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Sample records for kinase signaling antagonizes

  1. Drosophila tribbles antagonizes insulin signaling-mediated growth and metabolism via interactions with Akt kinase.

    PubMed

    Das, Rahul; Sebo, Zachary; Pence, Laramie; Dobens, Leonard L

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) is the founding member of the Trib family of kinase-like docking proteins that modulate cell signaling during proliferation, migration and growth. In a wing misexpression screen for Trbl interacting proteins, we identified the Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt1. Given the central role of Akt1 in insulin signaling, we tested the function of Trbl in larval fat body, a tissue where rapid increases in size are exquisitely sensitive to insulin/insulin-like growth factor levels. Consistent with a role in antagonizing insulin-mediated growth, trbl RNAi knockdown in the fat body increased cell size, advanced the timing of pupation and increased levels of circulating triglyceride. Complementarily, overexpression of Trbl reduced fat body cell size, decreased overall larval size, delayed maturation and lowered levels of triglycerides, while circulating glucose levels increased. The conserved Trbl kinase domain is required for function in vivo and for interaction with Akt in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Consistent with direct regulation of Akt, overexpression of Trbl in the fat body decreased levels of activated Akt (pSer505-Akt) while misexpression of trbl RNAi increased phospho-Akt levels, and neither treatment affected total Akt levels. Trbl misexpression effectively suppressed Akt-mediated wing and muscle cell size increases and reduced phosphorylation of the Akt target FoxO (pSer256-FoxO). Taken together, these data show that Drosophila Trbl has a conserved role to bind Akt and block Akt-mediated insulin signaling, and implicate Trib proteins as novel sites of signaling pathway integration that link nutrient availability with cell growth and proliferation. PMID:25329475

  2. Drosophila Tribbles Antagonizes Insulin Signaling-Mediated Growth and Metabolism via Interactions with Akt Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rahul; Sebo, Zachary; Pence, Laramie; Dobens, Leonard L.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila Tribbles (Trbl) is the founding member of the Trib family of kinase-like docking proteins that modulate cell signaling during proliferation, migration and growth. In a wing misexpression screen for Trbl interacting proteins, we identified the Ser/Thr protein kinase Akt1. Given the central role of Akt1 in insulin signaling, we tested the function of Trbl in larval fat body, a tissue where rapid increases in size are exquisitely sensitive to insulin/insulin-like growth factor levels. Consistent with a role in antagonizing insulin-mediated growth, trbl RNAi knockdown in the fat body increased cell size, advanced the timing of pupation and increased levels of circulating triglyceride. Complementarily, overexpression of Trbl reduced fat body cell size, decreased overall larval size, delayed maturation and lowered levels of triglycerides, while circulating glucose levels increased. The conserved Trbl kinase domain is required for function in vivo and for interaction with Akt in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Consistent with direct regulation of Akt, overexpression of Trbl in the fat body decreased levels of activated Akt (pSer505-Akt) while misexpression of trbl RNAi increased phospho-Akt levels, and neither treatment affected total Akt levels. Trbl misexpression effectively suppressed Akt-mediated wing and muscle cell size increases and reduced phosphorylation of the Akt target FoxO (pSer256-FoxO). Taken together, these data show that Drosophila Trbl has a conserved role to bind Akt and block Akt-mediated insulin signaling, and implicate Trib proteins as novel sites of signaling pathway integration that link nutrient availability with cell growth and proliferation. PMID:25329475

  3. Src tyrosine kinase signaling antagonizes nuclear localization of FOXO and inhibits its transcription factor activity.

    PubMed

    Bülow, Margret H; Bülow, Torsten R; Hoch, Michael; Pankratz, Michael J; Jünger, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical experiments in mammalian cells have linked Src family kinase activity to the insulin signaling pathway. To explore the physiological link between Src and a central insulin pathway effector, we investigated the effect of different Src signaling levels on the Drosophila transcription factor dFOXO in vivo. Ectopic activation of Src42A in the starved larval fatbody was sufficient to drive dFOXO out of the nucleus. When Src signaling levels were lowered by means of loss-of-function mutations or pharmacological inhibition, dFOXO localization was shifted to the nucleus in growing animals, and transcription of the dFOXO target genes d4E-BP and dInR was induced. dFOXO loss-of-function mutations rescued the induction of dFOXO target gene expression and the body size reduction of Src42A mutant larvae, establishing dFOXO as a critical downstream effector of Src signaling. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the regulation of FOXO transcription factors by Src is evolutionarily conserved in mammalian cells. PMID:24513978

  4. The Kinase Activity-deficient Isoform of the Protein Araf Antagonizes Ras/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (Ras/MAPK) Signaling in the Zebrafish Embryo*

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Cong; Liu, Xingfeng; Meng, Anming

    2015-01-01

    Raf kinases are important components of the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk pathway and also cross-talk with other signaling pathways. Araf kinase has been demonstrated to inhibit TGF-β/Smad2 signaling by directly phosphorylating and accelerating degradation of activated Smad2. In this study, we show that the araf gene expresses in zebrafish embryos to produce a shorter transcript variant, araf-tv2, in addition to the full-length variant araf-tv1. araf-tv2 is predicted to encode a C-terminally truncated peptide without the kinase activity domain. Araf-tv2 can physically associate with Araf-tv1 but does not antagonize the inhibitory effect of Araf-tv1 on TGF-β/Smad2 signaling. Instead, Araf-tv2 interacts strongly with Kras and Nras, ultimately blocking MAPK activation by these Ras proteins. In zebrafish embryos, overexpression of araf-tv2 is sufficient to inhibit Fgf/Ras-promoted Erk activation, mesodermal induction, dorsal development, and neuroectodermal posteriorization. Therefore, different isoforms of Araf may participate in similar developmental processes but by regulating different signaling pathways. PMID:26306042

  5. SnoN Antagonizes the Hippo Kinase Complex to Promote TAZ Signaling during Breast Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qingwei; Le Scolan, Erwan; Jahchan, Nadine; Ji, Xiaodan; Xu, Albert; Luo, Kunxin

    2016-06-01

    SnoN regulates multiple signaling pathways, including TGF-β/Smad and p53, and displays both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities in human cancer. We have observed previously that both its intracellular localization and expression levels are sensitive to cell density, suggesting that it may crosstalk with Hippo signaling. Here we report that, indeed, SnoN interacts with multiple components of the Hippo pathway to inhibit the binding of Lats2 to TAZ and the subsequent phosphorylation of TAZ, leading to TAZ stabilization. Consistently, SnoN enhances the transcriptional and oncogenic activities of TAZ, and reducing SnoN decreases TAZ expression as well as malignant progression of breast cancer cells. Interestingly, SnoN itself is downregulated by Lats2 that is activated by the Scribble basolateral polarity protein. Thus, SnoN is a critical component of the Hippo regulatory network that receives signals from the tissue architecture and polarity to coordinate the activity of intracellular signaling pathways. PMID:27237790

  6. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β antagonizes ROS-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell death through suppression of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Liu, Lu; Dou, Yueying; Song, Danqing; Deng, Hongbin

    2016-07-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a multifunctional kinase, is an important regulator of cancer cell survival. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is also a key factor for controlling several cellular events including the cell cycle, senescence, and apoptosis, in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). The role of GSK-3β regulating the activity and protein level of ASK1 in the cancer cells remains largely unexplored. In this study, we showed that GSK-3β inhibits ROS-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell death by suppressing ASK1. We first found that ectopic expression of GSK-3β suppressed hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death in HepG2 cells and knockdown of endogenous GSK-3β expression exhibited opposite effects. Moreover, GSK-3β expression clearly inhibited H2O2-induced phosphorylation of ASK1 in HepG2 cells, in association with a decrease in ASK1 protein level. Further exploration revealed that GSK-3β induced ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of ASK1 via inhibition of ubiquitin-specific protease USP9X. Our results thus suggest that GSK-3β is a key factor involved in ASK1 activation and ROS-induced cell death. PMID:27221474

  7. Guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A signaling antagonizes phosphoinositide hydrolysis, Ca2+ release, and activation of protein kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kailash N.

    2014-01-01

    Thus far, three related natriuretic peptides (NPs) and three distinct sub-types of cognate NP receptors have been identified and characterized based on the specific ligand binding affinities, guanylyl cyclase activity, and generation of intracellular cGMP. Atrial and brain natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) specifically bind and activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) shows specificity to activate guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-B (GC-B/NPRB). All three NPs bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPRC), which is also known as clearance or silent receptor. The NPRA is considered the principal biologically active receptor of NP family; however, the molecular signaling mechanisms of NP receptors are not well understood. The activation of NPRA and NPRB produces the intracellular second messenger cGMP, which serves as the major signaling molecule of all three NPs. The activation of NPRB in response to CNP also produces the intracellular cGMP; however, at lower magnitude than that of NPRA, which is activated by ANP and BNP. In addition to enhanced accumulation of intracellular cGMP in response to all three NPs, the levels of cAMP, Ca2+ and inositol triphosphate (IP3) have also been reported to be altered in different cells and tissue types. Interestingly, ANP has been found to lower the concentrations of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3; however, NPRC has been proposed to increase the levels of these metabolic signaling molecules. The mechanistic studies of decreased and/or increased levels of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in response to NPs and their receptors have not yet been clearly established. This review focuses on the signaling mechanisms of ANP/NPRA and their biological effects involving an increased level of intracellular accumulation of cGMP and a decreased level of cAMP, Ca2+, and IP3 in different cells and tissue systems. PMID:25202235

  8. Fstl1 Antagonizes BMP Signaling and Regulates Ureter Development

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianfeng; Yu, Mingyan; Zhang, Fangxiong; Sha, Haibo; Gao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway plays important roles in urinary tract development although the detailed regulation of its activity in this process remains unclear. Here we report that follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1), encoding a secreted extracellular glycoprotein, is expressed in developing ureter and antagonizes BMP signaling activity. Mouse embryos carrying disrupted Fstl1 gene displayed prominent hydroureter arising from proximal segment and ureterovesical junction defects. These defects were associated with significant reduction in ureteric epithelial cell proliferation at E15.5 and E16.5 as well as absence of subepithelial ureteral mesenchymal cells in the urinary tract at E16.5 and E18.5. At the molecular level, increased BMP signaling was found in Fstl1 deficient ureters, indicated by elevated pSmad1/5/8 activity. In vitro study also indicated that Fstl1 can directly bind to ALK6 which is specifically expressed in ureteric epithelial cells in developing ureter. Furthermore, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, which is crucial for differentiation of ureteral subepithelial cell proliferation, was also impaired in Fstl1-/- ureter. Altogether, our data suggest that Fstl1 is essential in maintaining normal ureter development by antagonizing BMP signaling. PMID:22485132

  9. Fstl1 antagonizes BMP signaling and regulates ureter development.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jingyue; Qi, Xin; Gong, Jianfeng; Yu, Mingyan; Zhang, Fangxiong; Sha, Haibo; Gao, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway plays important roles in urinary tract development although the detailed regulation of its activity in this process remains unclear. Here we report that follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1), encoding a secreted extracellular glycoprotein, is expressed in developing ureter and antagonizes BMP signaling activity. Mouse embryos carrying disrupted Fstl1 gene displayed prominent hydroureter arising from proximal segment and ureterovesical junction defects. These defects were associated with significant reduction in ureteric epithelial cell proliferation at E15.5 and E16.5 as well as absence of subepithelial ureteral mesenchymal cells in the urinary tract at E16.5 and E18.5. At the molecular level, increased BMP signaling was found in Fstl1 deficient ureters, indicated by elevated pSmad1/5/8 activity. In vitro study also indicated that Fstl1 can directly bind to ALK6 which is specifically expressed in ureteric epithelial cells in developing ureter. Furthermore, Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, which is crucial for differentiation of ureteral subepithelial cell proliferation, was also impaired in Fstl1(-/-) ureter. Altogether, our data suggest that Fstl1 is essential in maintaining normal ureter development by antagonizing BMP signaling. PMID:22485132

  10. Interferon alpha antagonizes STAT3 and SOCS3 signaling triggered by hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lan-Juan; He, Sheng-Fei; Wang, Wen; Ren, Hao; Qi, Zhong-Tian

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to investigate regulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) by interferon alpha (IFN-α) and to analyze the relationship between STAT3 and SOCS3 during hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Changes in STAT3 and SOCS3 were analyzed at both mRNA and protein levels in human hepatoma cells infected with HCV (J6/JFH1). At 72h of HCV infection, STAT3 expression was decreased with sustained phosphorylation, and IFN-α increased such decrease and phosphorylation. HCV increased SOCS3 expression, while IFN-α impaired such increase, indicating different regulation of STAT3 and SOCS3 by IFN-α. IFN-α-induced expression and phosphorylation of upstream kinases of the JAK/STAT pathway, Tyk2 and Jak1, were suppressed by HCV. Moreover, knockdown of STAT3 by RNA interference led to decreases in HCV RNA replication and viral protein expression, without affecting either the expression of Tyk2 and Jak1 or the SOCS3 induction in response to IFN-α. These results show that IFN-α antagonizes STAT3 and SOCS3 signaling triggered by HCV and that STAT3 regulation correlates inversely with SOCS3 induction by IFN-α, which may be important in better understanding the complex interplay between IFN-α and signal molecules during HCV infection. PMID:26945996

  11. MAP kinase cascades: scaffolding signal specificity.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, Frank; Peter, Matthias

    2002-01-22

    Scaffold proteins organize many MAP kinase pathways by interacting with several components of these cascades. Recent studies suggest that scaffold proteins provide local activation platforms that contribute to signal specificity by insulating different MAP kinase pathways. PMID:11818078

  12. Small Molecule Antagonizes Autoinhibition and Activates AMP-activated Protein Kinase in Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Tao; Zhang, Zhen-Shan; Gu, Min; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Yu, Li-Fang; Cao, Peng-Rong; Shao, Wei; Su, Ming-Bo; Li, Jing-Ya; Nan, Fa-Jun; Li, Jia

    2008-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) serves as an energy sensor and is considered a promising drug target for treatment of type II diabetes and obesity. A previous report has shown that mammalian AMPK α1 catalytic subunit including autoinhibitory domain was inactive. To test the hypothesis that small molecules can activate AMPK through antagonizing the autoinhibition in α subunits, we screened a chemical library with inactive human α1394 (α1, residues 1-394) and found a novel small-molecule activator, PT1, which dose-dependently activated AMPK α1394, α1335, α2398, and even heterotrimer α1β1γ1. Based on PT1-docked AMPK α1 subunit structure model and different mutations, we found PT1 might interact with Glu-96 and Lys-156 residues near the autoinhibitory domain and directly relieve autoinhibition. Further studies using L6 myotubes showed that the phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were dose-dependently and time-dependently increased by PT1 with-out an increase in cellular AMP:ATP ratio. Moreover, in HeLa cells deficient in LKB1, PT1 enhanced AMPK phosphorylation, which can be inhibited by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases inhibitor STO-609 and AMPK inhibitor compound C. PT1 also lowered hepatic lipid content in a dose-dependent manner through AMPK activation in HepG2 cells, and this effect was diminished by compound C. Taken together, these data indicate that this small-molecule activator may directly activate AMPK via antagonizing the autoinhibition in vitro and in cells. This compound highlights the effort to discover novel AMPK activators and can be a useful tool for elucidating the mechanism responsible for conformational change and autoinhibitory regulation of AMPK. PMID:18321858

  13. AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP signalling via phosphorylation-induced activation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B

    PubMed Central

    Johanns, M.; Lai, Y.-C.; Hsu, M.-F.; Jacobs, R.; Vertommen, D.; Van Sande, J.; Dumont, J. E.; Woods, A.; Carling, D.; Hue, L.; Viollet, B.; Foretz, M; Rider, M H

    2016-01-01

    Biguanides such as metformin have previously been shown to antagonize hepatic glucagon-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase by AMP. Here we show that incubation of hepatocytes with the small-molecule AMPK activator 991 decreases glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation, cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity and downstream PKA target phosphorylation. Moreover, incubation of hepatocytes with 991 increases the Vmax of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) without affecting intracellular adenine nucleotide concentrations. The effects of 991 to decrease glucagon-stimulated cAMP concentrations and activate PDE4B are lost in hepatocytes deleted for both catalytic subunits of AMPK. PDE4B is phosphorylated by AMPK at three sites, and by site-directed mutagenesis, Ser304 phosphorylation is important for activation. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism by which AMPK antagonizes hepatic glucagon signalling via phosphorylation-induced PDE4B activation. PMID:26952277

  14. MYOSIN PHOSPHATASE TARGETING SUBUNIT1 REGULATES MITOSIS BY ANTAGONIZING POLO-LIKE KINASE1

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, S.; Yamakita, Y.; Totsukawa, G.; Goto, H.; Kaibuchi, K.; Ito, M.; Hartshorne, D.; Matsumura, F.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Myosin phosphatase targeting subunit1 (MYPT1) binds to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase1 (PP1C). This binding is believed to target PP1C to specific substrates including myosin II, thus controlling cellular contractility. Surprisingly, we found that during mitosis mammalian MYPT1 binds to polo-like kinase1 (PLK1). MYPT1 is phosphorylated during mitosis by proline-directed kinases including cdc2, which generates the binding motif for the polo box domain of PLK1. Depletion of PLK1 by small interfering RNAs is known to results in loss of γ-tubulin recruitment to the centrosomes, blocking centrosome maturation, leading to mitotic arrest. We found that co-depletion of MYPT1 and PLK1 reinstates γ-tubulin at the centrosomes, rescuing the mitotic arrest. MYPT1 depletion increases phosphorylation of PLK1 at its activating site (Thr210) in vivo, explaining, at least in part, the rescue phenotype by co-depletion. Taken together, our results identify a previously unrecognized role for MYPT1 in regulating mitosis by antagonizing PLK1. PMID:18477460

  15. Cdc42 Regulation of Kinase Activity and Signaling by the Yeast p21-Activated Kinase Ste20

    PubMed Central

    Lamson, Rachel E.; Winters, Matthew J.; Pryciak, Peter M.

    2002-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinase Ste20 is a member of the p21-activated kinase (PAK) family with several functions, including pheromone-responsive signal transduction. While PAKs are usually activated by small G proteins and Ste20 binds Cdc42, the role of Cdc42-Ste20 binding has been controversial, largely because Ste20 lacking its entire Cdc42-binding (CRIB) domain retains kinase activity and pheromone response. Here we show that, unlike CRIB deletion, point mutations in the Ste20 CRIB domain that disrupt Cdc42 binding also disrupt pheromone signaling. We also found that Ste20 kinase activity is stimulated by GTP-bound Cdc42 in vivo and this effect is blocked by the CRIB point mutations. Moreover, the Ste20 CRIB and kinase domains bind each other, and mutations that disrupt this interaction cause hyperactive kinase activity and bypass the requirement for Cdc42 binding. These observations demonstrate that the Ste20 CRIB domain is autoinhibitory and that this negative effect is antagonized by Cdc42 to promote Ste20 kinase activity and signaling. Parallel results were observed for filamentation pathway signaling, suggesting that the requirement for Cdc42-Ste20 interaction is not qualitatively different between the mating and filamentation pathways. While necessary for pheromone signaling, the role of the Cdc42-Ste20 interaction does not require regulation by pheromone or the pheromone-activated Gβγ complex, because the CRIB point mutations also disrupt signaling by activated forms of the kinase cascade scaffold protein Ste5. In total, our observations indicate that Cdc42 converts Ste20 to an active form, while pathway stimuli regulate the ability of this active Ste20 to trigger signaling through a particular pathway. PMID:11940652

  16. Farnesoid X receptor antagonizes JNK signaling pathway in liver carcinogenesis by activating SOD3.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Chen, Wei-Dong; Li, Cunbao; Guo, Cong; Li, Yanyan; Qi, Hui; Shen, Hailing; Kong, Jing; Long, Xuecheng; Yuan, Frank; Wang, Xichun; Huang, Wendong

    2015-02-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key metabolic and homeostatic regulator in the liver. In the present work, we identify a novel role of FXR in antagonizing c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in liver carcinogenesis by activating superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) transcription. Compared with wild-type mouse liver, FXR(-/-) mouse liver showed elevated JNK phosphorylation. JNK1 deletion suppressed the increase of diethylnitrosamine-induced tumor number in FXR(-/-) mice. These results suggest that JNK1 plays a key role in chemical-induced liver carcinogenesis in FXR(-/-) mice. We found that ligand-activated FXR was able to alleviate H₂O₂or tetradecanoylphorbol acetate-induced JNK phosphorylation in human hepatoblastoma (HepG2) cells or mouse primary hepatocytes. FXR ligand decreased H₂O₂-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in wild-type but not FXR(-/-) mouse hepatocytes. FXR knockdown abolished the inhibition of 3-[2-[2-chloro-4-[[3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-5-(1-methylethyl)-4-isoxazolyl]methoxy]phenyl]ethenyl]-Benzoic acid (GW4064) on JNK phosphorylation and ROS production induced by H₂O₂in HepG2 cells. The gene expression of SOD3, an antioxidant defense enzyme, was increased by FXR activation in vitro and in vivo. An FXR-responsive element, inverted repeat separated by 1 nucleotide in SOD3 promoter, was identified by a combination of transcriptional reporter assays, EMSAs, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, which indicated that SOD3 could be a direct FXR target gene. SOD3 knockdown abolished the inhibition of GW4064 on JNK phosphorylation induced by H₂O₂in HepG2 cells. In summary, FXR may regulate SOD3 expression to suppress ROS production, resulting in decreasing JNK activity. These results suggest that FXR, as a novel JNK suppressor, may be an attractive therapeutic target for liver cancer treatment. PMID:25496033

  17. Calcineurin Signaling Regulates Neural Induction Through Antagonizing the BMP Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ahryon; Deng, Suhua; Chen, Lei; Miller, Erik; Wernig, Marius; Graef, Isabella A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Development of the nervous system begins with neural induction, which is controlled by complex signaling networks functioning in concert with one another. Fine-tuning of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is essential for neural induction in the developing embryo. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cells integrate the signaling pathways that contribute to neural induction have remained unclear. We find that neural induction is dependent on the Ca2+-activated phosphatase calcineurin (CaN). FGF-regulated Ca2+ entry activates CaN, which directly and specifically dephosphorylates BMP-regulated Smad1/5 proteins. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CaN adjusts the strength and transcriptional output of BMP signaling and that a reduction of CaN activity leads to an increase of Smad1/5-regulated transcription. As a result, FGF-activated CaN signaling opposes BMP signaling during gastrulation, thereby promoting neural induction and the development of anterior structures. PMID:24698271

  18. Kinase signaling in the spindle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jungseog; Yu, Hongtao

    2009-06-01

    The spindle checkpoint is a cell cycle surveillance system that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation. In mitosis, it elicits the "wait anaphase" signal to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome until all chromosomes achieve bipolar microtubule attachment and align at the metaphase plate. Because a single kinetochore unattached to microtubules activates the checkpoint, the wait anaphase signal is thought to be generated by this kinetochore and is then amplified and distributed throughout the cell to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Several spindle checkpoint kinases participate in the generation and amplification of this signal. Recent studies have begun to reveal the activation mechanisms of these checkpoint kinases. Increasing evidence also indicates that the checkpoint kinases not only help to generate the wait anaphase signal but also actively correct kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects. PMID:19228686

