. Geochemistry and microprobe investigations of Abu Tartur REE-bearing phosphorite, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Gamal S.

    2010-07-01

    Phosphorites in Egypt occur in the Eastern Desert, the Nile Valley and the Western Desert at Abu Tartur area and present in Duwi Formation as a part of the Middle Eastern to North African phosphogenic province of Late Cretaceous to Paleogene age (Campanian-Maastrichtian). The Maghrabi-Liffiya phosphorite sector is considered as the most important phosphorite deposits in the Abu Tartur area due to its large reserve thickness and high-grade of lower phosphorite bed beside high content of REE. Back scattered electron (BSE) images show framboidal pyrite filling the pores of the phosphatic grains, suggesting diagenetic reducing conditions during phosphorites formation. Electron Probe Micro Analyzer (EPMA) chemical mapping was conducted to examine the variation and distributions of selected elements (P, F, La, Fe, Yb, Si, Ce, W, Eu, S, Ca, Y and Er) within the shark teeth, coprolites and bone fragments. In the teeth W, S, Fe are concentrated along the axis of the teeth, the bone fragments show high concentration of W, Yb, Er and Eu, whereas coprolites are nearly homogenous in composition contains S, Er with some Si as micro-inclusions. Fluorapatite is considered as main phosphate mineral whereas pyrite occurs as pore-filling within the phosphatic grains and cement materials. Maghrabi-Liffiya samples show a wide range in the P 2O 5 content, between 19.8 wt.% and 29.8 wt.% with an average of 24.6 wt.% and shows low U content ranging from 15 ppm to 34 ppm with an average of 22 ppm. The total REE content in nine samples representing the Maghrabi-Liffiya ranges from 519 to 1139 ppm with an average of about 879 ppm. The calculation of LREE (La-Gd) show indeed a marked enrichment relative to the HREE (Tb-Lu) where LREE/HREE ratio attains 8.4 indicating a strong fractionation between the LREE and HREE. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of the studied phosphorite samples show a negative Eu anomaly.

  8. ``From Fundamental Motives to Rational Expectation Equilibrium[REE, henceworth] of Indeterminacy''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Ssi, Wh-

    For ``Principle of Indeterminacy''from Heisenberg states: ``one of the fundamental cornerstone of quantum mechanics is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle''.whereas canonically conjugate quantities can be determined simultaneously only with a characteristic indeterminacy[M. Arevalo Aguilar, et.al]. Accompanying Alfred North Whitehead conclusion in ``The Aims of Education''that mathematical symbols are artificial before new meanings given, two kinds of fundamental motives: (i) expectation-expectation, (ii) expectation-certainty inherently occurs with determinacy properties of rational expectation equilibrium(REE, henceworth)- Guido Ascari & Tizano Ropele:''Trend inflation, Taylor principle & Indeterminacy'', Kiel Institute, June 2007. Furthers, relative price expression can be compare of their α and (1 - α) configurations in the expression of possible activity. Acknowledgment to Prof[asc]. Dr. Bobby Eka Gunara for ``made a rank through physics'' denotes...

  9. Carbonatites of the World, Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Vladimir I.; Singer, Donald A.; Orris, Greta J.

    2009-01-01

    This report is based on published tonnage and grade data on 58 Nb- and rare-earth-element (REE)-bearing carbonatite deposits that are mostly well explored and are partially mined or contain resources of these elements. The deposits represent only a part of the known 527 carbonatites around the world, but they are characterized by reliable quantitative data on ore tonnages and grades of niobium and REE. Grade and tonnage models are an important component of mineral resource assessments. Carbonatites present one of the main natural sources of niobium and rare-earth elements, the economic importance of which grows consistently. A purpose of this report is to update earlier publications. New information about known deposits, as well as data on new deposits published during the last decade, are incorporated in the present paper. The compiled database (appendix 1; linked to right) contains 60 explored Nb- and REE-bearing carbonatite deposits - resources of 55 of these deposits are taken from publications. In the present updated grade-tonnage model we have added 24 deposits comparing with the previous model of Singer (1998). Resources of most deposits are residuum ores in the upper part of carbonatite bodies. Mineral-deposit models are important in exploration planning and quantitative resource assessments for two reasons: (1) grades and tonnages among deposit types vary significantly, and (2) deposits of different types are present in distinct geologic settings that can be identified from geologic maps. Mineral-deposit models combine the diverse geoscience information on geology, mineral occurrences, geophysics, and geochemistry used in resource assessments and mineral exploration. Globally based deposit models allow recognition of important features and demonstrate how common different features are. Well-designed deposit models allow geologists to deduce possible mineral-deposit types in a given geologic environment, and the grade and tonnage models allow economists to

  10. Preservation of REE and Fe isotopes in altered stromatolites and the paleo-environmental record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nies, S. M.; Shapiro, R. S.; Lalonde, S.

    2015-12-01

    Geochemical proxies are increasingly being used to unravel ancient ecosystems and environmental perturbations back to the earliest rock record on Earth. Along with more traditional fossils (stromatolites) and other biosignatures (e.g., lipids), the geochemical record is used specifically to evaluate biogenecity and to understand oxygenation of the atmosphere and ocean in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic. However, the effects of diagenesis, metamorphism, and other modes of secondary alteration are still poorly constrained, particularly as technological advances allow us to expand farther across the periodic table. Our study focused on the robustness and preservation of rare earth element (REE) and Fe isotope compositions of two stromatolitic units that have undergone contact and regional metamorphism. 18 samples were collected from cores, open pit mines, and field locations in Minnesota and Ontario from silicified iron formation (Biwabik-Gunflint formations). The samples were carefully constrained to one of two meter-scale stromatolitic units. Metamorphic grade ranged from essentially unmetamorphosed through prehnite-pumpellyite up to amphibolite (fayalite+hypersthene). Samples were also collected that represented deep secondary weathering, likely related to Cretaceous climatic extremes. Polished samples were first analyzed by electron microprobe and selected samples were further analyzed via laser ablation HR-ICP-MS to constrain trace element (n=13) and Fe isotopic variations (n=8). Preliminary results indicate that transition metal concentrations are surprisingly resilient to high-temperature metamorphic recrystallization. REE concentrations were analyzed in individual iron oxide grains, with full resolution (La to Lu) achieved for some samples and partial resolution (La to Nd) achieved for all samples. Core samples exhibited a relatively stable positive Ce anomaly occurring from low to extremely high alteration. Outcrop and mine samples indicate a shift from a

  11. Y,REE,Nb,Ta,Ti-oxide (AB 2O 6) minerals from REL-REE euxenite-subtype pegmatites of the Třebíč Pluton, Czech Republic; substitutions and fractionation trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škoda, Radek; Novák, Milan

    2007-04-01

    Aeschynite-group minerals (AGM) and euxenite-group minerals (EGM) occur in REL-REE euxenite-subtype pegmatites from the Třebíč Pluton, Czech Republic. They form strongly metamictized, light brown to black, equigranular to needle-like, subhedral to anhedral grains enclosed in blocky K-feldspar and less commonly in albite, and blocky quartz, and in the graphic unit (quartz and K-feldspar). Both AGM and EGM are homogeneous to slightly heterogeneous in BSE images. They are not commonly associated with the other primary Y,REE,Ti,Nb-bearing minerals, i.e. allanite-(Ce), monazite-(Ce), titanite, and ilmenite, which occur within the same textural-paragenetic unit. Aeschynite-(Y), aeschynite-(Ce), aeschynite-(Nd), nioboaeschynite-(Ce), tantalaeschynite-(Ce), vigezzite and polycrase-(Y) were identified using EMP and canonical discrimination analysis [Ercit, T.S., 2005a. Identification and alteration trends of granitic-pegmatite-hosted (Y,REE,U,Th)-(Nb,Ta,Ti) oxide minerals: a statistical approach. Can. Mineral. 43, 4 1291-1303.]. The exchange vector ACa B(Nb,Ta) A(Y,REE) - 1 BTi - 1 or its combination with the exchange vector ACa 2B(Nb,Ta) 3A(U,Th) - 1 A(Y,REE) - 1 BTi - 3 have been elucidated for the AGM. The exchange vector ACa A(U,Th) A(Y,REE) - 2 is predominant in the EGM. The AGM are enriched in HREE, whereas LREE are concentrated in the EGM. Weak to none-existent geochemical fractionations, as expressed by the U/(U + Th), Y/(Y + REE), Ta/(Ta + Nb) and (Nb + Ta)/(Ti + Nb + Ta) ratios, were noted for single grains from both the AGM and EGM, as well as in grains of polycrase-(Y) from four different textural-paragenetic units located in the Vladislav pegmatite. Simultaneous increase of U/(U + Th) and Y/(Y + REE) in the AGM during fractionation is typical. The Ta/(Ta + Nb) fractionation is usually weak and contradicts the Y/(Y + REE) and U/(U + Th) fractionation trends. This unusual behavior of Nb and Ta may be controlled by associated Ti-rich minerals (titanite

  12. REE Sorption Study of Sieved -50 +100 mesh Media #1 in Brine #1 with Different Starting pH's at 70C

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-07-21

    This dataset described shaker table experiments ran with sieved -50 +100 mesh media #1 in brine #1 that have 2ppm each of the 7 REE metals at different starting pH's of 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5. The experimental conditions are 2g media to 150mL of REE solution, at 70C.

  13. Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify perferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem in an effort to study preferential sediment source areas. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of...

  14. Submarine groundwater discharge is an important net source of light and middle REEs to coastal waters of the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannesson, Karen H.; Chevis, Darren A.; Burdige, David J.; Cable, Jaye E.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Roy, Moutusi

    2011-02-01

    Porewater (i.e., groundwater) samples were collected from multi-level piezometers across the freshwater-saltwater seepage face within the Indian River Lagoon subterranean estuary along Florida's (USA) Atlantic coast for analysis of the rare earth elements (REE). Surface water samples for REE analysis were also collected from the water column of the Indian River Lagoon as well as two local rivers (Eau Gallie River, Crane Creek) that flow into the lagoon within the study area. Concentrations of REEs in porewaters from the subterranean estuary are 10-100 times higher than typical seawater values (e.g., Nd ranges from 217 to 2409 pmol kg -1), with submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) at the freshwater-saltwater seepage face exhibiting the highest REE concentrations. The elevated REE concentrations for SGD at the seepage face are too high to be the result of simple, binary mixing between a seawater end-member and local terrestrial SGD. Instead, the high REE concentrations indicate that geochemical reactions occurring within the subterranean estuary contribute substantially to the REE cycle. A simple mass balance model is used to investigate the cycling of REEs in the Indian River Lagoon and its underlying subterranean estuary. Mass balance modeling reveals that the Indian River Lagoon is approximately at steady-state with respect to the REE fluxes into and out of the lagoon. However, the subterranean estuary is not at steady-state with respect to the REE fluxes. Specifically, the model suggests that the SGD Nd flux, for example, exported from the subterranean estuary to the overlying lagoon waters exceeds the combined input to the subterranean estuary from terrestrial SGD and recirculating marine SGD by, on average, ˜100 mmol day -1. The mass balance model also reveals that the subterranean estuary is a net source of light REEs (LREE) and middle REEs (MREE) to the overlying lagoon waters, but acts as a sink for the heavy REEs (HREE). Geochemical modeling and

  15. Sm-Nd dating and REE Composition of scheelite for the Honghuaerji scheelite deposit, Inner Mongolia, Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhijun; Li, Jinwen; Xu, Xinying; Song, Zeyou; Dong, Xuzhou; Tian, Jing; Yang, Yuncheng; She, Hongquan; Xiang, Anping; Kang, Yongjian

    2016-09-01

    Sm-Nd analyses of seven scheelite samples from scheelite-quartz veins in the Honghuaerji scheelite deposit produce a well-defined linear array on an isochron diagram with a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 0.87 corresponding to an age of 178.4 ± 2.9 Ma with εNd(t) = + 1.50. This age is interpreted to represent the age of scheelite mineralization. The scheelite Sm-Nd age is in good agreement with U-Pb ages obtained from a mineralization-related granite (179.4 ~ 178.6 Ma), indicating that there is no apparent age gap between granite crystallization and ore formation. Rare earth element (REE) abundances in the scheelite were determined by in situ laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and the scheelite samples contain elevated REE concentrations with total ΣREE + Y contents in the range of 3339 to 6321 ppm. The chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns of all scheelites are middle REE (MREE)-enriched, with strong negative Eu-anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.09 ~ 0.23). The REE characteristics of the Honghuaerji scheelite suggest that REE3 + substituted into the Ca site along with Na and Nb (dominated by Na), whereas Eu is predominantly present as Eu2 + in the scheelite and may have crystallized from relatively reduced fluids. All sulfur isotope data (δ34S) for sulfide separates range from + 2.0 to + 3.8‰, with an average of 3.2‰. Measured 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb ratios vary from 18.243 to 18.451, 15.494 to 15.574, and 37.933 to 38.340, respectively. On the basis of common Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic characteristics between the scheelite and the host granite and the positive initial Nd isotope ratios (+ 1.46 - + 1.52), low 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.704983-0.705297) in the scheelites, it is inferred that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for tungsten mineralization at Honghuaerji were of magmatic origin with a mantle-derived signature. Based on the regional geology, tectonic evolution, and geochemical evidence, the

  16. The role of pegmatites and acid fluids for REE/HFSE mobilization in the Strange Lake peralkaline granitic pluton, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysi, A. P.; Williams-Jones, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Strange Lake pluton in Canada is a mid-Proterozoic peralkaline granitic intrusion that is host to a world-class rare earth element (REE), yttrium (Y) and high-field strength element (HFSE) deposit containing more than 50 Mt ore at >1.5 wt.% REE and >3 wt.% Zr. The highest REE/HFSE concentrations are found in pegmatite-rich zones characterized by intense alteration. Previous studies of Strange Lake and other peralkaline and alkaline intrusions, such as Khan Bogd (Mongolia) and Tamazeght (Morocco) plutons have shown that hydrothermal alteration may play an important role in the mobility of the REE/HFSE. However, the fluid chemistry and conditions of alteration (i.e., P, T, pH, fO2, ligand activity) in these systems still need to be constrained to evaluate the importance and scale of such hydrothermal mobilization. We present new data from the B-zone, a pegmatite-rich zone located in NW Strange Lake. The pegmatites are generally zoned and form two main types. The border-type pegmatites consist of quartz, K-feldspar and hematized aegirine, whereas volatile-rich pegmatites consist of hydrothermal quartz and fluorite. Transitions between both types were also observed, with the K-feldspar being partly altered and replaced by Al-Si-rich phyllosilicates. The heavy (H)REE and Zr were primarily concentrated in zirconosilicates such as elpidite, now pseudomorphed by zircon or gittinsite, whereas light (L)REE and Y were concentrated in REE-F-(CO2)-minerals such as fluocerite and bastnäsite. Textural and mineralogical observations indicate that these minerals are primary and were partly to completely leached upon fluid-rock interaction in the pegmatites. Secondary phases include Ca-F-Y-rich minerals, mainly hydrothermal fluorite, that fill vugs and replaced primary REEHFSE minerals. The presence of hydrothermal fluorite veins, micro-veins, vugs and micro-breccia in the most altered parts of the B-zone are interpreted to reflect interaction of the rocks with a F-rich fluid

  17. Closure Temperature in Cooling Bi-Mineralic Systems With Application to REE-in-Two-Pyroxene Thermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, L.; Liang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Closure temperature is an important concept to many diffusion related problems involving cooling. The basic idea and formulation were outlined in the seminal work of Dodson for cooling mono-mineralic systems [1, 2]. The Dodson's equation has been widely used to calculate closure temperatures for igneous and metamorphic rocks that usually contain more than one mineral. The purpose of this study is to systematically examine closure temperatures in cooling bi-mineralic systems. This study is also motivated by our quest for the physical meaning of temperatures derived from the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer that is based on temperature-dependent REE partitioning between coexisting orthopyroxene (opx) and clinopyroxene (cpx) in mafic and ultramafic rocks [3]. To better understand closure temperatures and their relations to the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer, we conduct numerical simulations of diffusive re-equilibration of trace elements between two coexisting minerals under prescribed cooling using temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient and partition coefficient. Following Dodson's approach for mono-mineralic systems, we define the closure temperature of a trace element in cooling bi-mineralic systems using two methods: (1) by following the evolution of average concentration of the trace element in each mineral; (2) by tracing the variation of an effective partition coefficient (ratio of the average concentrations between the two minerals). Closure temperatures calculated using the two definitions are identical for a wide range of grain sizes and cooling rates. Additional simulations for a range of temperature-dependent partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients reveal that in addition to parameters introduced in Dodson's equation (pre-exponential factor D0, activation energy E, mineral grain size, and cooling rate), temperature-dependent partition coefficients are also important in determining the closure temperature for the bi-mineralic systems. Our

  18. Hydrothermal mobilization of pegmatite-hosted REE and Zr at Strange Lake, Canada: A reaction path model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysi, Alexander P.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2013-12-01

    Petrological and geochemical observations of pegmatites in the Strange Lake pluton, Canada, have been combined with numerical simulations to improve our understanding of fluid-rock interaction in peralkaline granitic systems. In particular, they have made it possible to evaluate reaction paths responsible for hydrothermal mobilization and mineralization of rare earth elements (REE) and Zr. The focus of the study was the B-Zone in the northwest of the pluton, which contains a pegmatite swarm and is the target of exploration for an economically exploitable REE deposit. Many of the pegmatites are mineralogically zoned into a border consisting of variably altered primary K-feldspar, arfvedsonite, quartz, and zirconosilicates, and a core rich in quartz, fluorite and exotic REE minerals. Textural relationships indicate that the primary silicate minerals in the pegmatites were leached and/or replaced during acidic alteration by K-, Fe- and Al-phyllosilicates, aegirine, hematite, fluorite and/or quartz, and that primary zirconosilicates (e.g., elpidite) were replaced by gittinsite and/or zircon. Reaction textures recording coupled dissolution of silicate minerals and crystallization of secondary REE-silicates indicate hydrothermal mobilization of the REE. The mobility of the light (L)REE was limited by the stability of REE-F-(CO2)-minerals (basnäsite-(Ce) and fluocerite-(Ce)), whereas zirconosilicates and secondary gadolinite-group minerals controlled the mobility of Zr and the heavy (H)REE. Hydrothermal fluorite and fluorite-fluocerite-(Ce) solid solutions are interpreted to indicate the former presence of F-bearing saline fluids in the pegmatites. Numerical simulations show that the mobilization of REE and Zr in saline HCl-HF-bearing fluids is controlled by pH, ligand activity and temperature. Mobilization of Zr is significant in both saline HF- and HCl-HF-bearing fluids at low temperature (250 °C). In contrast, the REE are mobilized by saline HCl-bearing fluids

  19. Reaction of seawater with fresh mid-ocean ridge gabbro creates ';atypical' REE pattern and high REE fluid fluxes: Experiments at 425 and 475 °C, 400 and 1000 bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beermann, O.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Holzheid, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    High-temperature MOR hydrothermalism significantly affects ocean chemistry. The Sisters Peak (SP) hydrothermal field at 5°S on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) emanates fluids >400°C [1] that have high concentrations of H2, transition metals, and rare earth elements (REE) exhibiting ';atypical' REE pattern characterized by depletions of LREE and HREE relative to MREE and no Eu anomaly [2]. This is in contrast to the ';typical' LREE enrichment and strong positive Eu anomaly known from many MOR vent fluids observed world-wide [e.g., 3]. Besides temperature, the seawater-to-rock ratio (w/r ratio) has significant control on the fluid chemistry [e.g., 4, 5]. To understand how vent fluid REE-signatures are generated during water-rock interaction processes we reacted unaltered gabbro with natural bottom seawater at 425 °C and 400 bar and at 425 and 475 °C at 1000 bar at variable w/r (mass) ratios ranging from 0.5-10 by using cold seal pressure vessels (CSPV). The run durations varied from 3-72 h. Reacted fluids were analysed for major and trace elements by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. In our experiments, ';atypical' REE fluid pattern similar to those of SP fluids were obtained at high w/r ratio (5 and 10) that might be characteristic for focused fluid-flow along e.g., detachment faults at slow-spreading MOR [6]. In contrast, more ';typical'-like REE pattern with elevated LREE and slightly positive Eu anomalies have been reproduced at low w/r ratio (0.5-1). Results of numerical simulations imply that strong positive Eu anomalies of fluids and altered gabbro from high temperature MOR hydrothermal systems can be created by intense rock leaching processes at high w/r ratio (5-10). This suggests that hydrothermal circulation through the ocean crust creates ';typical' REE fluid pattern with strong positive Eu anomalies if seawater reacts with gabbroic host rock that has been already leached in REE at high fluid fluxes. Simulations of the temporal chemical evolution of

  20. Multistage metasomatism in lithospheric mantle beneath V. Grib pipe (Arkhangelsk diamondiferous province, Russia): evidence from REE patterns in garnet xenocrysts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchukina, Elena; Alexei, Agashev; Nikolai, Pokhilenko

    2015-04-01

    150 garnet xenocrysts from V. Grib kimberlite pipe were analyzed for major and trace elements compositions. 70 % of garnet belong to lherzolite field; 14 % - megacrysts and pyroxenites; 11 % - eclogites; 4 % - harzburgite; 1 % (1- wehrlite defined by Sobolev (1973). Harzburgite garnets: sinusoidal REE patterns Smn/Ern > 5 (5.2 - 19.8). low Y (0.5 - 3.9 ppm), Zr (1.1 - 44.6 ppm), Ti (54 - 1322 ppm). Wehrlite garnetd: close to sinusoidal REE patterns, Smn/Ern - 1.8. Megacrysts and pyroxenites garnets: normal REE patterns Smn/Ern < 1 (0.2 - 0.6), high TiO2 (0.9 - 1.3 wt %). Lherzolite garnets 70 % show four groups of REE patterns similar to peridotite xenoliths (Shchukina et al., 2013, 2015). 1-st contains MREE at С1 level, Sm/Ern - 0.03, La/Ybn - 0.002. increasing La -Yb range, low Y, Zr, Ti indicating residual nature. 2-nd: MREE at 2 - 13 chondrite units, Smn/Ern (0.16 - 0.98), La/Ybn - 0.001 - 0.040 and flat pattern from MREE to HREE. 3-rd -MREE at 5 - 14 chondrite units, Sm/Ern > 1 (1.05 - 4.81) La/Ybn - 0.010-0.051 increasing an hump at MREE decreasing to HREE. 4-th: sinusoidal REE, Sm/Ern 4.2 - 27.2. and harzburgite Y, Zr, Ti . Average Cr2O3 content increases from 2-nd to the 3-rd group (3.3 to 5.7 wt%) and 4th (7.9 wt %). Average Y/Zr decreases from 2-nd (0.6) to 3rd (0.2) and 4th group (0.08). REE and Y, Zr, Ti indicate the metasomatic origin of garnets of 2, 3. 4 groups. Modeling of TREfor equilibrated melts and fractional crystallization 2nd group close to Turyino field basalts and 3-rd - to Izmozero field picrites of Arkhangelsk diamondiferous province (ADP). Basing on geochemical data of garnet xenocrysts and garnets and clinopyroxenes in peridotites (Shchukina et al., 2013, 2015) we suppose at least 3 stage of high-temperature metasomatic enrichment. 1st stage - is enrichment of residual garnets (found only in peridotite garnets) in LREE by the influence of carbonatite melt close to the Mela field carbonatites of ADP. REE patterns in clinopyroxenes from

  1. Rare earth elements (REE) as natural and applied tracers in the catchment area of Gessental valley, former uranium mining area of Eastern Thuringia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buechel, G.; Merten, D.; Geletneky, J. W.; Kothe, E.

    2003-04-01

    Between 1947 and 1990 about 113.000 t of uranium were excavated at the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg (Eastern Thuringia, Germany). The legacy consists of more than 200 million m^3 of metasedimentary rocks rich in organic matter, sulfides and heavy metals originally deposited in mining heaps at the surface. The metasedimentary rocks formed under anoxic conditions about a 400 Mio. years ago are now exposed to oxic conditions. The oxidation of markasite and pyrite results in the formation of H_2SO_4. The formation of acid mine drainage (AMD) leads to high concentrations of uranium, rare earth elements (REE) and other heavy metals in surface water, seepage water and groundwater. This mobilization is due to alteration enhanced by high microbial activity and low pH. The tolerance mechanisms towards heavy metal pollution of soil substrate and surface/groundwater has allowed the selection of microbes which have, e.g. specific transporter genes and which are associated to plants in symbiotic interactions like mycorrhiza. In order to follow the processes linking alteration of metasedimentary rocks to biological systems the use of tracers is needed. One group of such tracers occuring in high concentrations in the water phase at the Ronneburg mining site are the REE (La-Lu) which are featured by very similar chemical behaviour. They show smooth but continuous variations of their chemical behaviour as a function of atomic number. For seepage water of the waste rock dump Nordhalde - sampled over a period of two years - the shale normalized REE patterns show enrichment of heavy REE and only minor variations, although the concentration differs. At sampling points in the surface water and in groundwater rather similar REE patterns were observed. Thus, REE can be used as tracers to identify diffuse inflow of REE-rich acid mine drainage of the dumps into the creek and the sediments. The absolute concentrations of REE in the creek and in ground water are up to 1000 times

  2. How lithology and climate affect REE mobility and fractionation along a shale weathering transect of the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Jin, L.; Dere, A. L.; White, T.; Mathur, R.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Shale weathering is an important process in global elemental cycles. Accompanied by the transformation of bedrock into regolith, many elements including rare earth elements (REE) are mobilized primarily by chemical weathering in the Critical Zone. Then, REE are subsequently transported from the vadose zone to streams, with eventual deposition in the oceans. REE have been identified as crucial and strategic natural resources; and discovery of new REE deposits will be facilitated by understanding global REE cycles. At present, the mechanisms and environmental factors controlling release, transport, and deposition of REE - the sources and sinks - at Earth's surface remain unclear. Here, we present a systematic study of soils, stream sediments, stream waters, soil water and bedrock in six small watersheds that are developed on shale bedrock in the eastern USA to constrain the mobility and fractionation of REE during early stages of chemical weathering. The selected watersheds are part of the shale transect established by the Susquehanna Shale Hills Observatory (SSHO) and are well suited to investigate weathering on shales of different compositions or within different climate regimes but on the same shale unit. Our REE study from SSHO, a small gray shale watershed in central Pennsylvania, shows that up to 65% of the REE (relative to parent bedrock) is depleted in the acidic and organic-rich soils due to chemical leaching. Both weathering soil profiles and natural waters show a preferential removal of middle REE (MREE: Sm to Dy) relative to light REE (La to Nd) and heavy REE (Ho to Lu) during shale weathering, due to preferential release of MREE from a phosphate phase (rhabdophane). Strong positive Ce anomalies observed in the regolith and stream sediments point to the fractionation and preferential precipitation of Ce as compared to other REE, in the generally oxidizing conditions of the surface environments. One watershed developed on the Marcellus black shale in

  3. REE chemistry and Sm-Nd systematics of late Archean weathering profiles in the Fortescue Group, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, A. W.; Danielson, A.; Holland, H. D.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    1994-01-01

    Two weathering profiles, each consisting of an upper, sericite-rich zone and a lower, chlorite-rich zone, are preserved between flows of the Mt. Roe Basalt in the Fortescue Group, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. REE concentrations in samples from these two profiles, which originally developed ca 2,760 Ma, show large variations depending on stratigraphic position. LREE abundances and (La/Yb)N are greatest at depths of 3-6 m below the paleosurface of the Mt. Roe #1 profile and are somewhat lower in samples above this level. The LREEs reach concentrations 6-9 times greater than in the underlying basalt, and thus appear to have been mobilized downward in the paleosol and concentrated in its middle part. LREE concentrations in the #2 profile show a similar distribution but with a sharp increase in all REE concentrations within 50 cm of the paleosurface. The distinction between the REE profiles in the two paleosols may be related to the difference in the overlying material. The #1 paleosol is overlain by a few meters of sediments and then by basalt, whereas the #2 paleosol is directly overlain by basalt. The LREEs appear to have been mobilized both during chemical weathering of the parental basalt and during later lower-greenschist-facies metamorphism and metasomatism of the paleosols. Remobilization of the REEs during the regional metamorphism of the Fortescue Group is confirmed by a whole-rock Sm-Nd reference isochron of Mt. Roe #1 samples with an age of 2,151 +/- 360 Ma. Variable initial 143Nd/144Nd values of unweathered basalt samples which may represent the paleosol protolith prevents a confident determination of the magnitude of LREE mobility. Both the initial mobilization of the REEs during weathering and the metasomatic remobilization appear to have taken place under redox conditions where Ce was present dominantly as Ce3+, because Ce anomalies are not developed within the sericite zone samples regardless of concentration. Europium anomalies in the

  4. REE chemistry and Sm-Nd systematics of late Archean weathering profiles in the Fortescue Group, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, A W; Danielson, A; Holland, H D; Jacobsen, S B

    1994-04-01

    Two weathering profiles, each consisting of an upper, sericite-rich zone and a lower, chlorite-rich zone, are preserved between flows of the Mt. Roe Basalt in the Fortescue Group, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. REE concentrations in samples from these two profiles, which originally developed ca 2,760 Ma, show large variations depending on stratigraphic position. LREE abundances and (La/Yb)N are greatest at depths of 3-6 m below the paleosurface of the Mt. Roe #1 profile and are somewhat lower in samples above this level. The LREEs reach concentrations 6-9 times greater than in the underlying basalt, and thus appear to have been mobilized downward in the paleosol and concentrated in its middle part. LREE concentrations in the #2 profile show a similar distribution but with a sharp increase in all REE concentrations within 50 cm of the paleosurface. The distinction between the REE profiles in the two paleosols may be related to the difference in the overlying material. The #1 paleosol is overlain by a few meters of sediments and then by basalt, whereas the #2 paleosol is directly overlain by basalt. The LREEs appear to have been mobilized both during chemical weathering of the parental basalt and during later lower-greenschist-facies metamorphism and metasomatism of the paleosols. Remobilization of the REEs during the regional metamorphism of the Fortescue Group is confirmed by a whole-rock Sm-Nd reference isochron of Mt. Roe #1 samples with an age of 2,151 +/- 360 Ma. Variable initial 143Nd/144Nd values of unweathered basalt samples which may represent the paleosol protolith prevents a confident determination of the magnitude of LREE mobility. Both the initial mobilization of the REEs during weathering and the metasomatic remobilization appear to have taken place under redox conditions where Ce was present dominantly as Ce3+, because Ce anomalies are not developed within the sericite zone samples regardless of concentration. Europium anomalies in the

  5. Partition coefficients of Hf, Zr, and REE between phenocrysts and groundmasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimaki, H.; Tatsumoto, M.; Aoki, K.-I.

