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1

Plankton Microorganisms Coinciding with Two Consecutive Mass Fish Kills in a Newly Reconstructed Lake  

PubMed Central

Lake Karla, Greece, was dried up in 1962 and its refilling started in 2009. We examined the Cyanobacteria and unicellular eukaryotes found during two fish kill incidents, in March and April 2010, in order to detect possible causative agents. Both microscopic and molecular (16S/18S rRNA gene diversity) identification were applied. Potentially toxic Cyanobacteria included representatives of the Planktothrix and Anabaena groups. Known toxic eukaryotes or parasites related to fish kill events were Prymnesium parvum and Pfiesteria cf. piscicida, the latter being reported in an inland lake for the second time. Other potentially harmful microorganisms, for fish and other aquatic life, included representatives of Fungi, Mesomycetozoa, Alveolata, and Heterokontophyta (stramenopiles). In addition, Euglenophyta, Chlorophyta, and diatoms were represented by species indicative of hypertrophic conditions. The pioneers of L. Karla's plankton during the first months of its water refilling process included species that could cause the two observed fish kill events.

Oikonomou, Andreas; Katsiapi, Matina; Karayanni, Hera; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar.

2012-01-01

2

Plankton microorganisms coinciding with two consecutive mass fish kills in a newly reconstructed lake.  

PubMed

Lake Karla, Greece, was dried up in 1962 and its refilling started in 2009. We examined the Cyanobacteria and unicellular eukaryotes found during two fish kill incidents, in March and April 2010, in order to detect possible causative agents. Both microscopic and molecular (16S/18S rRNA gene diversity) identification were applied. Potentially toxic Cyanobacteria included representatives of the Planktothrix and Anabaena groups. Known toxic eukaryotes or parasites related to fish kill events were Prymnesium parvum and Pfiesteria cf. piscicida, the latter being reported in an inland lake for the second time. Other potentially harmful microorganisms, for fish and other aquatic life, included representatives of Fungi, Mesomycetozoa, Alveolata, and Heterokontophyta (stramenopiles). In addition, Euglenophyta, Chlorophyta, and diatoms were represented by species indicative of hypertrophic conditions. The pioneers of L. Karla's plankton during the first months of its water refilling process included species that could cause the two observed fish kill events. PMID:22654619

Oikonomou, Andreas; Katsiapi, Matina; Karayanni, Hera; Moustaka-Gouni, Maria; Kormas, Konstantinos Ar

2012-05-01

3

Hallmarks, Invading tissues: Hanahan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Douglas Hanahan discusses how cancers kill you, in general, not just because they grow into a large lump, but because they invade into normal tissues and disrupt the functions of those tissues.

2009-12-26

4

Photothermal colloid antibodies for shape-selective recognition and killing of microorganisms.  

PubMed

We have developed a class of selective antimicrobial agents based on the recognition of the shape and size of the bacterial cells. These agents are anisotropic colloid particles fabricated as negative replicas of the target cells which involve templating of the cells with shells of inert material followed by their fragmentation. The cell shape recognition by such shell fragments is due to the increased area of surface contact between the cells and their matching shell fragments which resembles antibody-antigen interaction. We produced such "colloid antibodies" with photothermal mechanism for shape-selective killing of matching cells. This was achieved by the subsequent deposition of (i) gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and (ii) silica shell over yeast cells, which were chosen as model pathogens. We demonstrated that fragments of these composite AuNP/silica shells act as "colloid antibodies" and can bind to yeast cells of the same shape and size and deliver AuNPs directly onto their surface. We showed that after laser irradiation, the localized heating around the AuNPs kills the microbial cells of matching shape. We confirmed the cell shape-specific killing by photothermal colloid antibodies in a mixture of two bacterial cultures of different cell shape and size. This approach opens a number of avenues for building powerful selective biocides based on combinations of colloid antibodies and cell-killing strategies which can be applied in new antibacterial therapies. PMID:23540643

Borovi?ka, Josef; Metheringham, William J; Madden, Leigh A; Walton, Christopher D; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Paunov, Vesselin N

2013-03-29

5

Alien invaders.  

PubMed

Thousands of species have invaded new territories in recent decades, often aided by global trade and man-made habitat change. While many remain harmless, some may cause serious damage. Therefore, we need improvements in surveillance and in our understanding of which factors make a successful invasion possible. PMID:23227487

Gross, Michael

2012-10-01

6

Silent Invaders  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Silent Invaders introduces the problem of invasive species and provides information on control activities. The videos explain how invasive species get into the United States, why some do so well here, and how we can keep invasive species out. There is an interactive section where the user tries to eliminate musk thistle by applying a combination of biological, fire, chemical and mechanical controls. Other featured species include cheatgrass, tamarisk, woolly adelgid, zebra mussel, and fire ants. The field guide contains a list of invasive plant and animal species as well as photographs and movies. The instructor guide is a weed science primer for teachers.

Lahart, David

7

Phagocytic killing of microorganisms by radical processes:consequences of the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with chloride yielding chlorine atoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloride anions and hydrogen peroxide serve as substrates for myeloperoxidase (MPO) in order to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as one of the major killing agents of phagocytic leukocytes. Apart from this role of being a substrate for the MPO-reaction the chloride anion has been considered as unreactive and has not been implicated in radical reactions which contribute to the killing

Manfred Saran; Ingrid Beck-Speier; Barbara Fellerhoff; Georg Bauer

1999-01-01

8

Extreme variation in the prevalence of inherited male-killing microorganisms between three populations of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females from three populations of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were assayed for two phenotypical indicators of the presence of male-killing endosymbionts: low egg hatch-rates and strongly female-biased progenic sex ratios. Samples from Sapporo City, Japan, and the Altai Mountains, Mongolia, but not from Novosibirsk, Russia, were found to contain some females displaying both of these traits. Furthermore, there was a profound

MICHAEL E. N. MAJERUS; Brigitte Knowles; Joy Wheeler; Dominique Bertrand; Hideki Ueno; GREGORY D. D. HURST; Tamsin M O Majerus

1998-01-01

9

Nab the Aquatic Invader!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, younger students assume the roles of detectives investigating the ten "most wanted" invasive species. They examine background information on these species and learn about how they came to be invaders, how they spread, some environmental and economic impacts, and some solutions for controlling them. When they think they have enough information to "book" an invasive species, they click on the "Book 'em" file and answer questions about each one.

10

Killing Coyotes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents different viewpoints concerning the federal government's Animal Damage Control (ADC) Program cited as responsible for killing millions of predators. Critics provide evidence of outdated and inhumane methods exemplified in the coyote killings. The ADC emphasizes new, nonlethal methods of controlling animals cited as "noxious." (MCO)|

Beasley, Conger, Jr.

1993-01-01

11

Myeloperoxidase: a front-line defender against phagocytosed microorganisms.  

PubMed

Successful immune defense requires integration of multiple effector systems to match the diverse virulence properties that members of the microbial world might express as they initiate and promote infection. Human neutrophils--the first cellular responders to invading microbes--exert most of their antimicrobial activity in phagosomes, specialized membrane-bound intracellular compartments formed by ingestion of microorganisms. The toxins generated de novo by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase and delivered by fusion of neutrophil granules with nascent phagosomes create conditions that kill and degrade ingested microbes. Antimicrobial activity reflects multiple and complex synergies among the phagosomal contents, and optimal action relies on oxidants generated in the presence of MPO. The absence of life-threatening infectious complications in individuals with MPO deficiency is frequently offered as evidence that the MPO oxidant system is ancillary rather than essential for neutrophil-mediated antimicrobial activity. However, that argument fails to consider observations from humans and KO mice that demonstrate that microbial killing by MPO-deficient cells is less efficient than that of normal neutrophils. We present evidence in support of MPO as a major arm of oxidative killing by neutrophils and propose that the essential contribution of MPO to normal innate host defense is manifest only when exposure to pathogens overwhelms the capacity of other host defense mechanisms. PMID:23066164

Klebanoff, Seymour J; Kettle, Anthony J; Rosen, Henry; Winterbourn, Christine C; Nauseef, William M

2012-10-11

12

Killing fetuses and killing newborns.  

PubMed

The argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns is a challenge to liberal positions on abortion because it can be considered a reductio of their defence of abortion. Here I defend the liberal stance on abortion by arguing that the argument for the moral permissibility of killing newborns on ground of the social, psychological and economic burden on the parents recently put forward by Giubilini and Minerva is not valid; this is because they fail to show that newborns cannot be harmed and because there are morally relevant differences between fetuses and newborns. PMID:23637456

Di Nucci, Ezio

2013-05-01

13

Progress in invasion biology: predicting invaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting which species are probable invaders has been a long-standing goal of ecologists, but only recently have quantitative methods been used to achieve such a goal. Although restricted to few taxa, these studies reveal clear relationships between the characteristics of releases and the species involved, and the successful establishment and spread of invaders. For example, the probability of bird establishment

Cynthia S. Kolar; David M. Lodge

2001-01-01

14

Interference competition among native and invader amphipods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquarium experiments were used to study indications of interference competition, such as substratum choice shifts, swimming activities and mortality of invasive and indigenous gammarids in each other's presence. The more recent invaders Gammarus tigrinus and Dikerogammarus villosus were more likely to prefer stone substratum, whereas the native Gammarus pulex and an earlier invader Gammarus roeseli were found more frequently in

Mariëlle C. van Riel; Evan P. Healy; Gerard van der Velde; Abraham bij de Vaate

2007-01-01

15

Toxoplasma Co-opts Host Cells It Does Not Invade  

PubMed Central

Like many intracellular microbes, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii injects effector proteins into cells it invades. One group of these effector proteins is injected from specialized organelles called the rhoptries, which have previously been described to discharge their contents only during successful invasion of a host cell. In this report, using several reporter systems, we show that in vitro the parasite injects rhoptry proteins into cells it does not productively invade and that the rhoptry effector proteins can manipulate the uninfected cell in a similar manner to infected cells. In addition, as one of the reporter systems uses a rhoptry:Cre recombinase fusion protein, we show that in Cre-reporter mice infected with an encysting Toxoplasma-Cre strain, uninfected-injected cells, which could be derived from aborted invasion or cell-intrinsic killing after invasion, are actually more common than infected-injected cells, especially in the mouse brain, where Toxoplasma encysts and persists. This phenomenon has important implications for how Toxoplasma globally affects its host and opens a new avenue for how other intracellular microbes may similarly manipulate the host environment at large.

Koshy, Anita A.; Dietrich, Hans K.; Christian, David A.; Melehani, Jason H.; Shastri, Anjali J.; Hunter, Christopher A.; Boothroyd, John C.

2012-01-01

16

Classifying Microorganisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on an activity in which students sample air at school and generate ideas about how to classify the microorganisms they observe. The results are used to compare air quality among schools via the Internet. Supports the development of scientific inquiry and technology skills. (DDR)

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Lang, Michael; Goodmanis, Ben

2002-01-01

17

Classifying Microorganisms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focuses on an activity in which students sample air at school and generate ideas about how to classify the microorganisms they observe. The results are used to compare air quality among schools via the Internet. Supports the development of scientific inquiry and technology skills. (DDR)|

Baker, William P.; Leyva, Kathryn J.; Lang, Michael; Goodmanis, Ben

2002-01-01

18

Host queen killing by a slave-maker ant queen: when is a host queen worth attacking?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new colony of the slave-making ant Polyergus breviceps is initiated when a newly mated gyne invades a host nest and kills the resident queen. This process seems to result in chemical camouflage of the invading gyne and allows her to usurp the position of colony reproductive. Young, recently mated Formica gynes, however, are not attacked. To determine whether worker

Christine A. Johnson; Howard Topoff; Robert K. Vander Meer; Barry Lavine

2002-01-01

19

Coyote kills harp seal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note details the killing of a harp seal Pago- philus groenlandia by an eastern coyote Canis latrans o n C a p e C o d , M a s s a c h u s e t t s . I t i s b e - lieved to be the first documentation of a canid killing an

Jay Horton

20

Novel silver nano-wedges for killing microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, for the first time, photochemical facile green synthesis of salep capped silver nano-wedges was reported via the wet chemical synthesis procedure. Sunlight-UV as an available reducing agent caused mild reduction of silver ions to the silver nano-wedges. Salep as an effective capping\\/shaping polysaccharide bioresource material was used in the reaction medium and caused creation of flower-like

Ali Pourjavadi; Rouhollah Soleyman

2011-01-01

21

The Jeremiah Metzger Lecture. Microbial defenses against killing by phagocytes.  

PubMed Central

Phagocytes are a key feature of defense against microorganisms. Phagocyte function is a complex system with many intricately involved components. Each of these components provides microorganisms with a target for countermeasures against phagocytes. We have discussed examples and purported mechanisms for microbial defenses against the steps involved in killing by phagocytes. Understanding the interplay of these host and pathogen factors leads to a better understanding of both normal host defenses and pathogenesis of disease.

Mandell, G. L.; Frank, M. O.

1992-01-01

22

Preditory impact of the freshwater invader Dikerogammarus vilosus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the increasing threats to aquatic ecosystems from invasive species, we need to elucidate the mech- anisms of impacts of current and predicted future invaders. Dikerogammarus villosus, a Ponto-Caspian amphipod crus- tacean, is invading throughout Europe and predicted to invade the North American Great Lakes. European field studies show that populations of macroinvertebrates decline after D. villosus invasion. The

Jaimie T. A. Dick; Dirk Platvoet; David W. Kelly

2002-01-01

23

Wanted Dead, Not Alive: Invading Species  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Why Files (last mentioned in the June 28, 2002 NSDL Scout Report for the Life Sciences) is "a popular and critically acclaimed web site that explores the science behind the news." Check out this recent feature of the Web site, which presents information about a number of harmful invasive species in an entertaining way. The notorious snakehead fish is included in the species lineup, and the related text helps to clear up misconceptions some may have about this invader. While some species and the problems associated with them are described in more detail than others, nearly all descriptions include links to related Web sites that offer much more detailed information.

2002-01-01

24

FISH KILLS, NORTH CAROLINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Data related to fish kills in North Carolina are collected and stored in tables on the Web at the North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources. http://www.esb.enr.state.nc.us/Fishkill/fishkill00.htm...

25

Homogeneous Killing spinor spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A classification of Petrov-type D Killing spinor spacetimes admitting a homogeneous conformal representant is presented. For each class a canonical line element is constructed and a physical interpretation of its conformal members is discussed.

Van den Bergh, N.

2011-12-01

26

Age Invaders: Entertainment for Elderly and Young  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter presents the design process of Age Invaders, an intergenerational family entertainment system which focuses on physical and social interactions using a mixed reality floor system. The main design goals include facilitating interactions between users with varied levels of skill in utilizing technology, utilizing the familiar physical motions from other activities to make an intuitive physical interface, and encouraging social interactions among families and friends. Four main prototype iterations for the system are presented. Our design process is based on User Centered Design and relies on constant involvement of users to understand the key issues and to help make effective design decisions. The results of the study help to focus the refinements of the existing platform from a usability standpoint and also aid in the development of new physical entertainment and interactive applications. This study provides insights into user issues including how users interact in a complex mixed reality experience. At the end of this chapter, we presented the design of a toolkit that enables easy access and programming of the Age Invaders system. This toolkit could be used as a general platform for designing and reprogramming new type of artwork, entertainment, games, and applications.

Cheok, Adrian David

27

Intraoperative tissue staining of invaded oral carcinoma.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of intraoperative tissue staining with consecutive application of 0.4% indigo carmine and 0.5% Congo red to demonstrate the extent and border of oral carcinoma invasion. Seventeen patients were included in the study. Once the oral tumor was resected, a vertical section of surgical specimen was taken from the central part of the tumor. The extent and border of the invaded carcinoma were assessed on digital microscopic examination with tissue staining. The results of assessments were compared with corresponding results of conventional histopathological analysis with HE staining, which is considered the gold standard. Tissue staining produced a brown-black stain on normal muscle, connective, and salivary tissues but not tumor and epithelial tissues. It clearly demonstrated the extent and border of tumor invasion in 13 of 17 patients (76.5%); however, detection of remnant vital tumor cells in scar tissue after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and distinction between the tumor and adipose tissue scattered in the muscle tissue was difficult. The results of this study showed that intraoperative tissue staining was a possible method in demonstrating the extent and border of carcinoma deeply invaded in the soft tissue and selecting the site for additional frozen section analysis, although the method needed some refinement. PMID:18575826

Kurita, Hiroshi; Kamata, Takahiro; Koike, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Hiroichi; Kurashina, Kenji

2008-06-25

28

Mycoplasma gallisepticum Invades Chicken Erythrocytes during Infection?  

PubMed Central

Recently, it was demonstrated using in vitro assays that the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum is able to invade nonphagocytic cells. It was also shown that this mycoplasma can survive and multiply intracellularly for at least 48 h and that this cell invasion capacity contributes to the systemic spread of M. gallisepticum from the respiratory tract to the inner organs. Using the gentamicin invasion assay and a differential immunofluorescence technique combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy, we were able to demonstrate in in vitro experiments that M. gallisepticum is also capable of invading sheep and chicken erythrocytes. The frequencies of invasion of three well-defined M. gallisepticum strains were examined over a period of 24 h, and a significant increase in invasiveness occurred after 8 h of infection. In addition, blood samples derived from chickens experimentally infected via the aerosol route with the virulent strain M. gallisepticum Rlow were analyzed. Surprisingly, M. gallisepticum Rlow was detected in the bloodstream of infected chickens by nested PCR, as well as by differential immunofluorescence and interference contrast microscopy that showed that mycoplasmas were not only on the surface but also inside chicken erythrocytes. This finding provides novel insight into the pathomechanism of M. gallisepticum and may have implications for the development of preventive strategies.

Vogl, Gunther; Plaickner, Astrid; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, Laszlo; Rosengarten, Renate; Szostak, Michael P.

2008-01-01

29

Invading predatory crustacean Dikerogammarus villosus eliminates both native and exotic species.  

PubMed Central

As the tempo of biological invasions increases, explanations and predictions of their impacts become more crucial. Particularly with regard to biodiversity, we require elucidation of interspecific behavioural interactions among invaders and natives. In freshwaters in The Netherlands, we show that the invasive Ponto-Caspian crustacean amphipod Dikerogammarus villosus is rapidly eliminating Gammarus duebeni, a native European amphipod, and Gammarus tigrinus, until now a spectacularly successful invader from North America. In the laboratory, survival of single (unguarded) female G. duebeni was significantly lower when male D. villosus were free to roam as compared with isolated within microcosms. In addition, survival of paired (guarded) female G. duebeni was significantly lower when male D. villosus as compared with male G. duebeni were present. D. villosus killed and consumed both recently moulted and, unusually, intermoult victims. Survival of G. tigrinus was significantly lower when D. villosus were free to roam as compared with isolated within microcosms and, again, both moulted and intermoult victims were preyed upon. Male D. villosus were significantly more predatory than were females, while female G. tigrinus were significantly more often preyed upon than were males. Predation by D. villosus on both species occurred over a range of water conductivities, an environmental feature previously shown to promote amphipod coexistence. This predatory invader is predicted to reduce further the amphipod diversity in a range of freshwater habitats in Europe and North America.

Dick, J T; Platvoet, D

2000-01-01

30

Interference competition among native and invader amphipods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquarium experiments were used to study indications of interference competition, such as substratum choice shifts, swimming activities and mortality of invasive and indigenous gammarids in each other's presence. The more recent invaders Gammarus tigrinus and Dikerogammarus villosus were more likely to prefer stone substratum, whereas the native Gammarus pulex and an earlier invader Gammarus roeseli were found more frequently in the water layer. Sand was the least likely substratum to be chosen by any of the species. G. pulex and G. roeseli did not alter their substratum preference in each other's presence. In the presence of D. villosus, G. pulex shifted towards smaller stones and increased its swimming activities, whereas D. villosus did not change its behaviour in the presence of G. pulex. These shifts may indicate interference competition, with D. villosus being the stronger competitor. The greatest shifts in substratum preference arose when one species had occupied a substratum before the other one was introduced, especially when D. villosus was already present before G. pulex was introduced, possibly indicating pre-emptive competition. Swimming activities of G. pulex increased in the presence of D. villosus, whereas D. villosus spent little time swimming. Mortality was comparable between the different experiments without any indication of predation. The effect of Intra Guild Predation (IGP) may not be reflected adequately by short-time experiments as moults occurred seldom during the experiments. Although no IGP was observed during our experiments, habitat shifts occurred, which may indicate that competitive interactions are apparent before IGP starts. Such shifts may serve to avoid intraguild competition.

van Riel, Mariëlle C.; Healy, Evan P.; van der Velde, Gerard; bij de Vaate, Abraham

2007-05-01

31

Hyperproducing Cellulase Microorganism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process and a microorganism for synthesizing cellulase enzymes and soluble proteins are described. The microorganism is a mutant strain of an Ascomycete fungus capable of the synthesizing cellulases and soluble proteins in the presence of a growth mediu...

B. J. Gallo

1983-01-01

32

Killing vectors and anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N.

2009-08-01

33

Killing vectors and anisotropy  

SciTech Connect

We consider an action that can generate fluids with three unequal stresses for metrics with a spacelike Killing vector. The parameters in the action are directly related to the stress anisotropies. The field equations following from the action are applied to an anisotropic cosmological expansion and an extension of the Gott-Hiscock cosmic string.

Krisch, J. P.; Glass, E. N. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2009-08-15

34

The Fish Kill Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities and learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria.

Kosal, Erica F.

2004-02-01

35

Invaders, weeds and the risk from genetically manipulated organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invaders, weeds and colonizers comprise different but overlapping sets of species. The probability of successful invasion is low. The 10:10 rule state that 10% of introduced speices (those with feral individuals) become established, 10% of established species (those with self-sustaining populations) become pests. The rule gives an adequate fit to British plant data. The rule predicts that invaders will be

M. Williamson

1993-01-01

36

Donor and recipient regions: The biogeography of macrobenthic invaders  

EPA Science Inventory

Aquatic invaders are a major threat to ecological integrity and biodiversity of marine, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems around the world. These invaders have been successful in passing through four discrete phases in their invasion of a new environment: (1) transport, (2) ...

37

Instantons and Killing spinors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate instantons on manifolds with Killing spinors and their cones. Examples of manifolds with Killing spinors include nearly Kähler 6-manifolds, nearly parallel G 2-manifolds in dimension 7, Sasaki-Einstein manifolds, and 3-Sasakian manifolds. We construct a connection on the tangent bundle over these manifolds which solves the instanton equation, and also show that the instanton equation implies the Yang-Mills equation, despite the presence of torsion. We then construct instantons on the cones over these manifolds, and lift them to solutions of heterotic supergravity. Amongst our solutions are new instantons on even-dimensional Euclidean spaces, as well as the well-known BPST, quaternionic and octonionic instantons.

Harland, Derek; Nölle, Christoph

2012-03-01

38

Battered women who kill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses acquital rates using mock jurors in cases involving a battered woman charged with killing her husband. The simulated trial format was based on actual courtroom proceedings including witness cross-examination and jury deliberation proceedings. The type of plea entered was varied and reflected either self-defense, automatism, or a hypothetical plea of psychological self-defense. The severity of abuse incurred

Marilyn Kasian; Nicholas P. Spanos; Cheryl A. Terrance; Suzanne Peeblesi

1993-01-01

39

Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maneerat, S. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2005, 27(6) : 1263-1272 Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may even- tually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the

Suppasil Maneerat

40

Killing the competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex- and age-specific rates of killing unrelated persons of one’s own sex were computed for Canada (1974–1983), England\\/Wales\\u000a (1977–1986), Chicago (1965–1981), and Detroit (1972) from census information and data archives of all homicides known to police.\\u000a Patterns in relation to sex and age were virtually identical among the four samples, although the rates varied enormously\\u000a (from 3.7 per million citizens

Martin Daly; Margo Wilson

1990-01-01

41

Saddam Hussein's Decision to Invade Kuwait - Where Was Plan B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two objectives characterize Saddam Hussein's statecraft his personal survival as Iraq's leader and his desire to assert Iraqi influence in the Middle East Both of these objectives figured in his decision to invade Kuwait in August 1990 Surveying the damag...

F. R. Culpepper

1997-01-01

42

An Insect Multiligand Recognition Protein Functions as an Opsonin for the Phagocytosis of Microorganisms*  

PubMed Central

We characterize a novel pathogen recognition protein obtained from the lepidopteran Galleria mellonella. This protein recognizes Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, and Candida albicans via specific binding to lipopolysaccharides, lipoteichoic acid, and ?-1,3-glucan, respectively. As a multiligand receptor capable of coping with a broad variety of invading pathogens, it is constitutively produced in the fat body, midgut, and integument but not in the hemocytes and is secreted into the hemolymph. The protein was confirmed to be relevant to cellular immune response and to further function as an opsonin that promotes the uptake of invading microorganisms into hemocytes. Our data reveal that the mechanism by which a multiligand receptor recognizes microorganisms contributes substantially to their phagocytosis by hemocytes. A better understanding of an opsonin with the required repertoire for detecting diverse invaders might provide us with critical insights into the mechanisms underlying insect phagocytosis.

Kim, Chong Han; Shin, Yong Pyo; Noh, Mi Young; Jo, Yong Hun; Han, Yeon Soo; Seong, Yeon Sun; Lee, In Hee

2010-01-01

43

Influence of an invaded zone on a multiprobe formation tester  

SciTech Connect

When an oil or gas well is being drilled, some of the borehole fluid (mud filtrate) leaks into the formation, displacing the native reservoir fluid. This creates an invaded zone around the wellbore. The invading fluid will generally have a mobility and compressibility that differ from the formation fluid. The presence of the invaded zone will affect the pressure transients measured by a formation tester. In this paper, a model that includes an invaded zone is presented together with an analysis of its effect at each of the probes of a multiple probe formation tester. The results show that the properties of the invaded zone dominate the pressure transient measured at the sink probe, strongly influence the transient at the horizontal probe, and only modestly affect the vertical probe transient. A suggested modification to the current interpretation procedure (which does not consider the invaded zone) for determining the horizontal and vertical mobility is also presented. The application of this modified procedure is discussed using a model example.

Goode, P.A.; Thambynayagam, R.K.M. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)

1996-03-01

44

Female Resistance to Invading Males Increases Infanticide in Langurs  

PubMed Central

Background Infanticide by adult male occurs in many mammalian species under natural conditions, and it is often assumed to be a goal-directed action and explained predominately by sexual selection. Motivation of this behavior in mammals is limitedly involved. Methodology and Principal Findings We used long-term reproductive records and direct observation in captivity and in the field of two snub-nosed langur species on the basis of individual identification to investigate how infanticide happened and to be avoided in nonhuman primates. Our observations suggested that infanticide by invading males might be more accidental than goal-directed. The invading male seemed to monopolize all the females including lactating mothers during takeovers. Multiparous mothers who accepted the invading male shortly after takeovers avoided infanticide in most cases. Our results conjectured primiparous mothers would decrease infanticidal possibility if they sexually accepted the invading male during or immediately after takeovers. In the studied langur species, voluntary abortion or mating with the invading male was evidently adopted by females to limit or avoid infanticide by takeover males. Conclusions and Significance The objective of the invading male was to monopolize all adult females after his takeover. It appeared that the mother's resistance to accepting the new male as a mating partner was the primary incentive for infanticide. Motivation analysis might be helpful to further understand why infanticide occurs in primate species.

Ren, Baoping; Li, Dayong; He, Xinmin; Qiu, Junhua; Li, Ming

2011-01-01

45

Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

Alexander, M.

1973-01-01

46

Fossilization of Acidophilic Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines fossil microorganisms found in iron-rich deposits in an extreme acidic environment, the Tinto River in SW Spain. Both electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) and non-destructive in situ microanalytical techniques (EDS, EMP and XPS) were used to determine the role of permineralization and encrustation in preserving microorganisms forming biofilms in the sediments. Unicellular algae were preserved by silica

Virginia Souza-Egipsy; Angeles Aguilera; Eva Mateo-Martí; José Angel Martín-Gago; Ricardo Amils

2010-01-01

47

(Genetically engineered microorganisms)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traveler attended the First International Conference on the Release of Genetically Engineered Microorganisms at the request of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The purpose of the conference was to provide an international forum for the discussion of the issues and concerns related to the release of genetically engineered microorganisms for environmental and agricultural applications. The cost of attendance

Sharples

1988-01-01

48

Microenvironments of soil microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrastructural studies of soil micro-organisms and the microenvironments surrounding them are reviewed. Soil microfauna, and bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, fixed and embedded in situ, were examined by electron microscopy (both transmission and scanning). In some cases ultrastructural histochemistry was used to detect and identify the organic matter with which microorganisms were associated and to examine the polymeric microbial materials (enzymes,

R. C. Foster

1988-01-01

49

Azithromycin Kills Invasive Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Gingival Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans invades periodontal pocket epithelium and is therefore difficult to eliminate by periodontal scaling and root planing. It is susceptible to azithromycin, which is taken up by many types of mammalian cells. This led us to hypothesize that azithromycin accumulation by gingival epithelium could enhance the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans. [3H]azithromycin transport by Smulow-Glickman gingival epithelial cells and SCC-25 oral epithelial cells was characterized. To test our hypothesis, we infected cultured Smulow-Glickman cell monolayers with A. actinomycetemcomitans (Y4 or SUNY 465 strain) for 2 h, treated them with gentamicin to eliminate extracellular bacteria, and then incubated them with azithromycin for 1 to 4 h. Viable intracellular bacteria were released, plated, and enumerated. Azithromycin transport by both cell lines exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was competitively inhibited by l-carnitine and several other organic cations. Cell incubation in medium containing 5 ?g/ml azithromycin yielded steady-state intracellular concentrations of 144 ?g/ml in SCC-25 cells and 118 ?g/ml in Smulow-Glickman cells. Azithromycin induced dose- and time-dependent intraepithelial killing of both A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Treatment of infected Smulow-Glickman cells with 0.125 ?g/ml azithromycin killed approximately 29% of the intraepithelial CFU of both strains within 4 h, while treatment with 8 ?g/ml azithromycin killed ?82% of the CFU of both strains (P < 0.05). Addition of carnitine inhibited the killing of intracellular bacteria by azithromycin (P < 0.05). Thus, human gingival epithelial cells actively accumulate azithromycin through a transport system that facilitates the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans and is shared with organic cations.

Lai, Pin-Chuang

2013-01-01

50

Azithromycin kills invasive Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in gingival epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans invades periodontal pocket epithelium and is therefore difficult to eliminate by periodontal scaling and root planing. It is susceptible to azithromycin, which is taken up by many types of mammalian cells. This led us to hypothesize that azithromycin accumulation by gingival epithelium could enhance the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans. [(3)H]azithromycin transport by Smulow-Glickman gingival epithelial cells and SCC-25 oral epithelial cells was characterized. To test our hypothesis, we infected cultured Smulow-Glickman cell monolayers with A. actinomycetemcomitans (Y4 or SUNY 465 strain) for 2 h, treated them with gentamicin to eliminate extracellular bacteria, and then incubated them with azithromycin for 1 to 4 h. Viable intracellular bacteria were released, plated, and enumerated. Azithromycin transport by both cell lines exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was competitively inhibited by l-carnitine and several other organic cations. Cell incubation in medium containing 5 ?g/ml azithromycin yielded steady-state intracellular concentrations of 144 ?g/ml in SCC-25 cells and 118 ?g/ml in Smulow-Glickman cells. Azithromycin induced dose- and time-dependent intraepithelial killing of both A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. Treatment of infected Smulow-Glickman cells with 0.125 ?g/ml azithromycin killed approximately 29% of the intraepithelial CFU of both strains within 4 h, while treatment with 8 ?g/ml azithromycin killed ?82% of the CFU of both strains (P < 0.05). Addition of carnitine inhibited the killing of intracellular bacteria by azithromycin (P < 0.05). Thus, human gingival epithelial cells actively accumulate azithromycin through a transport system that facilitates the killing of intraepithelial A. actinomycetemcomitans and is shared with organic cations. PMID:23274657

Lai, Pin-Chuang; Walters, John D

2012-12-28

51

Pathogenic Microorganisms in Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pathogenic Microorganisms in Water: Traditionally, groundwater has been used without treatment because the soil acts as a filter, removing pathogenic microorganisms. Some potential sources of pathogens (or disease causing organisms) in groundwater include septic tanks, leaking sewer lines, sewage sludge, intentional groundwater recharge with sewage, irrigation with sewage, direct injection of sewage, domestic solid waste disposal (landfills) and sewage oxidation ponds. The objective of the session is to introduce hydrogeologist to the types of microorganisms, sources of pathogens, and a simple exercise that can be incorporated into a hydrogeology class.

Lenczewski, Melissa

52

Development, democracy, and mass killings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a newly assembled dataset spanning from 1820 to 1998, we study the relationship between the occurrence and magnitude of episodes of mass killing and the levels of development and democracy across countries and over time. Mass killings appear to be more likely at intermediate levels of income and less likely at very high levels of democracy. However, the estimated

William Easterly; Roberta Gatti; Sergio Kurlat

2006-01-01

53

Cytokinin production by microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  There is good evidence that bacteria and fungi produce cytokinins. A number of microorganisms excrete cytokinin-active nucleosides\\u000a and free bases into culture media. Cytokinin-active nucleosides have also been found in the tRNA of all the bacteria and fungi\\u000a examined so far. The production of zeatin and its derivatives by microorganisms seems to be limited to those which cause diseases\\u000a in

Elizabeth M. Greene

1980-01-01

54

Electricity from microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last ten years, the recently discovered process of direct electron transfer from anaerobically grown microorganisms\\u000a to an electrode of a fuel cell has been the object of intense study. The microorganisms responsible for such electron transport\\u000a were termed electrogenic; the devices using them to generate electric current, microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The review discussed\\u000a the molecular mechanisms of

V. G. Debabov

2008-01-01

55

How electroshock weapons kill!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growing numbers of law enforcement officers now carry an electroshock weapon (ESW). Over 500 U.S. deaths have followed ESW use in the past 26 years; over 450 of these deaths followed use of an electromuscular disruptor in the past 9 years. Most training courses teach that ESWs are safe; that they can kill only by the direct effect of electric current on the heart; and that a death following use of an ESW always has some other cause. All these teachings are false! The last was disproved by Lundquist.^1 Williams^2 ruled out direct electrical effects as a cause of almost all the 213 deaths he studied, leaving disruption of normal physiological processes as the only alternative explanation. Careful study of all such deaths identifies 4 different ways that death has or could have been brought about by the ESW: kidney failure following rhabdomyolysis [rare]; cardiac arrest from hyperkalemia following rhabdomyolysis [undocumented]; lactic acid-induced ventricular fibrillation [conclusive proof impossible]; and [most common] anoxia from so much lactic acid in the circulating blood that it acts as an oxygen scavenger, continuously depleting the blood of oxygen until most of the lactate has been metabolized. ^1M. Lundquist, BAPS 54(1) K1.270(2009). ^2Howard E. Williams, Taser Electronic Control Devices and Sudden In-Custody Death, 2008.

Lundquist, Marjorie

2010-03-01

56

[Granulomatous diseases and pathogenic microorganism].  

PubMed

Granuloma formation is a chronic inflammatory reaction where macrophage system and other inflammatory cells are involved. After some antigen exposure and processing, T cells, macrophages, epithelioid cells, and giant cell are activated, and granulomas are formed. Granuloma is considered as a defense mechanism against antigens, which stay in the organs without inactivation. Granulomas including fibroblasts extra-cellular matrix surround and isolate the antigens. Granulomas are classified to noninfectious granulomas and infectious granulomas. However recent studies revealed pathogenic microorganism are suspected to be a cause of granuloma in non-inflammatory diseases. Balance between pathogenic microorganisms and defense mechanisms of the host might be important in the special immunologic reaction. In some cases, it is hard to clearly classify infectious and noninfectious granulomas. Recently, Eishi et al. reported that latent infection of Propionibacterium acnes might be cause of sarcoidosis. Several hypersensitivity pneumonias are considered to be caused by exogenous microorganisms. The symposium was organized to know and clarify the new mechanisms of non-infectious granulomatous lung diseases and pathogenic microorganisms. This report is a summary of a symposium entitled "Granulomatous Diseases and Pathogenic Microorganism", organized in the 82nd Japanese Society for Tuberculosis (president Dr. Mitsunori Sakatani, M.D.). 1. Imaging of Granulomatous Lung Diseases: Masanori AKIRA (Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Kinki-chuo Chest Medical Center) High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is a useful tool in the evaluation of parenchymal changes in patients with a granulomatous lung disease. In sarcoidosis, the HRCT findings include small, well-defined nodules in relation to lymphatic roots, lymph node enlargement, and middle or upper lobe predominance. The appearances of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis include ill-defined centrilobular nodules, ground-glass opacity, and air trapping especially on expiratory CT scan. Those of Langerhans cell histiocytosis include bizarre thin-walled lung cysts, centrilobular nodules and upper lobe predominance. Each of granulomatous lung disease has some characteristic HRCT appearances, but they all are non-specific for diagnosis. HRCT is also useful for grading of parenchymal changes in granulomatous lung diseases. 2. Histopathology of granulomatous lung diseases with special reference to differential diagnosis of infectious disease: Tamiko TAKEMURA (Department of Pathology, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center) The lung is commonly involved by various granulomatous diseases of various etiology. It is difficult to pathologically differentiate these granuloumatous diseases to conduct appropriate therapy, because of morphological similarity of epithelioid cell granuloma, variable etiology, and difficulty of identification of causative agents. Granulomatous diseases generally are divided into infectious and non-infectious ones for treatment. Although infectious granulomas usually reveal necrosis and abscess, non-infectious ones occasionally also reveal necrosis. In cases with granulomas in the lung, it is necessary to explore the etiologic agents including environmental ones. 3. Sarcoidosis and Propionibacterium acnes: Yoshinobu EISHI (Department of Pathology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University) P. acnes can cause latent infection in peripheral lung tissue and the mediastinal lymph nodes and persist intracellularly in a cell-wall-deficient form. This dormant form of P. acnes can be activated endogenously under certain environmental conditions (hormones, stress, living habits, etc.) and proliferate in cells at the sites of latent infection. Granulomatous inflammation occurs in sarcoidosis patients with hypersensitivity to intracellular proliferation of the cell-wall-deficient bacteria, which can infect other cells or organs when spread via the lymphatic or blood streams. The timely use of antibiotics may not only kill the bacteria proliferating at the site

Inoue, Yoshikazu; Suga, Moritaka

2008-02-01

57

Culture Clash Invades Miami: Oral Histories and Ethnography Center Stage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a critical race theory (CRT) framework, this article compares the playwriting methods of the Chicano--Latino theater trio, Culture Clash, to a counterstorytelling methodology. The author uncovers the tenets of a critical race theater in the trio's site-specific ethnographic play, "Radio Mambo: Culture Clash Invades Miami". He argues that…

Garcia, David G.

2008-01-01

58

Baikal Invaders Have Become Dominant in the Upper Yenisei Benthofauna  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and anthropogenic invasions are often observed in aquatic ecosystems. Various organisms, including endemic Baikal amphipods, were found to play the role of invaders [1]. The Angara River connects Lake Baikal with the Yenisei River. Although Baikal amphipods, including Gmelinoides fasciatus Stebb., have long since been found in the Yenisei River, the area of distribution of these invertebrates was reported

M. I. Gladyshev; A. V. Moskvicheva

2002-01-01

59

An electron microscopic study of Babesia microti invading erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular sporozoan parasites invade the host cell through the invagination of the plasma membrane of the host and a vacuole is formed which accommodates the entering parasite. The vacuole may disappear and the invaginated membrane of the host then becomes closely apposed to that of the parasite's own membrane. As a result the parasite is covered by two membranes. Members

Maria A. Rudzinska; William Trager; Sondra J. Lewengrub; Erminio Gubert

1976-01-01

60

Toxoplasma Co-opts Host Cells It Does Not Invade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Like many intracellular microbes, the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii injects effector proteins into cells it invades. One group of these effector proteins is injected from specialized organelles called the rhoptries, which have previously been described to discharge their contents only during successful invasion of a host cell. In this report, using several reporter systems, we show that in vitro the

Anita A. Koshy; Hans K. Dietrich; David A. Christian; Jason H. Melehani; Anjali J. Shastri; Christopher A. Hunter; John C. Boothroyd

2012-01-01

61

Bioplastics from microorganisms.  

PubMed

The term 'biomaterials' includes chemically unrelated products that are synthesised by microorganisms (or part of them) under different environmental conditions. One important family of biomaterials is bioplastics. These are polyesters that are widely distributed in nature and accumulate intracellularly in microorganisms in the form of storage granules, with physico-chemical properties resembling petrochemical plastics. These polymers are usually built from hydroxy-acyl-CoA derivatives via different metabolic pathways. Depending on their microbial origin, bioplastics differ in their monomer composition, macromolecular structure and physical properties. Most of them are biodegradable and biocompatible, which makes them extremely interesting from the biotechnological point of view. PMID:12831901

Luengo, José M; García, Belén; Sandoval, Angel; Naharro, Germán; Olivera, Elías R

2003-06-01

62

Invaders eating invaders: exploitation of novel alien prey by the alien shimofuri goby in the San Francisco Estuary, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus), which is native to Asian estuaries, was recently introduced to the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. We conducted gut content analyses to examine the goby’s feeding ecology in this highly invaded estuary. Shimofuri gobies were generalist predators on benthic invertebrates, consuming seasonally abundant prey, especially amphipods (Corophium spp.). In addition, shimofuri goby utilized two novel

Scott A. Matern; Larry R. Brown

2005-01-01

63

Microorganisms and Man.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information to update Institute of Biology's Studies in Biology No. 111, "Microorganisms and Man," by W. C. Noble and Jay Naidoo (Edward Arnold, 1979). Topics include: (1) food poisoning; (2) airborn infections in man; (3) infection in animals and plants; and (4) biodegradation and biosynthesis. (JN)|

Noble, W. C.