  19. CXCL14 antagonizes the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Takahiko; Tanegashima, Kosuke

    2014-05-01

    CXCL12 and CXCL14 are evolutionarily conserved members of the CXC-type chemokine family. CXCL12 binds specifically to the G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR4 to induce the migration of primordial germ cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and inflammation-associated immune cells. In addition, CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling is often enhanced in malignant tumor cells and facilitates increased proliferation as well as metastasis. Although macrophage migration inhibitory factor and extracellular ubiquitin interact with CXCR4 as agonistic factors, CXCL12 was believed to be the sole chemokine ligand for CXCR4. However, a very recent report revealed that CXCL14 binds to CXCR4 with high affinity and efficiently inhibits CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis of hematopoietic progenitor and leukemia-derived cells. CXCL14 does not directly cross-compete with CXCL12 for the CXCR4 binding but instead inactivates CXCR4 via receptor internalization. Because both CXCL12 and CXCL14 are expressed during embryogenesis and brain development in mice, these two chemokines could function in an interactive fashion. We propose that the CXCL14 gene has been conserved from fish to man due to its role in fine-tuning the strength of CXCL12-mediated signal transduction. In addition to its biological implications, the above finding will be important for designing anti-cancer compounds targeting the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling axis. In fact, a stabilized dimeric peptide containing the C-terminal 51-77 amino acid residues of CXCL14 has been shown to have stronger CXCL12 antagonistic activity than full-length CXCL14. PMID:25372750

  20. Osmotic stress signaling via protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroaki; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2012-10-01

    Plants face various kinds of environmental stresses, including drought, salinity, and low temperature, which cause osmotic stress. An understanding of the plant signaling pathways that respond to osmotic stress is important for both basic biology and agriculture. In this review, we summarize recent investigations concerning the SNF1-related protein kinase (SnRK) 2 kinase family, which play central roles in osmotic stress responses. SnRK2s are activated by osmotic stress, and a mutant lacking SnRK2s is hypersensitive to osmotic stress. Many questions remain about the signaling pathway upstream and downstream of SnRK2s. Because some SnRK2s also functions in the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway, which has recently been well clarified, study of SnRK2s in ABA signaling can provide clues regarding their roles in osmotic stress signaling. PMID:22828864

  1. SRC family kinase inhibitors antagonize the toxicity of multiple serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin in human embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Kiris, Erkan; Burnett, James C; Nuss, Jonathan E; Wanner, Laura M; Peyser, Brian D; Du, Hao T; Gomba, Glenn Y; Kota, Krishna P; Panchal, Rekha G; Gussio, Rick; Kane, Christopher D; Tessarollo, Lino; Bavari, Sina

    2015-05-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), the causative agents of botulism, are potent inhibitors of neurotransmitter release from motor neurons. There are currently no drugs to treat BoNT intoxication after the onset of the disease symptoms. In this study, we explored how modulation of key host pathways affects the process of BoNT intoxication in human motor neurons, focusing on Src family kinase (SFK) signaling. Motor neurons derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells were treated with a panel of SFK inhibitors and intoxicated with BoNT serotypes A, B, or E (which are responsible for >95 % of human botulism cases). Subsequently, it was found that bosutinib, dasatinib, KX2-391, PP1, PP2, Src inhibitor-1, and SU6656 significantly antagonized all three of the serotypes. Furthermore, the data indicated that the treatment of hES-derived motor neurons with multiple SFK inhibitors increased the antagonistic effect synergistically. Mechanistically, the small molecules appear to inhibit BoNTs by targeting host pathways necessary for intoxication and not by directly inhibiting the toxins' proteolytic activity. Importantly, the identified inhibitors are all well-studied with some in clinical trials while others are FDA-approved drugs. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of targeting host neuronal pathways, rather than the toxin's enzymatic components, to antagonize multiple BoNT serotypes in motor neurons. PMID:25782580

  2. Cell signaling by receptor-tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Lemmon, Mark A.; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent structural studies of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) have revealed unexpected diversity in the mechanisms of their activation by growth factor ligands. Strategies for inducing dimerization by ligand binding are surprisingly diverse, as are mechanisms that couple this event to activation of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domains. As our understanding of these details becomes increasingly sophisticated, it provides an important context for therapeutically countering the effects of pathogenic RTK mutations in cancer and other diseases. Much remains to be learned, however, about the complex signaling networks downstream from RTKs and how alterations in these networks are translated into cellular responses. PMID:20602996

  3. Complexity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signal Processing

    PubMed Central

    Volinsky, Natalia; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of molecular mechanisms of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling advances with ever-increasing pace. Yet our understanding of how the spatiotemporal dynamics of RTK signaling control specific cellular outcomes has lagged behind. Systems-centered experimental and computational approaches can help reveal how overlapping networks of signal transducers downstream of RTKs orchestrate specific cell-fate decisions. We discuss how RTK network regulatory structures, which involve the immediate posttranslational and delayed transcriptional controls by multiple feed forward and feedback loops together with pathway cross talk, adapt cells to the combinatorial variety of external cues and conditions. This intricate network circuitry endows cells with emerging capabilities for RTK signal processing and decoding. We illustrate how mathematical modeling facilitates our understanding of RTK network behaviors by unraveling specific systems properties, including bistability, oscillations, excitable responses, and generation of intricate landscapes of signaling activities. PMID:23906711

  4. Coop functions as a corepressor of Pangolin and antagonizes Wingless signaling.

    PubMed

    Song, Haiyun; Goetze, Sandra; Bischof, Johannes; Spichiger-Haeusermann, Chloe; Kuster, Marco; Brunner, Erich; Basler, Konrad

    2010-05-01

    Wingless (Wg) signaling regulates expression of its target genes via Pangolin and Armadillo, and their interacting cofactors. In the absence of Wg, Pangolin mediates transcriptional repression. In the presence of Wg, Pangolin, Armadillo, and a cohort of coactivators mediate transcriptional activation. Here we uncover Coop (corepressor of Pan) as a Pangolin-interacting protein. Coop and Pangolin form a complex on DNA containing a Pangolin/TCF-binding motif. Overexpression of Coop specifically represses Wg target genes, while loss of Coop function causes derepression. Finally, we show that Coop antagonizes the binding of Armadillo to Pangolin, providing a mechanism for Coop-mediated repression of Wg target gene transcription. PMID:20439429

  5. Pim-1 kinase antagonizes aspects of myocardial hypertrophy and compensation to pathological pressure overload

    PubMed Central

    Muraski, John A.; Fischer, Kimberlee M.; Wu, Weitao; Cottage, Christopher T.; Quijada, Pearl; Mason, Matt; Din, Shabana; Gude, Natalie; Alvarez, Roberto; Rota, Marcello; Kajstura, Jan; Wang, Zeping; Schaefer, Erik; Chen, Xiongen; MacDonnel, Scott; Magnuson, Nancy; Houser, Stephen R.; Anversa, Piero; Sussman, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Pim-1 kinase exerts potent cardioprotective effects in the myocardium downstream of AKT, but the participation of Pim-1 in cardiac hypertrophy requires investigation. Cardiac-specific expression of Pim-1 (Pim-WT) or the dominant-negative mutant of Pim-1 (Pim-DN) in transgenic mice together with adenoviral-mediated overexpression of these Pim-1 constructs was used to delineate the role of Pim-1 in hypertrophy. Transgenic overexpression of Pim-1 protects mice from pressure-overload-induced hypertrophy relative to wild-type controls as evidenced by improved hemodynamic function, decreased apoptosis, increases in antihypertrophic proteins, smaller myocyte size, and inhibition of hypertrophic signaling after challenge. Similarly, Pim-1 overexpression in neonatal rat cardiomyocyte cultures inhibits hypertrophy induced by endothelin-1. On the cellular level, hearts of Pim-WT mice show enhanced incorporation of BrdU into myocytes and a hypercellular phenotype compared to wild-type controls after hypertrophic challenge. In comparison, transgenic overexpression of Pim-DN leads to dilated cardiomyopathy characterized by increased apoptosis, fibrosis, and severely depressed cardiac function. Furthermore, overexpression of Pim-DN leads to reduced contractility as evidenced by reduced Ca2+ transient amplitude and decreased percentage of cell shortening in isolated myocytes. These data support a pivotal role for Pim-1 in modulation of hypertrophy by impacting responses on molecular, cellular, and organ levels. PMID:18784362

  6. Attenuation of pattern recognition receptor signaling is mediated by a MAP kinase kinase kinase.

    PubMed

    Mithoe, Sharon C; Ludwig, Christina; Pel, Michiel J C; Cucinotta, Mara; Casartelli, Alberto; Mbengue, Malick; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Robatzek, Silke; Pieterse, Corné M J; Aebersold, Ruedi; Menke, Frank L H

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a key role in plant and animal innate immunity. PRR binding of their cognate ligand triggers a signaling network and activates an immune response. Activation of PRR signaling must be controlled prior to ligand binding to prevent spurious signaling and immune activation. Flagellin perception in Arabidopsis through FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2) induces the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and immunity. However, the precise molecular mechanism that connects activated FLS2 to downstream MAPK cascades remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of a differentially phosphorylated MAP kinase kinase kinase that also interacts with FLS2. Using targeted proteomics and functional analysis, we show that MKKK7 negatively regulates flagellin-triggered signaling and basal immunity and this requires phosphorylation of MKKK7 on specific serine residues. MKKK7 attenuates MPK6 activity and defense gene expression. Moreover, MKKK7 suppresses the reactive oxygen species burst downstream of FLS2, suggesting that MKKK7-mediated attenuation of FLS2 signaling occurs through direct modulation of the FLS2 complex. PMID:26769563

  7. Membrane-associated transcription factor peptidase, site-2 protease, antagonizes ABA signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shun-Fan; Sun, Le; Valdés, Ana Elisa; Engström, Peter; Song, Ze-Ting; Lu, Sun-Jie; Liu, Jian-Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Abscisic acid plays important roles in maintaining seed dormancy while gibberellins (GA) and other phytohormones antagonize ABA to promote germination. However, how ABA signaling is desensitized during the transition from dormancy to germination is still poorly understood. We functionally characterized the role of membrane-associated transcription factor peptidase, site-2 protease (S2P), in ABA signaling during seed germination in Arabidopsis. Genetic analysis showed that loss-of-function of S2P conferred high ABA sensitivity during seed germination, and expression of the activated form of membrane-associated transcription factor bZIP17, in which the transmembrane domain and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen-facing C-terminus were deleted, in the S2P mutant rescued its ABA-sensitive phenotype. MYC and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged bZIP17 were processed and translocated from the ER to the nucleus in response to ABA treatment. Furthermore, genes encoding negative regulators of ABA signaling, such as the transcription factor ATHB7 and its target genes HAB1, HAB2, HAI1 and AHG3, were up-regulated in seeds of the wild-type upon ABA treatment; this up-regulation was impaired in seeds of S2P mutants. Our results suggest that S2P desensitizes ABA signaling during seed germination through regulating the activation of the membrane-associated transcription factor bZIP17 and therefore controlling the expression level of genes encoding negative regulators of ABA signaling. PMID:25919792

  8. Kinase active Misshapen regulates Notch signaling in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhinava K; Sachan, Nalani; Mutsuddi, Mousumi; Mukherjee, Ashim

    2015-11-15

    Notch signaling pathway represents a principal cellular communication system that plays a pivotal role during development of metazoans. Drosophila misshapen (msn) encodes a protein kinase, which is related to the budding yeast Ste20p (sterile 20 protein) kinase. In a genetic screen, using candidate gene approach to identify novel kinases involved in Notch signaling, we identified msn as a novel regulator of Notch signaling. Data presented here suggest that overexpression of kinase active form of Msn exhibits phenotypes similar to Notch loss-of-function condition and msn genetically interacts with components of Notch signaling pathway. Kinase active form of Msn associates with Notch receptor and regulate its signaling activity. We further show that kinase active Misshapen leads to accumulation of membrane-tethered form of Notch. Moreover, activated Msn also depletes Armadillo and DE-Cadherin from adherens junctions. Thus, this study provides a yet unknown mode of regulation of Notch signaling by Misshapen. PMID:26431585

  9. LIMB DEFECTS INDUCED BY RETINOIC ACID SIGNALING ANTAGONISM AND SYNTHESIS INHIBITION ARE CONSISTENT WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED LIMB DEFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limb defects induced by retinoic acid signaling antagonism and synthesis inhibition are consistent with ethanol-induced limb defects

    Johnson CS1, Sulik KK1,2, Hunter, ES III3
    1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC....

  10. Message in a bottle: lessons learned from antagonism of STING signalling during RNA virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Maringer, Kevin; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2014-01-01

    STING has emerged in recent years as an important signalling adaptor in the activation of type I interferon responses during infection with DNA viruses and bacteria. An increasing body of evidence suggests that STING also modulates responses to RNA viruses, though the mechanisms remain less clear. In this review, we give a brief overview of the ways in which STING facilitates sensing of RNA viruses. These include modulation of RIG-I-dependent responses through STING's interaction with MAVS, and more speculative mechanisms involving the DNA sensor cGAS and sensing of membrane remodelling events. We then provide an in-depth literature review to summarise the known mechanisms by which RNA viruses of the families Flaviviridae and Coronaviridae evade sensing through STING. Our own work has shown that the NS2B/3 protease complex of the flavivirus dengue virus binds and cleaves STING, and that an inability to degrade murine STING may contribute to host restriction in this virus. We contrast this to the mechanism employed by the distantly related hepacivirus hepatitis C virus, in which STING is bound and inactivated by the NS4B protein. Finally, we discuss STING antagonism in the coronaviruses SARS coronavirus and human coronavirus NL63, which disrupt K63-linked polyubiquitination and dimerisation of STING (both of which are required for STING-mediated activation of IRF-3) via their papain-like proteases. We draw parallels with less-well characterised mechanisms of STING antagonism in related viruses, and place our current knowledge in the context of species tropism restrictions that potentially affect the emergence of new human pathogens. PMID:25212897

  11. The novel plant homeodomain protein rhinoceros antagonizes Ras signaling in the Drosophila eye.

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Matthew G; Rebay, Ilaria

    2003-01-01

    The sequential specification of cell fates in the Drosophila eye requires repeated activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/Ras/MAP kinase (MAPK) pathway. Equally important are the multiple layers of inhibitory regulation that prevent excessive or inappropriate signaling. Here we describe the molecular and genetic analysis of a previously uncharacterized gene, rhinoceros (rno), that we propose functions to restrict EGFR signaling in the eye. Loss of rno results in the overproduction of photoreceptors, cone cells, and pigment cells and a corresponding reduction in programmed cell death, all phenotypes characteristic of hyperactivated EGFR signaling. Genetic interactions between rno and multiple EGFR pathway components support this hypothesis. rno encodes a novel but evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein with a PHD zinc-finger domain, a motif commonly found in chromatin-remodeling factors. Future analyses of rno will help to elucidate the regulatory strategies that modulate EGFR signaling in the fly eye. PMID:14704181

  12. Clinical Relevance and Mechanisms of Antagonism Between the BMP and Activin/TGF-β Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Hudnall, Aaron M; Arthur, Jon W; Lowery, Jonathan W

    2016-07-01

    The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily is a large group of signaling molecules that participate in embryogenesis, organogenesis, and tissue homeostasis. These molecules are present in all animal genomes. Dysfunction in the regulation or activity of this superfamily's components underlies numerous human diseases and developmental defects. There are 2 distinct arms downstream of the TGF-β superfamily ligands-the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and activin/TGF-β signaling pathways-and these 2 responses can oppose one another's effects, most notably in disease states. However, studies have commonly focused on a single arm of the TGF-β superfamily, and the antagonism between these pathways is unknown in most physiologic and pathologic contexts. In this review, the authors summarize the clinically relevant scenarios in which the BMP and activin/TGF-β pathways reportedly oppose one another and identify several molecular mechanisms proposed to mediate this interaction. Particular attention is paid to experimental findings that may be informative to human pathology to highlight potential therapeutic approaches for future investigation. PMID:27367950

  13. Soluble CD109 binds TGF-β and antagonizes TGF-β signalling and responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Carter; Hancock, Mark A; Sehgal, Priyanka; Zhou, Shufeng; Reinhardt, Dieter P; Philip, Anie

    2016-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine implicated in many diseases, including tissue fibrosis and cancer. TGF-β mediates diverse biological responses by signalling through type I and II TGF-β receptors (TβRI and TβRII). We have previously identified CD109, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein, as a novel TGF-β co-receptor that negatively regulates TGF-β signalling and responses and demonstrated that membrane-anchored CD109 promotes TGF-β receptor degradation via a SMAD7/Smurf2-mediated mechanism. To determine whether CD109 released from the cell surface (soluble CD109 or sCD109) also acts as a TGF-β antagonist, we determined the efficacy of recombinant sCD109 to interact with TGF-β and inhibit TGF-β signalling and responses. Our results demonstrate that sCD109 binds TGF-β with high affinity as determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and cell-based radioligand binding and affinity labelling competition assays. SPR detected slow dissociation kinetics between sCD109 and TGF-β at low concentrations, indicating a stable and effective interaction. In addition, sCD109 antagonizes TGF-β-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation, transcription and cell migration. Together, our results suggest that sCD109 can bind TGF-β, inhibit TGF-β binding to its receptors and decrease TGF-β signalling and TGF-β-induced cellular responses. PMID:26621871

  14. Angiotensin II increases phosphodiesterase 5A expression in vascular smooth muscle cells: A mechanism by which angiotensin II antagonizes cGMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongsoo; Aizawa, Toru; Wei, Heng; Pi, Xinchun; Rybalkin, Sergei D.; Berk, Bradford C.; Yan, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) and nitric oxide (NO)/natriuretic peptide (NP) signaling pathways mutually regulate each other. Imbalance of Ang II and NO/NP has been implicated in the pathophysiology of many vascular diseases. cGMP functions as a key mediator in the interaction between Ang II and NO/NP. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 5A (PDE5A) is important in modulating cGMP signaling by hydrolyzing cGMP in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Therefore, we examined whether Ang II negatively modulates intracellular cGMP signaling in VSMC by regulating PDE5A. Ang II rapidly and transiently increased PDE5A mRNA levels in rat aortic VSMC. Upregulation of PDE5A mRNA was associated with a time-dependent increase of both PDE5 protein expression and activity. Increased PDE5A mRNA level was transcription-dependent and mediated by the Ang II type 1 receptor. Ang II-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) was essential for Ang II-induced PDE5A upregulation. Pretreatment of VSMC with Ang II inhibited C-type NP (CNP) stimulated cGMP signaling, such as cGMP dependent protein kinase (PKG)-mediated phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated-phosphoprotein (VASP). Ang II-mediated inhibition of PKG was blocked when PDE5 activity was decreased by selective PDE5 inhibitors, suggesting that upregulation of PDE5A expression is an important mechanism for Ang II to attenuate cGMP signaling. PDE5A may also play a critical role in the growth promoting effects of Ang II because inhibition of PDE5A activity significantly decreased Ang II-stimulated VSMC growth. These observations establish a new mechanism by which Ang II antagonizes cGMP signaling and stimulates VSMC growth. PMID:15623434

  15. Over-expression of prothymosin-α antagonizes TGFβ signalling to promote the development of emphysema.

    PubMed

    Su, Bing-Hua; Tseng, Yau-Lin; Shieh, Gia-Shing; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Wu, Pensee; Shiau, Ai-Li; Wu, Chao-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Emphysema, a major consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is characterized by the permanent airflow restriction resulting from enlargement of alveolar airspace and loss of lung elasticity. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signalling regulates the balance of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP) to control matrix homeostasis. Patients with COPD have dysregulated TGFβ signalling and reduced histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity through epigenetic up-regulation of histone acetylation in the promoters of pro-inflammatory genes. However, the potential link between decreased HDAC activity and dysregulated TGFβ signalling in emphysema pathogenesis remains to be determined. Prothymosin α (ProT), a highly conserved acidic nuclear protein, plays a role in the acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that ProT inhibits TGFβ-Smad signalling through Smad7, thereby contributing to emphysema pathogenesis. We show that ProT enhances Smad7 acetylation by decreasing its association with HDAC and thereby down-regulates TGFβ-Smad signalling. ProT caused an imbalance between MMP and TIMP through acetylated Smad7 in favour of MMP expression. In addition to interfering with R-Smad activation and targeting receptors for degradation in the cytoplasm, acetylated Smad7 potentiated by ProT competitively antagonized binding of the pSmad2/3-Smad4 complex to the TIMP-3 promoter, resulting in reduced TIMP-3 expression. These effects were detected in ProT-over-expressing cells, lungs of ProT transgenic mice displaying an emphysema phenotype and in emphysema patients. Importantly, increased Smad7 and reduced TIMP-3 were found in the lungs of emphysema patients and mice with cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced emphysema. Such effects could be abrogated by silencing endogenous ProT expression. Collectively, our results uncover acetylated Smad7 regulated by ProT as an

  16. Protein kinase A signalling in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and schistosomules.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Natasha L; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase/protein kinase A regulates multiple processes in eukaryotes by phosphorylating diverse cellular substrates, including metabolic and signalling enzymes, ion channels and transcription factors. Here we provide insight into protein kinase A signalling in cercariae and 24h in vitro cultured somules of the blood parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, which causes human intestinal schistosomiasis. Functional mapping of activated protein kinase A using anti-phospho protein kinase A antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed activated protein kinase A in the central and peripheral nervous system, oral-tip sensory papillae, oesophagus and excretory system of intact cercariae. Cultured 24h somules, which biologically represent the skin-resident stage of the parasite, exhibited similar activation patterns in oesophageal and nerve tissues but also displayed striking activation at the tegument and activation in a region resembling the germinal 'stem' cell cluster. The adenylyl cyclase activator, forskolin, stimulated somule protein kinase A activation and produced a hyperkinesia phenotype. The biogenic amines, serotonin and dopamine known to be present in skin also induced protein kinase A activation in somules, whereas neuropeptide Y or [Leu(31),Pro(34)]-neuropeptide Y attenuated protein kinase A activation. However, neuropeptide Y did not block the forskolin-induced somule hyperkinesia. Bioinformatic investigation of potential protein associations revealed 193 medium confidence and 59 high confidence protein kinase A interacting partners in S. mansoni, many of which possess putative protein kinase A phosphorylation sites. These data provide valuable insight into the intricacies of protein kinase A signalling in S. mansoni and a framework for further physiological investigations into the roles of protein kinase A in schistosomes, particularly in the context of interactions between the parasite and the host. PMID:26777870

  17. The role of CD4-Lck in T-cell receptor antagonism: evidence for negative signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Racioppi, L; Matarese, G; D'Oro, U; De Pascale, M; Masci, A M; Fontana, S; Zappacosta, S

    1996-01-01

    Small changes in the complex between a peptide and a molecule of the major histocompatibility complex generate ligands able to partially activate (partial agonist) or even inhibit (antagonist) T-cell functions. T-cell receptor engagement of antagonist complex results in a partial zeta chain phosphorylation without activation of the associated ZAP-70 kinase. Herein we show that, despite a strong inhibition of both inositol phospholipid hydrolysis and extracellular increasing antagonist concentrations increased the activity of the CD4-Lck kinase. Addition of anti-CD4 antibody to culture medium prevented inhibitory effects induced by antagonist ligand. We propose that CD4-Lck activation triggered by antagonist complexes may act in a dominant negative mode, thus overriding stimulatory signals coming from agonist ligand. These findings identify a new T-cell signaling profile that may explain the ability of some T-cell receptor variant ligands to inhibit specific biological activities or trigger alternative activation programs. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8816805

  18. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova-St. Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP. PMID:26821046

  19. Feedback Regulation of Kinase Signaling Pathways by AREs and GREs.

    PubMed

    Vlasova-St Louis, Irina; Bohjanen, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental signals, kinases phosphorylate numerous proteins, including RNA-binding proteins such as the AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins, and the GU-rich element (GRE) binding proteins. Posttranslational modifications of these proteins lead to a significant changes in the abundance of target mRNAs, and affect gene expression during cellular activation, proliferation, and stress responses. In this review, we summarize the effect of phosphorylation on the function of ARE-binding proteins ZFP36 and ELAVL1 and the GRE-binding protein CELF1. The networks of target mRNAs that these proteins bind and regulate include transcripts encoding kinases and kinase signaling pathways (KSP) components. Thus, kinase signaling pathways are involved in feedback regulation, whereby kinases regulate RNA-binding proteins that subsequently regulate mRNA stability of ARE- or GRE-containing transcripts that encode components of KSP. PMID:26821046