    1984-01-01

    Partition coefficients of Hf, Zr, and REE between olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, plagioclase, garnet, amphibole, ilmenite, phlogopite, and liquid are presented. Samples consist of megacrysts in kimberlite, phenocrysts in alkaline basalts, tholeiitic basalts and andesitic to dacitic rocks, and synthetic garnet and clinopyroxene in Hawaiian tholeiites. The Hf-Lu and Zr-Lu elemental fractionations are as large as the Lu-Sm or Lu-Nd fractionation. The Hf and Zr partition coefficients between mafic phenocrysts and liquids are smaller than the Lu partition coefficients, but are similar to the Nd or Sm partition coefficients. The Hf and Zr partition coefficients between ilmenite, phlogopite, and liquid are larger than the Lu partition coefficients for these minerals and their corresponding liquids. The Hf-Zr elemental fractionation does not occur except for extreme fractionation involving Zr-minerals and extremely low fO2. These data have an important bearing on chronological and petrogenetic tracer studies involving the Lu-Hf isotopic system.

  6. Recombinant cancer vaccines and new vaccine targets. Interview by Jenaid Rees.

    PubMed

    Schlom, Jeffrey

    2013-10-01

    Interview by Jenaid Rees, Commissioning Editor Jeffrey Schlom obtained his PhD from Rutgers University (NJ, USA). After obtaining his PhD, he worked at Columbia University (NY, USA) before moving in 1973 to the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health (MD, USA). Since then he has served as the Chief of several sections, including his present position as the Chief of the Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology in the Center for Cancer Research which he has held for the past 30 years. During this period, he has worked as an Adjunct Professor at George Washington University (Washington, DC, USA), served on the Editorial Board of several journals and holds membership in a number of committees. He holds over 30 patents and patent applications in the areas of vaccines, tumor antigens and monoclonal antibodies and has received honors and awards throughout his career. Jeffrey Schlom has been involved in translational research involving the immunotherapy of a range of carcinomas and predominantly works in the areas of tumor immunology, mechanisms of tumor cell-immune cell interactions and immune mechanisms. He has recently been working on the design and characterization of recombinant vaccines for cancer therapy. PMID:24098990

  7. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18-83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D₂O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  8. Age-Dependent Changes in Resting Energy Expenditure (REE): Insights from Detailed Body Composition Analysis in Normal and Overweight Healthy Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Corinna; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Schweitzer, Lisa; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in organ and tissue masses may add to changes in the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and fat free mass (FFM) in normal and overweight healthy Caucasians. Secondary analysis using cross-sectional data of 714 healthy normal and overweight Caucasian subjects (age 18–83 years) with comprehensive information on FFM, organ and tissue masses (as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), body density (as assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography (ADP)) and hydration (as assessed by deuterium dilution (D2O)) and REE (as assessed by indirect calorimetry). High metabolic rate organs (HMR) summarized brain, heart, liver and kidney masses. Ratios of HMR organs and muscle mass (MM) in relation to FFM were considered. REE was calculated (REEc) using organ and tissue masses times their specific metabolic rates. REE, FFM, specific metabolic rates, the REE-FFM relationship, HOMA, CRP, and thyroid hormone levels change with age. The age-related decrease in FFM explained 59.7% of decreases in REE. Mean residuals of the REE-FFM association were positive in young adults but became negative in older subjects. When compared to young adults, proportions of MM to FFM decreased with age, whereas contributions of liver and heart did not differ between age groups. HOMA, TSH and inflammation (plasma CRP-levels) explained 4.2%, 2.0% and 1.4% of the variance in the REE-FFM residuals, but age and plasma T3-levels had no effects. HMR to FFM and MM to FFM ratios together added 11.8% on to the variance of REE-FFM residuals. Differences between REE and REEc increased with age, suggesting age-related changes in specific metabolic rates of organs and tissues. This bias was partly explained by plasmaT3-levels. Age-related changes in REE are explained by (i) decreases in fat free mass; (ii) a decrease in the contributions of organ and muscle masses to FFM; and (iii) decreases in specific organ and tissue metabolic rates. Age-dependent changes in the REE

  9. Sorption of REE and TPE on sulfonated strong-acid cation exchanger KU-2 from multicomponent HNO{sub 3} solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chuveleva, E.A.; Kharitonov, O.V.; Firsova, L.A.

    1995-05-01

    Sorption of rare earths (REE) from multicomponent systems is studied as a function of solution acidity (0.1-2.0 M) and temperature (20-70{degrees}C). The elution curves for REE and transplutonium-element (TPE) sorption pass through a maximum, the value of which increases with decreasing solution acidity. The selectivity order changes for Y. This phenomenon is explained. The separation coefficients Nd-M are determined for various [HNO{sub 3}]. In the range [H{sup +}] = 0.5-2.01 M, the separation coefficients become <1. The optimal conditions for REE and TPE sorption are determined.

  10. Audre's daughter: Black lesbian steganography in Dee Rees' Pariah and Audre Lorde's Zami: A New Spelling of My Name.

    PubMed

    Kang, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that African-American director Dee Rees' critically acclaimed debut Pariah (2011) is a rewriting of lesbian poet-activist Audre Lorde's iconic "bio-mythography" Zami: A New Spelling of My Name (1982). The article examines how Rees' work creatively and subtly re-envisions Lorde's Zami by way of deeply rooted and often cleverly camouflaged patterns, resonances, and contrasts. Shared topics include naming, mother-daughter bonds, the role of clothing in identity formation, domestic abuse, queer time, and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender legacy discourse construction. What emerges between the visual and written texts is a hidden language of connection--what may be termed Black lesbian steganography--which proves thought-provoking to viewers and readers alike. PMID:26914826

  11. Geochemistry of banded iron formation (BIF) host rocks, Yishui county, North China : major element, REE and other trace element analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, I.; Lee, I.; Yang, X.

    2013-12-01

    Banded iron formation (BIF) in Yishui area, Western Shangdong Province in North China was formed from late Archean to early Paleoproterizoic (2.6Ga-2.5Ga). Amphibolite, metasediment (schist, gneiss) and migmatitic granite consist of host rocks of the BIF in North China. To find characteristics of BIF host rocks, major element, rare earth element and trace element analyses of whole rocks were conducted. Major elements are analyzed using X-ray Fluorescene Spectrometer (XRF) and REE and trace elements are analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plazma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Amphibolites show large negative Eu anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=0.91~0.99) and ranges of REE are ∑REE=305~380 ppm. LREE/HREE ratios are (La/Lu)cn=21.07~26.12. SiO2 contents are 35.1~44.2 wt% and some samples have high Loss On Ignition values ([LOI]=8.35-10.06 wt%) compared to other amphibolites. LOI value is related to water and volatile contents in the rocks and it reflects amphibolite got high degree of alteration. The Fe and Mg mobility effects are shown by Fe2O3/MgO ratios which are 4.7~5.7. The Mg# varies from 25.6 to 29.3. Migmatitic granites have various range of ∑REE=21~241 ppm. They show both Eu negative anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=0.53~0.71) and positive Eu anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=1.95). Migmatitic granites have high SiO2 contents (68.8~72.2 wt%) and Al2O3 (13.4~14.2 wt%) contents. They have relatively low TiO2 (<0.5 wt%), MgO ( <0.6 wt%) and P2O5 (<0.2 wt%) contents. Gneiss samples were collected either from core or from mine pit. Core samples have negative Eu anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=0.27~0.62) and show enriched LREE than HREE ((La/Lu)cn=45.60~62.32). Mine pit samples have positive Eu anomalies ([Eu]/[Eu*]=1.64~2.87) and almost flatten pattern except Eu anomalies ((La/Lu)cn=2.19~2.37). Core samples have higher Al2O3, TiO2, Na2O and K2O contents than mine pit samples. But remarkably mine pit samples have high contents of Fe2O3 (>40.4 wt%). Schists are divided into two types following REE patterns. Some

  12. Origin of REE-rich ferrocarbonatites in southern Siberia (Russia): implications based on melt and fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopyev, Ilya R.; Borisenko, Alexander S.; Borovikov, Andrey A.; Pavlova, Galina G.

    2016-06-01

    Fe-rich carbonatites with a mineral assemblage of ankerite-calcite or siderite are widespread in southern Siberia, Russia. The siderite carbonatites are associated with F-Ba-Sr-REE mineralization and have a 40Ar/39Ar age of 117.2 ± 1.3 Ma. Melt and fluid inclusions suggest that the carbonatites formed from volatile-rich alkali- and chloride-bearing carbonate melts. Ankerite-calcite carbonatites formed from carbonatite melt at a temperature of more than 790 °C. The ferrocarbonatites (the second phase of carbonatite intrusion) formed from a sulfate-carbonate-chloride fluid phase (brine-melt) at >650 °C and ≥360 MPa. The brine-melt fluid phase had high concentrations of Fe and LREEs. A subsequent hydrothermal overprint contributed to the formation of economically important barite-Sr-fluorite-REE mineralization in polymict siderite breccia.

  13. Fingerprinting young ignimbrites in Dominica (Lesser Antilles): Constraints from bulk REEs, apatite chemistry, and U-Th zircon chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, H. M.; Manon, M. R.; Brehm, S.

    2015-12-01

    Multiple methods of fingerprinting tephra deposits enable distinction of separate magma batches beneath the island of Dominica. Previous studies have invoked a single large batholith but apatite REE chemistry is inconsistent with generation of multiple ignimbrites by fractional crystallization. The crystal-rich, andesite-dacite (58-66 wt% SiO2) ignimbrites comprise the largest explosive eruption in the Caribbean in the last 200 kyr, erupting a magma volume >58 km3 (Carey and Sigurdsson, 1980). Although the ignimbrites appear to emanate from several vents, their broad similarity in bulk chemistry, phase assemblage (pl + opx + cpx + hbl + ilm + mag + zrn + ap), and mineral composition, has led previous workers to suggest that Dominica is underlain by a single large batholith eruptions younging from north to south. However, bulk REE chemistry, solution ICP-MS chemistry of individual apatite grains, and ion microprobe U-Th dating of zircon rims from pumice clasts suggest a more complex plumbing system. More than 150 pumice clasts from northernmost (Morne aux Diables), northern (Wesley, Pointe Ronde, Grand Savanne), central (Layou, Roseau, Rosalie), and southern (Grand Bay, Grand Fonde) ignimbrites were analyzed for bulk chemistry. Geographically controlled differences exist in the concavity of the middle-heavy REE (Dy*). In central Dominica, apatites from the more evolved Layou Ignimbrite are depleted in middle REE compared to the nearby Roseau Ignimbrite, belying a genetic relationship via fractional crystallization. U-Th zircon rim ages in the northernmost and northern deposits were in secular equilibrium (>350 ka), whereas the central and southern ignimbrites yielded several populations of crystallization ages: Layou (99±12 ka), Roseau (139±12 ka; 65±17 ka), and Grand Bay (107±15 ka; 211±61 ka). Collectively, these observations are consistent with partial melting of magma batches prior to eruption rather than fractional crystallization of a single magma chamber.

  14. Dr. von Braun, Dr. Mueller, and Dr. Rees at the Firing Room During the SA-6 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This photograph depicts an intense moment during the SA-6 launch at the Firing Room. Dr. von Braun, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is at center; to his left is Dr. George Mueller, Associate Director for Marned Space Flight; and far right is Dr. Eberhard Rees, Director for Research and Development, MSFC. The SA-6, the sixth flight of the Saturn 1 vehicle, launched a S-IV stage (a second stage) and an Apollo boilerplate spacecraft.

  15. Tectonic implications of REE, Th, and Sc analyses of metamorphosed mudstones, Boyden Cave roof pendant, Sierra Nevada, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.D.; Girty, G.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The Boyden Cave pendant is subdivided into an eastern sequence, chaotic unit, and western sequence. The western sequence has an outcrop width of about 2.5 km and consists of a metasandstone unit, calcsilicate schist unit, andalusite biotite schist unit, and marble unit all metamorphosed to amphibolite grade. Because of complex structural relationships, the stratigraphic thicknesses of these four units are unknown. Psammites within the metasandstone unit, on average, are composed of 85.5 [+-] 4.2% quartz, 8.1 [+-] 4.6% total feldspar, 4.8 [+-] 2.8% white mica, 1.4 [+-] 1.3% biotite, and 0.1 [+-] 0.2% epidote (N = 17). The authors analyzed 10 mudstone samples for major, trace, and REEs from the metasandstone and andalusite biotite schist units of the Boyden Cave pendant. Chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns exhibit LREE-enrichment trends, and Eu anomalies that vary from 0.61 to 0.86, and average 0.69. Such patterns are characteristic of mudstones composed of continentally derived detritus and are consistent with the complete absence of volcanic material. A similar set of geochemical data was collected from the proposed correlative miogeoclinal units in the Nopah Range, SE California. REE distribution patterns for mudstones from the Stirling Quartzite Wood Canyon Formation, and Carrara Formation exhibit LREE-enrichment trends and Eu anomalies that vary from 0.65 to 0.75, and average 0.68. REE distribution patterns for samples collected from the Boyden Cave and Nopah Range are nearly identical in all aspects. On a La-Th-Sc diagram, data from the mudstones in the Boyden Cave pendant cluster with data from the Nopah Range. Thus, the authors conclude that their data are consistent with the proposed correlations suggested by R.A. Schweickert and M.M. Lahren, and that the western sequence of the Boyden Cave pendant may represent a displaced fragment of the Cordilleran miogeocline.

  16. Direct determination of europium valence state by XANES in extraterrestrial merrillite: Implications for REE crystal chemistry and martian magmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Burger, P.V.; Sutton, S.R.; McCubbin, F.M.; Newville, M.

    2012-03-15

    The relative proportion of divalent and trivalent Eu has proven to be a useful tool for estimating f{sub O{sub 2}} in various magmatic systems. However, in most cases, direct determination of the Eu valence state has not been made. In this study, direct determination of Eu valence by XANES and REE abundance in merrillite provide insights into the crystal chemistry of these phosphates and their ability to record conditions of magmatism. Merrillite strongly prefers Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+}, with the average valence state of Eu ranging between 2.9 and 3 over approximately six orders of magnitude in f{sub O{sub 2}}. The dramatic shift in the REE patterns of merrillite in martian basaltic magmas, from highly LREE-depleted to LREE-enriched, parallels many other trace element and isotopic variations and reflects the sources for these magmas. The behavior of REE in the merrillite directly reflects the relationship between the eightfold-coordinated Ca1 site and adjacent sixfold Na and tetrahedral P sites that enables charge balancing through coupled substitutions.

  17. A study of REE and Pb, Sr and Nd isotopes in garnet-lherzolite xenoliths from Mingxi, Fujian Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wankang, H.; Junwen, W.; Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1993-01-01

    The REE and Pb, Sr, Nd isotopes in three xenoliths from limburgite and scoria-breccias, including spinel-lherzolite, spinel-garnet-lherzolite and phlogopite-gamet-lherzolite, were analysed. The REE contents of the xenoliths are 1.3 to 3.3 times those of the chondrites with their REE patterns characterized by weak LREE depletion. The143Nd/144Nd values of whole rocks and minerals range from 0.51306 to 0.51345 with ??Nd=+ 8.2- +15.8,206Pb/204 Pb < 18.673, and207Pb/204Pb < 15.574. All this goes to show that the upper mantle in Mingxi at the depth of 67-82 km is a depleted mantle of MORB type, with87Sr/86 Sr ratios 0.70237-0.70390. In Nd-Sr diagram the data points of whole rocks are all out of the mantle array, implying that the xenoliths from Mingxi have more radiogenic Sr isotopes than those of the mantle array. ?? 1993 Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. REE radiation fault model: a tool for organizing and communication radiation test data and construction COTS based spacebourne computing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, R.; Some, R.

    2002-01-01

    The growth in data rates of instruments on future NASA spacecraft continues to outstrip the improvement in communications bandwidth and processing capabilities of radiation-hardened computers. Sophisticated autonomous operations strategies will further increase the processing workload. Given the reductions in spacecraft size and available power, standard radiation hardened computing systems alone will not be able to address the requirements of future missions. The REE project was intended to overcome this obstacle by developing a COTS- based supercomputer suitable for use as a science and autonomy data processor in most space environments. This development required a detailed knowledge of system behavior in the presence of Single Event Effect (SEE) induced faults so that mitigation strategies could be designed to recover system level reliability while maintaining the COTS throughput advantage. The REE project has developed a suite of tools and a methodology for predicting SEU induced transient fault rates in a range of natural space environments from ground-based radiation testing of component parts. In this paper we provide an overview of this methodology and tool set with a concentration on the radiation fault model and its use in the REE system development methodology. Using test data reported elsewhere in this and other conferences, we predict upset rates for a particular COTS single board computer configuration in several space environments.

  19. Partition coefficients for REE between garnets and liquids - Implications of non-Henry's Law behaviour for models of basalt origin and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental investigation of Ce, Sm and Tm rare earth element (REE) partition coefficients between coexisting garnets (both natural and synthetic) and hydrous liquids shows that Henry's Law may not be obeyed over a range of REE concentrations of geological relevance. Systematic differences between the three REE and the two garnet compositions may be explained in terms of the differences between REE ionic radii and those of the dodecahedral site into which they substitute, substantiating the Harrison and Wood (1980) model of altervalent substitution. Model calculations demonstrate that significant variation can occur in the rare earth contents of melts produced from a garnet lherzolite, if Henry's Law partition coefficients do not apply for the garnet phase.

  20. Tracing and tracking wastewater-derived substances in freshwater lakes and reservoirs: Anthropogenic gadolinium and geogenic REEs in Lake Paranoá, Brasilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Baldewein, Linda; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Walde, Detlef; Bühn, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Total and dissolved rare earth element (REEs) and U concentrations were determined for waters from Lake Paranoá (Brasilia, Brazil) sampled in the dry (November 2012) and wet seasons (July 2013). Shale-normalized REE patterns of all samples display the M-type lanthanide tetrad effect and large positive Gd anomalies, but only the total REE pool shows a positive Ce anomaly, possibly reflecting aeolian and/or fluvial input from surrounding laterites. The positive Gd anomaly increased strongly between 2012 and 2013. It reveals an anthropogenic dissolved Gd source that enters the lake with effluents from wastewater treatment plants, originating from the use of Gd-based contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. Because anthropogenic Gd is a tracer for other wastewater-derived substances, such as pharmaceuticals, REE geochemistry offers an inexpensive way to monitor the presence of wastewater-derived substances in the lake, which may be utilized as a drinking water reservoir in the near future.

  1. Oxygen Fugacity of the Martian Mantle From Pyroxene/Melt Partitioning of REE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musselwhite, D. S.; Jones, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing effort to calibrate the pyroxene/melt REE oxybarometer for conditions relevant to the martian meteorites. Redox variations have been reported among the shergottites. Wadhwa used the Eu and Gd augite/melt partitioning experiments of McKay, designed for the LEW86010 angrite, to infer a range of fo2 for the shergottites. Others inferred fo2 using equilibria between Fe-Ti oxides. There is fairly good agreement between the Fe-Ti oxide determinations and the estimates from Eu anomalies in terms of which meteorites are more or less oxidized. The Eu anomaly technique and the Fe-Ti oxide technique both essentially show the same trend, with Shergotty and Zagami being the most oxidized and QUE94201 and DaG 476 being the most reduced. Thus, the variation in fo2 appears to be both real and substantive. However, although the redox trends indicated by the two techniques are similar, there is as much as two log unit offset between the results of three researchers. One explanation for this offset is that the Eu calibration used for the shergottites was actually designed for the LEW86010 angrite, a silica-undersaturated basalt whose pyroxene (diopside) compositions are rather extreme. To correct this, experiments have been conducted on the redox relationship of Eu partitioning relative to Sm and Gd for pyroxene/melt compositions more relevant to Martian meteorites. We report here preliminary results for experiments on pigeonite/melt partitioning as a function of fO2.

  2. The effect of the water-to-rock ratio on REE distribution in hydrothermal fluids: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beermann, Oliver; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Holzheid, Astrid

    2013-04-01

    High-temperature submarine MOR hydrothermalism creates high elemental fluxes into, and out of, oceanic lithosphere significantly affecting ocean chemistry. The Turtle Pits hydrothermal system discovered at 5° S on the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) in water depths of ~3000 m (~300 bar) emanates 'ultrahot' fluids > 400 ° C [1] with high concentrations of dissolved gases (e.g., H2), transition metals, and rare earth elements (REE). The normalised REE patterns of these 'ultrahot' fluids are uncommon as they exhibit depletions of LREE and no Eu-anomaly ('special' REE-signature in [2]), which is in contrast to the "typical" LREE enrichment and pronounced positive Eu-anomaly known from many MOR vent fluids observed world-wide [e.g., 3]. Although hydrothermal fluid REE-signatures may play a key role in understanding processes during water-rock interaction, only few experimental data have been published on REE distribution in seawater-like fluids reacted with rocks from the ocean crust [e.g., 4, 5]. Besides temperature, the seawater-to-rock ratio (w/r ratio) strongly affects water-rock reaction processes and, thus, has significant control on the fluid chemistry [e.g., 6, 7]. To understand how vent fluid REE-signatures are generated during water-rock interaction processes we designed a series of experiments reacting different fluid types with mineral assemblages from fresh, unaltered gabbro at 425 ° C and 400 bar using cold seal pressure vessels (CSPV). Mixtures of 125-500 μm-sized hand-picked plagioclase and clinopyroxene grains separated from unaltered gabbro reacted in gold capsules with 3.2 wt.% NaCl(aq) fluid (similar to seawater salinity), or with natural seawater. The w/r (mass) ratio ranged from 1 to 100 and the run durations were varied from 3 to 30 d in the NaCl(aq) experiments, and was 3 d in the seawater experiments. The reacted fluids were extracted after quenching and analysed by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Only in the seawater experiments, the gabbro

  3. Evolution of the fluid in the REE-rich pegmatites of the Strange Lake pluton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukova, O.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Five types of aqueous inclusions are observed in the Mid-proterozoic peralkaline granites and pegmatites of the Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada). From earliest to latest they are: primary aqueous inclusions associated with melt inclusions (type 1), with CH4 inclusions (types 2 a and b enriched in H2 and higher hydrocarbons respectively), and CO2 inclusions (type 3), primary aqueous inclusions, which show no apparent association with any gas-rich fluid (type 4) and secondary aqueous inclusions associated with mineral pseudomorphs (type 5). The salinity of the fluid decreases from the earliest type 1 (24.1 wt.% NaCl eq.) to type 2 a and b (21.2 and 14.2 wt.% NaCl eq. respectively), to type 3 (10.1 wt.% NaCl eq.) and type 4 inclusions (8.2 wt.% NaCl eq.). The salinity of type 5 inclusions is high, i.e., 16.6 wt.% NaCl eq.. The gas composition changes systematically from CH4 ± H2 in type 1 and 2a to CH4 + higher hydrocarbons in type 2b and to CO2 dominant type 3 inclusions. Most of the inclusions show re-equilibration texures ('implosion' halos). Another typical feature is a tendency to decrepitate at temperatures higher than 140-150 °C. The fluid evolution started with the exsolution of a saline aqueous liquid (~25 wt.% NaCl eq.) from the pegmatitic melt at a temperature of about 400 °C and a pressure around 1100 bars. Further evolution occurred due to cooling (isobaric) and oxidation of the fluid. Early initial oxidation led to formation of higher hydrocarbons by oxidative coupling of methane, and later, full-blown oxidation led to the production of CO2. The CO2 reacted with Na-rich fluid to form nahcolite, which caused a significant decrease in the apparent salinity down to a critical level, below which further oxidation led to an increase in the CO2/CH4 ratio and eventual disappearance of CH4. Isobaric cooling continued down to at least 150-170 °C, at which temperature the CO2 component was consumed to form REE-rich flurocarbonates. Nahcolite

  4. Towards Synthesis and Usage of Actinide-Bearing REE Phosphate age Standards: A Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, J. M.; Cherniak, D. J.

    2006-05-01

    Electron microprobe (EMP) dates result from a concentration-time unit conversion, so use of a concentration- based (rather than isotope-ratio based) fictive age standard is warranted. This observation has motivated our mineral synthesis program, aimed at producing actinide-doped REE phosphate EMP dating standards that meet the following criteria: 1) known concentrations of U, Th, and Pb; 2) homogeneous intragrain distribution of all components; 3) of suitable size, either as a single-crystal or polycrystalline sintered ceramic. Single-crystal synthesis of actinide-doped LaPO4 by flux-growth methods results in disproportionation of lanthanide and flux, alkali, and actinide components into phosphate and oxide phases, respectively, and flux- growth methods were abandoned. Actinide-doped La phosphate is successfully prepared by high-T annealing and hydrothermal processing of microcrystalline phosphate; both homogeneity and charge-balance of (Ca, Th, Pb)-bearing LaPO4 increase with increasing solvent acidity during cold-seal hydrothermal synthesis. A combination of pressing and high-T (1400° C) sintering transforms fine-grained (0.1-10 μm) run- products to ceramic pellets with 90-95% theoretical density. Our most recent runs focused on a target composition of La80(CaTh)17(CaU)2(PbTh)1PO4 processed with 6% 2M HCl at 820° C, 0.75 kbar for 1 week. The run products are 0.1-2 μm crystals identified by XRD as La-actinide phosphate solid solution. 2 μm grains (N=16) give a composition (mean±2 sd) of La79.77(1.26)(CaTh)17.87(1.00)(CaU)1.53(0.42)(PbTh)0.82(0.09)PO4. Th (8.07-9.13 wt. %) is homogeneous at the level of analytical precision, and the Pb concentration range (3500-4350 ppm) is restricted relative to untreated precipitate. Uranium concentration values are more variable (6500-10000 ppm). This run yields a fictive age of 702±4 Ma (mean±2 se), compared to the fictive age of 794 Ma for the target composition.

  5. REE geochemistry of 3.2 Ga BIF from the Mapepe Formation, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahagi, T. R.; Yamaguchi, K. E.; Haraguchi, S.; Sano, R.; Teraji, S.; Kiyokawa, S.; Ikehara, M.; Ito, T.