1983-01-01

64

[Biotechnology using modified microorganisms].  

PubMed

Few microorganisms, as compare to their high diversity, are used for human needs. They can produce molecules of interest, process fermentation, protect crops, treat wastes or clean environment. Molecular technics and genetic engineering are new tools offer to geneticists which breed microorganisms for years. Using them, it is now possible, theoretically, to introduce any gene in any organism. Some examples are given concerning genetic modifications in yeasts and lactic acid bacteria to optimize agrofood processes and to improve nutritive and flavour characteristics of fermented products like bread, beer, wine, cheese, meat, vegetable juices... In spite of scientific and industrial interest of the new technologies, limiting factors can explain that genetically modified microorganisms are not routinely used in agrofood yet. First, risks assessment on human health and environment are still in debate, but their is a consensus, within the scientific community, to consider that new characteristics of improved microorganisms are more important than the technics used for their construction. Second, regulations turn out to impose constraints susceptible to discourage technological innovations. At least, the public perception about the new technologies appears, actually, as the major factor to limit their development. PMID:1300229

Deshayes, A F

1992-11-01

65

Kills Germs by the Millions!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Described is a science experiment involving the isolation and study of microorganisms. Bacteria from the mouth are cultured on blood agar culture plates and are then exposed to four different mouthwashes to test their effectiveness. (DS)|

Swails, Molly

1980-01-01

66

Formation fracturing kills Indonesian blowout  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic killing methods without fracturing could not be applied in killing PT-29 blowout, due to the reservoir rock properties (shaley sand formation). A special fracturing and acidizing technique was required in order to allow the calculated kill rate of 40 bbl/ min. A low injection rate of 0.5 bbl/min with high injection pressure of 1,250 psi occurred due to a degree of formation damage and the mud cake covering the sand face. The calculated formation fracture pressure of 1,393 psi was a reliable value compared to actual fracture pressure of 1,400 psi. The designed killing rate of 40 bbl/ min could not reach the blowout well due to some leak-off of the injected fluid in unexpected directions of the induced fractures. Clearing PT-29 of all debris was very important for immediate well capping. The capping operation was done after the fire was extinguished; although the well was still flowing gas and water, no hazard of explosion was detected. The exact subsurface position of the blowout well of PT-29 was uncertain due to the lack of directional survey data. This problem reduced the effectiveness of the killing operation. A reliable water supply is important to the success of the killing job. Once the fracture had been induced, kill fluid had to be pumped continuously; any interruption might cause the fracture to heal. Deviation and directional survey data on every vertical or directional well are absolutely important for accurate relief well drilling purposes in case it is required.

Wizyodiazjo, S.; Salech, M.; Sumanta, K.

1982-11-15

67

A case of endobronchial inflammatory pseudotumor invading the mediastinum.  

PubMed

A 50-year-old-male was admitted to our hospital in March 2007, complaining of cough and hemoptysis for 3 months. Postero-anterior chest X-ray showed an opacity on right upper zone. Computed tomography of the thorax showed a mass lesion occupying the right upper lobe and superior segment of the lower lobe and invading the mediastinum. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy showed total occlusion of the right upper lobe bronchus by the mass and infiltration of the bronchus intermedius. Bronchoscopic biopsies were nondiagnostic. PET-CT revealed SUVmax of 18.8. Right thoracotomy was performed. Vena cava superior and right pulmonary artery was invaded by the mass. Biopsies were performed. Histopathologic examination demonstrated an inflammatory pseudotumor. Corticosteroid treatment was started. The tumor was clinically and radiologically unresponsive to corticosteroids. He was referred to oncology department for radiotherapy. The patient died on November 2007. PMID:21554235

Sulu, Ebru; Damado?lu, Ebru; Berk Tak?r, Huriye; Kuzu Okur, Hacer; Köro?lu, Esra; Y?lmaz, Adnan

2011-01-01

68

Recruitment limitation of native species in invaded coastal dune communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruitment limitation may limit the ability of sites to regenerate after disturbances such as weed invasion and weed management.\\u000a We investigated seed bank constraints and dispersal limitation in coastal dune communities on the east coast of Australia.\\u000a The ability of sites to regenerate naturally following weed removal was assessed in coastal dune communities invaded by the\\u000a invasive alien, bitou bush

Kris French; Tanya J. Mason; Natalie Sullivan

2011-01-01

69

Recruitment of two Opuntia species invading abandoned olive groves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, many agricultural areas are now abandoned and hence can be invaded by exotic species. The abundance and spatial distribution patterns of two Opuntia species were studied in old olive groves in the Parc Natural del Cap de Creus, Catalonia (Spain). Seedling recruitment (97.3% and 51.5% of juveniles for O. maxima and O. stricta, respectively) was higher than recruitment by cladodes.

Isabel Gimeno; Montserrat Vilà

2002-01-01

70

[Prevention and control of invaded plant Phytolacca americana in sandy coastal shelter forests].  

PubMed

The invasion of Phytolacca americana has produced serious damage to the coastal shelter forests in China. In order to search for the effective measures for controlling the growth of P. americana, several plots in the Robinia pseudoacacia forest invaded by P. Americana to the relatively same extent were installed, and the measures of physical control (mowing and root cutting) and chemical control (spraying herbicides) were adopted to control the invasion of P. Americana, taking the site with good growth of Amorpha fruticosa in the forest and without any control measures as the comparison. The results showed that mowing could rapidly decrease the growth of P. americana in the same year, but the growth recovered in the next year. 1/3 root cutting only reduced the aboveground growth of P. americana in the same year, and the growth was recovered in the third year; while 2/3 root cutting and whole cutting could effectively cleanup the P. americana plants all the time. Spraying quizalofop-p-ethyl and paraquat only killed the aboveground part of P. americana in the same year, but this part of P. americana recovered to the normal level in the next year; while spraying 45 g x L(-1) of glyphosate could completely kill the whole P. americana plants till the third year. The growth of P. americana at the site with good growth of A. fruticosa and without any control measures maintained at a low level all the time, suggesting that planting A. fruticosa in R. pseudoacacia forest would be an effective approach to prevent and control the P. americana invasion. PMID:22803465

Fu, Jun-Peng; Li, Chuan-Rong; Xu, Jing-Wei; Cheng, Wan-Li; Song, Rui-Feng; Liu, Yun

2012-04-01

71

Mechanism of lethal action of 2,450-MHz radiation on microorganisms.  

PubMed Central

Various bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteriophages were exposed to microwaves of 2,450 +/- 20 MHz in the presence and in the absence of water. It was found that microorganisms were inactivated only when in the presence of water and that dry or lyophilized organisms were not affected even by extended exposures. The data presented here prove that microorganisms are killed by "thermal effect" only and that, most likely, there is no "nonthermal effect"; cell constituents other than water do not absorb sufficient energy to kill microbial cells.

Vela, G R; Wu, J F

1979-01-01

72

Interactions between plants and microorganisms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Allelopathic microorganisms comprise rhizobacteria and fungi that colonize the surfaces of plant roots, and produce and release phytotoxic metabolites, similar to allelochemicals, that detrimentally affect growth of their host plants. The allelopathic microorganisms are grouped separately from typic...

73

Selective Killing of Nonreplicating Mycobacteria  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Antibiotics are typically more effective against replicating rather than nonreplicating bacteria. However, a major need in global health is to eradicate persistent or nonreplicating subpopulations of bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Hence, identifying chemical inhibitors that selectively kill bacteria that are not replicating is of practical importance. To address this, we screened for inhibitors of dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), an enzyme required by Mtb to cause tuberculosis in guinea pigs and used by the bacterium to resist nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates, a stress encountered in the host. Chemical screening for inhibitors of Mtb DlaT identified select rhodanines as compounds that almost exclusively kill nonreplicating mycobacteria in synergy with products of host immunity, such as nitric oxide and hypoxia, and are effective on bacteria within macrophages, a cellular reservoir for latent Mtb. Compounds that kill nonreplicating pathogens in cooperation with host immunity could complement the conventional chemotherapy of infectious disease.

Bryk, Ruslana; Gold, Benjamin; Venugopal, Aditya; Singh, Jasbir; Samy, Raghu; Pupek, Krzysztof; Cao, Hua; Popescu, Carmen; Gurney, Mark; Hotha, Srinivas; Cherian, Joseph; Rhee, Kyu; Ly, Lan; Converse, Paul J.; Ehrt, Sabine; Vandal, Omar; Jiang, Xiuju; Schneider, Jean; Lin, Gang; Nathan, Carl

2008-01-01

74

Inactivation of Microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

75

Proteomic Studies of Psychrophilic Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on psychrophilic microorganisms has entered the post-genomic era [in this chapter, psychrophilic and psychrotolerant\\u000a (or psychrotrophic) microorganisms are not distinguished, and the term “psychrophilic microorganisms” is used throughout].\\u000a As of December 2006, complete genomic DNA sequences are available for the following eight psychrophilic microorganisms according\\u000a to Genomes OnLine Database (http:\\/\\/www.genomesonline.org\\/): Desulfotalea psychrophila LSv54 (Rabus et al. 2004), Photobacterium profundum

Tatsuo Kurihara; Nobuyoshi Esaki

76

Phosphate-Solubilizing Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Phosphorus plays a significant role in several physiological and biochemical activities such as photosynthesis, transformation\\u000a of sugar to starch, and other biological processes in plants. Phosphorus in soils is immobilized due to formation of insoluble\\u000a complexes such as iron and aluminium hydrous oxides, crystalline and amorphous aluminium silicate and calcium carbonate. Many\\u000a soil microorganisms specially Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium

Ramesh Chander Kuhad; Surender Singh; Lata; Ajay Singh

77

Parents Who Get Killed and the Children Who Kill Them  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical analysis of homicides in which children have killed parents has been limited, largely due to the lack of publicly available data. Findings from an analysis of 10 years of FBI Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR) data are reported in this article. Analysis revealed that the typical parent or stepparent slain during the period 1977-1986 was White and non-Hispanic. the typical

KATHLEEN M. HEIDE

1993-01-01

78

Singlet Oxygen Stress in Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Singlet oxygen is the primary agent of photooxidative stress in microorganisms. In photosynthetic microorganisms, sensitized generation by pigments of the photosystems is the main source of singlet oxygen and, in nonphotosynthetic microorganisms, cellular cofactors such as flavins, rhodopsins, quinones, and porphyrins serve as photosensitizer. Singlet oxygen rapidly reacts with a wide range of cellular macromolecules including proteins, lipids, DNA, and

J. Glaeser; A. M. Nuss; B. A. Berghoff; Gabriele Klug

2011-01-01

79

To kill a mockingbird robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robots are being introduced in our society but their social status is still unclear. A critical issue is if the robot's exhibition of intelligent life-like behavior leads to the users' perception of animacy. The ultimate test for the life-likeness of a robot is to kill it. We therefore conducted an experiment in which the robot's intelligence and the participants' gender

Christoph Bartneck; Marcel Verbunt; Omar Mubin; Abdullah Al Mahmud

2007-01-01

80

Farm Education at Stony Kill.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

Parisio, Richard

1986-01-01

81

Human neutrophils kill Bacillus anthracis.  

PubMed

Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils. PMID:16292357

Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hurwitz, Robert; Brinkmann, Volker; Schmid, Monika; Jungblut, Peter; Weinrauch, Yvette; Zychlinsky, Arturo

2005-11-11

82

Children Who Kill Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of risk in young offenders is complicated by the general lack of specific assessment instruments. Young offenders who kill family members constitute a small group and often display characteristics that set them apart from the general young offender population. The following article reviews information about young offenders who murder family members in the context of three cases. Young

C. J. Lennings

2003-01-01

83

Does Assessment Kill Student Creativity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Does assessment kill creativity? In this article, creativity is defined and discussed and an overview of creativity and motivational research is provided to describe how assessment practices can influence students' creativity. Recommendations for protecting creativity when assessing students also are provided.|

Beghetto, Ronald A.

2005-01-01

84

AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PROTECTIVE INOCULATION WITH HEAT KILLED TUBERCLE BACILLI  

PubMed Central

Heat killed tubercle bacilli repeatedly injected into or below the skin of rabbits increase conspicuously their resistance against infection with virulent tubercle bacilli. Protection against tuberculous infection following the administration of heat killed tubercle bacilli to rabbits is only slightly less than that given by BCG. Addition of certain antigens, notably heated horse serum, increases the protection given by heat killed tubercle bacilli so that it is approximately the same as that afforded by BCG. These experiments and tentative observations of persons exposed to tuberculous infection indicate that heat killed tubercle bacilli may be substituted for the living attenuated microorganism in the attempt to increase resistance against tuberculous infection and to influence favorably the delicate balance between asymptomatic or latent infection and progressive manifest disease that is characteristic of human tuberculosis.

Opie, Eugene L.; Freund, Jules

1937-01-01

85

Invisible invaders: non-pathogenic invasive microbes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.  

PubMed

Although the number of studies on invasive plants and animals has risen exponentially, little is known about invasive microbes, especially non-pathogenic ones. Microbial invasions by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protists occur worldwide but are much harder to detect than invasions by macroorganisms. Invasive microbes have the potential to significantly alter community structure and ecosystem functioning in diverse terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, increased attention is needed on non-pathogenic invasive microbes, both free-living and symbiotic, and their impacts on communities and ecosystems. Major unknowns include the characteristics that make microbes invasive and properties of the resident communities and the environment that facilitate invasions. A comparison of microbial invasions with invasions of macroorganisms should provide valuable insights into general principles that apply to invasions across all domains of life and to taxon-specific invasion patterns. Invasive microbes appear to possess traits thought to be common in many invasive macroorganisms: high growth rate and resource utilization efficiency, and superior competitive abilities. Invading microorganisms are often similar to native species, but with enhanced performance traits, and tend to spread in lower diversity communities. Global change can exacerbate microbial invasions; therefore, they will likely increase in the future. PMID:21054733

Litchman, Elena

2010-11-05

86

On killing. II: The psychological cost of learning to kill.  

PubMed

Military and law enforcement studies reveal that interpersonal combat is a universal human phobia. Physiological responses include forebrain shutdown and sympathetic arousal. A resistance to killing exists in the midbrain of most healthy members of most species, becoming ascendant when the forebrain shuts down, and can prevent soldiers from performing in combat. The U.S. military has increased participation in killing activities from 20% in World War II to 95% in Vietnam by operantly conditioning responses. Conditioning is achieved through training that closely resembles battle situations and inadvertently occurs when children see violence as entertainment. The price of this conditioning is an increase in post-traumatic stress disorder which can be defrayed through debriefing, social acceptance, and prevention of atrocities. Similar techniques may be used to prevent PTSD in civilian populations involved in tragedies like school shootings. PMID:11642191

Grossman, D

2001-01-01

87

The race of microorganisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reading, part of a site devoted to the science of cooking, explores how beneficial bacteria are involved in the fermentation process that is used to pickle vegetables. The reading focuses on the competition between those microorganisms that facilitate fermentation and those microbes that damage this food production process. Lactic acid bacteria are key players in the creation of pickles. The reading explains the functions of these bacteria and describes the conditions in a pickle crock--including the appropriate salt concentration, a lack of oxygen, and optimal temperature--that allow them to thrive. A sidebar points out how pickles become crunchy through osmosis. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Exploratorium

2004-01-01

88

Dispersal data and the spread of invading organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models that describe the spread of invading organisms often assume that\\u000a the dispersal distances of propagules are normally distributed. In\\u000a contrast, measured dispersal curves are typically leptokurtic, not\\u000a normal. In this paper, we consider a class of models, integrodifference\\u000a equations, that directly incorporate detailed dispersal data as well as\\u000a population growth dynamics. We provide explicit formulas for the speed\\u000a of

M. Kot; M. A. Lewis; P vandenDriessche

1996-01-01

89

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FBI publishes Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted each year to provide information about the officers who were killed, feloniously or accidentally, and those officers who were assaulted while performing their duties. The FBI collects these d...

2010-01-01

90

Mortus Discriminatus: Procedures in Targeted Killing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Currently, no widely established standard or published set of guidelines and planning considerations exist for operational planners to conduct targeted killing operations. Due to the political complexity intertwined with targeted killing these types of op...

G. W. Johnson

2007-01-01

91

Women who kill their mates.  

PubMed

Spousal homicide perpetrators are much more likely to be men than women. Accordingly, little research has focused on delineating characteristics of women who have committed spousal homicide. A retrospective clinical review of coroners' files containing all cases of spousal homicide occurring in Quebec over a 20-year period was carried out. A total of 276 spousal homicides occurred between 1991 and 2010, with 42 homicides by female spouses and 234 homicides by male spouses. Differences between homicides committed by female offenders and male offenders are discussed, and findings on spousal homicide committed by women are compared with those of previous studies. Findings regarding offenses perpetrated by females in the context of mental illness, domestic violence, and homicide-suicide are explored. The finding that only 28% of the female offenders in the Quebec sample had previously been subjected to violence by their victim is in contrast to the popular belief and reports that indicate that most female-perpetrated spousal homicide occurs in self-defense or in reaction to long-term abuse. In fact, women rarely gave a warning before killing their mates. Most did not suffer from a mental illness, although one-fifth were acutely intoxicated at the time of the killing. In the vast majority of cases of women who killed their mates, there were very few indicators that might have signaled the risk and helped predict the violent lethal behavior. PMID:23015414

Bourget, Dominique; Gagné, Pierre

2012-09-27

92

The Influence of Size and Shape of Microorganism on Pulsed Electric Field Inactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the effect of microorganism size and shape on the killing efficiency of pulsed electric field (PEF) is investigated both experimentally and using a transient finite element program. The effect of cell size, membrane thickness, cell shape (spherical, elliptical, and cylindrical) on the calculated transmembrane voltage is studied. It has been found that both the cell size and

Ayman H. El-Hag; Shesha H. Jayaram; Oscar Rodriguez Gonzalez; M. W. Griffiths

2011-01-01

93

The direct effect of ultrasound on the extraction of date syrup and its micro-organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the date syrup industry, date fruits are mixed with a suitable amount of water at a temperature greater than 50 °C for about 1 h. This condition is not sufficient for killing the micro-organisms present in the fruit. In addition, Overheating for a long time can damages nutritious materials and also changes the final product's color. Ultrasound was applied

M. H Entezari; S Hagh Nazary; M. H Haddad Khodaparast

2004-01-01

94

Studying marine microorganisms from space  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Microorganisms are but a few micrometers in diameter and are not visible to the naked eye. Yet, the large numbers of microorganisms\\u000a present in the oceans and the global impact of their activities make it possible to observe them from space. Here a few examples\\u000a of how microorganisms can be studied from satellites are presented. The first case is

C. Pedrós-Alió; R. Simó

2002-01-01

95

Laser Microbial Killing and Biofilm Disruption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives: To analyze the ability of NIR lasers to reduce bacterial load and demonstrate the capability of fiber-based Q-switched Nd:YAG laser disrupting biofilm. Study Design: NIR diode laser was tested in vitro and in vivo using pathogenic microorganisms (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa). In addition biofilms were grown from clinical Pseudomonas isolates and placed in culture plates, screws, tympanostomy tubes and PET sutures. Methods: In the animal experiments acute rhinosinusitis model was created by packing the rabbit nose with bacteria soaked solution. The nasal pack was removed in two days and nose was exposed to laser irradiation. A 940 nm diode laser with fiber diffuser was used. Nasal cultures were obtained before and after the laser treatments. Animals were sacrificed fifteen days following laser treatment and bacteriologic/histologic results analyzed. Q-switched Nd:YAG laser generated shockwave pulses were delivered on biofilm using special probes over culture plates, screws, tubes, and PET sutures for the biofilm experiments. Results: Average of two log bacteria reduction was achieved with NIR laser compared to controls. Histologic studies demonstrated preservation of tissue integrity without significant damage to mucosa. Biofilms were imaged before, during and after treatment using a confocal microscope. During laser-generated shockwave application, biofilm was initially seen to oscillate and eventually break off. Large and small pieces of biofilm were totally and instantly removed from the surface to which they were attached in seconds. Conclusions: Significant bacterial reduction was achieved with NIR laser therapy in this experimental in vitro and animal study. In addition we disrupted Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and special probes generating plasma and shockwave. This new and innovative method of bacteria killing and biofilm disruption without injuring host tissue may have clinical application in the future.

Krespi, Yosef P.; Kizhner, Victor

2009-06-01

96

Interaction of species traits and environmental disturbance predicts invasion success of aquatic microorganisms.  

PubMed

Factors such as increased mobility of humans, global trade and climate change are affecting the range of many species, and cause large-scale translocations of species beyond their native range. Many introduced species have a strong negative influence on the new local environment and lead to high economic costs. There is a strong interest to understand why some species are successful in invading new environments and others not. Most of our understanding and generalizations thereof, however, are based on studies of plants and animals, and little is known on invasion processes of microorganisms. We conducted a microcosm experiment to understand factors promoting the success of biological invasions of aquatic microorganisms. In a controlled lab experiment, protist and rotifer species originally isolated in North America invaded into a natural, field-collected community of microorganisms of European origin. To identify the importance of environmental disturbances on invasion success, we either repeatedly disturbed the local patches, or kept them as undisturbed controls. We measured both short-term establishment and long-term invasion success, and correlated it with species-specific life-history traits. We found that environmental disturbances significantly affected invasion success. Depending on the invading species' identity, disturbances were either promoting or decreasing invasion success. The interaction between habitat disturbance and species identity was especially pronounced for long-term invasion success. Growth rate was the most important trait promoting invasion success, especially when the species invaded into a disturbed local community. We conclude that neither species traits nor environmental factors alone conclusively predict invasion success, but an integration of both of them is necessary. PMID:23028985

Mächler, Elvira; Altermatt, Florian

2012-09-20

97

Local and regional assessments of the impacts of plant invaders on vegetation structure and soil properties of Mediterranean islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims Although biological invasions occur throughout the world, and some invaders are widespread in many habitats, few studies on the ecological impact of invaders have examined multiple sites. We tested how the impact of three widespread plant invaders changed depending on the identity of the species and the invaded island. We also tested whether relative species loss was lower in

Montserrat Vila; Marc Tessier; Carey M. Suehs; Giuseppe Brundu; Luisa Carta; Alexandros Galanidis; Philip Lambdon; Manuela Manca; Frederic Medail; Eva Moragues; Anna Traveset; Andreas Y. Troumbis; Philip E. Hulme

2006-01-01

98

Invading parasites cause a structural shift in red fox dynamics.  

PubMed Central

The influence of parasites on host life histories and populations is pronounced. Among several diseases affecting animal populations throughout the world, sarcoptic mange has influenced many carnivore populations dramatically and during the latest epizootic in Fennoscandia reduced the abundance of red fox by over 70%. While the numerical responses of red fox populations, their prey and their competitors as well as clinical implications are well known, knowledge of how sarcoptic mange affects the structure of the dynamics of red fox populations is lacking. Integrating ecological theory and statistical modelling, we analysed the long-term dynamics (1955-1996) of 14 Danish red fox populations. As suggested by the model, invading sarcoptic mange significantly affected direct and delayed density dependence in red fox dynamics and concomitant shifts in fluctuation patterns were observed. Our statistical analyses also revealed that the spatial progressive spread of mange mites was mirrored in the autocovariate structures of red fox populations progressively exposed to sarcoptic mange.

Forchhammer, M C; Asferg, T

2000-01-01

99

How rhizobial symbionts invade plants: the Sinorhizobium-Medicago model  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants have evolved complex signal exchange mechanisms that allow a specific bacterial species to induce its host plant to form invasion structures through which the bacteria can enter the plant root. Once the bacteria have been endocytosed within a host-membrane-bound compartment by root cells, the bacteria differentiate into a new form that can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Bacterial differentiation and nitrogen fixation are dependent on the microaerobic environment and other support factors provided by the plant. In return, the plant receives nitrogen from the bacteria, which allows it to grow in the absence of an external nitrogen source. Here, we review recent discoveries about the mutual recognition process that allows the model rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti to invade and differentiate inside its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and the model host plant barrel medic (Medicago truncatula).

Jones, Kathryn M.; Kobayashi, Hajime; Davies, Bryan W.; Taga, Michiko E.; Walker, Graham C.

2009-01-01

100

Social evolution theory for microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms communicate and cooperate to perform a wide range of multicellular behaviours, such as dispersal, nutrient acquisition, biofilm formation and quorum sensing. Microbiologists are rapidly gaining a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in these behaviours, and the underlying genetic regulation. Such behaviours are also interesting from the perspective of social evolution ? why do microorganisms engage in these

Ashleigh S. Griffin; Andy Gardner; Stephen P. Diggle; Stuart A. West

2006-01-01

101

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli MT78 invades chicken fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) are responsible for extraintestinal diseases, called colibacillosis, in avian species. The most severe manifestation of the disease is colisepticemia that usually starts at the respiratory tract and may result in bird death. However, it is not yet clear how APEC cross the respiratory epithelium and get into the bloodstream. In this work, we studied the interaction between 8 APEC strains (UEL31, UEL17, UEL13, UEL29, MT78, IMT5155, IMT2470, A2363) and a chicken non-phagocytic cell, the fibroblast CEC-32 cell line. We investigated the association profile, the invasion capability, the cytotoxicity effect and the induction of caspase-3/7 activation in an attempt to understand the way the pathogen gains access to the host bloodstream. Association to cells was determined after 1 h of infection, while cell invasion was determined after 4 and 24 h of infection. The cytotoxic effect of bacterial infection was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and the activation of the apoptotic program was verified by caspase-3/7 activation. Also, the presence of genes for adhesins, invasins and other related virulence-associated factors was verified by PCR. All bacterial strains showed similarity in relation to adhesion, LDH release and caspase-3/7 activation. However, one APEC strain, MT78, showed high invasion capability, comparable to the invasive Salmonella typhimurium strain SL1344. Since an APEC strain was capable of invading non-phagocytic cells in vitro, the same may be happening with the epithelial cells of the avian respiratory tract in vivo. CEC-32 monolayers can also provide a useful experimental model to study the molecular mechanisms used by APEC to invade non-phagocytic cells. PMID:20850232

Matter, Letícia Beatriz; Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Nordhoff, Marcel; Ewers, Christa; Horn, Fabiana

2010-08-21

102

Desert Dust Kills Florida Fish  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) article discusses the connection between dust storms in Africa, and red tides along the Florida coast. Red tides are blooms of toxic algae that kill fish, birds, and mammals, as well as cause health problems in humans. Storm activity in the Sahara Desert region kicks up topsoil that winds transport into the Gulf of Mexico. These clouds fertilize the water with iron, which bacteria named Trichodesmium use to create nitrogen. The nitrogen makes the water a friendly environment for the toxic algae. This article discusses this process and research that is going on to help solve the problem. Audio version is available as well.

103

Multicellular microorganisms: laboratory versus nature  

PubMed Central

Our present in-depth knowledge of the physiology and regulatory mechanisms of microorganisms has arisen from our ability to remove them from their natural, complex ecosystems into pure liquid cultures. These cultures are grown under optimized laboratory conditions and allow us to study microorganisms as individuals. However, microorganisms naturally grow in conditions that are far from optimal, which causes them to become organized into multicellular communities that are better protected against the harmful environment. Moreover, this multicellular existence allows individual cells to differentiate and acquire specific properties, such as forming resistant spores, which benefit the whole population. The relocation of natural microorganisms to the laboratory can result in their adaptation to these favourable conditions, which is accompanied by complex changes that include the repression of some protective mechanisms that are essential in nature. Laboratory microorganisms that have been cultured for long periods under optimized conditions might therefore differ markedly from those that exist in natural ecosystems.

Palkova, Zdena

2004-01-01

104

EFFICACY OF OZONE IN KILLING LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES ON ALFALFA SEEDS AND SPROUTS, AND EFFECTS ON SENSORY QUALITY OF SPROUTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A study was done to determine the efficacy of aqueous ozone treatment in killing Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated alfalfa seeds and sprouts. Reduction in populations of naturally occurring aerobic microorganisms on sprouts and changes in sensory quality of sprouts were also determined. Treatme...

105

HOW INVADED IS INVADED?  

EPA Science Inventory

One thrust of invasion biology has been to compare the extent of invasion among communities and biogeographic regions. A problem with such comparisons has been the plethora of metrics used and the lack of standardization as to what data are incorporated into the metrics. One sour...

106

[Ecological relationships between Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and its companion microorganisms].  

PubMed

Pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a notorious invasive species from North America, which can kill a large amount of pine trees and causes economic losses and ecosystem destruction. There is a close relationship and ecological interaction between B. xylophilus and its companion microorganisms. This paper listed the species of companion microorganisms, reviewed their important ecological roles in the propagation and pathogenicity of the nematode, and discussed the pine wilt disease from the viewpoint of microecosystem. The companion fungi can supply food for B. xylophilus, hold the cycle of second infection of the nematode, increase the proportions of dauer juveniles, and benefit the infection and distribution of B. xylophilus. The companion bacteria can enhance the pathogenicity of B. xylophilus, promote the propagation of the nematode, benefit the pinene degradation, and thereby, promote the adaptability of the nematode. PMID:21657042

Tian, Xue-liang; Mao, Zhen-chuan; Chen, Guo-hua; Xie, Bing-yan

2011-03-01

107

Killing of S. mutans Bacteria Using a Plasma Needle at Atmospheric Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) bacteria were killed using a low-power millimeter-size atmospheric-pressure glow-discharge plasma or plasma needle. The plasma was applied to a culture of S. mutans that was plated onto the surface of an agar nutrient in a Petri dish. S. mutans is the most important microorganism for causing dental caries. A spatially resolved biological diagnostic of the plasma

J. Goree; Bin Liu; David Drake; Eva Stoffels

2006-01-01

108

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus,...

2010-01-01

109

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203...Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus,...

2009-01-01

110

Space and the persistence of male-killing endosymbionts in insect populations.  

PubMed Central

Male-killing bacteria are bacteria that are transmitted vertically through the females of their insect hosts. They can distort the sex ratio of their hosts by killing infected male offspring. In nature, male-killing endosymbionts (male killers) often have a 100% efficient vertical transmission, and multiple male-killing bacteria infecting a single population are observed. We use different model formalisms to study these observations. In mean-field models a male killer with perfect transmission drives the host population to extinction, and coexistence between multiple male killers within one population is impossible; however, in spatially explicit models, both phenomena are readily observed. We show how the spatial pattern formation underlies these results. In the case of high transmission efficiencies, waves with a high density of male killers alternate with waves of mainly wild-type hosts. The male killers cause local extinction, but this creates an opportunity for uninfected hosts to re-invade these areas. Spatial pattern formation also creates an opportunity for two male killers to coexist within one population: different strains create spatial regions that are qualitatively different; these areas then serve as different niches, making coexistence possible.

Groenenboom, Maria A C; Hogeweg, Paulien

2002-01-01

111

Space and the persistence of male-killing endosymbionts in insect populations.  

PubMed

Male-killing bacteria are bacteria that are transmitted vertically through the females of their insect hosts. They can distort the sex ratio of their hosts by killing infected male offspring. In nature, male-killing endosymbionts (male killers) often have a 100% efficient vertical transmission, and multiple male-killing bacteria infecting a single population are observed. We use different model formalisms to study these observations. In mean-field models a male killer with perfect transmission drives the host population to extinction, and coexistence between multiple male killers within one population is impossible; however, in spatially explicit models, both phenomena are readily observed. We show how the spatial pattern formation underlies these results. In the case of high transmission efficiencies, waves with a high density of male killers alternate with waves of mainly wild-type hosts. The male killers cause local extinction, but this creates an opportunity for uninfected hosts to re-invade these areas. Spatial pattern formation also creates an opportunity for two male killers to coexist within one population: different strains create spatial regions that are qualitatively different; these areas then serve as different niches, making coexistence possible. PMID:12573064

Groenenboom, Maria A C; Hogeweg, Paulien

2002-12-22

112

40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a)...

2009-07-01

113

40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a)...

2013-07-01

114

40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public Access to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a)...

2010-07-01

115

Forgotten creatures: A survey of microorganisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Microorganisms are often overlooked in the study of biology because they are not visible to the human eye. In fact, there is a great diversity of microorganisms. Microorganisms include bacteria, protozoa, algae, lichens, and fungi.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton ;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-01-12

116

Killed but metabolically active vaccines.  

PubMed

Beginning in the 20th century and continuing into the new millennia, vaccines against numerous diseases have had an unquestioned principal role of both enhancing the quality of life and increasing life expectancy (Rappuoli R, Mandl CW, Black S, De Gregorio E: Vaccines for the twenty-first century society. Nat Rev Immunol 2011, 11:865-872). Despite this success and the development of sophisticated new vaccine technologies, there remain multiple infectious diseases including tuberculosis, malaria and AIDS that await an effective prophylactic vaccine. In addition, there have been recent clinical successes among individuals with cancer using vaccine treatment strategies-so-called therapeutic vaccines-that stimulate tumor specific immunity and increase survival (Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND, Berger ER, Small EJ, Penson DF, Redfern CH, Ferrari AC, Dreicer R, Sims RB, et al.: Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. New Engl J Med 2010, 363:411-422). Here we summarize a new class of vaccines termed Killed But Metabolically Active (KBMA). KBMA vaccines are whole pathogenic or attenuated organisms killed through photochemical inactivation and cannot cause disease, yet retain sufficient metabolic activity to initiate a potent immune response. KBMA vaccines have two broad applications. First, recombinant KBMA vaccines encoding selected antigens relevant to infectious disease or cancer can be used to elicit a desired immune response. In the second application, KBMA vaccines can be derived from attenuated forms of a targeted pathogen, allowing for the presentation of the entire antigenic repertoire to the immune system, of particular importance when the correlates of protection are unknown. PMID:22608846

Dubensky, Thomas W; Skoble, Justin; Lauer, Peter; Brockstedt, Dirk G

2012-05-18

117

Variability and Selection of Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The variability of organisms in general and that of microorganisms in particular depends on their development in the conditions of inhabitual life. Organisms acquire new properties entirely corresponding to new conditions of existence. The disciples of I....

A. Imscenieski

1968-01-01

118

Land-use change in a tropical mountain rainforest region of southern Ecuador affects soil microorganisms and nutrient cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decades, the tropical mountain rainforest of southern Ecuador has been threatened by conversion to cattle pastures.\\u000a Frequently, these pastures are invaded by bracken fern and abandoned when bracken becomes dominant. Changes in land-use (forest–pasture–abandoned\\u000a pasture) can affect soil microorganisms and their physiological responses with respect to soil carbon and nutrient cycling.\\u000a In situ investigations on litter decomposition

Karin Potthast; Ute Hamer; Franz Makeschin

119

Variation in the ability of Didemnum sp. to invade established communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 30 years southern New England, USA has been invaded by several species of ascidians, including Botrylloides violaceus, Diplosoma listerianum, Styela clava, and Ascidiella aspersa. These species have become dominate in coastal embayments and marinas but are usually absent from more open water coastal areas. A colonial ascidian, Didemnum sp. has invaded southern New England during the past 10 years

Richard W. Osman; Robert B. Whitlatch

2007-01-01

120

Predicting the identity and impact of future biological invaders: a priority for aquatic resource management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification and risk assessment of potential biological invaders would provide valuable criteria for the allocation of resources toward the detection and control of invasion threats. Yet, freshwater biologists have made few attempts at predicting potential invaders, apparently because such efforts are perceived to be costly and futile. We describe some simple, low-cost empirical approaches that would facilitate prediction and

Anthony Ricciardi; Joseph B. Rasmussen

1998-01-01

121

ALIEN FISHES IN CALIFORNIA WATERSHEDS: CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL AND FAILED INVADERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on alien animal invaders focuses largely on successful inva- sions over broad geographic scales and rarely examines failed invasions. As a result, it is difficult to make predictions about which species are likely to become successful invaders or which environments are likely to be most susceptible to invasion. To address these issues, we developed a data set on

Michael P. Marchetti; Peter B. Moyle; Richard Levine

2004-01-01

122

Impact threshold for an alien plant invader, Lantana camara L., on native plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alien plant invaders significantly threaten native community diversity, although it is poorly understood whether invasion initiates a linear or non-linear loss of resident species. Where low abundances of an invader have little impact on native species diversity, then a threshold level may exist, above which native communities rapidly decline. Our aim was to assess the broadscale effects of an alien

Ben Gooden; Kris French; Peter J. Turner; Paul O. Downey

2009-01-01

123

75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge across Newtown Creek, mile 1.3, New York. This...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge, across Newtown Creek at mile 1.3, at New...

2010-06-01

124

75 FR 62469 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills, and Their...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Newtown Creek, Dutch Kills, English Kills...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge across Newtown Creek, mile 1.3, New York. The...Greenpoint Avenue Bridge, across Newtown Creek at mile 1.3, at New...

2010-10-12

125

Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of pleurocidin against cariogenic microorganisms.  

PubMed

Dental caries is a common oral bacterial infectious disease of global concern. Prevention and treatment of caries requires control of the dental plaque formed by pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Pleurocidin, produced by Pleuronectes americanus, is an antimicrobial peptide that exerts broad-spectrum activity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Moreover, pleurocidin shows less hemolysis and is less toxic than other natural peptides. In the present study, we investigated whether pleurocidin is an effective antibiotic peptide against common cariogenic microorganisms and performed a preliminary study of the antimicrobial mechanism. We assayed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericide concentration (MBC) and bactericidal kinetics and performed a spot-on-lawn assay. The BioFlux system was used to generate bacterial biofilms under controllable flow. Fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to analyze and observe biofilms. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the bacterial membrane. MIC and MBC results showed that pleurocidin had different antimicrobial activities against the tested oral strains. Although components of saliva could affect antimicrobial activity, pleurocidin dissolved in saliva still showed antimicrobial effects against oral microorganisms. Furthermore, pleurocidin showed a favorable killing effect against BioFlux flow biofilms in vitro. Our findings suggest that pleurocidin has the potential to kill dental biofilms and prevent dental caries. PMID:21703317

Tao, Rui; Tong, Zhongchun; Lin, Yuan; Xue, Yunpeng; Wang, Wei; Kuang, Rong; Wang, Ping; Tian, Yu; Ni, Longxing

2011-06-15

126

Intraspecific killing of a male ocelot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw data on the social behavior of secretive felids is often scant. A freshly killed ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) corpse was found at Brownsberg Nature Park, Suriname. The specimen incurred damage to the neck, skull, upper vertebrae, and scapula. These injuries are consistent with the hypothesis that it was killed by a conspecific, most likely during a male-male interaction. This paper

Cynthia L. Thompson

2011-01-01

127

Men who kill their mates: A profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of 46 men arrested in Detroit, Michigan, for killing their current or former spouse (legal or common law) or girlfriend during 1982 and 1983 is analyzed in the context of their killings. Analyses include demographic and social characteristics of offenders and victims, circumstances of offense, and arrest disposition. Where feasible, comparisons are made with general populations of homicide

Ann Goetting I

1989-01-01

128

Children killed by genetic parents versus stepparents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many empirical studies of children killed by parents, there has been little theoretical progress. An examination of 378 cases in a national register revealed that circumstances differed for genetic parents versus stepparents. Infants were at greatest risk of filicide, especially by genetic mothers. Genetic mothers who killed offspring, especially older children, disproportionately had a mental illness and received relatively

Grant T. Harris; N. Zoe Hilton; Marnie E. Rice; Angela W. Eke

2007-01-01

129

Grassland invader responses to realistic changes in native species richness.  

PubMed

The importance of species richness for repelling exotic plant invasions varies from ecosystem to ecosystem. Thus, in order to prioritize conservation objectives, it is critical to identify those ecosystems where decreasing richness will most greatly magnify invasion risks. Our goal was to determine if invasion risks greatly increase in response to common reductions in grassland species richness. We imposed treatments that mimic management-induced reductions in grassland species richness (i.e., removal of shallow- and/or deep-rooted forbs and/or grasses and/or cryptogam layers). Then we introduced and monitored the performance of a notorious invasive species (i.e., Centaurea maculosa). We found that, on a per-gram-of-biomass basis, each resident plant group similarly suppressed invader growth. Hence, with respect to preventing C. maculosa invasions, maintaining overall productivity is probably more important than maintaining the productivity of particular plant groups or species. But at the sites we studied, all plant groups may be needed to maintain overall productivity because removing forbs decreased overall productivity in two of three years. Alternatively, removing forbs increased productivity in another year, and this led us to posit that removing forbs may inflate the temporal productivity variance as opposed to greatly affecting time-averaged productivity. In either case, overall productivity responses to single plant group removals were inconsistent and fairly modest, and only when all plant groups were removed did C. maculosa growth increase substantially over a no-removal treatment. As such, it seems that intense disturbances (e.g., prolonged drought, overgrazing) that deplete multiple plant groups may often be a prerequisite for C. maculosa invasion. PMID:17913143

Rinella, Matthew J; Pokorny, Monica L; Rekaya, Romdhane

2007-09-01

130

Effect of microorganisms on flocculation of quartz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of microorganisms as surface modifiers in flocculation has generated a great deal of interest in recent times. The surface properties such as zeta-potential and hydrophobicity of minerals and microorganisms play a major role in determining the adsorption of microorganisms onto the minerals and hence the efficiency of flocculation. The utility of microorganisms, including Escherichia coli (wild-type and genetically modified

Tsuyoshi Hirajima; Yuki Aiba; Mohsen Farahat; Naoko Okibe; Keiko Sasaki; Takehiko Tsuruta; Katsumi Doi

131

Spacetime encodings. III. Second order Killing tensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the Petrov type D, stationary axisymmetric vacuum (SAV) spacetimes that were found by Carter to have separable Hamilton-Jacobi equations, and thus admit a second-order Killing tensor. The derivation of the spacetimes presented in this paper borrows from ideas about dynamical systems, and illustrates concepts that can be generalized to higher-order Killing tensors. The relationship between the components of the Killing equations and metric functions are given explicitly. The origin of the four separable coordinate systems found by Carter is explained and classified in terms of the analytic structure associated with the Killing equations. A geometric picture of what the orbital invariants may represent is built. Requiring that a SAV spacetime admits a second-order Killing tensor is very restrictive, selecting very few candidates from the group of all possible SAV spacetimes. This restriction arises due to the fact that the consistency conditions associated with the Killing equations require that the field variables obey a second-order differential equation, as opposed to a fourth-order differential equation that imposes the weaker condition that the spacetime be SAV. This paper introduces ideas that could lead to the explicit computation of more general orbital invariants in the form of higher-order Killing tensors.