  20. Kinases and kinase signaling pathways: potential therapeutic targets in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Pan, Jing; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2012-08-01

    Complex molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are gradually being elucidated. Accumulating genetic evidence implicates dysfunction of kinase activities and phosphorylation pathways in the pathogenesis of PD. Causative and risk gene products associated with PD include protein kinases (such as PINK1, LRRK2 and GAK) and proteins related phosphorylation signaling pathways (such as SNCA, DJ-1). PINK1, LRRK2 and several PD gene products have been associated with mitogen-activated protein (MAP) and protein kinase B (AKT) kinase signaling pathways. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) and p38, signaling pathways downstream of MAP, are particularly important in PD. JNK and p38 play an integral role in neuronal death. Targeting JNK or p38 signaling may offer an effective therapy for PD. Inhibitors of the ERK signaling pathway, which plays an important role in the development of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), have been shown to attenuate this condition in animal models. In this review, we summarize experimental evidence gathered over the last decade on the role of PINK1, LRRK2 and GAK and their related phosphorylation signaling pathways (JNK, ERK, p38 and PI3K/AKT) in PD. It is speculated that improvement or modulation of these signaling pathways will reveal potential therapeutic targets for attenuation of the cardinal symptoms and motor complications in patients with PD in the future. PMID:22709943

  1. The Roles of NDR Protein Kinases in Hippo Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Hergovich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo tumour suppressor pathway has emerged as a critical regulator of tissue growth through controlling cellular processes such as cell proliferation, death, differentiation and stemness. Traditionally, the core cassette of the Hippo pathway includes the MST1/2 protein kinases, the LATS1/2 protein kinases, and the MOB1 scaffold signal transducer, which together regulate the transcriptional co-activator functions of the proto-oncoproteins YAP and TAZ through LATS1/2-mediated phosphorylation of YAP/TAZ. Recent research has identified additional kinases, such as NDR1/2 (also known as STK38/STK38L) and MAP4Ks, which should be considered as novel members of the Hippo core cassette. While these efforts helped to expand our understanding of Hippo core signalling, they also began to provide insights into the complexity and redundancy of the Hippo signalling network. Here, we focus on summarising our current knowledge of the regulation and functions of mammalian NDR kinases, discussing parallels between the NDR pathways in Drosophila and mammals. Initially, we provide a general overview of the cellular functions of NDR kinases in cell cycle progression, centrosome biology, apoptosis, autophagy, DNA damage signalling, immunology and neurobiology. Finally, we put particular emphasis on discussing NDR1/2 as YAP kinases downstream of MST1/2 and MOB1 signalling in Hippo signalling. PMID:27213455

  2. Flavonoids inhibit the platelet TxA2 signalling pathway and antagonize TxA2 receptors (TP) in platelets and smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, José A; Navarro-Nuñez, Leyre; Lozano, María L; Martínez, Constantino; Vicente, Vicente; Gibbins, Jonathan M; Rivera, José

    2007-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Flavonoids are largely recognized as potential inhibitors of platelet function, through nonspecific mechanisms such as antioxidant activity and/or inhibition of several enzymes and signalling proteins. In addition, we, and few others, have shown that certain antiaggregant flavonoids may behave as specific TXA2 receptor (TP) ligands in platelets. Whether flavonoids interact with TP isoforms in other cell types is not known, and direct evidence that flavonoid–TP interaction inhibits signalling downstream TP has not been shown. What this study adds This study first demonstrates that certain flavonoids behave as ligands for both TP isoforms, not only in platelets, but also in human myometrium and in TP-transfected HEK 293T cells. Differences in the effect of certain flavonoids in platelet signalling, induced by either U46619 or thrombin, suggest that abrogation of downstream TP signalling is related to their specific blockage of the TP, rather than to a nonspecific effect on tyrosine kinases or other signalling proteins. Aims Flavonoids may affect platelet function by several mechanisms, including antagonism of TxA2 receptors (TP). These TP are present in many tissues and modulate different signalling cascades. We explored whether flavonoids affect platelet TP signalling, and if they bind to TP expressed in other cell types. Methods Platelets were treated with flavonoids, or other selected inhibitors, and then stimulated with U46619. Similar assays were performed in aspirinized platelets activated with thrombin. Effects on calcium release were analysed by fluorometry and changes in whole protein tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of ERK 1/2 by Western blot analysis. The binding of flavonoids to TP in platelets, human myometrium and TPα- and TPβ-transfected HEK 293T cells was explored using binding assays and the TP antagonist 3H-SQ29548. Results Apigenin, genistein, luteolin and quercetin impaired U46619-induced calcium

  3. Rac-1 and Raf-1 kinases, components of distinct signaling pathways, activate myotonic dystrophy protein kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.; Wang, W.; Walch, E. T.; Dunne, P. W.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) is a serine-threonine protein kinase encoded by the myotonic dystrophy (DM) locus on human chromosome 19q13.3. It is a close relative of other kinases that interact with members of the Rho family of small GTPases. We show here that the actin cytoskeleton-linked GTPase Rac-1 binds to DMPK, and coexpression of Rac-1 and DMPK activates its transphosphorylation activity in a GTP-sensitive manner. DMPK can also bind Raf-1 kinase, the Ras-activated molecule of the MAP kinase pathway. Purified Raf-1 kinase phosphorylates and activates DMPK. The interaction of DMPK with these distinct signals suggests that it may play a role as a nexus for cross-talk between their respective pathways and may partially explain the remarkable pleiotropy of DM.

  4. DAF-18/PTEN locally antagonizes insulin signalling to couple germline stem cell proliferation to oocyte needs in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Narbonne, Patrick; Maddox, Paul S; Labbé, Jean-Claude

    2015-12-15

    During development, stem cell populations rapidly proliferate to populate the expanding tissues and organs. During this phase, nutrient status, by systemically affecting insulin/IGF-1 signalling, largely dictates stem cell proliferation rates. In adults, however, differentiated stem cell progeny requirements are generally reduced and vary according to the spatiotemporal needs of each tissue. We demonstrate here that differential regulation of germline stem cell proliferation rates in Caenorhabditis elegans adults is accomplished through localized neutralization of insulin/IGF-1 signalling, requiring DAF-18/PTEN, but not DAF-16/FOXO. Indeed, the specific accumulation of oocytes, the terminally differentiated stem cell progeny, triggers a feedback signal that locally antagonizes insulin/IGF-1 signalling outputs in the germ line, regardless of their systemic levels, to block germline stem cell proliferation. Thus, during adulthood, stem cells can differentially respond within tissues to otherwise equal insulin/IGF-1 signalling inputs, according to the needs for production of their immediate terminally differentiated progeny. PMID:26552888

  5. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase: the key switch mechanism in insulin signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, P R; Withers, D J; Siddle, K

    1998-01-01

    Insulin plays a key role in regulating a wide range of cellular processes. However, until recently little was known about the signalling pathways that are involved in linking the insulin receptor with downstream responses. It is now apparent that the activation of class 1a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) is necessary and in some cases sufficient to elicit many of insulin's effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. The lipid products of PI 3-kinase act as both membrane anchors and allosteric regulators, serving to localize and activate downstream enzymes and their protein substrates. One of the major ways these lipid products of PI 3-kinase act in insulin signalling is by binding to pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase (PDK) and protein kinase B (PKB) and in the process regulating the phosphorylation of PKB by PDK. Using mechanisms such as this, PI 3-kinase is able to act as a molecular switch to regulate the activity of serine/threonine-specific kinase cascades important in mediating insulin's effects on endpoint responses. PMID:9677303

  6. MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF RECEPTOR KINASE ACTION IN BRASSINOSTEROID SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development and require an active BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) and BRI1-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (BAK1) for hormone perception and signal transduction. To examine early events in BR signaling, we used co-immunoprecipita...

  7. The FGFRL1 Receptor Is Shed from Cell Membranes, Binds Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), and Antagonizes FGF Signaling in Xenopus Embryos*

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Florian; Zhuang, Lei; Beyeler, Michael; Kälin, Roland E.; Mullis, Primus E.; Brändli, André W.; Trueb, Beat

    2010-01-01

    FGFRL1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor like 1) is the fifth and most recently discovered member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. With up to 50% amino acid similarity, its extracellular domain closely resembles that of the four conventional FGFRs. Its intracellular domain, however, lacks the split tyrosine kinase domain needed for FGF-mediated signal transduction. During embryogenesis of the mouse, FGFRL1 is essential for the development of parts of the skeleton, the diaphragm muscle, the heart, and the metanephric kidney. Since its discovery, it has been hypothesized that FGFRL1 might act as a decoy receptor for FGF ligands. Here we present several lines of evidence that support this notion. We demonstrate that the FGFRL1 ectodomain is shed from the cell membrane of differentiating C2C12 myoblasts and from HEK293 cells by an as yet unidentified protease, which cuts the receptor in the membrane-proximal region. As determined by ligand dot blot analysis, cell-based binding assays, and surface plasmon resonance analysis, the soluble FGFRL1 ectodomain as well as the membrane-bound receptor are capable of binding to some FGF ligands with high affinity, including FGF2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF8, FGF10, and FGF22. We furthermore show that ectopic expression of FGFRL1 in Xenopus embryos antagonizes FGFR signaling during early development. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that FGFRL1 is indeed a decoy receptor for FGFs. PMID:19920134

  8. The FGFRL1 receptor is shed from cell membranes, binds fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), and antagonizes FGF signaling in Xenopus embryos.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Florian; Zhuang, Lei; Beyeler, Michael; Kälin, Roland E; Mullis, Primus E; Brändli, André W; Trueb, Beat

    2010-01-15

    FGFRL1 (fibroblast growth factor receptor like 1) is the fifth and most recently discovered member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family. With up to 50% amino acid similarity, its extracellular domain closely resembles that of the four conventional FGFRs. Its intracellular domain, however, lacks the split tyrosine kinase domain needed for FGF-mediated signal transduction. During embryogenesis of the mouse, FGFRL1 is essential for the development of parts of the skeleton, the diaphragm muscle, the heart, and the metanephric kidney. Since its discovery, it has been hypothesized that FGFRL1 might act as a decoy receptor for FGF ligands. Here we present several lines of evidence that support this notion. We demonstrate that the FGFRL1 ectodomain is shed from the cell membrane of differentiating C2C12 myoblasts and from HEK293 cells by an as yet unidentified protease, which cuts the receptor in the membrane-proximal region. As determined by ligand dot blot analysis, cell-based binding assays, and surface plasmon resonance analysis, the soluble FGFRL1 ectodomain as well as the membrane-bound receptor are capable of binding to some FGF ligands with high affinity, including FGF2, FGF3, FGF4, FGF8, FGF10, and FGF22. We furthermore show that ectopic expression of FGFRL1 in Xenopus embryos antagonizes FGFR signaling during early development. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that FGFRL1 is indeed a decoy receptor for FGFs. PMID:19920134

  9. The G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 is a TGFbeta-inducible antagonist of TGFbeta signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joanne; Cocolakis, Eftihia; Dumas, Victor M; Posner, Barry I; Laporte, Stéphane A; Lebrun, Jean-Jacques

    2005-09-21

    Signaling from the activin/transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) family of cytokines is a tightly regulated process. Disregulation of TGFbeta signaling is often the underlying basis for various cancers, tumor metastasis, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identify the protein G-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), a kinase involved in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), as a downstream target and regulator of the TGFbeta-signaling cascade. TGFbeta-induced expression of GRK2 acts in a negative feedback loop to control TGFbeta biological responses. Upon TGFbeta stimulation, GRK2 associates with the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) through their MH1 and MH2 domains and phosphorylates their linker region. GRK2 phosphorylation of the R-Smads inhibits their carboxyl-terminal, activating phosphorylation by the type I receptor kinase, thus preventing nuclear translocation of the Smad complex, leading to the inhibition of TGFbeta-mediated target gene expression, cell growth inhibition and apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that GRK2 antagonizes TGFbeta-induced target gene expression and apoptosis ex vivo in primary hepatocytes, establishing a new role for GRK2 in modulating single-transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptor-mediated signal transduction. PMID:16121194

  10. Signal Transduction in Histidine Kinases: Insights from New Structures

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Manasi P.; Molnar, Kathleen S.; Goulian, Mark; DeGrado, William F.

    2015-01-01

    Histidine kinases (HKs) are major players in bacterial signaling. There has been an explosion of new HK crystal structures in the last five years. We globally analyze the structures of HKs to yield insights into the mechanisms by which signals are transmitted to and across protein structures in this family. We interpret known enzymological data in the context of new structural data to show how asymmetry across the dimer interface is a key feature of signal transduction in HKs, and discuss how different HK domains undergo asymmetric-to-symmetric transitions during signal transduction and catalysis. A thermodynamic framework for signaling that encompasses these various properties is presented and the consequences of weak thermodynamic coupling are discussed. The synthesis of observations from enzymology, structural biology, protein engineering and thermodynamics paves the way for a deeper molecular understanding of histidine kinase signal transduction. PMID:25982528

  11. Generation of systemin signaling in tobacco by transformation with the tomato systemin receptor kinase gene

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Justin M.; Pearce, Gregory; Ryan, Clarence A.

    2003-01-01

    The tomato systemin receptor, SR160, a plasma membrane-bound, leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase that signals systemic plant defense, and the brassinolide (BL) receptor, BRI1, that regulates developmental processes, have been shown recently to have identical amino acid sequences. We report herein that tobacco, a solanaceous species that does not express a systemin precursor gene nor responds to systemin, when transformed with the SR160 receptor gene, expresses the gene in suspension-cultured cells, evidenced by mRNA and protein analyses and photoaffinity-labeling experiments. Additionally, systemin induced an alkalinization response in the transgenic tobacco cells similar to that found in tomato cells, but not in WT cells. The gain in function in tobacco cells indicates that early steps of the systemin signaling pathway found in tomato are present in tobacco cells. A tomato line, cu-3, in which a mutation in the BRI1 gene has rendered the plant nonfunctional in BL signaling, exhibits a severely reduced response to systemin. In leaves of WT tomato plants, BL strongly and reversibly antagonized systemic signaling by systemin. The results suggest that the systemin-mediated systemic defense response may have evolved in some solanaceous species by co-opting the BRI1 receptor and associated components for defense signaling. PMID:12900501

  12. Role of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) in the reduction of ethanol reinforcement due to mGluR5 antagonism in the nucleus accumbens shell

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Justin T.; Olive, M. Foster

    2009-01-01

    Rationale The type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5) and the epsilon isoform of protein kinase C (PKCε) regulate ethanol intake, and we have previously demonstrated that mGluR5 receptor antagonism reduces ethanol consumption via a PKCε-dependent mechanism. Objectives We explored the neuroanatomical substrates of the regulation of ethanol reinforcement by this mGluR5-PKCε signaling pathway by infusing selective inhibitors of these proteins into the shell or core region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Methods Male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer ethanol intravenously and received intra-NAc infusions of vehicle or the selective mGluR5 antagonist 3-((2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl)pyridine (MTEP) alone and in combination with a PKCε translocation inhibitor (εV1-2) or a scrambled control peptide (sεV1-2). The effects of intra-NAc MTEP on food-reinforced responding and open-field locomotor activity were also determined. Results MTEP (1 μg/μl) had no effect on ethanol or food reinforcement or locomotor activity when infused into the NAc core. MTEP (3 μg/μl) reduced ethanol reinforcement when infused into the NAc shell but not the core, and this effect was reversed by εV1-2 (1 μg/μl) but not sεV1-2 (1 μg/μl). In both regions, this concentration of MTEP did not alter food-reinforced responding or locomotor activity, and infusion of εV1-2 alone did not alter ethanol reinforcement. MTEP (10 μg/μl) reduced locomotor activity when infused into the shell, and therefore this concentration was not further tested on responding for ethanol or food. Conclusions Blockade of mGluR5 receptors in the NAc shell reduces ethanol reinforcement via a PKCε-dependent mechanism. PMID:19225761

  13. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Atefeh; Zamberlam, Gustavo; Lapointe, Evelyne; Tourigny, Catherine; Boyer, Alexandre; Paquet, Marilène; Hayashi, Kanako; Honda, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Akira; Price, Christopher; Boerboom, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Whereas the roles of the canonical wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family (WNT) signaling pathway in the regulation of ovarian follicle growth and steroidogenesis are now established, noncanonical WNT signaling in the ovary has been largely overlooked. Noncanonical WNTs, including WNT5a and WNT11, are expressed in granulosa cells (GCs) and are differentially regulated throughout follicle development, but their physiologic roles remain unknown. Using conditional gene targeting, we found that GC-specific inactivation ofWnt5a(but notWnt11) results in the female subfertility associated with increased follicular atresia and decreased rates of ovulation. Microarray analyses have revealed that WNT5a acts to down-regulate the expression of FSH-responsive genesin vitro, and corresponding increases in the expression of these genes have been found in the GCs of conditional knockout mice. Unexpectedly, we found that WNT5a regulates its target genes not by signalingviathe WNT/Ca(2+)or planar cell polarity pathways, but rather by inhibiting the canonical pathway, causing both β-catenin (CTNNB1) and cAMP responsive element binding (CREB) protein levels to decreaseviaa glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent mechanism. We further found that WNT5a prevents follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing protein from up-regulating the CTNNB1 and CREB proteins and their target genes, indicating that WNT5a functions as a physiologic inhibitor of gonadotropin signaling. Together, these findings identify WNT5a as a key regulator of follicle development and gonadotropin responsiveness.-Abedini, A., Zamberlam, G., Lapointe, E., Tourigny, C., Boyer, A., Paquet, M., Hayashi, K., Honda, H., Kikuchi, A., Price, C., Boerboom, D. WNT5a is required for normal ovarian follicle development and antagonizes gonadotropin responsiveness in granulosa cells by suppressing canonical WNT signaling. PMID:26667040

  14. The G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor Gpbar1 (TGR5) suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Cong; Su, Jia; Li, Zhijun; Xiao, Rui; Wen, Jianxun; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Xueting; Yu, Donna; Huang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Here we show that TGR5 is a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration through antagonizing STAT3 signaling pathway. We firstly show that TGR5 activation greatly inhibited proliferation and migration of human gastric cancer cells and strongly induced gastric cancer cell apoptosis. We then found that TGR5 activation antagonized STAT3 signaling pathway through suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT3 and its transcription activity induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin-6. TGR5 overexpression with ligand treatment inhibited gene expression mediated by STAT3. It suggests that TGR5 antagonizes gastric cancer proliferation and migration at least in part by inhibiting STAT3 signaling. These findings identify TGR5 as a suppressor of gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration that may serve as an attractive therapeutic tool for human gastric cancer. PMID:26417930

  15. NAF-1 antagonizes starvation-induced autophagy through AMPK signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaohong; Xiao, Renjie; Xiao, Fan; Chen, Yong; Hua, Fuzhou; Yu, Shuchun; Xu, Guohai

    2015-07-01

    NAF-1 (nutrient-deprivation autophagy factor-1), an autophagy-related gene-related (ATG) protein, has been implicated in the autophagic pro-survival response. However, its role in autophagy has not been examined in the cardiomyocytes. In this study, we found that nutritional stress (NS) induced by glucose deprivation strongly induced autophagy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, which was associated with NAF-1 down-regulation in cardiomyocytes under NS conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of NAF-1 was sufficient to inhibit autophagy in cardiomyocytes under glucose deprivation conditions. Moreover, results of the co-immunoprecipitation assay indicate that NAF-1 antagonized autophagy by promoting the interaction between Beclin1 and Bcl-2 in NS-induced cardiomyocytes. Importantly, our results indicate that overexpression of NAF-1 significantly inhibited AMPK activity and protected cardiomyocytes from NS-induced cell death. Taken together, these data show that ectopic expression of NAF-1 antagonizes the degree of autophagy in cardiomyocytes and enhances cell survival during starvation conditions. PMID:25689847

  16. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Dzeja, Petras; Terzic, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network. PMID:19468337

  17. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling determines kidney size

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Kang; Nagai, Kojiro; Chen, Jianchun; Plieth, David; Hino, Masayo; Xu, Jinxian; Sha, Feng; Ikizler, T. Alp; Quarles, C. Chad; Threadgill, David W.; Neilson, Eric G.; Harris, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    Kidney size adaptively increases as mammals grow and in response to the loss of 1 kidney. It is not clear how kidneys size themselves or if the processes that adapt kidney mass to lean body mass also mediate renal hypertrophy following unilateral nephrectomy (UNX). Here, we demonstrated that mice harboring a proximal tubule–specific deletion of Pten (PtenptKO) have greatly enlarged kidneys as the result of persistent activation of the class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT pathway and an increase of the antiproliferative signals p21Cip1/WAF and p27Kip1. Administration of rapamycin to PtenptKO mice diminished hypertrophy. Proximal tubule–specific deletion of Egfr in PtenptKO mice also attenuated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling and reduced the size of enlarged kidneys. In PtenptKO mice, UNX further increased mTORC1 activation and hypertrophy in the remaining kidney; however, mTORC2-dependent AKT phosphorylation did not increase further in the remaining kidney of PtenptKO mice, nor was it induced in the remaining kidney of WT mice. After UNX, renal blood flow and amino acid delivery to the remaining kidney rose abruptly, followed by increased amino acid content and activation of a class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 pathway. Thus, our findings demonstrate context-dependent roles for EGFR-modulated class I PI3K/mTORC2/AKT signaling in the normal adaptation of kidney size and PTEN-independent, nutrient-dependent class III PI3K/mTORC1/S6K1 signaling in the compensatory enlargement of the remaining kidney following UNX. PMID:25985273

  18. Novel links in the plant TOR kinase signaling network.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan; Sheen, Jen

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient and energy sensing and signaling mechanisms constitute the most ancient and fundamental regulatory networks to control growth and development in all life forms. The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase is modulated by diverse nutrient, energy, hormone and stress inputs and plays a central role in regulating cell proliferation, growth, metabolism and stress responses from yeasts to plants and animals. Recent chemical, genetic, genomic and metabolomic analyses have enabled significant progress toward molecular understanding of the TOR signaling network in multicellular plants. This review discusses the applications of new chemical tools to probe plant TOR functions and highlights recent findings and predictions on TOR-mediate biological processes. Special focus is placed on novel and evolutionarily conserved TOR kinase effectors as positive and negative signaling regulators that control transcription, translation and metabolism to support cell proliferation, growth and maintenance from embryogenesis to senescence in the plant system. PMID:26476687

  19. Genetic variation in insulin-induced kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Isabel Xiaorong; Ramrattan, Girish; Cheung, Vivian G

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in sensitivity to insulin contribute to disease susceptibility including diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Cellular responses to insulin are well studied. However, which steps in these response pathways differ across individuals remains largely unknown. Such knowledge is needed to guide more precise therapeutic interventions. Here, we studied insulin response and found extensive individual variation in the activation of key signaling factors, including ERK whose induction differs by more than 20-fold among our subjects. This variation in kinase activity is propagated to differences in downstream gene expression response to insulin. By genetic analysis, we identified cis-acting DNA variants that influence signaling response, which in turn affects downstream changes in gene expression and cellular phenotypes, such as protein translation and cell proliferation. These findings show that polymorphic differences in signal transduction contribute to individual variation in insulin response, and suggest kinase modulators as promising therapeutics for diseases characterized by insulin resistance. PMID:26202599

  20. Information transfer by leaky, heterogeneous, protein kinase signaling systems

    PubMed Central

    Voliotis, Margaritis; Perrett, Rebecca M.; McWilliams, Chris; McArdle, Craig A.; Bowsher, Clive G.