    2012-12-01

    Banded iron formations (BIFs) are chemical sediments interbedded with Fe- and Si-rich layers, characteristically present in the early history of the Earth. A popular hypothesis for the formation of BIFs postulates that dissolved oxygen produced by photosynthesizers such as cyanobacteria oxidized dissolved ferrous Fe supplied by submarine hydrothermal activities. During precipitation of Fe-oxide minerals, phosphorus and rare earth elements (REEs) were most likely adsorbed on their surface. Therefore, chemical compositions of REEs that adsorbed onto Fe-oxide have useful information on the seawater chemistry at the time of deposition. Especially, information on the redox state of seawater and the extent of the contribution of hydrothermal activity during BIF deposition are expected to have been recorded. Occurrence of BIF has been traditionally tied to the chemical evolution of the atmosphere. Rise of atmospheric oxygen, or as known as GOE (Great Oxidation Event: e.g., Holland, 1994), has been widely believed to have occurred at around 2.4 Ga ago. Contrary, however, some studies have suggested that such oxygenation could have occurred much earlier (e.g., Hoashi et al., 2009). In this study, we used 3.2 Ga old BIF from the Mapepe Formation at the bottom of the Fig Tree Group of the Swaziland Supergroup in the northeastern part of the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. We aimed to constrain the marine environment, and by inference atmospheric environment, at the time of BIF deposition from REE geochemistry. Major elements and REE compositions of 37 samples were measured using XRF and ICP-MS, respectively. Samples with less than 1.0 wt% Al2O3 are considered to be "pure" BIFs with minimal amount of continental contamination, and are expected to have inherited marine REE signatures. Abundance of REE normalized by C1 chondrite for the analyzed samples commonly exhibits positive Eu anomaly and LREE

  6. Genesis of the Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb deposit: Evidences from Pb-Pb age and microanalysis of the H8 Formation in Inner Mongolia, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiaodong; Yang, Xiaoyong; Liu, Yulong; Yan, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-01

    The Bayan Obo Fe-REE-Nb deposit is a world-largest REE deposit in Inner Mongolia, North China Craton. It also contains large Fe and Nb reserves. The REE ore body is hosted in H8 dolomite of the Bayan Obo Group. Depositional time and genesis of H8 dolomite are still controversial in addressing the genesis of the REE deposit. In this study, Pb-Pb age and geochemical features of carbonate minerals in H8 dolomite have been studied, providing constraints to genesis of H8 dolomite and the REE deposit. Results of Pb-Pb dating from unmetamorphosed and non-mineralized domains of the H8 dolomite well constrain the depositional age as 1619 ± 150 Ma, which is earlier than both REE ore and carbonatite dykes in the Bayan Obo region. This indicates that REE mineralization has characteristics of epigenetic origin. Geochemical data of carbonate minerals in H8 dolomite have low REE contents, distinctly distinguished from those carbonatitic dykes. However, the fine-grained H8 dolomite whole rocks have high REE contents, similar to those carbonatitic dykes. Mineral analysis suggests a close relationship between REE mineralization and calcite carbonatite dykes and related-derived fluids, which could transport a large amounts of REE. Integrated with these new geochronological and geochemical data, we draw conclusion that the Bayan Obo Group was a Proterozoic depositional succession, REE mineralization is as result of sedimentary carbonate rocks once being metasomatised by fluids derived from regional REE-rich calcite carbonatitic magma at depth.

  7. Donnan membrane speciation of Al, Fe, trace metals and REEs in coastal lowland acid sulfate soil-impacted drainage waters.

    PubMed

    Jones, Adele M; Xue, Youjia; Kinsela, Andrew S; Wilcken, Klaus M; Collins, Richard N

    2016-03-15

    Donnan dialysis has been applied to forty filtered drainage waters collected from five coastal lowland acid sulfate soil (CLASS) catchments across north-eastern NSW, Australia. Despite having average pH values<3.9, 78 and 58% of Al and total Fe, respectively, were present as neutral or negatively-charged species. Complementary isotope dilution experiments with (55)Fe and (26)Al demonstrated that only soluble (i.e. no colloidal) species were present. Trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) were also mainly present (>70%) as negatively-charged complexes. In contrast, the speciation of the divalent trace metals Co, Mn, Ni and Zn was dominated by positively-charged complexes and was strongly correlated with the alkaline earth metals Ca and Mg. Thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations indicated that natural organic matter (NOM) complexes dominated Fe(III) speciation in agreement with that obtained by Donnan dialysis. In the case of Fe(II), however, the free cation was predicted to dominate under thermodynamic equilibrium, whilst our results indicated that Fe(II) was mainly present as neutral or negatively-charged complexes (most likely with sulfate). For all other divalent metals thermodynamic equilibrium speciation calculations agreed well with the Donnan dialysis results. The proportion of Al and REEs predicted to be negatively-charged was also grossly underestimated, relative to the experimental results, highlighting possible inaccuracies in the stability constants developed for these trivalent Me(SO4)2(-) and/or Me-NOM complexes and difficulties in modeling complex environmental samples. These results will help improve metal mobility and toxicity models developed for CLASS-affected environments, and also demonstrate that Australian CLASS environments can discharge REEs at concentrations an order of magnitude greater than previously reported. PMID:26780135

  8. Geology, mineralogy and fluid inclusion data of the Kizilcaören fluorite barite REE deposit, Eskisehir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gültekin, Ali Haydar; Örgün, Yüksel; Suner, Fikret

    2003-01-01

    The Kizilcaören fluorite-barite-Rare Earth Element (REE) deposit occurs as epithermal veins and breccia fillings in altered Triassic metasandstones and Oligocene-Miocene pyroclastics adjacent to alkaline porphyritic trachyte and phonolite. This deposit is the only commercial source of REE and thorium in Turkey. Most of the fluorite-barite-REE mineralisation at Kizilcaören has been formed by hydrothermal solutions, which are thought to be genetically associated with alkaline volcanism. The occurrence of the ore minerals in vuggy cavities and veins of massive and vuggy silica indicate that the ore stage postdates hydrothermal alteration. The deposit contains evidence of at least three periods of hypogene mineralisation separated by two periods of faulting. The mineral assemblage includes fluorite, barite, quartz, calcite, bastnäsite, phlogopite, pyrolusite and hematite as well as minor amounts of plagioclase feldspar, pyrite, psilomelane, braunite, monazite, fluocerite, brockite, goethite, and rutile. Fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates that the barite formed from low salinity (0.4-9.2 equiv. wt% NaCl) fluids at low temperatures, between 105 and 230 °C, but fluorite formed from slightly higher salinity (<12.4 equiv. wt% NaCl) fluids at low and moderate temperatures, between 135-354 °C. The depositional temperature of bastnäsite is between 143-286 °C. The local coexistence of liquid- and vapour-rich inclusions suggests boiling conditions. Many relatively low-salinity (<10.0 equiv. wt% NaCl), low and moderate temperature (200-300 °C) inclusions might be the result of episodic mixing of deep-saline brines with low-salinity meteoric fluids. The narrow range of δ34S (pyrite and barite) values (2.89-6.92‰ CDT)suggests that the sulphur source of the hydrothermal fluids are the same and compatible with a volcanogenic sulphate field derived from a magmatic sulphur source.

  9. Variations in the neodymium and strontium isotopic composition and REE content of molluscan shells from the Cretaceous Western Interior seaway

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, S.G.; Kyser, T.K. )

    1993-08-01

    Rare earth element concentrations, [epsilon][sub ND](T) values, and strontium isotopic compositions of mollusc shells were used to trace variations in the neodymium and strontium isotopic composition of the epicontinental Late Cretaceous Western Interior seaway of North America. Rare earth element patterns are different in aragonite and calcite produced by the molluscs endemic to the seaway, indicating that either mineralogical control or possibly scavenging by organic films associated with the different phases of biogenic carbonate resulted in differential partitioning of the REEs from seawater during shell formation. The biogenic carbonate also may contain REEs associated with Fe-flocs trapped in the shells during growth, but these flocs cannot result in different REE patterns of aragonite and calcite produced by the molluscs. The neodymium isotopic composition of the Western Interior seaway is inferred to have varied 13 [epsilon]-units over 20 My as a result of incursions of seawater from the Arctic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico, river influx from tectonically active terranes, benthic diagenetic fluxes, and volcanic ash falls. Ash from a variety of volcanic centers in western North America was significant in producing rapid and marked changes in [sup 143]Nd/[sup 144]Nd ratios of the seaway, and abrupt regional variations in neodymium isotopic composition of the seaway make the construction of an accurate neodymium isotope evolution curve difficult for this basin. Strontium isotopic compositions of the mollusc shells indicate the [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr ratio of the Western Interior seaway was generally similar to contemporaneous oceans, although, periodically, the basin had strontium isotopic compositions distinct from contemporaneous seawater. 58 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. REE and Lu-Hf systematics of zircons from rapakivi granites and associated rocks of supercontinent Nuna (Columbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronkin, Yu. L.; Gerdes, A.; Maslov, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The last of the rifting events at 1.37-1.45 Ga that is considered to have led to the final breakup of Nuna was recorded in most of its building blocks (Laurentia, Baltica, and Siberian craton). At the type locality for the Riphean on the western slope of the South Urals, this event was recognized as the Mashak igneous event (˜1380 Ma) and can be classified as a LIP based on the volumes of magma generated (total igneous volumes >0.05 × 106 km3). The emplacement of large volumes of A-type granitic plutons in Laurentia and northwestern Baltica (in the present coordinates) was almost synchronous with this event. In the South Urals, within the Bashkirian meganticlinorium, the processes of granite generation and emplacement during this time took place on a much smaller scale. Anorogenic granites of this region are represented by rapakivi granites of the Berdyaush massif. The first REE and Lu-Hf isotope data for zircons from rapakivi granites and associated rocks of the Berdyaush massif reveal almost identical Lu-Hf isotope ages (˜1383 Ma) of rapakivi granites, quartz syenitic diorites, and nepheline syenites. It was shown that these rocks, which were emplaced into the heterogeneous Proterozoic crust between the Early and Middle Riphean, have the Hf isotopic compositions and Lu-Hf model ages reflecting the contribution from crustal sources with ages of 2013-2219 Ma, whereas the associated gabbros indicate derivation from a source with the Lu-Hf ages of 1658 ± 1685 Ma and moderately depleted ɛHf(1383) of (4.1 ± 0.7-4.9 ± 0.6). The REE characteristics (ΣREE, Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce*, Pr/Pr*, La/Lu) and Lu-Hf isotope systematics of zircons can be used to constrain the history and genetic evolution of supercontinents, e.g., supercontinent Nuna (Columbia) in particular.

  11. REE contents in agricultural soil of Sweden (GEMAS): Comparison of weak MMI® extraction with near total concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Martiya; Andersson, Madelen; Ladenberger, Anna; Uhlbäck, Jo; Mann, Alan; Turner, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Within the GEMAS project agricultural soil samples were analyzed for 52 elements by aqua regia extraction, 41 elements by XRF (total concentration), for 57 elements in a mobile metal ion (MMI®) extraction. In addition, 174 samples from Swedish agricultural soil were analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS using sodium peroxide fusion (SPF). The aim of this study is to compare the content of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) and their extractability using the MMI® extraction and the sodium peroxide fusion (SPF) methods. The statistical comparison of both methods reveal that the median extractability for most of the REEs obtained by the MMI® method is less than 1%, with an extractability of 0.5% for Ce and La, and 0.9% for Nd. The median value of Ce by MMI extraction is 0.31 mg/kg while the median by SPF is 59.5 mg/kg. For La the median value by MMI extraction is 0.14 mg/kg and 29.4 mg/kg by SPF, and for Nd the median is 0.23 mg/kg and 26.5 mg/kg , by the MMI and SPF methods respectively. All data from the Swedish samples lie over the detection limit, except for Ce (13 sample) and Tb (5 sample). The graphs of cumulative proportions of REEs by the MMI® extraction and SPF methods show that the trend of REEs is likely to be similar in both methods. The only difference is that the MMI method shows higher proportions of Y compared to the SPF method, while there are higher proportions of Ce and La in the SPF method compared to MMI® . The elemental distribution maps for both methods indicate that the distinct distribution patterns are influenced by not only underlying parent material or lithologies but that there is also an effect from the geochemical behaviour of individual elements, their extractability, and by the content of clay-size fractions in soil.

  12. The distribution of anthropogenic REE in the Dutch distributaries of the Rhine: the role of suspended matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskam, Gerlinde; Verheul, Marc; Klaver, Gerard; Bakker, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    In nature rare earth elements (REE) occur in fixed ratios; contamination with a single rare earth element causes a clear deviation from the natural NASC normalized REE-patterns: an anomaly. REE are progressively used in many high technology products and processes. For example, gadolinium-containing chelates have been used since the '80s as contrasting agent in MRI-imaging. The pertaining anomaly is currently used as a tracer for distinguishing waste water from water unaffected by anthropogenic contamination. In the Dutch monitoring program in the Rhine-Meuse distributaries, total (10% HNO3 digested) and dissolved (< 0.45 µm) fractions in surface water are routinely analysed, and with two-week intervals suspended matter samples are collected with a centrifuge. Since 2008, the set of analysed elements was extended with REE, enabling this study. Lobith, the entry point of the River Rhine in The Netherlands, shows an annual oscillation in the magnitude of the lanthanum (La) anomaly. This positive La-anomaly was reported by Kulaksiz and Bau in 2011; they identified the point source as a production plant for catalysts used in petroleum refining in the German city of Worms. Since the spring of 2011, samarium (Sm) is used in the same process, resulting in matching La- and Sm-anomalies. The anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are predominantly present in the total fraction, which suggests that the anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are associated with suspended matter. The anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are lower in the suspended matter samples collected with the centrifuge, suggesting a bias of these La and Sm concentrations in the finer fraction of the suspended matter. The anthropogenic La en Sm concentrations remain relatively constant throughout the rivers, but close to Lake IJsselmeer and the North Sea, sedimentation causes a sharp decrease in the anthropogenic concentrations. Detailed sampling of sediments, suspended matter and water could give a

  13. Experimental study of REE, Ba, Sr, Mo and W partitioning between carbonatitic melt and aqueous fluid with implications for rare metal mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, WenLei; Xu, Cheng; Veksler, Ilya V.; Kynicky, Jindrich

    2016-01-01

    Carbonatites host some unique ore deposits, especially rare earth elements (REE). Hydrothermal fluids have been proposed to play a significant role in the concentration and transport of REE and other rare metals in carbonatites, but experimental constraints on fluid-melt equilibria in carbonatitic systems are sparse. Here we present an experimental study of trace element (REE, Ba, Sr, Mo and W) partitioning between hydrous fluids and carbonatitic melts, bearing on potential hydrothermal activity associated with carbonatite ore-forming systems. The experiments were performed on mixtures of synthetic carbonate melts and aqueous fluids at 700-800 °C and 100-200 MPa using rapid-quench cold-seal pressure vessels and double-capsule assemblages with diamond traps for analyzing fluid precipitates in the outer capsule. Starting mixtures were composed of Ca, Mg and Na carbonates spiked with trace elements. Small amounts of F or Cl were added to some of the mixtures to study the effects of halogens on the element distribution. The results show that REE, Ba, Sr, Mo and W all preferentially partition into carbonatite melt and have fluid-melt distribution coefficients ( D f/m) below unity. The REE partitioning is slightly dependent on the major element (Ca, Mg and Na) composition of the starting mixtures, and it is influenced by temperature, pressure, and the presence of halogens. The fluid-melt D values of individual REE vary from 0.02 to 0.15 with D_{Lu}^{f} / {fm}{m} being larger than D_{La}^{f} / {fm}{m} by a factor of 1.1-2. The halogens F and Cl have strong and opposite effects on the REE partitioning. Fluid-melt D REE are about three times higher in F-bearing compositions and ten times lower in Cl-bearing compositions than in halogen-free systems. D_{W}^{f} / {fm}{m} and D_{Mo}^{f} / {fm}{m} are the highest among the studied elements and vary between 0.6 and 0.7; D_{Ba}^{f} / {fm}{m} is between 0.05 and 0.09, whereas D_{Sr}^{f} / {fm}{m} is at about 0.01-0.02. The

  14. Stability constants for mono- and dioxalato-complexes of Y and the REE, potentially important species in groundwaters and surface freshwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schijf, J.; Byrne, R. H.

    2001-04-01

    We present the first measured set of stability constants for mono- and dioxalato-complexes of yttrium and all rare earths except Pm (Y+REE), Oxβ n = [MOx n3-2n] [M 3+] -1 [Ox 2-] -n(where [ ] ≡ concentrations, M ≡ Y+REE, and Ox 2- ≡ C 2O 42-). Aqueous solutions of Y+REE were titrated with oxalic acid in the presence of a cation-exchange resin, and Y+REE concentrations in the solution phase were measured by ICP-MS. This method allows investigation of all Y+REE simultaneously under identical conditions and is thus very sensitive to subtle inter-element variations in log Oxβ n. Experiments were performed at a single ionic strength ( I = 0.05 M), but at two values of pH. Patterns of log Oxβ 1 and log Oxβ 2, determined from our experiments, are similar in shape and reminiscent of those for carbonato-complexes. The average ratio of stepwise stability constants K 2/K 1 = Oxβ 2/( Oxβ 1) 2 is 0.05 ± 0.02 for Y+REE excluding La and Ce. Literature values of Oxβ 1(Eu) for 0.03 mol/L ≤ I ≤ 1 mol/L were used to derive the relation log Oxβ 1(Eu) = log Oxβ 10(Eu) - 6.132√ I/(1 + 1.47√ I) + 0.902 I, where log Oxβ 10(Eu) is the stability constant at infinite dilution. Applying this relation to all Y+REE, the following values of log Oxβ 10 (at zero ionic strength) were found: 6.66 (Y), 5.87 (La), 5.97 (Ce), 6.25 (Pr), 6.31 (Nd), 6.43 (Sm), 6.52 (Eu), 6.53 (Gd), 6.63 (Tb), 6.74 (Dy), 6.77 (Ho), 6.83 (Er), 6.89 (Tm), 6.95 (Yb), 6.96 (Lu). These values, which are based on direct measurements for each individual Y+REE, agree quite well with published extrapolations that are mostly based on linear free-energy relationships. Total oxalate concentrations of 10 -5-10 -3 M have been reported for soil solutions. Free oxalate ions persist at much lower pH than free carbonate ions and a simple speciation model demonstrates that oxalato-complexes can dominate Y+REE speciation in mildly acidic groundwaters of low-to-moderate alkalinity.

  15. Origin and history of the adcumulate eucrite, Moama as inferred from REE abundances, Sm-Nd and U-Pb systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamet, J.; Nakamura, N.; Unruh, D. M.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1978-01-01

    The abundances of Sm-Nd and U-Pb isotopes and of rare earth elements (REE) in Moama cumulate eucrite were investigated. The Sm-Nd data plotted on a Nd-143/Nd-144 vs Sm-147/Nd-144 evolution diagram define a line with a slope corresponding to an age of 4.58 plus or minus 0.05 billion years and an initial Nd-143/Nd-144 ratio of about 0.50684. Moama was found to contain the lowest overall trivalent REE abundances, the most light REE-depleted abundance pattern, and largest positive Eu anomaly of any eucrite yet studied. The REE data indicate that Moama could have been derived by about 1 to 5% fractional crystallization from a liquid with REE contents similar to Juvinas, or about 20 to 30% fractional crystallization from a Sioux County-like liquid. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Moama, Serra de Mage, and Moore county cumulate meteorites could have been derived from the same parent liquid. Results of the U-Th-Pb study indicate that the majority of the Pb in Moama is of terrestrial origin, and suggest that the meteorite has undergone a minor thermal event causing re-equilibration of the U-Pb system.

  16. Steep REE patterns and enriched Pb isotopes in southern Central American arc magmas: Evidence for forearc subduction erosion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, A. R.; Kay, S. M.

    2006-05-01

    The appearance of adakitic magmas with steep rare earth element (REE) patterns in southern Costa Rica and Panama at ˜4 Ma coincides with the collision of the Cocos Ridge and the inception of slab shallowing along the margin. Distinctly higher 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios in these adakitic lavas than in older Miocene lavas suggest that components enriched in radiogenic Pb also entered the mantle magma source at ˜4 Ma. Published Pb-isotopic data for Central American arc lavas show that a similar radiogenic component is not present in lavas farther north and that maxima in post-Miocene 206Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios occur in central Costa Rica and western Panama. Cretaceous and early Tertiary ophiolites in the forearc, whose origins have been linked to the Galápagos hot spot, show a similar spatial pattern in Pb isotopic ratios. The incorporation of ophiolitic forearc crust into the mantle wedge by forearc subduction erosion can explain the along-arc spatial and temporal pattern of Pb-isotopic ratios in southern Central American arc lavas. Partial melting of crust removed from the base of the forearc and subjected to high-pressure metamorphism in the subduction channel provides an explanation for the steep adakitic REE patterns in some Costa Rican and Panamanian arc lavas.

  17. Probing the neutrino mass through the cross correlation between the Rees-Sciama effect and weak lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lixin

    2016-08-01

    Cosmology plays a fundamental role to determine the neutrino mass, therefore also to determine its mass hierarchy, since the massive neutrino contributes to the total matter density in the Universe at the background and perturbation levels, once it becomes non-relativistic. After the non-relativistic transition the fluctuations are smashed out at the scales k gg kfs. Therefore, the missing fluctuation in the total matter is imprinted on the large scale structure, say the suppression of the matter power spectrum ΔP/P ≈ ‑8fν at the scales k gg kfs. In this paper, instead of considering the linear perturbation theory, which is well understood in the presence of neutrino, we propose to use the cross correlation between the Rees-Sciama effect and weak lensing to probe the neutrino mass. At the small scales, the density contrast grows faster than the background scale factor δ ~ a, that makes a sign flipping on Φ' propto Script Hδ d ln (δ/a)/d ln a, which happens only in the non-linear regime. We show that the flipping scale in the cross power spectrum between the Rees-Sciama effect and weak lensing depends on the neutrino mass by assuming the shallow and deep weak lensing surveys. Our analysis shows that the Deep survey has larger signal-to-noise ratio S/N ~ 160. Finally, we use the Fisher information matrix to forecast constraint on the neutrino mass.

  18. Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify preferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Pelt, R.; Zobeck, T. M.; Barnes, M. A.; Baddock, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2011-12-01

    Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. Nutrient islands develop below shrub canopies and in the bases of bunch grasses that enhance plant growth and reinforce the spatial anisotropy. Catastrophic disturbance that removes the vegetation such as fire or drought can result in the release of the trapped sediment which becomes redistributed over the landscape by wind and water. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico in an effort to study this process. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of desert grassland and three plots of desert grassland-shrubland ecotone. Nitric acid was used to dissolve the REE oxides (Eu2O3, Dy2O3, and Pr6O11) which were then diluted in distilled water to a target concentration of 1 g REE l-1 and applied to the surface at a rate of 4 l m-2. From laboratory column studies using soil collected at the site, we estimated that this would penetrate the surface to a depth of 2.5 cm resulting in a sediment REE concentration of approximately 100 mg kg-1. Eu was applied to bare surfaces between vegetation characterized as sand with a surface covering of gravel, Pr was applied under grass clumps, and Dy was applied under Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata (DC.). Two replicate 0.25 m2 areas of each surface type were also tagged to obtain a sample of tagged surface sediment for analysis. The area containing the plots was burned by U.S. Fish and Wildlife personnel on April 14, 2010. During the next two days, two grassland plots and two grassland-shrubland ecotone plots were tested by placing a portable boundary layer field wind tunnel over the plots and blowing them with 12 m s-1 wind for 10 minutes during which time a paired set of entrained sediment samples were captured at the outlet of the wind tunnel. This period was followed by a 30 minute test in which clean quartz sand

  19. Trace elements and REE fractionation in subsoils developed on sedimentary and volcanic rocks: case study of the Mt. Vulture area, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongelli, Giovanni; Paternoster, Michele; Rizzo, Giovanna; Sinisi, Rosa

    2014-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in the distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) within soils, primarily as these elements can be used to identify pedogenetic processes and because soils may be future sources for REE extraction, despite much attention should be paid to the protection and preservation of present soils. Here, we evaluate the processes that control the distribution of REEs in subsoil horizons developed over differing lithologies in an area of low anthropogenic contamination, allowing estimates of the importance of source rocks and weathering. Specifically, this study presents new data on the distribution of REEs and other trace elements, including transition and high-field-strength elements, in subsoils developed on both Quaternary silica-undersaturated volcanic rocks and Pliocene siliciclastic sedimentary rocks within the Mt. Vulture area of the southern Apennines in Italy. The subsoils in the Mt. Vulture area formed during moderate weathering (as classified using the chemical index of alteration) and contain an assemblage of secondary minerals that is dominated by trioctahedral illite with minor vermiculite. The REEs, high-field-strength elements, and transition metals have higher abundances in subsoils that developed from volcanic rocks, and pedogenesis caused the Mt. Vulture subsoils to have REE concentrations that are an order of magnitude higher than typical values for the upper continental crust. This result indicates that the distribution of REEs in soils is a valuable tool for mineral exploration. A statistical analysis of inter-elemental relationships indicates that REEs are concentrated in clay-rich fractions that also contain significant amounts of low-solubility elements such as Zr and Th, regardless of the parent rock. This suggests that low-solubility refractory minerals, such as zircon, play a significant role in controlling the distribution of REEs in soils. The values of (La/Yb)N and (Gd/Yb)N fractionation indices are dependent on

  20. Geochemical and Geochronologic Investigations of Zircon-hosted Melt Inclusions in Rhyolites from the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge IOA-REE Deposit, St. Francois Mountains, Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, K. E.; Mercer, C. N.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks of an eroded Mesoproterozoic caldera complex were intruded and replaced by iron ore, and cross-cut by REE-enriched breccia pipes (~12% total REO) to form the Pea Ridge iron-oxide-apatite-REE (IOA-REE) deposit. Igneous activity, iron ore formation, and REE mineralization overlapped in space and time, however the source of REEs and other metals (Fe, Cu, Au) integral to these economically important deposits remains unclear. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted in refractory zircon phenocrysts are used to constrain magmatic components and processes in the formation of the Pea Ridge deposit. Homogenized (1.4 kbar, 1000°C, 1 hr) MI in zircons from rhyolites ~600 ft (PR-91) and ~1200 ft (PR-12) laterally from the ore body were analyzed for major elements by EPMA and volatiles and trace elements (H2O, S, F, Cl, REEs, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, U, Th) by SHRIMP-RG. Metals (including Cu, Au) will be measured in an upcoming SHRIMP-RG session. U-Pb ages, Ti and REE were determined by SHRIMP-RG for a subset of zircon spots adjacent to MI (1458 ± 18 Ma (PR-12); 1480 ± 45 Ma (PR-91)). MI glasses range from fresh and homogeneous dacite-rhyolite (65-75 wt% SiO2) to heterogeneous, patchy mixtures of K-spar and quartz (PR-12, 91), and more rarely mica, albite and/or anorthoclase (PR-91). MI are commonly attached to monazite and xenotime, particularly along re-entrants and zircon rims (PR-91). Fresh dacite-rhyolite glasses (PR-12) have moderate H2O (~2-2.5 wt%), Rb/Sr ratios (~8) and U (~5-7 ppm), and negative (chondrite-normalized) Eu anomalies (Eu ~0.4-0.7 ppm) (typical of rhyolites), whereas HREEs (Tb, Ho, Tm) are elevated (~2-3 ppm). Patchy K-spar and quartz inclusions (PR-12, 91) have flat LREE patterns, and positive anomalies in Tb, Ho, and Tm. One K-spar inclusion (PR-91) has a ~5-50 fold increase in HREEs (Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and U (35 ppm) relative to other MI. U-Pb and REE analyses of its zircon host are not unusual (1484 ± 21 Ma); its irregular shape

  1. Geochemical and Geochronologic Investigations of Zircon-hosted Melt Inclusions in Rhyolites from the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge IOA-REE Deposit, St. Francois Mountains, Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, K. E.; Mercer, C. N.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks of an eroded Mesoproterozoic caldera complex were intruded and replaced by iron ore, and cross-cut by REE-enriched breccia pipes (~12% total REO) to form the Pea Ridge iron-oxide-apatite-REE (IOA-REE) deposit. Igneous activity, iron ore formation, and REE mineralization overlapped in space and time, however the source of REEs and other metals (Fe, Cu, Au) integral to these economically important deposits remains unclear. Melt inclusions (MI) hosted in refractory zircon phenocrysts are used to constrain magmatic components and processes in the formation of the Pea Ridge deposit. Homogenized (1.4 kbar, 1000°C, 1 hr) MI in zircons from rhyolites ~600 ft (PR-91) and ~1200 ft (PR-12) laterally from the ore body were analyzed for major elements by EPMA and volatiles and trace elements (H2O, S, F, Cl, REEs, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, U, Th) by SHRIMP-RG. Metals (including Cu, Au) will be measured in an upcoming SHRIMP-RG session. U-Pb ages, Ti and REE were determined by SHRIMP-RG for a subset of zircon spots adjacent to MI (1458 ± 18 Ma (PR-12); 1480 ± 45 Ma (PR-91)). MI glasses range from fresh and homogeneous dacite-rhyolite (65-75 wt% SiO2) to heterogeneous, patchy mixtures of K-spar and quartz (PR-12, 91), and more rarely mica, albite and/or anorthoclase (PR-91). MI are commonly attached to monazite and xenotime, particularly along re-entrants and zircon rims (PR-91). Fresh dacite-rhyolite glasses (PR-12) have moderate H2O (~2-2.5 wt%), Rb/Sr ratios (~8) and U (~5-7 ppm), and negative (chondrite-normalized) Eu anomalies (Eu ~0.4-0.7 ppm) (typical of rhyolites), whereas HREEs (Tb, Ho, Tm) are elevated (~2-3 ppm). Patchy K-spar and quartz inclusions (PR-12, 91) have flat LREE patterns, and positive anomalies in Tb, Ho, and Tm. One K-spar inclusion (PR-91) has a ~5-50 fold increase in HREEs (Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and U (35 ppm) relative to other MI. U-Pb and REE analyses of its zircon host are not unusual (1484 ± 21 Ma); its irregular shape

  2. Distribution of REEs in box-core sediments offshore an industrial area in SE Sicily, Ionian Sea: evidence of anomalous sedimentary inputs.