Brink, Jeandrew

2010-01-01

132

World's worst plant and animal invaders perform better abroad than at home  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A fundamental assumption in invasion biology is that successful invaders exhibit enhanced vigor following introductions to new ranges, including larger size, greater fecundity, and denser populations. This assumption of ‘increased vigour’ underlies most empirical and theoretical studies of invasion ...

133

Are early summer wildfires an opportunity to revegetate medusahead-invaded rangelands?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Successful revegetation of medusdahead-invaded plant communities can be prohibitively expensive, because it often requires iterative applications of integrated control and revegetation treatments. Prescribed burning has been used to control medusahead and prepare seedbeds for revegetation, but burni...

134

[Fructose-bisphosphatase of microorganisms].  

PubMed

Data from modern scientific literature concerning general characteristics of fructose-bisphosphatase--the key enzyme of microorganisms gluconeogenesis pathway have been analyzed in the survey. The conditions of fructose-bisphosphatase functioning in the cell--activation and repression, have been described. Regulation of prokaryotes enzyme activity by fructose-1.6-bisphosphate, fructose-2.6-bisphosphate, phosphoenol pyruvate, metal cation, etc., is discussed. Absolute dependence of fructose-bisphosphatase activity on cations of bivalent metals (Mg2+, Mn2+) and AMP is shown. Special attention was given to the functioning and characteristics of the enzyme in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: their similarity and differences. Data about the basic enzyme of gluconeogenesis pathway in Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms, conditions of its functioning in autotrophs and heterotrophs have been generalized for the first time. Genetical and molecular biological properties of fructose-bisphosphatase in microorganisms have been considered. At the same time, the fact is established that the above enzyme has not been investigated in numerous microorganisms. PMID:12190028

Skrypal', I G; Iastrebova, O V

135

Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.  

PubMed

In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste. PMID:23047084

Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

2012-10-08

136

ANABIOSIS AND CONSERVATION OF MICROORGANISMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review is made about the applied methods for microorganisms preservation in the collection activity. Two groups of conservation methods are described - in hypobiotic and anabiotic states. The first group aims reducing to minimum the cell vital activity by storage under mineral oils, in water and water solutions, inactivation in dryers etc. The second group methods lead the

Tsonka Uzunova-Doneva; Todor Donev

137

Fish Kills Caused by Pollution in 1976 - Seventeenth Annual Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is an analysis of pollution-caused fish kills compiled from data supplied by State officials. It includes analytical text and the following tables: major kills, historical summary, summaries by State, source, water body, kills within EPA region...

1979-01-01

138

Interactions among invaders: community and ecosystem effects of multiple invasive species in an experimental aquatic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With ecosystems increasingly supporting multiple invasive species, interactions among invaders could magnify or ameliorate\\u000a the undesired consequences for native communities and ecosystems. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of rusty\\u000a crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) and Chinese mystery snails [Bellamya (=Cipangopaludina) chinensis] on native snail communities (Physa, Helisoma and Lymnaea sp.) and ecosystem attributes (algal chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations). Both invaders

Pieter T. J. Johnson; Julian D. Olden; Christopher T. Solomon; M. Jake Vander Zanden

2009-01-01

139

Plasticity and Genetic Diversity May Allow Saltcedar to Invade Cold Climates in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major mechanisms have been proposed to explain the ability of intro- duced populations to colonize over large habitat gradients, despite significant population bottlenecks during introduction: (1) Broad environmental tolerance—successful invaders possess life history traits that confer superior colonizing ability and\\/or phenotypic plasticity, allowing acclimation to a wide range of habitats. (2) Local adaptation—successful invaders rapidly adapt to local selective

Jason P. Sexton; John K. McKay; Anna Sala

2002-01-01

140

Cell killing by antibody-drug conjugates.  

PubMed

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are designed to specifically bind to and kill cells expressing their target antigens. In addition to the obvious requirement of the presence of the target antigen on the cell surface, several other factors contribute to the sensitivity of target cells to the action of ADCs. These include (i) the rate of internalization of the ADC, (ii) its proteolytic degradation in late endosomes and lysosomes and the subsequent release of cytotoxic drug, and (iii) the intracellular concentration of the released drug. In addition to killing antigen-expressing cells, some ADCs were found to kill bystander cells irrespective of their antigen expression. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the mechanisms of killing of antigen-expressing and bystander cells by antibody-drug conjugates. PMID:17553616

Kovtun, Yelena V; Goldmacher, Victor S

2007-06-05

141

Bootlegger Trail Site: A Spring Bison Kill.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents excellent descriptions of excavation techniques at this bison kill site, as well as a model of subsistence. The model contributes greatly to our understanding of seasonal activities of late prehistoric hunters and gatherers in the proj...

T. E. Roll K. Deaver J. Moe J. W. Fisher D. Schoepp

1980-01-01

142

Killing spinor equations from nonlinear realisations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting from a nonlinear realisation of eleven-dimensional supergravity based on the group G11, whose generators appear as low level generators of E11, we present a super extended algebra, which leads to a covariant derivative of spinors identical to the Killing spinor equation of this theory. A similar construction leads to the Killing spinor equation of N=1 pure supergravity in ten dimensions.

Miemiec, André; Schnakenburg, Igor

2004-10-01

143

Cryptococcus Neoformans Modulates Extracellular Killing by Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

We recently established a key role for host sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) in regulating the killing activity of neutrophils against Cryptococcus neoformans. In this paper, we studied the effect of C. neoformans on the killing activity of neutrophils and whether SMS would still be a player against C. neoformans in immunocompromised mice lacking T and natural killer (NK) cells (Tg?26 mice). To this end, we analyzed whether C. neoformans would have any effect on neutrophil survival and killing in vitro and in vivo. We show that unlike Candida albicans, neither the presence nor the capsule size of C. neoformans cells have any effect on neutrophil viability. Interestingly, melanized C. neoformans cells totally abrogated the killing activity of neutrophils. We monitored how exposure of neutrophils to C. neoformans cells would interfere with any further killing activity of the conditioned medium and found that pre-incubation with live but not “heat-killed” fungal cells significantly inhibits further killing activity of the medium. We then studied whether activation of SMS at the site of C. neoformans infection is dependent on T and NK cells. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption–ionization tissue imaging in infected lung we found that similar to previous observations in the isogenic wild-type CBA/J mice, SM 16:0 levels are significantly elevated at the site of infection in mice lacking T and NK cells, but only at early time points. This study highlights that C. neoformans may negatively regulate the killing activity of neutrophils and that SMS activation in neutrophils appears to be partially independent of T and/or NK cells.

Qureshi, Asfia; Grey, Angus; Rose, Kristie L.; Schey, Kevin L.; Del Poeta, Maurizio

2011-01-01

144

Teleparallel Killing Vectors of the Einstein Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we establish the definition of the Lie derivative of a second rank tensor in the context of teleparallel theory of gravity and also extend it for a general tensor of rank p + q. This definition is then used to find Killing vectors of the Einstein universe. It turns out that Killing vectors of the Einstein universe in the teleparallel theory are the same as in general relativity.

Sharif, M.; Amir, M. Jamil

145

Passive Electrical Properties of Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Effective conductivities are reported for the bacteria Escherichia coli and Micrococcus lysodeikticus over a range of environmental conductivity. The apparent conductivities of the organisms can be explained in terms of the properties of the cell wall. At low conductivities of the environment, the conductivity of the cell appears to be dominated by the counterions of the fixed charge of the cell wall. At higher conductivities of the suspending medium, evidence suggests that ions from the environment invade the cell wall causing an increase in the effective conductivity of the cell so that it takes on values roughly proportional to that of the environment. The model points to the usefulness of dielectric techniques in studies of the properties of intact cell walls.

Carstensen, E. L.; Cox, H. A.; Mercer, W. B.; Natale, L. A.

1965-01-01

146

Chemiluminescent System for Detecting Living Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention relates to a system for detecting living microorganisms, and more particularly, to a method for detecting living microorganisms in abnormal concentrations and differentiating them from dead cells or inert matter. The method makes use of the ...

G. Soli

1971-01-01

147

Mechanisms of halotolerance in microorganisms.  

PubMed

Microorganisms have the ability to adapt to a wide range of NaCl concentrations. In general the NaCl tolerance shown by microbes far exceeds the salt tolerance of any other organism, procryote or eukaryote. There are at least three mechanisms available for adaptation to different salt concentrations. The first would be a passive one in which the cytoplasmic ion content would always equal that in the medium. A second mechanism which is used by many organisms involves concentrating compatible solutes to create an osmotic balance between the cytoplasm and the external environment. The third mechanism involves changing the cell physiology to control the movement of water allowing the cell to exist with an ionically dilute cytoplasm. This article will review the major developments and discuss the implications of increasing knowledge about salt tolerance in microorganisms. PMID:3308318

Vreeland, R H

1987-01-01

148

Effects of bisulfite on microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of bisulfite, a product of SOâ and water, have been determined on a range of microorganisms. The sensitivity of various algae was evaluated by measuring ¹⁴COâ incorporation following a 40-min preincubation of the cultures in the presence of bisulfite at pH 6.0. Effects on bacteria, protozoa, and fungi were evaluated manometrically following a 30-min preincubation of the cells

D. P. Labeda; R. Wodzinski

1976-01-01

149

Optimization of microorganisms growth processes.  

PubMed

Microorganisms growth processes are encountered in many biotechnological applications. For an increased economic benefit, optimizing their productivity is of great interest. Often the growth is inhibited by the presence in excess of other components. Inhibition determines the occurrence of multiple equilibrium points, which makes the optimal steady state reachable only from a small region of the system state space. Thus dynamic control is needed to drive the system from an initial state (characterized by a low concentration of microorganisms) to the optimal steady state. The strategy presented in this paper relies on the solutions of two optimization problems: the problem of optimal operation for maximum productivity in steady state (steady state optimization) and the problem of the start-up to the optimal steady state (transient optimization). Steady state optimization means determining the optimal equilibrium point (the amount of microorganisms harvested is maximum). The transient optimization is solved using the maximum principle of Pontryagin. The proposed control law, which drives the bioreactor from an initial state to the optimal steady state while maximizing the productivity, consists of switching the manipulated variable (dilution rate) from the minimum to the maximum value and then to the optimal value at well defined instants. This control law substantially increases the stability region of the optimal equilibrium point. Aside its efficiency, the strategy is also characterized by simplicity, being thus appropriate for implementation in real-life systems. Another important advantage is its generality: this technique may be applied to any microorganisms growth process which involves only one biochemical reaction. This means that the sequence of the control levels does not depend on the structure and parameters of the reaction kinetics, the values of the yield coefficients or the number of components in the bioreactor. PMID:20615574

Sbarciog, M; Loccufier, M; Noldus, E

2010-07-07

150

Selective accumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the removal and recovery of urnnium from aqueous systems using microbial biomass has been described previously (Nakajima et al. 1982). To establish which microorganisms accumulate the most uranium, we extended our investigation of uranium uptake to 83 species of microorganisms, 32 bacteria, 15 yeasts, 16 fungi and 20 actinomycetes. Of these 83 species of microorganisms tested, extremely

Akira Nakajima; Takashi Sakaguchi

1986-01-01

151

Canine prostatic secretions kill Trichomonas vaginalis.  

PubMed Central

The zinc content of prostatic secretions is thought to be an important nonspecific defense against urinary tract infection in men. This investigation measured killing by prostatic fluid of Trichomonas vaginalis, a common sexually transmitted pathogen, and related this activity to zinc concentration. We used a canine model which closely resembles the human male genital tract. Prostatic secretions from all dogs killed all T. vaginalis isolates. There appear to be several mechanisms for killing of trichomonads by prostatic fluid. At prostatic fluid zinc concentrations comparable to those in normal men (greater than or equal to 3.2 mM), the rate of killing of trichomonads was proportional to the zinc concentration. At intermediate zinc levels, killing occurred by both zinc-dependent and zinc-independent mechanisms. A zinc-independent mechanism was responsible for antitrichomonal activity at relatively low zinc levels (less than 1.6 mM), comparable to those in the prostatic fluid of men with chronic prostatitis. This study suggests that the variable clinical spectrum of trichomoniasis in men may result from a balance between the zinc sensitivity of the T. vaginalis strains on one side and the content of both zinc and zinc-independent factors in prostatic fluid on the other.

Krieger, J N; Rein, M F

1982-01-01

152

Inorganic materials using 'unusual' microorganisms.  

PubMed

A promising avenue of research in materials science is to follow the strategies used by Mother Nature to fabricate ornate hierarchical structures as exemplified by organisms such as diatoms, sponges and magnetotactic bacteria. Some of the strategies used in the biological world to create functional inorganic materials may well have practical implications in the world of nanomaterials. Therefore, the strive towards exploring nature's ingenious work for designing strategies to create inorganic nanomaterials in our laboratories has led to development of biological and biomimetic synthesis routes over the past decade or so. A large proportion of these relentless efforts have explored the use of those microorganisms, which are typically not known to encounter these inorganic materials in their natural environment. Therefore, one can consider these microorganisms as 'unusual' for the purpose for which they have been utilized - it is in this context that this review has been penned down. In this extensive review, we discuss the use of these 'unusual' microorganisms for deliberate biosynthesis of various nanomaterials including biominerals, metals, sulfides and oxides nanoparticles. In addition to biosynthesis approach, we have also discussed a bioleaching approach, which can provide a noble platform for room-temperature synthesis of inorganic nanomaterials using naturally available raw materials. Moreover, the unique properties and functionalities displayed by these biogenic inorganic materials have been discussed, wherever such properties have been investigated previously. Finally, towards the end of this review, we have made efforts to summarize the common outcomes of the biosynthesis process and draw conclusions, which provide a perspective on the current status of the biosynthesis research field and highlights areas where future research in this field should be directed to realize the full potential of biological routes towards nanomaterials synthesis. Furthermore, the review clearly demonstrates that the biological route to inorganic materials synthesis is not merely an addition to the existing list of synthesis routes; biological routes using 'unusual' microorganisms might in fact provide an edge over other nanomaterials synthesis routes in terms of their eco-friendliness, low energy intensiveness, and economically-viable synthesis. This review has significant importance for colloids and interface science since it underpins the synthesis of colloidal materials using 'unusual' microorganism, wherein the role of biological interfaces for controlled synthesis of technologically important nanomaterials is clearly evident. PMID:22818492

Bansal, Vipul; Bharde, Atul; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Bhargava, Suresh K

2012-07-04

153

Detection of Genomic Polymorphisms Associated with Venous Thrombosis Using the Invader Biplex Assay  

PubMed Central

A multi-site study to assess the accuracy and performance of the biplex Invader assay for genotyping five polymorphisms implicated in venous thrombosis was carried out in seven laboratories. Genotyping results obtained using the Invader biplex assay were compared to those obtained from a reference method, either allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR-mass spectrometry. Results were compared for five loci associated with venous thrombosis: Factor V Leiden, Factor II (prothrombin) G20210A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and A1298C, and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) 4G/5G. Of a total of 1448 genotypes tested in this study, there were 22 samples that gave different results between the Invader biplex assay and the PCR-based methods. On further testing, 21 were determined to be correctly genotyped by the Invader Assay and only a single discrepancy was resolved in favor of the PCR-based assays. The compiled results demonstrate that the Invader biplex assay provides results more than 99.9% concordant with standard PCR-based techniques and is a rapid and highly accurate alternative to target amplification-based methods.

Patnaik, Madhumita; Dlott, Jeffrey S.; Fontaine, Robert N.; Subbiah, M.T.; Hessner, Martin J.; Joyner, Kelly A.; Ledford, Marlies R.; Lau, Eduardo C.; Moehlenkamp, Cynthia; Amos, Jean; Zhang, Bailing; Williams, Thomas M.

2004-01-01

154

Native Birds and Alien Insects: Spatial Density Dependence in Songbird Predation of Invading Oak Gallwasps  

PubMed Central

Revealing the interactions between alien species and native communities is central to understanding the ecological consequences of range expansion. Much has been learned through study of the communities developing around invading herbivorous insects. Much less, however, is known about the significance of such aliens for native vertebrate predators for which invaders may represent a novel food source. We quantified spatial patterns in native bird predation of invading gall-inducing Andricus wasps associated with introduced Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) at eight sites across the UK. These gallwasps are available at high density before the emergence of caterpillars that are the principle spring food of native insectivorous birds. Native birds showed positive spatial density dependence in gall attack rates at two sites in southern England, foraging most extensively on trees with highest gall densities. In a subsequent study at one of these sites, positive spatial density dependence persisted through four of five sequential week-long periods of data collection. Both patterns imply that invading galls are a significant resource for at least some native bird populations. Density dependence was strongest in southern UK bird populations that have had longest exposure to the invading gallwasps. We hypothesise that this pattern results from the time taken for native bird populations to learn how to exploit this novel resource.

Schonrogge, Karsten; Begg, Tracey; Stone, Graham N.

2013-01-01

155

Native birds and alien insects: spatial density dependence in songbird predation of invading oak gallwasps.  

PubMed

Revealing the interactions between alien species and native communities is central to understanding the ecological consequences of range expansion. Much has been learned through study of the communities developing around invading herbivorous insects. Much less, however, is known about the significance of such aliens for native vertebrate predators for which invaders may represent a novel food source. We quantified spatial patterns in native bird predation of invading gall-inducing Andricus wasps associated with introduced Turkey oak (Quercus cerris) at eight sites across the UK. These gallwasps are available at high density before the emergence of caterpillars that are the principle spring food of native insectivorous birds. Native birds showed positive spatial density dependence in gall attack rates at two sites in southern England, foraging most extensively on trees with highest gall densities. In a subsequent study at one of these sites, positive spatial density dependence persisted through four of five sequential week-long periods of data collection. Both patterns imply that invading galls are a significant resource for at least some native bird populations. Density dependence was strongest in southern UK bird populations that have had longest exposure to the invading gallwasps. We hypothesise that this pattern results from the time taken for native bird populations to learn how to exploit this novel resource. PMID:23342048

Schönrogge, Karsten; Begg, Tracey; Stone, Graham N

2013-01-14

156

Integration without integration: New Killing spinor spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-conformally flat spacetimes admitting a non-null two-index Killing spinor are investigated by means of the Geroch-Held-Penrose formalism. Claims appearing in the literature that such spacetimes are all explicitly known are incorrect. This was shown in [5] for the family where, in the canonical frame, the spin coefficients ? or ?, vanish. Here the general case with non-vanishing ?, ?, ? and ? is re-considered. It is shown that the construction in [4] hinges on the tacit assumption that certain integrability conditions hold, implying two algebraic relations for the spin coefficients and the components of the Ricci spinor. All (conformal classes of) spacetimes, in which one of these conditions is violated, are obtained by invariant integration. The resulting classes are each other's Sachs transform and are characterised by one free function. They admit in general no Killing vectors, but still admit a conformal gauge (different from the trivial unitary gauge) in which a Killing tensor exists.

Van den Bergh, Norbert

2010-05-01

157

Biocidal activity of metalloacid-coated surfaces against multidrug-resistant microorganisms  

PubMed Central

Background The antimicrobial effects of a coating of molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) has been recently described. The metalloacid material produces oxonium ions (H3O+), which creates an acidic pH that is an effective, non specific antimicrobial. We determined the in vitro antimicrobial activity of molybdenum trioxide metalloacid-coated surfaces. Methods Metalloacid-coated and non-coated (control) surfaces were contaminated by exposing them for 15 minutes to microbial suspensions containing 105 cfu/mL. Eleven microorganisms responsible for nosocomial infections were tested: two Staphylococcus aureus strains (the hetero-vancomycin intermediate MRSA Mu50 strain and a ST80-PVL-producing MRSA strain); a vancomycin-resistant vanA Enterococcus faecium strain; three extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains; a MBL-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain; a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain; a toxin-producing Clostridium difficile strain; and two fungi (Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus). The assay tested the ability of the coated surfaces to kill microorganisms. Results Against all non-sporulating microorganisms tested, metalloacid-coated surfaces exhibited significant antimicrobial activity relative to that of the control surfaces within two to six hours after contact with the microorganisms (p?Microorganism survival on the coated surfaces was greatly impaired, whereas microorganism survival on control surfaces remained substantial. Conclusions We suggest that, facing the continuing shedding of microorganisms in the vicinity of colonized or infected patients, the continuous biocidal effect of hydroxonium oxides against multidrug-resistant microorganisms may help limit environmental contamination between consecutive cleaning procedures.

2012-01-01

158

Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats  

SciTech Connect

Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

1987-12-01

159

Interspecific differences in drift behaviour between the native Gammarus pulex and the exotic Gammarus roeseli and possible implications for the invader’s success  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Drifting” is known to subject aquatic invertebrates to intense predation by drift feeding fish. Consequently, interspecific\\u000a variations in drifting behaviour could lead to differences in predation pressure between coexisting prey species. Predation\\u000a being an important factor determining the success of invaders, differences in drift patterns could advantage either native\\u000a or exotic invertebrates through differential predation by native fish predators. The

Clément Lagrue; Nicolas Kaldonski; Sébastien Motreuil; Thierry Lefèvre; Olivier Blatter; Philippe Giraud; Loïc Bollache

2011-01-01

160

HIV transcription is induced with cell killing  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evident in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J.; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1993-11-01

161

Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Internet Resources on Genocide and Mass Killings is an extensive compilation of primary materials and annotated links related to "twentieth-century genocidal and mass man-made killing occurrences." Divided into fifteen sections, subject coverage includes topics such as The Jewish Holocaust, War Crimes and Criminals, Yugoslavia and Kosovo, among others. Most of the original documents in the compilation have been uploaded to the site, facilitating navigation and research. Documents not residing at the site are linked via succinct annotations. The compilation is searchable and updated continuously by its creator Dr. Stuart D. Stein, Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Social Psychology at the University of West England.

162

Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Collectively Invade Collagen by Following a Glucose Gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cells collectively invade a three dimensional collagen matrix by following a glucose gradient. We observe that due to the 3D physical deformation of the matrix, as measured by the displacement of reporter beads within the matrix, there exists a long range deformation mechanical field inside the matrix which serves to couple the motions of the invading metastatic cell. The invasion front of the cells is a dynamic one, with different cells assuming the lead on a time scale of 24 hours due to certain cells having higher speeds of penetration, which are not sustained. The front cell leadership is dynamic presumably due to metabolic costs associated with the long range strain field which proceeds the invading cell front, which we have imaged using confocal imaging and marker beads imbedded in the collagen matrix.

Sun, Bo; Austin, Robert; Liu, Liyu; Duclos, Guillaume; Lee, Jeongseog; Wu, Amy; Kam, Yooseok; Sontag, Eduardo; Stone, Howard; Sturm, James; Gatenby, Robert

2013-03-01

163

Heterotrophic nitrification by intestinal microorganisms.  

PubMed

From studies of nitrate balance in man and analyses of fecal and ileostomy samples, the possibility that nitrite and nitrate are formed de novo in the intestine, possibly by heterotrophic nitrification has emerged. This proposition significantly alters our previous conceptions of man's exposure to nitrite and suggests that nitrite may play a role in the cause of intestinal cancer. Heterotrophic nitrification has been demonstrated in various microorganisms. Our work has shown that intestinal heterotrophic microbial isolates from man are able to oxidize nitrogenous compounds to nitrite. These isolates include both procaryotes and eucaryotes. PMID:7357502

Gomez, R F; Tannenbaum, S R; Savoca, J; Ralt, D; Rockowitz, N

1980-03-15

164

Integrating Poetry and "To Kill a Mockingbird."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a method of teaching "To Kill a Mockingbird" along with the study of poetry. Notes that this method allows students to consider the themes of courage and developing compassion. Concludes that teaching such a multigenre unit allows students to look for connections among fact and fiction, the past and present, their own lives and…

Jolley, Susan Arpajian

2002-01-01

165

Can Vet Schools Teach without Killing Animals?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses a protest by students at the University of Illinois (Urbana) College of Veterinary Medicine over the killing of animals that led to temporary curtailing of lethal animal experiments. Examines the conflict between animal rights groups and some faculty who are openly skeptical about the effectiveness of alternatives to the hands-on…

Mangan, Katherine S.

2000-01-01

166

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The year 2001 will always be remembered as the year terrorists turned commercial airliners into murder weapons and used them to kill 3,047 innocent people. Counted within that number are 72 local, state, and federal law enforcement officers, the most offi...

2001-01-01

167

Killing Hitler: A Writer's Journey and Angst.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the author's experiences in preparing a talk that "evokes the specter" of Adolf Hitler and in writing an historical account of a British plot to kill Hitler. Address the question of why the British allowed him to live that final year of the war. Muses on why scholars write, and the impact of violence and terrorism. (SG)|

Thaler, Paul

2002-01-01

168

Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted, 1997.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1997, 65 law enforcement officers were killed in the line of duty. Law enforcement agencies in 29 states and the District of Columbia reported officers' deaths. Of the victims, 34 were employed by city police departments, 20 by county police and sh...

1998-01-01

169

How to Make a Killing Jar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Biodiversity Counts illustration shows students how to make a simple killing jar to preserve arthropods for further study. As the labeled drawing shows, all that's needed is a jar with a lid, tape for reinforcement, a few drops of ethyl acetate, and a paper towel.

170

Parricide: Children Who Kill Their Parents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis is a scholarly investigation of adolescents who kill their parents. The research centers on who is the offender, why he or she has used parricide as a solution to an unresolvable problem, and how the criminal is treated by the justice system. ...

R. A. Strong

1988-01-01

171

Four House Fires That Killed 28 Children.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the last quarter of 1987, four fires in three communities killed 28 children and two adults. Each fire shocked it community. The basic lessons were similar, and common to many other fires: There were no working smoke detectors. The houses were overcrow...

J. M. Shapiro D. J. Carpenter P. S. Schaenman H. Stambaugh

1987-01-01

172

MECHANISM BY WHICH AMMONIUM FERTILIZERS KILL LARKSPUR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental concerns of using pesticides on public lands have greatly reduced the use of herbicides to control tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). Alternative methods of control have used ammonium sulfate placed in the crown of individual plants to kill larkspur. The objective of this study was ...

173

Killing and TerrorThe Cultural Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the meaning of the word terror and how has its meaning changed through the ages? This article sets out to show how that meaning changed from ancient Greece to the present day. Murders and massacres were an accepted and normal part of societies, and only very recently in history was the killing of defenseless people universally condemned, hence,

Stefan Bratkowski

2005-01-01

174

Methods of killing employed by psychotic parricides.  

PubMed

Lewis, et al. in 1998 showed that psychotic women are more likely to use a weapon than nonpsychotic women to kill their children. This study presents data concerning psychotic parricide. Analysis indicated that a higher percentage used a weapon (81% versus 36%) than psychotic filicide. Reasons for this difference are discussed. PMID:14650686

Marleau, Jacques D

2003-10-01

175

Cellulolytic Microorganisms from Thermal Environments  

SciTech Connect

Thermal, anaerobic environments rich in decaying plant material are a potential source of novel cellulolytic bacteria. Samples collected from geothermal aquifers in the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) were used to select for cellulolytic thermophiles. Laboratory enrichments on dilute-acid pretreated plant biomass (switchgrass, Populus), and crystalline cellulose (Avicel) resulted in the isolation of 247 environmental clones. The majority of individual clones were affiliated with the cellulolytic bacteria of phylum Firmicutes, followed by xylanolytic and saccharolytic members of the phylum Dictyoglomi. Among the Firmicutes, the clones were affiliated with the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (54.4%), Caloramator (11.5%), Thermoanaerobacter (8.8%), Thermovenabulum (4.1%), and Clostridium (2.0%). From established anaerobic thermophilic enrichments a total of 81 single strains of the genera Caldicellulosiruptor (57%) and Thermoanaerobacter (43%) were isolated. With continuous flow enrichment on Avicel, increases in the relative abundance of Caloramator sp. was observed over clones detected from the Caldicellulosiruptor. Complex communities of interacting microorganisms bring about cellulose decomposition in nature, therefore using up-to-date approaches may yield novel cellulolytic microorganisms with high activity and a rapid rate of biomass conversion to biofuels.

Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Raman, Babu [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL

2012-01-01

176

Impact: Toward a Framework for Understanding the Ecological Effects of Invaders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ecologists commonly talk about the impacts of nonindigenous species, little formal attention has been given to defining what we mean by impact, or connecting ecological theory with particular measures of impact. The resulting lack of generalizations regarding invasion impacts is more than an academic problem; we need to be able to distinguish invaders with minor effects from those with

I. M. Parker; D. Simberloff; W. M. Lonsdale; K. Goodell; M. Wonham; P. M. Kareiva; M. H. Williamson; B. Von Holle; P. B. Moyle; J. E. Byers; L. Goldwasser

1999-01-01

177

Wadden Sea mussel beds invaded by oysters and slipper limpets: competition or climate control?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced species are often considered to be a threat to residents, but not all reciprocal trends may reflect species interaction. In the northern German Wadden Sea, native mussel Mytilus edulis beds are declining and overgrown by introduced Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas and slipper limpets Crepidula fornicata. We review the population development of the three species and analyse whether the invading species may be responsible for the decline of native mussels. The Pacific oyster predominately settles on mussel beds in the intertidal and the slipper limpet dominates around low water line. We compare the development of mussels and invaders in two subregions: mussel beds near the islands of Sylt and Amrum decreased both in the presence (Sylt) and absence (Amrum) of the two invading species and more detailed investigations could not confirm a causal relationship between the increasing invaders and decreasing mussel beds. There is evidence that the decline of mussel beds is mainly caused by failing spatfall possibly due to mild winters, whereas the increase in slipper limpets and oysters is facilitated by mild winters and warm summers, respectively. We conclude that changing species composition is a result of the climatic conditions in the last decade and that there is no evidence yet that the exotic species caused the decline of the natives. It remains an open question whether the species shift will continue and what the consequences for the native ecosystem will be.

Nehls, Georg; Diederich, Susanne; Thieltges, David W.; Strasser, Matthias

2006-05-01

178

Using the Science Fiction Film "Invaders from Mars" in a Child Psychiatry Seminar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The science fiction film "Invaders From Mars" is used to teach principles of child development; clinical features of separation anxiety and nightmares; and clinical interventions, including child psychotherapy, child protective issues, and crisis management. Methods: Commercial films have been used as teaching aids in child psychiatry…

Zerby, Stephen A.

2005-01-01

179

Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus alvei DSM 29, a Secondary Invader during European Foulbrood Outbreaks  

PubMed Central

Paenibacillus alvei is known as a secondary invader during European foulbrood of honeybees. Here, we announce the 6.83-Mb draft genome sequence of P. alvei type strain DSM 29. Putative genes encoding an antimicrobial peptide, a binary toxin, a mosquitocidal toxin, alveolysin, and different polyketides and nonribosomal peptides were identified.

Djukic, Marvin; Becker, Dominik; Poehlein, Anja; Voget, Sonja

2012-01-01

180

Community impacts of anthropogenic disturbance: natural enemies exploit multiple routes in pursuit of invading herbivore hosts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Biological invasions provide a window on the process of community assembly. In particular, tracking natural enemy recruitment to invading hosts can reveal the relative roles of co-evolution (including local adaptation) and ecological sorting. We use molecular data to examine colonisation of northern Europe by the parasitoid Megastigmus stigmatizans following invasions of its herbivorous oak gallwasp hosts from the Balkans.

James A Nicholls; Pablo Fuentes-Utrilla; Alexander Hayward; George Melika; György Csóka; José-Luis Nieves-Aldrey; Juli Pujade-Villar; Majid Tavakoli; Karsten Schönrogge; Graham N Stone

2010-01-01

181

Growth and persistence of a recent invader Carcinus maenas in estuaries of the northeastern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 1998 a new year class of the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas, appeared in Oregon and Washington estuaries as well as in northern California, USA, and on Vancouver Island, Canada. This invader was first discovered in San Francisco Bay almost a decade earlier and by 1995 it had spread to northern California. The coast-wide colonization

Sylvia Behrens Yamada; Brett R. Dumbauld; Alex Kalin; Christopher E. Hunt; Ron Figlar-Barnes; Andrea Randall

2005-01-01

182

Life History Variation in Invading Applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) May Pose Ecological Threats to Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In native habitats, channeled applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) graze periphyton. However, casual observations from introduced populations suggest these invaders show variation in feeding ecology, predator response and life history strategies. Attempts to predict this consumer influence on ecosystem function suffer from a lack of basic data. We tested how salinity affected snail mortality. Both adults and hatchlings tolerated salinity levels up

R. K. Marfurt; B. B. Boland; R. L. Burks

2005-01-01

183

Perennial grass dominance: creating a resilient plant community in an exotic annual grass invaded rangeland  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Millions of hectares of western rangelands have been invaded by the exotic and invasive annual grass, cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum). Cheatgrass provides a fine-textured, early maturing fuel that has increased the chance, rate, spread and season of wildfire to public and private lands throughout the ...

184

Endoscopic treatment of lung cancer invading the airway before induction chemotherapy and surgical resectionq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Many patients with advanced lung cancer invading the airway require only palliation; however, induction chemotherapy and surgery may sometimes be considered. Preliminary endoscopic palliation may improve quality of life and functional status, allows better evaluation of tumor extension and contributes to prevent infectious complications. We reviewed our experience with preliminary laser treatment, induction chemotherapy and surgical resection in patients

Federico Venuta; Erino A. Rendina; Tiziano De Giacomo; Edoardo Mercadante; Anna Maria Ciccone; Maria Teresa Aratari; Marco Moretti; Giorgio Furio Coloni

2010-01-01

185

Endoscopic treatment of lung cancer invading the airway before induction chemotherapy and surgical resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Many patients with advanced lung cancer invading the airway require only palliation; however, induction chemotherapy and surgery may sometimes be considered. Preliminary endoscopic palliation may improve quality of life and functional status, allows better evaluation of tumor extension and contributes to prevent infectious complications. We reviewed our experience with preliminary laser treatment, induction chemotherapy and surgical resection in patients

Federico Venuta; Erino A. Rendina; Tiziano De Giacomo; Edoardo Mercadante; Anna Maria Ciccone; Maria Teresa Aratari; Marco Moretti; Giorgio Furio Coloni

2001-01-01

186

The genus Acacia as invader: the characteristic case of Acacia dealbata Link in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

– \\u000a \\u000a • We review current knowledge about the biology of the genus Acacia, and Acacia dealbata Link (silver wattle) in particular, as an invader in Europe, focusing on (i) the biology of the genus Acacia; (ii) biological attributes that are important for the invasiveness of the genus and A. dealbata; (iii) possible hypotheses for the invasion success; and (iv) control

Paula Lorenzo; Luís González; Manuel J. Reigosa

2010-01-01

187

Are early summer wildfires an opportunity to revegetate exotic annual grass-invaded plant communities?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae (L.) Nevski) is an exotic annual grass reducing biodiversity and altering ecosystem function and processes in rangelands. Revegetation of medusahead-invaded plant communities is needed to improve ecosystem function, increase livestock forage production, and im...

188

Estimating the Probability of Long-Distance Overland Dispersal of Invading Aquatic Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurately predicting the pattern and rate of spread of invading species is difficult, particularly for species that disperse long distances. Though relatively rare, and often stochastic, long-distance dispersal events increase the maximum rate and geographic extent of invasion. Human activities are responsible for the spread of many exotic species, particularly aquatic species such as the zebra mussel, which are primarily

Lucy A. J. Buchan; Dianna K. Padilla

1999-01-01

189

Ecology and management of Sheoak (Casuarina spp.), an invader of coastal Florida, U.S.A.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Casuarina spp. are invasive weeds in Florida that threaten biological diversity and beach integrity of coastal habitats. The trees include three species and their hybrids that aggressively invade riverine and coastal areas. Of the three species, C. equisetifolia and C. glauca are highly salt tol...

190

Using the Science Fiction Film "Invaders from Mars" in a Child Psychiatry Seminar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The science fiction film "Invaders From Mars" is used to teach principles of child development; clinical features of separation anxiety and nightmares; and clinical interventions, including child psychotherapy, child protective issues, and crisis management. Methods: Commercial films have been used as teaching aids in child psychiatry…

Zerby, Stephen A.

2005-01-01

191

ANVIL Revisited: The Impact of ULTRA on the Decision to Invade Southern France.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an analysis of the role ULTRA played in the Anglo-American decision to invade Southern France in 1944, as part of the strategy to defeat Germany. It is a reexamination of the conclusions of an earlier Masters Program analysis of the key str...

C. R. Morin

1984-01-01

192

Impact of Alien Plant Invaders on Pollination Networks in Two Archipelagos  

PubMed Central

Mutualistic interactions between plants and animals promote integration of invasive species into native communities. In turn, the integrated invaders may alter existing patterns of mutualistic interactions. Here we simultaneously map in detail effects of invaders on parameters describing the topology of both plant-pollinator (bi-modal) and plant-plant (uni-modal) networks. We focus on the invader Opuntia spp., a cosmopolitan alien cactus. We compare two island systems: Tenerife (Canary Islands) and Menorca (Balearic Islands). Opuntia was found to modify the number of links between plants and pollinators, and was integrated into the new communities via the most generalist pollinators, but did not affect the general network pattern. The plant uni-modal networks showed disassortative linkage, i.e. species with many links tended to connect to species with few links. Thus, by linking to generalist natives, Opuntia remained peripheral to network topology, and this is probably why native network properties were not affected at least in one of the islands. We conclude that the network analytical approach is indeed a valuable tool to evaluate the effect of invaders on native communities.

Padron, Benigno; Traveset, Anna; Biedenweg, Tine; Diaz, Diana; Nogales, Manuel; Olesen, Jens M.

2009-01-01

193

Effects of nest invaders on honey bee ( Apis mellifera) pollination efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of pollinators is crucial to the sustainability of plant communities in natural and agricultural ecosystems; however, pollinators are declining in much of the developed world due to a variety of parasites, diseases, and environmental stresses. These experiments are the first to examine directly the impact of honey bee, Apis mellifera, nest invaders on plant pollination and fitness. A

Amanda Ellis; Keith S. Delaplane

2008-01-01

194

Stats invaders!: learning about statistics by playing a classic video game  

Microsoft Academic Search

This poster describes a computer game designed to provide players with exposure to repeated draws from probability distributions. In the game, players shoot aliens dropping from the sky (as in the classic arcade game Space Invaders) while deciding which of two displayed distributions better reflects the pattern of the alien attack. Our hypothesis is that playing this version of the

Dylan Arena; Daniel L. Schwartz

2010-01-01

195

Evidence for pollen limitation of a native plant in invaded communities.  

PubMed

Animal-pollinated invasive species have frequently been demonstrated to outcompete native species for pollinator attention, which can have detrimental effects on the reproductive success and population dynamics of native species. Many animal-pollinated invasive species exhibit showy flowers and provide substantial rewards, allowing them to act as pollinator 'magnets', which, at a large scale, can attract more pollinators to an area, but, at a smaller scale, may reduce compatible pollen flow to local native species, possibly explaining why most studies detect competition. By performing pollen limitation experiments of populations in both invaded and uninvaded sites, we demonstrate that the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria appears to facilitate, rather than hinder, the reproductive success of native confamilial Decodon verticillatus, even at a small scale, in a wetland habitat in southeastern Ontario. We found no evidence for a magnet species effect on pollinator attraction to invaded sites. Germination experiments confirmed that seeds from invaded sites had similar germination rates to those from uninvaded sites, making it unlikely that a difference in inbreeding was masking competitive effects. We describe several explanations for our findings. Notably, there were no differences in seed set among populations at invaded and uninvaded sites. Our results underscore the inherent complexity of studying the ecological impacts of invasive species on natives. PMID:23129400

Da Silva, Elizabeth M; King, Vashti M; Russell-Mercier, Jake L; Sargent, Risa D

2012-11-06

196

Cheatgrass and red brome; the history and biology of two invaders  

Treesearch

Title: Cheatgrass and red brome; the history and biology of two invaders ... under fire: disturbance and recovery in a changing world; 2006 June 6-8; Cedar City, UT. ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on ...