    2014-01-01

    Cells must sense extracellular signals and transfer the information contained about their environment reliably to make appropriate decisions. To perform these tasks, cells use signal transduction networks that are subject to various sources of noise. Here, we study the effects on information transfer of two particular types of noise: basal (leaky) network activity and cell-to-cell variability in the componentry of the network. Basal activity is the propensity for activation of the network output in the absence of the signal of interest. We show, using theoretical models of protein kinase signaling, that the combined effect of the two types of noise makes information transfer by such networks highly vulnerable to the loss of negative feedback. In an experimental study of ERK signaling by single cells with heterogeneous ERK expression levels, we verify our theoretical prediction: In the presence of basal network activity, negative feedback substantially increases information transfer to the nucleus by both preventing a near-flat average response curve and reducing sensitivity to variation in substrate expression levels. The interplay between basal network activity, heterogeneity in network componentry, and feedback is thus critical for the effectiveness of protein kinase signaling. Basal activity is widespread in signaling systems under physiological conditions, has phenotypic consequences, and is often raised in disease. Our results reveal an important role for negative feedback mechanisms in protecting the information transfer function of saturable, heterogeneous cell signaling systems from basal activity. PMID:24395805

  1. MELK-a conserved kinase: functions, signaling, cancer, and controversy.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Ranjit; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Thiel, Jordyn; Kornblum, Harley I; Beullens, Monique; Nakano, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase initially found to be expressed in a wide range of early embryonic cellular stages, and as a result has been implicated in embryogenesis and cell cycle control. Recent evidence has identified a broader spectrum of tissue expression pattern for this kinase than previously appreciated. MELK is expressed in several human cancers and stem cell populations. Unique spatial and temporal patterns of expression within these tissues suggest that MELK plays a prominent role in cell cycle control, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration, cell renewal, embryogenesis, oncogenesis, and cancer treatment resistance and recurrence. These findings have important implications for our understanding of development, disease, and cancer therapeutics. Furthermore understanding MELK signaling may elucidate an added dimension of stem cell control. PMID:25852826

  2. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Signaling in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius; Shirai, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangement in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene was identified as an oncogenic driver in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2007. A multi-targeted ALK/ROS1/MET inhibitor, crizotinib, targeting this activated tyrosine kinase has led to significant clinical benefit including tumor shrinkage and prolonged survival without disease progression and has been approved by US FDA since 2011 for the treatment of advanced ALK-rearranged NSCLC (Ou et al. Oncologist 17:1351-1375, 2012). Knowledge gained from treating ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients including the presenting clinicopathologic characteristics, methods of detecting ALK-rearranged NSCLC, pattern of relapse and acquired resistance mechanisms while on crizotinib, and the clinical activities of more potent ALK inhibitors has led us to a detailed and ever expanding knowledge of the ALK signaling pathway in lung cancer but also raising many more questions that remained to be answered in the future. This book chapter will provide a concise summary of the importance of ALK signaling pathway in lung cancer. Understanding the ALK signaling pathway in lung cancer will likely provide the roadmap to the management of major epithelial malignancies driven by receptor tyrosine kinase rearrangement. PMID:26667344

  3. Type 2 Interleukin-4 Receptor Signaling in Neutrophils Antagonizes Their Expansion and Migration during Infection and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Woytschak, Janine; Keller, Nadia; Krieg, Carsten; Impellizzieri, Daniela; Thompson, Robert W; Wynn, Thomas A; Zinkernagel, Annelies S; Boyman, Onur

    2016-07-19

    Neutrophils are the first immune cells recruited to sites of inflammation and infection. However, patients with allergic disorders such as atopic dermatitis show a paucity of skin neutrophils and are prone to bacterial skin infections, suggesting that allergic inflammation curtails neutrophil responses. Here we have shown that the type 2 cell signature cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) hampers neutrophil expansion and migration by antagonizing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and chemokine receptor-mediated signals. Cutaneous bacterial infection in mice was exacerbated by IL-4 signaling and improved with IL-4 inhibition, each outcome inversely correlating with neutrophil migration to skin. Likewise, systemic bacterial infection was worsened by heightened IL-4 activity, with IL-4 restricting G-CSF-induced neutrophil expansion and migration to tissues by affecting CXCR2-CXCR4 chemokine signaling in neutrophils. These effects were dependent on IL-4 acting through type 2 IL-4 receptors on neutrophils. Thus, targeting IL-4 might be beneficial in neutropenic conditions with increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. PMID:27438770

  4. New functional activity of aripiprazole revealed: Robust antagonism of D2 dopamine receptor-stimulated Gβγ signaling.

    PubMed

    Brust, Tarsis F; Hayes, Michael P; Roman, David L; Watts, Val J

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is generally considered to be a primary target in the treatment of schizophrenia. First generation antipsychotic drugs (e.g. haloperidol) are antagonists of the DRD2, while second generation antipsychotic drugs (e.g. olanzapine) antagonize DRD2 and 5HT2A receptors. Notably, both these classes of drugs may cause side effects associated with D2 receptor antagonism (e.g. hyperprolactemia and extrapyramidal symptoms). The novel, "third generation" antipsychotic drug, aripiprazole is also used to treat schizophrenia, with the remarkable advantage that its tendency to cause extrapyramidal symptoms is minimal. Aripiprazole is considered a partial agonist of the DRD2, but it also has partial agonist/antagonist activity for other GPCRs. Further, aripiprazole has been reported to have a unique activity profile in functional assays with the DRD2. In the present study the molecular pharmacology of aripiprazole was further examined in HEK cell models stably expressing the DRD2 and specific isoforms of adenylyl cyclase to assess functional responses of Gα and Gβγ subunits. Additional studies examined the activity of aripiprazole in DRD2-mediated heterologous sensitization of adenylyl cyclase and cell-based dynamic mass redistribution (DMR). Aripiprazole displayed a unique functional profile for modulation of G proteins, being a partial agonist for Gαi/o and a robust antagonist for Gβγ signaling. Additionally, aripiprazole was a weak partial agonist for both heterologous sensitization and dynamic mass redistribution. PMID:25449598

  5. Protein kinase A signaling during bidirectional axenic differentiation in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Bachmaier, Sabine; Witztum, Ronit; Tsigankov, Polina; Koren, Roni; Boshart, Michael; Zilberstein, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania are obligatory intracellular parasites that cycle between the phagolysosome of mammalian macrophages, where they proliferate as intracellular amastigotes, and the midgut of female sand flies, where they proliferate as extracellular promastigotes. Shifting between the two environments induces signaling pathway-mediated developmental processes that enable adaptation to both host and vector. Developmentally regulated expression and phosphorylation of protein kinase A subunits in Leishmania and in Trypanosoma brucei point to an involvement of protein kinase A in parasite development. To assess this hypothesis in Leishmania donovani, we determined proteome-wide changes in phosphorylation of the conserved protein kinase A phosphorylation motifs RXXS and RXXT, using a phospho-specific antibody. Rapid dephosphorylation of these motifs was observed upon initiation of promastigote to amastigote differentiation in culture. No phosphorylated sites were detected in axenic amastigotes. To analyse the kinetics of (re)phosphorylation during axenic reverse differentiation from L. donovani amastigotes to promastigotes, we first established a map of this process with morphological and molecular markers. Upon initiation, the parasites rested for 6-12h before proliferation of an asynchronous population resumed. After early changes in cell shape, the major changes in molecular marker expression and flagella biogenesis occurred between 24 and 33h after initiation. RXXS/T re-phosphorylation and expression of the regulatory subunit PKAR1 correlated with promastigote maturation, indicating a promastigote-specific function of protein kinase A signaling. This is supported by the localization of PKAR1 to the flagellum, an organelle reduced to a remnant in amastigote forms. We conclude that a significant increase in protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation is part of the ordered changes that characterise the amastigote to promastigote differentiation

  6. δ-Opioid receptors stimulate the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase through coincident signaling with G(q/11)-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Olianas, Maria C; Dedoni, Simona; Olianas, Alessandra; Onali, Pierluigi

    2012-02-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and δ-opioid receptors (DORs) are both involved in controlling cell survival, energy metabolism, and food intake, but little is known on the interaction between these two signaling molecules. Here we show that activation of human DORs stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells increased AMPK activity and AMPK phosphorylation on Thr172. DOR-induced AMPK phosphorylation was prevented by pertussis toxin, reduced by protein kinase A (PKA) activators, and unaffected by PKA, transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and protein kinase C inhibitors. Conversely, the DOR effect was reduced by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) inhibition, apyrase treatment, G(q/11) antagonism, and blockade of P2 purinergic receptors. Apyrase treatment also depressed DOR stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, whereas P2 receptor antagonism blocked DOR stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation. In SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and primary olfactory bulb neurons, DOR activation failed to affect AMPK phosphorylation per se but potentiated the stimulation by either muscarinic agonists or 2-methyl-thio-ADP. Sequestration of G protein βγ subunits (Gβγ) blocked the DOR potentiation of AMPK phosphorylation induced by oxotremorine-M. In CHO cells, the AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide1-β-D-ribonucleoside stimulated AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake, whereas pharmacological inhibition of AMPK, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of AMPKα1, and P2Y receptor blockade reduced DOR-stimulated glucose uptake. The data indicate that in different cell systems, DOR activation up-regulates AMPK through a Gβγ-dependent synergistic interaction with G(q/11)-coupled receptors, potentiating Ca(2+) release and CaMKKβ-dependent AMPK phosphorylation. In CHO cells, this coincident signaling mechanism is involved in DOR-induced glucose uptake. PMID:22031472

  7. Receptor tyrosine kinases: mechanisms of activation and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Stevan R.; Miller, W. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication. These single-pass transmembrane receptors, which bind polypeptide ligands — mainly growth factors — play key roles in processes such as cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism and motility. Recent progress has been achieved towards an understanding of the precise (and varied) mechanisms by which RTKs are activated by ligand binding and by which signals are propagated from the activated receptors to downstream targets in the cell. PMID:17306972

  8. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P; Taub, Dennis D

    2014-12-20

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levels and impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  9. Ghrelin augments murine T-cell proliferation by activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Patel, Kalpesh; Tae, Hyun Jin; Lustig, Ana; Kim, Jie Wan; Mattson, Mark P.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic atrophy occurs during normal aging, and is accelerated by exposure to chronic stressors that elevate glucocorticoid levelsand impair the naïve T cell output. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin was recently shown to attenuate age-associated thymic atrophy. Here, we report that ghrelin enhances the proliferation of murine CD4+ primary T cells and a CD4+ T-cell line. Ghrelin induced activation of the ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways, via upstream activation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and protein kinase C, to enhance T-cell proliferation. Moreover, ghrelin induced expression of the cell cycle proteins cyclin D1, cyclin E, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and retinoblastoma phosphorylation. Finally, ghrelin activated the above-mentioned signaling pathways and stimulated thymocyte proliferation in young and older mice in vivo. PMID:25447526

  10. Antagonism of Dopamine Receptor 2 Long Affects Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Signaling in a Cell Culture Model of Striatal Medium Spiny Projection Neurons.

    PubMed

    Bagher, Amina M; Laprairie, Robert B; Kelly, Melanie E M; Denovan-Wright, Eileen M

    2016-06-01

    Activation of dopamine receptor 2 long (D2L) switches the signaling of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) from Gαi to Gαs, a process thought to be mediated through CB1-D2L heteromerization. Given the clinical importance of D2 antagonists, the goal of this study was to determine if D2 antagonists could modulate CB1 signaling. Interactions between CB1 and D2L, Gαi, Gαs, and β-arrestin1 were studied using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer 2 (BRET(2)) in STHdh(Q7/Q7) cells. CB1-dependent extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, CREB phosphorylation, and CB1 internalization following cotreatment of CB1 agonist and D2 antagonist were quantified. Preassembled CB1-Gαi complexes were detected by BRET(2) Arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a selective CB1 agonist, caused a rapid and transient increase in BRET efficiency (BRETEff) between Gαi-Rluc and CB1-green fluorescent protein 2 (GFP(2)), and a Gαi-dependent increase in ERK phosphorylation. Physical interactions between CB1 and D2L were observed using BRET(2) Cotreatment of STHdh(Q7/Q7) cells with ACEA and haloperidol, a D2 antagonist, inhibited BRETEff signals between Gαi-Rluc and CB1-GFP(2) and reduced the EMax and pEC50 of ACEA-mediated Gαi-dependent ERK phosphorylation. ACEA and haloperidol cotreatments produced a delayed and sustained increase in BRETEff between Gαs-Rluc and CB1-GFP(2) and increased the EMax and pEC50 of ACEA-induced Gαs-dependent cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. In cells expressing CB1 and D2L treated with ACEA, binding of haloperidol to D2 receptors switched CB1 coupling from Gαi to Gαs In addition, haloperidol treatment reduced ACEA-induced β-arrestin1 recruitment to CB1 and CB1 internalization. D2 antagonists allosterically modulate cannabinoid-induced CB1 coupling, signaling, and β-arrestin1 recruitment through binding to CB1-D2L heteromers. These findings indicate that D2 antagonism, like D2 agonists, change agonist-mediated CB1 coupling and

  11. Lefty Blocks a Subset of TGFβ Signals by Antagonizing EGF-CFC Coreceptors

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Members of the EGF-CFC family play essential roles in embryonic development and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The TGFβ signals Nodal and Vg1/GDF1, but not Activin, require EGF-CFC coreceptors to activate Activin receptors. We report that the TGFβ signaling antagonist Lefty also acts through an EGF-CFC-dependent mechanism. Lefty inhibits Nodal and Vg1 signaling, but not Activin signaling. Lefty genetically interacts with EGF-CFC proteins and competes with Nodal for binding to these coreceptors. Chimeras between Activin and Nodal or Vg1 identify a 14 amino acid region that confers independence from EGF-CFC coreceptors and resistance to Lefty. These results indicate that coreceptors are targets for both TGFβ agonists and antagonists and suggest that subtle sequence variations in TGFβ signals result in greater ligand diversity. PMID:14966532

  12. Some implications of receptor kinase signaling pathway for development of multitargeted kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mitrasinovic, Petar M

    2013-03-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) belong to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (TKs). Based on the role of EGFR signaling pathway in malignant progression of various types of tumors, a growing interest in the use of EGFR-TK inhibitors as probes for molecular imaging of EGFR-overexpressing tumors via positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is being notable. On one side, such noninvasive and repetitive monitoring of the activity of EGFR at the kinase level is intended to provide a direct measure of EGFR occupancy and inhibition by EGFR-targeting drugs. On the other side, all oncologic imaging tracers are molecularly targeted radiopharmaceuticals, which are strongly dependent on the tumor biochemistry including increased metabolism, hyperproliferation, angiogenesis, hypoxia, apoptosis, and specific tumor biomarkers (tumor specific antigens and tumor-specific receptors). The present article is an attempt to reconcile these two vital standpoints influencing the choice of appropriate radiolabeled agents for PET and SPECT imaging aimed to support the development of a new generation of multi-targeted kinase inhibitors in the time ahead, because the routine accomplishment of drug selectivity for particular protein kinases is a substantial challenge. PMID:23278847

  13. Cell signaling through protein kinase C oxidation and activation.

    PubMed

    Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Due to the growing importance of cellular signaling mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteins that are reversibly modulated by these reactant molecules are of high interest. In this context, protein kinases and phosphatases, which act coordinately in the regulation of signal transduction through the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of target proteins, have been described to be key elements in ROS-mediated signaling events. The major mechanism by which these proteins may be modified by oxidation involves the presence of key redox-sensitive cysteine residues. Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. These proteins have been shown to contain a unique structural feature that is susceptible to oxidative modification. A large number of scientific studies have highlighted the importance of ROS as a second messenger in numerous cellular processes, including cell proliferation, gene expression, adhesion, differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. In this context, the goal of this review is to discuss the mechanisms by which PKCs are modulated by ROS and how these processes are involved in the cellular response. PMID:23109817

  14. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 signaling regulates mammalian lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Selman, Colin; Tullet, Jennifer M.A.; Wieser, Daniela; Irvine, Elaine; Lingard, Steven J.; Choudhury, Agharul I.; Claret, Marc; Al-Qassab, Hind; Carmignac, Danielle; Ramadani, Faruk; Woods, Angela; Robinson, Iain C.A.; Schuster, Eugene; Batterham, Rachel L.; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Carling, David; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Thornton, Janet M.; Partridge, Linda; Gems, David; Withers, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) protects against aging and disease but the mechanisms by which this affects mammalian lifespan are unclear. We show in mice that deletion of the nutrient-responsive mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling pathway component ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1) led to increased lifespan and resistance to age-related pathologies such as bone, immune and motor dysfunction and loss of insulin sensitivity. Deletion of S6K1 induced gene expression patterns similar to those seen in CR or with pharmacological activation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a conserved regulator of the metabolic response to CR. Our results demonstrate that S6K1 influences healthy mammalian lifespan, and suggest therapeutic manipulation of S6K1 and AMPK might mimic CR and provide broad protection against diseases of aging. PMID:19797661

  15. Mitogen Activated Protein kinase signal transduction pathways in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paul D; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Koul, Hari K

    2004-01-01

    The biochemistry of the mitogen activated protein kinases ERK, JNK, and p38 have been studied in prostate physiology in an attempt to elucidate novel mechanisms and pathways for the treatment of prostatic disease. We reviewed articles examining mitogen-activated protein kinases using prostate tissue or cell lines. As with other tissue types, these signaling modules are links/transmitters for important pathways in prostate cells that can result in cellular survival or apoptosis. While the activation of the ERK pathway appears to primarily result in survival, the roles of JNK and p38 are less clear. Manipulation of these pathways could have important implications for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy. PMID:15219238

  16. Intramolecular conformational changes optimize protein kinase C signaling.

    PubMed

    Antal, Corina E; Violin, Jonathan D; Kunkel, Maya T; Skovsø, Søs; Newton, Alexandra C

    2014-04-24

    Optimal tuning of enzyme signaling is critical for cellular homeostasis. We use fluorescence resonance energy transfer reporters in live cells to follow conformational transitions that tune the affinity of a multidomain signal transducer, protein kinase C (PKC), for optimal response to second messengers. This enzyme comprises two diacylglycerol sensors, the C1A and C1B domains, that have a sufficiently high intrinsic affinity for ligand so that the enzyme would be in a ligand-engaged, active state if not for mechanisms that mask its domains. We show that both diacylglycerol sensors are exposed in newly synthesized PKC and that conformational transitions following priming phosphorylations mask the domains so that the lower affinity sensor, the C1B domain, is the primary diacylglycerol binder. The conformational rearrangements of PKC serve as a paradigm for how multimodule transducers optimize their dynamic range of signaling. PMID:24631122

  17. Oscillatory Dynamics of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Wiley, H. S.

    2010-12-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a central signaling pathway in development and disease and is regulated by multiple negative and positive feedback loops. Recent studies have shown negative feedback from ERK to upstream regulators can give rise to biochemical oscillations with a periodicity of between 15-30 minutes. Feedback due to the stimulated transcription of negative regulators of the ERK pathway can also give rise to transcriptional oscillations with a periodicity of 1-2h. The biological significance of these oscillations is not clear, but recent evidence suggests that transcriptional oscillations participate in developmental processes, such as somite formation. Biochemical oscillations are more enigmatic, but could provide a mechanism for encoding different types of inputs into a common signaling pathway.

  18. Antigen receptor signaling: integration of protein tyrosine kinase functions.

    PubMed

    Tamir, I; Cambier, J C

    1998-09-17

    Antigen receptors on T and B cells function to transduce signals leading to a variety of biologic responses minimally including antigen receptor editing, apoptotic death, developmental progression, cell activation, proliferation and survival. The response to antigen depends upon antigen affinity and valence, involvement of coreceptors in signaling and differentiative stage of the responding cell. The requirement that these receptors integrate signals that drive an array of responses may explain their evolved structural complexity. Antigen receptors are composed of multiple subunits compartmentalized to provide antigen recognition and signal transduction function. In lieu of on-board enzymatic activity these receptors rely on associated Protein Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) for their signaling function. By aggregating the receptors, and hence their appended PTKs, antigens induce PTK transphosphorylation, activating them to phosphorylate the receptor within conserved motifs termed Immunoreceptor Tyrosine-based Activation Motifs (ITAMs) found in transducer subunits. The tyrosyl phosphorylated ITAMs then interact with Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains within the PTKs leading to their further activation. As receptor phosphorylation is amplified, other effectors, such as Shc, dock by virtue of SH2 binding, and serve, in-turn, as substrates for these PTKs. This sequence of events not only provides a signal amplification mechanism by combining multiple consecutive steps with positive feedback, but also allows for signal diversification by differential recruitment of effectors that provide access to distinct parallel downstream signaling pathways. The subject of antigen receptor signaling has been recently reviewed in depth (DeFranco, 1997; Kurosaki, 1997). Here we discuss the biochemical basis of antigen receptor signal transduction, using the B cell receptor (BCR) as a paradigm, with specific emphasis on the involved PTKs. We review several specific mechanisms by which responses

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1) integrates developmental signals for eyelid closure

    PubMed Central

    Geh, Esmond; Meng, Qinghang; Mongan, Maureen; Wang, Jingcai; Takatori, Atsushi; Zheng, Yi; Puga, Alvaro; Lang, Richard A.; Xia, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Developmental eyelid closure is an evolutionarily conserved morphogenetic event requiring proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeleton reorganization, and migration of epithelial cells at the tip of the developing eyelid. Many signaling events take place during eyelid closure, but how the signals converge to regulate the morphogenetic process remains an open and intriguing question. Here we show that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1) highly expressed in the developing eyelid epithelium, forms with c-Jun, a regulatory axis that orchestrates morphogenesis by integrating two different networks of eyelid closure signals. A TGF-α/EGFR-RhoA module initiates one of these networks by inducing c-Jun expression which, in a phosphorylation-independent manner, binds to the Map3k1 promoter and causes an increase in MAP3K1 expression. RhoA knockout in the ocular surface epithelium disturbs this network by decreasing MAP3K1 expression, and causes delayed eyelid closure in Map3k1 hemizygotes. The second network is initiated by the enzymatic activity of MAP3K1, which phosphorylates and activates a JNK-c-Jun module, leading to AP-1 transactivation and induction of its downstream genes, such as Pai-1. MAP3K1 inactivation reduces AP-1 activity and PAI-1 expression both in cells and developing eyelids. MAP3K1 is therefore the nexus of an intracrine regulatory loop connecting the TGF-α/EGFR/RhoA-c-Jun and JNK-c-Jun-AP-1 pathways in developmental eyelid closure. PMID:21969564

  20. GSK-3 kinases enhance calcineurin signaling by phosphorylation of RCNs

    PubMed Central

    Hilioti, Zoe; Gallagher, Deirdre A.; Low-Nam, Shalini T.; Ramaswamy, Priya; Gajer, Pawel; Kingsbury, Tami J.; Birchwood, Christine J.; Levchenko, Andre; Cunningham, Kyle W.