    PubMed

    Di Leonardo, Rossella; Bellanca, Adriana; Neri, Rodolfo; Tranchida, Giorgio; Mazzola, Salvo

    2009-10-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements and yttrium (REEs+Y) has been investigated in box-core sediments recovered from four stations in the Sicilian coastal zone seawards of Augusta, one of the most industrialized and contaminated areas in the Mediterranean region. Shale-like REE patterns and low Y/Ho ratios (close to the chondritic ratio) suggest a dominant terrigenous (geogenic) source for REE. Slight enrichment of LREE over the HREE is interpreted as due to preferential adsorptive transfer of LREE from seawater to sediment particles. Samples from offshore cores exhibit slightly positive Gd and negative Ce anomalies. It is here hypothesized that main drivers of anthropogenic Gd flux towards the offshore are dredged contaminated materials that, recovered from the Augusta Bay, have been repeatedly discharged offshore. Consistent with the redox-chemistry of Ce, these anomalous sedimentary inputs induce a decrease of O(2) concentration in the sediment, which in turn triggers Ce regeneration. PMID:19735932

  3. Simple models for disequilibrium fractional melting and batch melting with application to REE fractionation in abyssal peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yan; Liu, Boda

    2016-01-01

    Disequilibrium melting arises when the kinetics of chemical exchange between a residual mineral and partial melt is sluggish compare to the rate of melting. To better understand the role of a finite crystal-melt exchange rate on trace element fractionation during mantle melting, we have developed a disequilibrium melting model for partial melting in an upwelling steady-state column. We use linear kinetics to approximate crystal-melt mass exchange rate and obtain simple analytical solutions for cases of perfect fractional melting and batch melting. A key parameter determining the extent of chemical disequilibrium during partial melting is an element specific dimensionless ratio (ε) defined as the melting rate relative to the solid-melt chemical exchange rate for the trace element of interest. In the case of diffusion in mineral limited chemical exchange, ε is inversely proportional to diffusivity of the element of interest. Disequilibrium melting is important for the trace element when ε is comparable to or greater than the bulk solid-melt partition coefficient for the trace element (k). The disequilibrium fractional melting model is reduced to the equilibrium perfect fractional melting model when ε is much smaller than k. Hence highly incompatible trace elements with smaller mobilities in minerals are more susceptible to disequilibrium melting than moderately incompatible and compatible trace elements. Effect of chemical disequilibrium is to hinder the extent of fractionation between residual solid and partial melt, making the residual solid less depleted and the accumulated melt more depleted in incompatible trace element abundances relative the case of equilibrium melting. Application of the disequilibrium fractional melting model to REE and Y abundances in clinopyroxene in abyssal peridotites from the Central Indian Ridge and the Vema Lithospheric Section, Mid-Atlantic Ridge revealed a positive correlation between the disequilibrium parameter ε and the

  4. The behaviour of REE and Zr-Hf fractionation in the volcanic waters of Nevado del Ruiz system (Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inguaggiato, Claudio; Censi, Paolo; Zuddas, Pierpaolo; Makario Londoño, John; Chacón, Zoraida; Alzate, Diego; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical behaviour of Rare Earth Element (REE), Zr and Hf have been investigated in the thermal waters of Nevado del Ruiz volcanic system. These fluids are characterised by a wide range of pH ranging between 1.0 and 8.8. The acidic waters are sulphate dominated with different Cl/SO4 ratios. The Nevado del Ruiz waters allowed to investigate the behaviour of investigated elements in a wide spectrum of pH and chemical composition of water. The important role of the pH and the ionic complexes have been evidenced in the distribution of REE, Zr and Hf in the aqueous phase. The pH rules the precipitation of authigenic oxyhydroxides of Fe, Al producing changes in REE, Zr, Hf amount and strong anomalies of Cerium and Europium. Y-Ho and Zr-Hf (twin pairs) have different behaviour in strong acidic waters with respect to the water with higher pH. Yttrium and Ho have the same behaviour of Zr and Hf in waters with pH near neutral-to-neutral, showing super-chondritic ratios. The twin pairs showed to be sensitive to the co-precipitation and/or adsorption onto the surface of authigenic particulate suggesting an enhanced scavenging of Ho and Hf respect to Y and Zr, leading to super-chondritic ratios. In acidic waters a different behaviour of twin pairs occurs with chondritic Y/Ho ratios (reflecting the Y/Ho ratio of average local rock) and sub-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios. For the first time, Zr and Hf have been investigated in natural acidic fluids to understand the behaviour of these elements in extreme acidic conditions and different major anions chemistry. Zr/Hf molar ratio changes from 4.75 to 49.29 in water with pH<3.6. In strong acidic waters, a different fractionation of Zr and Hf have been recognised as function of major anion contents (Cl and SO4), suggesting the formation of complexes leading to sub-chondritic Zr/Hf molar ratios.

  5. Sorption of the Rare Earth Elements and Yttrium (REE-Y) in calcite: the mechanism of a new effective tool in identifying paleoearthquakes on carbonate faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraetis, Daniel; Mouslopoulou, Vasiliki; Pratikakis, Alexandros

    2015-04-01

    A new tool for identifying paleoearthquakes on carbonate faults has been successfully tested on two carbonate faults in southern Europe (the Magnola Fault in Italy and the Spili Fault in Greece): the Rare Earth Element and Yttrium (REE-Y) method (Manighetti et al., 2010; Mouslopoulou et al., 2011). The method is based on the property of the calcite in limestone scarps to absorb the REE and Y from the soil during its residence beneath the ground surface (e.g. before its exhumation due to earthquakes). Although the method is established, the details of the enrichment mechanism are poorly investigated. Here we use published data together with new information from pot-experiments to shed light on the sorption mechanism and the time effectiveness of the REE-Y method. Data from the Magnola and Spili faults show that the average chemical enrichment is ~45%, in REE-Y while the denudation rate of the enriched zones is ~1% higher every 400 years due to exposure of the fault scarp in weathering. They also show that the chemical enrichment is significant even for short periods of residence time (e.g., ~100 years). To better understand the enrichment mechanism, we performed a series of pot experiments, where carbonate tiles extracted from the Spili Fault were buried into soil collected from the hanging-wall of the same fault. We irrigated the pots with artificial rain that equals 5 years of rainfall in Crete and at temperatures of 15oC and 25oC. Following, we performed sorption isotherm, kinetic and pH-edge tests for the europium (Eu), the cerium (Ce) and the ytterbium (Yt) that occur in the calcite minerals. The processes of adsorption and precipitation in the batch experiments are simulated by the Mineql software. The pot experiments indicate incorporation of the REE and Y into the surface of the carbonate tile which is in contact with the soil. The pH of the leached solution during the rain application range from 7.6 to 8.3. Nutrient release like Ca is higher in the leached

  6. Landslide-induced iron mobilisation shapes benthic accumulation of nutrients, trace metals and REE fractionation in an oligotrophic alpine stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Scott G.; Rose, Andrew L.; Burton, Edward D.; Webster-Brown, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Large alpine landslides that entrain substantial organic material below the water table and create suspended floodplains may have long-term consequences for the mobilisation of redox sensitive elements, such as Fe, into streamwaters. In turn, the cycling of iron in aquatic systems can influence the fate of nutrients, alter primary productivity, enhance accumulation of trace metals and induce fractionation of rare earth elements (REE). In this study we examine a reach of a pristine oligotrophic alpine stream bracketing a 30 year-old landslide and explore the consequences of landslide-induced Fe mobilisation for aqueous geochemistry and the composition of benthic stream cobble biofilm. Elevated Fe2+ and Mn in landslide zone stream waters reflect inputs of circumneutral groundwater from the landslide debris-zone floodplain. Geochemical characteristics are consistent with reductive dissolution being a primary mechanism of Fe2+ and Mn mobilisation. Stream cobble biofilm in the landslide zone is significantly (P < 0.01) enriched in poorly crystalline Fe(III) (∼10-400 times background) and Mn (∼15-150 times background) (1 M HCl extractable; Fe(III)Ab). While the landslide zone accounts for less than ∼9% of the total stream length, we estimate it is responsible for approximately 60-80% of the stream's benthic biofilm load of poorly crystalline Fe(III) and Mn. Biofilm Fe(III) precipitates are comprised mainly of ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite and an organic-Fe species, while precipitate samples collected proximal to hyporheic seeps contain abundant sheath structures characteristic of the neutrophilic Fe(II)-oxidising bacteria Leptothrix spp. Stream-cobble Fe(III)-rich biofilm is accumulating PO43- (∼3-30 times background) and behaving as a preferential substrate for photosynthetic periphyton, with benthic PO43-, chlorophyll a, organic carbonHCl and total N all significantly positively correlated with Fe(III)Ab and significantly elevated within the landslide zone (P < 0

  7. Mixed-ligand complex compounds of rare-earth elements (REE) with acetylacetone and fumaric or maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Panyushkin, V.T.; Akhrimenko, N.V.

    1994-10-01

    Previously the authors investigated the possibility of synthesis of the f-block element mixed complexes with {beta}-diketones and organic unsaturated acids. The mixed-ligand complexes of lanthanides [Ln = Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), and Yb(III)] with acetylacetone (acac) and fumaric or maleic acid (AcidH{sub 2}) were synthesized. The mixed-ligand complexes were prepared by the interaction of REE tris(acetylacetonates) [Ln(acac){sub 3}{center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O] with half as much excess of the organic acid in a solution of diethyl ether. According to the data of elemental analysis and thermogravimetric and spectroscopic investigations, the mixed complexes studied are of composition Ln(acac){sub 2}(AcidH){center_dot}H{sub 2}O.

  8. The Pasamonte unequilibrated eucrite: Pyroxene REE systematic and major-, minor-, and trace-element zoning. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pun, A.; Papike, J. J.

    1994-01-01

    We are evaluating the trace-element concentrations in the pyroxenes of Pasamonte. Pasamonte is a characteristic member of the main group eucrites, and has recently been redescribed as a polymict eucrite. Our Pasamonte sample contained eucritic clasts with textures ranging from subophitic to moderately coarse-grained. This study concentrates on pyroxenes from an unequilibrated, coarse-grained eucrite clast. Major-, minor-, and trace-element analyses were measured for zoned pyroxenes in the eucritic clast of Pasamonte. The major- and minor-element zoning traverses were measured using the JEOL 733 electron probe with an Oxford-Link imaging/analysis system. Complemenatry trace elements were then measured for the core and rim of each of the grains by SIMS. The trace elements analyzed consisted of eight REE, Sr, Y, and Zr. These analyses were performed on a Cameca 4f ion probe. The results of the CI chondrite normalized (average CI trace-element analyses for several grains and the major- and minor-element zoning patterns from a single pyroxene grain are given. The Eu abundance in the cores of the pyroxenes represents the detection limit and therefore the (-Eu) anomaly is a minimum. Major- and minor-element patterns are typical for igneous zoning. Pyroxene cores are Mg enriched, whereas the rims are enriched in Fe and Ca. Also, Ti and Mn are found to increase, while Cr and Al generally decrease in core-to-rim traverses. The cores of the pyroxenes are more depleted in the Rare Earth Elements (REE) than the rims. Using the minor- and trace-element concentrations of bulk Pasamonte and the minor- and trace-element concentrations from the cores of the pyroxenes in Pasamonte measured in this study, we calculated partition coefficients between pyroxene and melt. This calculation assumes that bulk Pasamonte is representative of a melt composition.

  9. Nd isotopic composition and REE pattern in the surface waters of the eastern Indian Ocean and its adjacent seas

    SciTech Connect

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Alibo, D.S.; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki

    2000-05-01

    The Nd isotopic composition and dissolved rare earth elements (REEs) have been measured in the surface waters along the 1996/97 R.V. Hakuho-Maru Expedition route from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean, southwest of Australia, through the Philippine and Indonesian Archipelago, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. The radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of {minus}1.3 and {minus}1.4 were found in the Sulu Sea and near the Lombok Strait, indicating the strong influence of surrounding volcanic islands, whereas non-radiogenic {epsilon}{sub Nd} values of less than {minus}10 were found in the Southern Ocean and the Bay of Bengal suggesting Nd of continental origin. The dissolved Nd concentrations also showed a wide range of variation from 2.8 to 19.6 pmol/kg and the trivalent REE patterns exhibited characteristic features that can be grouped into each different oceanic province. The geographical distribution of dissolved Nd is different from that of atmospherically derived {sup 210}Pb, but generally resembles that of coastally derived {sup 228}Ra. This strongly suggests that fluvial and coastal input predominates over eolian input for dissolved Nd in the surface ocean. However, the riverine dissolved Nd flux appears to be relatively minor, and remobilization of Nd from coastal and shelf sediments may play an important role in the total Nd input to the ocean. By modeling the distributions of the isotopic composition and concentration of Nd together with the activity ratio of {sup 228}Ra/{sup 226}Ra in the southeastern Indian Ocean, the authors estimate a mean residence time of Nd in the surface mixed layer to be 1.5--2.6 years. The short mean residence time is comparable with, or slightly longer than that of {sup 210}Pb suggesting similar chemical reactivity.

  10. Application of Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method to Mantle Melting: An Example from REE Abundances in Abyssal Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, B.; Liang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation is a powerful statistical method in solving inverse problems that arise from a wide range of applications, such as nuclear physics, computational biology, financial engineering, among others. In Earth sciences applications of MCMC are primarily in the field of geophysics [1]. The purpose of this study is to introduce MCMC to geochemical inverse problems related to trace element fractionation during concurrent melting, melt transport and melt-rock reaction in the mantle. MCMC method has several advantages over linearized least squares methods in inverting trace element patterns in basalts and mantle rocks. First, MCMC can handle equations that have no explicit analytical solutions which are required by linearized least squares methods for gradient calculation. Second, MCMC converges to global minimum while linearized least squares methods may be stuck at a local minimum or converge slowly due to nonlinearity. Furthermore, MCMC can provide insight into uncertainties of model parameters with non-normal trade-off. We use MCMC to invert for extent of melting, amount of trapped melt, and extent of chemical disequilibrium between the melt and residual solid from REE data in abyssal peridotites from Central Indian Ridge and Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In the first step, we conduct forward calculation of REE evolution with melting models in a reasonable model space. We then build up a chain of melting models according to Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to represent the probability of specific model. We show that chemical disequilibrium is likely to play an important role in fractionating LREE in residual peridotites. In the future, MCMC will be applied to more realistic but also more complicated melting models in which partition coefficients, diffusion coefficients, as well as melting and melt suction rates vary as functions of temperature, pressure and mineral compositions. [1]. Sambridge & Mosegarrd [2002] Rev. Geophys.

  11. Dust dispersal and Pb enrichment at the rare-metal Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining and ore processing site: insights from REE patterns and elemental ratios.

    PubMed

    Dolgopolova, Alla; Weiss, Dominik J; Seltmann, Reimar; Dulski, Peter

    2006-04-30

    Different geological, technogenic and environmental samples from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe Ta-Nb-Sn-W mining site and ore processing complex in Eastern Transbaikalia (Russia), were analysed for Pb, Y, Zr, Hf and rare earth elements (REE) to assess the effect of dust and metal dispersal on the environment within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site. Potential source material analysed included ore-bearing and barren granites, host rocks, tailing pond sediments, and ore concentrates. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptor samples. The REE enrichment relative to chondrite, the extent of the Eu anomalies, the enrichments of heavy REE (HREE), and Zr/Hf and Yb/Y ratios suggest that tailings, barren granites, and metasedimentary host rocks are the main sources of dust in the studied mining environment. In addition, calculated lead enrichment (relative to host rocks) suggests that the environment is polluted with Pb. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of REE patterns and elemental ratios as a reliable technique to trace dust and metals sources and dispersal within a confined mining area offering a new tool for environmental assessment studies. PMID:16427193

  12. Does sediment geochemistry (based on selective extractions of Al and Fe and REE) provide a record of soil evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourier, B.; Poulenard, J.; Blarquez, O.; Williamson, D.; Arnaud, F.; Carcaillet, C.

    2009-04-01

    Soil is a natural body occurring at the interface between the lithosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. As a result, the physical and chemical properties of soils evolve with time, and the reconstruction of their history represents a key to understand past environmental changes. Palaeolimnological techniques such as sediment geochemistry can be used to investigate changes in catchment history by providing information about soil development. However, due to the lack of conservative pedosignatures (soil proxies), only few paleoecological studies have attempted to reconstruct the history of soil genesis using geochemical analyses of lacustrine sediments. Here we present a multidisciplinary study which aims to use pedosignatures, defined by a previous soil study, in order to characterize the history of soil genesis, podzolization and chemical weathering processes in two sediment sequences. Moreover, we aim to compare the timing of soil evolution with other paleoenvironmental markers (macroremains, charcoals…) in order to infer the role of climate, vegetation and possible human activities as forcing factors. In a first step, the geochemical investigation of eight subalpine soil profiles from the inner Alps allowed to define relevant proxies of two major soil processes. Parent material normalized REE patterns provide a precise tracer of chemical weathering whereas the proportions of secondary Al- and Fe-bearing phases provide a tracer of the podzolisation process. Then, the same tracers were assessed on two lacustrine and peat sediment sequences (Loup and Thyl lakes) from the subalpine domain. The proxy records, spanning ca. 4.500 yr at the Thyl lake and ca. 13.500 yr at the Loup lake, indicate that both progressive and regressive pedogenesis occurred after the deglaciation. The Thyl record is highly contrasted: the progressive setting of the mixed cembra pine ecosystem is associated to the podzolisation process (secondary Al- and Fe-bearing phases are maximal) and the

  13. Karrat REE mineralization on Niaqornakavsak and extension on Umiamako Nuna, West Greenland: mineralogic, geochronologic, and carbon and oxygen isotope constraints on the origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, A.; Bird, D. K.; Grove, M.; Bernstein, S.; Mackay, H.; Rose, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Karrat rare earth element (REE) mineralization is located in the Niaqornakavsak (NIAQ) area of Qeqertarssuaq Island in Greenland (~72°N). A mineralized horizon occurs as a single distinct layer (35-40° dip) within an amphibolite host rock of the Qeqertarssuaq Formation: a member of the Paleoproterozoic Karrat Group sequence. Average Yttrium + REE-oxide (YREEO) concentration is ~1.0 wt. % with concentrations up to 2.59 wt. % over one meter intervals. Eight drill holes across three locations on NIAQ allow for an estimated true thickness of REE enrichment (YREEO ≥ 0.2 wt. %) of 29-38m in the east and central area, and a fault restricted thickness at the site in the west of 16m (at surface) to 28m (at depth). Two distinct metasomatic reaction zones comprise the mineralized horizon and are universal across NIAQ: the upper unit (CCA ~1.5 %YREEO) has a primary mineralogy of calcite + ankerite + fluorite (>50%), grunerite, cummingtonite, magnetite, fergusonite, bastnasite, allanite, and monazite, while the lower unit (BLC) consists of biotite (>50%), calcite, ilmenite, magnetite, allanite, fergusonite, and monazite. An extension of the Karrat REE deposit outcrops 7 km to the east on Umiamako Nuna. Hand samples from Umiamako Nuna similar to CCA (YREEO up to 2.4 wt. %) have been collected, but two exploratory drill holes revealed the majority of the REE enriched zone is comparable to the mineralogy of the incomplete reaction zone around CCA on NIAQ with concentrations of YREEO ranging from 0.5-1.0 wt. % with an estimated thickness of 15m. The mineralization consists of Ca-amphiboles, biotite, calcite, pyrite, albite, and garnet. Enrichment of REE continues to a depth of 60m from vein mineralization. In addition, a secondary occurrence at depth can be found on Umiamako Nuna tens of meters below the primary mineralized horizon, which is characterized by high modal concentrations of calcite, fluorite, and amphiboles. Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of 145 carbonate

  14. Hydrothermal REE and Zr mobilization in the Strange Lake peralkaline granitic system: a reaction path model linked to petrological and geochemical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysi, A. P.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme enrichment and hydrothermal mobilization of rare earth elements (REE) and other high-field strength elements (HFSE; i.e., Zr, Nb, Ta and Ti) is a feature of anorogenic alkaline and peralkaline igneous systems. Strange Lake in Quebec, Canada, is a mid-Proterozoic peralkaline granitic intrusion that is host to a world-class REE and HFSE deposit with >50 Mt of ore (>1.5 wt.% REE and >3 wt.% Zr). We have used Strange Lake as a natural laboratory and linked petrographic observations of the deposit and geochemical data with numerical simulations to constraint physicochemical conditions of hydrothermal REE and Zr mobilization and mineralization. The B-zone, in the NW of Strange Lake, contains a lens-shaped pegmatite-rich zone hosted in subsolvus granite. Three alteration styles were distinguished: i) an acid alteration caused by HCl-HF-bearing fluids from the pegmatites, ii) Na-metasomatism related to aegirinization/hematization of arfvedsonite, and iii) Ca-F-metasomatism involving late interaction of the rocks with a mixture of acidic F-rich and Ca-rich fluids. The acid alteration accounts for most of the hydrothermal mobilization of Zr and REE within and from the pegmatites, whereas the Ca-F-metasomatism is evident as late stage pore space fillings and veins of hydrothermal fluorite and quartz and a fluorite breccia. These different alteration styles are reflected in the bulk rock chemistry by variable mobility of Na, Fe, Al, Ca, F, HFSE and REE distinguishable on isocon diagrams. Elemental X-ray maps of REE- and Zr-minerals show evidence for a decoupled mobilization of LREE, HREE and Zr at different stages of fluid-rock interaction. Numerical simulations of the reaction of pegmatite with saline HF- and HCl-HF-bearing fluids at 400 °C to 250 °C predict the observed trends reasonably well. Fluids with pH <2 led to the formation of quartz and fluorite in the core of the pegmatites, and fluids with pH >4 to the formation of phyllosilicates and continued stability

  15. A Gradient in Cooling Rate Beneath the Moho at the Oman Ophiolite: Fresh Insights into Cooling Processes at Mid-Ocean Ridges from REE-Based Thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, N. J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Liang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Wadi Tayin massif in the southern Oman ophiolite has a more than 10 km thick mantle section and is believed to have formed in a mid-ocean ridge like environment with an intermediate to fast spreading rate. Previously, [1] used major element geothermometers to investigate spatial variations in temperatures recorded in mantle peridotites and observed that samples near the paleo-Moho have higher closure temperatures than samples at the base of the mantle section. Motivated by these observations, we measured major and trace elements in orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene in peridotites from depths of ~1-8km beneath the Moho to determine closure temperatures of REE in the samples using the REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer [2]. Clinopyroxene are depleted in LREE and have REE concentrations that vary depending on distance from the Moho. Samples nearer the Moho have lower REE concentrations than those deeper in the section (e.g., chondrite normalized Yb ranges from ~1.5 at the Moho to 4 at 8km depth), consistent with near fractional melting along a mantle adiabat. Orthopyroxene are highly depleted in LREE but measurements of middle to heavy REE have good reproducibility. We find that REE-in-two-pyroxene temperatures decrease with increasing distance from the Moho, ranging from 1325±10°C near the Moho to 1063±24°C near the base of the mantle section. Using methods from [3], we calculate cooling rates of >1000°C/Myr near the Moho, dropping to rates of <10°C/Myr at the bottom of the section. The faster cooling rate is inconsistent with conductive cooling models. Fast cooling of the mantle lithosphere could be facilitated by infiltration of seawater to or beneath the petrologic Moho. This can explain why abyssal peridotites from ultra-slow spreading centers (which lack a crustal section) have cooling rates comparable to those of Oman peridotites [3]. [1] Hanghøj et al. (2010), JPet 51(1-2), 201-227. [2] Liang et al. (2013), GCA 102, 246-260. [3] Dygert & Liang (2015

  16. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Ditrachybothridium macrocephalum Rees, 1959 (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) from Galeus melastomus Rafinesque in the Western Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Dallarés, Sara; Pérez-Del-Olmo, Ana; Carrassón, Maite; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-09-01

    New morphological, molecular and ecological data for Ditrachybothridium macrocephalum Rees, 1959 (Cestoda: Diphyllidea) are presented and discussed based on specimens recovered from the blackmouth catshark Galeus melastomus Rafinesque (Scyliorhinidae) in the Western Mediterranean. A redescription of the plerocercus of this parasite is provided and new data on immature and mature worms including the first description of the eggs are reported, based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations. Analysis of 28S rDNA (domains D1-D3) sequences from plerocerci, immature and adult specimens revealed that they are conspecific with specimens from the North East Atlantic. Although previous authors considered that museum specimens identified as D. macrocephalum may represent more than one species, examination of type- and voucher material revealed no relevant morphological differences between museum specimens and the present material. Information on infection levels of D. macrocephalum is provided from a large number of host specimens (n = 170). This species was more abundant in juvenile than in adult hosts and on the middle slope than on the upper slope; this may be related to ontogenetic and bathymetric diet shifts of G. melastomus. PMID:26249521

  17. Sedimentology of a glaciofluvial landsystem, Lough Ree area, Central Ireland: implications for ice margin characteristics during Devensian deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, Catherine

    2002-05-01

    Eskers in a glaciofluvial landsystem in the Lough Ree area, Central Ireland, exhibit two orientations. The most southerly esker in the area, the Athlone Esker, forms part of a dendritic esker system with paleocurrent directions indicating eastward drainage, while the Rooskagh Esker and associated eskers and kames immediately to the north were formed during southward drainage. Sediments indicate that sharp-crested, steep-sided sections of both ridges were formed within subglacial tunnels, while fan-shaped and flat-topped areas were formed as subaqueous outwash fans and deltas in standing water immediately in front of an ice-margin. The deposition of ice-marginal deposits indicating southward paleoflows against the side of the eastward flowing Athlone Esker indicates a 90° shift in the direction of ice surface slope, and a similar shift in the likely orientation of the ice margin. The absence of any evidence of intermediate ice- or water-flow directions indicates that the shift reflects a recession of ice, followed by a readvance from the north.

  18. Composition of rare earth elements in settling particles collected in the highly productive North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea: Implications for siliceous-matter dissolution kinetics and formation of two REE-enriched phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, Tasuku; Fu, Feng-fu; Hongo, Yayoi; Takahashi, Kozo

    2011-09-01

    Settling particles were sampled monthly for 1 year using an automated time-series sediment trap positioned at similar depths at two sites of high diatomaceous productivity in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. The particles were analyzed for rare earth elements (REEs) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with and without chemical treatment of the bulk samples to isolate siliceous fractions. The REE composition of the bulk samples is explained largely by the contribution of two distinct components: (i) carbonate with a higher REE concentration, a negative Ce anomaly and lighter REE (LREE) enrichment; (ii) opal with a lower REE concentration, a weaker negative Ce anomaly and heavier REE (HREE) enrichment. The siliceous fractions of settling particles are characterized by high Si/Al ratios (30-190), reflecting high diatom productivity at the studied sites. The La/Al ratio of the siliceous fraction is close to that of the upper crust, but the Lu/Al and Lu/La ratios are significantly higher than those of the upper crust or airborne particles, indicating the presence of excess HREEs in the siliceous fraction. Diatoms are believed to be important carriers of HREEs. The Ce anomaly, Eu anomaly, slope of the REE pattern, and ΣREE of the siliceous fraction vary exponentially with decreasing total mass flux. They can be well-reproduced according to the differential dissolution kinetics of elements in the order of Ce < lighter REEs (LREEs) < Eu = heavier REEs (HREEs) < Si from settling particles, where the dissolution rate is critically reduced through particle aggregation. This order is consistent with the vertical distribution of dissolved REEs and Si in oceans. The differential dissolution kinetics leads to HREE enrichment of the original diatoms and REE enrichment of dissolved diatoms. The Lu/Si ratio of the siliceous fraction of settling particles recovered from some of the highest diatom fluxes is identical to that of the two elements dissolved

  19. Tracing thermal aquifers of El Chichón volcano-hydrothermal system (México) with 87Sr/ 86Sr, Ca/Sr and REE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiffer, L.; Taran, Y. A.; Lounejeva, E.; Solís-Pichardo, G.; Rouwet, D.; Bernard-Romero, R. A.