197

Clinal patterns of desiccation and starvation resistance in ancestral and invading populations of Drosophila subobscura  

PubMed Central

As invading species expand, they eventually encounter physical and biotic stressors that limit their spread. We examine latitudinal and climatic variation in physiological tolerance in one native and two invading populations of Drosophila subobscura. These flies are native to the Palearctic region, but invaded both South and North America around 1980 and spread rapidly across 15° of latitude on each continent. Invading flies rapidly evolved latitudinal clines in chromosome inversion frequencies and in wing size that parallel those of native populations in the Old World. Here we investigate whether flies on all three continents have evolved parallel clines in desiccation and starvation tolerance, such that flies in low-latitude regions (hot, dry) might have increased stress resistance. Starvation tolerance does not vary with latitude or climate on any continent. In contrast, desiccation tolerance varies clinally with latitude on all three continents, although not in parallel. In North American and Europe, desiccation tolerance is inversely related to latitude, as expected. But in South America, desiccation tolerance increases with latitude and is greatest in relatively cool and wet areas. Differences among continents in latitudinal patterns of interspecific-competition potentially influence clinal selection for physiological resistance, but no simple pattern is evident on these continents.

Gilchrist, George W; Jeffers, Lisa M; West, Brianna; Folk, Donna G; Suess, Jeremy; Huey, Raymond B

2008-01-01

198

Cytotoxic Killing and Immune Evasion by Repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between the immune system and pathogens is a complex one, with pathogens constantly developing new ways of\\u000a evading destruction by the immune system. The immune system's task is made even harder when the pathogen in question is an\\u000a intra-cellular one (such as a virus or certain bacteria) and it is necessary to kill the infected host cell in

Cliburn Chan; Andrew J. T. George; Jaroslav Stark

2007-01-01

199

Impacts of plant invaders and management techniques on native communities : ecological and social perspectives at regional and global levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant invasions of natural communities threaten biodiversity and ecosystem processes across many biomes and trophic levels. Understanding and managing invader impacts are therefore significant steps in achieving conservation. Both causes and management of invasion are dependent on human behaviour and ecologists must consider this human dimension in developing management protocols. While control of invaders is routine in many conservation reserves,

Tanya J Mason

2006-01-01

200

Economic Issues in the Management of Plants Invading Natural Environments: Scotch Broom in Barrington Tops National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius, L.), is an exotic leguminous shrub, native to Europe, which invades pastoral and woodland ecosystems and adjoining river systems in cool, high rainfall regions of southeastern Australia. Broom has invaded 10,000 hectares of eucalypt woodland at Barrington Tops National Park in New South Wales, and is having a major impact on the natural ecology of the

Doreen Odem; Jack A. Sinden; Oscar J. Cacho; Garry R. Griffith

2003-01-01

201

11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF KILLING FLOOR ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD SPLITTERS' PLATFORMS - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

202

9 CFR 113.203 - Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Feline Panleukopenia Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.203 Section 113.203 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.203 Feline...

2013-01-01

203

9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.216 Section 113.216 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.216 Bovine...

2013-01-01

204

9 CFR 113.210 - Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Feline Calicivirus Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.210 Section 113.210 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.210 Feline...

2013-01-01

205

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine). 113.214 Section 113...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.214 Parvovirus...

2013-01-01

206

9 CFR 113.205 - Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.205 Section 113.205 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.205 Newcastle...

2013-01-01

207

9 CFR 113.213 - Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Pseudorabies Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.213 Section 113.213 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.213...

2013-01-01

208

9 CFR 113.204 - Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Mink Enteritis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.204 Section 113.204 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.204 Mink...

2013-01-01

209

9 CFR 113.211 - Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Feline Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.211 Section 113.211 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.211 Feline...

2013-01-01

210

9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.201 Section 113.201 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine...

2013-01-01

211

9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.201 Section 113.201 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine...

2009-01-01

212

The visualisation and speed of kill of wound isolates on a silver alginate dressing.  

PubMed

In chronic wound management, alginate dressings are used to absorb exudate and reduce the microbial burden. Silver alginate offers the added benefit of an additional antimicrobial pressure on contaminating microorganisms. This present study compares the antimicrobial activity of a RESTORE silver alginate dressing with a silver-free control dressing using a combination of in vitro culture and imaging techniques. The wound pathogens examined included Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, ?-haemolytic Streptococcus, and strictly anaerobic bacteria. The antimicrobial efficacy of the dressings was assessed using log(10) reduction and 13-day corrected zone of inhibition (CZOI) time-course assays. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to visualise the relative proportions of live/dead microorganisms sequestered into the dressings over 24 hours and estimate the comparative speed of kill. The RESTORE silver alginate dressing showed significantly greater log(10) reductions and CZOIs for all microorganisms compared with the control, indicating the antimicrobial effect of ionic silver. Antimicrobial activity was evident against all test organisms for up to 5 days and, in some cases, up to 12 days following an on-going microbial challenge. Imaging bacteria sequestered in the silver-free dressing showed that each microbial species aggregated in the dressing and remained viable for more than 20 hours. Growth was not observed inside of the dressing, indicating a possible microbiostatic effect of the alginate fibres. In comparison, organisms in the RESTORE silver alginate dressing were seen to lose viability at a considerably greater rate. After 16 hours of contact with the RESTORE silver alginate dressing, >90% of cells of all bacteria and yeast were no longer viable. In conclusion, collectively, the data highlights the rapid speed of kill and antimicrobial suitability of this RESTORE silver alginate dressing on wound isolates and highlights its overwhelming ability to manage a microbial wound bioburden in the management of infected wounds. PMID:22405034

Hooper, Samuel J; Percival, Steven L; Hill, Katja E; Thomas, David W; Hayes, A J; Williams, David W

2012-03-08

213

HIV transcription is induced with cell killing  

SciTech Connect

Previous work has shown that HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct are induced to express chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) following exposure to DNA-damaging agents such as ultraviolet radiation, {gamma} rays, neutrons, and others. In this report, the authors demonstrate that this induction of HIV-LTR transcription occurs when stably transfected HeLa cells are exposed to agents which mediate cell killing, such as UV radiation, electroporation of sucrose buffer, prolonged heating, and low and high pH. Cells cultured following UV exposure demonstrated a peak in CAT expression that is evidence in viable (but not necessarily cell division-competent) cells 24 h after exposure; this inductive response continued until at least 72 h after exposure. HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent, and the amount of CAT transcription induced was correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Other agents which caused no cell killing (such as heat-shock for up to 2 h, treatment with metronidazole, exposure to sunlight, vitamin C treatment, and others) had no effect on HIV-LTR induction. These results suggest that HIV transcription is induced as a consequence of the turn on of a cellular death or apoptotic pathway.

Woloschak, G.E.; Schreck, S.; Chang-Liu, Chin Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States). Dept. of Pathology; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1994-01-01

214

Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 ± 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 ± 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

2001-05-01

215

Designing surfaces that kill bacteria on contact  

PubMed Central

Poly(4-vinyl-N-alkylpyridinium bromide) was covalently attached to glass slides to create a surface that kills airborne bacteria on contact. The antibacterial properties were assessed by spraying aqueous suspensions of bacterial cells on the surface, followed by air drying and counting the number of cells remaining viable (i.e., capable of growing colonies). Amino glass slides were acylated with acryloyl chloride, copolymerized with 4-vinylpyridine, and N-alkylated with different alkyl bromides (from propyl to hexadecyl). The resultant surfaces, depending on the alkyl group, were able to kill up to 94 ± 4% of Staphylococcus aureus cells sprayed on them. A surface alternatively created by attaching poly(4-vinylpyridine) to a glass slide and alkylating it with hexyl bromide killed 94 ± 3% of the deposited S. aureus cells. On surfaces modified with N-hexylated poly(4-vinylpyridine), the numbers of viable cells of another Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, as well as of the Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, dropped more than 100-fold compared with the original amino glass. In contrast, the number of viable bacterial cells did not decline significantly after spraying on such common materials as ceramics, plastics, metals, and wood.

Tiller, Joerg C.; Liao, Chun-Jen; Lewis, Kim; Klibanov, Alexander M.

2001-01-01

216

Siderophores from marine microorganisms and their applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the fact that siderophores from microorganisms in different environments have received much attention in recent\\u000a years because of their potential applications and diverse physiological functions, this review deals with siderophore-producing\\u000a marine microorganisms and the detection, chemical structure and potential applications of siderophores.

Junfeng Li; Zhenming Chi

2004-01-01

217

Functional Microorganisms for Functional Food Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability

M. Gobbetti; R. Di Cagno; M. De Angelis

2010-01-01

218

Biotechnological applications and potentialities of halophilic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halophilic microorganisms are found as normal inhabitants of highly saline environments and thus are considered extremophiles. They are mainly represented, but not exclusively, by the halobacteria (extremely halophilic aerobic Archaea), the moderate halophiles (Bacteria and some methanogens) and several eukaryotic algae. These extremophilic microorganisms are already used for some biotechnological processes, for example halobacteria are used for the production of

A. Ventosa; J. J. Nieto

1995-01-01

219

Immune Response to Orally Administered Killed MAP in Calves  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to determine whether orally administered heat-killed MAP could induce a protective immune response in calves. Newborn male dairy calves were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: Heat killed MAP only (n=2), live MAP challenge only (n=4), heat killed MAP fo...

220

Macrophage tumor killing: influence of the local environment.  

PubMed

Tumor killing by activated macrophages is not a highly determined biologic event, but a relative capability influenced by the local environment. An intrinsic macrophage cytotoxic effector system is modulated by serum and other environmental factors that can either enhance or suppress tumor killing. Activated macrophages kill tumor cells only when a regulating threshold drops to a critically low level. PMID:327547

Hibbs, J B; Taintor, R R; Chapman, H A; Weinberg, J B

1977-07-15

221

7 CFR 29.1018 - Fire-killed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire-killed. 29.1018 Section...Foreign Type 92) § 29.1018 Fire-killed. Any leaf of which...its surface has a set green color caused by excessive heat in...tobacco may be described as fire-killed. (See Rule...

2013-01-01

222

It's Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans  

PubMed Central

We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents’ active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed.

Davis, Jacqueline T.; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A.; Meijaard, Erik

2013-01-01

223

Conformal Killing symmetric tensor flelds on a Riemannian manifold  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conformal Killing vector fleld on a Riemannian manifold is a vector fleld generating a one-parameter group of conformal transformations. We generalize the difierential equation of conformal Killing vector flelds to symmetric tensor flelds of arbitrary rank. The main result of the article is the flniteness theorem: the space of rank m ‚ 0 conformal Killing tensor flelds on a

Vladimir Sharafutdinov

224

It's Not Just Conflict That Motivates Killing of Orangutans.  

PubMed

We investigated why orangutans are being killed in Kalimantan, Indonesia, and the role of conflict in these killings. Based on an analysis of interview data from over 5,000 respondents in over 450 villages, we also assessed the socio-ecological factors associated with conflict and non-conflict killings. Most respondents never kill orangutans. Those who reported having personally killed an orangutan primarily did so for non-conflict reasons; for example, 56% of these respondents said that the reason they had killed an orangutan was to eat it. Of the conflict-related reasons for killing, the most common reasons orangutans were killed was fear of orangutans or in self-defence. A similar pattern was evident among reports of orangutan killing by other people in the villages. Regression analyses indicated that religion and the percentage of intact forest around villages were the strongest socio-ecological predictors of whether orangutans were killed for conflict or non-conflict related reasons. Our data indicate that between 44,170 and 66,570 orangutans were killed in Kalimantan within the respondents' active hunting lifetimes: between 12,690 and 29,024 for conflict reasons (95%CI) and between 26,361 and 41,688 for non-conflict reasons (95% CI). These findings confirm that habitat protection alone will not ensure the survival of orangutans in Indonesian Borneo, and that effective reduction of orangutan killings is urgently needed. PMID:24130707

Davis, Jacqueline T; Mengersen, Kerrie; Abram, Nicola K; Ancrenaz, Marc; Wells, Jessie A; Meijaard, Erik

2013-10-09

225

The adaptive value of remnant native plants in invaded communities: an example from the Great Basin.  

PubMed

Changes in the species composition of biotic communities may alter patterns of natural selection occurring within them. Native perennial grass species in the Intermountain West are experiencing a shift in the composition of interspecific competitors from primarily perennial species to an exotic, annual grass. Thus traits that confer an advantage to perennial grasses in the presence of novel annual competitors may evolve in invaded communities. Here I show that such traits are apparent in populations of a native perennial grass, big squirreltail (Elymus multisetus M.E. Jones), exposed to cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) competitors. Dormant big squirreltail plants were collected from cheatgrass-invaded and uninvaded sites near Bordertown, California, USA, a mid-elevation (1600 m) sagebrush community, and transplanted into pots in a greenhouse. Individual plants were split into equal halves. One half was grown with competition from cheatgrass, and the other half was grown without competition. Plants collected from invaded sites responded more quickly to watering, growing more leaves in the first 10 days after transplanting. In addition, big squirreltail plants collected from invaded areas experienced a smaller decrease in plant size when grown with competition than did plants collected from uninvaded areas. Accordingly, while there were fewer big squirreltail individuals in the invaded sites, they were more competitive with cheatgrass than were the more abundant conspecifics in nearby uninvaded areas. It is possible that annual grasses were the selective force that caused these population differences, which may contribute to the long-term persistence of the native populations. While it is tempting to restore degraded areas to higher densities of natives (usually done by bringing in outside seed material), such actions may impede long-term adaptation to new conditions by arresting or reversing the direction of ongoing natural selection in the resident population. If hot spots of rapid evolutionary change can be identified within invaded systems, these areas should be managed to promote desirable change and could serve as possible sources of restoration material or reveal traits that should be prioritized during the development of restoration seed material. PMID:18686583

Leger, Elizabeth A

2008-07-01

226

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy to kill Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a new promising strategy to eradicate pathogenic microorganisms such as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The search for new approaches that can kill bacteria but do not induce the appearance of undesired drug-resistant strains suggests that PDT may have advantages over traditional antibiotic therapy. PDT is a non-thermal photochemical reaction that involves the simultaneous presence of visible light, oxygen and a dye or photosensitizer (PS). Several PS have been studied for their ability to bind to bacteria and efficiently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon photo-stimulation. ROS are formed through type I or II mechanisms and may inactivate several classes of microbial cells including Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are typically characterized by an impermeable outer cell membrane that contains endotoxins and blocks antibiotics, dyes, and detergents, protecting the sensitive inner membrane and cell wall. This review covers significant peer-reviewed articles together with US and World patents that were filed within the past few years and that relate to the eradication of Gram-negative bacteria via PDI or PDT. It is organized mainly according to the nature of the PS involved and includes natural or synthetic food dyes; cationic dyes such as methylene blue and toluidine blue; tetrapyrrole derivatives such as phthalocyanines, chlorins, porphyrins, chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll derivatives; functionalized fullerenes; nanoparticles combined with different PS; other formulations designed to target PS to bacteria; photoactive materials and surfaces; conjugates between PS and polycationic polymers or antibodies; and permeabilizing agents such as EDTA, PMNP and CaCl?. The present review also covers the different laboratory animal models normally used to treat Gram-negative bacterial infections with antimicrobial PDT. PMID:23550545

Sperandio, Felipe F; Huang, Ying-Ying; Hamblin, Michael R

2013-08-01

227

Mechanisms of Contact-Mediated Killing of Yeast Cells on Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

Surfaces made of copper or its alloys have strong antimicrobial properties against a wide variety of microorganisms. However, the molecular mode of action responsible for the antimicrobial efficacy of metallic copper is not known. Here, we show that dry copper surfaces inactivate Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae within minutes in a process called contact-mediated killing. Cellular copper ion homeostasis systems influenced the kinetics of contact-mediated killing in both organisms. Deregulated copper ion uptake through a hyperactive S. cerevisiae Ctr1p (ScCtr1p) copper uptake transporter in Saccharomyces resulted in faster inactivation of mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Similarly, lack of the C. albicans Crp1p (CaCrp1p) copper-efflux P-type ATPase or the metallothionein CaCup1p caused more-rapid killing of Candida mutant cells than of wild-type cells. Candida and Saccharomyces took up large quantities of copper ions as soon as they were in contact with copper surfaces, as indicated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis and by the intracellular copper ion-reporting dye coppersensor-1. Exposure to metallic copper did not cause lethality through genotoxicity, deleterious action on a cell's genetic material, as indicated by a mutation assay with Saccharomyces. Instead, toxicity mediated by metallic copper surfaces targeted membranes in both yeast species. With the use of Live/Dead staining, onset of rapid and extensive cytoplasmic membrane damage was observed in cells from copper surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy using the indicator dye DiSBaC2(3) indicated that cell membranes were depolarized. Also, during contact-mediated killing, vacuoles first became enlarged and then disappeared from the cells. Lastly, in metallic copper-stressed yeasts, oxidative stress in the cytoplasm and in mitochondria was elevated.

Quaranta, Davide; Krans, Travis; Santo, Christophe Espirito; Elowsky, Christian G.; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

2011-01-01

228

Attaching and effacing enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O18ab invades epithelial cells and causes persistent diarrhea.  

PubMed Central

A case of persistent diarrhea following Escherichia coli O18ab gastroenteritis is reported. Electron microscopy of a biopsy of the small intestine showed effacement of the brush border, attachment of bacteria to the epithelial cells with pedestal formation, and bacteria within the enterocytes. The bacterial isolate was an enteropathogenic E. coli isolate which did not contain the adherence factor (EAF) but possessed the attaching-effacing eae gene, was able to invade HeLa cells in a gentamicin invasion assay, and also invaded rabbit intestinal cells. Results suggest that E. coli organisms of the O18ab serotype may cause diarrhea by an as yet unknown pathogenic mechanism, involving attaching to and effacing of enterocytes followed by invasion of the epithelial cells.

Scaletsky, I C; Pedroso, M Z; Fagundes-Neto, U

1996-01-01

229

A Complex Relationship: the Interaction among Symbiotic Microbes, Invading Pathogens, and their Mammalian Host  

PubMed Central

Symbiosis between microbes and their mammalian host is vital to maintaining homeostasis. Symbiotic microbes within the gastrointestinal tract provide an array of benefits to the host, including promotion of host immunity. A coordinated effort of the host and symbiotic microbes deters the colonization and survival of many invading pathogens. However, pathogens have devised strategies to overcome these mechanisms. Furthermore, some pathogens can hijack host hormones and bacterial autoinducers to induce virulence traits. Intra- and inter-species (bacteria: bacteria) and inter-kingdom (bacteria: host) communication orchestrates the complex relationship among symbiotic microbes, invading pathogens, and their mammalian host. Insight into this communication will provide a foundation for the development of targeted antimicrobial therapies.

Curtis, Meredith M.; Sperandio, Vanessa

2011-01-01

230

Endoscopic minimally invasive management of a periradicular lesion invading the maxillary sinus.  

PubMed

A referred patient presented with a lesion of endodontic origin located at the apex of tooth #27. The tooth had been endodontically treated and re-treated. A periapical radiograph revealed a close relationship between the lesion and the maxillary sinus. A cone-beam computed tomography scan confirmed that the lesion had invaded the sinus cavity. The treatment plan consisted of periapical surgery using an endoscope as a magnification device. Due to a sinus membrane perforation, a new sinus membrane repair technique was performed. Twelve months after surgery, a cone-beam computed tomography scan revealed successful healing of the lesion. The continuous preservation of the sinus physiology was also observed. The use of an endoscope as a magnification device and a tailored technique for sinus membrane management allowed us to achieve a successful treatment outcome in the case of an endodontic lesion invading the maxillary sinus. PMID:22167042

Taschieri, Silvio; Fabbro, Massimo Del; Corbella, Stefano; Weinstein, Tommaso; Rosano, Gabriele; Tsesis, Igor

2011-12-01

231

Extended resection of lung cancer invading the left subclavian artery by using cardiopulmonary bypass.  

PubMed

We treated a 54-year-old man with large cell carcinoma of the left upper lobe invading the esophagus and the left subclavian artery (SCA) from its origin. The tumor was completely resected by lobectomy under cardiopulmonary bypass. The left SCA was dissected at the aortic arch and reconstructed with a graft. The muscle layer of the esophagus was resected, followed by patching with an intercostal muscle flap. The pathological tumor stage was T4N0M0. The tumor recurred at two months after surgery in the neck lymph nodes and brain. Both sites were treated with radiation therapy and the patient is now alive without recurrence at 26 months after surgery. Lung cancer invading the great vessels and other mediastinal structures can be cured or long survival can be obtained by extended resection and postoperative adjuvant therapy. PMID:16030485

Nomori, Hiroaki; Hirotani, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenichi; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Naruke, Tsuguo; Suemasu, Keiichi

2005-06-01

232

Evaluation of ERCP in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma invading bile ducts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed preoperatively on 29 patients suffering from hepatocellular\\u000a carcinoma (HCC) invading bile ducts. The outstanding features were: 1. Most of the filling defects were situated within the\\u000a common, right or left hepatic duct associated with proximal bile duct dilatations (17 cases);2. Tumor encasement resulted\\u000a in localised or diffused irregular strictures and dilatations (9 cases); 3.

Cai Jian-ting; Qian Ke-da; Lu Wen-juan; Ying Xin

2001-01-01

233

Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis in the Baltic Sea—a supply-side invader?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis (H. Milne-Edwards, 1853) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Varunidae) invaded the Baltic Sea about 80 years ago, published information\\u000a on its present distribution and abundance in this region is lacking. We provide here information on its Baltic-wide distribution\\u000a and long-term population dynamics. The species has been found all over the coastal Baltic Sea and also in some

Henn Ojaveer; Stephan Gollasch; Andres Jaanus; Jonne Kotta; Ari O. Laine; Atis Minde; Monika Normant; Vadim E. Panov

2007-01-01

234

Johns Hopkins research yields new clues to how brain cancer cells migrate and invade  

Cancer.gov

Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered that a protein that transports sodium, potassium and chloride may hold clues to how glioblastoma, the most common and deadliest type of brain cancer, moves and invades nearby healthy brain tissue. The findings, reported in the journal PLoS Biology, also suggest that a cheap FDA-approved drug already on the market could slow movement of glioblastoma cells, and contain their spread.

235

Home and Away: Comparisons of Resource Utilization by a Marine Species in Native and Invaded Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exotic Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, was recently introduced to the northeastern coast of North America and during the 1990's breeding populations were established throughout southern New England. In 1997–1998, ecological studies of several co-occurring brachyuran crabs were conducted and in native (Tanabe Bay, Japan) and invaded (Long Island Sound, USA) habitats of H. sanguineus. Standardized comparisons of H.

Andrew M. Lohrer; Robert B. Whitlatch; Keiji Wada; Yasuo Fukui

2000-01-01

236

More than One Way to Invade: Lessons from Genetic Studies of Carcinus Shore Crabs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The European green crab Carcinus maenas is one of the world’s most widely recognized marine invaders. The success of this species has provided opportunities to explore\\u000a genetic patterns associated with establishment and population expansion following independent introduction events to widely\\u000a different recipient ecosystems. Recent studies have revealed an extraordinary diversity of such patterns. Globally, genetic\\u000a reconstruction of invasion histories suggests

John A. Darling

237

Analysis of the theoretical model of drilling fluid invading into oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oceanic gas hydrate-bearing sediment is usually porous media, with the temperature and pressure closer to the curve of hydrate phase equilibrium than those in the permafrost region. In the case of near-balanced or over-balanced drilling through this sediment, the water-based drilling fluid used invades into this sediment, and hydrates decompose with heat transfer between drilling fluid and this sediment. During

L. Zhang; F. Ning; G. Jiang; N. Wu; D. Wu

2009-01-01

238

Interactions among invaders: community and ecosystem effects of multiple invasive species in an experimental aquatic system.  

PubMed

With ecosystems increasingly supporting multiple invasive species, interactions among invaders could magnify or ameliorate the undesired consequences for native communities and ecosystems. We evaluated the individual and combined effects of rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) and Chinese mystery snails [Bellamya (=Cipangopaludina) chinensis] on native snail communities (Physa, Helisoma and Lymnaea sp.) and ecosystem attributes (algal chlorophyll a and nutrient concentrations). Both invaders are widespread in the USA and commonly co-occur within northern temperate lakes, underscoring the importance of understanding their singular and joint effects. An outdoor mesocosm experiment revealed that while the two invaders had only weakly negative effects upon one another, both negatively affected the abundance and biomass of native snails, and their combined presence drove one native species to extinction and reduced a second by >95%. Owing to its larger size and thicker shell, adult Bellamya were protected from crayfish attack relative to native species (especially Physa and Lymnaea), suggesting the co-occurrence of these invaders in nature could have elevated consequences for native communities. The per capita impacts of Orconectes (a snail predator) on native snails were substantially greater than those of Bellamya (a snail competitor). Crayfish predation also had a cascading effect by reducing native snail biomass, leading to increased periphyton growth. Bellamya, in contrast, reduced periphyton biomass, likely causing a reduction in growth by native lymnaeid snails. Bellamya also increased water column N:P ratio, possibly because of a low P excretion rate relative to native snail species. Together, these findings highlight the importance of understanding interactions among invasive species, which can have significant community- and ecosystem-level effects. PMID:18941789

Johnson, Pieter T J; Olden, Julian D; Solomon, Christopher T; Vander Zanden, M Jake

2008-10-22

239

Impact of high herbivore densities on introduced smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora , invading San Francisco Bay, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spartina alterniflora, smooth cordgrass, invading San Francisco Bay, California (USA), is attacked by high densities of a plant hopper, Prokelisia marginata, and a mirid bug, Trigonotylus uhleri. Both herbivores are sap-feeders. We investigated the impact of these herbivores on S. alterniflora's growth rate, vegetative spread, and seed production by manipulating herbivore densities in the field and in a greenhouse.\\u000a Herbivore

Curtis C. Daehler; Donald R. Strong

1995-01-01

240

Chronic kidney disease is associated with incident cognitive impairment in the elderly: the INVADE study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Limited data exist regarding the relation- ship between decreased renal function and cognitive impairment. Methods. A total of 3679 participants of the Interven- tion Project on Cerebrovascular Diseases and Dementia in the Community of Ebersberg (INVADE) composed the community-based cohort study. Measures of renal func- tion were estimated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation and divided into normal, mild and moderate-to-severe

Thorleif Etgen; Dirk Sander; Michel Chonchol; Holger Poppert; Hans F; Horst Bickel

2009-01-01

241

Prevalence of Different Horticultural Taxa of Ivy ( Hedera spp., Araliaceae) in Invading Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘English’ ivy (Hedera spp.) is a complex of invasive plant pests that are separated into several distinct taxa. To better understand the invasion\\u000a by ivy of Pacific Northwest native forests, we investigated the taxonomic identity of 58 selected invasive populations in\\u000a the Pacific Northwest. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers revealed that 83% of the 119 samples from invading\\u000a populations

Midori M. Clarke; Sarah H. Reichard; Clement W. Hamilton

2006-01-01

242

Stoichiometric Constraints Do Not Limit Successful Invaders: Zebra Mussels in Swedish Lakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElemental imbalances of carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) ratios in food resources can constrain the growth of grazers owning to tight coupling between growth rate, RNA allocation and biomass P content in animals. Testing for stoichiometric constraints among invasive species is a novel challenge in invasion ecology to unravel how a successful invader tackles ecological barriers in novel ecosystems.Methodology\\/Principal

Rahmat Naddafi; Peter Eklöv; Kurt Pettersson; Andy Hector

2009-01-01

243

Ramet Demography of a Clonal Invader, Arundo donax (Poaceae), in Southern California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arundo donax L. is a rhizomatous perennial, asexually reproducing species that has invaded riparian habitats throughout Mediterranean\\u000a climate zones. This research evaluated ramet demography of A. donax in two California riparian communities that differed in nitrogen availability. Quadrats were established along 100 m transects\\u000a at each site and oriented across the advancing fronts of established populations. Morphology and phenology were

Joseph G. Decruyenaere; Jodie S. Holt

2005-01-01

244

Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces?  

PubMed Central

Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important first steps for revealing the molecular sensitive targets in cells lethally challenged by exposure to copper surfaces and provide a scientific explanation for the use of copper surfaces as antimicrobial agents for supporting public hygiene.

Santo, Christophe Espirito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

2011-01-01

245

What Killed The Dinosaurs?: The Great Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents theories about why the dinosaurs became extinct. The first page provides background information covering not only the "great dying" at the K-T boundary but also the mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic Era. The author covers six factors that complicate the study of mass extinction including time resolution, the Signor-Lipps Effect, and falsifiability. A link then takes the reader to a second page where invalid extinction hypotheses are explained. These range from "hay fever killed the dinosaurs" to "the dinosaurs just faded away," (no causation implied). The final link leads us to current thinking about extinction including volcanism, plate tectonics, and the Alvarez Hypothesis.

Hutchinson, John

246

Progress at Fresh Kills improving water quality  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that in December 1987, the federal district court in Nevada issued a consent order forcing New York City (NYC) to improve its handling of solid waste and reduce the discharge of solid waste into the surrounding waterway. Implementation of the consent order by NYC resulted in many improvements in the transport of solid waste from the Marine Transfer Station (MTS) to Fresh Kills Landfill. The end result was a marked reduction in solid waste discharge and an improvement in water quality along the New Jersey shore areas.

Londres, E.J.

1991-06-01

247

Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 Nagasaki strain adheres and invades PK-15 cells.  

PubMed

Haemophilus parasuis is the agent responsible for causing Glässer's disease, which is characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro ability of two H. parasuis serovars of different virulence (serovar 5, Nagasaki strain, highly virulent, belonging to serovar 5, and SW114 strain, nonvirulent, belonging to serovar 3) to adhere to and invade porcine kidney epithelial cells (PK-15 line). Nagasaki strain was able to attach at high levels from 60 to 180 min of incubation irrespective of the concentrations compared (10(7)-10(10)CFU), and a substantial increase of surface projections could be seen in PK-15 cells by scanning electron microscopy. This virulent strain was also able to invade effectively these epithelial cells, and the highest invasion capacity was reached at 180 min of infection. On the contrary, nonvirulent SW114 strain hardly adhered to PK-15 cells, and it did not invade these cells, thus suggesting that adherence and invasion of porcine kidney epithelial cells could be a virulence mechanism involved in the lesions caused by H. parasuis Nagasaki strain in this organ. PMID:21839589

Frandoloso, Rafael; Martínez-Martínez, Sonia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F

2011-07-28

248

Invasional interference due to similar inter- and intraspecific competition between invaders may affect management.  

PubMed

As the number of biological invasions increases, the potential for invader-invader interactions also rises. The effect of multiple invaders can be superadditive (invasional meltdown), additive, or subadditive (invasional interference); which of these situations occurs has critical implications for prioritization of management efforts. Carduus nutans and C. acanthoides, two congeneric invasive weeds, have a striking, segregated distribution in central Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Possible hypotheses for this pattern include invasion history and chance, direct competition, or negative interactions mediated by other species, such as shared pollinators. To explore the role of resource competition in generating this pattern, we conducted three related experiments using a response-surface design throughout the life cycles of two cohorts. Although these species have similar niche requirements, we found no differential response to competition between conspecifics vs. congeners. The response to combined density was relatively weak for both species. While direct competitive interactions do not explain the segregated distributional patterns of these two species, we predict that invasions of either species singly, or both species together, would have similar impacts. When prioritizing which areas to target to prevent the spread of one of the species, it is better to focus on areas as yet unaffected by its congener; where the congener is already present, invasional interference makes it unlikely that the net effect will change. PMID:22908701

Rauschert, Emily Sofia Jalics; Shea, Katriona

2012-07-01

249

Parasitism may enhance rather than reduce the predatory impact of an invader  

PubMed Central

Invasive species can have profound impacts on communities and it is increasingly recognized that such effects may be mediated by parasitism. The ‘enemy release’ hypothesis posits that invaders may be successful and have high impacts owing to escape from parasitism. Alternatively, we hypothesize that parasites may increase host feeding rates and hence parasitized invaders may have increased community impacts. Here, we investigate the influence of parasitism on the predatory impact of the invasive freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex. Up to 70 per cent of individuals are infected with the acanthocephalan parasite Echinorhynchus truttae, but parasitized individuals were no different in body condition to those unparasitized. Parasitized individuals consumed significantly more prey (Asellus aquaticus; Isopoda) than did unparasitized individuals. Both parasitized and unparasitized individuals displayed Type-II functional responses (FRs), with the FR for parasitized individuals rising more steeply, with a higher asymptote, compared with unparasitized individuals. While the parasite reduced the fitness of individual females, we predict a minor effect on population recruitment because of low parasite prevalence in the peak reproductive period. The parasite thus has a large per capita effect on predatory rate but a low population fitness effect, and thus may enhance rather than reduce the impact of this invader.

Dick, Jaimie T. A.; Armstrong, Michael; Clarke, Hazel C.; Farnsworth, Keith D.; Hatcher, Melanie J.; Ennis, Marilyn; Kelly, Andrew; Dunn, Alison M.

2010-01-01

250

Invader partitions ecological and evolutionary responses to above- and belowground herbivory.  

PubMed

Interactions between above- and belowground herbivory may, affect plant performance and structure communities. Though many studies have documented interactions of invasive plants and.herbivores, none shows how above- and belowground herbivores interact to affect invasive plant performance. Here, in a common garden in China, we subjected genetically differentiated tallow trees (Triadica sebifera) from native (China) and invaded (United States) ranges to herbivory by aboveground adults and belowground larvae of a specialist beetle, Bikasha collaris. Overall, relative to plants from China, U.S. plants had greater total and aboveground mass, comparable belowground mass, lower resistance to both above- and belowground herbivory, and higher tolerance to aboveground herbivory only. Accordingly, aboveground adults had greater impacts on Chinese plants, but belowground larvae more strongly impacted U.S. plants. These results indicate that the invader may adopt an "aboveground first" strategy, allocating more resources aboveground in response to selection for increased competitive ability, which increases aboveground tolerance to herbivory. Furthermore, we found that adults facilitated larval success, and these feedbacks were stronger for U.S. plants, suggesting that aboveground feeding of adults may be associated with lower defenses and/or higher resources belowground in the invader. Therefore, plants may have evolved different responses to above- and belowground herbivory, which can affect invasion success and herbivore population dynamics. These findings may provide new insights for an effective biological control program against invasive plants. PMID:23236906

Huang, Wei; Carrillo, Juli; Ding, Jianqing; Siemann, Evan

2012-11-01

251

Invasion success depends on invader body size in a size-structured mixed predation-competition community.  

PubMed

1. The size of an individual is an important determinant of its trophic position and the type of interactions it engages in with other heterospecific and conspecific individuals. Consequently an individual's ecological role in a community changes with its body size over ontogeny, leading to that trophic interactions between individuals are a size-dependent and ontogenetically variable mixture of competition and predation. 2. Because differently sized individuals thus experience different biotic environments, invasion success may be determined by the body size of the invaders. Invasion outcome may also depend on the productivity of the system as productivity influences the biotic environment. 3. In a laboratory experiment with two poeciliid fishes the body size of the invading individuals and the daily amount of food supplied were manipulated. 4. Large invaders established persistent populations and drove the resident population to extinction in 10 out of 12 cases, while small invaders failed in 10 out of 12 trials. Stable coexistence was virtually absent. Invasion outcome was independent of productivity. 5. Further analyses suggest that small invaders experienced a competitive recruitment bottleneck imposed on them by the resident population. In contrast, large invaders preyed on the juveniles of the resident population. This predation allowed the large invaders to establish successfully by decreasing the resident population densities and thus breaking the bottleneck. 6. The results strongly suggest that the size distribution of invaders affects their ability to invade, an implication so far neglected in life-history omnivory systems. The findings are further in agreement with predictions of life-history omnivory theory, that size-structured interactions demote coexistence along a productivity gradient. PMID:19682142

Schröder, Arne; Nilsson, Karin A; Persson, Lennart; van Kooten, Tobias; Reichstein, Birte

2009-07-22

252

40 CFR 725.88 - Uses of a microorganism.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Uses of a microorganism. 725.88 Section 725...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Confidentiality and Public...Information § 725.88 Uses of a microorganism. (a) Assertion of...

2013-07-01

253

Role of YadA in resistance to killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by antimicrobial polypeptides of human granulocytes.  

PubMed Central

The virulence plasmid pYVe of Yersinia enterocolitica codes for the production of the outer membrane protein YadA and the secretion of several proteins, called Yops, which may protect this bacterium against killing by human granulocytes. Granulocytes kill ingested microorganisms by oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms, the latter including antimicrobial polypeptides. The aim of this study was to determine whether virulent (pYVe+) Y. enterocolitica and plasmid-cured avirulent (pYVe-) Y. enterocolitica differ in susceptibility to antimicrobial polypeptides extracted from granules of human granulocytes. The acetic acid granule extract contained several polypeptides with antimicrobial activity against Y. enterocolitica as determined by gel overlay and radial diffusion assays. Two of these polypeptides were identified as lysozyme and defensins. pYVe+ Y. enterocolitica was less susceptible than pYVe- Y. enterocolitica to the antimicrobial activity of granule extract, lysozyme, and defensins as determined in a suspension assay, which indicated that the pYVe plasmid mediates a reduced susceptibility to these polypeptides. The role of YadA in the resistance to antimicrobial polypeptides was analyzed by using mutants of Y. enterocolitica that specifically lack or express YadA. The results demonstrated that YadA conferred resistance to the killing of Y. enterocolitica by the granule extract. Together, these results indicate that the plasmid-encoded factor YadA contributes to the resistance of Y. enterocolitica to the killing by antimicrobial polypeptides of human granulocytes.

Visser, L G; Hiemstra, P S; van den Barselaar, M T; Ballieux, P A; van Furth, R

1996-01-01

254

The ability of insect-killing fungi to kill pecan aphids under laboratory conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is need for efficacious biocontrol agents for pecan aphids in commercial orchards. We determined the virulence (killing power) of several beneficial fungi to pecan aphids. We tested three species (kinds) of fungi: 1) Isaria fumosorosea (two strains of this species were tested: ARSEF 3581 a...

255

Alteration of glasses by micro-organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-organisms are suspected to play a basic part in materials alteration. Obviously, they will be present in nuclear waste repositories, either introduced by technological activity or laid by fluids circulation. Their metabolism may induce chemical modifications to the surrounding media and then affect the durability of storage materials. Biodegradation of glasses is studied in the Pierre Süe Laboratory. In the frame of a collaboration with microbiologists interested in stained glasses alteration, leaching experiments with various species of bacteria and fungi are carried out. Ion beam analysis techniques are performed to quantify surface modification of glasses and elemental incorporation in micro-organisms. Analyses of the solutions will lead to a complete assessment of elemental exchanges between glass sample, culture media and micro-organisms. In this paper, preliminary results on characterisation of glasses and micro-organisms and the first results of leaching experiments are presented.

Gallien, J.-P.; Gouget, B.; Carrot, F.; Orial, G.; Brunet, A.

2001-07-01

256

Autonomous Support for Microorganism Research in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary design for performing on orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells/tissues is presented. An understanding of gravity and its effects on cells is crucial for space exploration as well as for terrestrial applications. The...

M. L. Fleet M. S. Miller D. Shipley J. D. Smith

1992-01-01

257

Metabolism of Rickettsiae and Related Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pathway of glutamine utilization was investigated by thin layer chromatography. The accumulation of intermediates of the citric acid cycle from alpha-ketoglutarate to malate was demonstrated by incubating the microorganisms with small amounts of gluta...

E. Weiss

1965-01-01

258

Air Pollution Aspects of Biological Aerosols (Microorganisms).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biological aerosols--suspensions of microorganisms in the air--can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants and degradation of inanimate materials. The present knowledge pertaining to the relationships between dose-effect, viability, survival of micr...

H. Finkelstein

1969-01-01

259

EFFECTS OF KEPONE ON ESTUARINE MICROORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Low concentration of the insecticide Kepone, approaching those found in contaminated James River sediment, were shown to be inhibitory to the growth and oxygen uptake of microorganisms randomly selected from estuarine environments. No significant correlations were noted between g...

260

Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Characterization of Microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in instrumentation, proteomics, and bioinformatics have contributed to the successful applications of mass spectrometry (MS) for detection, identification, and classification of microorganisms. These MS applications are based on the detection of organism-specific biomarker molecules, which allow differentiation between organisms to be made. Intact proteins, their proteolytic peptides, and nonribosomal peptides have been successfully utilized as biomarkers. Sequence-specific fragments for biomarkers are generated by tandem MS of intact proteins or proteolytic peptides, obtained after, for instance, microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis. In combination with proteome database searching, individual biomarker proteins are unambiguously identified from their tandem mass spectra, and from there the source microorganism is also identified. Such top-down or bottom-up proteomics approaches permit rapid, sensitive, and confident characterization of individual microorganisms in mixtures and are reviewed here. Examples of MS-based functional assays for detection of targeted microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus anthracis, in environmental or clinically relevant backgrounds are also reviewed.

Demirev, Plamen A.; Fenselau, Catherine

2008-07-01

261

Autonomous Support for Microorganism Research in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary design for performing on-orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells/tissues is presented. An understanding of gravity and its effects on cells is crucial for space exploration as well as for terrestrial applications. The...

M. W. Luttges D. M. Klaus M. L. Fleet M. S. Miller D. E. Shipley

1992-01-01

262

Evolution of Glutathione Metabolism in Phototrophic Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The low molecular weight thiol composition of a variety of phototrophic microorganisms is examined in order to ascertain how evolution of glutathione (GSH) production is related to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cells were extracted in the pres...

R. C. Fahey R. M. Buschbacher G. L. Newton

1988-01-01

263

Automated systems for identification of microorganisms.  

PubMed Central

Automated instruments for the identification of microorganisms were introduced into clinical microbiology laboratories in the 1970s. During the past two decades, the capabilities and performance characteristics of automated identification systems have steadily progressed and improved. This article explores the development of the various automated identification systems available in the United States and reviews their performance for identification of microorganisms. Observations regarding deficiencies and suggested improvements for these systems are provided.