    2004-01-01

    The conserved RCN family of proteins can bind and directly regulate calcineurin, a Ca2+-activated protein phosphatase involved in immunity, heart growth, muscle development, learning, and other processes. Whereas high levels of RCNs can inhibit calcineurin signaling in fungal and animal cells, RCNs can also stimulate calcineurin signaling when expressed at endogenous levels. Here we show that the stimulatory effect of yeast Rcn1 involves phosphorylation of a conservedserine residue by Mck1, a member of the GSK-3 family of protein kinases. Mutations at the GSK-3 consensus site of Rcn1 and human DSCR1/MCIP1 abolish the stimulatory effects on calcineurin signaling. RCNs may therefore oscillate between stimulatory and inhibitory forms in vivo in a manner similar to the Inhibitor-2 regulators of type 1 protein phosphatase. Computational modeling indicates a biphasic response of calcineurin to increasing RCN concentration such that protein phosphatase activity is stimulated by low concentrations of phospho-RCN and inhibited by high concentrations of phospho- or dephospho-RCN. This prediction was verified experimentally in yeast cells expressing Rcn1 or DSCR1/MCIP1 at different concentrations. Through the phosphorylation of RCNs, GSK-3 kinases can potentially contribute to a positive feedback loop involving calcineurin-dependent up-regulation of RCN expression. Such feedback may help explain the large induction of DSCR1/MCIP1 observed in brain of Down syndrome individuals. PMID:14701880

  1. Signals fly when kinases meet Rho-of-plants (ROP) small G-proteins.

    PubMed

    Fehér, Attila; Lajkó, Dézi Bianka

    2015-08-01

    Rho-type small GTP-binding plant proteins function as two-state molecular switches in cellular signalling. There is accumulating evidence that Rho-of-plants (ROP) signalling is positively controlled by plant receptor kinases, through the ROP guanine nucleotide exchange factor proteins. These signalling modules regulate cell polarity, cell shape, hormone responses, and pathogen defence, among other things. Other ROP-regulatory proteins might also be subjected to protein phosphorylation by cellular kinases (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases), in order to integrate various cellular signalling pathways with ROP GTPase-dependent processes. In contrast to the role of kinases in upstream ROP regulation, much less is known about the potential link between ROP GTPases and downstream kinase signalling. In other eukaryotes, Rho-type G-protein-activated kinases are widespread and have a key role in many cellular processes. Recent data indicate the existence of structurally different ROP-activated kinases in plants, but their ROP-dependent biological functions still need to be validated. In addition to these direct interactions, ROPs may also indirectly control the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases or calcium-dependent protein kinases. These kinases may therefore function as upstream as well as downstream kinases in ROP-mediated signalling pathways, such as the phosphatidylinositol monophosphate kinases involved in cell polarity establishment. PMID:26089155

  2. ZnRF3 Induces Apoptosis of Gastric Cancer Cells by Antagonizing Wnt and Hedgehog Signaling.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongzhen; Cai, Aizhen; Xi, Hongqing; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Lin

    2015-11-01

    A large proportion of malignant cancers of the stomach are gastric adenocarcinoma type. In spite of many studies, the molecular basis for this cancer is still unclear. Deregulated cell proliferative signaling via Wnt/β-catenin and Hedgehog pathways is considered important in the pathogenesis of many cancers including the gastric cancer. Recent studies identified ZnRF3 protein, which is a E3-ubiquitin ligase and which is either deleted or mutated in cancers, to inhibit Wnt signaling. However, the significance of ZnRF3 in the control of gastric cancer and whether it also regulates Hedgehog signaling pathway, is not known. In the present study, we assessed the expression of ZnRF3 in gastric tumors and paracancerous tissues from 58 patients (44 male and 14 female) of different ages and related this to patient survival. We observed a clear relationship between ZnRF3 expression in paracancerous tissue and tumor size. Also, ZnRF3 expression was much higher in tumors from aged patients. Male patients showed higher mortality than the females. Mechanistic studies using normal gastric cells (GES1) and gastric cancer cells (MGC-803) infected with either AdZnRF3 or AdGFP viral vectors, revealed that ZnRF3 overexpression causes significantly more apoptosis and lowered proliferation of cancer cells. ZnRF3 overexpression led to greatly reduced levels of Lgr5, a component of Wnt signaling and also Gli1, a component of Hedgehog signaling. Thus, ZnRF3 negatively influences both the Wnt and Hedgehog proliferative pathways, and probably this way it negatively regulates cancer progression. These results suggest the importance of normal ZnRF3 function in checking the progression of cancer cell growth and indicate that a lack of this protein can lead to poorer clinical outcomes for gastric cancer patients. PMID:27352324

  3. Activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways antagonized sinomenine-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liping; Luan, Hong; Liu, Qingpeng; Jiang, Tingshu; Liang, Hongyuan; Dong, Xihua; Shang, Hong

    2012-05-01

    Sinomenine (SIN) is a bioactive component derived from a Chinese medicinal plant. Our previous studies demonstrated that SIN has cytotoxic effects on human lung cancer cells. However, the antitumor molecular mechanisms of SIN have yet to be elucidated in detail. In the present study, we further explored the effects of SIN on NCI-H460 human lung cancer cell viability and apoptosis and investigated the regulation and function of PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways during SIN-induced apoptosis in various lung cancer cell lines. NCI-H460 cells were incubated with 200 µg/ml SIN for the indicated times (0, 24, 48 or 72 h). Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Akt, p-Akt, ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 protein levels were detected by western blotting, respectively. Two different selective inhibitors (LY294002 for the PI3K pathway; PD98059 for the MEK/ERK pathway) were used to characterize the relative roles of PI3K/Akt and ERK in SIN-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. SIN inhibited the proliferation of NCI-H460 cells in a time-dependent manner, which was accompanied with significant activation of pAkt and pERK. LY294002 and PD98059 both significantly increased SIN-induced apoptosis in NCI-H460, NCI-H226 and NCI-H522 cells. Our findings suggest that the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways antagonize SIN-induced lung cancer cell apoptosis and molecules that inhibit these pathways should potentiate the effects of SIN. This study represents a significant step forward in our understanding of the signal transduction pathways associated with the apoptosis elicited by SIN. PMID:22367396

  4. The Androgen Receptor Antagonizes Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Epidermal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Kai; Cottle, Denny L; Schweiger, Pawel J; Watt, Fiona M

    2015-01-01

    Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in adult mouse epidermis leads to expansion of the stem cell compartment and redirects keratinocytes in the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands (SGs) to differentiate along the hair follicle (HF) lineages. Here we demonstrate that during epidermal development and homeostasis there is reciprocal activation of the androgen receptor (AR) and β-catenin in cells of the HF bulb. AR activation reduced β-catenin-dependent transcription, blocked β-catenin-induced induction of HF growth, and prevented β-catenin-mediated conversion of SGs into HFs. Conversely, AR inhibition enhanced the effects of β-catenin activation, promoting HF proliferation and differentiation, culminating in the formation of benign HF tumors and a complete loss of SG identity. We conclude that AR signaling has a key role in epidermal stem cell fate selection by modulating responses to β-catenin in adult mouse skin. PMID:26121213

  5. Genomic antagonism between retinoic acid and estrogen signaling in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sujun; Kittler, Ralf; White, Kevin P

    2009-06-26

    Retinoic acid (RA) triggers antiproliferative effects in tumor cells, and therefore RA and its synthetic analogs have great potential as anticarcinogenic agents. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) mediate RA effects by directly regulating gene expression. To define the genetic network regulated by RARs in breast cancer, we identified RAR genomic targets using chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression analysis. We found that RAR binding throughout the genome is highly coincident with estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) binding, resulting in a widespread crosstalk of RA and estrogen signaling to antagonistically regulate breast cancer-associated genes. ERalpha- and RAR-binding sites appear to be coevolved on a large scale throughout the human genome, often resulting in competitive binding activity at nearby or overlapping cis-regulatory elements. The highly coordinated intersection between these two critical nuclear hormone receptor signaling pathways provides a global mechanism for balancing gene expression output via local regulatory interactions dispersed throughout the genome. PMID:19563758

  6. c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor favors transforming growth factor-β to antagonize hepatitis B virus X protein-induced cell growth promotion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WU, YAN-HUI; AI, XI; LIU, FU-YAO; LIANG, HUI-FANG; ZHANG, BI-XIANG; CHEN, XIAO-PING

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induces cell growth arrest in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) minimizes the tumor suppression of TGF-β signaling in early chronic hepatitis B. However, how to reverse the oncogenic effect of HBx and sustain the tumor-suppressive action of TGF-β has yet to be investigated. The present study examined the effect of TGF-β and a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor on cell growth in HCC cells with forced expression of HBx. It was found that HBx promoted cell growth via activation of the JNK/pSMAD3L pathway and inhibition of the transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TβRI)/pSMAD3C pathway. pSMAD3L/SMAD4 and pSMAD3C/SMAD4 complexes antagonized each other to regulate c-Myc expression. In the absence of HBx, TGF-β induced cell growth arrest through activation of the TβRI/pSMAD3C pathway in well-differentiated HCC cells. In the presence of HBx, TGF-β had no effect on cell growth. JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly reversed the oncogenic action of HBx and favored TGF-β to regain the ability to inhibit the cell growth in HBx-expressing well-differentiated HCC cells. In conclusion, targeting JNK signaling favors TGF-β to block HBx-induced cell growth promotion in well-differentiated HCC cells. As an adjunct to anti-viral therapy, the combination of TGF-β and inhibition of JNK signaling is a potential therapy for HBV-infected HCC. PMID:26648552

  7. The G-Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor Gpbar1 (TGR5) Inhibits Gastric Inflammation Through Antagonizing NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Cong; Qi, Hui; Yu, Yingjie; Zhang, Qiqi; Su, Jia; Yu, Donna; Huang, Wendong; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Gpbar1 (TGR5), a membrane-bound bile acid receptor, is well-known for its roles in regulation of energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism. Here, we show that mice lacking TGR5 were much more susceptible to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute gastric inflammation than wild-type (WT) mice and TGR5 is a negative regulator of gastric inflammation through antagonizing NF-κB signaling pathway. We found that the treatment of TGR5 ligands 23(S)-mCDCA and GPBARA (3-(2-Chlorophenyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-N,5-dimethylisoxazole-4-carboxamide) suppressed gene and protein expression mediated by NF-κB signaling. TGR5 overexpression with ligand treatment inhibited gene expression of interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), TNF-α, and chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) induced by LPS. Furthermore, we revealed that TGR5 activation antagonized NF-κB signaling pathway through suppressing its transcription activity, the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65 translocation, which suggests that TGR5 antagonizes gastric inflammation at least in part by inhibiting NF-κB signaling. These findings identify TGR5 as a negative mediator of gastric inflammation that may serve as an attractive therapeutic tool for human gastric inflammation and cancer. PMID:26696888

  8. Phosphorylation of the Kinase Interaction Motif in Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) Kinase Phosphatase-4 Mediates Cross-talk between Protein Kinase A and MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Robin J.; Delavaine, Laurent; Cejudo-Marín, Rocío; Stewart, Graeme; Staples, Christopher J.; Didmon, Mark P.; Trinidad, Antonio Garcia; Alonso, Andrés; Pulido, Rafael; Keyse, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    MAP kinase phosphatase 4 (DUSP9/MKP-4) plays an essential role during placental development and is one of a subfamily of three closely related cytoplasmic dual-specificity MAPK phosphatases, which includes the ERK-specific enzymes DUSP6/MKP-3 and DUSP7/MKP-X. However, unlike DUSP6/MKP-3, DUSP9/MKP-4 also inactivates the p38α MAP kinase both in vitro and in vivo. Here we demonstrate that inactivation of both ERK1/2 and p38α by DUSP9/MKP-4 is mediated by a conserved arginine-rich kinase interaction motif located within the amino-terminal non-catalytic domain of the protein. Furthermore, DUSP9/MKP-4 is unique among these cytoplasmic MKPs in containing a conserved PKA consensus phosphorylation site 55RRXSer-58 immediately adjacent to the kinase interaction motif. DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 by PKA in vitro, and phosphorylation abrogates the binding of DUSP9/MKP-4 to both ERK2 and p38α MAP kinases. In addition, although mutation of Ser-58 to either alanine or glutamic acid does not affect the intrinsic catalytic activity of DUSP9/MKP-4, phospho-mimetic (Ser-58 to Glu) substitution inhibits both the interaction of DUSP9/MKP-4 with ERK2 and p38α in vivo and its ability to dephosphorylate and inactivate these MAP kinases. Finally, the use of a phospho-specific antibody demonstrates that endogenous DUSP9/MKP-4 is phosphorylated on Ser-58 in response to the PKA agonist forskolin and is also modified in placental tissue. We conclude that DUSP9/MKP-4 is a bona fide target of PKA signaling and that attenuation of DUSP9/MKP-4 function can mediate cross-talk between the PKA pathway and MAPK signaling through both ERK1/2 and p38α in vivo. PMID:21908610

  9. H2S- and NO-Signaling Pathways in Alzheimer's Amyloid Vasculopathy: Synergism or Antagonism?

    PubMed Central

    Salmina, Alla B.; Komleva, Yulia K.; Szijártó, István A.; Gorina, Yana V.; Lopatina, Olga L.; Gertsog, Galina E.; Filipovic, Milos R.; Gollasch, Maik

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's type of neurodegeneration dramatically affects H2S and NO synthesis and interactions in the brain, which results in dysregulated vasomotor function, brain tissue hypoperfusion and hypoxia, development of perivascular inflammation, promotion of Aβ deposition, and impairment of neurogenesis/angiogenesis. H2S- and NO-signaling pathways have been described to offer protection against Alzheimer's amyloid vasculopathy and neurodegeneration. This review describes recent developments of the increasing relevance of H2S and NO in Alzheimer's disease (AD). More studies are however needed to fully determine their potential use as therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's and other forms of vascular dementia. PMID:26696896

  10. Integration of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1-Mediated Stress Signaling with the Akt/Protein Kinase B-IκB Kinase Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Puckett, Mary C.; Goldman, Erinn H.; Cockrell, Lisa M.; Huang, Bei; Kasinski, Andrea L.; Du, Yuhong; Wang, Cun-Yu; Lin, Anning; Ichijo, Hidenori; Khuri, Fadlo

    2013-01-01

    Cellular processes are tightly controlled through well-coordinated signaling networks that respond to conflicting cues, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signals, and survival factors to ensure proper cell function. We report here a direct interaction between inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) and apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), unveiling a critical node at the junction of survival, inflammation, and stress signaling networks. IKK can be activated by growth factor stimulation or tumor necrosis factor alpha engagement. IKK forms a complex with and phosphorylates ASK1 at a sensor site, Ser967, leading to the recruitment of 14-3-3, counteracts stress signal-triggered ASK1 activation, and suppresses ASK1-mediated functions. An inhibitory role of IKK in JNK signaling has been previously reported to depend on NF-κB-mediated gene expression. Our data suggest that IKK has a dual role: a transcription-dependent and a transcription-independent action in controlling the ASK1-JNK axis, coupling IKK to ROS and ER stress response. Direct phosphorylation of ASK1 by IKK also defines a novel IKK phosphorylation motif. Because of the intimate involvement of ASK1 in diverse diseases, the IKK/ASK1 interface offers a promising target for therapeutic development. PMID:23530055

  11. Phosphoinositide kinase signaling controls ER-PM cross-talk

    PubMed Central

    Omnus, Deike J.; Manford, Andrew G.; Bader, Jakob M.; Emr, Scott D.; Stefan, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane lipid dynamics must be precisely regulated for normal cellular function, and disruptions in lipid homeostasis are linked to the progression of several diseases. However, little is known about the sensory mechanisms for detecting membrane composition and how lipid metabolism is regulated in response to membrane stress. We find that phosphoinositide (PI) kinase signaling controls a conserved PDK-TORC2-Akt signaling cascade as part of a homeostasis network that allows the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to modulate essential responses, including Ca2+-regulated lipid biogenesis, upon plasma membrane (PM) stress. Furthermore, loss of ER-PM junctions impairs this protective response, leading to PM integrity defects upon heat stress. Thus PI kinase–mediated ER-PM cross-talk comprises a regulatory system that ensures cellular integrity under membrane stress conditions. PMID:26864629

  12. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases modulate capacitation of human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Luconi, M; Barni, T; Vannelli, G B; Krausz, C; Marra, F; Benedetti, P A; Evangelista, V; Francavilla, S; Properzi, G; Forti, G; Baldi, E

    1998-06-01

    Recent evidence indicates the presence of p21 Ras and of a protein with characteristics similar to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), in mammalian spermatozoa, suggesting the occurrence of the Ras/ERK cascade in these cells. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization of ERKs and their biological functions in human spermatozoa. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated localization of ERKs in the postacrosomal region of spermatozoa. After stimulation of acrosome reaction with the calcium ionophore A23187 and progesterone, ERKs were mostly localized at the level of the equatorial region, indicating redistribution of these proteins in acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. Two proteins of 42 and 44 kDa that are tyrosine phosphorylated in a time-dependent manner during in vitro capacitation were identified as p42 (ERK-2) and p44 (ERK-1) by means of specific antibodies. The increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins during capacitation was accompanied by increased kinase activity, as determined by the ability of ERK-1 and ERK-2 to phosphorylate the substrate myelin basic protein. The role of this activity in the occurrence of sperm capacitation was also investigated by using PD098059, an inhibitor of the MAPK cascade. The presence of this compound during in vitro capacitation inhibits ERK activation and significantly reduces the ability of spermatozoa to undergo the acrosome reaction in response to progesterone. Since only capacitated spermatozoa are able to respond to progesterone, these data strongly indicate that ERKs are involved in the regulation of capacitation. In summary, our data demonstrate the presence of functional ERKs in human spermatozoa and indicate that these enzymes are involved in activation of these cells during capacitation, providing new insight in clarifying the molecular mechanisms and the

  13. A Genomic Mechanism for Antagonism Between Retinoic Acid and Estrogen Signaling in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Sujun; Kittler, Ralf; White, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Retinoic acid (RA) triggers growth-suppressive effects in tumor cells and therefore RA has and its synthetic analogs have great potential as anti-carcinogenic agent. RA effects are mediated by Retinoic Acid Receptors (RARs), which regulate gene expression in an RA-dependent manner. To define the genetic network regulated by RARs in breast cancer, we identified RAR genomic targets using chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression analysis. We found that RAR binding throughout the genome is highly co-incident with estrogen receptor α (ERα) binding, and identified a widespread crosstalk of RA and estrogen signaling to antagonistically regulate breast cancer-associated genes. ERα and RAR binding sites appear to be co-evolved on a large scale throughout the human genome, allowing for competitive binding between these transcription factors via nearby or overlapping cis-regulatory elements. Together these data indicate the existence of a highly coordinated intersection between these two critical nuclear hormone receptor signaling pathways providing a global mechanism for balancing gene expression output via local regulatory interactions dispersed throughout the genome. PMID:19563758

  14. Protein kinase A activity and Hedgehog signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Tomoya

    2012-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) is a well-known kinase that plays fundamental roles in a variety of biological processes. In Hedgehog-responsive cells, PKA plays key roles in proliferation and fate specification by modulating the transduction of Hedgehog signaling. In the absence of Hedgehog, a basal level of PKA activity represses the transcription of Hedgehog target genes. The main substrates of PKA in this process are the Ci/Gli family of bipotential transcription factors, which activate and repress Hedgehog target gene expression. PKA phosphorylates Ci/Gli, promoting the production of the repressor forms of Ci/Gli and thus repressing Hedgehog target gene expression. In contrast, the activation of Hedgehog signaling in response to Hedgehog increases the active forms of Ci/Gli, resulting in Hedgehog target gene expression. Because both decreased and increased levels of PKA activity cause abnormal cell proliferation and alter cell fate specification, the basal level of PKA activity in Hedgehog-responsive cells should be precisely regulated. However, the mechanism by which PKA activity is regulated remains obscure and appears to vary between cell types, tissues, and organisms. To date, two mechanisms have been proposed. One is a classical mechanism in which PKA activity is regulated by a small second messenger, cAMP; the other is a novel mechanism in which PKA activity is regulated by a protein, Misty somites. PMID:22391308

  15. Systematic identification of signal integration by protein kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, Marie; Diss, Guillaume; Dubé, Alexandre K.; Schraffl, Andrea; Bachmann, Verena A.; Gagnon-Arsenault, Isabelle; Chrétien, Andrée-Ève; Steunou, Anne-Lise; Dionne, Ugo; Bisson, Nicolas; Stefan, Eduard; Landry, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular processes and homeostasis control in eukaryotic cells is achieved by the action of regulatory proteins such as protein kinase A (PKA). Although the outbound signals from PKA directed to processes such as metabolism, growth, and aging have been well charted, what regulates this conserved regulator remains to be systematically identified to understand how it coordinates biological processes. Using a yeast PKA reporter assay, we identified genes that influence PKA activity by measuring protein–protein interactions between the regulatory and the two catalytic subunits of the PKA complex in 3,726 yeast genetic-deletion backgrounds grown on two carbon sources. Overall, nearly 500 genes were found to be connected directly or indirectly to PKA regulation, including 80 core regulators, denoting a wide diversity of signals regulating PKA, within and beyond the described upstream linear pathways. PKA regulators span multiple processes, including the antagonistic autophagy and methionine biosynthesis pathways. Our results converge toward mechanisms of PKA posttranslational regulation by lysine acetylation, which is conserved between yeast and humans and that, we show, regulates protein complex formation in mammals and carbohydrate storage and aging in yeast. Taken together, these results show that the extent of PKA input matches with its output, because this kinase receives information from upstream and downstream processes, and highlight how biological processes are interconnected and coordinated by PKA. PMID:25831502

  16. Corneal Wound Healing Requires IKB kinase β Signaling in Keratocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Mongan, Maureen; Meng, Qinghang; Wang, Qin; Kao, Winston; Xia, Ying

    2016-01-01

    IkB kinase β (IKKβ) is a key signaling kinase for inflammatory responses, but it also plays diverse cell type-specific roles that are not yet fully understood. Here we investigated the role of IKKβ in the cornea using IkkβΔCS mice in which the Ikkβ gene was specifically deleted in the corneal stromal keratocytes. The IkkβΔCS corneas had normal morphology, transparency and thickness; however, they did not heal well from mild alkali burn injury. In contrast to the IkkβF/F corneas that restored transparency in 2 weeks after injury, over 50% of the IkkβΔCS corneas failed to fully recover. They instead developed recurrent haze with increased stromal thickness, severe inflammation and apoptosis. This pathogenesis correlated with sustained myofibroblast transformation with increased α smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, higher levels of senescence β-Gal activity and scar tissue formation at the late stage of wound healing. In addition, the IkkβΔCS corneas displayed elevated expression of hemo-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a marker of oxidative stress, and activation of stress signaling pathways with increased JNK, c-Jun and SMAD2/3 phosphorylation. These data suggest that IKKβ in keratocytes is required to repress oxidative stress and attenuate fibrogenesis and senescence in corneal wound healing. PMID:26987064

  17. Fas activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway requires ICE/CED-3 family proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Juo, P; Kuo, C J; Reynolds, S E; Konz, R F; Raingeaud, J; Davis, R J; Biemann, H P; Blenis, J

    1997-01-01

    The Fas receptor mediates a signalling cascade resulting in programmed cell death (apoptosis) within hours of receptor cross-linking. In this study Fas activated the stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases, p38 and JNK, within 2 h in Jurkat T lymphocytes but not the mitogen-responsive kinase ERK1 or pp70S6k. Fas activation of p38 correlated temporally with the onset of apoptosis, and transfection of constitutively active MKK3 (glu), an upstream regulator of p38, potentiated Fas-induced cell death, suggesting a potential involvement of the MKK3/p38 activation pathway in Fas-mediated apoptosis. Fas has been shown to require ICE (interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme) family proteases to induce apoptosis from studies utilizing the cowpox ICE inhibitor protein CrmA, the synthetic tetrapeptide ICE inhibitor YVAD-CMK, and the tripeptide pan-ICE inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. In this study, crmA antagonized, and YVAD-CMK and Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited, Fas activation of p38 kinase activity, demonstrating that Fas-dependent activation of p38 requires ICE/CED-3 family members and conversely that the MKK3/p38 activation cascade represents a downstream target for the ICE/CED-3 family proteases. Intriguingly, p38 activation by sorbitol and etoposide was resistant to YVAD-CMK and Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting the existence of an additional mechanism(s) of p38 regulation. The ICE/CED-3 family-p38 regulatory relationship described in the current work indicates that in addition to the previously described destructive cleavage of substrates such as poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, lamins, and topoisomerase, the apoptotic cysteine proteases also function to regulate stress kinase signalling cascades. PMID:8972182

  18. Protein kinase B/Akt: a nexus of growth factor and cytokine signaling in determining muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Frost, Robert A; Lang, Charles H

    2007-07-01

    Although the boundaries of skeletal muscle size are fundamentally determined by genetics, this dynamic tissue also demonstrates great plasticity in response to environmental and hormonal factors. Recent work indicates that contractile activity, nutrients, growth factors, and cytokines all contribute to determining muscle mass. Muscle responds not only to endocrine hormones but also to the autocrine production of growth factors and cytokines. Skeletal muscle synthesizes anabolic growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and potentially inhibitory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and myostatin. These self-regulating inputs in turn influence muscle metabolism, including the use of nutrients such as glucose and amino acids. These changes are principally achieved by altering the activity of the protein kinase known as protein kinase B or Akt. Akt plays a central role in integrating anabolic and catabolic responses by transducing growth factor and cytokine signals via changes in the phosphorylation of its numerous substrates. Activation of Akt stimulates muscle hypertrophy and antagonizes the loss of muscle protein. Here we review the many signals that funnel through Akt to alter muscle mass. PMID:17332274

  19. Casein kinase 2 dependent phosphorylation of neprilysin regulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling to Akt.