    2011-08-01

    The volcano-hydrothermal system of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico, is characterized by numerous thermal manifestations including an acid lake, steam vents and boiling springs in the crater and acid and neutral hot springs and steaming ground on the flanks. Previous research on major element chemistry reveals that thermal waters of El Chichón can be divided in two groups: (1) neutral waters discharging in the crater and southern slopes of the volcano with chloride content ranging from 1500 to 2200 mg/l and (2) acid-to-neutral waters with Cl up to 12,000 mg/l discharging at the western slopes. Our work supports the concept that each group of waters is derived from a separate aquifer (Aq. 1 and Aq. 2). In this study we apply Sr isotopes, Ca/Sr ratios and REE abundances along with the major and trace element water chemistry in order to discriminate and characterize these two aquifers. Waters derived from Aq. 1 are characterized by 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios ranging from 0.70407 to 0.70419, while Sr concentrations range from 0.1 to 4 mg/l and Ca/Sr weight ratios from 90 to 180, close to average values for the erupted rocks. Waters derived from Aq. 2 have 87Sr/ 86Sr between 0.70531 and 0.70542, high Sr concentrations up to 80 mg/l, and Ca/Sr ratio of 17-28. Aquifer 1 is most probably shallow, composed of volcanic rocks and situated beneath the crater, within the volcano edifice. Aquifer 2 may be situated at greater depth in sedimentary rocks and by some way connected to the regional oil-gas field brines. The relative water output (l/s) from both aquifers can be estimated as Aq. 1/Aq. 2-30. Both aquifers are not distinguishable by their REE patterns. The total concentration of REE, however, strongly depends on the acidity. All neutral waters including high-salinity waters from Aq. 2 have very low total REE concentrations (< 0.6 μg/l) and are characterized by a depletion in LREE relative to El Chichón volcanic rock, while acid waters from the crater lake (Aq. 1) and acid

  20. [Technique for removal of anaesthetic vapours from the operation theater. CO2-concentrations in the Jackson Rees system using a removal unit (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kroesen, G; Sankofi, P; Geir, W; Menardi, G

    1978-04-01

    The Jackson Rees system was used for short operations in 50 infants combined with or without a system for removal of excess anaesthetic vapours developed by the authors. The CO2-concentration in the system was measured directly before the upper airway of the patients. No statistically significance difference between the CO2-concentration with or without the use of the removal system. A variable power of suction up to 61/min is thought to be sufficient and harmless. PMID:655369

  1. Removal of high-salinity matrices through polymer-complexation-ultrafiltration for the detection of trace levels of REEs using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hualing; Lin, Jijun; Gong, Zhenbin; Huang, Jiahua; Yang, Shifeng

    2015-10-01

    The polymer-complexation-ultrafiltration (PCUF) technique was applied to separate trace levels of rare earth elements (REEs), including scandium, yttrium and the lanthanides, from high-salinity matrices prior to their determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The REEs were converted into REE-polymer complexes using the water-soluble polymer polyacrylic acid (PAA) at a specified pH, retained on the ultrafiltration membrane of centrifugal filter units, and finally eluted using diluted nitric acid to achieve separation from matrices with relatively high levels of various inorganic ions, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and chlorine ions. Numerous factors affecting the PCUF efficiency were optimized. The optimal conditions included the addition of 30 mg L(-1) of PAA, a pH of 7.5, a reaction time of 40 min at room temperature, and 5.0 mL of 3% nitric acid (v/v) eluent. Under these conditions, the analytes were quantitatively separated and recovered, with a resulting relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 4.0% (0.05 µg L(-1), n=5) and standard addition recoveries between 89.2% (La) and 95.8% (Sm) for matrices of various salinities. The blank samples for the method ranged from 0.0003 µg L(-1) (Dy) to 0.0031 µg L(-1) (Sc), and the limits of quantification (LOQs, 10σ) were between 0.0006 µg L(-1) (Dy) and 0.0026 µg L(-1) (Sc). Furthermore, the salinity of the sample exhibited no effect on the REE-polymer complex formation process. Finally, the method was successfully applied for the determination of trace levels of dissolved Sc, Y, and lanthanides in coastal and estuarine seawater samples. PMID:26078161

  2. Deciphering human-climate interactions in ombrotrophic peat record : REE, Nd and Pb isotope signatures of dust supplies over the last 2500 years (Misten bog, Belgium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagel, Nathalie; Allan, Mohamed; Le Roux, Gael; Mattielli, Nadine; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jarek

    2013-04-01

    A core of 173 cm of ombrotrophic Misten peat bog from the Hautes-Fagnes Plateau in Eastern Belgium provides a record of Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposition allowing to trace dust fluxes in West Europe during the historical record (last 2500 years). REE and lithogenic element analyses, as well as the Nd isotopes, were performed by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in peat layers dated by 210Pb and 14C. The parallel variations of REE concentration with lithogenic conservative elements confirms that REE are immobile in the studied peat bog and can be used as tracers of dust deposition. Dust fluxes show pronounced increase at BC300, AD600, 1000AD, 1200AD and from 1700AD, recording either influence of human activities (regional erosion due to forest clearing and soil cultivation activities) or local and regional climate changes. Using Nd isotope allows to decipher between local and distal causes. The ENd variability (-13 to -9) is interpreted by a mixing between dust sources from local soils and desert particles. Three periods characterised by dominant-distal sources (at 320AD, 1000 AD and 1700AD) are consistent with local wetter intervals as indicated by lower humification degree. Local erosion prevails durier drier (higher humification) intervals (-100AD, 600AD). On a global scale more distal supplies are driven during colder periods, in particular Oort and Maunder minima. Combining geochemical elementary content and isotope data in ombrotrophic peat allows to decipher between dust flux changes related to human and climate forcing.

  3. Strong Input and Removal of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Affect Dissolved Nd Isotope Composition of Seawater in the Panama Basin and the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Bosse, L. M.; Grasse, P.; Pahnke, K.; Hathorne, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    The distributions of dissolved REEs and Nd isotopes are controlled by inputs from land and water mass mixing. We present new data from the Panama Basin in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) extending previous studies in the frame of the German SFB 754 project. The samples were taken following GEOTRACES protocols along a section from close to the Panamanian coast into the deep Panama Basin during FS Meteor cruise M90 in October/November 2012. Elevated Nd concentrations near 13 pmol/kg are found at the surface, which rapidly decrease to a subsurface minimum of 8 pmol/kg near 100m depth and then increase with water depth reaching maximum values of 18 pmol/kg at 3000 m water depth. However, these deep water concentrations are more than a factor of 2 lower than observed for North Pacific Deep Water (NPDW), which is the prevailing Pacific deep water mass at the sampling locations. All the REEs are depleted compared to NPDW suggesting that efficient uptake and scavenging dominate compared to release from remineralized particles. The surface waters show the most radiogenic Nd isotope values (ɛNd = +4.3) so far obtained globally. In combination with the Nd concentration maxima at the surface this suggests riverine dissolved and fine grained particulate inputs from southern Panama and Colombia where highly radiogenic volcanic rocks are exposed. Elevated ɛNd values above -1 in the entire water column are more radiogenic than in NPDW in the Central Pacific and in waters further south in the EEP, which confirms that release of REEs from the sinking volcanogenic material affects the entire water column. These data clearly document that significant inputs from land combined with efficient scavenging and removal in surface and deep waters control the distribution of REEs and Nd isotopes in the Panama Basin and the adjacent EEP (Grasse et al., 2012), which also has important implications for the distribution of other trace metals.

  4. Enrichment of Rare Earth and Niobium from a REE-Nb-Fe Associated Ore via Reductive Roasting Followed by Magnetic Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mudan; You, Zhixiong; Peng, Zhiwei; Li, Xiang; Li, Guanghui

    2016-02-01

    REE-Nb-Fe ore is a typical refractory resource rich in valuable elements. In this article, coal-based reductive roasting followed by magnetic separation is proposed to recover rare earth element (REE), niobium (Nb), and powdered metallic iron (Fe) concentrate from a REE-Nb-Fe raw concentrate containing 31.9% total iron grade (TFe), 3.2% rare earth oxides (REO), and 2.9% Nb2O5. Sodium sulfate is employed to enhance the reduction of iron oxide and to facilitate the growth of metallic iron grains. A magnetic fraction with TFe of 89.3%, iron metallization of 95.8% and iron recovery of 91.5% is obtained by magnetic separation after the raw concentrate is reduced to 1100°C for 120 min in the presence of 15 wt.% sodium sulfate. The contents of rare earth and niobium in the nonmagnetic fraction are enriched to 5.4% (REO) and 4.6% (Nb2O5) with recoveries of 96.1% and 95.8%, respectively. The TFe in the nonmagnetic fraction obtained after the separation is decreased to 4.8% accordingly. The reactions between sodium sulfate and SiO2/Al2O3 enhance the reduction by destroying the mineral structure. The separation of iron from rare earth and niobium is highly improved as metallic iron grains grow markedly when roasted in the presence of sodium sulfate.

  5. Fluid-mediated alteration of (Y,REE,U,Th)-(Nb,Ta,Ti) oxide minerals in granitic pegmatite from the Evje-Iveland district, southern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duran, Charley J.; Seydoux-Guillaume, Anne-Magali; Bingen, Bernard; Gouy, Sophie; de Parseval, Philippe; Ingrin, Jannick; Guillaume, Damien

    2016-02-01

    We document the textural relations and chemical composition of (Y,REE,U,Th)-(Nb,Ta,Ti) oxide minerals in a granitic pegmatite from the Evje-Iveland district, southern Norway, using a combination of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron probe micro-analysis and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The (Y,REE,U,Th)-(Nb,Ta,Ti) oxide mineral is euxenite, which is strongly radiation damaged and surrounded by radial fractures. Within euxenite grains, three domains of distinct composition comprising unaltered, intermediate and altered euxenite, have been identified. In most cases pyrochlore occurs as corroded grain boundaries around euxenite and within relict fractures. Intermediate and altered euxenite are depleted in U, Pb, Ti, Nb, and Y, but enriched in Si and Ca relative to unaltered euxenite. Pyrochlore is also enriched in Fe, Pb, Zr and LREE relative to all euxenite phases. Altered domains of euxenite have deficient analytical totals and contain O-H. These domains are metamict and contain nanopores and nanodomains enriched in U and Ca. We suggest that as radiation damage accumulated in euxenite, radial fractures developed around the euxenite grains, thus allowing fluid infiltration. In the presence of fluid, euxenite was replaced by secondary euxenite then pyrochlore, owing to dissolution-precipitation and diffusion reactions. During alteration, U and the strategic metals Nb, Ti, and REE were mobilized at both the nanoscale and the scale of the pegmatite.

  6. Dynamics of REE accumulation and fractionation in the subcolloidal fraction of bottom sediments in the Razdol'naya River-Amur Bay section, Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, D. M.

    2016-05-01

    The REE contents (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) are determined by atomic emission spectroscopy in the subcolloidal fraction of bottom sediments in the Razdol'naya River-Amur Bay section. The mean contents of lanthanides in soils and river bottom sediments (before the mixing zone) are calculated. The increase in REE content and the fractioning in the series from light to middle and heavy REE in sediments of different estuary zones (river, water mixing, and marine), with the latter related to flocculation, sorption on iron and manganese hydroxides, clay minerals (hydromica, smectites), and lifetime accumulation of marine plankton, are dtermined. Via extraction of 0.5 N sodium hydroxide solution, the content of lanthanides associated with humic substances of subcolloidal fraction from the Amur Bay sediments are determined: 1.3 to 8.2% of La; 1.1 to 11% of Ce; and 0.3 to 1.5 of Gd.

  7. Petrography and Geochemistry (Trace, Ree and Pge) of Pedda Cherlo Palle Gabbro-Diorite Pluton, Prakasam Igneous Province, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Reddy, U. V. B.; Balaram, V.; Roy, Parijat

    2015-09-01

    Prakasam Igneous Province (PIP) is an important geological domain in the Eastern Dharwar Craton (EDC), found in the junction zone between the EDC and Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB). The Pedda Cherlo Palle (PCP) gabbros are massive, leucocratic-mesocractic, and show cumulus textures with minerals plagioclase, cpx, and amphiboles. Compositionally, plagioclase is a labradorite-bytownite, cpx is diopside to augite, olivines are hyalosiderites and amphiboles are magnesiohornblendes. PCP gabbros have normal SiO2, high Al2O3, moderate to high TiO2, Na2O and medium Fe2O3, so, classified as subalkaline tholeiitic gabbros. Fractionated rare earth element (REE) patterns, high abundance of large ion lithofile elements (LILE) and transitional metals coupled with light REE (LREE) relative enrichment over heavy REE (HREE) and Nb are characteristics of partial melting of depleted mantle and melts that have undergone fractional crystalisation. These partial melts are enriched in LREE and LILE, due to the addition of slab derived sediment and fluids. PCP gabbros contain low abundance (5.1 to 24.6 ng/g) of platinum group elements (PGE), and show an increase in the order Ir>Os>Pt>Ru»Pd>Rh. We propose that the subduction related intraoceanic island arc might have accreted to the southeastern margin of India to the east of Cuddapah basin in a collisional regime that took place during Ur to Rodinia amalgamations.

  8. REE variation in alkaline mafic lavas across the North Tanzanian Divergence zone, a possible indicator of varying lithospheric thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mana, S.; Carr, M. J.; Feigenson, M.; Furman, T.; Swisher, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    systematic REE variations (Sm/Yb versus La/Sm) that are consistent with different degrees of partial melting (La/Sm), and varying amounts of garnet and amphibole in the source (Sm/Yb). Many of the more evolved samples have greater radiogenic isotopic ratios and evolve via assimilation and fractional crystallization to lower Sm/Yb and higher La/Sm. Different degree of partial melting may reflect heat flow variations, while heterogeneity in the source is consistent with pressure conditions that imply changes in the depth of melting. In fact, REE abundances of key NTD volcanics (e.g. Essimingor) indicate melting in the garnet and phlogopite stability zone indicating the presence of a relatively thick lithosphere, while the absence of garnet indicate areas characterized by thinning of the lithosphere. MacIntyre, R.M., Mitchell, J.G., Dawson, J.B., 1974. Age of fault movements in Tanzanian sector of East African Rift System. Nature 247, 354-356.

  9. Origin of the Rubian carbonate-hosted magnesite deposit, Galicia, NW Spain: mineralogical, REE, fluid inclusion and isotope evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilias, Stephanos P.; Pozo, Manuel; Bustillo, Manuel; Stamatakis, Michael G.; Calvo, José P.

    2006-10-01

    The Rubian magnesite deposit (West Asturian—Leonese Zone, Iberian Variscan belt) is hosted by a 100-m-thick folded and metamorphosed Lower Cambrian carbonate/siliciclastic metasedimentary sequence—the Cándana Limestone Formation. It comprises upper (20-m thickness) and lower (17-m thickness) lens-shaped ore bodies separated by 55 m of slates and micaceous schists. The main (lower) magnesite ore body comprises a package of magnesite beds with dolomite-rich intercalations, sandwiched between slates and micaceous schists. In the upper ore body, the magnesite beds are thinner (centimetre scale mainly) and occur between slate beds. Mafic dolerite dykes intrude the mineralisation. The mineralisation passes eastwards into sequence of bedded dolostone (Buxan) and laminated to banded calcitic marble (Mao). These show significant Variscan extensional shearing or fold-related deformation, whereas neither Rubian dolomite nor magnesite show evidence of tectonic disturbance. This suggests that the dolomitisation and magnesite formation postdate the main Variscan deformation. In addition, the morphology of magnesite crystals and primary fluid inclusions indicate that magnesite is a neoformed hydrothermal mineral. Magnesite contains irregularly distributed dolomite inclusions (<50 μm) and these are interpreted as relics of a metasomatically replaced dolostone precursor. The total rare earth element (REE) contents of magnesite are very similar to those of Buxan dolostone but are depleted in light rare earth elements (LREE); heavy rare earth element concentrations are comparable. However, magnesite REE chondrite normalised profiles lack any characteristic anomaly indicative of marine environment. Compared with Mao calcite, magnesite is distinct in terms of both REE concentrations and patterns. Fluid inclusion studies show that the mineralising fluids were MgCl2-NaCl-CaCl2-H2O aqueous brines exhibiting highly variable salinities (3.3 to 29.5 wt.% salts). This may be the result

  10. A possible difference in cooling rates recorded in REE in coexisting pyroxenes in peridotites from supra-subduction ophiolites and mid-ocean ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dygert, N. J.; Liang, Y.; Kelley, K. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recently a REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer was developed for mafic and ultramafic rocks [1]. This new thermometer is based on temperature sensitive REE partition coefficients between coexisting pyroxenes and calibrated against laboratory partitioning data. Because REE diffusion rates in pyroxene are relatively slow, the thermometer reads a higher temperature than major element based pyroxene thermometers. The difference between major and trace element derived temperatures depends primarily on cooling rate. Here we report new trace element data for peridotites from Trinity and Josephine ophiolites and a modern supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolite analogue (the Mariana trench) determined by laser ablation ICP-MS. We inverted temperatures from the new data and globally distributed ophiolitic peridotite from eight literature studies (Figure 1). Data quality was carefully monitored leaving temperatures from 65 samples. Individual ophiolites usually have temperatures clustered within a range of a few hundred degrees, but the temperature range for the global dataset is greater than 700°C (688-1401°C). Temperatures calculated for the same samples using the two pyroxene thermometer of Brey and Köhler [2] are considerably lower (564-1049°C). REE temperatures are plotted against the major element temperatures [2] in Figure 1. Abyssal peridotites reported in [1] are shown by the peach field. Much of the ophiolite data plots farther from the blue 1:1 line than the abyssal peridotites, suggesting SSZ lithospheric mantle may cool more rapidly at those ophiolites. Fast cooling can be attributed to one or more dynamic differences between mid-ocean ridge (MOR) environments and supra-subduction environments, such as enhanced hydrothermal circulation, thinner oceanic crust, or rapid cooling due to basin closure and obduction. We note that several ophiolites appear to cool more slowly than the abyssal peridotites, however in those samples geochemical evidence suggests secondary

  11. Origin and evolution of the Nakhla meteorite inferred from the Sm-Nd and U-Pb systematics and REE, Ba, Sr, Rb and K abundances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakamura, N.; Unruh, D.M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Hutchison, R.

    1982-01-01

    Analyses of Sm-Nd and U-Th-Pb systematics, REE, Ba, Sr, Rb and K concentrations were carried out for whole rock and mineral separates from the Nakhla meteorite. The 1.26 ??.07 b.y. Sm-Nd age obtained in this work is in good agreement with those previously obtained by the Rb-Sr and Ar-Ar methods. The high initial ??{lunate}Nd value of +16 suggests that Nakhla was derived from a light REE-depleted, old planetary mantle source. U-Th-Pb data, after correction for pre-analytical terrestrial Pb contamination assuming an age of 1.26 b.y., suggest that the age of the Nakhla source is ???4.33 b.y. The agreement in the age determined by three independent radiometric methods and the high initial ??{lunate}Nd value strongly suggest that the 1.3 b.y. age dates one thorough igneous event in the parent body which not only reset these isotopic systems but also established the chemical and petrologic characteristics observed for the Nakhla meteorite. Using a three-stage Sm-Nd evolution model in combination with LIL element data and estimated partition coefficients, we have tested partial melting and fractional crystallization models to estimate LIL element abundances in a possible Nakhla source. Our model calculations suggest that partial melting of the light REE-depleted source followed by extensive fractional crystallization (???50%) of the partial melt could account for the REE abundances in the Nakhla constituent minerals. The estimated source is depleted in the light REE, Ba, Rb and K and therefore may resemble the MORB source in the earth's upper mantle or the upper 60-300 km of the moon. The significantly younger age of Nakhla than the youngest lunar rock; the young differentiation age inferred from the U-Th-Pb data, and the estimated LIL element abundances (including those of K, U and Th) in the source suggest that the Nakhla meteorite may have been derived from a relatively large, well-differentiated planetary body such as Mars. ?? 1982.

  12. Geochemistry of Lower Cretaceous limestones of the Alisitos Formation, Baja California, México: Implications for REE source and paleo-redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavaraju, J.; Löser, Hannes; Lee, Yong Il; Santacruz, R. Lozano; Pi-Puig, T.

    2016-03-01

    Measurement of the major and trace elements were carried out on the Lower Cretaceous limestones interbedded in the volcano-sedimentary Alisitos Formation, northwestern México to understand the source of rare earth elements (REEs) and paleo-redox conditions. The five limestone beds (from the base up, Unit 5 to Unit 9) of the Alisitos Formation show large variations in SiO2 content (0.9-27.9%). A low concentration of CaO is observed in Unit 6 and Unit 8, and high content of CaO is observed in Unit 5, Unit 7 and Unit 9. The limestones are depleted in many trace elements with respect to Post-Archaean Australian Shale (PAAS), whereas Sr shows slight enrichment when compared to PAAS. The concentrations of ΣREE are higher in Unit 6 and Unit 8 (37.4 ± 7.5; 46.6 ± 19.4; respectively) than Unit5, Unit7, and Unit 9 (9.1 ± 3.2; 11.3 ± 9.4; 4.2 ± 2.5; respectively). The limestones of the Alisitos Formation show a non-seawater-like REE + Y pattern with positive Eu anomalies relative to PAAS (0.95-2.47). Variations in ΣREE, Al2O3, Zr, Sc, REE + Y patterns, and Y/Ho ratios are influenced mainly by the amount of terrigenous materials. The variations in the Eu/Eu*, La/Sc and La/Co suggest that the terrigenous materials included in the lower four limestone beds (from Unit 5, Unit 6, Unit 7 and Unit 8) were likely contributed by intermediate to felsic rocks whereas terrigenous materials from Unit 9 were derived from mafic to intermediate source rocks. The slightly negative to slightly positive Ce anomalies in the studied limestones resulted from variations in the bottom water oxygenation. This was also corroborated by V/Cr and Ni/Co ratios suggesting that the depositional environments experienced large fluctuations in oxygenation conditions ranging from oxic to anoxic conditions during the deposition of limestones of the Alisitos Formation.

  13. Large sedimentary aquifer systems functioning. Constraints by classical isotopic and chemical tools, and REE in the Eocene sand aquifer, SW France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, E.; Negrel, P. J.; Millot, R.; Guerrot, C.; Brenot, A.; Malcuit, E.

    2010-12-01

    continuous decrease of water levels in the IMS aquifer for instance constitute major indicators to be taken into account for water management at the aquifer system scale. Major elements variability was interpreted in terms of water-rock interactions in these confined systems isolated from anthropogenic influence, with the main role played by evaporites on the water salinity (up to 2.5 g.L-1). Rare Earth Elements (REE) were also analysed in some groundwater samples, resulting in a large variability of UCC normalized-REE patterns, ΣREE ranging from 1.9 to 50.6 µg.L-1, with no dependence on TDS. For instance, interaction with carbonates delivers REE flat patterns and highest ΣREE. The REE patterns and control by key parameters are investigated in order to test REE as a potential supplementary geochemical tracer to recognize the aquifer type hosting groundwater.

  14. Seawater-like trace element signatures (REE + Y) of Eoarchaean chemical sedimentary rocks from southern West Greenland, and their corruption during high-grade metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, C. R. L.; Nutman, A. P.; Bennett, V. C.; Norman, M. D.

    2008-02-01

    Modern chemical sediments display a distinctive rare earth element + yttrium (REE + Y) pattern involving depleted LREE, positive La/La*SN, Eu/Eu*SN, and YSN anomalies (SN = shale normalised) that is related to precipitation from circumneutral to high pH waters with solution complexation of the REEs dominated by carbonate ions. This is often interpreted as reflecting precipitation from surface waters (usually marine). The oldest broadly accepted chemical sediments are c. 3,700 Ma amphibolite facies banded iron-formation (BIF) units in the Isua supracrustal belt, Greenland. Isua BIFs, including the BIF international reference material IF-G are generally considered to be seawater precipitates, and display these REE + Y patterns (Bolhar et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 222:43 60, 2004). Greenland Eoarchaean BIF metamorphosed up to granulite facies from several localities in the vicinity of Akilia (island), display REE + Y patterns identical to Isua BIF, consistent with an origin by chemical sedimentation from seawater and a paucity of clastic input. Furthermore, the much-debated magnetite-bearing siliceous unit of “earliest life” rocks (sample G91/26) from Akilia has the same REE + Y pattern. This suggests that sample G91/26 is also a chemical sediment, contrary to previous assertions (Bolhar et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 222:43 60, 2004), and including suggestions that the Akilia unit containing G91/26 consists entirely of silica-penetrated, metasomatised, mafic rock (Fedo and Whitehouse 2002a). Integration of our trace element data with those of Bolhar et al. (Earth Planet Sci Lett 222:43 60, 2004) demonstrates that Eoarchaean siliceous rocks in Greenland, with ages from 3.6 to 3.85 Ga, have diverse trace element signatures. There are now geographically-dispersed, widespread examples with Isua BIF-like REE + Y signatures, that are interpreted as chemically unaltered, albeit metamorphosed, chemical sediments. Other samples retain remnants of LREE depletion but

  15. Sedimentary carbonate-hosted giant Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit of Inner Mongolia, China; a cornerstone example for giant polymetallic ore deposits of hydrothermal origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Tatsumoto, M.; Junwen, Wang; Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Zonglin, Hou; Qingrun, Meng; Shengguang, Huang

    1997-01-01

    Detailed, integrative field and laboratory studies of the textures, structures, chemical characteristics, and isotopically determined ages and signatures of mineralization of the Bayan Obo deposit provided evidence for the origin and characteristics favorable for its formation and parameters necessary for defining giant polymetallic deposits of hydrothermal origin. Bayan Obo is an epigenetic, metasomatic, hydrothermal rare earth element (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit that is hosted in the metasedimentary H8 dolostone marble of the Middle Proterozoic Bayan Obo Group. The metasedimentary sequence was deposited on the northern continental slope of the North China craton. The mine area is about 100 km south of the suture marking Caledonian subduction of the Mongolian oceanic plate from the north beneath the North China craton. The mineralogy of the deposit is very complex, consisting of more than 120 different minerals, some of which are epigenetic minerals introduced by hydrothermal solutions, and some of which are primary and secondary metamorphic minerals. The major REE minerals are monazite and bastnaesite, whereas magnetite and hematite are the dominant Fe-ore minerals, and columbite is the most abundant Nb mineral. Dolomite, alkali amphibole, fluorite, barite, aegirine augite, apatite, phlogopite, albite, and microcline are the most widespread gangue minerals. Three general types of ores occur at Bayan Obo: disseminated, banded, and massive ores. Broad zoning of these ore types occurs in the Main and East Orebodies. Disseminated ores are in the outermost zone, banded ores are in the intermediate zone, and massive ores are in the cores of the orebodies. On the basis of field relations, host rocks, textures, structures, and mineral assemblages, many varieties of these three types of ores have been recognized and mapped. Isotopic dating of monazite, bastnaesite, aeschynite, and metamorphic and metasomatic alkali amphiboles associated with the deposit provides constraints

  16. Volatile-induced transport of HFSE, REE, Th and U in arc magmas: evidence from zirconolite-bearing vesicles in potassic lavas of Lewotolo volcano (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hoog, Jan C. M.; van Bergen, Manfred J.

    Potassium-rich calc-alkaline lavas of Lewotolo volcano, situated in the East Sunda Arc, Indonesia, contain the rare mineral zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7). Samples in which tiny grains of this mineral (3-25μm in size) were found span the entire range of lava compositions (47-62wt% SiO2). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of primary zirconolite in juvenile arc volcanics. The mineral forms part of a vesicle-filling assemblage consisting of a network of quenched feldspar crystals and an SiO2 phase, probably cristobalite. High contents of Th, U and REE (up to 9.3, 4.3 and 15.6wt% oxide respectively) and very high Fe contents (up to 13.5wt% Fe2O3) distinguish these zirconolites from those of other rock types. The extraction of volatile-rich phases with changing compositions in successive stages is considered to be responsible for the zirconolite formation. We hypothesise that a fluid capable of transporting HFSE, REE, Th and U was extracted from the magma and (partly) crystallised within voids which had formed earlier upon saturation of an aqueous fluid. Assuming that zirconolite compositions largely reflect trace metal contents of the coexisting fluid phase, significant amounts of `immobile' elements must have been transported on a macroscopic scale. Our findings thus point to a late-stage transfer of HFSE, REE, Th and U between different domains in a cooling magma body. Such a volatile-induced redistribution of trace elements at shallow levels of high-K volcanic systems may be significant for conventional geochemical modelling of magma evolution and for Th-U disequilibrium studies.

  17. A precise 232Th-208Pb chronology of fine-grained monazite: Age of the Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Jingyuan; Tatsumoto, M.; Li, X.; Premo, W.R.; Chao, E.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained precise Th-Pb internal isochron ages on monazite and bastnaesite for the world's largest known rare earth elements (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit, the Bayan Obo of Inner Mongolia, China. The monazite samples, collected from the carbonate-hosted ore zone, contain extremely small amounts of uranium (less than 10 ppm) but up to 0.7% ThO2. Previous estimates of the age of mineralization ranged from 1.8 to 0.255 Ga. Magnetic fractions of monazite and bastnaesite samples (<60-??m size) showed large ranges in 232Th 204Pb values (900-400,000) and provided precise Th-Pb internal isochron ages for paragenetic monazite mineralization ranging from 555 to 398 Ma within a few percent error (0.8% for two samples). These results are the first indication that REE mineralization within the giant Bayan Obo ore deposit occurred over a long period of time. The initial lead isotopic compositions (low 206Pb 204Pb and high 208Pb 204Pb) and large negative ??{lunate}Nd values for Bayan Obo ore minerals indicate that the main source(s) for the ores was the lower crust which was depleted in uranium, but enriched in thorium and light rare earth elements for a long period of time. Zircon from a quartz monzonite, located 50 km south of the ore complex and thought to be related to Caledonian subduction, gave an age of 451 Ma, within the range of monazite ages. Textural relations together with the mineral ages favor an epigenetic rather than a syngenetic origin for the orebodies. REE mineralization started around 555 Ma (disseminated monazite in the West, the Main, and south of the East Orebody), but the main mineralization (banded ores) was related to the Caledonian subduction event ca. 474-400 Ma. ?? 1994.