Stager, C E; Davis, J R

1992-01-01

264

Butanol Tolerance in a Selection of Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Butanol tolerance is a critical factor affecting the ability of microorganisms to generate economically viable quantities\\u000a of butanol. Current Clostridium strains are unable to tolerate greater than 2% 1-butanol thus membrane or gas stripping technologies to actively remove butanol\\u000a during fermentation are advantageous. To evaluate the potential of alternative hosts for butanol production, we screened 24\\u000a different microorganisms for their

Eric P. Knoshaug; Min Zhang

2009-01-01

265

Characterization of Microorganisms by MALDI Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix-assisted laser desorption\\/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for characterization and analysis of microorganisms, specifically bacteria, is described here as a rapid screening tool. The objective of this technique is not comprehensive protein analysis of a microorganism but rather a rapid screening of the organism and the accessible protein pattern for characterization and distinction. This method is based on the ionization

Catherine E. Petersen; Nancy B. Valentine; Karen L. Wahl

2008-01-01

266

Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas, Revised and Updated with More Species and Expanded Control Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contrary to the title, the focus of Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas is native biodiversity. Invasive species and habitat destruction, intensified by global climate change, are running neck-toneck as the leading causes of environmental despoli...

B. Slattery J. Swearingen K. Reshetiloff S. Zwicker

2010-01-01

267

Effect of Microorganisms on In Situ Uranium Mining  

PubMed Central

The extraction of some metal values, e.g., uranium or copper, may be accomplished by using solutions to remove metals from ore bodies without practicing conventional mining. This process is referred to as in situ leaching and has been used industrially to recover uranium. The growth of microbial populations during in situ leaching is believed to be one of the causes of flow path plugging in the ore body, which results in decreased uranium production. Leach solution and solid samples from well casings and submersible pumps were collected from an in situ mining operation experiencing plugging problems. Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., pseudomonads, and xanthomonads were isolated from these samples in concentrations of 105 CFU ml?1. A mixed culture of these organisms was inoculated into a uranium core specimen in the laboratory to assess the role of microbes in the plugging problem. A one-third decrease in permeability was effected in 16 days. Hydrogen peroxide (0.2 g liter?1) killed the microorganisms in the core and alleviated the plugging problem. Periodically injecting hydrogen peroxide into the ore body through the production wells may reduce microbial plugging problems.

Yates, Marylynn V.; Brierley, James A.; Brierley, Corale L.; Follin, Steven

1983-01-01

268

Antimicrobial Peptide Killing of African Trypanosomes  

PubMed Central

Summary The diseases caused by trypanosomes are medically and economically devastating to the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Parasites of the genus Trypanosoma, infect both humans, causing African sleeping sickness, and livestock, causing Nagana. The development of effective treatment strategies has suffered from the severe side effects of approved drugs, resistance and major difficulties in delivering drugs. Antimicrobial peptides are ubiquitous components of immune defense and are being rigorously pursued as novel sources of new therapeutics for a variety of pathogens. Here we review the role of antimicrobial peptides in the innate immune response of the tsetse fly to African trypanosomes, catalogue trypanocidal antimicrobial peptides from diverse organisms and highlight the susceptibility of bloodstream form African trypanosomes to killing by unconventional toxic peptides.

Harrington, John M.

2011-01-01

269

Advancements in dynamic kill calculations for blowout wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the development, interpretation, and use of dynamic kill equations. To this end, three simple calculation techniques are developed for determining the minimum dynamic kill rate. Two techniques contain only single-phase calculations and are independent of reservoir inflow performance. Despite these limitations, these two methods are useful for bracketing the minimum flow rates necessary to kill a blowing well. For the third technique, a simplified mechanistic multiphase-flow model is used to determine a most-probable minimum kill rate.

Kouba, G.E. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States). Production Fluids Div.); MacDougall, G.R. (Chevron Canada Resources Ltd., Slave Lake, (Canada)); Schumacher, B.W. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States). Information Technology Dept.)

1993-09-01

270

Kill the Bacteria ... and Also Their Messengers?  

PubMed Central

We consider here a previously neglected aspect of recovery from infectious diseases: how animals dispose of the dead microbes in their tissues. For one of the most important disease-causing microorganisms, Gram-negative bacteria, there is now evidence that the host catabolism of a key microbial molecule is essential for full recovery. As might be expected, it is the same bacterial molecule that animals sense to detect the presence of Gram-negative bacteria in their tissues, the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here, we discuss current knowledge about LPS sensing with emphasis on the host enzyme that inactivates this microbial “messenger” molecule. We also consider the possibility that the rate at which stimulatory microbial molecules undergo inactivation may influence the duration and severity of diseases caused by other infectious agents.

Munford, Robert; Lu, Mingfang; Varley, Alan

2009-01-01

271

A Case of Recurrent Schneiderian Papilloma of the Lacrimal Sac Invading the Nasal Cavity  

PubMed Central

A 44-year-old man presented with a history of chronic epiphora, discharge from the right eye, and a palpable mass in the medial canthal area. Irrigation of the lacrimal system revealed bloody discharge. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-defined heterogeneous enhanced mass filling the lacrimal sac and upper nasolacrimal duct (NLD). A wide excision and surgical biopsy were performed. Histopathology showed the tumor to be an exophytic Schneiderian papilloma with moderate to severe dysplasia. Three months later, the mass was found to be invading the nasal cavity through the NLD. Endoscopic histopathological evaluation confirmed that it was identical to the originally identified papilloma.

Jang, Ji Hye; Choe, Mi Sun

2009-01-01

272

Patterns of litter disappearance in a northern hardwood forest invaded by exotic earthworms.  

PubMed

A field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of exotic earthworm invasions on the rates of leaf litter disappearance in a northern hardwood forest in southcentral New York, USA. Specifically, we assessed whether differences in litter quality and the species composition of exotic earthworm communities affected leaf litter disappearance rates. Two forest sites with contrasting communities of exotic earthworms were selected, and disappearance rates of sugar maple and red oak litter were estimated in litter boxes in adjacent earthworm-free, transition, and earthworm-invaded plots within each site. After 540 days in the field, 1.7-3 times more litter remained in the reference plots than in the earthworm-invaded plots. In the earthworm-invaded plots, rates of disappearance of sugar maple litter were higher than for oak litter during the first year, but by the end of the experiment, the amount of sugar maple and oak litter remaining in the earthworm-invaded plots was identical within each site. The composition of the earthworm communities significantly affected the patterns of litter disappearance. In the site dominated by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris and the endogeic Aporrectodea tuberculata, the percentage of litter remaining after 540 days (approximately 17%) was significantly less than at the site dominated by L. rubellus and Octolasion tyrtaeum (approximately 27%). This difference may be attributed to the differences in feeding behavior of the two litter-feeding species: L. terrestris buries entire leaves in vertical burrows, whereas L. rubellus usually feeds on litter at the soil surface, leaving behind leaf petioles and veins. Our results showed that earthworms not only accelerate litter disappearance rates, but also may reduce the differences in decomposition rates that result from different litter qualities at later stages of decay. Similarly, our results indicate that earthworm effects on decomposition vary with earthworm community composition. Furthermore, because earthworm invasion can involve a predictable shift in community structure along invasion fronts or through time, the community dynamics of invasion are important in predicting the spatial and temporal effects of earthworm invasion on litter decomposition, especially at later stages of decay. PMID:16705969

Suárez, Esteban R; Fahey, Timothy J; Yavitt, Joseph B; Groffman, Peter M; Bohlen, Patrick J

2006-02-01

273

Surgical Treatment of Lung Cancer Invading the Left Atrium or Base of the Pulmonary Vein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of the present study was to explore the efficacy of an extended operation for locally advanced non-small cell\\u000a lung cancer invading the left atrium and intrapericardial pulmonary vein.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  From January 2000 to January 2006, lobectomy or pneumonectomy combined with extended resection of the left atrium was carried\\u000a out in 46 patients. The operations included left lower lobectomy in

Lihui Wu; Zhifei Xu; Xuewei Zhao; Jianqiu Li; Lei Zhong; Tieweng Pang; Bin Wu

2009-01-01

274

Epiphyte Water Retention and Evaporation in Native and Invaded Tropical Montane Cloud Forests in Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epiphyte water retention was quantified at two montane cloud forest sites in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, one native and the other invaded by an alien tree species. Water storage elements measured included all epiphytic mosses, leafy liverworts, and filmy ferns. Tree surface area was estimated and a careful survey was taken to account for all epiphytes in the sample area of the forest. Samples were collected and analyzed in the lab for epiphyte water retention capacity (WRC). Based on the volume of the different kinds of epiphytes and their corresponding WRC, forest stand water retention capacity for each survey area was estimated. Evaporation from the epiphyte mass was quantified using artificial reference samples attached to trees that were weighed at intervals to determine changes in stored water on days without significant rain or fog. In addition, a soil moisture sensor was wrapped in an epiphyte sample and left in the forest for a 6-day period. Epiphyte biomass at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated to be 2.89 t ha-1 and 1.05 t ha-1, respectively. Average WRC at the Native Site and Invaded Site were estimated at 1.45 mm and 0.68 mm, respectively. The difference is likely due to the presence of the invasive Psidium cattleianum at the Invaded Site because its smooth stem surface is unable to support a significant epiphytic layer. The evaporation rate from the epiphyte mass near WSC for the forest stand at the Native Site was measured at 0.38 mm day-1, which represented 10.6 % of the total ET from the forest canopy at the Native Site during the period. The above research has been recently complemented by a thorough investigation of the WSC of all water storage elements (tree stems, tree leaves, shrubs, grasses, litter, fallen branches, and epiphytes) at six forested sites at different elevations within, above, and below the zone of frequent cloud-cover. The goal of this study was to create an inexpensive and efficient methodology for acquiring estimates of above-ground water retention in different types of forests by means of minimally-destructive sampling and surveying. The results of this work serve as baseline data providing a range of possible values of the water retention of specific forest elements and the entire above-ground total where no values have been previously recorded.

Mudd, R. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.

2006-12-01

275

Velocity of an electric-field-induced synclinic solitary wave invading the anticlinic liquid crystal phase  

SciTech Connect

The electric-field dependence of the velocity of synclinic fingers invading the anticlinic phase is determined by a time-of-flight technique. The time delay for a rapid increase in the transmitted optical intensity through the sample is measured between two points as a function of their separation along the trajectory of the solitary wave. The data are quantitatively consistent with the rapid velocities deduced from a previous measurement [Liq. Cryst. >27, 249 (2000)], demonstrating that the previous data were not affected by multiple nucleation sites occurring at higher fields.

Bhatt, Neha S.; Zhang, Shiyong; Keast, S. S.; Neubert, M. E.; Rosenblatt, Charles

2001-06-01

276

Fire ants: An invader we don't want in cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

fire ants 'nurture' the aphids, and attack and kill any predators they encounter. The researchers found that in cotton fields with high densities of fire ants, cotton aphids were much more abundant, and ladybeetles and lacewing larvae became less abundant. In a series of field and greenhouse experiments, the researchers quantified the impact of fire ants on a range of

Martin Dillon; Brad Scholz

277

[Study on benzene degraded by soil microorganism].  

PubMed

The experiments were made in laboratory to analyze the characteristics and principle of benzene's biodegradation using the microorganism (G-, Flavobacterium) taken from Daqing oil fields. Results show that the maximal concentration of benzene, which microorganisms could endure is between 8.8 mg x L(-1) and 17.6 mg x L(-1); microorganisms were inhibited as benzene's concentration was beyond 17.6 mg x L(-1). Trends of benzene's concentration in and out of microorganism's cell are almost same; the biodegradation could be achieved efficiently as the pH range of 6.5 - 7.0 and benzene initial concentration range of 7.04 - 13.2 mg x L(-1). Change of - lgP (P is the distributive ratio of benzene in membrane and water) could be illustrated the trends of toxicity and degradation of benzene in and out of microorganism's cell; the biodegradation rate varied simultaneously with the change of P as initial concentration of benzene was beyond 8.8 mg x L(-1). PMID:16447449

Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Wang, Hong-qi; Liu, Jing-qi; Yao, Zhi-hua; Chen, Yan-jun

2005-11-01

278

Hydrodynamic interaction of two unsteady model microorganisms.  

PubMed

The study of pair-wise interactions between swimming microorganisms is fundamental to the understanding of the rheological and transport properties of semi-dilute suspensions. In this paper, the hydrodynamic interaction of two ciliated microorganisms is investigated numerically using a boundary-element method, and the microorganisms are modeled as spherical squirmers that swim by time-dependent surface deformations. The results show that the inclusion of the unsteady terms in the ciliary propulsion model has a large impact on the trajectories of the interacting cells, and causes a significant change in scattering angles with potential important consequences on the diffusion properties of semi-dilute suspensions. Furthermore, the analysis of the shear stress acting on the surface of the microorganisms revealed that the duration and the intensity of the near-field interaction are significantly modified by the presence of unsteadiness. This observation may account for the hydrodynamic nature of randomness in some biological reactions, and supersedes the distinction between intrinsic randomness and hydrodynamic interactions, adding a further element to the understanding and modeling of interacting microorganisms. PMID:20696173

Giacché, Davide; Ishikawa, Takuji

2010-08-07

279

Killing of adherent oral microbes by a non-thermal atmospheric plasma jet.  

PubMed

Atmospheric plasma jets are being intensively studied with respect to potential applications in medicine. The aim of this in vitro study was to test a microwave-powered non-thermal atmospheric plasma jet for its antimicrobial efficacy against adherent oral micro-organisms. Agar plates and dentin slices were inoculated with 6 log(10) c.f.u. cm(-2) of Lactobacillus casei, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans, with Escherichia coli as a control. Areas of 1 cm(2) on the agar plates or the complete dentin slices were irradiated with a helium plasma jet for 0.3, 0.6 or 0.9 s mm(-2), respectively. The agar plates were incubated at 37 degrees C, and dentin slices were vortexed in liquid media and suspensions were placed on agar plates. The killing efficacy of the plasma jet was assessed by counting the number of c.f.u. on the irradiated areas of the agar plates, as well as by determination of the number of c.f.u. recovered from dentin slices. A microbe-killing effect was found on the irradiated parts of the agar plates for L. casei, S. mutans, C. albicans and E. coli. The plasma-jet treatment reduced the c.f.u. by 3-4 log(10) intervals on the dentin slices in comparison to recovery rates from untreated controls. The microbe-killing effect was correlated with increasing irradiation times. Thus, non-thermal atmospheric plasma jets could be used for the disinfection of dental surfaces. PMID:19910483

Rupf, Stefan; Lehmann, Antje; Hannig, Matthias; Schäfer, Barbara; Schubert, Andreas; Feldmann, Uwe; Schindler, Axel

2009-11-12

280

Lifetime success and interactions of farm salmon invading a native population.  

PubMed Central

Farm Atlantic salmon escape and invade rivers throughout the North Atlantic annually, which has generated growing concern about their impacts on native salmon populations. A large-scale experiment was therefore undertaken in order to quantify the lifetime success and interactions of farm salmon invading a Norwegian river. Sexually mature farm and native salmon were genetically screened, radio tagged and released into the River Imsa where no other salmon had been allowed to ascend. The farm fishes were competitively and reproductively inferior, achieving less than one-third the breeding success of the native fishes. Moreover, this inferiority was sex biased, being more pronounced in farm males than females, resulting in the principal route of gene flow involving native males mating with farm females. There were also indications of selection against farm genotypes during early survival but not thereafter. However, evidence of resource competition and competitive displacement existed as the productivity of the native population was depressed by more than 30%. Ultimately, the lifetime reproductive success (adult to adult) of the farm fishes was 16% that of the native salmon. Our results indicate that such annual invasions have the potential for impacting on population productivity, disrupting local adaptations and reducing the genetic diversity of wild salmon populations.

Fleming, I A; Hindar, K; Mj?lner?d, I B; Jonsson, B; Balstad, T; Lamberg, A

2000-01-01

281

Life History Variation in Invading Applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) May Pose Ecological Threats to Wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In native habitats, channeled applesnails (Pomacea canaliculata) graze periphyton. However, casual observations from introduced populations suggest these invaders show variation in feeding ecology, predator response and life history strategies. Attempts to predict this consumer influence on ecosystem function suffer from a lack of basic data. We tested how salinity affected snail mortality. Both adults and hatchlings tolerated salinity levels up to 8 ppt. Adult feeding on lettuce increased significantly at 8 ppt compared to 0 ppt (p = 0.002), while hatchling consumption of algae did not vary (p = 0.284). To see how these consumers responded to predators from the invaded ecosystem, we tested behavioural responses to predatory cues from fish, turtles, crayfish and adult applesnails. Results indicated that fish and crayfish prompted similar predator-avoidance behaviors in hatchlings (p's < 0.05) and that hatchling response changed over time. Consumption rates of juvenile redear sunfish did not vary (x2, p > 0.05) between native (ramshorn) and exotic applesnails, whereas adult fish consumed more applesnails (x2, p < 0.001). Our current efforts focus on examining if predator presence or macrophyte choice alters applesnail feeding rates. Research providing insight into the basic ecology of applesnails can foster management efforts at the ecosystem scale.

Marfurt, R. K.; Boland, B. B.; Burks, R. L.

2005-05-01

282

Peroxynitrite enhances the ability of Salmonella dublin to invade T84 monolayers.  

PubMed

In the intestine, epithelial cells continually produce and secrete low levels of nitric oxide (NO). Salmonella sp. invade epithelium by responding to environmental stimuli. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs) on S. dublin and S. typhimurium growth and invasion of T84 epithelial monolayers. Intracellular NO formation was inhibited by 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) or N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine, monoacetate (L-NMMA); extracellular NO and peroxynitrite were scavenged with ferro-hemoglobin or urate. The effect of authentic peroxynitrite (ONOO-); 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1), which releases ONOO- via NO and superoxide; spermine NONOate, which releases only NO; or superoxide generated by xanthine oxidase and pterin on S. dublin and S. typhimurium growth and invasion were examined. Inhibition of NO synthesis and scavenging of extracellular NO or peroxynitrite reduced S. dublin invasion into T84 monolayers and enhanced bacterial growth. Pre-exposure of S. dublin to ONOO- and SIN-1 increased subsequent bacterial invasion into T84 monolayers. Conversely, exposure of bacteria to spermine NONOate or superoxide did not affect S. dublin invasion. In contrast, S. typhimurium invasion was not affected by pre-treatment with NO donors. In conclusion, exposure of S. dublin to ONOO- enhances the ability of the bacteria to invade epithelial cells. These results suggest that luminal ONOO- may have a novel role as an extracellular signal between invasive bacteria and epithelial cells. PMID:12095142

Cornish, Anthony S; Jijon, Humberto; Yachimec, Christine; Madsen, Karen L

2002-07-01

283

Morphological Changes of the Invading Structure in a 2D Multiphase Flow Driven by Oscillatory Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interest in investigation of a multiphase flow in porous media has become increasingly popular due to its applicability in oil and environmental engineering. The observed increase of oil recovery in the production wells affected by seismic activity has suggested alternative ways in stimulating removal of residual oil in reservoirs. We experimentally investigate a horizontal flow of two immiscible fluids driven by oscillatory pressure in a small scale quasi two-dimensional porous synthetic medium. The wetting phase (water-glycerol solution) is withdrawn from the porous matrix at a constant speed creating a pressure drop between the phases and initiating the flow. To replicate the seismic activity the pressure in the non-wetting phase (air) is being oscillated. The withdrawal is performed at a slow speed providing that the flow stays within the limits of the capillary regime. The amplitudes and the frequencies of the oscillations are controlled. Systematically changing the amplitude and the frequency different morphologies of the invading cluster are achieved. The change in the shape of the invading structure is greatly due to the elasticity of the system as it responds to the pressure perturbations. By controlling the elasticity we are able to mimic the nature of porous material in oil reservoirs. The difference in the morphological characteristics results in the extraction of various amounts of the non-wetting phase. Ultimately these findings can be used in enhancing oil production or for the soil and ground water remediation routines (e.g. removal of non-aqueous phase liquids).

Jankov, M.; Måløy, K. J.; Løvoll, G.; Flekkøy, E. G.; Toussaint, R.

2007-12-01

284

Polychaete invader enhances resource utilization in a species-poor system.  

PubMed

Ecosystem consequences of biodiversity change are often studied from a species loss perspective, while the effects of invasive species on ecosystem functions are rarely quantified. In this experimental study, we used isotope tracers to measure the incorporation and burial of carbon and nitrogen from a simulated spring phytoplankton bloom by communities of one to four species of deposit-feeding macrofauna found in the species-poor Baltic Sea. The recently invading polychaete Marenzelleria arctia, which has spread throughout the Baltic Sea, grows more rapidly than the native species Monoporeia affinis, Pontoporeia femorata (both amphipods) and Macoma balthica (a bivalve), resulting in higher biomass increase (biomass production) in treatments including the polychaete. Marenzelleria incorporated and buried bloom material at rates similar to the native species. Multi-species treatments generally had higher isotope incorporation, indicative of utilization of bloom material, than expected from monoculture yields of the respective species. The mechanism behind this observed over-yielding was mainly niche complementarity in utilization of the bloom input, and was more evident in communities including the invader. In contrast, multi-species treatments had generally lower biomass increase than expected. This contrasting pattern suggests that there is little overlap in resource use of freshly deposited bloom material between Marenzelleria and the native species but it is likely that interference competition acts to dampen resulting community biomass. In conclusion, an invasive species can enhance incorporation and burial of organic matter from settled phytoplankton blooms, two processes fundamental for marine productivity. PMID:21344257

Karlson, Agnes M L; Näslund, Johan; Rydén, Sara Blomgren; Elmgren, Ragnar

2011-02-23

285

Conciliation biology: the eco-evolutionary management of permanently invaded biotic systems  

PubMed Central

Biotic invaders and similar anthropogenic novelties such as domesticates, transgenics, and cancers can alter ecology and evolution in environmental, agricultural, natural resource, public health, and medical systems. The resulting biological changes may either hinder or serve management objectives. For example, biological control and eradication programs are often defeated by unanticipated resistance evolution and by irreversibility of invader impacts. Moreover, eradication may be ill-advised when nonnatives introduce beneficial functions. Thus, contexts that appear to call for eradication may instead demand managed coexistence of natives with nonnatives, and yet applied biologists have not generally considered the need to manage the eco-evolutionary dynamics that commonly result from interactions of natives with nonnatives. Here, I advocate a conciliatory approach to managing systems where novel organisms cannot or should not be eradicated. Conciliatory strategies incorporate benefits of nonnatives to address many practical needs including slowing rates of resistance evolution, promoting evolution of indigenous biological control, cultivating replacement services and novel functions, and managing native–nonnative coevolution. Evolutionary links across disciplines foster cohesion essential for managing the broad impacts of novel biotic systems. Rather than signaling defeat, conciliation biology thus utilizes the predictive power of evolutionary theory to offer diverse and flexible pathways to more sustainable outcomes.

Carroll, Scott P

2011-01-01

286

A Successful Crayfish Invader Is Capable of Facultative Parthenogenesis: A Novel Reproductive Mode in Decapod Crustaceans  

PubMed Central

Biological invasions are impacting biota worldwide, and explaining why some taxa tend to become invasive is of major scientific interest. North American crayfish species, particularly of the family Cambaridae, are prominent invaders in freshwaters, defying the “tens rule” which states that only a minority of species introduced to new regions become established, and only a minority of those become invasive and pests. So far, success of cambarid invaders has largely been attributed to rapid maturation, high reproductive output, aggressiveness, and tolerance to pollution. We provide experimental evidence that females of one cambarid species particularly widespread in Europe, the spiny-cheek crayfish Orconectes limosus, are capable of facultative parthenogenesis. Such reproductive mode has never before been recognized in decapods, the most diverse crustacean order. As shown by analysis of seven microsatellite loci, crayfish females kept physically separated from males produced genetically homogeneous offspring identical with maternal individuals; this suggests they reproduced by apomixis, unlike those females which mated with males and had a diverse offspring. Further research is needed to clarify what environmental conditions are necessary for a switch to parthenogenesis in O. limosus, and what role it plays in natural crayfish populations. However, if such reproductive plasticity is present in other cambarid crayfish species, it may contribute to the overwhelming invasive success of this group.

Buric, Milos; Hulak, Martin; Kouba, Antonin

2011-01-01

287

Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grown under oxygen deprivation invade pulmonary epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis has the ability to adapt to and survive under different environmental conditions, including oxygen deprivation. To better understand the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis, we studied the invasion of human alveolar (A549) and human bronchial (BBM) epithelial cell lines by M. tuberculosis isolates cultured under oxygen deprivation. We used isolates belonging to the Beijing and F15/LAM4/KZN families, isolates with unique DNA fingerprints and the laboratory strains H37Rv and H37Ra. We determined that: (1) M. tuberculosis bacilli grown under oxygen deprivation invade epithelial cells, (2) the invasion capacity of all 17 isolates differed, and (3) oxygen deprivation influenced the invasion capacity of these isolates. All isolates invaded the A549 more effectively than the BBM cells. Three of the F15/LAM4/KZN isolates, two of which had extensively drug resistance (XDR) profiles, were at least twice as invasive (?33%) as the most invasive Beijing isolate (15%) (P < 0.05). We conclude that for a more comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis, studies should include isolates that have been cultured under oxygen deprivation. PMID:22579984

Ashiru, Olubisi T; Pillay, Manormoney; Sturm, A Willem

2012-05-08

288

Characterization of microorganisms using Raman tweezers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to identify and characterize microorganisms (algae, bacteria, eukaryotic cells) from minute sample volumes in a rapid and reliable way is the crucial first step in their classification and characterization. In the light of this challenge related to microorganisms exploitation Raman spectroscopy can be used as a powerful tool for chemical analysis. Raman spectroscopy can elucidate fundamental questions about the metabolic processes and intercellular variability on a single cell level. Moreover, Raman spectroscopy can be combined with optical tweezers and with microfluidic chips to measure nutrient dynamics and metabolism in vivo, in real-time, and label free. We demonstrate the feasibility to employ Raman spectroscopy-based sensor to sort microorganisms (bacteria, algae) according to the Raman spectra. It is now quite feasible to sort algal cells according to the degree of unsaturation (iodine value) in lipid storage bodies.

Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdenek; Jonás, Alexandr; Zemánek, Pavel; Sery, Mojmir; Jezek, Jan; Bernatová, Silvie; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, Martin

2011-09-01

289

Conserved Matter Superenergy Currents for Hypersurface Orthogonal Killing Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that for hypersurface orthogonal Killing vectors, the corresponding Chevreton superenergy currents will be conserved and proportional to the Killing vectors. This holds for four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes with an electromagnetic field that is sourcefree and inherits the symmetry of the spacetime. A similar result also holds for the trace of the Chevreton tensor. The corresponding Bel currents have previously

Ingemar Eriksson

2005-01-01

290

Microwave irradiation for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue  

SciTech Connect

Irradiation by microwaves allows for rapid killing and fixing of plant tissue, with excellent cellular integrity for histological examination. One or two exposures to microwaves for three seconds in formalin/acetic acid/alcohol gave good preservation of nuclei, chloroplasts, and other plant structures. The microwave method offers a considerable saving of time over traditional methods for killing and fixing plant tissue.

Walsh, G.E.; Bohannon, P.M.; Wessinger-Duvall, P.B.

1989-01-01

291

Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)

Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

1977-01-01

292

The classification of Killing magnetic curves in S2×R  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the trajectories of charged particles moving in a space modeled by the homogeneous 3-space S2×R under the action of the Killing magnetic fields. The main results consist in the local description of the magnetic trajectories associated to Killing vector fields in S2×R, providing their complete classification. Moreover, some interpretations in terms of geometric properties are given.

Munteanu, Marian Ioan; Nistor, Ana-Irina

2012-02-01

293

7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. LOOKING WEST TOWARD SHEEP KILL AREA ON SOUTH END OF BUILDING 149; INCLINED CONVEYOR AT LEFT CENTER CARRIED TROLLEYS TO THE AUTOMATIC WASHER/OILER ON THE GALLERY LEVEL - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

294

9 CFR 113.206 - Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Wart Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.206 Section 113.206 Animals...INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS...VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.206 Wart...

2013-01-01

295

Inheriting Spacelike Conformal Killing Vectors in String Cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the consequences of the existence of spacelike conformal Killing vectors (SpCKV) parallel to xa for cosmic strings and string fluid in the context of general relativity. The inheritance symmetries of the cosmic strings and string fluid are discussed in the case of SpCKV. Furthermore we examine proper homothetic spacelike Killing vectors for the cosmic strings and string fluid.

Baysal, Hüsnü

296

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning  

PubMed Central

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a transposon insertion mutation in a gene encoding a subunit of hydrogen cyanide synthase (hcnC) eliminated nematode killing. Second, the 17 avirulent mutants examined all exhibited reduced cyanide synthesis, and the residual production levels correlated with killing efficiency. Third, exposure to exogenous cyanide alone at levels comparable to the level produced by PAO1 killed nematodes with kinetics similar to those observed with bacteria. The killing was not enhanced if hcnC mutant bacteria were present during cyanide exposure. And fourth, a nematode mutant (egl-9) resistant to P. aeruginosa was also resistant to killing by exogenous cyanide in the absence of bacteria. A model for nematode killing based on inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase is presented. The action of cyanide helps account for the unusually broad host range of virulence of P. aeruginosa and may contribute to the pathogenesis in opportunistic human infections due to the bacterium.

Gallagher, Larry A.; Manoil, Colin

2001-01-01

297

PREDATORY BEHAVIOR OF GOVERNMENTS: THE CASE OF MASS KILLING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we seek to answer the question: why do governments engage in mass killing? Tullock (1974) gives gain or avoidance of loss as the motive. We construct a three?stage theoretic framework to explain the choice of a ruler of a country. The conditions that must be met for a mass killing regime to win over alternative regimes are

Sang Hoo Bae; Attiat F. Ott

2008-01-01

298

9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW OF BEEF KILLING FLOOR; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; PLATFORMS IN FOREGROUND WERE USED BY SPLITTERS, TRIMMERS AND GOVERNMENT INSPECTORS; SKINNING TABLE RAN ALONG THE WINDOWS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

299

Control of Influenza and Poliomyelitis with Killed Virus Vaccines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses control of poliomyelitis and influenza by live and killed virus vaccines. Considered are the etiological agents, pathogenic mechanisms and epidemiology of each disease. Reviews recent scientific studies of the diseases. Recommends use of killed virus vaccines in controlling both diseases. (CS)|

Salk, Jonas; Salk, Darrell

1977-01-01

300

Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Kills Caenorhabditis elegans by Cyanide Poisoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report we describe experiments to investigate a simple virulence model in which Pseudomonas aerugi- nosa PAO1 rapidly paralyzes and kills the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results imply that hydrogen cyanide is the sole or primary toxic factor produced by P. aeruginosa that is responsible for killing of the nematode. Four lines of evidence support this conclusion. First, a

LARRY A. GALLAGHER; COLIN MANOIL

2001-01-01

301

Male Brown-headed Cowbird Attacks and Kills a Nestling  

USGS Publications Warehouse

I observed a male Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) attack and kill a nestling of an unidentified passerine in a grassland field in Day County, South Dakota, in June 2000. The killing or removal of nestlings by female cowbirds has been reported by others, but this behavior has not been documented previously in male cowbirds.

Igl, L. D.

2003-01-01

302

Suicide Bombings and Targeted Killings in (Counter) Terror Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops sequential game models for key operational terrorist (how often to attack) and government (how often to execute targeted killings) decisions taken during a (counter-) terror campaign such as the second intifada. Key results include the following: The government initiates targeted killings when the marginal number of Israeli civilian lives saved from prevented terror attacks exceeds the marginal

Daniel Jacobson; Edward H. Kaplan

2007-01-01

303

The Seal Killing Controversy: What Are the Facts?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the seal controversy using the harp and Alaska fur seals to illustrate the two distinct issues, i.e., conservation (the effect of killing upon the animal population); and two, morality (the effect of killing upon the human spirit). Factual information combines with personal philosophy. (LK)|

Scheffer, Victor B.

1973-01-01

304

Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface  

SciTech Connect

This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

1991-06-01

305

Microorganisms in the aetiology of atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Recent publications have suggested that infective pathogens might play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This review focuses on these microorganisms in the process of atherosclerosis. The results of in vitro studies, animal studies, tissue studies, and serological studies will be summarised, followed by an overall conclusion concerning the strength of the association of the microorganism with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The role of the bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori, and the viruses human immunodeficiency virus, coxsackie B virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex virus, and measles virus will be discussed. Key Words: atherosclerosis • Chlamydia pneumoniae • Helicobacter pylori

Morre, S; Stooker, W; Lagrand, W; van den Brule, A J C; Niessen, H

2000-01-01

306

Inactivation of Microorganisms by Electrohydraulic Shock1  

PubMed Central

The electrohydraulic shock treatment of microorganisms was accomplished by discharging high-voltage electricity (8 to 15 kv) across an electrode gap below the surface of aqueous suspensions of the microorganisms. This treatment was effective in destroying Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus subtilis, and bacteriophage specific for S. cremoris ML1. The presence of added protein in bacterial suspensions resulted in reduced bactericidal action. Water subjected to electrohydraulic treatment retained a certain amount of toxicity when copper-core electrodes were used to apply the treatment. This was caused by copper liberated from the electrode during electrohydraulic discharge.

Gilliland, S. E.; Speck, M. L.

1967-01-01

307

Cell death in planktonic, photosynthetic microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton evolved in the Archaean oceans more than 2.8 billion years ago and are of crucial importance in regulating aquatic food webs, biogeochemical cycles and the Earth's climate. Until recently, phytoplankton were considered immortal unless killed or eaten by predators. However, over the past decade, it has become clear that these organisms can either be infected by viruses or undergo

Kay D. Bidle; Paul G. Falkowski

2004-01-01

308

Novel innate cancer killing activity in humans  

PubMed Central

Background In this study, we pilot tested an in vitro assay of cancer killing activity (CKA) in circulating leukocytes of 22 cancer cases and 25 healthy controls. Methods Using a human cervical cancer cell line, HeLa, as target cells, we compared the CKA in circulating leukocytes, as effector cells, of cancer cases and controls. The CKA was normalized as percentages of total target cells during selected periods of incubation time and at selected effector/target cell ratios in comparison to no-effector-cell controls. Results Our results showed that CKA similar to that of our previous study of SR/CR mice was present in human circulating leukocytes but at profoundly different levels in individuals. Overall, males have a significantly higher CKA than females. The CKA levels in cancer cases were lower than that in healthy controls (mean ± SD: 36.97 ± 21.39 vs. 46.28 ± 27.22). Below-median CKA was significantly associated with case status (odds ratio = 4.36; 95% Confidence Interval = 1.06, 17.88) after adjustment of gender and race. Conclusions In freshly isolated human leukocytes, we were able to detect an apparent CKA in a similar manner to that of cancer-resistant SR/CR mice. The finding of CKA at lower levels in cancer patients suggests the possibility that it may be of a consequence of genetic, physiological, or pathological conditions, pending future studies with larger sample size.

2011-01-01

309

Mouse oocyte killing by neutrons: target considerations  

SciTech Connect

Highly radiosensitive primordial mouse oocytes, the principal cells at genetic risk in the female, have been studied using 0.43-MeV neutrons. Analysis of the survival curve (D/sub 37/ = 0.055 Gy) indicates that the diameter of the radiosensitive target (assumed spherical and of unit density) is larger than that of the nucleus but not of the oocyte, implicating a non-nuclear but sub-cellular target. This is consistent with results from /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporated in DNA. Our efforts to identify the extraordinarily radiosensitive lethality target in these primordial oocytes suggest it is the plasma membrane. Monte Carlo calculations for 0.43-MeV neutrons show that at the D/sub 37/ only a single proton recoil will traverse the plasma membrane, consistent with the observed exponential survival curve. A highly sensitive non-DNA target for mouse oocyte killing may importantly influence interpretations of genetic mutation data from mice and their use in estimating genetic risk in humans. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Straume, T.; Dobson, R.L.

1985-04-01

310

Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

2012-10-01

311

Mechanisms of Dendritic Cell Lysosomal Killing of Cryptococcus  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pulmonary fungal pathogen that disseminates to the CNS causing fatal meningitis in immunocompromised patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) phagocytose C. neoformans following inhalation. Following uptake, cryptococci translocate to the DC lysosomal compartment and are killed by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. DC lysosomal extracts kill cryptococci in vitro; however, the means of antifungal activity remain unknown. Our studies determined non-oxidative antifungal activity by DC lysosomal extract. We examined DC lysosomal killing of cryptococcal strains, anti-fungal activity of purified lysosomal enzymes, and mechanisms of killing against C. neoformans. Results confirmed DC lysosome fungicidal activity against all cryptococcal serotypes. Purified lysosomal enzymes, specifically cathepsin B, inhibited cryptococcal growth. Interestingly, cathepsin B combined with its enzymatic inhibitors led to enhanced cryptococcal killing. Electron microscopy revealed structural changes and ruptured cryptococcal cell walls following treatment. Finally, additional studies demonstrated that osmotic lysis was responsible for cryptococcal death.

Hole, Camaron R.; Bui, Hoang; Wormley, Floyd L.; Wozniak, Karen L.

2012-01-01

312

When CO2 kills: effects of magmatic CO2 flux on belowground biota at Mammoth Mountain, CA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomass, composition, and activity of the soil microbial community is tightly linked to the composition of the aboveground plant community. Microorganisms in aerobic surface soils, both free-living and plant-associated are largely structured by the availability of growth limiting carbon (C) substrates derived from plant inputs. When C availability declines following a catastrophic event such as the death of large swaths of trees, the number and composition of microorganisms in soil would be expected to decline and/or shift to unique microorganisms that have better survival strategies under starvation conditions. High concentrations of volcanic cold CO2 emanating from Mammoth Mountain near Horseshoe Lake on the southwestern edge of Long Valley Caldera, CA has resulted in a large kill zone of tree species, and associated soil microbial species. In July 2010, we assessed belowground microbial community structure in response to disturbance of the plant community along a gradient of soil CO2 concentrations grading from <0.6% (ambient forest) to >80% (no plant life). We employed a microbial community fingerprinting technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) to determine changes in overall community composition for three broad functional groups: fungi, bacteria, and archaea. To evaluate changes in ectomycorrhizal fungal associates along the CO2 gradient, we harvested root tips from lodgepole pine seedlings collected in unaffected forest as well as at the leading edge of colonization into the kill zone. We also measured soil C fractions (dissolved organic C, microbial biomass C, and non-extractable C) at 10 and 30 cm depth, as well as NH4+. Not surprisingly, our results indicate a precipitous decline in soil C, and microbial C with increasing soil CO2; phospholipid fatty acid analysis in conjunction with community fingerprinting indicate both a loss of fungal diversity as well as a dramatic decrease in biomass as one proceeds further into the kill zone. This observation was concomitant with a relative increase in bacterial and archaeal contributions to microbial community structure. Root tip analyses among lodgepole seedlings recolonizing the kill zone area demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall diversity of fungal symbionts, as well as a distinct shift in fungal assemblages. In particular, within elevated CO2 areas, we observed a high infection level for the ascomycetous fungi, Wilcoxina spp., which appear particularly well-adapted for colonization in disturbed environments. It remains unclear whether dominance by ascomycetes among seedlings in elevated CO2 areas represents a coordinated shift orchestrated by the plant in response to physiological stress, or whether these fungi are simply more opportunistic than their basdiomycetous counterparts. Our results demonstrate the impact of large-scale disturbances on plant-microbial interactions and belowground processes in previously forested ecosystems.

McFarland, J.; Waldrop, M. P.; Mangan, M.

2011-12-01

313

Managing Threat, Cost, and Incentive to Kill: The Short and Long-Term Effects of Intervention in Mass Killings  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do third-party interventions affect the severity of mass killings? The authors theorize that episodes of mass killing are the consequence of two factors: (1) the threat perceptions of the perpetrators and (2) the cost of implementing genocidal policies relative to other alternatives. To reduce genocidal hostilities, interveners must address these factors. Doing so requires that interveners alter the genocidaire’s

Jacob D. Kathman; Reed M. Wood

2011-01-01

314

Killing vectors in asymptotically flat space-times. I. Asymptotically translational Killing vectors and the rigid positive energy theorem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study Killing vector fields in asymptotically flat space-times. We prove the following result, implicitly assumed in the uniqueness theory of stationary black holes. If the conditions of the rigidity part of the positive energy theorem are met, then in such space-times there are no asymptotically null Killing vector fields except if the initial data set can be embedded in

Robert Beig; Piotr T. Chrusciel

1996-01-01

315

Managing Threat, Cost, and Incentive to Kill: The Short- and Long-Term Effects of Intervention in Mass Killings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do third-party interventions affect the severity of mass killings? The authors theorize that episodes of mass killing are the consequence of two factors: (1) the threat perceptions of the perpetrators and (2) the cost of implementing genocidal policies relative to other alternatives. To reduce genocidal hostilities, interveners must address…

Kathman, Jacob D.; Wood, Reed M.

2011-01-01

316

[Surgery for lung cancer invading the great vessels and left atrium].  