    PubMed

    Siepmann, Martin; Kumar, Sathish; Mayer, Günter; Walter, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Neprilysin (NEP) is a type II membrane metalloproteinase that cleaves physiologically active peptides at the cell surface thus regulating the local concentration of these peptides available for receptor binding and signal transduction. In addition, the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of NEP interacts with the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) thereby regulating intracellular signaling via Akt. Thus, NEP serves dual functions in extracellular and intracellular signal transduction. Here, we show that NEP undergoes phosphorylation at serine residue 6 within the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. In vitro and cell culture experiments demonstrate that Ser 6 is efficiently phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2. The phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domain of NEP inhibits its interaction with PTEN. Interestingly, expression of a pseudophosphorylated NEP variant (Ser6Asp) abrogates the inhibitory effect of NEP on insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) stimulated activation of Akt. Thus, our data demonstrate a regulatory role of CK2 in the interaction of NEP with PTEN and insulin/IGF-1 signaling. PMID:20957047

  20. Follicle-stimulating Hormone Activates Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase but Not Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Kinase through a 100-kDa Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Cottom, Joshua; Salvador, Lisa M.; Maizels, Evelyn T.; Reierstad, Scott; Park, Youngkyu; Carr, Daniel W.; Davare, Monika A.; Hell, Johannes W.; Palmer, Stephen S.; Dent, Paul; Kawakatsu, Hisaaki; Ogata, Masato; Hunzicker-Dunn, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this report we sought to elucidate the mechanism by which the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor signals to promote activation of the p42/p44 extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) in granulosa cells. Results show that the ERK kinase MEK and upstream intermediates Raf-1, Ras, Src, and L-type Ca2+ channels are already partially activated in vehicle-treated cells and that FSH does not further activate them. This tonic stimulatory pathway appears to be restrained at the level of ERK by a 100-kDa phosphotyrosine phosphatase that associates with ERK in vehicle-treated cells and promotes dephosphorylation of its regulatory Tyr residue, resulting in ERK inactivation. FSH promotes the phosphorylation of this phosphotyrosine phosphatase and its dissociation from ERK, relieving ERK from inhibition and resulting in its activation by the tonic stimulatory pathway and consequent translocation to the nucleus. Consistent with this premise, FSH-stimulated ERK activation is inhibited by the cell-permeable protein kinase A-specific inhibitor peptide Myr-PKI as well as by inhibitors of MEK, Src, a Ca2+ channel blocker, and chelation of extracellular Ca2+. These results suggest that FSH stimulates ERK activity in immature granulosa cells by relieving an inhibition imposed by a 100-kDa phosphotyrosine phosphatase. PMID:12493768

  1. Tunable Signal Processing through a Kinase Control Cycle: the IKK Signaling Node

    PubMed Central

    Behar, Marcelo; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The transcription factor NFκB, a key component of the immune system, shows intricate stimulus-specific temporal dynamics. Those dynamics are thought to play a role in controlling the physiological response to cytokines and pathogens. Biochemical evidence suggests that the NFκB inducing kinase, IKK, a signaling hub onto which many signaling pathways converge, is regulated via a regulatory cycle comprising a poised, an active, and an inactive state. We hypothesize that it operates as a modulator of signal dynamics, actively reshaping the signals generated at the receptor proximal level. Here we show that a regulatory cycle can function in at least three dynamical regimes, tunable by regulating a single kinetic parameter. In particular, the simplest three-state regulatory cycle can generate signals with two well-defined phases, each with distinct coding capabilities in terms of the information they can carry about the stimulus. We also demonstrate that such a kinase cycle can function as a signal categorizer classifying diverse incoming signals into outputs with a limited set of temporal activity profiles. Finally, we discuss the extension of the results to other regulatory motifs that could be understood in terms of the regimes of the three-state cycle. PMID:23823243

  2. Brassinosteroid regulated kinases (BRKs) that mediate brassinosteroid signal transduction and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhi-Yong; Tang, Wenqiang

    2013-09-24

    The present invention identifies a novel family of kinases regulated by brassinosteroids, referred to as BRKs (brassinosteroid regulated kinases) or BSKs (brassinosteroid signaling kinases). The present invention provides methods for modulating the response of a plant cell to a brassinosteroid using BRKs.

  3. Evolutionary Adaptations of Plant AGC Kinases: From Light Signaling to Cell Polarity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rademacher, Eike H.; Offringa, Remko

    2012-01-01

    Signaling and trafficking over membranes involves a plethora of transmembrane proteins that control the flow of compounds or relay specific signaling events. Next to external cues, internal stimuli can modify the activity or abundance of these proteins at the plasma membrane (PM). One such regulatory mechanism is protein phosphorylation by membrane-associated kinases, several of which are AGC kinases. The AGC kinase family is one of seven kinase families that are conserved in all eukaryotic genomes. In plants evolutionary adaptations introduced specific structural changes within the AGC kinases that most likely allow modulation of kinase activity by external stimuli (e.g., light). Starting from the well-defined structural basis common to all AGC kinases we review the current knowledge on the structure-function relationship in plant AGC kinases. Nine of the 39 Arabidopsis AGC kinases have now been shown to be involved in the regulation of auxin transport. In particular, AGC kinase-mediated phosphorylation of the auxin transporters ABCB1 and ABCB19 has been shown to regulate their activity, while auxin transporters of the PIN family are located to different positions at the PM depending on their phosphorylation status, which is a result of counteracting AGC kinase and PP6 phosphatase activities. We therefore focus on regulation of AGC kinase activity in this context. Identified structural adaptations of the involved AGC kinases may provide new insight into AGC kinase functionality and demonstrate their position as central hubs in the cellular network controlling plant development and growth. PMID:23162562

  4. Centrosome-Kinase Fusions Promote Oncogenic Signaling and Disrupt Centrosome Function in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joanna Y.; Hong, Wan-Jen; Majeti, Ravindra; Stearns, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations observed in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) frequently fuse genes that encode centrosome proteins and tyrosine kinases. This causes constitutive activation of the kinase resulting in aberrant, proliferative signaling. The function of centrosome proteins in these fusions is not well understood. Among others, kinase centrosome localization and constitutive kinase dimerization are possible consequences of centrosome protein-kinase fusions. To test the relative contributions of localization and dimerization on kinase signaling, we targeted inducibly dimerizable FGFR1 to the centrosome and other subcellular locations and generated a mutant of the FOP-FGFR1 MPN fusion defective in centrosome localization. Expression in mammalian cells followed by western blot analysis revealed a significant decrease in kinase signaling upon loss of FOP-FGFR1 centrosome localization. Kinase dimerization alone resulted in phosphorylation of the FGFR1 signaling target PLCγ, however levels comparable to FOP-FGFR1 required subcellular targeting in addition to kinase dimerization. Expression of MPN fusion proteins also resulted in centrosome disruption in epithelial cells and transformed patient cells. Primary human MPN cells showed masses of modified tubulin that colocalized with centrin, Smoothened (Smo), IFT88, and Arl13b. This is distinct from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, which are not associated with centrosome-kinase fusions and had normal centrosomes. Our results suggest that effective proliferative MPN signaling requires both subcellular localization and dimerization of MPN kinases, both of which may be provided by centrosome protein fusion partners. Furthermore, centrosome disruption may contribute to the MPN transformation phenotype. PMID:24658090

  5. Kinase Signaling in Apoptosis Induced by Saturated Fatty Acids in Pancreatic β-Cells.

    PubMed

    Šrámek, Jan; Němcová-Fürstová, Vlasta; Kovář, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic β-cell failure and death is considered to be one of the main factors responsible for type 2 diabetes. It is caused by, in addition to hyperglycemia, chronic exposure to increased concentrations of fatty acids, mainly saturated fatty acids. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in β-cells are not completely clear. It has been proposed that kinase signaling could be involved, particularly, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase C (PKC), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and Akt kinases and their pathways. In this review, we discuss these kinases and their signaling pathways with respect to their possible role in apoptosis induction by saturated fatty acids in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:27626409

  6. Antagonism of Stem Cell Factor/c-kit Signaling Attenuates Neonatal Chronic Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karen C; Torres, Eneida; Hehre, Dorothy; Wu, Shu; Suguihara, Cleide; Hare, Joshua M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence suggests that c-kit positive cells are present in the remodeled pulmonary vasculature bed of patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Whether stem cell factor (SCF)/ c-kit regulated pathways potentiate pulmonary vascular remodeling is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that attenuated c-kit signaling would decrease chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling by decreasing pulmonary vascular cell mitogenesis. Methods Neonatal FVB/NJ mice treated with non-immune IgG (PL), or c-kit neutralizing antibody (ACK2) as well as c-kit mutant mice (WBB6F1- Kit W− v/ +) and their congenic controls, were exposed to normoxia (FiO2=0.21) or hypoxia (FiO2=0.12) for two weeks. Following this exposure, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling were evaluated. Results As compared to chronically hypoxic controls, c-kit mutant mice had decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular remodeling and proliferation. Consistent with these findings, administration of ACK2 to neonatal mice with chronic hypoxia-induced PH decreased RVSP, RVH, pulmonary vascular cell proliferation and remodeling. This attenuation in PH was accompanied by decreased extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Conclusion SCF/c-kit signaling may potentiate chronic hypoxia-induced vascular remodeling by modulating ERK activation. Inhibition of c-kit activity may be a potential strategy to alleviate PH. PMID:26705118

  7. FGFR1 signaling stimulates proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells by inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21(Waf1) and p27(Kip1).

    PubMed

    Dombrowski, Christian; Helledie, Torben; Ling, Ling; Grünert, Martin; Canning, Claire A; Jones, C Michael; Hui, James H; Nurcombe, Victor; van Wijnen, Andre J; Cool, Simon M

    2013-12-01

    Signaling through fibroblast growth factor receptor one (FGFR1) is a known inducer of proliferation in both embryonic and human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and positively regulates maintenance of stem cell viability. Leveraging the mitogenic potential of FGF2/FGFR1 signaling in stem cells for therapeutic applications necessitates a mechanistic understanding of how this receptor stimulates cell cycle progression. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion, antibody-inhibition, and small molecule inhibition, we establish that FGFR1 activity is rate limiting for self-renewal of hMSCs. We show that FGFR1 promotes stem cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms that unite to antagonize cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors. FGFR1 not only stimulates c-Myc to suppress transcription of the CDK inhibitors p21(Waf1) and p27(Kip1), thus promoting cell cycle progression but also increases the activity of protein kinase B (AKT) and the level of S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2), resulting in the nuclear exclusion and reduction of p21(Waf1). The in vivo importance of FGFR1 signaling for the control of proliferation in mesenchymal progenitor populations is underscored by defects in ventral mesoderm formation during development upon inhibition of its signaling. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that FGFR1 signaling mediates the continuation of MSC growth and establishes a receptor target for enhancing the expansion of mesenchymal progenitors while maintaining their multilineage potential. PMID:23939995

  8. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 mediates signals triggered by the novel tumor promoter palytoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Charlson, Aaron T.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2009-12-01

    Palytoxin is classified as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type skin tumor because it does not bind to or activate protein kinase C. Palytoxin is thus a novel tool for investigating alternative signaling pathways that may affect carcinogenesis. We previously showed that palytoxin activates three major members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Here we report that palytoxin also activates another MAPK family member, called ERK5, in HeLa cells and in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). By contrast, TPA does not activate ERK5 in these cell lines. The major cell surface receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Accordingly, ouabain blocked the ability of palytoxin to activate ERK5. Ouabain alone did not activate ERK5. ERK5 thus represents a divergence in the signaling pathways activated by these two agents that bind to the Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide, okadaic acid, and sodium orthovanadate did not mimic the effect of palytoxin on ERK5. These results indicate that the stimulation of ERK5 by palytoxin is not simply due to inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of serine/threonine or tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, the mechanism by which palytoxin activates ERK5 differs from that by which it activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Finally, studies that used pharmacological inhibitors and shRNA to block ERK5 action indicate that ERK5 contributes to palytoxin-stimulated c-Fos gene expression. These results suggest that ERK5 can act as an alternative mediator for transmitting diverse tumor promoter-stimulated signals.

  9. IL-1 signaling modulates STAT activation to antagonize retinoic acid signaling and control Th17–iTreg balance

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Rajatava; Whitley, Sarah K.; Bhaumik, Suniti; Zindl, Carlene L.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Benveniste, Etty N.; Pear, Warren S.; Hatton, Robin D.; Weaver, Casey T.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing helper (TH17) and inducible regulatory CD4+ T (iTreg) cells emerge from an overlapping developmental program. In the intestines, the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) is produced at steady state and acts as an important cofactor to induce iTreg cell development while potently inhibiting TH17 development. Here, we found that IL-1 was required to fully override RA-mediated Foxp3 expression and induce protective TH17 responses. Through induction of an NF-κB-dependent repression of SOCS3 expression, IL-1 increased the amplitude and duration of STAT3 phosphorylation induced by TH17-polarizing cytokines, leading to an altered balance of STAT3–STAT5 binding to shared consensus sequences in developing T cells. Thus, IL-1 signaling differentially modulated STAT activation downstream of cytokine receptors to control TH17–iTreg developmental fate. PMID:25642823

  10. Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2-RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Alexa, Anita; Gógl, Gergő; Glatz, Gábor; Garai, Ágnes; Zeke, András; Varga, János; Dudás, Erika; Jeszenői, Norbert; Bodor, Andrea; Hetényi, Csaba; Reményi, Attila

    2015-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase-kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK→MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 "docking" groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they "readjust," whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state. PMID:25730857

  11. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor: A Novel Inhibitor of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1-p38-Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Dependent Cigarette Smoke-Induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fallica, Jonathan; Varela, Lidenys; Johnston, Laura; Kim, Bo; Serebreni, Leonid; Wang, Lan; Damarla, Mahendra; Kolb, Todd M; Hassoun, Paul M; Damico, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is the leading cause of emphysema. CS mediates pathologic emphysematous remodeling of the lung via apoptosis of lung parenchymal cells resulting in enlargement of the airspaces, loss of the capillary bed, and diminished surface area for gas exchange. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a pleiotropic cytokine, is reduced both in a preclinical model of CS-induced emphysema and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particularly those with the most severe disease and emphysematous phenotype. MIF functions to antagonize CS-induced DNA damage, p53-dependent apoptosis of pulmonary endothelial cells (EndoCs) and resultant emphysematous tissue remodeling. Using primary alveolar EndoCs and a mouse model of CS-induced lung damage, we investigated the capacity and molecular mechanism(s) by which MIF modifies oxidant injury. Here, we demonstrate that both the activity of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a superoxide-generating enzyme obligatory for CS-induced DNA damage and EndoC apoptosis, and superoxide concentrations are increased after CS exposure in the absence of MIF. Both XOR hyperactivation and apoptosis in the absence of MIF occurred via a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase family member, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), was necessary for CS-induced p38 activation and EndoC apoptosis. MIF was sufficient to directly suppress ASK1 enzymatic activity. Taken together, MIF suppresses CS-mediated cytotoxicity in the lung, in part by antagonizing ASK1-p38-XOR-dependent apoptosis. PMID:26390063

  12. Targeting B-cell receptor signaling kinases in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: the promise of entospletinib

    PubMed Central

    Sharman, Jeff; Di Paolo, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The B-cell receptor signaling pathway has emerged as an important therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies. Novel agents have been developed targeting the signaling enzymes spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Bruton’s tyrosine kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta. This review discusses the rationale for targeting these enzymes, as well as the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting their role as therapeutic targets, with a particular focus on SYK inhibition with entospletinib. PMID:27247756

  13. Targeting B-cell receptor signaling kinases in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: the promise of entospletinib.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Jeff; Di Paolo, Julie

    2016-06-01

    The B-cell receptor signaling pathway has emerged as an important therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and other B-cell malignancies. Novel agents have been developed targeting the signaling enzymes spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), Bruton's tyrosine kinase, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta. This review discusses the rationale for targeting these enzymes, as well as the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting their role as therapeutic targets, with a particular focus on SYK inhibition with entospletinib. PMID:27247756

  14. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases in pain of peripheral origin.

    PubMed

    White, John P M; Cibelli, Mario; Fidalgo, Antonio Rei; Nagy, Istvan

    2011-01-10

    Activation of members of the family of enzymes known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) is now known to be involved in the development and/or maintenance of the pain associated with many inflammatory conditions, such as herniated spinal disc pain, chronic inflammatory articular pain, and the pain associated with bladder inflammation. Moreover, ERKs are implicated in the development of neuropathic pain signs in animals which are subjected to the lumbar 5 spinal nerve ligation model and the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain. The position has now been reached where all scientists working on pain subjects ought to be aware of the importance of ERKs, if only because certain of these enzymes are increasingly employed as experimental markers of nociceptive processing. Here, we introduce the reader, first, to the intracellular context in which these enzymes function. Thereafter, we consider the involvement of ERKs in mediating nociceptive signalling to the brain resulting from noxious stimuli at the periphery which will be interpreted by the brain as pain of peripheral origin. PMID:20950608

  15. Regulation of Endothelial Permeability by Src Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guochang; Place, Aaron T.; Minshall, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    An important function of the endothelium is to regulate the transport of liquid and solutes across the semi-permeable vascular endothelial barrier. Two cellular pathways have been identified controlling endothelial barrier function. The normally restrictive paracellular pathway, which can become “leaky” during inflammation when gaps are induced between endothelial cells at the level of adherens and tight junctional complexes, and the transcellular pathway, which transports plasma proteins the size of albumin via transcytosis in vesicle carriers originating from cell surface caveolae. During non-inflammatory conditions, caveolae-mediated transport may be the primary mechanism of vascular permeability regulation of fluid phase molecules as well as lipids, hormones, and peptides that bind avidly to albumin. Src family protein tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the upstream signaling pathways that lead to endothelial hyperpermeability through both the paracellular and transcellular pathways. Endothelial barrier dysfunction not only affects vascular homeostasis and cell metabolism, but also governs drug delivery to underlying cells and tissues. In this review of the field, we discuss the current understanding of Src signaling in regulating paracellular and transcellular endothelial permeability pathways and effects on endogenous macromolecule and drug delivery. PMID:17897637

  16. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 in Wnt signaling pathway and cancer.

    PubMed

    Tejeda-Muñoz, Nydia; Robles-Flores, Martha

    2015-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) was first discovered in 1980 as one of the key enzymes of glycogen metabolism. Since then, GSK-3 has been revealed as one of the master regulators of a diverse range of signaling pathways, including those activated by Wnts, participating in the regulation of numerous cellular functions, suggesting that its activity is tightly regulated. Numerous studies have pointed to an association of GSK-3 dysregulation with the onset and progression of human diseases, including diabetes mellitus, obesity, inflammation, neurological illnesses, and cancer. Therefore, GSK-3 is recognized as an attractive therapeutic target in multiple disorders. However, the great number of substrates that are phosphorylated by GSK-3 has raised the question of whether this limits its feasibility as a therapeutic target because of the potential disruption of many cellular processes and also by the fear that inhibition of GSK-3 may stimulate or aid in malignant transformation, as GSK-3 can phosphorylate pro-oncogenic factors. This mini review focuses on the role played by GSK-3 in Wnt signaling pathway and cancer using as model colon cancer. PMID:26600003

  17. Interaction of LRRK2 with kinase and GTPase signaling cascades

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Joon Y.; Dusonchet, Julien; Trengrove, Chelsea; Wolozin, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    LRRK2 is a protein that interacts with a plethora of signaling molecules, but the complexity of LRRK2 function presents a challenge for understanding the role of LRRK2 in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Studies of LRRK2 using over-expression in transgenic mice have been disappointing, however, studies using invertebrate systems have yielded a much clearer picture, with clear effects of LRRK2 expression, knockdown or deletion in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila on modulation of survival of dopaminergic neurons. Recent studies have begun to focus attention on particular signaling cascades that are a target of LRRK2 function. LRRK2 interacts with members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and might regulate the pathway action by acting as a scaffold that directs the location of MAPK pathway activity, without strongly affecting the amount of MAPK pathway activity. Binding to GTPases, GTPase-activating proteins and GTPase exchange factors are another strong theme in LRRK2 biology, with LRRK2 binding to rac1, cdc42, rab5, rab7L1, endoA, RGS2, ArfGAP1, and ArhGEF7. All of these molecules appear to feed into a function output for LRRK2 that modulates cytoskeletal outgrowth and vesicular dynamics, including autophagy. These functions likely impact modulation of α-synuclein aggregation and associated toxicity eliciting the disease processes that we term PD. PMID:25071441

  18. Activity-Based Probe for Histidine Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wilke, Kaelyn E.; Francis, Samson; Carlson, Erin E.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial two-component systems (TCSs) are signaling pathways composed of two proteins, a histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). Upon stimulation, the HK autophosphorylates at a conserved histidine. The phosphoryl group is subsequently transferred to an aspartate on a RR, eliciting an adaptive response, often up- or downregulation of gene expression. TCS signaling controls many functions in bacteria including development, virulence and antibiotic resistance, making the proteins involved in these systems potential therapeutic targets. Efficient methods for the profiling of HKs are currently lacking. For direct readout of HK activity, we sought to design a probe that enables detection of the phosphotransfer event; however, analysis of the phosphohistidine species is made difficult by the instability of the P-N bond. We anticipated that use of a γ-thiophosphorylated ATP analog, which would yield a thiophosphorylated histidine intermediate, could overcome this challenge. We determined that the fluorophore-conjugated probe, ATPγS-BODIPY, labels active HK proteins and is competitive for the ATP-binding site. This activity-based probe provides a new strategy for analysis of TCSs and other HK-mediated processes and will facilitate both functional studies and inhibitor identification. PMID:22606938

  19. Structural assembly of the signaling competent ERK2–RSK1 heterodimeric protein kinase complex

    PubMed Central

    Alexa, Anita; Gógl, Gergő; Glatz, Gábor; Garai, Ágnes; Zeke, András; Varga, János; Dudás, Erika; Jeszenői, Norbert; Bodor, Andrea; Hetényi, Csaba; Reményi, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) bind and activate their downstream kinase substrates, MAPK-activated protein kinases (MAPKAPKs). Notably, extracellular signal regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) phosphorylates ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (RSK1), which promotes cellular growth. Here, we determined the crystal structure of an RSK1 construct in complex with its activator kinase. The structure captures the kinase–kinase complex in a precatalytic state where the activation loop of the downstream kinase (RSK1) faces the enzyme's (ERK2) catalytic site. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to show how this heterodimer could shift into a signaling-competent state. This structural analysis combined with biochemical and cellular studies on MAPK→MAPKAPK signaling showed that the interaction between the MAPK binding linear motif (residing in a disordered kinase domain extension) and the ERK2 “docking” groove plays the major role in making an encounter complex. This interaction holds kinase domains proximal as they “readjust,” whereas generic kinase domain surface contacts bring them into a catalytically competent state. PMID:25730857