  18. Mesozoic-Cenozoic thermal evolution of lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton: evidence from REE-in-two-pyroxene temperatures of mantle xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Xu, W.; Liang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Thermal state is an important property for us to understand the nature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton (NCC). Traditionally, it was obtained by calculating equilibrium temperatures for the mantle xenoliths using thermometers based on major element compositions of coexisting minerals. A REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer developed by Liang et al. (2013) is able to extract near-solidus temperatures,which can deduce the thermal histories of mantle rocks in combination with major-element-in-two-pyroxene temperatures (Tmaj). We calculated REE temperatures (TREE) for mantle samples from the NCC including ancient refractory peridotites entrained by Early Cretaceous high-Mg diorites from the central NCC (Fushan), Mantle pyroxenites entrained by Early Cretaceous basalts from the eastern NCC (Feixian and Fangcheng), and fertile/moderately depleted peridotites entrained by <100 Ma basalts from the central and eastern NCC. The Fushan peridotites have low Tmaj (<880°C) and mismatched high TREE (780-1150°C), indicating that the ancient mantle was subjected to melt-rock reactions. The Feixian and Fangcheng pyroxenites have both high Tmaj (>890°C) and high TREE - Tmaj values (80-220°C), suggestive of a hot and fast-cooled mantle in Early Cretaceous. The peridotites in <100 Ma basalts have similar TREE and Tmaj, characteristics of well-equilibrated mantle. Based on the thermometric data, we suggest that the transition of nature of the NCC lithospheric mantle is marked by the interaction between ancient lithospheric mantle and hot melt derived from recycling lower crust in Early Cretaceous. After that a fertile mantle was accreted from upwelling asthenosphere, which accomplished the replacement of the NCC lithsospheric mantle. Reference: Liang et al., 2013, A REE-in-two-pyroxene thermometer for mafic and ultramafic rocks. Geochimica et Cosmochimia Acta 102, 246-260.

  19. Fluid-driven destabilization of REE-bearing accessory minerals in the granitic orthogneisses of North Veporic basement (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondrejka, M.; Putiš, M.; Uher, P.; Schmiedt, I.; Pukančík, L.; Konečný, P.

    2016-02-01

    A variety of rare earth elements-bearing (REE) accessory mineral breakdowns were identified in granitic orthogneisses from the pre-Alpine basement in the Veporic Unit, Central Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The Ordovician granitic rocks were subjected to Variscan metamorphic-anatectic overprint in amphibolite facies. Chemical U-Th-Pb dating of monazite-(Ce) and xenotime-(Y) reveal their primary magmatic Lower to Middle Ordovician age (monazite: 472 ± 4 to 468 ± 6 Ma and xenotime: 471 ± 13 Ma) and/or metamorphic-anatectic Variscan (Carboniferous, Visean) age (monazite: 345 ± 3 Ma). Younger fluid-rock interactions caused breakdown of primary magmatic and/or metamorphic-anatectic monazite-(Ce), xenotime-(Y), fluorapatite and allanite-(Ce). Fluid-induced breakdown of xenotime-(Y) produced numerous tiny uraninite inclusions within the altered xenotime-(Y) domains. The monazite-(Ce) breakdown produced secondary egg-shaped coronal structures of different stages with well-developed concentric mineral zones. Secondary sulphatian monazite-(Ce) (up to 0.15 apfu S) occasionally formed along fluorapatite fissures. Localized fluorapatite and monazite-(Ce) recrystallization resulted in a very fine-grained, non-stoichiometric mixture of REE-Y-Fe-Th-Ca-P-Si phases. Finally, allanite-(Ce) decomposed to secondary REE carbonate minerals (members of the bastnäsite and synchysite groups) and calcite in some places. Although the xenotime alteration and formation of uraninite inclusions is believed to be the result of dissolution-reprecipitation between early magmatic xenotime and late-magmatic granitic fluids, the monazite, apatite and allanite breakdowns were driven by metamorphic hydrothermal fluids. While earlier impact of post-magmatic fluids originated probably from Permian acidic volcanic and microgranitic veins crosscutting the orthogneisses, another fluid-rock interaction event most likely occurred during Late Cretaceous metamorphism in the Veporic basement and covering

  20. Tracing the composition and origin of fluids at an ancient hydrocarbon seep (Hollard Mound, Middle Devonian, Morocco): A Nd, REE and stable isotope study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowicz, M.; Dopieralska, J.; Belka, Z.

    2015-05-01

    For the first time, Nd isotope signatures combined with rare earth element (REE) concentrations were used in investigations of ancient seep carbonates. The study was performed on the fossil hydrocarbon seep deposit of the Middle Devonian Hollard Mound (eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco), where Nd isotopes, REE concentrations, and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were measured to investigate the origin, former migration pathways and composition of fluids. Relatively high εNd values compared to local Eifelian seawater, as well as consistently appearing positive Eu anomalies in MREE-enriched shale-normalized REE patterns of the seep carbonates provided evidence for interaction between the seeping fluids and the Lower Devonian basaltic volcaniclastics underlying the studied seep deposit. Strongly reducing conditions and increased temperature of methane formation could have constituted an additional factor in the Eu-enrichment of the investigated carbonate phases. The presence of exclusively negative Ce anomalies in these carbonates is in line with observations of other workers that seep limestones may not necessarily display positive Ce anomalies indicative of precipitation under anoxic conditions. The negative Ce anomalies are attributed here to mixing between anoxic pore waters and oxic, Ce-depleted seawater, necessary to enable carbonate precipitation at seeps. The methane-rich fluids ascended most likely from below the volcaniclastic unit and inherited the enriched εNd signatures and positive Eu anomalies due to fluid-rock interactions during their seepage to the seafloor. The carbon isotope data are most consistent with thermogenic origin of methane, although contribution of abiotic and biogenic methane sources cannot be excluded. Our results indicate that neodymium isotope and rare earth element analyses constitute one of the most valuable tools for reconstructing former fluid migration patterns. The study shows also that Nd isotopes and Eu anomalies can serve as

  1. 2nd International Symposium on Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering (REES-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavadyan, Levon, Prof; Sachkov, Viktor, Prof; Godymchuk, Anna, Dr.; Bogdan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The 2nd International Symposium «Fundamental Aspects of Rare-earth Elements Mining and Separation and Modern Materials Engineering» (REES2015) was jointly organized by Tomsk State University (Russia), National Academy of Science (Armenia), Shenyang Polytechnic University (China), Moscow Institute of Physics and Engineering (Russia), Siberian Physical-technical Institute (Russia), and Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia) in September, 7-15, 2015, Belokuriha, Russia. The Symposium provided a high quality of presentations and gathered engineers, scientists, academicians, and young researchers working in the field of rare and rare earth elements mining, modification, separation, elaboration and application, in order to facilitate aggregation and sharing interests and results for a better collaboration and activity visibility. The goal of the REES2015 was to bring researchers and practitioners together to share the latest knowledge on rare and rare earth elements technologies. The Symposium was aimed at presenting new trends in rare and rare earth elements mining, research and separation and recent achievements in advanced materials elaboration and developments for different purposes, as well as strengthening the already existing contacts between manufactures, highly-qualified specialists and young scientists. The topics of the REES2015 were: (1) Problems of extraction and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (2) Methods and approaches to the separation and isolation of rare and rare earth elements with ultra-high purity; (3) Industrial technologies of production and separation of rare and rare earth elements; (4) Economic aspects in technology of rare and rare earth elements; and (5) Rare and rare earth based materials (application in metallurgy, catalysis, medicine, optoelectronics, etc.). We want to thank the Organizing Committee, the Universities and Sponsors supporting the Symposium, and everyone who contributed to the organization of the event and to

  2. 3D representation of geochemical data, the corresponding alteration and associated REE mobility at the Ranger uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Louise A.; Cleverley, James S.; Pownceby, Mark; MacRae, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Interrogation and 3D visualisation of multiple multi-element data sets collected at the Ranger 1 No. 3 uranium mine, in the Northern Territory of Australia, show a distinct and large-scale chemical zonation around the ore body. A central zone of Mg alteration, dominated by extensive clinochlore alteration, overprints a biotite-muscovite-K-feldspar assemblage which shows increasing loss of Na, Ba and Ca moving towards the ore body. Manipulation of pre-existing geochemical data and integration of new data collected from targeted `niche' samples make it possible to recognise chemical architecture within the system and identify potential fluid conduits. New trace element and rare earth element (REE) data show strong fractionation associated with the zoned alteration around the deposit and with fault planes that intersect and bound the deposit. Within the most altered portion of the system, isocon analysis indicates addition of elements including Mg, S, Cu, Au and Ni and removal of elements including Ca, K, Ba and Na within a zone of damage associated with ore precipitation. In the more distal parts of the system, processes of alteration and replacement associated with the mineralising system can be recognised. REE element data show enrichment in HREE centred about a characteristic peak in Dy in the high-grade ore zone while LREEs are enriched in the outermost portions of the system. The patterns recognised in 3D in zoning of geochemical groups and contoured S, K and Mg abundance and the observed REE patterns suggest a fluid flow regime in which fluids were predominately migrating upwards during ore deposition within the core of the ore system.

  3. Observations and analysis with the spline-based Rydberg-Klein-Rees approach for the 3(1)Σg(+) state of Rb2.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinxin; Guan, Yafei; Zhao, Wei; Zhou, Zhaoyu; Han, Xiaomin; Ma, Jie; Sovkov, Vladimir B; Ivanov, Valery S; Ahmed, Ergin H; Lyyra, A Marjatta; Dai, Xingcan

    2016-01-14

    Ro-vibrational term values of the 3(1)Σg (+) state of (85,85)Rb2 and (85,87)Rb2 and resolved fluorescence spectra to the A(1)Σu (+) state are recorded following optical-optical double resonance excitation. The experimental data are heavily perturbed, and as a result, the standard analysis based on Dunham series representation of the energy levels fails. The analysis is done via modeling the adiabatic potential function with the Rydberg-Klein-Rees potential constructed from the generalized smoothing spline interpolation of the vibrational energies Gv and rotational constants Bv. PMID:26772572

  4. Water mass provenance and mixing in the Fram Strait, Arctic Ocean - Multi-proxy evidence from dissolved Nd isotopes, REEs, Ba, nutrients, and δ18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukert, G.; Frank, M.; Hathorne, E. C.; Bauch, D.; Wegner, C.; Cao, Z.; Zieringer, M.; Andersen, N.; Kassens, H.

    2014-12-01

    Dissolved radiogenic Nd isotopes (ɛNd), rare earth element (REE), Ba, and nutrient concentrations combined with oxygen isotopes retrieved along a section between Spitsbergen and Greenland at approximately 79°N during the ARK XXVII/1 cruise in 2012 were measured to characterize the origin and mixing of the water masses in the Fram Strait. Deep waters below 500 m are nearly constant in Nd concentration (CNd) around 16 pmol/kg and ɛNd signatures range from -9.5±0.2 to -10.9±0.2. The heavy REE to light REE ratio (HREE/LREE) ranges from 4 to 5. Ba concentrations range from 47 to 58 nmol/kg, increasing slightly with depth. These homogeneous signatures do not allow identification of distinct deep water masses. The upper 500 m of the water column close to the Western Svalbard margin including the shelf is relatively warm and saline (T ≤ 5.5°C, S ≤ 35.1) and shares characteristics of Atlantic Water (AW) including low CNd (~15 pmol/kg) and relatively unradiogenic ɛNd signatures (-12.2±0.2). This water is also characterized by HREE/LREE around 4 and CBa around 50 nmol/kg. Low salinity surface waters on the East Greenland shelf have unradiogenic ɛNd signatures similar to AW (-12.4±0.3) but in contrast to AW high CNd of up to 37 pmol/kg. At the same time the HREE/LREE ratio is relatively low (~3.5) and CBa reaches 73 nmol/kg. This suggests a significant freshwater contribution either from the McKenzie or the Lena rivers. Eastwards of these freshwater-influenced waters (at ~5°W), admixture of a Pacific component characterized by a more radiogenic ɛNd (-8.8±0.2) and high nutrient concentrations outcropping at surface was detected. Waters of the same origin are present on the East Greenland shelf at about 150 m depth. Based on these data we use mass balance calculations to determine the fractions of sea ice meltwater, Eurasian run-off, North American run-off, and Arctic seawater and compare these results with our ɛNd and REE data.

  5. REE Sorption Study on sieved -50 +100 mesh fraction of Media #1 in Brine #1 with Different Starting pH's at 70C

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Garland

    2015-09-29

    This is a continuation of the REE sorption study for shaker bath tests on 2g media #1 in 150mL brine #1 with different starting pH's at 70C. In a previous submission we reported data for shaker bath tests for brine #1 with starting pH's of 3.5, 4.5 and 5.5. In this submission we these pH's compared to starting brine #1 pH's of 6, and 7.

  6. Distribution of trace elements including tellurium, gallium, indium, and select REE in sulfide chimneys from Brothers submarine volcano, Kermadec arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbosch, H. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; McNeill, A.; Goemann, K.; Gemmell, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    -rich chimney also contained native Te in a similar distribution as the tellurides. Whole rock geochemical analysis has determined the maximum concentration of trace elements and REE such as In (53.1 ppm), Ga (1870), Y (26), La (21.2), Ce (21), Sm (2.8), Gd (4), and Yb (3) in Brothers chimneys. To better understand the mineral associations and zonation of these and other trace elements within the chimney walls, we have undertaken element mapping on the four different chimneys types with both X-Ray fluorescence microscopy using synchrotron radiation and with Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). For example, in a chalcopyrite-rich chimney visibly laminated chalcopyrite in the interior contains bands of Co, Mo, Ag, Te, Au, and Bi, whereas In, La, Ce, Ga, and Y are concentrated in other mineral phases towards the exterior. Element mapping allows us to better understand the physico-chemical gradients within chimney walls, as well as metal sources and transportation, and depositional processes.

  7. U, Th, Pb and REE abundances and Pb 207/Pb 206 ages of individual minerals in returned lunar material by ion microprobe mass analysis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, C. A.; Hinthorne, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Results of ion microprobe analyses of Apollo 11, 12 and 14 material, showing that U, Th, Pb and REE are concentrated in accessory minerals such as apatite, whitlockite, zircon, baddeleyite, zirkelite, and tranquillityite. Th/U ratios are found to vary by over a factor of 40 in these minerals. K, Ba, Rb and Sr have been localized in a K rich, U and Th poor glass phase that is commonly associated with the U and Th bearing accessory minerals. Li is observed to be fairly evenly distributed between the various accessory phases. The phosphates have been found to have REE abundance patterns (normalized to the chondrite abundances) that are fairly flat, while the Zr bearing minerals have patterns that rise steeply, by factors of ten or more, from La to Gd. All the accessory minerals have large negative Eu anomalies. Radiometric age dates (Pb 207/Pb 206) of the individual U and Th bearing minerals compare favorably with the Pb 207/Pb 206 age of the bulk rocks.

  8. Petrography and the REE-composition of apatite in the Paleoproterozoic Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation, Pechenga Greenstone Belt, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosu, Lauri; Lepland, Aivo; Kreitsmann, Timmu; Üpraus, Kärt; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Paiste, Päärn; Martin, Adam P.; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2016-08-01

    The first globally significant phosphorous-rich deposits appear in the Paleoproterozoic at around 2 Ga, however, the specific triggers leading to apatite precipitation are debated. We examine phosphorous-rich rocks (up to 8 wt% P2O5) in 1.98-1.92 Ga old Pilgujärvi Sedimentary Formation, Pechenga Greenstone Belt, Russia. Phosphates in these rocks occur as locally derived and resedimented sand-to-gravel/pebble sized grains consisting of apatite-cemented muddy sediments. Phosphatic grains can be subdivided into four petrographic types (A-D), each has a distinct REE signature reflecting different early-to-late diagenetic conditions and/or metamorphic overprint. Pyrite containing petrographic type D, which typically has a flat REE pattern, negative Ce anomaly and positive Eu anomaly, is the best preserved of the four types and best records conditions present during apatite precipitation. Type D phosphatic grains precipitated under (sub)oxic basinal conditions with a significant hydrothermal influence. These characteristics are similar to Zaonega Formation phosphates of NW Russia's Onega Basin, and consistent with phosphogenesis triggered by the development of anoxic(sulfidic)-(sub)oxic redoxclines at shallow sediment depth during the Paleoproterozoic.

  9. Efremovka 101.1: a CAI with ultrarefractory REE patterns and enormous enrichments of Sc, Zr, and Y in Fassaite and Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E.; Matsunami, S.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Lin, Y.; Nazarov, M.

    2002-04-01

    Inclusion 101.1 from the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Efremovka is a compact Type A Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI) highly enriched in ultrarefractory (UR) oxides. It is the first complete CAI with a UR rare earth element (REE) pattern found in a CV3 chondrite. The inclusion is petrographically complex and was formed in a multistage process. It consists of several lithologically unrelated units. The core contains abundant Y- and Zr-perovskite, Sc- and Zr-rich fassaite, and metallic FeNi enclosed in melilite. All mineral species (except spinel) in all lithological units exhibit the same basic UR REE pattern. Four different populations of perovskites are distinguished by different Y/Zr ratios. A few of the perovskites have Y/Zr ratios similar to those obtained from crystal/liquid fractionation experiments. Perovskites from the other three populations have either chondritic, lower than chondritic Y/Zr ratios or extremely low Zr contents. Ca isotopic ratios differ among three perovskites from different populations, demonstrating a variety of sources and formational processes. Most fassaites crystallized in situ through reaction between the CAI liquid and preexisting perovskites. This process induced redistribution of Zr, Y, Sc, and V between perovskite and fassaite, thus overprinting the original abundances in perovskite. Fassaite reaction rims around FeNi metals are also encountered. They are enriched in V, which was gained from the metal through oxidation of V in metal during fassaite crystallization. The relative abundances of Zr, Y, and Sc in perovskites are complementary to the abundances of these elements in Sc- and Zr-fassaite, indicating subsolidus partitioning of these elements between the two phases. Perovskites are enriched in Y and depleted in Sc and Zr in comparison to fassaites. The core contains two complete captured CAIs, several sinuous fragments, and fine-grained polygonal refractory fragments. An assemblage of andradite-wollastonite-hedenbergite and pure

  10. Percolation of enriched melts during incremental open-system melting in the spinel field: A REE approach to abyssal peridotites from the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunelli, Daniele; Paganelli, Emanuele; Seyler, Monique

    2014-02-01

    The effects of melting in an open-system scenario are here explored looking to the rare earth element (REE) distribution in mantle residues. We consider a peridotite matrix equilibrated in the spinel field accounting for melt inflow during partial melting. The fertility of the source, inflowing melt composition and melt addition rate as well as the effects of varying the critical mass porosity in an incremental scenario are tested. When a relatively enriched melt enters the system, residual clinopyroxene REE normalized patterns apparently rotate around a light to intermediate REE due to concomitant increase of the light REEs and decrease of the heavy REEs. This effect is enhanced when the critical mass porosity is large with respect to the degree of melting. In these cases the system approaches batch more than fractional melting behaviour because the liquid is preferentially retained in the matrix. This geometry is suggestive of melt accumulation at depth. Four sample suites from the Southwest Indian Ridge are considered. Spinel field equilibrated clinopyroxenes in lherzolites and harzburgites show dredge-scale REE compositional trends that crosscut model fractional melting trajectories. Observed local trends correspond to rotations of the REE patterns attesting for near-batch episodes in the subridge melting history and infiltration of enriched liquids whose composition resemble that of garnet field-generated melts. C0: starting source composition. D0: starting bulk partition coefficient. P: bulk partition coefficient weighted for the mineral melting mode (modal melting for P = D). Ca: is the tracer concentration in the inflowing melt. The composition of the liquid produced during non-modal melting is estimated by using equation (30) of Shaw (2000): {C}/{C}={C}/{0lC}-{β}/{(1+β)(1-P)}{C}/{C}1+{β}/{(1+β)(1-P)}{Ca}/{C0} The composition of the solid in equilibrium with the liquid is Cs = DCL, where D is the bulk partition coefficient for a given element

  11. Stages of weathering mantle formation from carbonate rocks in the light of rare earth elements (REE) and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Stille, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Weathering mantles are widespread and include lateritic, sandy and kaolinite-rich saprolites and residuals of partially dissolved rocks. These old regolith systems have a complex history of formation and may present a polycyclic evolution due to successive geological and pedogenetic processes that affected the profile. Until now, only few studies highlighted the unusual high content of associated trace elements in weathering mantles originating from carbonate rocks, which have been poorly studied, compared to those developing on magmatic bedrocks. For instance, these enrichments can be up to five times the content of the underlying carbonate rocks. However, these studies also showed that the carbonate bedrock content only partially explains the soil enrichment for all the considered major and trace elements. Up to now, neither soil, nor saprolite formation has to our knowledge been geochemically elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine more closely the soil forming dynamics and the relationship of the chemical soil composition to potential sources. REE distribution patterns and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope ratios have been used because they are particularly well suited to identify trace element migration, to recognize origin and mixing processes and, in addition, to decipher possible anthropogenic and/or "natural" atmosphere-derived contributions to the soil. Moreover, leaching experiments have been applied to identify mobile phases in the soil system and to yield information on the stability of trace elements and especially on their behaviour in these Fe-enriched carbonate systems. All these geochemical informations indicate that the cambisol developing on such a typical weathering mantle ("terra fusca") has been formed through weathering of a condensed Bajocian limestone-marl facies. This facies shows compared to average world carbonates important trace element enrichments. Their trace element distribution patterns are similar to those of the soil

  12. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, R.G.; Evans, K.V.; Kunk, M.J.; Pillers, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Textural data at all scales indicate that the host sites for veins and the tectonic evolution of both host rocks and mineral deposits were kinematically linked to Late Cretaceous regional thrust faulting. Heat, fluids, and conduits for generation and circulation of fluids were part of the regional crustal thickening. The faulting also juxtaposed metaevaporite layers in the Mesoproterozoic Yellowjacket Formation over Blackbird district host rocks. We conclude that this facilitated chemical exchange between juxtaposed units resulting in leaching of critical elements (Cl, K, B, Na) from metaevaporites to produce brines, scavenging of metals (Co, Cu, etc) from rocks in the region, and, finally, concentrating metals in the lower-plate ramp structures. Although the ultimate source of the metals remains undetermined, the present Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) Blackbird ore deposits formed during Late Cretaceous compressional deformation.

  13. An ion microprobe study of the intra-crystalline behavior of REE and selected trace elements in pyroxene from mare basalts with different cooling and crystallization histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Simon, S. B.; Shimizu, N.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of crystallization interaction on the trace element zoning characteristics of pyroxenes are analyzed using electron and ion microprobe techniques. Four pigeonite basalts with similar isochemical composition, but different cooling rates and crystallization histories are studied. Pyroxene quadrilaterals displaying crystallization trends are presented. The crystal chemical rationalization of REE zoning, pattern shapes, and abundances are examined. The data reveal that the trace element zoning characteristics in pyroxene and the partitioning of trace elements between pyroxene and the melt are related to the interaction between the efficiency of the crystallization process, the kinetics at the crystal-melt interface, the kinetics of plagioclase nucleation and the characteristics of the crystal chemical substitutions in the pyroxene and the associated crystallizing phase.

  14. A late Triassic 40Ar/39Ar age for the El Hammam high-REE fluorite deposit (Morocco): mineralization related to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheilletz, Alain; Gasquet, Dominique; Filali, Fouad; Archibald, Douglas A.; Nespolo, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    El Hammam is the only fluorite mine in Morocco (production 100,000 t/year). The fluorite mineralization is in an array of fluorite-calcite veins and is characterized by unusually high REE content in carbonate minerals (1,400 ppm in calcite; up to 2,000 ppm in siderite) and in fluorite (about 600 ppm). Since the 1960s, the genesis of the deposit has been attributed to a mesothermal hydrothermal event connected with late-Variscan granitic intrusions. Precise 40Ar/39Ar dating of hydrothermal K-feldspar yields an age of formation of the El Hammam deposit at 205 ± 1 Ma. Its genesis is therefore associated in time and space with the development of the Triassic-Jurassic basins and the associated anorogenic continental flood basalts of the Moroccan Mesetian Middle Atlas. The source of the hydrothermal mineralization (magmatic and/or metamorphic) is discussed.

  15. An assessment of a handheld X-ray fluorescence instrument for use in exploration and development with an emphasis on REEs and related specialty metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simandl, G. J.; Stone, R. S.; Paradis, S.; Fajber, R.; Reid, H. M.; Grattan, K.

    2014-12-01

    Handheld (portable) X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) instruments are designed for use in the exploration for base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals (e.g. rare earth elements (REE), Ta, and Nb) and allow rapid decision-making directly in the field. This paper evaluates the technical merits and limitations of pXRF technology in the exploration for specialty metals using data generated from the analysis of three geochemical standards and a silica blank: Standard Reference Material NIST 2780 from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg; the Certified Reference Material "TRLK" Rare Earth Ore "CGL 124" from the Mongolia Central Geological Laboratory; the Reference Niobium Ore OKA-1 (CANMET); and a silica blank described as Si (IV) oxide (99.8 % on metal basis) from Alpha Aesar (Ward Hill, MA, USA). The data was acquired over a period of nearly 2 years as a by-product of several distinct specialty metal-related projects using the same pXRF instrument and the same settings. Instrumental analytical accuracy was determined using the percent difference (%diff) between the average concentrations of the pXRF instrument readings and the reported certified values of the standard. Percent relative standard deviation (%RSD) was used as a measure of precision. Smaller %diff and %RSD indicate more accurate and precise data, and the accuracy and precision of the pXRF depended strongly on the elemental concentrations in the standards used. Box and whisker diagrams were used to illustrate characteristics of pXRF data sets (mean, lower and upper quartiles, and range) corresponding to individual standards. The bias of the pXRF determinations (under/overestimation) relative to certified values of individual standards are also depicted on these diagrams. This study indicates that the pXRF was capable of producing readings for Si, K, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Pb, Zn, Sr, Ag, Cd, Th, Sb, P, S, Mo, Mn, Mg, As, Nb, Rb, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Y within 10 %RSD of the reported

  16. Distributions of REE, Nd, Hf and Pb isotopes in the surfaces of Fe-Mn crusts from across the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, N.; Nesbitt, R. W.; German, C. R.; Halbach, P.

    2001-12-01

    Over the past decade, numerous studies have investigated radiogenic isotopes (i.e. Nd, Pb, Hf, Os) in marine Fe-Mn deposits in an attempt to infer changes in ocean circulation throughout the Cenozoic. The use of radiogenic isotopes as paleoceanographic proxies has been challenged recently by evidence that the isotopic composition of crusts from oceanic domains near major river systems (e.g. Amazon, Congo) or old cratonic areas (i.e. the North Atlantic area) could be influenced significantly by continental inputs. Therefore, for any given crust, it is difficult to deduce the extent to which changes in weathering processes rather than ocean circulation may be responsible for observed isotopic variations. This is partly due to the fact that the oceanic budgets for some of these elements remain poorly constrained. In particular, the influence of both the eastward aeolian transport of Chinese loess and the erosion of the young West-Pacific volcanic belt on the isotopic composition of Pacific water masses has been poorly documented. The deep Pacific Ocean is composed of 4 principal water masses: North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), Pacific Deep Water (PDW) and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). AABW, the main source of PDW, flows northward and enters the Central Basin through the Samoan Passage, where it is diverted into two branches: eastward to Line Island Passage and westward through Wake Passage. We will present Nd, Hf and Pb isotopic ratios combined with REE data from the surfaces of 16 Fe-Mn crusts taken at different depths from key areas of the Pacific Ocean. Two crusts were collected from the Izu-Bonin back-arc basin in the western Pacific and, hence, are particularly suitable for monitoring the influence of both continental aeolian and weathering inputs. Two other groups of crusts are from north and south of the equatorial Pacific region. The southern group is situated at the exit of the Samoan Passage, whereas the northern

  17. Experimental study of polybaric REE partitioning between olivine, pyroxene and melt of the Yamato 980459 composition: Insights into the petrogenesis of depleted shergottites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinova, Alexandra; Herd, Christopher D. K.

    2009-06-01

    A synthetic composition representing the Yamato 980459 martian basalt (shergottite) has been used to carry out phase relation, and rare earth element (REE) olivine and pyroxene partitioning experiments. Yamato 980459 is a sample of primitive basalt derived from a reduced end-member among martian mantle sources. Experiments carried out between 1-2 GPa and 1350-1650 °C simulate the estimated pressure-temperature conditions of basaltic melt generation in the martian mantle. Olivine-melt and orthopyroxene-melt partition coefficients for La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd and Yb ( DREE values) were determined by LA-ICPMS, and are similar to the published values for terrestrial basaltic systems. We have not detected significant variation in D-values with pressure over the range investigated, and by comparison with previous studies carried out at lower pressure. We apply the experimentally obtained olivine-melt and orthopyroxene-melt DREE values to fractional crystallization and partial melting models to develop a three-stage geochemical model for the evolution of martian meteorites. In our model we propose two ancient (˜4.535 Ga) sources: the Nakhlite Source, located in the shallow mantle, and the Deep Mantle Source, located close to the martian core-mantle boundary. These two sources evolved distinctly on the ɛ 143Nd evolution curve due to their different Sm/Nd ratios. By partially melting the Nakhlite Source at ˜1.3 Ga, we are able to produce a slightly depleted residue (Nakhlite Residue). The Nakhlite Residue is left undisturbed until ˜500 Ma, at which point the depleted Deep Mantle Source is brought up by a plume mechanism carrying with it high heat flow, melts and isotopic signatures of the deep mantle (e.g., ɛ 182W, ɛ 142Nd, etc.). The plume-derived Deep Mantle Source combines with the Nakhlite Residue producing a mixture that becomes a mantle source (herein referred to as "the Y98 source") for Yamato 980459 and the other depleted shergottites with the characteristic range

  18. Major element, REE, and Pb, Nd and Sr isotopic geochemistry of Cenozoic volcanic rocks of eastern China: implications for their origin from suboceanic-type mantle reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basu, A.R.; Wang, Junwen; Huang, Wankang; Xie, Guanghong; Tatsumoto, M.