PubMed

Surgery for early-stage lung cancer is associated with higher survival rates. Minimally invasive surgery such as segmentectomy and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is well established for peripheral small-sized lung tumors. On the other hand, advanced lung cancer invading the mediastinal organs has high morbidity rates and poor long-term survival if resection is achieved. According to the General Rules for Clinical and Pathological Records of Lung Cancer, lung cancer invading the atrium and great vessels including the superior vena cava (SVC) and aorta is classified as T4. In lung cancer involving the atrium and great vessels, T4N0 or T4N1 nodal status is an indication for surgery. Among cases with involvement of the atrium or great vessels in which combined resection is performed, those with invasion of the aorta have a favorable prognosis (5-year survival rate : 17-48%). After SVC and atrial resection, the 5-year survival rate is 11-24% and 14-16%, respectively. The postoperative morbidity rate is approximately 12.5%, 14%, and 9%, respectively. The Society of Japanease Thoracic Surgeons data demonstrate that the mortality rate after lobectomy and pneumonectomy is 0.4% and 1.8% respectively, and is thus higher after pnemonectomy. Patients who undergo resection of the great vessels and atrium have higher mortality rates compared with those who undergo pneumonectomy alone, which indicates that the former is a higer-risk procedure. The numerous pneumonectomy patients included in these groups may be associated with the increased morbidity. Occasionally, resection of the aorta and atrium requires cardiopulmonary bypass, which may allow complete resection with increased safety. Careful patient selection based on cardiovascular and pulmonary function, the use of advanced imaging systems, and improved management should be considered indications for the type of surgery performed. Resection of the aorta and atrium should be avoided in patients with N2 status. En-bloc resection in node-negative patients may have higher survival rates with low morbidity. Surgery in the treatment of lung cancer invading the great vessels and atrium may improve the results in selected patients, in which advanced new drugs such as targeted therapies, positron emission tomographic imaging, new approaches including aortic stent grafting, and improved surgical techniques all play a role. PMID:23898704

Iwasaki, Akinori

2013-07-01

317

Using a bug-killing paradigm to understand how social validation and invalidation affect the distress of killing.  

PubMed

Clinical evidence demonstrates that killing among soldiers at war predicts their experience of long-lasting trauma/distress. Killing leads to distress, in part, due to guilt experienced from violating moral standards. Because social consensus shapes what actions are perceived as moral and just, we hypothesized that social validation for killing would reduce guilt, whereas social invalidation would exacerbate it. To examine this possibility in a laboratory setting, participants were led to kill bugs in an "extermination task." Perceptions of social validation/invalidation were manipulated through the supposed actions of a confederate (Study 1) or numerous previous participants (Study 2) that agreed or refused to kill bugs. Distress measures focused on trauma-related guilt. Higher levels of distress were observed when individuals perceived their actions as invalidated as opposed to when they perceived their actions as socially validated. Implications for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experienced by soldiers and the paradoxical nature of publicly expressing antiwar sentiments are discussed. PMID:23407746

Webber, David; Schimel, Jeff; Martens, Andy; Hayes, Joseph; Faucher, Erik H

2013-02-13

318

Endolithic Microorganisms in the Antarctic Cold Desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frigid desert of the Antarctic dry valleys there are no visible life forms on the surface of the soil or rocks. Yet in certain rock types a narrow subsurface zone has a favorable microclimate and is colonized by microorganisms. Dominant are lichens of unusual organization. They survive not by physiological adaptation to lower temperatures, but by changing their

E. Imre Friedmann

1982-01-01

319

Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way that nutrients cycle through atmospheric, terrestrial, oceanic and associated biotic reservoirs can constrain rates of biological production and help structure ecosystems on land and in the sea. On a global scale, cycling of nutrients also affects the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Because of their capacity for rapid growth, marine microorganisms are a major component of global nutrient

Kevin R. Arrigo

2005-01-01

320

Screening for New Metabolites from Marine Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives an overview of current analysis techniques for the screening and the activity analysis of metabolites from marine (micro)organisms. The sequencing of marine genomes and the techniques of functional genomics (including transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses) open up new possibilities for the screening of new metabolites of biotechnological interest. Although the sequencing of microbial marine genomes has been

Thomas Schweder; Ulrike Lindequist; Michael Lalk

321

Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine biosphere offers wealthy flora and fauna, which represents a vast natural resource of imperative functional commercial grade products. Among the various bioactive compounds, biosurfactant (BS)\\/bioemulsifiers (BE) are attracting major interest and attention due to their structural and functional diversity. The versatile properties of surface active molecules find numerous applications in various industries. Marine microorganisms such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas,

Surekha K. Satpute; Ibrahim M. Banat; Prashant K. Dhakephalkar; Arun G. Banpurkar; Balu A. Chopade

2010-01-01

322

Marine microorganisms and global nutrient cycles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way that nutrients cycle through atmospheric, terrestrial, oceanic and associated biotic reservoirs can constrain rates of biological production and help structure ecosystems on land and in the sea. On a global scale, cycling of nutrients also affects the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Because of their capacity for rapid growth, marine microorganisms are a major component of global nutrient

Kevin R. Arrigo

2004-01-01

323

Biotreatment of persistent substances using effective microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

To efficiently biotreat the persistent substances contained in wastewater, it is necessary to fully elucidate the degradation mechanisms of the substances by specific degrading microorganisms. Especially clarifying the enzymatic reactions responsible for the degradation of persistent substances is very important. Here three different kinds of aerobic or oxidative degradation reactions of persistent substances are introduced. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) degradation by

M. Fujita; M. Ike; Y. Kawagoshi; N. Miyata

2000-01-01

324

Degradation of nitroaromatic compounds by microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitroaromatic compounds are abundantly present in nature, but are in most cases highly toxic to living organisms. Several microorganisms, however, are capable of mineralizing or converting these compounds. Until now four pathways for the complete degradation of nitroaromatics have been described, which start with either the oxygenolytic or reductive removal of the nitro group from the aromatic ring or with

F. D. Marvin-Sikkema; J. A. M. de Bont

1994-01-01

325

Metabolism of Selected Pesticides by Marine Microorganisms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of marine microorganisms including algae, bacteria, fungi and yeasts were treated for their ability to metabolize carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methyl-carbamate) and 1-naphthol. None of the species included in the study were able to degrade carbaryl to ...

H. C. Sikka S. Miyazaki C. P. Rice

1973-01-01

326

Airborne microorganisms and dust from livestock houses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies and suitability of samplers for airborne microorganisms and dust, which could be used in practical livestock houses. Two studies were performed: 1) Testing impaction and cyclone pre-separators for dust sampling in livestock houses; 2) Determining sampling efficiencies of four bioaerosol samplers for bacteria and virus. Study 1. The overloading problem

Y. Zhao; A. J. A. Aarnink; Jong de M. C. M; P. W. G. Groot Koerkamp

2011-01-01

327

Classification of microorganisms using image processing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to the automatic classification of microorganisms based on image-processing techniques. A computer application that processes and classifies the images has been developed. The classification is carried out using a competitive neural network. Its input pattern is evaluated from a frequency analysis of images taken through a microscope. This paper focuses on the application of this

Fernando Tadeo Rico; Teresa Alvarez; Yolanda Martin; Susana Pérez; Francisco Santos; Susana González; José Luis Arribas; Pastora Vega

2001-01-01

328

ATTACHMENT OF MICROORGANISMS TO FRESH PRODUCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sources of the microorganisms exposed to plant surfaces may be from the plant seed itself, and through the initial contact with soil, irrigation water and air. The microbial ecology of the rhizosphere (roots and the part of the soil affected by contact with roots) and the phyllosphere (leaves a...

329

Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has

V. V. Krasnyj; A. V. Klosovskij; T. A. Panasko; O. M. Shvets; O. T. Semenova; V. S. Taran; V. I. Tereshin

2008-01-01

330

Transferring automation for large-scale development and production of Invader SNP assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Human Genome Project has led to the discovery of hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). SNPs can act as genetic markers to create high- density maps of the human genome for large-scale genetic analysis for evaluating links between genetic mutations and human diseases and for performing association studies. To create those maps, assays capable of detecting many different SNPs must be developed rapidly, as additional SNPs are discovered. When both the design of and the technology used in the assays can be partially or fully automated, the development process and the time to results can be accomplished quickly and efficiently. InvaderTM technology offers a highly sensitive signal amplification system that detects and quantifies mutations and SNPs from unamplified human genomic DNA in two sequential steps.

Neri, Bruce P.; Ganske, R.; Isaczyszyn, W.; Beaty, Edward L.

2000-03-01

331

The steepest S curve of spreading and collecting flows: Discovering the invading tree, not assuming it  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spreading and collecting flows are united by the flow design known as the S-curve: when plotted versus time, the size of the domain that is filled or emptied has a history that is shaped as an S. Here, we show that the fastest spreading or collecting (i.e., the steepest S curve) is discovered by allowing the tree architecture to morph freely, toward greater access over time, in accord with the constructal law of design in nature. The angles between the lines of the invading flow architecture can be selected such that the overall flow proceeds the fastest, covering the greatest territory at any moment. The design is a sequence of two distinct phenomena: ``invasion'' by channels and branches that grow fast, and ``consolidation'' by slow diffusion perpendicular to the channels. Invasion and consolidation collaborate hand-in-glove to facilitate the spreading or collecting over the available finite area or volume.

Cetkin, E.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.

2012-06-01

332

The steepest S curve of spreading and collecting flows: Discovering the invading tree, not assuming it  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spreading and collecting flows are united by the flow design known as the S-curve: when plotted versus time, the size of the domain that is filled or emptied has a history that is shaped as an S. Here, we show that the fastest spreading or collecting (i.e., the steepest S curve) is discovered by allowing the tree architecture to morph freely, toward greater access over time, in accord with the constructal law of design in nature. The angles between the lines of the invading flow architecture can be selected such that the overall flow proceeds the fastest, covering the greatest territory at any moment. The design is a sequence of two distinct phenomena: ``invasion'' by channels and branches that grow fast, and ``consolidation'' by slow diffusion perpendicular to the channels. Invasion and consolidation collaborate hand-in-glove to facilitate the spreading or collecting over the available finite area or volume.

Cetkin, E.; Lorente, S.; Bejan, A.

2012-05-01

333

Analysis of the theoretical model of drilling fluid invading into oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic gas hydrate-bearing sediment is usually porous media, with the temperature and pressure closer to the curve of hydrate phase equilibrium than those in the permafrost region. In the case of near-balanced or over-balanced drilling through this sediment, the water-based drilling fluid used invades into this sediment, and hydrates decompose with heat transfer between drilling fluid and this sediment. During these processes, there are inevitably energy and mass exchanges between drilling fluid and the sediment, which will affect the logging response, borehole stability and reservoir evaluation. When drilling fluid invades into this sediment, solid and liquid phases of drilling fluid permeate into the wellbore and displace original fluids and solids, and water content of formation increases. With the temperature and pressure changing, gas hydrates in the sediment decompose into gas and water, and water content of formation further changes. When the filter cakes form, the invasion of drilling fluid is weakened. This process is accompanied by the heat and mass transfer within the range from wellbore to undisturbed area, including heat conduction of rock matrix, the convective heat transfer of fluids invaded, the heat absorbing of hydrate decomposition and the mass exchange between fluids invaded and the gas and water generated by hydrate decomposition. As a result, dynamic balance is built up and there are generally four different regions from wellbore to undisturbed area, i.e. filter cakes region, filter liquor region, water/free gas region, and water/free gas/hydrate region. According to the analysis on the invasion of drilling fuild into sediment, the whole invasion process can be described as an anisothermal and unstable displacement and diffusion process coupled with phase change. Refering to models of drilling fuilds invasion into normal oil and gas formation and natrual gas production from hydrate deposit by heating, the model of the invasion of drilling fluid into hydrate-bearing sediment has been preliminarily discussed based on kinetics of hydrate dissociation , with the assumption that hydrates were viewed as a portion of pore fluids and their decomposition was taken as a water and gas source without a uniform rate. A mathematical model was built up, and key parameters used for solving the kinetic equation of hydrate dissociation, such as the coefficient of effective porosity and permeability, absolute permeability, the synthetic specific heat and heat conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediment, are discussed. This model could be used to describe the dynamic process of drilling fluids invasion by coupling modified kinetic equation of heated hydrate decomposition into mass conservation equations, and also be used to study the evolution of pore water pressure, temperature, salinity, saturation of water/gas/hydrate with the depth of invasion and time. Key words: gas hydrates-bearing sediment, drilling fluid, hydrate dissociation, invasion process, model

Zhang, L.; Ning, F.; Jiang, G.; Wu, N.; Wu, D.

2009-12-01

334

[Transphenoidal-upslope approach by lateral rhinotomy to chordoma invading the sphenoid bone and clivus].  

PubMed

This paper reported one patient who was treated through transphenoidal-upslope approach by lateral rhinotomy and the tumor was successfully removed. The patient was male of 38 years old. He suffered intermittent headache with blurred vision and left eye outreach disorder for more than a year. The visual inspection showed there was dark area of the left eye lateral. CT showed slopes density placeholder and bone window showed the slope of bone quality had been severely damaged. MRI showed T1 image slopes parts and other low signal placeholder forward to invade the sphenoid sinus. In addition, there was undermine the slope bone and brain stem boundaries clearly and T2 images showed high-signal, inhomogeneous enhancement. We found during the operation that the slope was partially destroyed and part of the tumor was prominent to the pharynx tumor. The pathologic examination confirmed that it is chordoma. PMID:23214324

Guo, Xixiong; Chen, Qianxue; Hua, Qingquan

2012-09-01

335

A new electromagnetic positioning method for tracking invaded medical devices using MARG sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In clinical medicine, electromagnetic tracking (EMT) system, with its safely penetrating property for human tissue, has been an effective tracking and guiding method for invaded medical devices which are invisible inside a human body. However, traditional EMT system only implements magnetic methods to solve the complex 6-DOF equations and demands an ideal magnetic-field distribution model exited by electromagnetic coils or permanent magnet, resulting in poor anti-interference performance. This paper proposed a new method, combining EMT with the attitude convergence algorithm using MARG sensors. This fusion method reduces the information reliability on the external field, simplifies the complexity of magnetic analysis, and improves the robustness. Except for the accuracy testify experiment, we impose artificial interference to the DC voltage which excites external electromagnetic coils, and the tracking system could still maintain a high positioning stability.

Wang, Sen; Chen, Xiao-dong; Du, Cheng-yang; Wang, Yi; Yu, Dao-yin

2013-08-01

336

Cryopreserved Reticulocytes Derived from Hematopoietic Stem Cells Can Be Invaded by Cryopreserved Plasmodium vivax Isolates  

PubMed Central

The development of a system for the continuous culture of Plasmodium vivax in vitro would benefit from the use of reticulocytes derived from differentiated hematopoietic stem cells (HCS). At present, the need to use both fresh reticulocytes and fresh P. vivax isolates represents a major obstacle towards this goal, particularly for laboratories located in non-endemic countries. Here, we describe a new method for the cryopreservation of HSC-derived reticulocytes to be used for both P. falciparum and P. vivax invasion tests. Cryopreserved P. falciparum and P. vivax isolates could invade both fresh and cryopreserved HSC-derived reticulocytes with similar efficiency. This new technique allows the storage of HSC-derived reticulocytes which can be used for later invasion tests and represents an important step towards the establishment of a continuous P. vivax culture.

Noulin, Florian; Borlon, Celine; van den Eede, Peter; Boel, Luc; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

2012-01-01

337

[Radiotherapy for endobronchially invading recurrence of esophageal cancer after resective surgery].  

PubMed

Sixty-eight patients with endobronchially invading recurrence of esophageal cancer after resective surgery were treated with radiotherapy from 1966 to 1988. The mean interval between resective surgery and diagnosis of recurrence was 11.1 months, that was significantly shortened in a3 group. The dose of radiation for recurrence ranged from 2 to 70.3 Gy, with a mean dose of 42.6 Gy. The mean survival time after treatment of recurrence was 4.9 months. The dose of radiation was found to have a positive correlation with survival time. The cause of death was bleeding in 20 patients, and respiratory failure in 36. High dose of radiation was thought to induce high incidence of bleeding. The results indicated that external beam radiotherapy with conventional fractionation was not so much effective for the recurrence. PMID:2262733

Ogino, T; Tsukiyama, I; Kajiura, Y; Akine, Y; Ono, R; Egawa, S; Tachimori, Y; Kato, H; Watanabe, H

1990-10-20

338

Molecular genetic strategies in Toxoplasma gondii: close in on a successful invader.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite with an exceptional ability to invade, survive and replicate within nearly all nucleated cells. Upon differentiation into an encysted form (bradyzoites), the parasites escape the host immune defenses and thus persist long enough in man and other hosts to ensure maintenance of transmission. This protozoan parasite has long been known to cause severe congenital infections in humans and animals but has recently gained additional notoriety as an opportunistic pathogen associated with AIDS. Development of a DNA transfection system for T. gondii has provided a new tool for exploring molecular aspects of important processes such as invasion and differentiation. Additional strategies associated with genetic transformation have been devised and elaboration of even more desirable molecular tools is in progress. PMID:8682211

Soldati, D

1996-06-24

339

Stoichiometric Constraints Do Not Limit Successful Invaders: Zebra Mussels in Swedish Lakes  

PubMed Central

Background Elemental imbalances of carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) ratios in food resources can constrain the growth of grazers owning to tight coupling between growth rate, RNA allocation and biomass P content in animals. Testing for stoichiometric constraints among invasive species is a novel challenge in invasion ecology to unravel how a successful invader tackles ecological barriers in novel ecosystems. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the C?P and N?P ratios and the condition factor of a successful invader in lakes, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), collected from two Swedish lakes. Concurrently, we analyzed the elemental composition of the food (seston) and tissue of the mussels in which nutrient composition of food and mussels varied over time. Zebra mussel condition factor was weakly related to the their own tissue N?P and C?P ratios, although the relation with the later ratio was not significant. Smaller mussels had relatively lower tissue N?P ratio and higher condition factor. There was no difference in C?P and N?P ratios between seston and mussels' tissues. Our results indicated that the variation in nutrient stoichiometry of zebra mussels can be explained by food quality and quantity. Conclusions/Significance Our study suggests that fitness of invasive zebra mussels is not constrained by nutrient stoichiometry which is likely to be important for their proliferation in novel ecosystems. The lack of imbalance in C?P and N?P ratios between seston and mussels along with high tissue C?P ratio of the mussel allow them to tolerate potential P limitation and maintain high growth rate. Moreover, zebra mussels are able to change their tissue C?P and N?P ratios in response to the variation in elemental composition of their food. This can also help them to bypass potential nutrient stoichiometric constraints. Our finding is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms contributing to the success of exotic species from stoichiometric principles.

Naddafi, Rahmat; Eklov, Peter; Pettersson, Kurt

2009-01-01

340

Differences in ecological structure, function, and native species abundance between native and invaded Hawaiian streams.  

PubMed

Poeciliids, one of the most invasive species worldwide, are found on almost every continent and have been identified as an "invasive species of concern" in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia. Despite their global prevalence, few studies have quantified their impacts on tropical stream ecosystem structure, function, and biodiversity. Utilizing Hawaiian streams as model ecosystems, we documented how ecological structure, function, and native species abundance differed between poeciliid-free and poeciliid-invaded tropical streams. Stream nutrient yields, benthic biofilm biomass, densities of macroinvertebrates and fish, and community structures of benthic algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish were compared between streams with and without established poeciliid populations on the island of Hawai'i, Hawaii, USA. Sum nitrate (sigmaNO3(-) = NO3(-) + NO2(-)), total nitrogen, and total organic carbon yields were eight times, six times, and five times higher, respectively, in poeciliid streams than in poeciliid-free streams. Benthic biofilm ash-free dry mass was 1.5x higher in poeciliid streams than in poeciliid-free streams. Percentage contributions of chironomids and hydroptilid caddisflies to macroinvertebrate densities were lower in poeciliid streams compared to poeciliid-free streams, while percentage contributions of Cheumatopsyche analis caddisflies, Dugesia sp. flatworms, and oligochaetes were higher. Additionally, mean densities of native gobies were two times lower in poeciliid streams than in poeciliid-free ones, with poeciliid densities being approximately eight times higher than native fish densities. Our results, coupled with the wide distribution of invasive poeciliids across Hawaii and elsewhere in the tropics, suggest that poeciliids may negatively impact the ecosystem structure, function, and native species abundance of tropical streams they invade. This underscores the need for increased public awareness to prevent future introductions and for developing and implementing effective eradication and restoration strategies. PMID:24147409

Holitzki, Tara M; MacKenzie, Richard A; Wiegner, Tracy N; McDermid, Karla J

2013-09-01

341

Dirty hands: photodynamic killing of human pathogens like EHEC, MRSA and Candida within seconds.  

PubMed

Hand hygiene is one of the most important interventions for reducing transmission of nosocomial life-threatening microorganisms, like methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) or Candida albicans. All three pathogens have become a leading cause of infections in hospitals. Especially EHEC is causing severe diarrhoea and, in a small percentage of cases, haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) as reported for E. coli 104:H4 in Germany 2011. We revealed the possibility to inactivate very fast and efficiently MRSA, EHEC and C. albicans using the photodynamic approach. MRSA, EHEC and C. albicans were incubated in vitro with different concentrations of TMPyP for 10 s and illuminated with visible light (50 mW cm(-2)) for 10 and 60 s. 1 ?mol l(-1) of TMPyP and an applied radiant exposure of 0.5 J cm(-2) achieved a photodynamic killing of ?99.9% of MRSA and EHEC. Incubation with higher concentrations (up to 100 ?mol l(-1)) of TMPyP caused bacteria killing of >5 log(10) (?99.999%) after illumination. Efficient Candida killing (?99.999%) was achieved first at a higher light dose of 12 J cm(-2). Different rise and decay times of singlet oxygen luminescence signals could be detected in Candida cell suspensions for the first time, indicating different oxygen concentrations in the surrounding for the photosensitizer and singlet oxygen, respectively. This confirms that TMPyP is not only found in the water-dominated cell surrounding, but also within the C. albicans cells. Applying a water-ethanol solution of TMPyP on ex vivo porcine skin, fluorescence microscopy of histology showed that the photosensitizer was exclusively localized in the stratum corneum regardless of the incubation time. TMPyP exhibited a fast and very effective killing rate of life-threatening pathogens within a couple of seconds that encourages further testing in an in vivo setting. Being fast and effective, antimicrobial photodynamic applications might become acceptable as a tool for hand hygiene procedures and also in other skin areas. PMID:22855122

Eichner, Anja; Gonzales, Fernanda Pereira; Felgenträger, Ariane; Regensburger, Johannes; Holzmann, Thomas; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Bäumler, Wolfgang; Maisch, Tim

2013-01-01

342

Generalized killing equations and symmetries of spinning space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of general conditions for the isometrics of d-dimensional spinning space is derived. These equations constitute a Grassmann valued extension of the Killing equations for ordinary space. They are developed as invariances of spinning particle actions. Solutions for extended Killing equations in arbitrary curved space are presented. The spinning particles in d-dimensions are shown to possess new types of supersymmetries which transform the commuting and anti-commuting coordinates linearly and nonlinearly. The algebra of these nonlinear transformations is presented. A complete solution of the generalized Killing equations is outlined. An infinite set of conserved charges is constructed.

Rietdijk, R. H.; Vanholten, J. W.

1989-04-01

343

Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

Daniel P. Molloy

2004-02-24

344

HIV transcription is induced with some forms of cell killing  

SciTech Connect

Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct`, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {Gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires function p53, which is missing in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture.

Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)][South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Chang-Liu, C.-M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

1996-11-01

345

40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens; exemption from the requirement...kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from the...

2010-07-01

346

The impact of aridification and vegetation type on changes in the community structure of methane-cycling microorganisms in Japanese wetland soils.  

PubMed

Over the years, the wetlands covered by Sphagnum in Bibai, Japan have been turning into areas of aridity, resulting in an invasion of Sasa into the bogs. Yet little is known about the methane-cycling microorganisms in such environments. In this study, the methanotrophic, methanogenic, and archaeal community structures within these two types of wetland vegetation were studied by phylogenetic analysis targeting particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA), methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA), and the archaeal 16S rRNA gene. The pmoA library indicated that Methylomonas and Methylocystis predominated in the Sphagnum-covered and Sasa-invaded areas, respectively. The mcrA and 16S rRNA libraries indicated that Methanoregula were abundant methanogens in the Sphagnum-covered area. In the Sasa-invaded area, by contrast, mcrA genes were not detected, and no 16S rRNA clones were affiliated with previously known methanogens. Because the Sasa-invaded area still produced methane, of the various uncultured populations detected, novel euryarchaeotal lineages are candidate methane producers. PMID:21897040

Narihiro, Takashi; Hori, Tomoyuki; Nagata, Osamu; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Yumoto, Isao; Kamagata, Yoichi

2011-09-07

347

MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007  

EPA Science Inventory

Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in ...

348

MICROORGANISMS DIE-OFF RATES IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF 2007  

EPA Science Inventory

Stormwater best management practices (BMPs) are often considered effective tools to mitigate the effects of stormwater pollutants before they are discharged to receiving waters. However, BMP performance for microorganisms removal is not well documented. Microorganisms die-off in...

349

Impacts of Applied Genetics: Micro-Organisms, Plants and Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the application of classical and molecular genetic technologies to micro-organisms, plants, and animals. Current developments are especially rapid in the application of genetic technologies to micro-organisms; these were studied in th...

1981-01-01

350

78 FR 42451 - Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0253] Animal Feeds Contaminated With Salmonella Microorganisms...Agency) is revoking an advisory opinion on animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms...guide (CPG) on Salmonella in food for animals. DATES: This rule is effective...

2013-07-16

351

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed...recommended for use in dogs, shall be...Twenty-five parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates...drawn from each dog and tested for...antibody to canine parvovirus in the same...

2009-01-01

352

9 CFR 113.214 - Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed Virus (Canine).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine, Killed...recommended for use in dogs, shall be...Twenty-five parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates...drawn from each dog and tested for...antibody to canine parvovirus in the same...

2010-01-01

353

Scientists Report New Lead in How Anthrax Kills Cells  

Cancer.gov

For years scientists have known that anthrax bacillus produces a toxin containing a deadly protein called lethal factor. However, researchers have never been able to identify how lethal factor kills cells.

354

9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine...paragraph. (i) Eight infectious bovine rhinotracheitis susceptible...after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the...inactivated and tested for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus...

2010-01-01

355

9 CFR 113.216 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Killed Virus. Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine...paragraph. (i) Eight infectious bovine rhinotracheitis susceptible...after the last vaccination, blood samples shall be drawn and the...inactivated and tested for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus...

2009-01-01

356

Hidden symmetries and killing tensors on curved spaces  

SciTech Connect

Higher-order symmetries corresponding to Killing tensors are investigated. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and nonstandard supersymmetries is pointed out. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures as dynamical algebras or even infinite dimensional algebras or superalgebras. The general results are applied to space-times which appear in modern studies. One presents the infinite dimensional superalgebra of Dirac type operators on the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space that can be seen as a twisted loop algebra. The existence of the conformal Killing-Yano tensors is investigated for some spaces with mixed 3-Sasakian structures.

Ianus, S. [University of Bucharest, Department of Mathematics (Romania); Visinescu, M., E-mail: mvisin@theory.nipne.r [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Theoretical Physics (Romania); Vilcu, G. E. [Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science (Romania)

2010-11-15

357

PFIESTERIA SHUMWAYAE KILLS FISH BY MICROPREDATION NOT ECOTOXIN SECRETION  

EPA Science Inventory

Massive fish kills in mid-Atlantic USA estuaries involving several million Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus,have been attributed to dinoflagellates of the toxic Pfiesteria complex (TPC). Potent ichthyotoxins secreted during Pfiesteria blooms are thought to be responsible fo...

358

[Killing and dignity of animals: a problem for veterinarians?].  

PubMed

Killing of animals is an important task to be performed by veterinarians. Killing decisions and their implementation often raise ethical questions. As a result of an interdisciplinary workshop targeting the subject "killing of animals" with veterinarians and ethicists, a three-dimensional dimension scheme was developed. Whereas the first two dimensions are focused on the animal's past and future life and are discussed with regard to life quality and life accomplishment (the "telos"), the third dimension incorporates the reason to kill and may integrate the concept of dignity. This form of dignity and the weighing of interests are applied to example scenarios and the resulting responsibilities of veterinarians and society are discussed. PMID:21696009

Fahrion; Dürr, S; Doherr, M G; Hartnack, S; Kunzmann, P

2011-05-01

359

Flu Can Kill Even Healthy Children, Study Finds  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Flu Can Kill Even Healthy Children, Study Finds Unvaccinated ... October 28, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Flu MONDAY, Oct. 28 (HealthDay News) -- Children, even those ...

360

Microorganisms detection on substrates using QCL spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent investigations have focused on the improvement of rapid and accurate methods to develop spectroscopic markers of compounds constituting microorganisms that are considered biological threats. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) systems have revolutionized many areas of research and development in defense and security applications, including his area of research. Infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was employed to acquire mid infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), which were used as biological agent simulants of biothreats. The experiments were carried out in reflection mode on various substrates such as cardboard, glass, travel baggage, wood and stainless steel. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the recorded MIR spectra. The results show that the infrared vibrational techniques investigated are useful for classification/detection of the target microorganisms on the types of substrates studied.

Padilla-Jiménez, Amira C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Ayala, Iris; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

2013-05-01

361

UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

1985-06-01

362

BioEd Online: Lessons: Microorganisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The BioEd Online site, created by the dedicated staff at the Baylor College of Medicine, is a veritable cornucopia of material for science educators. The lesson plans are all classroom tested and high-quality. This particular corner of the site focuses on the world of microorganisms. The site includes 15 lessons, complete with video clips, slideshows, and .pdf files. The offerings here include "Comparing Sizes of Microorganisms," "Observing Different Microbes," and "Microbes and Disease." The videos are quite nice as they offer a brief introduction to each subject, along with suggestions for how to conduct the associated classroom activity. If visitors enjoy these lesson plans, they should explore the other categories under Classroom Lessons, such as Animals, Genetics, and History & Nature of Science.

2012-01-01

363

BioEd Online: Lessons: Microorganisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The BioEd Online site, created by the dedicated staff at the Baylor College of Medicine, is a veritable cornucopia of material for science educators. The lesson plans are all classroom tested and high-quality. This particular corner of the site focuses on the world of microorganisms. The site includes lessons, complete with video clips, slideshows, and .pdf files. The offerings here include "Comparing Sizes of Microorganisms," "Observing Different Microbes," and "Microbes and Disease." The videos are quite nice as they offer a brief introduction to each subject, along with suggestions for how to conduct the associated classroom activity. If visitors enjoy these lesson plans, they should explore the other categories under Classroom Lessons, such as Animals, Genetics, and History & Nature of Science.

2012-03-02

364

Origins of Halophilic Microorganisms in Ancient Salt Deposits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This eight-page review article considers the evidence for and against long-term survival of halophilic microorganisms in ancient salt deposits. Included sections are hypersaline environments and their inhabitants, haloarchaea and halite precipitation, isolations of microorganisms from brines in salt mines, isolations of microorganisms from ancient rock salt, isolations of microorganisms directly from fluid inclusions, relationship of subsurface haloarchaea to surface isolates, dispersal of haloarchaea, and long-term survival of haloarchaea inside salt crystals.

Mcgenity, Terry; Gemmell, Renia; Grant, William; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Microbiology, Environmental

365

Conserved matter superenergy currents for hypersurface orthogonal Killing vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that for hypersurface orthogonal Killing vectors the corresponding Chevreton superenergy currents will be conserved and proportional to the Killing vectors. This holds for four-dimensional Einstein–Maxwell spacetimes with an electromagnetic field that is source-free and inherits the symmetry of the spacetime. A similar result also holds for the trace of the Chevreton tensor. The corresponding Bel currents have previously

Ingemar Eriksson

2006-01-01

366

1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

367

Are Road Kills Valid Indicators of Armadillo Population Structure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wecollected 3 yr of data on road-killed nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) to determine if these individuals were representative of the population as a whole. Comparisons between road kills and an adjacent live-caught population revealed no differences in sex ratios or the reproductive condition of adult females. However, there was a significant difference in the age structure of the two groups,

J. LOUGHRY; COLLEEN M. McDONOUGH

368

Fifty-Five Years of Fish Kills in Coastal Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The designation of Texas as a “hotspot” for fish mortalities relative to the other 22 coastal US states is of serious concern\\u000a for scientists, resource managers, and the public alike. We investigated the major sources and causes of fish kills in coastal\\u000a Texas from 1951 to 2006. During this 55-year period, more than 383 million fish were killed, 72% of

Amanda Thronson; Antonietta Quigg

2008-01-01

369

Gabaergic modulation of mouse-killing in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

When GABA-potentiating compounds were administered IP to rats with prior experience of mouse-killing behaviour, a reduction of killing was observed with gammavinyl GABA (200 and 400 mg\\/kg) and nipecotic acid amide (400 mg\\/kg), while no significant effect was noted following injection of dipropylacetate or THIP. The inhibitory effects of gamma-vinyl GABA and nipecotic acid amide were not reversed by subsequent

Antoine Depaulis; Marguerite Vergnes

1984-01-01

370

Eczemas due to mites and microorganisms.  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a specific clinical, morphologic and microscopic reaction pattern of the skin. It has many causes, including external and internal chemicals and the action of various microorganisms--bacteria, fungi, yeasts, viruses and mites--and their products. Peripheral vesicles with undermined borders are a feature of all eczemas caused by fungi, yeasts and bacteria and are thus a useful diagnostic finding. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 FIG. 8

Jackson, R.

1977-01-01

371

Cold-Tolerant Agriculturally Important Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cold-tolerant microorganisms are endowed with the ability to grow at 0°C, though their growth optima lie in the mesophilic\\u000a range. To overcome the stress induced by low temperatures they have evolved a variety of adaptive responses at the cellular\\u000a and molecular levels. Multiple cell membrane modifications ensure that solute transport is not impaired at low temperatures.\\u000a Other mechanisms include the

Pankaj Kumar Mishra; Piyush Joshi; Shekhar Bisht; Jaideep Bisht; Govindan Selvakumar

372

Effects of Thymol on Ruminal Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thymol (5-methyl-2-isopropylphenol) is a phenolic compound that is used to inhibit oral bacteria. Because little is known\\u000a regarding the effects of this compound on ruminal microorganisms, the objective of this study was to determine the effects\\u000a of thymol on growth and lactate production by the ruminal bacteria Streptococcus bovis JB1 and Selenomonas ruminantium HD4. In addition, the effect of thymol

Jeff D. Evans; Scott A. Martin

2000-01-01

373

Control of microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlling microorganisms in flowing nutrient solutions involves different techniques when targeting the nutrient solution, hardware surfaces in contact with the solution, or the active root zone. This review presents basic principles and applications of a number of treatment techniques, including disinfection by chemicals, ultrafiltration, ultrasonics, and heat treatment, with emphasis on UV irradiation and ozone treatment. Procedures for control of specific pathogens by nutrient solution conditioning also are reviewed.

Evans, R. D.

1994-11-01

374

Microorganisms and Calcium Oxalate Stone Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms may have a role in the pathogenesis and prevention of kidney stones. The subjects of this review include nanobacteria, Oxalobacter formigenes, and lactic acid bacteria. Not reviewed here is the well-described role of infections of the urinary tract with Proteus species and other urease-producing organisms associated with struvite stone formation. Nanobacteria have been proposed to be very small (0.08–0.5

David S. Goldfarb

2004-01-01

375

The aerobic decomposition of choline by microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The ability to decompose choline is widespread among aerobic microorganisms since representatives of the genera Agrobacterium, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Streptomyces and a large number of coryneform bacteria were found to grow with choline as the sole C- and N-source.2.Almost all the coryneforms isolated from soil and dairy waste activated sludge displayed this ability in contrast to those isolated

G. J. J. Kortstee

1970-01-01

376

Autonomous support for microorganism research in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary design for performing on orbit, autonomous research on microorganisms and cultured cells\\/tissues is presented. The payload is designed to be compatible with the COMercial Experiment Transporter (COMET), an orbiter middeck locker interface and with Space Station Freedom. Uplink\\/downlink capabilities and sample return through controlled reentry are available for all carriers. Autonomous testing activities are preprogrammed with in-flight reprogrammability.

M. L. Fleet; J. D. Smith; D. M. Klaus; M. W. Luttges

1993-01-01

377

High-cell-density cultivation of microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-cell-density cultivation (HCDC) is required to improve microbial biomass and product formation substantially. An overview\\u000a of HCDC is given for microorganisms including bacteria, archae and eukarya (yeasts). Problems encountered by HCDC and their\\u000a possible solutions are discussed. Improvements of strains, different types of bioreactors and cultivation strategies for successful\\u000a HCDC are described. Stirred-tank reactors with and without cell retention, a

D. Riesenberg; R. Guthke

1999-01-01

378

Binding and killing of bacteria by bismuth subsalicylate.  

PubMed Central

Bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) is a compound without significant aqueous solubility that is widely used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. BSS was able to bind bacteria of diverse species, and these bound bacteria were subsequently killed. A 4-log10 reduction of viable bacteria occurred within 4 h after a 10 mM aqueous suspension of BSS was inoculated with 2 x 10(6) Escherichia coli cells per ml. Binding and killing were dependent on the levels of inoculated bacteria, and significant binding but little killing of the exposed bacteria occurred at an inoculum level of 2 x 10(9) E. coli per ml. Intracellular ATP decreased rapidly after exposure of E. coli to 10 mM BSS and, after 30 min, was only 1% of the original level. Extracellular ATP increased after exposure to BSS, but the accumulation of extracellular ATP was not sufficient to account for the loss of intracellular ATP. The killing of bacteria exposed to BSS may have been due to cessation of ATP synthesis or a loss of membrane integrity. Bactericidal activity of BSS was also investigated in a simulated gastric juice at pH 3. Killing of E. coli at this pH was much more rapid than at pH 7 and was apparently due to salicylate released by the conversion of BSS to bismuth oxychloride. It is proposed that the binding and killing observed for BSS contribute to the efficacy of this compound against gastrointestinal infections such as traveler's diarrhea.

Sox, T E; Olson, C A

1989-01-01

379

Endodontic microorganism susceptibility by direct contact test.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the duration of the antimicrobial effect of endodontic sealers by means of the Direct Contact Test. The sealers tested were: Endomethasone - Septodont, Endomethasone C-Septodont, Endion-Voco, Diaket-ESPE, Pulp Canal Sealer-SybronEndo, and AH26-Dentsply DeTrey. The endodontopathic microorganisms (MO) confronted were: Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), Candida albicans (Ca), Enterococcus faecalis (Ef), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn). Test specimens of each sealer were prepared and placed on the surface of agar plates that had been inoculated with each MO, and after predetermined periods, transfers were made from the contact area between the test specimen and the cultured agar and from the area that had not been in contact with the test specimens (control). The results were read as presence/absence of microbial growth and analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test. It was concluded that the structural features and virulence of endodontopathic microorganisms determine their response to the sealers, independently of the time during which sealers act and the mechanism by which the antiseptic reaches the microorganism, which in this case was by direct contact. PMID:19177855

Pérez, Sandra B; Tejerina, Denise P; Pérez Tito, Romina I; Bozza, Florencia L; Kaplan, Andrea E; Molgatini, Susana L

2008-01-01

380

Stress-tolerant P-solubilizing microorganisms.  

PubMed

Drought, high/low temperature, and salinity are abiotic stress factors accepted as the main reason for crop yield losses in a world with growing population and food price increases. Additional problems create nutrient limitations and particularly low P soil status. The problem of phosphate fertilizers, P plant nutrition, and existing phosphate bearing resources can also be related to the scarcity of rock phosphate. The modern agricultural systems are highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. Biotechnology offers a number of sustainable solutions that can mitigate these problems by using plant beneficial, including P-solubilizing, microorganisms. This short review paper summarizes the current and future trends in isolation, development, and application of P-solubilizing microorganisms in stress environmental conditions bearing also in mind the imbalanced cycling and unsustainable management of P. Special attention is devoted to the efforts on development of biotechnological strategies for formulation of P-solubilizing microorganisms in order to increase their protection against adverse abiotic factors. PMID:22722910

Vassilev, N; Eichler-Löbermann, B; Vassileva, M

2012-06-22

381

Fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activity in oral microorganisms.  

PubMed Central

Samples were taken from blood accumulated in dental alveoli after surgical removal of mandibular third molars, from subgingival plaque of teeth with advanced periodontal destructions, from teeth with infected necrotic pulps, and from subjects suffering from angular cheilitis. Of the microorganisms subcultured from these samples, 116 strains were assayed for enzymes degrading fibrinogen and fibrin. Enzymes degrading fibrinogen were assayed with the thin-layer enzyme assay cultivation technique. This assay involves the cultivation of microorganisms on culture agars applied over fibrinogen-coated polystyrene surfaces. Enzymes degrading fibrin were assayed with both a plate assay and a tube assay, in which fibrin was mixed with a microbial culture medium. Microorganisms degrading fibrinogen or fibrin or both were isolated from all sampling sites. Activity was mainly detected in strains of Actinomyces, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Peptococcus, Propionibacterium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Most Fusobacterium strains degraded fibrinogen only. Enzymes degrading fibrinogen as well as enzymes degrading fibrin via activation of plasminogen were revealed in strains of Clostridium, S. aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. It was generally found that fibrinogen was degraded by more strains than was fibrin, which indicates that different proteases may be involved.

Wikstrom, M B; Dahlen, G; Linde, A

1983-01-01

382

Isolation of microorganisms for biological detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass releases furan and phenolic compounds, which are toxic to microorganisms used for subsequent fermentation. In this study, we isolated new microorganisms for depletion of inhibitors in lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates. A sequential enrichment strategy was used to isolate microorganisms from soil. Selection was carried out in a defined mineral medium containing a mixture of ferulic acid

M. J. López; N. N. Nichols; B. S. Dien; J. Moreno; R. J. Bothast

2004-01-01

383

Bioaccumulation and Biosorption of Lead by Poultry Litter Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms are known to interact with metals through a number of mechanisms, including binding the metals to their cells' walls and intracellular accumulation. Poultry litter has a high density of various microorganisms along with many nutrients. The objective of this research was to study the removal of Pb from an aqueous solution by the microorganisms found in poultry litter under

GIAN GUPTA; BRIDGET KEEGAN

384

40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. 725.67...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a)...