  20. Myogenic signaling of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase requires the serine-threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bing-Hua; Aoki, Masahiro; Zheng, Jenny Z.; Li, Jian; Vogt, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    The oncogene p3k, coding for a constitutively active form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), strongly activates myogenic differentiation. Inhibition of endogenous PI 3-kinase activity with the specific inhibitor LY294002, or with dominant-negative mutants of PI 3-kinase, interferes with myotube formation and with the expression of muscle-specific proteins. Here we demonstrate that a downstream target of PI 3-kinase, serine-threonine kinase Akt, plays an important role in myogenic differentiation. Expression of constitutively active forms of Akt dramatically enhances myotube formation and expression of the muscle-specific proteins MyoD, creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain, and desmin. Transdominant negative forms of Akt inhibit myotube formation and the expression of muscle-specific proteins. The inhibition of myotube formation and the reduced expression of muscle-specific proteins caused by the PI 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 are completely reversed by constitutively active forms of Akt. Wild-type cellular Akt effects a partial reversal of LY294002-induced inhibition of myogenic differentiation. This result suggests that Akt can substitute for PI 3-kinase in the stimulation of myogenesis; Akt may be an essential downstream component of PI 3-kinase-induced muscle differentiation. PMID:10051597

  1. Pre-LTP requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the ACC

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Manabu; Tian, Zhen; Darvish-Ghane, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase is an important protein kinase for cortical plasticity. Long-term potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex is believed to play important roles in chronic pain, fear, and anxiety. Previous studies of extracellular signal-regulated kinase are mainly focused on postsynaptic form of long-term potentiation (post-long-term potentiation). Little is known about the relationship between extracellular signal-regulated kinase and presynaptic long-term potentiation (pre-long-term potentiation) in cortical synapses. In this study, we examined whether pre-long-term potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex requires the activation of presynaptic extracellular signal-regulated kinase. We found that p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, suppressed the induction of pre-long-term potentiation. By contrast, these inhibitors did not affect the maintenance of pre-long-term potentiation. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we found that pre-long-term potentiation recorded for 1 h did not require transcriptional or translational processes. Our results strongly indicate that the activation of presynaptic extracellular signal-regulated kinase is required for the induction of pre-long-term potentiation, and this involvement may explain the contribution of extracellular signal-regulated kinase to mood disorders. PMID:27178245

  2. Pre-LTP requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the ACC.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Manabu; Tian, Zhen; Darvish-Ghane, Soroush; Zhuo, Min

    2016-02-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase is an important protein kinase for cortical plasticity. Long-term potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex is believed to play important roles in chronic pain, fear, and anxiety. Previous studies of extracellular signal-regulated kinase are mainly focused on postsynaptic form of long-term potentiation (post-long-term potentiation). Little is known about the relationship between extracellular signal-regulated kinase and presynaptic long-term potentiation (pre-long-term potentiation) in cortical synapses. In this study, we examined whether pre-long-term potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex requires the activation of presynaptic extracellular signal-regulated kinase. We found that p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, suppressed the induction of pre-long-term potentiation. By contrast, these inhibitors did not affect the maintenance of pre-long-term potentiation. Using pharmacological inhibitors, we found that pre-long-term potentiation recorded for 1 h did not require transcriptional or translational processes. Our results strongly indicate that the activation of presynaptic extracellular signal-regulated kinase is required for the induction of pre-long-term potentiation, and this involvement may explain the contribution of extracellular signal-regulated kinase to mood disorders. PMID:27178245

  3. Aurora A kinase activity influences calcium signaling in kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Plotnikova, Olga V; Pugacheva, Elena N; Golemis, Erica A

    2011-06-13

    Most studies of Aurora A (AurA) describe it as a mitotic centrosomal kinase. However, we and others have recently identified AurA functions as diverse as control of ciliary resorption, cell differentiation, and cell polarity control in interphase cells. In these activities, AurA is transiently activated by noncanonical signals, including Ca(2+)-dependent calmodulin binding. These and other observations suggested that AurA might be involved in pathological conditions, such as polycystic kidney disease (PKD). In this paper, we show that AurA is abundant in normal kidney tissue but is also abnormally expressed and activated in cells lining PKD-associated renal cysts. PKD arises from mutations in the PKD1 or PKD2 genes, encoding polycystins 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2). AurA binds, phosphorylates, and reduces the activity of PC2, a Ca(2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel and, thus, limits the amplitude of Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum. These and other findings suggest AurA may be a relevant new biomarker or target in the therapy of PKD. PMID:21670214

  4. Decorin Antagonizes the Angiogenic Network

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Thomas; Painter, Hannah; Buraschi, Simone; Owens, Rick T.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Schaefer, Liliana; Iozzo, Renato V.

    2012-01-01

    Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan, inhibits tumor growth by antagonizing multiple receptor tyrosine kinases including EGFR and Met. Here, we investigated decorin during normoxic angiogenic signaling. An angiogenic PCR array revealed a profound decorin-evoked transcriptional inhibition of pro-angiogenic genes, such as HIF1A. Decorin evoked a reduction of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) in MDA-231 breast carcinoma cells expressing constitutively-active HIF-1α. Suppression of Met with decorin or siRNA evoked a similar reduction of VEGFA by attenuating downstream β-catenin signaling. These data establish a noncanonical role for β-catenin in regulating VEGFA expression. We found that exogenous decorin induced expression of thrombospondin-1 and TIMP3, two powerful angiostatic agents. In contrast, decorin suppressed both the expression and enzymatic activity of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 and MMP-2, two pro-angiogenic proteases. Our data establish a novel duality for decorin as a suppressor of tumor angiogenesis under normoxia by simultaneously down-regulating potent pro-angiogenic factors and inducing endogenous anti-angiogenic agents. PMID:22194599

  5. Protein Kinase C and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Regulate Movement, Attachment, Pairing and Egg Release in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Ressurreição, Margarida; De Saram, Paulu; Kirk, Ruth S.; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M.; Page, Nigel M.; Davies, Angela J.; Walker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinases C (PKCs) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are evolutionary conserved cell signalling enzymes that coordinate cell function. Here we have employed biochemical approaches using ‘smart’ antibodies and functional screening to unravel the importance of these enzymes to Schistosoma mansoni physiology. Various PKC and ERK isotypes were detected, and were differentially phosphorylated (activated) throughout the various S. mansoni life stages, suggesting isotype-specific roles and differences in signalling complexity during parasite development. Functional kinase mapping in adult worms revealed that activated PKC and ERK were particularly associated with the adult male tegument, musculature and oesophagus and occasionally with the oesophageal gland; other structures possessing detectable activated PKC and/or ERK included the Mehlis' gland, ootype, lumen of the vitellaria, seminal receptacle and excretory ducts. Pharmacological modulation of PKC and ERK activity in adult worms using GF109203X, U0126, or PMA, resulted in significant physiological disturbance commensurate with these proteins occupying a central position in signalling pathways associated with schistosome muscular activity, neuromuscular coordination, reproductive function, attachment and pairing. Increased activation of ERK and PKC was also detected in worms following praziquantel treatment, with increased signalling associated with the tegument and excretory system and activated ERK localizing to previously unseen structures, including the cephalic ganglia. These findings support roles for PKC and ERK in S. mansoni homeostasis, and identify these kinase groups as potential targets for chemotherapeutic treatments against human schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease of enormous public health significance. PMID:24921927

  6. Mechanisms of Ephrin Receptor Protein Kinase-Independent Signaling in Amphid Axon Guidance in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Emily N.; Giurumescu, Claudiu A.; Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Eph receptors and their ephrin ligands are key conserved regulators of axon guidance and can function in a variety of signaling modes. Here we analyze the genetic and cellular requirements for Eph signaling in a Caenorhabditis elegans axon guidance choice point, the ventral guidance of axons in the amphid commissure. The C. elegans Eph receptor EFN-1 has both kinase-dependent and kinase-independent roles in amphid ventral guidance. Of the four C. elegans ephrins, we find that only EFN-1 has a major role in amphid axon ventral guidance, and signals in both a receptor kinase-dependent and kinase-independent manner. Analysis of EFN-1 and EFN-1 expression and tissue-specific requirements is consistent with a model in which VAB-1 acts in amphid neurons, interacting with EFN-1 expressed on surrounding cells. Unexpectedly, left-hand neurons are more strongly affected than right-hand neurons by loss of Eph signaling, indicating a previously undetected left–right asymmetry in the requirement for Eph signaling. By screening candidate genes involved in Eph signaling, we find that the Eph kinase-independent pathway involves the ABL-1 nonreceptor tyrosine kinase and possibly the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Overexpression of ABL-1 is sufficient to rescue EFN-1 ventral guidance defects cell autonomously. Our results reveal new aspects of Eph signaling in a single axon guidance decision in vivo. PMID:23979582

  7. Targeting Bruton's tyrosine kinase signaling as an emerging therapeutic agent of B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    XIA, BING; QU, FULIAN; YUAN, TIAN; ZHANG, YIZHUO

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is central to the development and function of B cells. BCR signaling has emerged as a pivotal pathway and a key driver of numerous B-cell lymphomas. Disruption of BCR signaling can be lethal to malignant B cells. Recently, kinase inhibitors that target BCR signaling have induced notable clinical responses. These inhibitors include spleen tyrosine kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, phosphoinositide 3′-kinase and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). Ibrutinib, an oral irreversible BTK inhibitor, has emerged as a promising targeted therapy for patients with B-cell malignancies. The present review discusses the current understanding of BTK-mediated BCR signaling in the biology and pathobiology of normal and malignant B cells, and the cellular interaction with the tumor microenvironment. The data on ibrutinib in the preclinical and clinical settings is also discussed, and perspectives for the future use of ibrutinib are outlined. PMID:26788133

  8. Plant Raf-like kinase integrates abscisic acid and hyperosmotic stress signaling upstream of SNF1-related protein kinase2.

    PubMed

    Saruhashi, Masashi; Kumar Ghosh, Totan; Arai, Kenta; Ishizaki, Yumiko; Hagiwara, Kazuya; Komatsu, Kenji; Shiwa, Yuh; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Umezawa, Taishi; Sakata, Yoichi; Takezawa, Daisuke

    2015-11-17

    Plant response to drought and hyperosmosis is mediated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), a sesquiterpene compound widely distributed in various embryophyte groups. Exogenous ABA as well as hyperosmosis activates the sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2), which plays a central role in cellular responses against drought and dehydration, although the details of the activation mechanism are not understood. Analysis of a mutant of the moss Physcomitrella patens with reduced ABA sensitivity and reduced hyperosmosis tolerance revealed that a protein kinase designated "ARK" (for "ABA and abiotic stress-responsive Raf-like kinase") plays an essential role in the activation of SnRK2. ARK encoded by a single gene in P. patens belongs to the family of group B3 Raf-like MAP kinase kinase kinases (B3-MAPKKKs) mediating ethylene, disease resistance, and salt and sugar responses in angiosperms. Our findings indicate that ARK, as a novel regulatory component integrating ABA and hyperosmosis signals, represents the ancestral B3-MAPKKKs, which multiplied, diversified, and came to have specific functions in angiosperms. PMID:26540727

  9. Nuclear factor kappa B-inducing kinase and Ikappa B kinase-alpha signal skeletal muscle cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Canicio, J; Ruiz-Lozano, P; Carrasco, M; Palacin, M; Chien, K; Zorzano, A; Kaliman, P

    2001-06-01

    Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)-inducing kinase (NIK), IkappaB kinase (IKK)-alpha and -beta, and IkappaBalpha are common elements that signal NF-kappaB activation in response to diverse stimuli. In this study, we analyzed the role of this pathway during insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)-induced myoblast differentiation. L6E9 myoblasts differentiated with IGF-II showed an induction of NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity that correlated in time with the activation of IKKalpha, IKKbeta, and NIK. Moreover, the activation of IKKalpha, IKKbeta, and NIK by IGF-II was dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, a key regulator of myogenesis. Adenoviral transduction with the IkappaBalpha(S32A/S36A) mutant severely impaired both IGF-II-dependent NF-kappaB activation and myoblast differentiation, indicating that phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha at Ser-32 and Ser-36 is an essential myogenic step. Adenoviral transfer of wild-type or kinase-deficient forms of IKKalpha or IKKbeta revealed that IKKalpha is required for IGF-II-dependent myoblast differentiation, whereas IKKbeta is not essential for this process. Finally, overexpression of kinase-proficient wild-type NIK showed that the activation of NIK is sufficient to generate signals that trigger myogenin expression and multinucleated myotube formation in the absence of IGF-II. PMID:11279241

  10. Abl Kinases Regulate HGF/Met Signaling Required for Epithelial Cell Scattering, Tubulogenesis and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ran; Knight, Jennifer F.; Park, Morag; Pendergast, Ann Marie

    2015-01-01

    Tight regulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is crucial for normal development and homeostasis. Dysregulation of RTKs signaling is associated with diverse pathological conditions including cancer. The Met RTK is the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and is dysregulated in numerous human tumors. Here we show that Abl family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases, comprised of Abl (ABL1) and Arg (ABL2), are activated downstream of the Met receptor, and that inhibition of Abl kinases dramatically suppresses HGF-induced cell scattering and tubulogenesis. We uncover a critical role for Abl kinases in the regulation of HGF/Met-dependent RhoA activation and RhoA-mediated actomyosin contractility and actin cytoskeleton remodeling in epithelial cells. Moreover, treatment of breast cancer cells with Abl inhibitors markedly decreases Met-driven cell migration and invasion. Notably, expression of a transforming mutant of the Met receptor in the mouse mammary epithelium results in hyper-activation of both Abl and Arg kinases. Together these data demonstrate that Abl kinases link Met activation to Rho signaling and Abl kinases are required for Met-dependent cell scattering, tubulogenesis, migration, and invasion. Thus, inhibition of Abl kinases might be exploited for the treatment of cancers driven by hyperactivation of HGF/Met signaling. PMID:25946048

  11. WSKY, a traditional Chinese decoction, rescues cognitive impairment associated with NMDA receptor antagonism by enhancing BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Chen, Zheng-Hua; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Chun; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Ben-Hong; Yang, Can; Zhang, Xue-Ping; Xiao, Ling; Shu, Chang; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Gao-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Warm‑supplementing kidney yang (WSKY) is an herbal prescription that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for the treatment of psychiatric conditions. A previous study by our group found that WSKY significantly improved cognitive function of schizophrenia patients. In the present study, the effects of WSKY on cognitive function and their underlying mechanisms were investigated. WSKY was administered to an MK‑801‑induced rat model of chronic schizophrenia for 14 days. Memory performance was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) test. The expression of brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), activation of cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB/CREB) and activation of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (pERK/ERK) in the hippocampus was detected using western blot analysis. In the acquisition phase of the MWM test, the escape latency was significantly increased in the MK‑801‑treated group compared with the normal control group (P<0.01). Treatment with WSKY for 14 days at doses of 100 or 250 mg/kg rescued this cognitive impairment (P<0.05). In the probe test, 250 mg/kg WSKY treatment increased the time spent in the target quadrant (P<0.05) and number of platform crossings (P<0.01). Western blot analysis demonstrated that the levels of BDNF expression in the hippocampus of rats without behavioral tests were elevated following 14 days of WSKY treatment, and the effect of WSKY treatment on hippocampal BDNF expression was presented in an inverted U‑shaped dose‑response pattern. The pERK1/2 in the hippocampus was significantly enhanced following 100 mg/kg (P<0.01) and 250 mg/kg (P<0.01) WSKY treatment, while only 250 mg/kg WSKY increased the phosphorylation of CREB (P<0.01). The results of the present study indicated that WSKY enhances cognitive performance via the upregulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling, and that WSKY has potential therapeutic implications for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia. PMID:25503442

  12. Plant Raf-like kinase integrates abscisic acid and hyperosmotic stress signaling upstream of SNF1-related protein kinase2

    PubMed Central

    Saruhashi, Masashi; Kumar Ghosh, Totan; Arai, Kenta; Ishizaki, Yumiko; Hagiwara, Kazuya; Komatsu, Kenji; Shiwa, Yuh; Izumikawa, Keiichi; Yoshikawa, Harunori; Umezawa, Taishi; Sakata, Yoichi; Takezawa, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant response to drought and hyperosmosis is mediated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), a sesquiterpene compound widely distributed in various embryophyte groups. Exogenous ABA as well as hyperosmosis activates the sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2), which plays a central role in cellular responses against drought and dehydration, although the details of the activation mechanism are not understood. Analysis of a mutant of the moss Physcomitrella patens with reduced ABA sensitivity and reduced hyperosmosis tolerance revealed that a protein kinase designated “ARK” (for “ABA and abiotic stress-responsive Raf-like kinase”) plays an essential role in the activation of SnRK2. ARK encoded by a single gene in P. patens belongs to the family of group B3 Raf-like MAP kinase kinase kinases (B3-MAPKKKs) mediating ethylene, disease resistance, and salt and sugar responses in angiosperms. Our findings indicate that ARK, as a novel regulatory component integrating ABA and hyperosmosis signals, represents the ancestral B3-MAPKKKs, which multiplied, diversified, and came to have specific functions in angiosperms. PMID:26540727

  13. 2-Methoxystypandrone inhibits signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor-κB signaling by inhibiting Janus kinase 2 and IκB kinase.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shan; Qi, Chunting; Liu, Jiawei; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Qing; Sima, Zhenhua; Liu, Jingli; Li, Wuguo; Yu, Qiang

    2014-04-01

    Constitutive activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) or the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway occurs frequently in cancer cells and contributes to oncogenesis. The activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and IκB kinase (IKK) are key events in STAT3 and NF-κB signaling, respectively. We have identified 2-methoxystypandrone (2-MS) from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb Polygonum cuspidatum as a novel dual inhibitor of JAK2 and IKK. 2-MS inhibits both interleukin-6-induced and constitutively-activated STAT3, as well as tumor necrosis factor-α-induced NF-κB activation. 2-MS specifically inhibits JAK and IKKβ kinase activities but has little effect on activities of other kinases tested. The inhibitory effects of 2-MS on STAT3 and NF-κB signaling can be eliminated by DTT or glutathione and can last for 4 h after a pulse treatment. Furthermore, 2-MS inhibits growth and induces death of tumor cells, particularly those with constitutively-activated STAT3 or NF-κB signaling. We propose that the natural compound 2-MS, as a potent dual inhibitor of STAT3 and NF-κB pathways, is a promising anticancer drug candidate. PMID:24450414

  14. 5-HT2B antagonism arrests non-canonical TGF-β1-induced valvular myofibroblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Ryzhova, Larisa M.; Setola, Vincent; Merryman, W. David

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induces myofibroblast activation of quiescent aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs), a differentiation process implicated in calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). The ubiquity of TGF-β1 signaling makes it difficult to target in a tissue specific manner; however, the serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT2B) is highly localized to cardiopulmonary tissues and agonism of this receptor displays pro-fibrotic effects in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Therefore, we hypothesized that antagonism of 5-HT2B opposes TGF-β1-induced pathologic differentiation of AVICs and may offer a druggable target to prevent CAVD. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the interaction of 5-HT2B antagonism with canonical and non-canonical TGF-β1 pathways to inhibit TGF-β1-induced activation of isolated porcine AVICs in vitro. Here we show that AVIC activation and subsequent calcific nodule formation is completely mitigated by 5-HT2B antagonism. Interestingly, 5-HT2B antagonism does not inhibit canonical TGF-β1 signaling as identified by Smad3 phosphorylation and activation of a partial plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter (PAI-1, a transcriptional target of Smad3), but prevents non-canonical p38 MAPK phosphorylation. It was initially suspected that 5-HT2B antagonism prevents Src tyrosine kinase phosphorylation; however, we found that this is not the case and time-lapse microscopy indicates that 5-HT2B antagonism prevents non-canonical TGF-β1 signaling by physically arresting Src tyrosine kinase. This study demonstrates the necessity of non-canonical TGF-β1 signaling in leading to pathologic AVIC differentiation. Moreover, we believe that the results of this study suggest 5-HT2B antagonism as a novel therapeutic approach for CAVD that merits further investigation. PMID:22940605

  15. Essential role for ligand-dependent feedback antagonism of vertebrate hedgehog signaling by PTCH1, PTCH2 and HHIP1 during neural patterning

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Alexander M.; Peterson, Kevin A.; Nishi, Yuichi; Morin, Steves; Song, Jane Y.; Charron, Frédéric; McMahon, Andrew P.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2013-01-01

    Hedgehog (HH) signaling is essential for vertebrate and invertebrate embryogenesis. In Drosophila, feedback upregulation of the HH receptor Patched (PTC; PTCH in vertebrates), is required to restrict HH signaling during development. By contrast, PTCH1 upregulation is dispensable for early HH-dependent patterning in mice. Unique to vertebrates are two additional HH-binding antagonists that are induced by HH signaling, HHIP1 and the PTCH1 homologue PTCH2. Although HHIP1 functions semi-redundantly with PTCH1 to restrict HH signaling in the developing nervous system, a role for PTCH2 remains unresolved. Data presented here define a novel role for PTCH2 as a ciliary localized HH pathway antagonist. While PTCH2 is dispensable for normal ventral neural patterning, combined removal of PTCH2- and PTCH1-feedback antagonism produces a significant expansion of HH-dependent ventral neural progenitors. Strikingly, complete loss of PTCH2-, HHIP1- and PTCH1-feedback inhibition results in ectopic specification of ventral cell fates throughout the neural tube, reflecting constitutive HH pathway activation. Overall, these data reveal an essential role for ligand-dependent feedback inhibition of vertebrate HH signaling governed collectively by PTCH1, PTCH2 and HHIP1. PMID:23900540

  16. ErbB2, EphrinB1, Src Kinase and PTPN13 Signaling Complex Regulates MAP Kinase Signaling in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Vermeer, Paola D.; Bell, Megan; Lee, Kimberly; Vermeer, Daniel W.; Wieking, Byrant G.; Bilal, Erhan; Bhanot, Gyan; Drapkin, Ronny I.; Ganesan, Shridar; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Hendriks, Wiljan J.; Lee, John H.