    1991-01-01

    Major- and rare-earth-element (REE) concentrations and UThPb, SmNd, and RbSr isotope systematics are reported for Cenozoic volcanic rocks from northeastern and eastern China. These volcanic rocks, characteristically lacking the calc-alkaline suite of orogenic belts, were emplaced in a rift system which formed in response to the subduction of the western Pacific plate beneath the eastern Asiatic continental margin. The rocks sampled range from basanite and alkali olivine basalt, through olivine tholeiite and quartz tholeiite, to potassic basalts, alkali trachytes, pantellerite, and limburgite. These rock suites represent the volcanic centers of Datong, Hanobar, Kuandian, Changbaishan and Wudalianchi in northeastern China, and Mingxi in the Fujian Province of eastern China. The major-element and REE geochemistry is characteristic of each volcanic suite broadly evolving through cogenetic magmatic processes. Some of the outstanding features of the isotopic correlation arrays are as follows: (1) NdSr shows an anticorrelation within the field of ocean island basalts, extending from the MORB end-member to an enriched, time-averaged high Rb Sr and Nd Sr end-member (EM1), (2) SrPb also shows an anticorrelation, similar to that of Hawaiian and walvis Ridge basalts, (3) NdPb shows a positive correlation, and (4) the 207Pb 204Pb vs 206Pb 204Pb plot shows linear arrays parallel to the general trend (NHRL) for MORB on both sides of the geochron, although in the 208Pb 204Pb vs 206Pb 204Pb plot the linear array is significantly displaced above the NHRL in a pattern similar to that of the oceanic island basalts that show the Dupal signatures. In all isotope correlation patterns, the data arrays define two different mantle components-a MORB-like component and an enriched mantle component. The isotopic data presented here clearly demonstrate the existence of Dupal compositions in the sources of the continental volcanic rocks of eastern China. We suggest that the subcontinental mantle

  19. Ion Microprobe U-Pb Dating and REE Analysis of Apatite from Kerogen-rich Silica Dike from North Pole Area, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, M.

    2003-12-01

    In order to provide a time constraint on the 13C-depleted kerogen in silica dikes that intruded 3.5 Ga greenstone from Pilbara Craton in Western Australia, we have carried out an ion microprobe U-Pb dating and rare earth element (REE) analysis of apatite from the dike. Two types of apatite were identified in the dikes based on their occurrences. One is stick-shape apatites (Type 1) in secondary silica micro-veins that cut the silica dike. The other is granular apatites (Type 2) that occurs in matrix of the dike. Occurrence in the secondary micro-veins (Type 1), non-igenous chondrite normalized REE patterns (Type 1 and 2), chemical zoning (some of Type 1 and 2), and presence of mineral inclusion that is composed of Fe and S (some of Type 2) suggest that both Type 1 and 2 apatites were crystallized in the silica dike. Ion microprobe U-Pb dating of Type 1 apatite did not give a meaningful age, while Type 2 apatite yields a Tera-Wasserburg concordia intercept age of 3214 +/- 140 Ma (95 per cent confidence level, MSWD = 0.6) in a three-dimensional 238U/206Pb-207Pb/206Pb-204Pb/206Pb diagram, and a 204Pb/206Pb-207Pb/206Pb isochron age of 3191 +/- 150 Ma (95 per cent confidence level, MSWD = 0.5). It is difficult to judge whether the U-Pb and Pb-Pb age of Type 2 apatite is crystallization age or metamorphic age, since the estimated range of closure temperature of U-Pb system in the apatite and that of metamorphic temperature is partly overlapped. In either case, it can be safely concluded that the minimum age of the dike and kerogen is 3.0 Ga. These ages might allow the interpretation that the kerogen was produced by biological carbon fixation and/or abiological reaction (such as Fischer-Tropsch Type reaction) at least before 3.0 Ga.

  20. Proterozoic seawater — felsic volcanics interaction W. Bergslagen, Sweden. Evidence for high REE mobility and implications for 1.8 Ga seawater compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, James H.; de Groot, Pier A.

    1983-06-01

    Mg enrichment in diffusely bounded, schistose alteration zones occurring in Proterozoic submarine felsic volcanics NE of Hjulsjö, W. Bergslagen is shown to result from felsic rock-seawater interaction in a sub-seafloor hydrothermal system. The alteration is apparently in two stages, feldspar being altered first to a kaolinite-type clay which is then replaced by Mg-chlorite. Major and trace element data are presented for the schist and sheridanite (chlorite). Relative to the least altered felsic volcanics, and for negligible volume change, the schist shows strong addition of Mg and to a lesser extent Si; K, Al and Rb are apparently conserved, while most other elements are strongly depleted, including the REEs which are removed for ˜75%, indicating a high degree of mobility. The chlorite, with its HREE enriched pattern, is considered to have equilibrated with the hydrothermal fluid, which consisted predominantly of seawater. Comparison with modern seawater leads to the tentative conclusion that the Proterozoic seawater HREE composition was not drastically different from that of modern seawater.

  1. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, Lu-Hf isotopes and REE geochemistry constrains on the provenance and tectonic setting of Indochina Block in the Paleozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ce; Liang, Xinquan; Foster, David A.; Fu, Jiangang; Jiang, Ying; Dong, Chaoge; Zhou, Yun; Wen, Shunv; Van Quynh, Phan

    2016-05-01

    In situ U-Pb geochronology, Lu-Hf isotopes and REE geochemical analyses of detrital zircons from Cambrian-Devonian sandstones in the Truong Son Belt, central Vietnam, are used to provide the information of provenance and tectonic evolution of the Indochina Block. The combined detrital zircon age spectra of all of the samples ranges from 3699 Ma to 443 Ma and shows with dominant age peaks at ca. 445 Ma and 964 Ma, along with a number of age populations at 618-532 Ma, 1160-1076 Ma, 1454 Ma, 1728 Ma and 2516 Ma. The zircon age populations are similar to those from time equivalent sedimentary sequences in continental blocks disintegrated from the East Gondwana during the Phanerozoic. The younger zircon grains with age peaks at ca. 445 Ma were apparently derived from middle Ordovician-Silurian igneous and metamorphic rocks in Indochina. Zircons with ages older than about 600 Ma were derived from other Gondwana terrains or recycled from the Precambrian basement of the Indochina Block. Similarities in the detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest that Paleozoic strata in the Indochina, Yangtze, Cathaysia and Tethyan Himalayas has similar provenance. This is consistent with other geological constrains indicating that the Indochina Block was located close to Tethyan Himalaya, northern margin of the India, and northwestern Australia in Gondwana.

  2. Iron isotope and REE+Y composition of the Cauê banded iron formation and related iron ores of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Mônica; Lobato, Lydia M.; Kunzmann, Marcus; Halverson, Galen P.; Rosière, Carlos A.

    2016-04-01

    The Minas Supergroup banded iron formations (BIFs) of the Brazilian Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF) mineral province experienced multiple deformational events synchronous with hypogene mineralization, which resulted in the metamorphism of BIFs to itabirites and their upgrade to high-grade iron ore. Here, we present rare earth element and yttrium (REE+Y) compositions together with iron isotope ratios of itabirites and their host iron orebodies from 10 iron deposits to constrain environmental conditions during BIF deposition and the effects of hypogene iron enrichment. The REE+Y characteristics of itabirites (positive Eu anomaly and LREE depletion) indicate hydrothermal iron contribution to the Minas basin. Iron isotope data and Ce anomalies suggest BIFs were precipitated by a combination of anoxic biological-mediated ferrous iron oxidation and abiotic oxidation in an environment with free oxygen (such as an oxygen oasis), perhaps related to increase in oxygen concentrations before the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). The similarity of the REE+Y composition of the itabirites from the different QF deformational domains, as well as to other Superior-type BIFs, indicates that the metamorphism and synchronous hydrothermal mineralization did not significantly affect the geochemical signature of the original BIFs. However, iron isotope compositions of iron ore vary systematically between deformational domains of the QF, likely reflecting the specific mineralization features in each domain.

  3. Multistage hydrothermal silicification and Fe-Tl-As-Sb-Ge-REE enrichment in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district, northern Alaska: Geochemistry, origin, and exploration applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Kelley, K.D.; Anderson, V.M.; Clark, J.L.; Ayuso, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical analyses of major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE) in more than 200 samples of variably silicified and altered wall rocks, massive and banded sulfide, silica rock, and sulfide-rich and unmineralized barite were obtained from the Main, Aqqaluk, and Anarraaq deposits in the Red Dog Zn-Pb-Ag district of northern Alaska. Detailed lithogeochemical profiles for two drill cores at Aqqaluk display an antithetic relationship between SiO2/Al2O3 and TiO2/Zr which, together with textural information, suggest preferential silicification of carbonate-bearing sediments. Data for both drill cores also show generally high Tl, Sb, As, and Ge and uniformly positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* > 1.0). Similar high Tl, Sb, As, Ge, and Eu/Eu* values are present in the footwall and shallow hanging wall of Zn-Pb-Ag sulfide intervals at Anarraaq but are not as widely dispersed. Net chemical changes for altered wall rocks in the district, on the basis of average Al-normalized data relative to unaltered black shales of the host Kuna Formation, include large enrichments (>50%) of Fe, Ba, Eu, V, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, Sb, and Ge at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, Si at Red Dog, and Sr, U, and Se at Anarraaq. Large depletions (>50%) are evident for Ca at both Red Dog and Anarraaq, for Mg, P, and Y at Red Dog, and for Na at Anarraaq. At both Red Dog and Anarraaq, wall-rock alteration removed calcite and minor dolomite during hydrothermal decarbonation reactions and introduced Si, Eu, and Ge during silicification. Sulfidation reactions deposited Fe, S, Co, Zn, Pb, Tl, As, and Sb; barite mineralization introduced Ba, S, and Sr. Light REE and U were mobilized locally. This alteration and mineralization occurred during Mississippi an hydrothermal events that predated the Middle Jurassic-Cretaceous Brookian orogeny. Early hydrothermal silicification at Red Dog took place prior to or during massive sulfide mineralization, on the basis of the dominantly planar nature of Zn-Pb veins, which suggests

  4. Fluorescein Dye Penetration in Round Top Rhyolite (Hudspeth County, Texas, USA) to Reveal Micro-permeability and Optimize Grain Size for Heavy REE Heap Leach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negron, L. M.; Clague, J. W.; Gorski, D.; Amaya, M. A.; Pingitore, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Millimeter- and micrometer-scale permeability of fine-grained igneous rocks has generated limited research interest. Nonetheless, the scale and distribution of such micro-permeability determines fluid penetration and pathways, parameters that define both the ability to heap leach a rock and the optimal grain size for such an operation. Texas Rare Earth Resources is evaluating the possibility of heap leaching of yttrium and heavy rare earth elements (YHREE) from the peraluminous rhyolite laccolith that forms one-mile-diameter Round Top Mountain. The YHREEs in this immense, surface-exposed deposit (minimum 1.6 billion tons, Texas Bureau Economic Geology) are dilute and diffuse, suggesting leaching as the best option for recovery. The REE grade is 0.05% and YHREEs comprise more than 70% of the total REE content. The YHREEs are hosted exclusively in micron-scale yttrofluorite grains, which proved soluble in dilute sulfuric acid. Laboratory experiments showed YHREE recoveries of up to 90%. Within limits, recoveries decrease with larger grain sizes, and increase with acid strength and exposure time. Our research question centers on dissolution effectiveness: Is YHREE recovery, relative to grain size, limited by (1) diffusion time of acid into, and dissolved solids, including YHREEs, out of the micro-permeability paths inherent in the rock particles; (2) the effective lengths of the natural micro-permeability paths in the rock; or (3) the putative role of the acid in dissolving new micro-paths into the grains? The maximum grain size should not exceed twice the typical path length (unless acid creates new paths), lest YHREEs in the core of a larger grain than that not be reached by acid. If instead diffusion time is limiting, longer leach time may prove effective. Rather than perform an extensive and expensive series of laboratory leaching experiments--some of which would be several months in duration--to determine optimal grain size, we developed a technique to

  5. Metasomatic silicate chemistry at the Bayan Obo Fe REE Nb deposit, Inner Mongolia, China: Contrasting chemistry and evolution of fenitising and mineralising fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. P.

    2007-01-01

    Fenite aureoles around carbonatite dykes, and alteration associated with Fe-REE-Nb ore bodies at Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China, show alkali silicate assemblages containing aegirine-augite, (magnesio-)riebeckite, (magnesio-)arfvedsonite, and phlogopite, accompanied by varying amounts of apatite, albite and quartz. In both fenites and orebodies simple thermodynamic constraints indicate mineral parageneses are consistent with rock buffered cooling accompanied by the infiltration of a range of externally buffered hydrothermal fluids. Statistical analysis of amphibole chemistry indicates that even in apparently texturally well constrained paragenetic stages wide variations in chemistry occur in both the ore bodies and fenites. Much of this variation is attributable to the Mg and F content of amphibole, and is therefore interpreted as a result of variation in externally controlled variables ( P, T, initial fluid composition) rather than internally controlled variables such as protolith composition. Similarities in chemistry exist between fenite and some ore body amphiboles. Thermodynamic analysis of the composition of biotite and apatite allows constraints to be placed on the F-content of hydrothermal fluids, and indicates relatively consistent compositions in fenites and orebodies (log aHF/ aH 2O = - 3.8 to - 3.6 at 300 °C and 1 kbar). Amphibole and biotite associated with niobate mineralization are both enriched in fluorine relative to the rest of the paragenesis, and biotite compositions indicate significantly higher HF activities in the hydrothermal fluid (log aHF/ aH 2O = - 2.6 at 300 °C and 1 kbar). The data presented here reinforce previous interpretations of the complex, multistage nature of mineralisation at Bayan Obo, but are still consistent with a direct involvement of carbonatite derived fluids during ore genesis.

  6. Efremovka 101.1: A Primitive CAI with Superrefractory REE Patterns and Enormous Enrichments of Sc, Zr, and Y in Fassaite and Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.; Matsunami, S.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Lin, Y.; Nazarov, M.

    1993-07-01

    encountered inside the sinuous fragments and in the diopside-anorthite rim sequence of one of the captured CAIs. The texture is strongly suggestive of the reduction of andradite to wollastonite+Fe^degree (via Fe3O4 and FeO). We consider this texture as evidence that andradite was formed in an oxidizing solar gas before capture of the sinuous inclusions by the host CAI and that andradite reduction took place after capture in the highly reduced host CAI refractory liquid. REE concentrations in various minerals reveal a distinct superrefractory pattern with depletions in Tm and Yb. Zr, Y, and Sc abundances of individual phases in the CAI core are indicative of crystal-liquid fractionation during crystallization: fassaite is relatively depleted in Y and enriched in Sc and Zr. In contrast, perovskite displays a complimentary abundance pattern for these elements. The individual mineral layers of the captured CAIs, sinuous fragments, and the rim sequence of the host CAI have similar superrefractory REE patterns but do not show fractionation between Sc, Y, and Zr. This indicates that the rim sequences did not crystallize from the same liquid of the CAI, but condensed from a common gas reservoir with a distinct superrefractory REE signature. Melilite contains excess ^26Mg* with an inferred initial ^26Al/^27Al ratio of (4.4 x 10^-5). However, the Mg-Al system in the anorthites of the captured sinuous fragments and the rim layers of the small CAIs is disturbed. This strongly suggests that oxidation and alteration processes took place in the earliest stage of the solar system.

  7. Rees, Sir Martin John (1942-)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    British cosmologist, became Plumian Professor of Astronomy at Cambridge and in 1995 Astronomer Royal (an honorary office by then separated from the directorship of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich). His forte is to be able to model any astrophysical phenomenon with physical insight, and he has successfully applied this technique to quasars, x-ray sources, gamma ray bursters, galaxy formation, g...

  8. Metasomatic enrichment of Proterozoic mantle south of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa: origin of sinusoidal REE patterns in clinopyroxene and garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Roex, Anton; Class, Cornelia

    2016-02-01

    Xenoliths of mantle peridotite have been sampled from four kimberlite intrusions, Melton Wold, Hebron, Uintjiesberg and Markt, emplaced through the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Belt, along the southern border of the Kaapvaal Craton. Although many of the xenoliths are heavily altered, constituent clinopyroxene, garnet and phlogopite are fresh and have been analysed by electron microprobe for major elements and by laser ablation ICP-MS for trace elements. Primitive mantle-normalised REE abundances in clinopyroxene are all strongly LREE enriched and show a range of patterns including uniformly MREE-HREE sloped (referred to here as `normal'), sinusoidal and humped sinusoidal patterns. HREE abundances are extremely low (Yb = 0.3-0.06 × PM). REEN patterns in coexisting garnets show a similar range of patterns. When normalised to primitive mantle values, trace element patterns in some clinopyroxenes show strong relative depletion in Rb-Ba, Ta-Nb and Ti, with some samples also being relatively depleted in Zr-Hf. These trace element characteristics are indistinguishable from those found in clinopyroxene and garnet from peridotites from the adjacent cratonic mantle. Numerical modelling of reactive porous flow of an enriched metasomatic melt through a geochemically depleted peridotite matrix can account for the full range in observed REEN patterns. The relative depletion in Rb-Ba, Ta-Nb and Ti can be accounted for by an early crystallisation of phlogopite from the percolating melt. The relative depletion in Zr-Hf in some clinopyroxenes requires either zircon to crystallise in the proximal metasomatic assemblage, or metasomatism by a carbonatitic melt. Modelling results, together with the absence of clinopyroxene with depleted or even partially enriched REEN patterns, suggest that all clinopyroxene has been modally introduced through metasomatism into an initially highly depleted harzburgitic protolith. The range in Sr and Pb isotopic composition of the clinopyroxenes

  9. Biodegradation of the french reference nuclear glass SON 68 by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans : protective effect of the biofilm,U and REE retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, M.; Crovisier, J.; Stille, P.; Boutin, R.; Vuilleumier, S.; Geoffroy, V.

    2008-12-01

    Although underground nuclear waste repositories are not expected to be favourable places for microbial activity, one should not exclude localized action of extremophilic bacteria on some materials involved in the storage concept. Among endogenous or accidentally introduced acidophiles, some are susceptible to lead to a locally drastic decreased in pH with potential consequences on materials corrosion. Experiments were performed with Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans on 100-125 μm french reference nuclear glass SON68 grains in a mineral medium under static conditions during 60 days at 25°C. Growth medium was periodically renewed and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS spectrometry for both major, traces and ultra-traces elements. Biofilm formation was evidenced by confocal laser microscopy, staining DNA with ethidium bromide and exopolysaccharides with calcofluor white. Biofilm thickness around material grains exceeded 20 μm under the chosen experimental conditions. It can be noticed that while numerous studies on biofilm formation upon interaction between Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and materials can be found in the literature, evidence for biofilm formation is still scarce for the case of the acidophilic bacterium A. thiooxidans. Presence of biofilm is a key parameter for material alteration at the solid/solution interface in biotic systems. Indeed, various constitutive elements of materials trapped in the polyanionic polymer of biofilm may also influence the alteration process. In particular, biofilm may reduce the alteration rate of materials by forming a protective barrier at their surface (Aouad et al., 2008). In this study, glass alteration rates, determined using strontium, molybdenum and caesium as tracers, showed that the biofilm has a protective effect against glass alteration. U and REE are efficiently trapped in the biogenic compartment of the system (exopolysaccharides (EPS) + bacterial cells). Biofilm analysis are in progress to determine whether these

  10. Effect of thermal maturation on the K-Ar, Rb-Sr and REE systematics of an organic-rich New Albany Shale as determined by hydrous pyrolysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clauer, Norbert; Chaudhuri, Sambhudas; Lewan, M.D.; Toulkeridis, T.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrous-pyrolysis experiments were conducted on an organic-rich Devonian-Mississippian shale, which was also leached by dilute HCl before and after pyrolysis, to identify and quantify the induced chemical and isotopic changes in the rock. The experiments significantly affect the organic-mineral organization, which plays an important role in natural interactions during diagenetic hydrocarbon maturation in source rocks. They produce 10.5% of volatiles and the amount of HCl leachables almost doubles from about 6% to 11%. The Rb-Sr and K-Ar data are significantly modified, but not just by removal of radiogenic 40Ar and 87Sr, as described in many studies of natural samples at similar thermal and hydrous conditions. The determining reactions relate to alteration of the organic matter marked by a significant change in the heavy REEs in the HCl leachate after pyrolysis, underlining the potential effects of acidic fluids in natural environments. Pyrolysis induces also release from organics of some Sr with a very low 87Sr/86Sr ratio, as well as part of U. Both seem to have been volatilised during the experiment, whereas other metals such as Pb, Th and part of U appear to have been transferred from soluble phases into stable (silicate?) components. Increase of the K2O and radiogenic 40Ar contents of the silicate minerals after pyrolysis is explained by removal of other elements that could only be volatilised, as the system remains strictly closed during the experiment. The observed increase in radiogenic 40Ar implies that it was not preferentially released as a volatile gas phase when escaping the altered mineral phases. It had to be re-incorporated into newly-formed soluble phases, which is opposite to the general knowledge about the behavior of Ar in supergene natural environments. Because of the strictly closed-system conditions, hydrous-pyrolysis experiments allow to better identify and even quantify the geochemical aspects of organic-inorganic interactions, such as

  11. Paleoenvironments in Meso-Neoproterozoic carbonates of the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (Democratic Republic of Congo) - Microfacies analysis combined with C-O-Sr isotopes, major-trace elements and REE + Y distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpomdor, F.; Blanpied, C.; Virgone, A.; Préat, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Meso- and Neoproterozoic Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (1155 Ma to ca. 800 Ma) was deposited in the SE-NW trending siliciclastic-carbonate failed-rift in the Sankuru-Mbuji-Mayi-Lomami-Lovoy Basin. Drillcore- and outcrop-derived microfacies, isotope (C, O and Sr) compositions of carbonates and REE + Y distributions are integrated to unravel the paleoenvironmental and chemical conditions prevailing during deposition and alteration (or contamination) of the Mbuji-Mayi carbonates. The carbonate succession (BIe subgroup and BIIa to BIIe subgroups), composed of 11 microfacies (MF), records the evolution of a marine ramp submitted to evaporation, with basinal and low-energy outer-ramp environments (MF1-MF5), biohermal mid-ramp (MF6) and restricted tide-dominated lagoon inner-ramp (MF7-MF9) settings, overlain by lacustrine (MF10) and sabkha (MF11) environments. The ramp margin is characterized by thick stacks of stromatolitic bioherms. δ13C and δ18O relationships in the Mbuji-Mayi carbonates allow discrimination between meteoric (δ13C: -7.5‰ to +0.0‰, δ18O: -7.0‰ to -1.0‰) and burial lithifications (δ13C: -1.5‰ to +0.0‰, δ18O: -15.1‰ to -7.0‰), that overprinted a primary marine signal (δ13C: -1.5‰ to +2.0‰, δ18O: -3.0‰ to +0.5‰) partially preserved in the subgroups. Unaltered pristine signals are found in the Mbuji-Mayi carbonates with 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7065-0.7082) similar to those of the marine-preserved strontium signatures of the early Neoproterozoic oceans. The PAAS-normalized REE + Y distributions indicate that the BIe carbonates were altered by Fe-oxide-rich hydrothermal fluids. BIIb and BIIe carbonates exhibit uniform light REE depleted patterns suggesting inputs of detrital river material whereas a marine seawater, highlighted by the REE + Y distributions is preserved in BIIc and BIId carbonates. The pattern of carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic variations in the Mbuji-Mayi carbonates reflects deposition and early diagenesis in

  12. Structure-related geochemical (REE) and isotopic (K-Ar, Rb-Sr, {delta}{sup 18}O) characteristics of clay minerals from Rotliegend sandstone reservoirs (Permian, northern Germany)

    SciTech Connect

    Zwingmann, H.; Clauer, N.; Gaupp, R.

    1999-09-01

    Euhedral illite cementing the gas-bearing sandstone reservoirs of the Rotliegend in the Niedersaechsische rift system (northern Germany) was studied along a horst-to-graben cross-section to examine its chemical and isotopic characteristics. The data show that differentiated illite particles grew during a tectono-thermal event marked by distinct episodic hydrothermal activities along fault drains and in the poral space of sandstones at 210 Ma and at 195 to 190 Ma in horst positions, at 185 to 175 Ma in the nearby graben, and at 170 to 165 Ma in both the horst and graben. Varied REE distribution patterns and initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios (from 0.7124 to 0.7142) relative to illite-particle size outline a high chemical variability of the fluids during illite growth. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of illite range from +20.0 to +12.4% and those of chlorite from +12.0 to +6.9%. The changing {delta}{sup 18}O values of the minerals most likely relate to varied {delta}{sup 18}O values of the fluids, or to different water/rock ratios during crystallization. Differences among the REE and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr tracers and the {delta}{sup 18}O values of different generations of illite also suggest a changing fluid chemistry relative to time. significant positive Eu anomalies and negative Ce anomalies in the REE distributions of illite suggest feldspar alteration by the migrating fluids in oxidizing environments.

  13. Evaluation of carbonate diagenesis: A comparative study of minor elements, trace elements, and rare-earth elements (REE + Y) between Pleistocene corals and matrices from Grand Cayman, British West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rong; Jones, Brian

    2014-12-01

    On Grand Cayman, the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation consists of six unconformity-bounded units of limestones that have been partially or completely altered to calcite by post-depositional meteoric diagenesis. In order to examine the diagenetic history from the perspective of geochemical elements, the concentrations of minor element (Sr, Na, Mg), trace elements (Ba, Fe, Mn, Al, Si), and rare-earth elements (REE) and yttrium (Y) were determined for 105 corals and 84 matrices collected from the Rogers Wreck Point (RWP), Western Onshore area (WO), and offshore George Town (GT) areas. With the transformation of aragonite to calcite, the Sr, Na, and Ba values decreased, but Mg increased, which are indicative of diagenetic alteration in an open water system. Due to intrinsic "vital effects" and the extrinsic diagenetic environment, the variations of Sr, Na, Ba, and Mg concentrations between Acropora and Montastrea from the GT area are different to those of their counterparts from RWP and WO. The signatures of Sr, Na, Ba, and Mg are in good agreement with the diagenetic history as determined from petrographic and stable isotopic criteria. The REE + Y (REY) concentrations (ΣREY) are higher in the matrices (0.2-6.9 ppm, average 2.6 ppm) than in the associated corals (0.1-5.4 ppm, average 0.6 ppm). Shale-normalized REY patterns of the Pleistocene Ironshore Formation are similar to those of oxygenated seawater, which are characterized by (1) light REE depletion relative to heavy REE (average DySN/SmSN = 1.7, n = 35), (2) positive La anomalies (average Pr/Pr* = 1.17, n = 53), and (3) negative Ce anomalies (average Ce/Ce* = 0.49, n = 53). The preserved seawater-like REY distribution pattern, the lack of correlation between ΣREY and mineralogy, and the lack of correlation between ΣREY and diagenesis-sensitive stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) indicate that meteoric diagenesis did not have a major impact on the REY distribution patterns. The matrices and corals in the GT area

  14. Petrographic, REE, fluid inclusion and stable isotope study of magnesite from the Upper Triassic Burano Evaporites (Secchia Valley, northern Apennines): contributions from sedimentary, hydrothermal and metasomatic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugli, Stefano; Morteani, Giulio; Blamart, Dominique

    2002-06-01

    Sparry and microcrystalline magnesite are minor constituents of the Upper Triassic Burano Evaporite Formation of the northern Apennines in Italy. Petrography and geochemistry of magnesite suggest three modes of formation. (1) Evaporitic precipitation of stratified microcrystalline magnesite layers associated with sulfate and carbonate rocks. Most REE are below ICP-MS detection limits. δ18O is +20.2‰ (SMOW) and δ13C is -2.6‰ (PDB). (2) Hydrothermal infill of Fe-rich (9.78 wt% FeO) lenticular sparry magnesite. This type of magnesite is characterized by very low LREE concentrations, whereas HREEs are relatively high. The fluid inclusion composition is NaCl-MgCl2-H2O, salinity is ~30 wt% NaCl equiv., and total homogenization temperatures range from 204-309 °C; δ18O is +17.5‰ and δ13C is +1‰. (3) The partial or total replacement of dolostones by lenticular sparry magnesite. LREEs are lower in magnesite compared with the partly replaced dolostones. Magnesite yields δ18O and δ13C compositions of +17.3 to +23.6‰ and +0.5 to +1.4‰, respectively, whereas the partly replaced dolostones yield δ18O and δ13C values of +25.0 to +26.2 and +1.3 to +1.9, respectively. Complete replacement of dolostones produced massive lenticular sparry magnesite rock containing ooids and axe-head anhydrite relicts; LREEs are depleted compared to unaffected dolostones; δ18O and δ13C compositions range from +16.4 to +18.4‰ and +0.4 to +0.9‰, respectively. These data and the association between fracture-filling and replacive magnesite suggests a metasomatic system induced by hydrothermal circulation of hot and saline Mg-rich fluids. These processes probably occurred in the Oligocene-Miocene, when the Burano Formation acted as main detachment horizon for the Tuscan Nappe during the greenschist facies metamorphism of the Apuane complex. Thrusting over the Apuane zone produced large scale fluid flow focused at the Tuscan Nappe front. Sources of Mg-rich fluids were metamorphic

  15. Simulations of Diffusive Pb-, Ti- and REE-loss in Terrestrial and Lunar Zircon and Apatite as a Function of Impact Heating During Impact Bombardments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, O.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    ejecta following basin-forming impacts. Several parameters were tested, including LHB duration (10 and 100 Myr) and mass delivered (2 × 1020 to 2 × 1021 kg for Earth; 1019 to 1020 kg for the Moon). Models were populated with zircon and apatite grains, and the cumulative distance of cation diffusion as a result of thermal pulses during bombardment was recorded for each grain. Results will be presented as mean Pb-, Ti-, and REE-loss as a function of crustal depth for zircon and apatite grains of diameters 1-100 µm. High degrees of Pb-loss (up to 100%) occur in zircons emplaced on the surface and decrease rapidly with depth. On average, small (10 µm) zircons at 1 km depth would experience 80% Pb-loss, whereas at 5 km, they experience 50% Pb-loss. Apatites lose lead far more readily and are easily reset by impacts. A 10 µm zircon grain reaches open system conditions for Pb at 1200 °C for 1 y, but a 10 µm apatite is reset at only 625 °C. A 10 µm apatite grain is reset in 1 s at ~1750 °C, which is typical in ejectas produced by large impacts. These models explain the apparent absence of an LHB signal so far for lunar zircons using conventional spot analyses, as well as the complete re-setting of Pb ages in lunar apatites for the same rock.