2010-07-01

385

40 CFR 725.67 - Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. 725.67...REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Administrative Procedures... Applications to exempt new microorganisms from this part. (a)...

2009-07-01

386

THE INVASIVE SPECIES ASPARAGOPSIS TAXIFORMIS (BONNEMAISONIALES, RHODOPHYTA) ON ANDALUSIAN COASTS (SOUTHERN SPAIN): REPRODUCTIVE STAGES, NEW RECORDS AND INVADED COMMUNITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The invasive species Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisoniales, Rhodophyta) on Andalusian coasts (Southern Spain): reproductive stages, new records and invaded communities. The present study provides new records from Andalusian coasts of the exotic invasive seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis (Delile) Trevisan. These records demonstrate that A. taxiformis has rapidly and widely expanded its distribution range in this region, from Almería to Cádiz (Strait of

María ALTAMIRANO; Antonio Román MUÑOZ; Julio DE LA ROSA; Agustín BARRAJÓN-MÍNGUEZ; Agustín BARRAJÓN-DOMENECH; Carlos MORENO-ROBLEDO; M. Carmen ARROYO

387

Population responses of hymenopteran parasitoids to the emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in recently invaded areas in Michigan  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Populations of hymenopteran parasitoids associated with immature stages of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) were surveyed in 2009 and 2010 in the recently invaded areas in Michigan, where the two introduced EAB larval parasitoids, Tetrastic...

388

Geographic and between-generation variation in the parasitoid communities associated with an invading gallwasp, Andricus quercuscalicis (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knopper gallwasp Andricus quercuscalicis Burgsdorf 1783 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) has invaded western and northern Europe from southern and eastern Europe over the last 400 years. A. quercuscalicis has two alternating generations, which differ in phenology, structure, and host oak species. This study describes geographic variation in the community in the tiny catkin galls of the sexual generation on Turkey oak,

Graham N. Stone; Karsten Schönrogge; Michael J. Crawley; Simon Fraser

1995-01-01

389

Elevated CO 2 differentially alters belowground plant and soil microbial community structure in reed canary grass-invaded experimental wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies have indicated that an enriched atmosphere of carbon dioxide (CO2) could exacerbate the intensity of plant invasions within natural ecosystems, but little is known of how rising CO2 impacts the belowground characteristics of these invaded systems. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) inputs on plant and soil microbial community characteristics

Jenny Kao-Kniffin; Teri C. Balser

2007-01-01

390

An experimental investigation of the competitive displacement of a native gecko by an invading gecko: no role for parasites  

Microsoft Academic Search

On islands across the Pacific the invasion of the gecko Hemidactylusfrenatus has caused a decline in the abundance of a resident gecko, Lepidodactyluslugubris. In a previous study we demonstrated that the prevalence of the cestode Cylindrotaenia sp. is higher in the resident gecko on islands where it is sympatric with the invader than on islands where it occurs alone.\\u000a In

Kathryn A. Hanley; Kenneth Petren; Ted J. Case

1998-01-01

391

Impacts of Residual Insecticide Barriers on Perimeter-Invading Ants, with Particular Reference to the Odorous House Ant, Tapinoma sessile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three liquid insecticide formulations were evaluated as barrier treatments against perimeter-invading ants at a multifamily housing complex in West Lafayette, IN. Several ant species were present at the study site, including (in order of abundance) pavement ant, Tetramorium caespitum (L.); honey ant, Prenolepis imparis (Say); odorous house ant, Tapinoma sessile (Say); thief ant, Solenopsis molesta (Say); acrobat ant, Crematogaster ashmeadi

Michael E. Scharf; Catina R. Ratliff; Gary W. Bennett

2004-01-01

392

Calcium, cancer and killing: the role of calcium in killing cancer cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.  

PubMed

Killing cancer cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and by natural killer (NK) cells is of vital importance. Cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis depend on the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, and the expression of numerous ion channels with the ability to control intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations has been correlated with cancer. A rise of intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations is also required for efficient CTL and NK cell function and thus for killing their targets, in this case cancer cells. Here, we review the data on Ca(2+)-dependent killing of cancer cells by CTL and NK cells. In addition, we discuss emerging ideas and present a model how Ca(2+) may be used by CTL and NK cells to optimize their cancer cell killing efficiency. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 12th European Symposium on Calcium. PMID:23220009

Schwarz, Eva C; Qu, Bin; Hoth, Markus

2012-12-03

393

Welfare of animals at slaughter and killing: a new regulation on the protection of animals at the time of killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the European Commission (EC) has published a proposal for a Council Regulation on the protection of animals at the\\u000a time of killing. The proposed regulation will enhance the technical requirements of Directive 93\\/119\\/EC on the protection\\u000a of animals at the time of slaughter or killing, which have not been amended since 1993. The main specific problems identified\\u000a with the

Annamaria Passantino

2009-01-01

394

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Invading the Main Portal Vein: Treatment with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization and Portal Vein Stenting  

SciTech Connect

To retrospectively analyze the therapeutic results of percutaneous transhepatic portal vein stenting (PTPVS) and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment in 58 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invading the main portal vein (MPV). A total of 58 procedures of PTPVS were performed, immediately after which TACE was undertaken to control HCC. The clinical effects, complications, digital subtraction angiographic appearance, stent patency rates, cumulative survival rates, and predictive factors for survival were evaluated. The Kaplan-Meyer method and the log rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariable analysis was also conducted by the Cox proportional hazard model. No patient died during stent placement or within the first 24 h. No severe procedure-related complications were observed. After stent placement, the mean {+-} standard deviation portal venous pressure levels decreased from 41.43 {+-} 8.56 cmH{sub 2}O to 37.19 {+-} 7.89 cmH{sub 2}O (p < 0.01). At the time of analysis, 9 of the 58 patients survived. The 60-, 180-, 360-, and 720-day cumulative patency rates were 98.1%, 71.0%, 52.6%, and 42.1%, respectively, with a mean patency time of 552.9 {+-} 88.2 days and a median patency time of 639.00 {+-} 310.00 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 31.40-1246.60) days. The 60-, 180-, 360-, and 720-day cumulative survival rates for the total study population were 74.1%, 27.1%, 17.2%, and 13.8%, respectively, with a median survival time of 113 {+-} 27.29 (95% CI, 59.51-166.49) days. In the univariate analysis, the following six variables were significantly associated with the prognosis: (1) HCC type; (2) Child-Pugh grade; (3) MPV stenosis/occlusion; (4) arteriovenous shunt; (5) iodized oil deposition; and (6) number of TACE procedure. In addition, having diffuse-type HCC and Child-Pugh grade B disease were each independent factors associated with decreased survival time in the multivariate analysis. PTPVS-TACE is feasible and may be useful to control HCC invading the MPV.

Zhang Xuebin, E-mail: zhangxuebinwqy@163.com; Wang Jianhua, E-mail: wang.jianhua@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Yan Zhiping, E-mail: yan.zhiping@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Qian Sheng, E-mail: qian.sheng@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Liu Rong, E-mail: liu.rong@zs-hospital.sh.c [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Zhong Shan Hospital (China)

2009-01-15

395

Shifts in grassland invasibility: effects of soil resources, disturbance, composition, and invader size.  

PubMed

There is an emerging recognition that invasibility is not an intrinsic community trait, but is a condition that fluctuates from interactions between environmental forces and residential characters. Elucidating the spatiotemporal complexities of invasion requires inclusion of multiple, ecologically variable factors within communities of differing structure. Water and nutrient amendments, disturbance, and local composition affect grassland invasibility but no study has simultaneously integrated these, despite evidence that they frequently interact. Using a split-plot factorial design, we tested the effects of these factors on the invasibility of C3 pasture communities by smooth pigweed Amaranthus hybridus L., a problematic C4 forb. We sowed seeds and transplanted 3-week old seedlings of A. hybridus into plots containing monocultures and mixtures of varying composition, subjected plots to water, soil disturbance, and synthetic bovine urine (SBU) treatments, and measured A. hybridus emergence, recruitment, and growth rate. Following SBU addition, transplanted seedling growth increased in all plots but differed among legume and nonlegume monocultures and mixtures of these plant types. However, SBU decreased the number and recruitment rate of emerged seedlings because high residential growth reduced light availability. Nutrient pulses can therefore have strong but opposing effects on invasibility, depending on when they coincide with particular life history stages of an invader. Indeed, in SBU-treated plots, small differences in height of transplanted seedlings early on produced large differences in their final biomass. All facilitative effects of small-scale disturbance on invasion success diminished when productivity-promoting factors were present, suggesting that disturbance patch size is important. Precipitation-induced invasion resistance of C3 pastures by a C4 invader was partly supported. In grazed grasslands, these biotic and environmental factors vary across scales and interact in complex ways to affect invasibility, thus a dynamic patch mosaic of differential invasion resistance likely occurs in single fields. We propose that disturbance patch size, grazing intensity, soil resource availability, and resident composition are inextricably linked to grassland invasions and comment on the utility of community attributes as reliable predictors of invasibility. Lastly, we suggest temporal as well as spatial coincidences of multiple invasion facilitators dictate the window of opportunity for invasion. PMID:16995627

Renne, Ian J; Tracy, Benjamin F; Colonna, Ignacio A

2006-09-01

396

Infection and Killing of Multiple Myeloma by Adenoviruses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Oncolytic virotherapy makes use of the natural ability of viruses to infect and kill cancer cells. Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) has been approved for use in humans as a therapy for solid cancers. In this study, we have tested whether Ad5 and low-seroprevalence adenoviruses can be used as oncolytics for multiple myeloma (MM). We show that Ad5 productively infects most myeloma cell lines, replicates to various degrees, and mediates oncolytic cell killing in vitro and in vivo. Comparison of Ad5 with low-seroprevalence Ads on primary marrow samples from MM patients revealed striking differences in the abilities of different adenoviral serotypes to kill normal CD138– cells and CD138+ MM cells. Ad5 and Ad6 from species C and Ad26 and Ad48 from species D all mediated killing of CD138+ cells with low-level killing of CD138– cells. In contrast, Ad11, Ad35, Ad40, and Ad41 mediated weak oncolytic effects in all of the cells. Comparison of cell binding, cell entry, and replication revealed that Ad11 and Ad35 bound MM cells 10 to 100 times better than other serotypes. However, after this efficient interaction, Ad11 and Ad35 viral DNA was not replicated and cell killing did not occur. In contrast, Ad5, Ad6, Ad26, and Ad48 all replicated 10- to 100-fold in MM cells and this correlated with cell killing. These data suggest that Ad5 and other low-seroprevalence adenoviruses may have utility as oncolytic agents against MM and other hematologic malignancies.

Senac, Julien S.; Doronin, Konstantin; Russell, Stephen J.; Jelinek, Diane F.; Greipp, Philip R.

2010-01-01

397

An Archaeal Immune System Can Detect Multiple Protospacer Adjacent Motifs (PAMs) to Target Invader DNA*  

PubMed Central

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system provides adaptive and heritable immunity against foreign genetic elements in most archaea and many bacteria. Although this system is widespread and diverse with many subtypes, only a few species have been investigated to elucidate the precise mechanisms for the defense of viruses or plasmids. Approximately 90% of all sequenced archaea encode CRISPR/Cas systems, but their molecular details have so far only been examined in three archaeal species: Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sulfolobus islandicus, and Pyrococcus furiosus. Here, we analyzed the CRISPR/Cas system of Haloferax volcanii using a plasmid-based invader assay. Haloferax encodes a type I-B CRISPR/Cas system with eight Cas proteins and three CRISPR loci for which the identity of protospacer adjacent motifs (PAMs) was unknown until now. We identified six different PAM sequences that are required upstream of the protospacer to permit target DNA recognition. This is only the second archaeon for which PAM sequences have been determined, and the first CRISPR group with such a high number of PAM sequences. Cells could survive the plasmid challenge if their CRISPR/Cas system was altered or defective, e.g. by deletion of the cas gene cassette. Experimental PAM data were supplemented with bioinformatics data on Haloferax and Haloquadratum.

Fischer, Susan; Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Stoll, Britta; Brendel, Jutta; Fischer, Eike; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm; Dyall-Smith, Mike; Marchfelder, Anita

2012-01-01

398

Genotype-by-environment interaction for salinity tolerance in the freshwater-invading copepod Eurytemora affinis.  

PubMed

This study examined the extent of phenotypic plasticity for salinity tolerance and genetic variation in plasticity in the invasive copepod Eurytemora affinis. Euryemora affinis is a species complex inhabiting brackish to hypersaline environments but has invaded freshwater lakes and reservoirs within the past century. Reaction norm experiments were performed on a relatively euryhaline population collected from a brackish lake with fluctuating salinity. Life history traits (hatching rate, survival, and development time) were measured for 20 full-sib clutches that were split and reared at four salinities (fresh, 5, 10, and 27 practical salinity units [PSU]). On average, higher salinities (10 and 27 PSU) were more favorable for larval growth, yielding greater survival and faster development rate. Clutches differed significantly in their response to salinity, with a significant genotype-by-environment interaction for development time. In addition, genetic (clutch) effects were evident in response to low salinity, given that survival in fresh (lake) water was significantly positively correlated with survival at 5 PSU for individual clutches. Clutches raised in fresh water could not survive beyond metamorphosis, suggesting that acclimation to fresh water could not occur in a single generation. Results suggest the importance of natural selection during freshwater invasion events, given the inability of plasticity to generate a freshwater phenotype, and the presence of genetic variation for plasticity upon which natural selection could act. PMID:12324889

Lee, Carol Eunmi; Petersen, Christine H

399

Porphyromonas gingivalis invades human trophoblasts and inhibits proliferation by inducing G1 arrest and apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen that is also associated with serious systemic conditions such as preterm delivery. Here we investigated the interaction between P. gingivalis and a cell line of extravillous trophoblasts (HTR-8) derived from the human placenta. P. gingivalis internalized within HTR-8 cells and inhibited proliferation through induction of arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. G1 arrest was associated with decreased expression of cyclin D and of CDKs 2, 4 and 6. In addition, levels of CDK inhibitors p15, p16, p18 and p21 were increased following P. gingivalis infection. The amount of Rb was diminished by P. gingivalis, and transient overexpression of Rb, with concomitant upregulation of phospho-Rb, relieved P. gingivalis-induced G1 arrest. HTR-8 cells halted in the G1 phase became apoptotic, and apoptosis was accompanied by an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and increased activity of caspases 3, 7 and 9. HTR-8 cells infected with P. gingivalis also exhibited a sustained activation of ERK1/2, and knockdown of ERK1/2 activity with siRNA abrogated both G1 arrest and apoptosis. Thus, P. gingivalis can invade placental trophoblasts and induce G1 arrest and apoptosis through pathways involving ERK1/2 and its downstream effectors, properties that provide a mechanistic basis for pathogenicity in complications of pregnancy.

Inaba, Hiroaki; Kuboniwa, Masae; Bainbridge, Brian; Yilmaz, Ozlem; Katz, Joseph; Shiverick, Kathleen T.; Amano, Atsuo; Lamont, Richard J.

2009-01-01

400

Stressful environments induce novel phenotypic variation: hierarchical reaction norms for sperm performance of a pervasive invader  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and important. However, the scale of such variation including the relative variability present in reaction norms among different hierarchies of biological organization (e.g., individuals, populations, and closely related species) is unknown. Complicating interpretation is a trade-off in environmental scale. As plasticity can only be inferred over the range of environments tested, experiments focusing on fine tuned responses to normal or benign conditions may miss cryptic phenotypic variation expressed under novel or stressful environments. Here, we sought to discern the presence and shape of plasticity in the performance of brown trout sperm as a function of optimal to extremely stressful river pH, and demarcate if the reaction norm varies among genotypes. Our overarching goal was to determine if deteriorating environmental quality increases expressed variation among individuals. A more applied aim was to ascertain whether maintaining sperm performance over a wide pH range could help explain how brown trout are able to invade diverse river systems when transplanted outside of their native range. Individuals differed in their reaction norms of phenotypic expression of an important trait in response to environmental change. Cryptic variation was revealed under stressful conditions, evidenced through increasing among-individual variability. Importantly, data on population averages masked this variability in plasticity. In addition, canalized reaction norms in sperm swimming velocities of many individuals over a very large range in water chemistry may help explain why brown trout are able to colonize a wide variety of habitats.

Purchase, Craig F; Moreau, Darek T R

2012-01-01

401

Subepicardial endothelial cells invade the embryonic ventricle wall to form coronary arteries.  

PubMed

Coronary arteries bring blood flow to the heart muscle. Understanding the developmental program of the coronary arteries provides insights into the treatment of coronary artery diseases. Multiple sources have been described as contributing to coronary arteries including the proepicardium, sinus venosus (SV), and endocardium. However, the developmental origins of coronary vessels are still under intense study. We have produced a new genetic tool for studying coronary development, an AplnCreER mouse line, which expresses an inducible Cre recombinase specifically in developing coronary vessels. Quantitative analysis of coronary development and timed induction of AplnCreER fate tracing showed that the progenies of subepicardial endothelial cells (ECs) both invade the compact myocardium to form coronary arteries and remain on the surface to produce veins. We found that these subepicardial ECs are the major sources of intramyocardial coronary vessels in the developing heart. In vitro explant assays indicate that the majority of these subepicardial ECs arise from endocardium of the SV and atrium, but not from ventricular endocardium. Clonal analysis of Apln-positive cells indicates that a single subepicardial EC contributes equally to both coronary arteries and veins. Collectively, these data suggested that subepicardial ECs are the major source of intramyocardial coronary arteries in the ventricle wall, and that coronary arteries and veins have a common origin in the developing heart. PMID:23797856

Tian, Xueying; Hu, Tianyuan; Zhang, Hui; He, Lingjuan; Huang, Xiuzhen; Liu, Qiaozhen; Yu, Wei; He, Liang; Yang, Zhongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Zhong, Tao P; Yang, Xiao; Yang, Zhen; Yan, Yan; Baldini, Antonio; Sun, Yunfu; Lu, Jie; Schwartz, Robert J; Evans, Sylvia M; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Red-Horse, Kristy; Zhou, Bin

2013-06-25

402

Stressful environments induce novel phenotypic variation: hierarchical reaction norms for sperm performance of a pervasive invader.  

PubMed

Genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and important. However, the scale of such variation including the relative variability present in reaction norms among different hierarchies of biological organization (e.g., individuals, populations, and closely related species) is unknown. Complicating interpretation is a trade-off in environmental scale. As plasticity can only be inferred over the range of environments tested, experiments focusing on fine tuned responses to normal or benign conditions may miss cryptic phenotypic variation expressed under novel or stressful environments. Here, we sought to discern the presence and shape of plasticity in the performance of brown trout sperm as a function of optimal to extremely stressful river pH, and demarcate if the reaction norm varies among genotypes. Our overarching goal was to determine if deteriorating environmental quality increases expressed variation among individuals. A more applied aim was to ascertain whether maintaining sperm performance over a wide pH range could help explain how brown trout are able to invade diverse river systems when transplanted outside of their native range. Individuals differed in their reaction norms of phenotypic expression of an important trait in response to environmental change. Cryptic variation was revealed under stressful conditions, evidenced through increasing among-individual variability. Importantly, data on population averages masked this variability in plasticity. In addition, canalized reaction norms in sperm swimming velocities of many individuals over a very large range in water chemistry may help explain why brown trout are able to colonize a wide variety of habitats. PMID:23145341

Purchase, Craig F; Moreau, Darek T R

2012-09-13

403

Venous Reconstruction in Surgery of Meningiomas Invading the Sagittal and Transverse Sinuses  

PubMed Central

Surgery of meningiomas involving major dural sinuses leaves the surgeon confronted with a difficult dilemma: leave the fragment invading the sinus in place and have a higher risk of recurrence, or attempt a total removal with or without venous reconstruction and expose the patient to a potentially greater operative danger. The authors report a series of 47 meningiomas (41 of the sagittal sinus, 4 of the transverse sinus and 2 of the torcular) in whom gross total removal was achieved in all cases, and venous reconstruction (of various types) attempted in a majority. Thirty-nine patients had a good outcome and resumed their previous activities. There was a permanent neurological deficit in five due to infarction secondary to injury of central veins (all in the sagittal sinus midthird). Three patients died from brain swelling; all with meningioma totally occluding the sinus and in whom resection was achieved without sinus reconstruction. There were two recurrences in this series which has a mean follow-up of 7.5 years. The authors' surgical experience led them to favor whenever possible, total removal with sinus reconstruction, using a patch for meningiomas with partial sinus invasion and a venous bypass for those with total sinus occlusion. ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5p62-bFigure 6Figure 7

Sindou, Marc; Hallacq, P.

1998-01-01

404

Seroprevalence of tissue invading parasitic infections diagnosed by ELISA in Korea.  

PubMed

Seroprevalence of the IgG antibodies for Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Taenia solium metacestode (cysticercus), and Spirometra erinacei plerocercoid (sparganum) was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera of patients in Korea from 1993 to 2006. A total of 74,448 specimens referred nationwide from 121 hospitals revealed an IgG positive rate of 7.6% for the 4 parasites. The IgG positive rate (18.7%) for the 4 parasites in 1993 decreased gradually to 6.6% in 2006. Individual positive rate decreased from 5.2% (1993) to 1.6% (2006) for C. sinensis, from 2.8% (1993) to 1.1% (2006) for P. westermani, from 8.3% (1993) to 2.2% (2006) for cysticercus, and from 2.6% (1993) to 1.6% (2006) for sparganum. The positive rate was highest (21.2%) in the group of patients who ranged in age from 50-59 yr old, and in the group that was referred from the Seoul area (55.9%). In conclusion, our results suggest that tissue invading parasitic infections should always be included in differential diagnosis for patients with eosinophilia associated lesions of the central nervous system, liver, and lungs in Korea. PMID:20808668

Lee, Mi Kyung; Hong, Sung-Jong; Kim, Hye Ryoun

2010-08-14

405

Seroprevalence of Tissue Invading Parasitic Infections Diagnosed by ELISA in Korea  

PubMed Central

Seroprevalence of the IgG antibodies for Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, Taenia solium metacestode (cysticercus), and Spirometra erinacei plerocercoid (sparganum) was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in sera of patients in Korea from 1993 to 2006. A total of 74,448 specimens referred nationwide from 121 hospitals revealed an IgG positive rate of 7.6% for the 4 parasites. The IgG positive rate (18.7%) for the 4 parasites in 1993 decreased gradually to 6.6% in 2006. Individual positive rate decreased from 5.2% (1993) to 1.6% (2006) for C. sinensis, from 2.8% (1993) to 1.1% (2006) for P. westermani, from 8.3% (1993) to 2.2% (2006) for cysticercus, and from 2.6% (1993) to 1.6% (2006) for sparganum. The positive rate was highest (21.2%) in the group of patients who ranged in age from 50-59 yr old, and in the group that was referred from the Seoul area (55.9%). In conclusion, our results suggest that tissue invading parasitic infections should always be included in differential diagnosis for patients with eosinophilia associated lesions of the central nervous system, liver, and lungs in Korea.

Lee, Mi Kyung; Hong, Sung-Jong

2010-01-01

406

Extremophilic microorganisms as candidates for extraterrestrial life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial life is found all over the globe. Diverse communities are even found in such places in which extreme conditions with respect of temperature, salinity, pH, and pressure prevail. Many of these environments were until recently considered too harsh to harbor microbial life. The micro-organisms adapted to an existence at the edge of life are termed extremophiles. They include members of the Prokaryotes (domains Archaea and Bacteria) and the Eukarya, including algae and protozoa. Extremophilic microbes thrive at low and high temperatures -- from subzero levels to above the boiling point of water, at both sides of the pH scale -- in acidic as well as in alkaline media, in hypersaline environments with salt concentrations of up to saturation, at high pressure, both in the deep sea and in the terrestrial deep subsurface where they are exposed to pressures of hundreds of atmospheres, and in other extreme conditions. In many cases they tolerate combinations of more than one environmental stress factor. Some of the extremophiles may be considered as 'living fossils' since their environment resembles the conditions that may have existed during the time life arose on Earth, more than 3.5 billion years ago. In view of these properties the extremophilic micro-organisms may be considered as model organisms when exploring the possibilities of the existence of extraterrestrial life. For example, the microbes discovered in ice cores recovered from the depth of the Lake Vostok in Antarctica may serve as a model simulating conditions prevailing in the permafrost subsurface of Mars or Jupiter's moon Europa. Microbial life in the Dead Sea or in Great Salt Lake may resemble halophilic life forms that may exist elsewhere in the universe, adapted to life at low water activities. Likewise, hyperthermophilic micro-organisms present on Earth in hot springs, hydrothermal vents and other sites heated by volcanic activity in terrestrial or marine areas, may resemble life forms that may exist on hot planets such as Venus.

Seckbach, Joseph; Oren, Aharon

2000-12-01

407

Honor killing attitudes amongst adolescents in Amman, Jordan.  

PubMed

The present study examines attitudes towards honor crimes amongst a sample of 856 ninth grade students (mean age?=?14.6, SD?=?0.56) from 14 schools in Amman, Jordan. Descriptive findings suggest that about 40% of boys and 20% of girls believe that killing a daughter, sister, or wife who has dishonored the family can be justified. A number of theoretically meaningful predictors were examined: Findings suggest that attitudes in support of honor killings are more likely amongst adolescents who have collectivist and patriarchal world views, believe in the importance of female chastity amongst adolescents, and morally neutralize aggressive behavior in general. Findings for parental harsh discipline are mixed: While the father's harsh discipline is predictive of honor killing attitudes, the mother's behavior is not. Furthermore, support for honor killing is stronger amongst male adolescents and adolescents for low education backgrounds. After controlling for other factors religion and the intensity of religious beliefs are not associated with support for honor killings. Models were tested separately for male and female respondents and suggested no systematic differences in predictors. Limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:23744567

Eisner, Manuel; Ghuneim, Lana

2013-06-06

408

Killing of human malaria parasites by macrophage secretory products.  

PubMed Central

The susceptibility of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to killing in vitro by macrophage secretory products was investigated. The effect of O2 radicals and tumor necrosis factor on parasite viability was assessed both morphologically and by following the uptake of [3H]hypoxanthine. H2O2 produced by the interaction of glucose and glucose oxidase was found to reduce viability; this effect was reversed by the addition of exogenous catalase. Further studies indicated that the catalase level within the erythrocyte was not altered upon parasite invasion. O2 radicals produced during the xanthine-xanthine oxidase interaction also killed P. falciparum. The addition of various O2 radical scavengers (including catalase) did not reverse this effect; therefore, it was not possible to determine which of the O2 radicals were involved in the killing process. Samples from three different sources containing tumor necrosis factor, a nonspecific soluble mediator derived from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-activated macrophages treated with endotoxin, also killed the parasite. There was no evidence that tumor necrosis factor or the products of the xanthine-xanthine oxidase interaction caused damage to the erythrocyte membrane that could be implicated as an important aspect of the killing process. These findings all strongly suggest that such macrophage products play an important role in immunity to malaria.

Wozencraft, A O; Dockrell, H M; Taverne, J; Targett, G A; Playfair, J H

1984-01-01

409

Temperature response of Antarctic cryptoendolithic photosynthetic microorganisms.  

PubMed

Growth responses to temperatures between 12.5 [degrees] C and 25 degrees C were determined for five photosynthetic microorganisms isolated from the Ross Desert cryptoendolithic community. Among eukaryotic algae, two strains of Trebouxia sp. have an upper temperature limit of 20 degrees C, and two strains of Hemichloris antarctica of 25 degrees C. The cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp., in contrast, grows at temperatures above 25 degrees C. These and earlier studies suggest that the eukaryotic algae of the Antarctic cryptoendolithic community have an upper temperature limit near 25 degrees C. PMID:11538353

Ocampo-Friedmann, R; Meyer, M A; Chen, M; Friedmann, E I

1988-01-01

410

Microorganisms in human milk: lights and shadows.  

PubMed

Abstract Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn. PMID:24059550

Civardi, Elisa; Garofoli, Francesca; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Paolillo, Piermichele; Bollani, Lina; Stronati, Mauro

2013-10-01

411

Endolithic Microorganisms in the Antarctic Cold Desert  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frigid desert of the Antarctic dry valleys there are no visible life forms on the surface of the soil or rocks. Yet in certain rock types a narrow subsurface zone has a favorable microclimate and is colonized by microorganisms. Dominant are lichens of unusual organization. They survive not by physiological adaptation to lower temperatures, but by changing their mode of growth, being able to grow between the crystals of porous rocks. Their activity results in mobilization of iron compounds and in rock weathering with a characteristic pattern of exfoliation. This simple ecosystem lacks both higher consumers and predators.

Imre Friedmann, E.

1982-02-01

412

Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed. PMID:23028016

Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

2012-10-01

413

Propulsion of Microorganisms by Surface Distortions  

SciTech Connect

Swimming strategies of microorganisms must conform to the principles of self-propulsion at low Reynolds numbers. Here we relate the translational and rotational speeds to the surface motions of a swimmer and, for spheres, make evident novel constraints on mechanisms for propulsion. The results are applied to a cyanobacterium, an organism while motile mechanism is unknown, by considering incompressible streaming of the cell surface and oscillatory, tangential surface deformations. Finally, swimming efficiency using tangential motions is related to the surface velocities and a bound on the efficiency is obtained. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Stone, H.A. [Division of Engineering & Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Samuel, A.D. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 and Rowland Institute for Science, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142 (United States)

1996-11-01

414

Compact device for assessment of microorganism motility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed and constructed a simple and reliable instrument, based on dynamic speckle interferometry, which allows the determination of the relative degree of motility for microorganisms. A measurement can be carried out in a few seconds and parasites have been used for test purposes. An ad hoc software was also developed showing easy operation characteristics. This instrument surpasses the purely qualitative methodology employed by human operators, that can be affected by great errors, fatigue, etc. Besides, it does not require using image formation systems (such as a microscope) and a frame grabber is not mandatory.

Pomarico, J. A.; Dirocco, H. O.

2004-11-01

415

Oxygenic Photosynthetic Microorganisms in Extreme Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms are abundantly found in environmental extremes of temperature, pH, salt concentration,\\u000a and radiation. These extremophilic phototrophs include both prokaryotes (cyanobacteria) and eukaryotes (different types of\\u000a algae).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The prokaryotic cyanobacteria, belonging to the eubacterial domain, do not possess a defined nucleus and have no intracellular\\u000a membrane-surrounded organelles, while the eukaryotic algae have nucleated, more complex and larger cells

Joseph Seckbach; Aharon Oren

416

Control instrumentation for wellheads and mud kill system  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the wellhead and mud kill system instrumentation installed at the Mobile Oil Indonesia Arun natural gas field in N. Sumatra. The first part describes the controls and instrumentation associated with the field production wells. The philosophy behind the design of the pressure controls and pressure protection system is discussed, including details of the layout and operation of the various wellhead control panels. The second part of the study covers the well kill system at Arun and in particular describes the instrumentation and control equipment. A full description is given of the pressure and flow monitoring system and of the problems encountered when measuring the flow rate of well kill mud. The remote controls necessary for the system are described also.

Giles, A.J.

1982-01-01

417

[Serial killings in a nursing home for the elderly].  

PubMed

In 2005, a 27-year-old nurse had been sentenced to life imprisonment for killing 9 female residents of the home within 3 years. After the post-mortem examination a natural death had been certified for all the victims. These 9 deaths were retrospectively analysed as to the motive and circumstances of the crime, the method applied, the results of the postmortem examination and the autopsy as well as the profile of the perpetrator. 8 victims had been smothered by blocking the external air passages with a soft fabric and one had been killed by omitting to remove secretion from the respiratory tract. The autopsies performed after exhumation did not furnish unequivocal evidence of homicide. Generally, the method of killing applied in these cases is known to leave almost no traces. Apart from the circumstantial evidence, the court had to base its decision on the confessions of the emotionally disturbed perpetrator, although she partly revoked these confessions later. PMID:19323148

Doberentz, Elke; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

418

Phagocytosis and killing of salmonella typhimurium by peritoneal exudate cells.  

PubMed Central

Normal peritoneal cells from conventional, germfree, or nu/nu mice readily killed opsonized salmonellae, an observation that suggests that this activity in the normal peritoneal cavity may not be dependent on either environmental antigenic stimulation or T-cell mediation. In contrast, peritoneal cells elicited 4 days after injection with thioglycolate medium failed to kill opsonized salmonellae but appeared to be highly phagocytic. Peritoneal cells from thioglycolate-treated mice could be induced to kill opsonized salmonellae by giving the mice a primary footpad injection and a secondary intraperitoneal injection of Corynebacterium parvum. This activation by C. parvum appeared to be thymus dependent, since it did not occur in nu/nu mice.

Briles, D E; Lehmeyer, J; Forman, C

1981-01-01

419

Killing and Noether Symmetries of Plane Symmetric Spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is devoted to investigate the Killing and Noether symmetries of static plane symmetric spacetime. For this purpose, five different cases have been discussed. The Killing and Noether symmetries of Minkowski spacetime in cartesian coordinates are calculated as a special case and it is found that Lie algebra of the Lagrangian is 10 and 17 dimensional respectively. The symmetries of Taub's universe, anti-deSitter universe, self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel perfect fluid case and self similar solutions of infinite kind for parallel dust case are also explored. In all the cases, the Noether generators are calculated in the presence of gauge term. All these examples justify the conjecture that Killing symmetries form a subalgebra of Noether symmetries (Bokhari et al. in Int. J. Theor. Phys. 45:1063, 2006).

Shamir, M. Farasat; Jhangeer, Adil; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

2013-09-01

420

Inflatable kill packers used in working over Kuwaiti wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on inflatable packers which are being used with great success in post-well capping workover operations in Kuwait oil fields. In mid-January, about one kill packer was being run per day. Use is expected to increase in March when a second post-capping crew arrives. Of several thousand unconventional ideas submitted to Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC) for controlling the well fires left in the aftermath of lst year's Gulf War, only about a dozen were actually used. Inflatable kill packers, designed and manufactured by Baker Service Tools and marketed by Baker Oil Tools, were one of the ideas that proved effective. The kill packers are modifications of Baker's inflatable packers that have successfully been used in capping producers on many blowouts throughout the world, including the Piper Alpha disaster in the North Sea and the Saga blowout offshore Norway.

Miller, D. (Baker Oil Tools, Houston, TX (US)); Conover, G. (Baker Service Tools, Houston, TX (US))

1992-03-09

421

[Effect of niclosamide spreading oil on killing schistosome cercariae].  

PubMed

Dechlorinated water (100 ml, 30 degrees C) was put into a plate (diameter 15 cm), and 1% niclosamide spreading oil 5 microl was added, then a ring of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae were picked up to the plate. The time of killing all the cercariae was observed at three time points (immediately, 24, 48 h), and the dechlorinated water was used as control. The results showed that schistosome cercariae were all killed in three minutes by 1% niclosamide spreading oil at the three time points. The cercaria-killing effects of each time point were not significantly different (F = 0.062, P > 0.05). The cercariae were alive in the control in 48 h. PMID:23012973

Peng, Guo-Hua; Hu, Zhu-Hua; Bao, Zi-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Sheng; Xiong, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Hai-Ying'; Guo, Jia-Gang

2012-06-01

422

QFT on homothetic Killing twist deformed curved spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the quantum field theory (QFT) of a free, real, massless and curvature coupled scalar field on self-similar symmetric spacetimes, which are deformed by an abelian Drinfel'd twist constructed from a Killing and a homothetic Killing vector field. In contrast to deformations solely by Killing vector fields, such as the Moyal-Weyl Minkowski spacetime, the equation of motion and Green's operators are deformed. We show that there is a *-algebra isomorphism between the QFT on the deformed and the formal power series extension of the QFT on the undeformed spacetime. We study the convergent implementation of our deformations for toy-models. For these models it is found that there is a *-isomorphism between the deformed Weyl algebra and a reduced undeformed Weyl algebra, where certain strongly localized observables are excluded. Thus, our models realize the intuitive physical picture that noncommutative geometry prevents arbitrary localization in spacetime.

Schenkel, Alexander

2011-10-01

423

Is the SSPK sufficient to represent a kill vehicle performance?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Is the SSPK (Single Shot Probability of Kill) sufficient to represent a kill vehicle performance? This question is often asked because the SSPK computation ignores the details of the miss distance performance and considers only the threshold limit of the miss distance. One may intuitively think that a KV (kill vehicle) with a smaller average miss distance should perform better than the one with a larger distance. In this case the SSPK alone may not be sufficient to represent a KV performance. This paper, however, will show that the SSPK and the miss distance performance are related (i.e., a higher SSPK means a smaller average miss distance, and vice versa) and therefore the SSPK is a sufficient KV performance measure. The relationship is derived based on the observation that KV miss distance obeys Rayleigh statistics.

Kim, Kang S.

2005-05-01

424

Microorganisms within Human Follicular Fluid: Effects on IVF  

PubMed Central

Our previous study reported microorganisms in human follicular fluid. The objective of this study was to test human follicular fluid for the presence of microorganisms and to correlate these findings with the in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes. In this study, 263 paired follicular fluids and vaginal swabs were collected from women undergoing IVF cycles, with various causes for infertility, and were cultured to detect microorganisms. The cause of infertility and the IVF outcomes for each woman were correlated with the microorganisms detected within follicular fluid collected at the time of trans-vaginal oocyte retrieval. Microorganisms isolated from follicular fluids were classified as: (1) ‘colonizers’ if microorganisms were detected within the follicular fluid, but not within the vaginal swab (at the time of oocyte retrieval); or (2) ‘contaminants’ if microorganisms detected in the vagina at the time of oocyte retrieval were also detected within the follicular fluid. The presence of Lactobacillus spp. in ovarian follicular fluids was associated with embryo maturation and transfer. This study revealed microorganisms in follicular fluid itself and that the presence of particular microorganisms has an adverse affect on IVF outcomes as seen by an overall decrease in embryo transfer rates and pregnancy rates in both fertile and infertile women, and live birth rates in women with idiopathic infertility. Follicular fluid microorganisms are a potential cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes in IVF in both infertile women and in fertile women with infertile male partners.

Pelzer, Elise S.; Allan, John A.; Waterhouse, Mary A.; Ross, Tara; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Knox, Christine L.

2013-01-01

425

Production of hydroxycitric acid by microorganisms.  

PubMed

Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a major acid component of the tropical plants Garcinia cambogia and Hibiscus subdariffa. (2S,3S)-HCA from G. cambogia was shown to be a potent inhibitor of ATP citrate lyase (EC4.1.3.8), which catalyzes the extramitochondrial cleavage of citrate to oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA. (2S,3R)-HCA from H. subdariffa inhibits alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, leading to reduction of carbohydrate metabolism. The availability of HCA is limited by the restricted habitat of the plants as well as the difficulty of stereoselective organic synthesis. Hence, we screened microorganisms producing HCA to find an alternative source of optically pure bulk HCA. Two strains, Streptomyces sp. U121 and Bacillus megaterium G45C, were screened by HPLC analysis. Particular metabolites were purified from their culture broths and compared with authentic HCA from plants. NMR studies indicated that the products are identical to Hibiscus-type HCA. This is the first report showing isolation of microorganisms producing HCA. PMID:16116285

Hida, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi; Yamada, Yasuhiro

2005-08-01

426

Degradation of arylarsenic compounds by microorganisms.  

PubMed

Microorganisms were not directly accumulated when soil contaminated to about 0.5 mM with diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA) was used as the sole source of carbon. However, using toluene as the carbon source yielded several isolates, which were then used in cultivation with DPAA as the sole source of carbon. By these methods, Kytococcus sedentarius strain NK0508, which can grow in up to 0.038 mM DPAA, was isolated. The toxicity of DPAA retarded the growth of K. sedentarius and the direct accumulation of DPAA-utilizing microorganisms from environmental samples. This strain can utilize about 80% of DPAA and phenylarsonic acid as the sole source of carbon for 3 days. Degradation products of DPAA were determined to be cis, cis, muconate and arsenic acid. When K. sedentarius was cultivated with methylphenylarsinic acid and diphenylmethylarsine, about 90% and 10% degradation of the two compounds, respectively, were observed. Diphenylmethylarsine oxide, possibly synthesized by methylation of DPAA, was detected as one of the transformation products. These results suggest that degradation is initiated by splitting of the phenyl groups from the arylarsenic compounds with subsequent hydroxylation of the phenyl groups and ring opening to yield cis, cis, muconate. PMID:17697081

Nakamiya, Kunichika; Nakayama, Takashi; Ito, Hiroyasu; Edmonds, John S; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi

2007-09-01

427

Microorganisms Resistant to Free-Living Amoebae  

PubMed Central

Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. Some of these amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) are lytic for their amoebal host, while others are considered endosymbionts, since a stable host-parasite ratio is maintained. Free-living amoebae represent an important reservoir of ARB and may, while encysted, protect the internalized bacteria from chlorine and other biocides. Free-living amoebae may act as a Trojan horse, bringing hidden ARB within the human “Troy,” and may produce vesicles filled with ARB, increasing their transmission potential. Free-living amoebae may also play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages. Thus, intra-amoebal growth was found to enhance virulence, and similar mechanisms seem to be implicated in the survival of ARB in response to both amoebae and macrophages. Moreover, free-living amoebae represent a useful tool for the culture of some intracellular bacteria and new bacterial species that might be potential emerging pathogens.

Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

2004-01-01

428

Microorganisms resistant to free-living amoebae.  

PubMed

Free-living amoebae feed on bacteria, fungi, and algae. However, some microorganisms have evolved to become resistant to these protists. These amoeba-resistant microorganisms include established pathogens, such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Legionella spp., Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycobacterium avium, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Francisella tularensis, and emerging pathogens, such as Bosea spp., Simkania negevensis, Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, and Legionella-like amoebal pathogens. Some of these amoeba-resistant bacteria (ARB) are lytic for their amoebal host, while others are considered endosymbionts, since a stable host-parasite ratio is maintained. Free-living amoebae represent an important reservoir of ARB and may, while encysted, protect the internalized bacteria from chlorine and other biocides. Free-living amoebae may act as a Trojan horse, bringing hidden ARB within the human "Troy," and may produce vesicles filled with ARB, increasing their transmission potential. Free-living amoebae may also play a role in the selection of virulence traits and in adaptation to survival in macrophages. Thus, intra-amoebal growth was found to enhance virulence, and similar mechanisms seem to be implicated in the survival of ARB in response to both amoebae and macrophages. Moreover, free-living amoebae represent a useful tool for the culture of some intracellular bacteria and new bacterial species that might be potential emerging pathogens. PMID:15084508

Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier

2004-04-01

429

Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

2008-03-01

430

Directed Culturing of Microorganisms Using Metatranscriptomics  

PubMed Central

The vast majority of bacterial species remain uncultured, and this severely limits the investigation of their physiology, metabolic capabilities, and role in the environment. High-throughput sequencing of RNA transcripts (RNA-seq) allows the investigation of the diverse physiologies from uncultured microorganisms in their natural habitat. Here, we report the use of RNA-seq for characterizing the metatranscriptome of the simple gut microbiome from the medicinal leech Hirudo verbana and for utilizing this information to design a medium for cultivating members of the microbiome. Expression data suggested that a Rikenella-like bacterium, the most abundant but uncultured symbiont, forages on sulfated- and sialated-mucin glycans that are fermented, leading to the secretion of acetate. Histological stains were consistent with the presence of sulfated and sialated mucins along the crop epithelium. The second dominant symbiont, Aeromonas veronii, grows in two different microenvironments and is predicted to utilize either acetate or carbohydrates. Based on the metatranscriptome, a medium containing mucin was designed, which enabled the cultivation of the Rikenella-like bacterium. Metatranscriptomes shed light on microbial metabolism in situ and provide critical clues for directing the culturing of uncultured microorganisms. By choosing a condition under which the desired organism is rapidly proliferating and focusing on highly expressed genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes, binding proteins, and transporters, one can identify an organism’s nutritional preferences and design a culture medium.

Bomar, Lindsey; Maltz, Michele; Colston, Sophie; Graf, Joerg

2011-01-01

431

Industrial and environmental applications of halophilic microorganisms.  

PubMed

In comparison with the thermophilic and the alkaliphilic extremophiles, halophilic microorganisms have as yet found relatively few biotechnological applications. Halophiles are involved in centuries-old processes such as the manufacturing of solar salt from seawater and the production of traditional fermented foods. Two biotechnological processes involving halophiles are highly successful: the production of beta-carotene by the green alga Dunaliella and the production of ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid), used as a stabilizer for enzymes and now also applied in cosmetic products, from moderately halophilic bacteria. The potential use of bacteriorhodopsin, the retinal protein proton pump of Halobacterium, in optoelectronic devices and photochemical processes is being explored, and may well lead to commercial applications in the near future. Demand for salt-tolerant enzymes in current manufacturing or related processes is limited. Other possible uses of halophilic microorganisms such as treatment of saline and hypersaline wastewaters, and the production of exopolysaccharides, poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoate bioplastics and biofuel are being investigated, but no large-scale applications have yet been reported. PMID:20662374

Oren, Aharon

432

Microorganisms capable of metabolizing the herbicide metolachlor.  

PubMed Central

We screened several strains of microorganisms and microbial populations for their ability to mineralize or transform the herbicide metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)-acetami de] because such cultures would potentially be useful in the cleanup of contaminated sites. Although we used various inocula and enrichment culture techniques, we were not able to isolate microorganisms that could mineralize metolachlor. However, strains of Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, Fusarium sp., Mucor racemosus, and an actinomycete were found to transform metolachlor. Several metabolites could be determined with high-performance liquid chromatography. The tolerance of the strains to high concentrations of metolachlor was also evaluated for the usefulness of the strains for decontamination. Tolerance of the actinomycete to metolachlor concentrations over 200 ppm (200 micrograms/ml) was low and could not be increased by doubling the sucrose concentration in the growth medium or by using a large biomass as inoculum. However, a Fusarium sp. could grow and transform metolachlor up to a concentration of 300 ppm.

Saxena, A; Zhang, R W; Bollag, J M

1987-01-01

433

Results of surgical treatment of stage III lung cancer invading the mediastinum.  

PubMed

From 1974 to 1984, 225 patients underwent thoracotomy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center for primary non-small cell lung cancer invading only the mediastinum (T3). The perioperative mortality was 2.7 per cent, and the nonfatal complication rate 13 per cent. Forty-nine patients underwent complete resection of all intrathoracic disease, with a median survival of 17 months, 3-year survival of 21 per cent, and 5-year survival of 9 per cent. Thirty-three patients underwent pulmonary resection with simultaneous iodine-125 interstitial implantation or iridium-192 delayed afterloading to areas of unresectable primary or nodal disease, with a median survival of 12 months, 3-year survival of 22 per cent, and 5-year survival of 22 per cent. One hundred and one patients underwent interstitial implantation without resection, with a median survival of 11 months, 3-year survival of 9 per cent, and no 5-year survivors. Forty-two patients had incomplete resection without intraoperative radiation therapy and fared no better than a cohort group of 44 unoperated patients with clinical evidence of mediastinal invasion--both groups had a median survival of 8 months and no 3-year survivors. An aggressive surgical approach with pulmonary resection and/or brachytherapy appears to offer some survival advantage to this group of patients. In particular, 5-year survival rates ranging from 7 to 15 per cent were observed in subsets of intraoperatively treated patients with invasion of pulmonary vein, phrenic nerve, esophagus, or pericardium and in those with clinically occult T3 disease. PMID:2820072

Burt, M E; Pomerantz, A H; Bains, M S; McCormack, P M; Kaiser, L R; Hilaris, B S; Martini, N

1987-10-01

434

Augmentation of epithelial resistance to invading bacteria by using mRNA transfections.  

PubMed

To protect against invading bacteria, oral epithelial cells appear to use two effector antimicrobial peptides (AMPs): calprotectin (S100A8-S100A9 heterodimer [S100A8/A9]) in the cytosol and cathelicidin antimicrobial protein (CAMP) in endosomes. We sought to learn whether innate immunity might be augmented benignly to increase resistance against invasive bacteria. Epithelial cells were transiently transfected with mRNA constructs containing either the CAMP, S100A8, and S100A9 open reading frames, A8-IRES-A9 (fusion sequence), or A8-nIRES-A9 (fusion with native internal ribosome entry site [IRES] sequence). CAMP, S100A8, and S100A9 protein levels generally peaked between 16 and 44 h after mRNA transfection, depending on the construct; CAMP was processed to LL-37 over time. Following transfection with the respective mRNAs, CAMP and S100A8/A9 each independently increased resistance of epithelial cells to invasion by Listeria and Salmonella for up to 48 h; tandem S100A8/A9 constructs were also effective. Cotransfection to express S100A8/A9 and CAMP together augmented resistance, but synergy was not seen. Independent of the new proteins produced, transfection reduced cell viability after 48 h by 20%, with only 2% attributable to apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that epithelial cell resistance to invasive pathogens can be augmented by transient transfection of antimicrobial mRNAs into epithelial cells. PMID:23940207

Zou, Xianqiong; Sorenson, Brent S; Ross, Karen F; Herzberg, Mark C

2013-08-12

435

High Invasive Pollen Transfer, Yet Low Deposition on Native Stigmas in a Carpobrotus-invaded Community  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Invasive plants are potential agents of disruption in plant–pollinator interactions. They may affect pollinator visitation rates to native plants and modify the plant–pollinator interaction network. However, there is little information about the extent to which invasive pollen is incorporated into the pollination network and about the rates of invasive pollen deposition on the stigmas of native plants. Methods The degree of pollinator sharing between the invasive plant Carpobrotus affine acinaciformis and the main co-flowering native plants was tested in a Mediterranean coastal shrubland. Pollen loads were identified from the bodies of the ten most common pollinator species and stigmatic pollen deposition in the five most common native plant species. Key Results It was found that pollinators visited Carpobrotus extensively. Seventy-three per cent of pollinator specimens collected on native plants carried Carpobrotus pollen. On average 23 % of the pollen on the bodies of pollinators visiting native plants was Carpobrotus. However, most of the pollen found on the body of pollinators belonged to the species on which they were collected. Similarly, most pollen on native plant stigmas was conspecific. Invasive pollen was present on native plant stigmas, but in low quantity. Conclusions Carpobrotus is highly integrated in the pollen transport network. However, the plant-pollination network in the invaded community seems to be sufficiently robust to withstand the impacts of the presence of alien pollen on native plant pollination, as shown by the low levels of heterospecific pollen deposition on native stigmas. Several mechanisms are discussed for the low invasive pollen deposition on native stigmas.

Bartomeus, Ignasi; Bosch, Jordi; Vila, Montserrat

2008-01-01

436

The Role of Palliative Radiosurgery When Cancer Invades the Cavernous Sinus  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Involvement of the cavernous sinus by direct invasion from skull base cancer or from metastatic spread of cancers is a challenging problem. We evaluated the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the treatment of patients who developed cavernous sinus metastases or direct invasion. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the data from 37 patients who had cavernous sinus metastases or had cavernous sinus invasion from adjacent skull base cancers and who underwent SRS between 1992 and 2006 at University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The median patient age was 57.8 years. Previous adjuvant management included fractionated radiotherapy in 8, chemotherapy in 16, and both radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 5. The primary sites of metastases or invasion were nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n = 7), parotid gland carcinoma (n = 7), and metastases from systemic cancer (n = 23). The median target volume was 6.3 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.3-33.6), and the median margin dose was 14 Gy (range, 12-20). Results: At a mean of 12.9 months (range, 0.8-63.9), 32 patients had died and 5 were living. The overall survival rate after SRS was 36.6% and 19.4% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Progression-free survival was related to a greater marginal dose. After SRS, 12 (35.3%) of 34 patients with neurologic symptoms exhibited improvement. SRS early after diagnosis was significantly associated with improvement of cranial nerve dysfunction. Conclusion: SRS is a minimally invasive palliative option for patients whose cancer has invaded the cavernous sinus. The benefits for cranial nerve deficits are best when SRS is performed early.

Kano, Hideyuki; Niranjan, Ajay; Kondziolka, Douglas [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Center for Image-Guided Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Flickinger, John C. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lunsford, L. Dade [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Center for Image-Guided Neurosurgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)], E-mail: lunsfordld@upmc.edu

2009-03-01

437

Cytoadherence of erythrocytes invaded by Plasmodium falciparum: quantitative contact-probing of a human malaria receptor.  

PubMed

Cytoadherence of red blood cells (RBCs) invaded by Plasmodium falciparum parasites is an important contributor to the sequestration of RBCs, causing reduced microcirculatory flow associated with fatal malaria syndromes. The phenomenon involves a parasite-derived variant antigen, the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), and several human host receptors, such as chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), which has been explicitly implicated in placental malaria. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms of cytoadherence requires quantitative evaluation, under physiologically relevant conditions, of the specific receptor-ligand interactions associated with pathological states of cell-cell adhesion. Such quantitative studies have not been reported thus far for P. falciparum malaria under conditions of febrile temperatures that accompany malarial infections. In this study, single RBCs infected with P. falciparum parasites (CSA binding phenotype) in the trophozoite stage were engaged in mechanical contact with the surface of surrogate cells specifically expressing CSA, so as to quantify cytoadherence to human syncytiotrophoblasts in a controlled manner. From these measurements, a mean rupture force of 43pN was estimated for the CSA-PfEMP1 complex at 37°C. Experiments carried out at febrile temperature showed a noticeable decrease in CSA-PfEMP1 rupture force (by about 23% at 41°C and about 20% after a 40°C heat treatment), in association with an increased binding frequency. The decrease in rupture force points to a weakened receptor-ligand complex after exposure to febrile temperature, while the rise in binding frequency suggests an additional display of nonspecific binding molecules on the RBC surface. The present work establishes a robust experimental method for the quantitative assessment of cytoadherence of diseased cells with specific molecule-mediated binding. PMID:23376131

Carvalho, P A; Diez-Silva, M; Chen, H; Dao, M; Suresh, S

2013-01-29

438

Comparative parasitism of the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus in native and invaded river basins.  

PubMed

Biological invasions are considered a major threat to biodiversity around the world, but the role of parasites in this process is still little investigated. Here, we compared parasite infections of a host species in the areas where it originated and where it was introduced, and in native and introduced species in the same environment, using the endoparasites of the fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) in 3 Brazilian basins. Samples were taken in 2 rivers where the species is native, i.e., Solimões River (SO) and Tocantins River (TO), and where the species was introduced, the upper Paraná River (PR). In addition, abundances of diplostomids and larval nematodes were compared between P. squamosissimus and 2 native competitors in the PR, Hoplias malabaricus and Raphiodon vulpinus. In total, 13 species of endoparasites were recorded, but only Austrodiplostomum sp. and cestode cysts were present in all localities. Although infracommunity richness was similar, their species composition was slightly different among localities. General linear models using the relative condition factor of fish as response variables, and abundance of the most prevalent parasites as possible predictors showed that the condition of fish is negatively correlated with parasite abundance only in the native range (TO). Abundance of diplostomid eye flukes was higher in the PR, and in the native species H. malabaricus when compared to the invader, which might present an advantage for P. squamosissimus if they compete for prey. However, although P. squamosissimus may have lost some of its native parasites during its introduction to the PR, it is now possibly acting as a host for native generalist parasites. PMID:22468610

Lacerda, A C F; Takemoto, R M; Tavares-Dias, M; Poulin, R; Pavanelli, G C

2012-04-02

439

The ant genomes have been invaded by several types of mariner transposable elements.  

PubMed

To date, only three types of full-length mariner elements have been described in ants, each one in a different genus of the Myrmicinae subfamily: Sinvmar was isolated from various Solenopsis species, Myrmar from Myrmica ruginodis, and Mboumar from Messor bouvieri. In this study, we report the coexistence of three mariner elements (Tnigmar-Si, Tnigmar-Mr, and Tnigmar-Mb) in the genome of a single species, Tapinoma nigerrimum (subfamily Dolichoderinae). Molecular evolutionary analyses of the nucleotide sequence data revealed a general agreement between the evolutionary history of most the elements and the ant species that harbour them, and suggest that they are at the vertical inactivation stage of the so-called Mariner Life Cycle. In contrast, significantly reduced levels of synonymous divergence between Mboumar and Tnigmar-Mb and between Myrmar and Botmar (a mariner element isolated from Bombus terrestris), relative to those observed between their hosts, suggest that these elements arrived to the species that host them by horizontal transfer, long after the species' split. The horizontal transfer events for the two pairs of elements could be roughly dated within the last 2 million years and about 14 million years, respectively. As would be expected under this scenario, the coding sequences of the youngest elements, Tnigmar-Mb and Mboumar, are intact and, thus, potentially functional. Each mariner element has a different chromosomal distribution pattern according to their stage within the Mariner Life Cycle. Finally, a new defective transposable element (Azteca) has also been found inserted into the Tnigmar-Mr sequences showing that the ant genomes have been invaded by at least four different types of mariner elements. PMID:23097152

Lorite, Pedro; Maside, Xulio; Sanllorente, Olivia; Torres, María I; Periquet, Georges; Palomeque, Teresa

2012-10-25

440

Conformal Yano-Killing Tensors in General Relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How CYK tensors appear in General Relativity? Geometric definition of the asymptotic flat spacetime: strong asymptotic flatness, which guarantees well defined total angular momentum [2, 3, 4] Conserved quantities - asymptotic charges (?, 𝓲0) [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9] Quasi-local mass and "rotational energy" for Kerr black hole [5] Constants of motion along geodesics and symmetric Killing tensors [5, 6] Spacetimes possessing CYK tensor [10]: Minkowski (quadratic polynomials) [5] (Anti-)deSitter (natural construction) [7, 8, 9] Kerr (type D spacetime) [5] Taub-NUT (new symmetric conformal Killing tensors) [6] Other applications: Symmetries of Dirac operator Symmetries of Maxwell equations

Jezierski, Jacek

2011-09-01

441

SMART BOMBS, SERIAL KILLING, AND THE RAPTURE: RT BOMBS, SERIAL KILLING, AND THE RAPTURE: RT BOMBS, SERIAL KILLING, The Vanishing Bodies of Imperial Apocalypticism  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. One of the most well-publicized hypotheses regarding the terror of 9\\/11 is the notion that religious fantasies played a major role in inspiring the militants of al-Qaeda to launch their suicide attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Only irrational fanatics could have been capable of killing themselves for the sake of taking thousands of innocent lives

Peter Yoonsuk Paik

442

Impacts of non-native plant and animal invaders on gap regeneration in a protected boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

In balsam fir (Abies balsamea)-dominated boreal forests of Gros Morne National Park, Newfoundland (Canada), non-native Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle) has invaded forest gaps. Its management is complicated by the lack of viable control techniques and an overarching\\u000a issue of gap regeneration failure attributed to browsing by non-native moose (Alces alces). This study identifies the impacts of thistle invasion on balsam

Jessica M. HumberLuise Hermanutz; Luise Hermanutz

443

En bloc resection of non-small cell lung cancer invading the thoracic inlet and intervertebral foramina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: In patients with non-small cell lung cancer invading the thoracic inlet, the transcervical approach does not permit removal of tumor in the intervertebral foramina. We report a variant that lifts this limitation. Methods: Through the transcervical approach, resectability was assessed and tumor-bearing structures were removed, leaving tumor-free margins. Standard upper lobectomy was performed, leaving the lobe in place. A

Elie Fadel; Gilles Missenard; Alain Chapelier; Sacha Mussot; François Leroy-Ladurie; Jacques Cerrina; Philippe Dartevelle

2002-01-01

444

Facilitative effects of introduced Pacific oysters on native macroalgae are limited by a secondary invader, the seaweed Sargassum muticum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduced habitat-providing organisms such as epibenthic bivalves may facilitate the invasion and expansion of further non-native species which may modify the effects of the primary invader on the native system. In the sedimentary intertidal Wadden Sea (south-eastern North Sea) introduced Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have overgrown native blue mussel beds (Mytilus edulis). These oyster beds are now providing the major

Anne C. Lang; Christian Buschbaum

2010-01-01

445

Essential requirements for the detection and degradation of invaders by the Haloferax volcanii CRISPR/Cas system I-B  

PubMed Central

To fend off foreign genetic elements, prokaryotes have developed several defense systems. The most recently discovered defense system, CRISPR/Cas, is sequence-specific, adaptive and heritable. The two central components of this system are the Cas proteins and the CRISPR RNA. The latter consists of repeat sequences that are interspersed with spacer sequences. The CRISPR locus is transcribed into a precursor RNA that is subsequently processed into short crRNAs. CRISPR/Cas systems have been identified in bacteria and archaea, and data show that many variations of this system exist. We analyzed the requirements for a successful defense reaction in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii. Haloferax encodes a CRISPR/Cas system of the I-B subtype, about which very little is known. Analysis of the mature crRNAs revealed that they contain a spacer as their central element, which is preceded by an eight-nucleotide-long 5? handle that originates from the upstream repeat. The repeat sequences have the potential to fold into a minimal stem loop. Sequencing of the crRNA population indicated that not all of the spacers that are encoded by the three CRISPR loci are present in the same abundance. By challenging Haloferax with an invader plasmid, we demonstrated that the interaction of the crRNA with the invader DNA requires a 10-nucleotide-long seed sequence. In addition, we found that not all of the crRNAs from the three CRISPR loci are effective at triggering the degradation of invader plasmids. The interference does not seem to be influenced by the copy number of the invader plasmid.

Maier, Lisa-Katharina; Lange, Sita J.; Stoll, Britta; Haas, Karina A.; Fischer, Susan; Fischer, Eike; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Wohnert, Jens; Backofen, Rolf; Marchfelder, Anita

2013-01-01

446

CRISPR immunity relies on the consecutive binding and degradation of negatively supercoiled invader DNA by Cascade and Cas3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prokaryotic CRISPR\\/Cas immune system is based on genomic loci that contain incorporated sequence tags from viruses and plasmids. Using small guide RNA molecules, these sequences act as a memory to reject returning invaders. Both the Cascade ribonucleoprotein complex and the Cas3 nuclease\\/helicase are required for CRISPR interference in Escherichia coli, but it is unknown how natural target DNA molecules

E. R. Westra; P. B. G. Erp; S. P. Wong; T. Künne; C. L. C. Seegers; S. Bollen; M. M. Jore; Vos de W. M; R. T. Dame; Vries de R; S. J. J. Brouns; Oost van der J

2012-01-01

447

A non-PCR-based Invader ® assay quantitatively detects single-copy genes in complex plant genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An accurate determination of gene copy number is critical to the success of a molecular breeding program involving both transgenic\\u000a and non-transgenic plants. In this paper, we have described the application of a non-PCR-based technology, Invader®*, for determination of gene copy number and zygosity in plants. A biplex assay format detected both a target gene and an endogenous\\u000a reference gene

Manju Gupta; Wilas Nirunsuksiri; Greg Schulenberg; Thomas Hartl; Stephen Novak; Jill Bryan; Nathan Vanopdorp; James Bing; Steve Thompson

2008-01-01

448

A Multi-Site Study for Detection of the Factor V (Leiden) Mutation from Genomic DNA Using a Homogeneous Invader Microtiter Plate Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Assay  

PubMed Central

The goal of this multicenter study was to evaluate the second-generation Invader technology for detecting the factor V (Leiden) mutation directly from genomic DNA of different sample types. Invader assay results were compared with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) analysis. The Invader assay is a PCR-independent methodology that uses a microtiter plate format. In the assay, a specific upstream Invader oligonucleotide and a downstream probe hybridize in tandem to a complementary DNA template and form a partially overlapping structure. The Cleavase VIII enzyme recognizes and cuts this structure to release the 5? flap of the probe. This flap then serves as an Invader oligonucleotide to direct cleavage of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe in a second invasive cleavage reaction. Cleavage of this FRET probe results in the generation of a fluorescent signal. The results of the Invader assay were 99.5% concordant with the PCR-based methods. Of the 372 samples tested once, only two gave discordant results (one from operator error and one from unknown causes), but were concordant on retesting. These results indicate that a simple microtiter plate-based Invader assay can reliably genotype clinical patient samples for the factor V (Leiden) point mutation directly from genomic DNA without prior target amplification.

Ledford, Marlies; Friedman, Kenneth D.; Hessner, Martin J.; Moehlenkamp, Cynthia; Williams, Thomas M.; Larson, Richard S.

2000-01-01

449

Relative roles of climatic suitability and anthropogenic influence in determining the pattern of spread in a global invader  

PubMed Central

Because invasive species threaten the integrity of natural ecosystems, a major goal in ecology is to develop predictive models to determine which species may become widespread and where they may invade. Indeed, considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors that influence the local pattern of spread for specific invaders and the factors that are correlated with the number of introduced species that have become established in a given region. However, few studies have examined the relative importance of multiple drivers of invasion success for widespread species at global scales. Here, we use a dataset of >5,000 presence/absence records to examine the interplay between climatic suitability, biotic resistance by native taxa, human-aided dispersal, and human modification of habitats, in shaping the distribution of one of the world's most notorious invasive species, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). Climatic suitability and the extent of human modification of habitats are primarily responsible for the distribution of this global invader. However, we also found some evidence for biotic resistance by native communities. Somewhat surprisingly, and despite the often cited importance of propagule pressure as a crucial driver of invasions, metrics of the magnitude of international traded commodities among countries were not related to global distribution patterns. Together, our analyses on the global-scale distribution of this invasive species provide strong evidence for the interplay of biotic and abiotic determinants of spread and also highlight the challenges of limiting the spread and subsequent impact of highly invasive species.

Roura-Pascual, Nuria; Hui, Cang; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Leday, Gwenael; Richardson, David M.; Carpintero, Soledad; Espadaler, Xavier; Gomez, Crisanto; Guenard, Benoit; Hartley, Stephen; Krushelnycky, Paul; Lester, Philip J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Menke, Sean B.; Pedersen, Jes S.; Pitt, Joel P. W.; Reyes, Joaquin; Sanders, Nathan J.; Suarez, Andrew V.; Touyama, Yoshifumi; Ward, Darren; Ward, Philip S.; Worner, Sue P.

2011-01-01

450

The nonnecrotic invaded muscle fibers of polymyositis and sporadic inclusion body myositis: on the interplay of chemokines and stress proteins.  

PubMed

Although polymyositis (PM) and sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) represent distinct disease entities, both are associated with the autoimmune destruction of muscle fibers. We investigated the pro-inflammatory mechanisms around the nonnecrotic invaded muscle fiber, comparing between PM and IBM. The expression and distribution of chemokines, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and heat shock proteins (HSP) was studied in detail, using immunofluorescence, and western blotting. Important upregulation of the cytotoxic tandem HSP90/iNOS and the chemokines: IFN? inducible protein of 10kd, stromal cell-derived factor and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, were observed in the actively invading inflammatory cells. From our results, we propose a model in which the joint action of chemokines and cytotoxic factors in cytotoxic T-cells, macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells invading the myofiber, ultimately leads to its demise. The processes described seem to be universal to PM and IBM alike. Our observations further consolidate the important autoimmune component of IBM, a feature still under debate within the scientific community. PMID:23295907

De Paepe, Boel; De Bleecker, Jan L

2013-01-04

451

Placenta Percreta Invading Broad Ligament and Parametrium in a Woman with Two Previous Cesarean Sections: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The incidence of placenta accreta has dramatically increased due to increasing caesarean section rate all over the world. Placenta percreta is the most severe form of placenta accretes. It frequently results in maternal morbidity and mortality mainly caused by massive obstetric hemorrhage or emergency hysterectomy. Percreta invading into the broad ligament has rarely been previously reported. Case presenting. We presented a case of placenta percreta invading left broad ligament and parametrium in a woman with two previous cesarean sections, which led to massive intraoperative hemorrhage during hysterectomy and transient ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusion. In cases of parametrial involvement, it would be more difficult to decide whether to remove placenta or leave it in site. In surgical removal neither local excision of placental bed and uterine repair nor traditional hysterectomy is adequate if parametrium invaded by placenta. We suggest delayed elective hysterectomy in such cases. So, pregnancy-induced pelvic congestion would be decreased, we can gather an expert team of gynecologists, urologists, and vascular surgeons, we could get plenty of blood products, and we may have the chance to administer methotrexate.

Vahdat, Mansoureh; Mehdizadeh, Abolfazl; Sariri, Elaheh; Chaichian, Shahla; Najmi, Zahra; Kadivar, Maryam

2012-01-01

452

Relative roles of climatic suitability and anthropogenic influence in determining the pattern of spread in a global invader.  

PubMed

Because invasive species threaten the integrity of natural ecosystems, a major goal in ecology is to develop predictive models to determine which species may become widespread and where they may invade. Indeed, considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors that influence the local pattern of spread for specific invaders and the factors that are correlated with the number of introduced species that have become established in a given region. However, few studies have examined the relative importance of multiple drivers of invasion success for widespread species at global scales. Here, we use a dataset of >5,000 presence/absence records to examine the interplay between climatic suitability, biotic resistance by native taxa, human-aided dispersal, and human modification of habitats, in shaping the distribution of one of the world's most notorious invasive species, the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). Climatic suitability and the extent of human modification of habitats are primarily responsible for the distribution of this global invader. However, we also found some evidence for biotic resistance by native communities. Somewhat surprisingly, and despite the often cited importance of propagule pressure as a crucial driver of invasions, metrics of the magnitude of international traded commodities among countries were not related to global distribution patterns. Together, our analyses on the global-scale distribution of this invasive species provide strong evidence for the interplay of biotic and abiotic determinants of spread and also highlight the challenges of limiting the spread and subsequent impact of highly invasive species. PMID:21173219

Roura-Pascual, Núria; Hui, Cang; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Leday, Gwénaël; Richardson, David M; Carpintero, Soledad; Espadaler, Xavier; Gómez, Crisanto; Guénard, Benoit; Hartley, Stephen; Krushelnycky, Paul; Lester, Philip J; McGeoch, Melodie A; Menke, Sean B; Pedersen, Jes S; Pitt, Joel P W; Reyes, Joaquin; Sanders, Nathan J; Suarez, Andrew V; Touyama, Yoshifumi; Ward, Darren; Ward, Philip S; Worner, Sue P

2010-12-20

453

Plasma inactivation of food-related microorganisms in liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a plasma process that inactivates microorganisms in liquids through the application of high-voltage pulses. These pulses result in breakdown of the gas and liquid layers, producing many active species such as UV photons, ozone, free radicals and free electrons. Several test microorganisms representing a range of problematic microorganisms were investigated. Significant reductions in microbial population were achieved, demonstrating the effectiveness of using the plasma discharge process to treat contaminated liquids.

Marsili, Lisa; Espie, Steven; Anderson, John G.; MacGregor, Scott J.

2002-11-01

454

Comparison of in vitro disc diffusion and time kill-kinetic assays for the evaluation of antimicrobial wound dressing efficacy.  

PubMed

There is a plethora of new silver-containing dressings on the market today. Various manufacturers attempt to show that their dressings are the most efficacious and therefore should be preferentially employed by health care workers based on the results of their in vitro tests. However, there have been no studies that clearly identify which tests are appropriate for comparison purposes. The purpose of this study was to determine which in vitro test is most appropriate for evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of silver-containing dressings. This was done by testing seven silver-containing dressings and two non-silver-containing topical agents against 17 clinically relevant microorganisms using zone of inhibition assays and time-kill kinetic assays in complex media. The results for the two assays were then correlated to determine whether the methods generated similar results. It was determined that the two methods do not correlate at all. This is most likely a result of the silver interacting with the media in the zone of inhibition test, thus invalidating the results of this test. We therefore conclude that zone of inhibition data generated for silver-containing dressings is of little value when assessing antimicrobial efficacy and that time-kill assays are of greater use. PMID:16008731

Gallant-Behm, Corrie L; Yin, Hua Q; Liu, Shijie; Heggers, John P; Langford, Rita E; Olson, Merle E; Hart, David A; Burrell, Robert E

455

[Characteristics of proteins synthesized by hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms].  

PubMed

The study was conducted to determine the biological value of proteins synthesized by hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms--the hydrogen bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus Z1 and Ralstonia eutropha B5786 and the CO-resistant strain of carboxydobacterium Seliberia carboxydohydrogena Z1062. Based on a number of significant parameters characterizing the biological value of a product, the proteins of hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms have been found to occupy an intermediate position between traditional animal and plant proteins. The high total protein in biomass of these microorganisms, their complete amino acid content, and availability to proteolytic enzymes allow for us to consider these microorganisms as potential protein producers. PMID:21261071

Volova, T G; Barashkov, V A

456

21 CFR 866.2660 - Microorganism differentiation and identification device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2660 Microorganism differentiation and identification device. (a)...

2010-04-01

457

Nanodiamond for intracellular imaging in the microorganisms in vivo.  

PubMed

Nanodiamond (ND) has great potential for bio labeling and drug delivery. In this work, the biocompatibility and bio labeling of ND are demonstrated via the interaction with cells and microorganisms, protists microorganisms Paramecium caudatum and Tetrahymena thermophile, in vitro and in vivo. We found the microorganism's living functions are not significantly affected by ND. The NDs were found entering the food vacuoles and later excreted by the microorganisms. The 5 nm ND was found more toxic compared to 100 nm ND, presumably due to the surface disordered carbons. Our results demonstrated nanodiamond can be used in bio imaging and matter delivery. PMID:22815227

Lin, Yu-Chung; Perevedentseva, Elena; Tsai, Lin-Wei; Wu, Kuan-Ting; Cheng, Chia-Liang

2012-07-20

458

Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others, shopping,…

Bertozzi, Elena

2012-01-01

459

Structural Design and Analysis of Hit-To-Kill Projectile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the very first step on the development of a guided ammunition system. It presents high level physics based simulations of a guided 60-mm projectile system, which intention is to enable the sub-projectile to hit and kill an incoming hostile missile at an extended range within a very limited time frame. The projectile requires a very high muzzle

Michael M. Chen

460

Sabretoothed Carnivores and the Killing of Large Prey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sabre-like canines clearly have the potential to inflict grievous wounds leading to massive blood loss and rapid death. Hypotheses concerning sabretooth killing modes include attack to soft parts such as the belly or throat, where biting deep is essential to generate strikes reaching major blood vessels. Sabretoothed carnivorans are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful prey than

Ki Andersson; David Norman; Lars Werdelin; Daphne Soares

2011-01-01

461

An El Jobo Mastodon Kill at Taima-taima, Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excavation at Taima-taima in 1976 recovered artifacts of the El Jobo complex in direct association with the butchered remains of a juvenile mastodon. Radiocarbon dates on associated wood twigs indicate a minimum age of 13,000 years before the present for the mastodon kill, a dating significantly older than that of the Clovis complex in North America. The El Jobo complex

Alan L. Bryan; Rodolfo M. Casamiquela; Jose M. Cruxent; Ruth Gruhn; Claudio Ochsenius

1978-01-01

462

Neocognitron trained with winner-kill-loser rule.  

PubMed

The neocognitron, which was proposed by Fukushima (1980), is a hierarchical multi-layered neural network capable of robust visual pattern recognition. It acquires the ability to recognize patterns through learning. This paper proposes a new rule for competitive learning, named winner-kill-loser, and apply it to the neocognitron. The winner-kill-loser rule resembles the winner-take-all rule. Every time when a training stimulus is presented, non-silent cells compete with each other. The winner, however, not only takes all, but also kills losers. In other words, the winner learns the training stimulus, and losers are removed from the network. If all cells are silent, a new cell is generated and it learns the training stimulus. Thus feature-extracting cells gradually come to distribute uniformly in the feature space. The use of winner-kill-loser rule is not limited to the neocognitron. It is useful for various types of competitive learning, in general. This paper also proposes several improvements made on the neocognitron: such as, disinhibition to the inhibitory surround in the connections to C-cells (or complex cells) from S-cells (or simple cells); and square root shaped saturation in the input-to-output characteristics of C-cells. As a result of these improvements, the recognition rate of the neocognitron has been largely increased. PMID:20494552

Fukushima, Kunihiko

2010-05-06

463

Developing a Critical Literacy Approach with "To Kill a Mockingbird."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ponders why the novel "To Kill a Mockingbird" has held a place in the secondary school canon for 40 years. Describes a 10-week unit for year 10 English students that takes a critical literacy approach to the novel. Outlines a set of pre-reading activities, during reading activities and post-reading activities. (SR)

Spires, Marian

2000-01-01

464

Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector  

SciTech Connect

Binary black hole spacetimes with a helical Killing vector, which are discussed as an approximation for the early stage of a binary system, are studied in a projection formalism. In this setting the four-dimensional Einstein equations are equivalent to a three-dimensional gravitational theory with a SL(2,R)/SO(1,1) sigma model as the material source. The sigma model is determined by a complex Ernst equation. 2+1 decompositions of the three-metric are used to establish the field equations on the orbit space of the Killing vector. The two Killing horizons of spherical topology which characterize the black holes, the cylinder of light where the Killing vector changes from timelike to spacelike, and infinity are singular points of the equations. The horizon and the light cylinder are shown to be regular singularities, i.e., the metric functions can be expanded in a formal power series in the vicinity. The behavior of the metric at spatial infinity is studied in terms of formal series solutions to the linearized Einstein equations. It is shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the strong sense to have a smooth null infinity under the assumption that the metric tends asymptotically to the Minkowski metric. In this case the metric functions have an oscillatory behavior in the radial coordinate in a nonaxisymmetric setting, the asymptotic multipoles are not defined. The asymptotic behavior of the Weyl tensor near infinity shows that there is no smooth null infinity.

Klein, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mathematik in den Naturwissenschaften, Inselstrasse 22, 04103, Leipzig (Germany)

2004-12-15

465

Male-killing Wolbachia in a flour beetle.  

PubMed Central

The bacteria in the genus Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited symbionts of arthropods. Infection often causes profound changes in host reproduction, enhancing bacterial transmission and spread in a population. The reproductive alterations known to result from Wolbachia infection include cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), parthenogenesis, feminization of genetic males, fecundity enhancement, male killing and, perhaps, lethality Here, we report male killing in a third insect, the black flour beetle Tribolium madens, based on highly female-biased sex ratios of progeny from females infected with Wolbachia. The bias is cytoplasmic in nature as shown by repeated backcrossing of infected females with males of a naturally uninfected strain. Infection also lowers the egg hatch rates significantly to approximately half of those observed for uninfected females. Treatment of the host with antibiotics eliminated infection, reverted the sex ratio to unbiased levels and increased the percentage hatch. Typically Wolbachia infection is transmitted from mother to progeny, regardless of the sex of the progeny; however, infected T. madens males are never found. Virgin females are sterile, suggesting that the sex-ratio distortion in T. madens results from embryonic male killing rather than parthenogenesis. Based on DNA sequence data, the male-killing strain of Wolbachia in T. madens was indistinguishable from the CI-inducing Wolbachia in Tribolium confusum, a closely related beetle. Our findings suggest that host symbiont interaction effects may play an important role in the induction of Wolbachia reproductive phenotypes.

Fialho, R F; Stevens, L

2000-01-01

466

The Evolution of Law and Policy for CIA Targeted Killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many critiques of the Central Intelligence Agency’s alleged use of killer drones depend on law that does not bind the United States or on contestable applications of uncertain facts to vague law. While acknowledging a blurry line between law and policy, we continue to develop a due process for targeted killing. In the real world, intelligence is sometimes faulty, mistakes

Afsheen John Radsan

2012-01-01

467

Analyzing the novel “to kill a Mockingbird” in literature class  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to find out most effective activities that could be applied in “Perspectives in Literature Class” while the novel which is one of the most fundamental example of American Literature – ““To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee - is analyzed in terms of various narration techniques including characterization, theme, plot, exposition, point of view,

Ayfer Tan??; Lütfiye Cengizhan

2010-01-01

468

Killing for Girls: Predation Play and Female Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Predation games--games in which the player is actively encouraged and often required to hunt and kill in order to survive--have historically been the purview of male players. Females, though now much more involved in digital games than before, generally play games that stress traditionally feminine values such as socializing with others,…

Bertozzi, Elena

2012-01-01

469

Democracy, Ethnicity, and the Problem of Extrajudicial Killing in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnicity, a pedigree of the British imperialist pernicious policy of divide and exploit, has become a virulent scourge that has facilitated a widespread subversion of the democratic ethos in Nigeria. The flagrant display of ethnic chauvinism by the political elites in their bid to usurp power for their selfish ends orchestrates extrajudicial killings in the polity. This article explores the

A. E. Ojie

2006-01-01

470

Salvo Kill Probabilities for Circular Targets - Axisymmetric Case.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The kill probability resulting from the delivery of a salvo of weapons is not a straightforward calculation since the aiming error is likely to be common to all rounds in the salvo. In the absence of a computer program or a set of tables the analyst may h...

M. A. Thomas

1971-01-01

471

Karo-kari: a form of honour killing in pakistan.  

PubMed

Karo-Kari is a type of premeditated honour killing, which originated in rural and tribal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The homicidal acts are primarily committed against women who are thought to have brought dishonour to their family by engaging in illicit pre-marital or extra-marital relations. In order to restore this honour, a male family member must kill the female in question. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature other sources on karo-kari and related forms of honour killing or violence against women. Media and non-governmental organization reports were utilized for case studies and analysis. Although legally proscribed, socio-cultural factors and gender role expectations have given legitimacy to karo-kari within some tribal communities. In addition to its persistence in areas of Pakistan, there is evidence that karo-kari may be increasing in incidence in other parts of the world in association with migration. Moreover, perpetrators of ;honour killings' often have motives outside of female adultery. Analysis of the socio-cultural and psycho-pathological factors associated with the practice of karo-kari can guide the development of prevention strategies. PMID:19091732

Patel, Sujay; Gadit, Amin Muhammad

2008-12-01

472

Outcome of Children Seen after One Parent Killed the Other  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of children (N= 95) seen by our team at least one year previously for assessment after one parent had killed the other, was followed up by a postal questionnaire to the original referrer. Through this we examined a number of outcome variables including placement effects, the frequency of their contact with the surviving parent, the referrer’s view of

Tony Kaplan; Dora Black; Philippa Hyman; Jill Knox

2001-01-01

473

The Fish Kill Mystery: Learning about Aquatic Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a case where students can learn about aquatic communities. In this case, students speculate on what may have caused a major fish kill in an estuary in North Carolina. In the process, they explore how land runoff and excess nutrients affect aquatic communities. They also learn about the complex life cycle of the dinoflagellate…

Kosal, Erica F.

2004-01-01

474

Targeted Killing in U.S. Counterterrorism Strategy and Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted killing, particularly through the use of missiles fired from Predator drone aircraft, has become an important, and internationally controversial, part of the US war against al Qaeda in Pakistan and other places. The Obama administration, both during the campaign and in its first months in office, has publicly embraced the strategy as a form of counterterrorism. This paper argues,

Kenneth Anderson

2009-01-01

475