  16. Major and trace (including REEs) element stratigraphy in the first 90 m (around 1 Myr) of ANDRILL AND-1B drillcore.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugi, Francesco; Becagli, Silvia; Ghedini, Costanza; Severi, Mirko; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Monien, Donata; Kuhn, Gerhard; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Talarico, Franco

    2010-05-01

    An integrated system Inductively Coupled Plasma - Sector Field Mass Spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectrophotometry (ICP - AES) has been applied to quantify 39 major and trace elements (including Rare Earths Elements -REE) in Antarctic glaciomarine sediments collected in the framework of ANDRILL. This project aims to study the role of the Antarctic Continent within the global climatic system, by the recovery and analysis of two deep sediment cores (AND-1B, MIS and AND-2A, SMS), drilled close to the margin of the Ross Ice Shelf. The main goals of ANDRILL were to obtain a stratigraphic record that documents key steps in Antarctica's Cenozoic climatic and glacial history, and in the tectonic evolution of the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic rift System. In particular, the study of the geochemical composition of sediments along the two ANDRILL cores can provide information about the possible source of terrigenous material deposited over the drilling site (Harwood et al., 2006). Preliminary results with a spatial resolution of about 1 m for the geochemical composition of the interval 24.66- 85.24 m of depth of marine sediments from AND-1B core covering about the last 1 Ma, are here shown. The concentration ratio of each measured element with respect to Al concentration, used as terrigenous reference, was calculated in order to remove the possible effect on elemental concentrations of differences in average sediment grain-size along the core and possible dilution effects and point out specified metal enrichments. The presented data and depth profiles (e.g. Fe/Al, Mn/Al, Co/Al, Cr/Al, Eu/Al and Europium anomaly) relative to sediments deposited during the last Ma at the MIS site, show an evident discontinuity from samples collected above and below 58.4 m of depth, corresponding to about 0.45 Ma BP, following the latest AND-1B dating model (85.24 m of depth corresponding to about 0.988 Ma; the chronological datum of

  17. In situ Sr isotope analysis of apatite by LA-MC-ICPMS: constraints on the evolution of ore fluids of the Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE deposit, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin-Fu; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Gao, Jian-Feng; Li, Xiao-Chun; Li, Jian-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Apatite is a ubiquitous accessory mineral in a variety of rocks and hydrothermal ores. Strontium isotopes of apatite are well known to retain petrogenetic information and have been widely used to investigate the origin of igneous rocks, but such attempts have rarely been made to constrain ore-forming processes of hydrothermal systems. We here report in situ LA-MC-ICPMS Sr isotope data of apatite from the ~1660-Ma Yinachang Fe-Cu-REE deposit, Southwest China. The formation of this deposit was coeval to the emplacement of regionally distributed doleritic intrusions within a continental-rift setting. The deposit has a paragenetic sequence consisting of sodic alteration (stage I), magnetite mineralization (stage II), Cu sulfide and REE mineralization (stage III), and final barren calcite veining (stage IV). The stage II and III assemblages contain abundant apatite, allowing to investigate the temporal evolution of the Sr isotopic composition of the ore fluids. Apatite of stage II (Apt II) is associated with fluorite, magnetite, and siderite, whereas apatite from stage III (Apt III) occurs intimately intergrown with ankerite and Cu sulfides. Apt II has 87Sr/86Sr ratios varying from 0.70377 to 0.71074, broadly compatible with the coeval doleritic intrusions (0.70592 to 0.70692), indicating that ore-forming fluids responsible for stage II magnetite mineralization were largely equilibrated with mantle-derived mafic rocks. In contrast, Apt III has distinctly higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios from 0.71021 to 0.72114, which are interpreted to reflect external radiogenic Sr, likely derived from the Paleoproterozoic strata. Some Apt III crystals have undergone extensive metasomatism indicated by abundant monazite inclusions. The metasomatized apatite has much higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios up to 0.73721, which is consistent with bulk-rock Rb-Sr isotope analyses of Cu ores with 87Sr/86Sri from 0.71906 to 0.74632. The elevated 87Sr/86Sr values of metasomatized apatite and bulk Cu ores indicate

  18. REE, Y, Nb, U, and Th contents and tetrad effect in zircon from a magmatic-hydrothermal F-rich system of Sn-rare metal-cryolite mineralized granites from the Pitinga Mine, Amazonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, Lauro V. S.; Formoso, Milton L. L.; Jarvis, Kym; Oliveira, Leondres; Bastos Neto, Artur C.; Fontana, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    The geochemistry of zircon from the granites that host the Sn-Rare-Metal-cryolite deposit of Pitinga Mine in northern Brazil, Amazonia, is discussed based on data obtained by LA-ICP-MS. The ore deposit is one of the largest in the world and is related with F-rich A-type granite intrusions of 1822 ± 2 Ma. REE, Y, U, Th, Nb, Ta, Pb, and Hf contents were determined in zircon grains from the albite-bearing facies that contains the ore deposit and from less evolved facies composed of amphibole-biotite and biotite granites. The trace-element contents of zircon were compared to those of their host rocks and the calculated zircon/rock ratios are like the values of zircon/melt partition coefficients for natural granitic compositions. The concentrations found for all analysed elements are highly variable, even for determinations made in the same grain. However, the average contents and patterns are like those of typical magmatic zircon and can indicate the composition of the melts from which they were crystallized. The interpretation of trace element contents in the zircon grains suggests that: (i) in the albite-bearing facies, zircon crystallized after the volatile phase exsolution and shows typical geochemical features such as: Th/U ratios from 1 to 10, Y/Ho is lower than 20, Sm/Nd ratios are generally higher than 0.5, Nb/Y is higher than 0.08, and Hf is over 2 wt%; (ii) M-type tetrad effects were produced in the REE patterns of most differentiated melts by F-complex stabilization, and were preserved in some zircon grains; (iii) ore deposition in the Pitinga mine initiated in the late stages of magmatic crystallization mainly following resurgent boiling. The trace element contents of zircon are particularly relevant for provenance studies if mineral/melt partition coefficients are taken into account, so that the approximate trace element pattern of their igneous source can be estimated. The geochemistry of trace elements in zircon, in spite of the wide range of contents

  19. Fluid sources and metallogenesis in the Blackbird Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE district, Idaho, U.S.A.: Insights from major-element and boron isotopic compositions of tourmaline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trumbull, R.B.; Slack, J.F.; Krienitz, M.-S.; Belkin, H.E.; Wiedenbeck, M.

    2011-01-01

    Tourmaline is a widespread mineral in the Mesoproterozoic Blackbird Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE district, Idaho, where it occurs in both mineralized zones and wallrocks. We report here major-element and B-isotope compositions of tourmaline from stratabound sulfide deposits and their metasedimentary wallrocks, from mineralized and barren pipes of tourmaline breccia, from late barren quartz veins, and from Mesoproterozoic granite. The tourmalines are aluminous, intermediate in the schorl-dravite series, with Fe/(Fe + Mg) values of 0.30 to 0.85, and 10 to 50% X-site vacancies. Compositional zoning is prominent only in tourmaline from breccias and quartz veins; crystal rims are enriched in Mg, Ca and Ti, and depleted in Fe and Al relative to cores. The chemical composition of tourmaline does not correlate with the presence or absence of mineralization. The ??11B values fall into two groups. Isotopically light tourmaline (-21.7 to-7.6%o) occurs in unmineralized samples from wallrocks, late quartz veins and Mesoproterozoic granite, whereas heavy tourmaline (-6.9 to +3.2%o) is spatially associated with mineralization (stratabound and breccia-hosted), and is also found in barren breccia. At an inferred temperature of 300??C, boron in the hydrothermal fluid associated with mineralization had ??11B values of-3 to +7%o. The high end of this range indicates a marine source of the boron. A likely scenario involves leaching of boron principally from marine carbonate beds or B-bearing evaporites in Mesoproterozoic strata of the region. The ??11B values of the isotopically light tourmaline in the sulfide deposits are attributed to recrystallization during Cretaceous metamorphism, superimposed on a light boron component derived from footwall siliciclastic sediments (e.g., marine clays) during Mesoproterozoic mineralization, and possibly a minor component of light boron from a magmatic-hydrothermal fluid. The metal association of Bi-Be-Y-REE in the Blackbird ores suggests some magmatic input

  20. Origin of the eclogitic clasts with graphite-bearing and graphite-free lithologies in the Northwest Africa 801 (CR2) chondrite: Possible origin from a Moon-sized planetary body inferred from chemistry, oxygen isotopes and REE abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiyagon, H.; Sugiura, N.; Kita, N. T.; Kimura, M.; Morishita, Y.; Takehana, Y.

    2016-08-01

    In order to clarify the origin of the eclogitic clasts found in the NWA801 (CR2) chondrite (Kimura et al., 2013), especially, that of the high pressure and temperature (P-T) condition (∼3 GPa and ∼1000 °C), we conducted ion microprobe analyses of oxygen isotopes and rare earth element (REE) abundances in the clasts. Oxygen isotopic compositions of the graphite-bearing lithology (GBL) and graphite-free lithology (GFL) show a slope ∼0.6 correlation slightly below the CR-CH-CB chondrites field in the O three-isotope-diagram, with a large variation for the former and almost homogeneous composition for the latter. The average REE abundances of the two lithologies show almost unfractionated patterns. Based on these newly obtained data, as well as mineralogical observations, bulk chemistry, and considerations about diffusion timescales for various elements, we discuss in detail the formation history of the clasts. Consistency of the geothermobarometers used by Kimura et al. (2013), suggesting equilibration of various elements among different mineral pairs, provides a strong constraint for the duration of the high P-T condition. We suggest that the high P-T condition lasted 102-103 years. This clearly precludes a shock high pressure (HP) model, and hence, strongly supports a static HP model. A static HP model requires a Moon-sized planetary body of ∼1500 km in radius. Furthermore, it implies two successive violent collisions, first at the formation of the large planetary body, when the clasts were placed its deep interior, and second, at the disruption of the large planetary body, when the clasts were expelled out of the parent body and later on transported to the accretion region of the CR chondrites. We also discuss possible origin of O isotopic variations in GBL, and presence/absence of graphite in GBL/GFL, respectively, in relation to smelting possibly occurred during the igneous process(es) which formed the two lithologies. Finally we present a possible

  1. Zircon U-Pb ages and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of the highly fractionated granite with tetrad REE patterns in the Shamai tungsten deposit in eastern Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for the timing of mineralization and ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Si-Hong; Bagas, Leon; Hu, Peng; Han, Ning; Chen, Chun-Liang; Liu, Yuan; Kang, Huan

    2016-09-01

    The Shamai tungsten deposit is located in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Tungsten mineralization is closely related to the emplacement of fine- to medium-grained biotite monzogranite (G1) and porphyritic biotite monzogranite (G2) in the Shamai Granite. NW-trending joints and faults host orebodies in the Shamai Granite and Devonian hornfels. The mineralization is characterized by a basal veinlet zone progressing upwards to a thick vein zone followed by a mixed zone, a veinlet zone, and a thread vein zone at the top. The ore-related alteration typically consists of muscovite, greisen, and hornfels. In order to constrain the timing of the Shamai mineralization and discuss the ore genesis, muscovite Ar-Ar, molybdenite Re-Os, and zircon U-Pb geochronological, geochemical, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic studies were completed on the deposit. The U-Pb zircon dating yielded weighted mean ages of 153 ± 1 Ma for G1 and 146 ± 1 Ma for G2. Muscovite from a wolframite-bearing quartz vein yielded an Ar-Ar plateau age of 140 ± 1 Ma, whereas two molybdenite samples yielded identical Re-Os model ages of 137 ± 2 Ma. These two ages are younger than the two monzogranites, suggesting a prolonged magmatic-hydrothermal interaction during tungsten mineralization. Major and trace element geochemistry shows that both G1 and G2 are characterized by high SiO2 and K2O contents, high A/CNK values (1.08-1.40), a spectacular tetrad effect in their REE distribution patterns, and non-CHARAC (charge-and-radius-controlled) trace element behavior. This suggests that both G1 and G2 are highly differentiated peraluminous rocks with strong hydrothermal interaction. The Nd-Hf isotope data for the Shamai Granite (εNd(t) between - 1.9 and + 7.4, ɛHf(t) from 5.2 to 12.8) are largely compatible with the general scenario for much of the Phanerozoic granite emplaced in the CAOB. It is here suggested that the Shamai Granite originated from partial melting of a juvenile lower crust with

  2. Genesis of amethyst geodes in basaltic rocks of the Serra Geral Formation (Ametista do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil): a fluid inclusion, REE, oxygen, carbon, and Sr isotope study on basalt, quartz, and calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilg, H. Albert; Morteani, Giulio; Kostitsyn, Yuri; Preinfalk, Christine; Gatter, Istvan; Strieder, Adelir J.

    2003-12-01

    In the Ametista do Sul area, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, amethyst-bearing geodes are hosted by a ~40- to 50-m-thick subhorizontal high-Ti basaltic lava flow of the Lower Cretaceous Paraná Continental Flood Basalt Province. The typically spherical cap-shaped, sometimes vertically elongated geodes display an outer rim of celadonite followed inwards by agate and colorless and finally amethystine quartz. Calcite formed throughout the whole crystallization sequence, but most commonly as very late euhedral crystals, sometimes with gypsum, in the central cavity. Fluid inclusions in colorless quartz and amethyst are predominantly monophase and contain an aqueous liquid. Two-phase liquid-vapor inclusions are rare. Some with a consistent degree of fill homogenize into the liquid between 95 and 98 °C. Ice-melting temperatures in the absence of a vapor phase between -4 and +4 °C indicate low salinities. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of calcites are highly variable and show generally no systematic correlation with the paragenetic sequence. The oxygen isotope composition of calcites is very homogeneous (δ18OVSMOW=24.9±1.1‰, n=34) indicating crystallization temperatures of less than 100 °C. Carbon isotope values of calcites show a considerable variation ranging from -18.7 to -2.9‰ (VPDB). The 87Sr/86Sr ratio of calcites varies between 0.706 and 0.708 and is more radiogenic than that of the host basalt (~0.705). The most likely source of silica, calcium, carbon, and minor elements in the infill of the geodes is the highly reactive interstitial glass of the host basalts leached by gas-poor aqueous solutions of meteoric origin ascending from the locally artesian Botucatú aquifer system in the footwall of the volcanic sequence. The genesis of amethyst geodes in basalts at Ametista do Sul, Brazil, is thus considered as a two-stage process with an early magmatic protogeode formation and a late, low temperature infill of the cavity.

  3. A mantle- and a lower crust-derived bimodal suite in the Yusufeli (Artvin) area, NE Turkey: trace element and REE evidence for subduction-related rift origin of Early Jurassic Demirkent intrusive complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokuz, Abdurrahman; Tanyolu, Erkan; Genç, Salim

    2006-06-01

    , unfractionated HREE patterns and evolution towards the higher Y concentrations and lower Sr/Y ratios within the body. All these features are obtained in experimentally produced melts from mafic rocks at low pressures (≤5 kbar) and also widespread in the rocks of arc where old (Upper Cretaceous or older) oceanic crust is being subducted. Major and REE modelling supports formation of the quartz dioritic parent to the felsic intrusive rocks by 70% partial melting of a primitive gabbroic sample (G694). Therefore, once taking into account the extensional conditions prevailing in the Pontian arc crust in Early Jurassic time, former basic products (gabbros) seem to be the most appropriate source for the tonalite-trondhjemite body. Magmatic emplacement of stratigraphically similar lithologies in the Pulur Massif, just southwest of the Yusufeli, was dated to be 184 Ma by the 40Ar/39Ar method on amphibole, and is compatible with the initiation of Early Jurassic rifting in the region.

  4. The origin of fluids and the effects of metamorphism on the primary chemical compositions of Barberton komatiites: New evidence from geochemical (REE) and isotopic (Nd, O, H, 39Ar /40Ar ) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lécuyer, C.; gruau, G.; Anhaeusser, C. R.; Fourcade, S.

    1994-01-01

    Numerous greenstone relics, all containing the two lowermost formations of the Onverwacht Group, occur in the Archean trondhjemitic/tonalitic gneiss terrains south of the Barberton Greenstone Belt. In this study, we report detailed petrological, geochemical and isotopic (Nd, O, H, 40Ar /39Ar ) data obtained on komatiites from the Schapenburg Greenstone Remnant (SGR), the largest and best-preserved greenstone relic. The main goals are (1) to date the metamorphism affecting the SGR using the 40Ar /39Ar dating method on amphiboles, (2) to evaluate the effect of metamorphism on the preservation of primary isotopic and chemical signatures, (3) to estimate the temperature and water/rock ratios that prevailed during metamorphic recrystallization in order to constrain the composition and origin of the reacting fluid phase. 40Ar /39Ar ages of 2.9 Ga obtained on two amphibole separates from the Schapenburg metavolcanics reveal the existence of a metamorphic event younger than the emplacement age (3.5 Ga). This metamorphic event belongs to a series of discrete periods of thermal activity from 3.4 to 2 Ga, each of which coincides with a major episode of magmatic activity. The ultrabasic lava flows acquired their δ 18O values (from +3.2 to +5%.) at high temperature (≈450°C) under high water/rock ratios. The reacting water had initial isotopic values typical of metamorphic fluids ( δ18O = +5 to +7%.; δD = -65 to -50%.). REE patterns were not disturbed by metamorphic recrystallization. Despite the long time interval between emplacement and metamorphism (≈600 Ma), ɛNd( T) values are uniform throughout the whole magmatic suite, indicating that the Sm-Nd system was closed on the sample scale during metamorphism. The mantle source of these greenstones was depleted in LREE as evidence by ɛNd( T) ≈ +2.5. Chemical fluxes during metamorphism were calculated for elements unfractionated by olivine removal (e.g. Na, Ca, Ti, Al, and Sr), by normalizing to Nd. They suggest a

  5. Th-REE- and Nb-Ta-accessory minerals in post-collisional Ediacaran felsic rocks from the Katerina Ring Complex (S. Sinai, Egypt): An assessment for the fractionation of Y/Nb, Th/Nb, La/Nb and Ce/Pb in highly evolved A-type granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, J. A.; Molina, J. F.; Bea, F.; Abu Anbar, M.; Montero, P.

    2016-08-01

    The relationships of Y/Nb, Th/Nb, La/Nb and Ce/Pb ratios in A-type felsic rocks from the Ediacaran Katerina Ring Complex, northernmost Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS; S. Sinai, Egypt), are investigated in this work to understand their behavior during generation of highly evolved granitic magmas and to explore the nature of magma sources. Textural and compositional relationships of cognate Th-REE- and Nb-Ta-accessory minerals in Katerina felsic rocks show that chevkinite-group minerals (CGM), monazite, thorite, allanite and xenotime formed from residual liquids in quartz syenite porphyries, quartz monzonites and peralkaline granites, whereas in aluminous granites, allanite and monazite crystallized early, and thorite and columbite formed from residual liquids. Relationships of Y/Nb, Th/Nb, La/Nb and Ce/Pb ratios with Zr/Hf ratios in the aluminous granites and with Be abundances in the peralkaline granites suggest a decrease in La/Nb and Ce/Pb ratios in the former, and in Y/Nb and La/Nb ratios in the latter with crystallization progress. This contrasts with absence of systematic variations of Th/Nb and Ce/Pb ratios in the peralkaline compositions and of Y/Nb ratio in the aluminous ones. In this latter, Th/Nb ratio can present a significant decrease only in highly evolved compositions. An analysis of Y/Nb, Th/Nb, La/Nb and Ce/Pb relationships in worldwide OIB and subduction-related magmatic suites reveals that A-type felsic rocks with (Th/Nb)N < 1.3, (La/Nb)N < 1.3, and (Ce/Pb)N > 1 may have A1-type affinity, and those with (Th/Nb)N > 2, (La/Nb)N > 2, and (Ce/Pb)N < 1 tend to present A2-type affinity. The crystal fractionation of Th-LREE- and Nb-Ta-accessory minerals and mixing of components derived from the two granite groups may cause deviations from these compositional limits that can be evaluated using constraints imposed by Th/Nb-La/Nb, Ce/Pb-Th/Nb and Ce/Pb-La/Nb relationships in OIB and subduction-related magmatic suites. Three mantle sources might have been

  6. Menzerite-(Y) a New Species {(Y REE)(Ca Fe2plus)2}[(Mg Fe2plus)(Fe3plus Al)](Si3)O12 from a Felsic Granulite Parry Sound Ontario and a New Garnet End-member (Y2Ca)Mg2(SiO4)3

    SciTech Connect

    E Grew; J Marsh; M Yates; B Lazic; T Armbruster; A Locock; S Bell; M Dyar; H Bernhardt; O Medenbach

    2011-12-31

    Menzerite-(Y), a new mineral species, forms reddish brown cores, n = 1.844 (20), up to 70 {micro}m across, rimmed successively by euhedral almandine containing up to 2.7 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and by K-feldspar in a felsic granulite on Bonnet Island in the interior Parry Sound domain, Grenville Orogenic Province, Canada. It is named after Georg Menzer (1897-1989), the German crystallographer who solved the crystal structure of garnet. Single-crystal X-ray-diffraction results yielded space group Ia3d, a = 11.9947(6) {angstrom}. An electron-microprobe analysis of the grain richest in Y (16.93 wt% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) gave the following formula, normalized to eight cations and 12 oxygen atoms: {l_brace}Y{sub 0.83}Gd{sub 0.01}Dy{sub 0.05}Ho{sub 0.02}Er{sub 0.07}Tm{sub 0.01}Yb{sub 0.06}Lu{sub 0.02}Ca{sub 1.37}Fe{sub 0.49}{sup 2+}Mn{sub 0.07}{r_brace} [Mg{sub 0.55}Fe{sub 0.42}{sup 2+}Fe{sub 0.58}{sup 3+}Al{sub 0.35} V{sub 0.01}Sc{sub 0.01}Ti{sub 0.08}](Si{sub 2.82}Al{sub 0.18})O{sub 12}, or {l_brace}(Y,REE)(Ca,Fe{sup 2+}){sub 2}{r_brace}[(Mg,Fe{sup 2+})(Fe{sup 3+},Al)](Si{sub 3})O{sub 12}. Synchrotron micro-XANES data gave Fe{sup 3+}/{Sigma}Fe = 0.56(10) versus 0.39(2) calculated from stoichiometry. The scattering power refined at the octahedral Y site, 17.68 epfu, indicates that a relatively light element contributes to its occupancy. Magnesium, as determined by electron-microprobe analyses, would be a proper candidate. In addition, considering the complex occupancy of this site, the average Y-O bond length of 2.0244(16) {angstrom} is in accord with a partial occupancy by Mg. The dominance of divalent cations with Mg > Fe{sup 2+} and the absence of Si at the octahedral Y site (in square brackets) are the primary criteria for distinguishing menzerite-(Y) from other silicate garnet species; the menzerite-(Y) end-member is {l_brace}Y{sub 2}Ca{r_brace}[Mg{sub 2}](Si{sub 3})O{sub 12}. The contacts of menzerite-(Y) with almandine are generally sharp and, in places, cuspate. It is

  7. Modeling of temperature fields in the working chamber of the process furnace for REE synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerbel, B. M.; Yu, Ageev A.; Yu, Payusov A.; Katsnelson, L. M.; Tereshchenko, E. V.; Verkhoturova, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    The results of mathematical modeling of temperature fields in the working chamber of the process furnace for special purposes are shown. Studied laboratory furnace is test equipment, which is used for practicing the stages of the technological process of continuous solid-phase synthesis of nanopowders of various purpose, such as obtaining of luminophore powders with rare earth elements oxides in its composition. Mathematical model adequacy is tested empirically

  8. Tambo Quemado: Extraordinary concentrations of REE and refractory trace elements caused by artificial heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, E.; Hutcheon, I.; Moore, C.

    1993-01-01

    Buchwald examined samples of the IIIB iron Tambo Quemado (TAMQ) cut from the 130 kg main mass. He determined it had been artificially heated, at some time prior to being reported, in an attempt to obtain metal from it. Although the Widmanstatten structure appears relatively unaffected under macroscopic examination, microscopic study of etched sections reveals the effect of the heating. Taenite and plessite area boundaries are indistinct due to high temperature diffusion. Schreibersite, once present in significant amounts, has been melted. Schreibersites in the interior have resolidified in fine-grained eutectic textures surrounded by dark-etching metal rims supersaturated with phosphorus. Buchwald states that phosphate minerals were probably present originally, because graftonite, and its polymorph sarcopside (both essentially Fe3(PO4)2), are common in irons of the IIIB groups. Based on his metallographic study Buchwald estimates TAMQ was heated to 1000 C for about one hour. An interior sample from TAMQ was examined in order to determine what effect this unintended heating 'experiment' had upon the phosphate phases.

  9. Crystal Structure and Crystal Chemistry of Some Common REE Minerals and Nanpingite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yunxiang

    1995-01-01

    Part I. Crystal structure and crystal chemistry of fluorocarbonate minerals. The crystal structure of bastnasite-(Ce) have been solved in P-62c and refined to R = 0.018. The structure is composed of (001) (CeF) layers interspersed with (CO_3) layers in a 1:1 ratio. The Ce atom is coordinated in rm CeO_6F_3 polyhedra. The atomic arrangement of synchysite-(Ce) has been solved and refined to R = 0.036 with a monoclinic space group C2/c. It possesses a (001) layer structure, with layers of (Ca) and (CeF) separated by layers of carbonate groups. The layers stack in a manner analogous to C2/c muscovite. Polytypism similar to the micas may exist in synchysite. The crystal structures of cordylite-(Ce) have been solved in P6 _3/mmc and refined to R = 0.023. The structure and chemical formula are different from those deduced by Oftedal. The formula is rm MBaCe_2(CO _3)_4F, where M is rm Na^+, Ca^{2+}_{1/2 }+ O_{1/2}, or any solution. The presence of (NaF) layer in the structure is the key difference from the Oftedal's structure. This redefinition of the chemical formula and crystal structure of cordylite will be proposed to IMA-CNMMN. Part II. Crystal structure and crystal chemistry of monazite-xenotime series. Monazite is monoclinic, P2 _1/n, and xenotime is isostructural with zircon (I4_1/amd). Both atomic arrangements are based on (001) chains of intervening phosphate tetrahedra and RE polyhedra, with a REO_8 polyhedron in xenotime that accommodates HRE (Tb - Lu) and a REO_9 polyhedron in monazite that preferentially incorporates LRE (La - Gd). As the structure "transforms" from xenotime to monazite, the crystallographic properties are comparable along the (001) chains, with structural adjustments of 2.2 A along (010) to accommodate the different size RE atoms. Part III. Crystal structure of nanpingite-2M _2, the Cs end-member of muscovite. The crystal structure of nanpingite has been refined to R = 0.058. Compared to K^+ in muscovite, the largest interlayer Cs^+ in nanpingite increases (001) separation between adjacent 2:1 layers, but has little effect on the dimensions in (001). The existence of rare 2M_2 polytype in nanpingite is attributed to this large layer separation, which minimizes the repulsion of the superimposed (along (001)) basal oxygens in neighboring tetrahedral layers.

  10. Chemical Characteristic of CK Chondrites in the Light of P, REEs, Th, and U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, M.; Shirai, N.; Takahashi, H.

    2015-07-01

    A total of 16 Antarctic CK chondrites were analyzed by ICP-AES for P and by ICP-MS for rare earth elements, Th and U. Based on the data for these elements, the formation process and the structure of CK chondrite parent body are discussed.