    2012-01-01

    In non-cancerous cells, phosphorylated proteins exist transiently, becoming de-phosphorylated by specific phosphatases that terminate propagation of signaling pathways. In cancers, compromised phosphatase activity and/or expression occur and contribute to tumor phenotype. The non-receptor phosphatase, PTPN13, has recently been dubbed a putative tumor suppressor. It decreased expression in breast cancer correlates with decreased overall survival. Here we show that PTPN13 regulates a new signaling complex in breast cancer consisting of ErbB2, Src, and EphrinB1. To our knowledge, this signaling complex has not been previously described. Co-immunoprecipitation and localization studies demonstrate that EphrinB1, a PTPN13 substrate, interacts with ErbB2. In addition, the oncogenic V660E ErbB2 mutation enhances this interaction, while Src kinase mediates EphrinB1 phosphorylation and subsequent MAP Kinase signaling. Decreased PTPN13 function further enhances signaling. The association of oncogene kinases (ErbB2, Src), a signaling transmembrane ligand (EphrinB1) and a phosphatase tumor suppressor (PTPN13) suggest that EphrinB1 may be a relevant therapeutic target in breast cancers harboring ErbB2-activating mutations and decreased PTPN13 expression. PMID:22279592

  17. The mobility of two kinase domains in the Escherichia coli chemoreceptor array varies with signaling state

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Ames, Peter; Gumbart, James C.; Oikonomou, Catherine M.; Parkinson, John S.; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Motile bacteria sense their physical and chemical environment through highly cooperative, ordered arrays of chemoreceptors. These signaling complexes phosphorylate a response regulator which in turn governs flagellar motor reversals, driving cells towards favorable environments. The structural changes that translate chemoeffector binding into the appropriate kinase output are not known. Here, we apply high-resolution electron cryotomography to visualize mutant chemoreceptor signaling arrays in well-defined kinase activity states. The arrays were well ordered in all signaling states, with no discernible differences in receptor conformation at 2-3 nm resolution. Differences were observed, however, in a keel-like density that we identify here as CheA kinase domains P1 and P2, which are the phosphorylation site domain and the binding domain for response regulator target proteins, respectively. Mutant receptor arrays with high kinase activities all exhibited small keels and high proteolysis susceptibility, indicative of mobile P1 and P2 domains. In contrast, arrays in kinase-off signaling states exhibited a range of keel sizes. These findings confirm that chemoreceptor arrays do not undergo large structural changes during signaling, and suggest instead that kinase activity is modulated at least in part by changes in the mobility of key domains. PMID:23802570

  18. Modulators of Stomatal Lineage Signal Transduction Alter Membrane Contact Sites and Reveal Specialization among ERECTA Kinases.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chin-Min Kimmy; Paciorek, Tomasz; Abrash, Emily; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2016-08-22

    Signal transduction from a cell's surface to its interior requires dedicated signaling elements and a cellular environment conducive to signal propagation. Plant development, defense, and homeostasis rely on plasma membrane receptor-like kinases to perceive endogenous and environmental signals, but little is known about their immediate downstream targets and signaling modifiers. Using genetics, biochemistry, and live-cell imaging, we show that the VAP-RELATED SUPPRESSOR OF TMM (VST) family is required for ERECTA-mediated signaling in growth and cell-fate determination and reveal a role for ERECTA-LIKE2 in modulating signaling by its sister kinases. We show that VSTs are peripheral plasma membrane proteins that can form complexes with integral ER-membrane proteins, thereby potentially influencing the organization of the membrane milieu to promote efficient and differential signaling from the ERECTA-family members to their downstream intracellular targets. PMID:27554856

  19. Biochanin-A antagonizes the interleukin-1β-induced catabolic inflammation through the modulation of NFκB cellular signaling in primary rat chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji-Su; Cho, In-A; Kang, Kyeong-Rok; You, Jae-Seek; Yu, Sang-Joun; Lee, Gyeong-Je; Seo, Yo-Seob; Kim, Chun Sung; Kim, Do Kyung; Kim, Su-Gwan; Seo, Young-Woo; Im, Hee-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Sung

    2016-09-01

    Biochanin-A, a phytoestrogen derived from herbal plants, protected from the IL-1β-induced loss of proteoglycans through the suppression of matrix degrading enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, MMP-1, and ADAMTS-5 in primary rat chondrocytes and the knee articular cartilage. It also suppressed the expression of IL-1β-induced catabolic factors such as nitric oxide synthase 2, cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E2, and inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, biochanin-A suppressed the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of NFκB, and inhibited its nuclear translocation in primary rat chondrocytes. These results indicate that biochanin-A antagonizes the IL-1β-induced catabolic effects through its anti-inflammatory activity that involves the modulation of NFκB signaling. PMID:27363337

  20. Focused Proteomics Revealed a Novel Rho-kinase Signaling Pathway in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Yura, Yoshimitsu; Amano, Mutsuki; Takefuji, Mikito; Bando, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Kou; Kato, Katsuhiro; Hamaguchi, Tomonari; Hasanuzzaman Shohag, Md; Takano, Tetsuya; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamuta, Shinichi; Kuroda, Keisuke; Nishioka, Tomoki; Murohara, Toyoaki; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2016-08-23

    Protein phosphorylation plays an important role in the physiological regulation of cardiac function. Myocardial contraction and pathogenesis of cardiac diseases have been reported to be associated with adaptive or maladaptive protein phosphorylation; however, phosphorylation signaling in the heart is not fully elucidated. We recently developed a novel kinase-interacting substrate screening (KISS) method for exhaustive screening of protein kinase substrates, using mass spectrometry and affinity chromatography. First, we examined protein phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and protein kinase A (PKA), which has been relatively well studied in cardiomyocytes. The KISS method showed that ERK and PKA mediated the phosphorylation of known cardiac-substrates of each kinase such as Rps6ka1 and cTnI, respectively. Using this method, we found about 330 proteins as Rho-kinase-mediated substrates, whose substrate in cardiomyocytes is unknown. Among them, CARP/Ankrd1, a muscle ankyrin repeat protein, was confirmed as a novel Rho-kinase-mediated substrate. We also found that non-phosphorylatable form of CARP repressed cardiac hypertrophy-related gene Myosin light chain-2v (MLC-2v) promoter activity, and decreased cell size of heart derived H9c2 myoblasts more efficiently than wild type-CARP. Thus, focused proteomics enable us to reveal a novel signaling pathway in the heart. PMID:27334702

  1. Signalling specificity of Ser/Thr protein kinases through docking-site-mediated interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Ricardo M; Nebreda, Angel R

    2003-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways use protein kinases for the modification of protein function by phosphorylation. A major question in the field is how protein kinases achieve the specificity required to regulate multiple cellular functions. Here we review recent studies that illuminate the mechanisms used by three families of Ser/Thr protein kinases to achieve substrate specificity. These kinases rely on direct docking interactions with substrates, using sites distinct from the phospho-acceptor sequences. Docking interactions also contribute to the specificity and regulation of protein kinase activities. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members can associate with and phosphorylate specific substrates by virtue of minor variations in their docking sequences. Interestingly, the same MAPK docking pocket that binds substrates also binds docking sequences of positive and negative MAPK regulators. In the case of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), the presence of a phosphate-binding site allows docking of previously phosphorylated (primed) substrates; this docking site is also required for the mechanism of GSK3 inhibition by phosphorylation. In contrast, non-primed substrates interact with a different region of GSK3. Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) contains a hydrophobic pocket that interacts with a hydrophobic motif present in all known substrates, enabling their efficient phosphorylation. Binding of the substrate hydrophobic motifs to the pocket in the kinase domain activates PDK1 and other members of the AGC family of protein kinases. Finally, the analysis of protein kinase structures indicates that the sites used for docking substrates can also bind N- and C-terminal extensions to the kinase catalytic core and participate in the regulation of its activity. PMID:12600273

  2. Characterization of an Engineered Src Kinase to Study Src Signaling and Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Leanna R.; Karginov, Andrei V.; Hahn, Klaus M.; Der, Channing J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Pharmacologic inhibitors of protein kinases comprise the vast majority of approved signal transduction inhibitors for cancer treatment. An important facet of their clinical development is the identification of the key substrates critical for their driver role in cancer. One approach for substrate identification involves evaluating the phosphorylation events associated with stable expression of an activated protein kinase. Another involves genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of protein kinase expression or activity. However, both approaches are limited by the dynamic nature of signaling, complicating whether phosphorylation changes are primary or secondary activities of kinase function. We have developed rapamycin-regulated (RapR) protein kinases as molecular tools that allow for the study of spatiotemporal regulation of signaling. Here we describe the application of this technology to the Src tyrosine kinase and oncoprotein (RapR-Src). We describe how to achieve stable expression of this tool in cell lines and how to subsequently activate the tool and determine its function in signaling and morphology. PMID:26501909

  3. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Signaling Pathway as a Discovery Target in Stroke.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Nan, Guangxian

    2016-05-01

    Protein kinases are critical modulators of a variety of intracellular and extracellular signal transduction pathways, and abnormal phosphorylation events can contribute to disease progression in a variety of diseases. As a result, protein kinases have emerged as important new drug targets for small molecule therapeutics. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway transmits signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus in response to a variety of different stimuli. Because this pathway controls a broad spectrum of cellular processes, including growth, inflammation, and stress responses, it is accepted as a therapeutic target for cancer and peripheral inflammatory disorders. There is also increasing evidence that MAPK is an important regulator of ischemic and hemorrhagic cerebral vascular disease, raising the possibility that it might be a drug discovery target for stroke. In this review, we discuss the MAPK signaling pathway in association with its activation in stroke-induced brain injury. PMID:26842916

  4. Molecular Mimicry Regulates ABA Signaling by SnRK2 Kinases and PP2C Phosphatases

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Fen-Fen; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Tan, M.H. Eileen; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; He, Yuanzheng; Xu, Yong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhang, Huiming; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Cutler, Sean; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone for plants to survive environmental stresses. At the center of the ABA signaling network is a subfamily of type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), which form exclusive interactions with ABA receptors and subfamily 2 Snfl-related kinase (SnRK2s). Here, we report a SnRK2-PP2C complex structure, which reveals marked similarity in PP2C recognition by SnRK2 and ABA receptors. In the complex, the kinase activation loop docks into the active site of PP2C, while the conserved ABA-sensing tryptophan of PP2C inserts into the kinase catalytic cleft, thus mimicking receptor-PP2C interactions. These structural results provide a simple mechanism that directly couples ABA binding to SnRK2 kinase activation and highlight a new paradigm of kinase-phosphatase regulation through mutual packing of their catalytic sites.

  5. Viral Phosphodiesterases That Antagonize Double-Stranded RNA Signaling to RNase L by Degrading 2-5A

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The host interferon (IFN) antiviral response involves a myriad of diverse biochemical pathways that disrupt virus replication cycles at many different levels. As a result, viruses have acquired and evolved genes that antagonize the host antiviral proteins. IFNs inhibit viral infections in part through the 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2-5A) synthetase (OAS)/RNase L pathway. OAS proteins are pathogen recognition receptors that exist at different basal levels in different cell types and that are IFN inducible. Upon activation by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern viral double-stranded RNA, certain OAS proteins synthesize 2-5A from ATP. 2-5A binds to the antiviral enzyme RNase L causing its dimerization and activation. Recently, disparate RNA viruses, group 2a betacoronaviruses, and group A rotaviruses, have been shown to produce proteins with 2′,5′-phosphodiesterase (PDE) activities that eliminate 2-5A thereby evading the antiviral activity of the OAS/RNase L pathway. These viral proteins are members of the eukaryotic-viral LigT-like group of 2H phosphoesterases, so named for the presence of 2 conserved catalytic histidine residues. Here, we will review the biochemistry, biology, and implications of viral and cellular 2′,5′-PDEs that degrade 2-5A. In addition, we discuss alternative viral and cellular strategies for limiting the activity of OAS/RNase L. PMID:24905202

  6. The Arabidopsis MAP kinase kinase 7: A crosstalk point between Auxin signaling and defense responses?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-pathogen interaction induces a complex host response that coordinates various signaling pathways through multiple signal molecules. Besides the well-documented signal molecules salicylic acid (SA), ethylene and jasmonic acid, auxin is emerging as an important player in this response. We recent...

  7. Protein kinase CK2 triggers cytosolic zinc signaling pathways by phosphorylation of zinc channel ZIP7

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; Hiscox, Stephen; Nicholson, Robert I.; Hogstrand, Christer; Kille, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The transition element zinc, which has recently been identified as an intracellular second messenger, has been implicated in various signaling pathways, including those leading to cell proliferation. Zinc channels of the ZIP protein family (Solute Carrier Family 39A, SLC39A) transiently increase the cytosolic free zinc (Zn2+) concentration in response to extracellular signals. Here, we show that phosphorylation of evolutionarily conserved residues in zinc transporter ZIP7 is associated with the gated release of Zn2+ from intracellular stores, leading to activation of tyrosine kinases and the phosphorylation of AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Through pharmacological manipulation, proximity assay, and mutagenesis, we identified CK2 as the kinase responsible for ZIP7 activation. Together, the present results show that eukaryotic transition element channels can be activated post-translationally by phosphorylation eliciting a cell signaling cascade. Our study links the regulated release of zinc from intracellular stores to phosphorylation of kinases involved in proliferative responses and cell migration, suggesting a functional role for ZIP7 and zinc signals for these events which are characteristic of cancerous cells. Furthermore, the interaction of ZIP7 with CK2, a kinase that is antiapoptotoc and promotes cell division, highlights the potential for ZIP7 as a target for anti-cancer drug development. PMID:22317921

  8. Venus Kinase Receptors: Prospects in Signaling and Biological Functions of These Invertebrate Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  9. Venus kinase receptors: prospects in signaling and biological functions of these invertebrate kinases.

    PubMed

    Dissous, Colette; Morel, Marion; Vanderstraete, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    Venus kinase receptors (VKRs) form a family of invertebrate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) initially discovered in the parasitic platyhelminth Schistosoma mansoni. VKRs are single transmembrane receptors that contain an extracellular venus fly trap structure similar to the ligand-binding domain of G protein-coupled receptors of class C, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptors. VKRs are found in a large variety of invertebrates from cnidarians to echinoderms and are highly expressed in larval stages and in gonads, suggesting a role of these proteins in embryonic and larval development as well as in reproduction. VKR gene silencing could demonstrate the function of these receptors in oogenesis as well as in spermatogenesis in S. mansoni. VKRs are activated by amino acids and are highly responsive to arginine. As many other RTKs, they form dimers when activated by ligands and induce intracellular pathways involved in protein synthesis and cellular growth, such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt/S6K pathways. VKRs are not present in vertebrates or in some invertebrate species. Questions remain open about the origin of this little-known RTK family in evolution and its role in emergence and specialization of Metazoa. What is the meaning of maintenance or loss of VKR in some phyla or species in terms of development and physiological functions? The presence of VKRs in invertebrates of economical and medical importance, such as pests, vectors of pathogens, and platyhelminth parasites, and the implication of these RTKs in gametogenesis and reproduction processes are valuable reasons to consider VKRs as interesting targets in new programs for eradication/control of pests and infectious diseases, with the main advantage in the case of parasite targeting that VKR counterparts are absent from the vertebrate host kinase panel. PMID:24860549

  10. Cross talk of tyrosine kinases with the DNA damage signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kiran; Mahajan, Nupam P.

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases respond to extracellular and intracellular cues by activating specific cellular signaling cascades to regulate cell cycle, growth, proliferation, differentiation and survival. Likewise, DNA damage response proteins (DDR) activated by DNA lesions or chromatin alterations recruit the DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint machinery to restore genome integrity and cellular homeostasis. Several new examples have been uncovered in recent studies which reveal novel epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms by which tyrosine kinases interact with DDR proteins to dictate cell fate, i.e. survival or apoptosis, following DNA damage. These studies reveal the ability of tyrosine kinases to directly regulate the activity of DNA repair and cell cycle check point proteins by tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, tyrosine kinases epigenetically regulate DNA damage signaling pathways by modifying the core histones as well as chromatin modifiers at critical tyrosine residues. Thus, deregulated tyrosine kinase driven epigenomic alterations have profound implications in cancer, aging and genetic disorders. Consequently, targeting oncogenic tyrosine kinase induced epigenetic alterations has gained significant traction in overcoming cancer cell resistance to various therapies. This review discusses mechanisms by which tyrosine kinases interact with DDR pathways to regulate processes critical for maintaining genome integrity as well as clinical strategies for targeted cancer therapies. PMID:26546517

  11. Cross talk of tyrosine kinases with the DNA damage signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Kiran; Mahajan, Nupam P

    2015-12-15

    Tyrosine kinases respond to extracellular and intracellular cues by activating specific cellular signaling cascades to regulate cell cycle, growth, proliferation, differentiation and survival. Likewise, DNA damage response proteins (DDR) activated by DNA lesions or chromatin alterations recruit the DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint machinery to restore genome integrity and cellular homeostasis. Several new examples have been uncovered in recent studies which reveal novel epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms by which tyrosine kinases interact with DDR proteins to dictate cell fate, i.e. survival or apoptosis, following DNA damage. These studies reveal the ability of tyrosine kinases to directly regulate the activity of DNA repair and cell cycle check point proteins by tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, tyrosine kinases epigenetically regulate DNA damage signaling pathways by modifying the core histones as well as chromatin modifiers at critical tyrosine residues. Thus, deregulated tyrosine kinase driven epigenomic alterations have profound implications in cancer, aging and genetic disorders. Consequently, targeting oncogenic tyrosine kinase induced epigenetic alterations has gained significant traction in overcoming cancer cell resistance to various therapies. This review discusses mechanisms by which tyrosine kinases interact with DDR pathways to regulate processes critical for maintaining genome integrity as well as clinical strategies for targeted cancer therapies. PMID:26546517

  12. Compensatory pathways in oncogenic kinase signaling and resistance to targeted therapies: six degrees of separation.

    PubMed

    Trusolino, Livio; Bertotti, Andrea

    2012-10-01

    The efficacy of targeted therapies against mutationally activated kinases is typically limited by the engagement of growth-promoting cues that compensate for inhibition of the targeted kinase. Initial studies have highlighted the contribution of genomic alterations, functional characteristics, and signaling feedback loops--all intrinsic to cancer cells--in sustaining such substitute activities. New evidence now indicates that the relative expression of growth factor ligands produced by the tumor microenvironment can relay redundant survival pathways, which may broadly impair responsiveness to kinase inhibitors. PMID:23071031

  13. β-arrestin drives MAP kinase signaling from clathrin-coated structures after GPCR dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Eichel, K.; Jullié, D.

    2016-01-01

    β-arrestins critically regulate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, not only 'arresting' the G protein signal but also modulating endocytosis and initiating a discrete G protein-independent signal via MAP kinase1–3. Despite enormous recent progress toward understanding biophysical aspects of arrestin function4,5, its cell biology remains relatively poorly understood. Two key tenets underlie the present dogma: (1) β-arrestin accumulates in clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) exclusively in physical complex with its activating GPCR, and (2) MAP kinase activation requires endocytosis of formed GPCR - β-arrestin complexes6–9. We show here, using β1-adrenergic receptors, that β-arrestin-2 (Arrestin 3) accumulates robustly in CCSs after dissociating from its activating GPCR and transduces the MAP kinase signal from CCSs. Moreover, inhibiting subsequent endocytosis of CCSs enhances the clathrin and β-arrestin -dependent MAP kinase signal. These results demonstrate β-arrestin 'activation at a distance', after dissociating from its activating GPCR, and signaling from CCSs. We propose a β-arrestin signaling cycle that is catalytically activated by the GPCR and energetically coupled to the endocytic machinery. PMID:26829388

  14. β-Arrestin drives MAP kinase signalling from clathrin-coated structures after GPCR dissociation.

    PubMed

    Eichel, K; Jullié, D; von Zastrow, M

    2016-03-01

    β-Arrestins critically regulate G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling, not only 'arresting' the G protein signal but also modulating endocytosis and initiating a discrete G-protein-independent signal through MAP kinase. Despite enormous recent progress towards understanding biophysical aspects of arrestin function, arrestin cell biology remains relatively poorly understood. Two key tenets underlie the prevailing current view: β-arrestin accumulates in clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) exclusively in physical complex with its activating GPCR, and MAP kinase activation requires endocytosis of formed GPCR-β-arrestin complexes. We show here, using β1-adrenergic receptors, that β-arrestin-2 (arrestin 3) accumulates robustly in CCSs after dissociating from its activating GPCR and transduces the MAP kinase signal from CCSs. Moreover, inhibiting subsequent endocytosis of CCSs enhances the clathrin- and β-arrestin-dependent MAP kinase signal. These results demonstrate β-arrestin 'activation at a distance', after dissociating from its activating GPCR, and signalling from CCSs. We propose a β-arrestin signalling cycle that is catalytically activated by the GPCR and energetically coupled to the endocytic machinery. PMID:26829388

  15. Protein Kinase PKN1 Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Human Melanoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    James, Richard G.; Bosch, Katherine A.; Kulikauskas, Rima M.; Yang, Peitzu T.; Robin, Nick C.; Toroni, Rachel A.; Biechele, Travis L.; Berndt, Jason D.; von Haller, Priska D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Chien, Andy J.; Moon, Randall T.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in phosphoproteomics have made it possible to monitor changes in protein phosphorylation that occur at different steps in signal transduction and have aided the identification of new pathway components. In the present study, we applied this technology to advance our understanding of the responses of melanoma cells to signaling initiated by the secreted ligand WNT3A. We started by comparing the phosphopeptide patterns of cells treated with WNT3A for different periods of time. Next, we integrated these data sets with the results from a siRNA screen that targeted protein kinases. This integration of siRNA screening and proteomics enabled us to identify four kinases that exhibit altered phosphorylation in response to WNT3A and that regulate a luciferase reporter of β-catenin-responsive transcription (β-catenin-activated reporter). We focused on one of these kinases, an atypical PKC kinase, protein kinase N1 (PKN1). Reducing the levels of PKN1 with siRNAs significantly enhances activation of β-catenin-activated reporter and increases apoptosis in melanoma cell lines. Using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry, we then found that PKN1 is present in a protein complex with a WNT3A receptor, Frizzled 7, as well as with proteins that co-purify with Frizzled 7. These data establish that the protein kinase PKN1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes melanoma cells to cell death stimulated by WNT3A. PMID:24114839

  16. Protein Kinase D1 Signaling in Angiogenic Gene Expression and VEGF-Mediated Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1) is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation, and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis. PMID:27200349

  17. Protein Kinase D1 Signaling in Angiogenic Gene Expression and VEGF-Mediated Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1) is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation, and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis. PMID:27200349

  18. NMDA receptor subunits and associated signaling molecules mediating antidepressant-related effects of NMDA-GluN2B antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Kiselycznyk, Carly; Jury, Nicholas; Halladay, Lindsay; Nakazawa, Kazu; Mishina, Masayoshi; Sprengel, Rolf; Grant, Seth G.N.; Svenningsson, Per; Holmes, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Drugs targeting the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) may be efficacious for treating mood disorders, as exemplified by the rapid antidepressant effects produced by single administration of the NMDAR antagonist ketamine. Though the precise mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-related effects of NMDAR antagonism remain unclear, recent studies implicate specific NMDAR subunits, including GluN2A and GluN2B, as well as the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit glutamate receptor interacting molecule, PSD-95. Here, integrating mutant and pharmacological in mice, we investigated the contribution of these subunits and molecules to antidepressant-related behaviors and the antidepressant-related effects of the GluN2B blocker, Ro 25-6981. We found that global deletion of GluA1 or PSD-95 reduced forced swim test (FST) immobility, mimicking the antidepressant-related effect produced by systemically administered Ro 25-6981 in C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, the FST antidepressant-like effects of systemic Ro 25-6981 were intact in mutants with global GluA1 deletion or GluN1 deletion in forebrain interneurons, but were absent in mutants constitutively lacking GluN2A or PSD-95. Next, we found that microinfusing Ro 25-6981 into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but not basolateral amygdala, of C57BL/6J mice was sufficient to produce an antidepressant-like effect. Together, these findings extend and refine current understanding of the mechanisms mediating antidepressant-like effects produced by NMDAR-GluN2B antagonists, and may inform the development of a novel class of medications for treating depression that target the GluN2B subtype of NMDAR. PMID:25800971

  19. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediates epidermal growth factor-induced activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Logan, S K; Falasca, M; Hu, P; Schlessinger, J

    1997-01-01

    The signaling events which mediate activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are not yet well characterized. To broaden our understanding of upstream mediators which link extracellular signals to the JNK pathway, we investigated the role of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-mediated JNK activation. In this report we demonstrate that a dominant negative form of PI 3-kinase as well as the inhibitor wortmannin blocks EGF-induced JNK activation dramatically. However, wortmannin does not have an effect on JNK activation induced by UV irradiation or osmotic shock. In addition, a membrane-targeted, constitutively active PI 3-kinase (p110beta) was shown to produce in vivo products and to activate JNK, while a kinase-mutated form of this protein showed no activation. On the basis of these experiments, we propose that PI 3-kinase activity plays a role in EGF-induced JNK activation in these cells. PMID:9315636

  20. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Zhuang, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis can be induced in different renal diseases, but ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. Although the pathophysiologic process of renal fibrosis have not been fully elucidated, it is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and/or tubular interstitial fibrosis, and is believed to be caused by the proliferation of renal inherent cells, including glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells, along with defective kidney repair, renal interstitial fibroblasts activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate a variety of cell physiological processes, including metabolism, growth, differentiation, and survival. Many studies from in vitro and animal models have provided evidence that RTKs play important roles in the pathogenic process of renal fibrosis. It is also showed that tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs) have anti-fibrotic effects in basic research and clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the evidence for involvement of specific RTKs in renal fibrosis process and the employment of TKIs as a therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis. PMID:27331812

  1. Role of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling in Renal Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Zhuang, Shougang

    2016-01-01

    Renal fibrosis can be induced in different renal diseases, but ultimately progresses to end stage renal disease. Although the pathophysiologic process of renal fibrosis have not been fully elucidated, it is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and/or tubular interstitial fibrosis, and is believed to be caused by the proliferation of renal inherent cells, including glomerular epithelial cells, mesangial cells, and endothelial cells, along with defective kidney repair, renal interstitial fibroblasts activation, and extracellular matrix deposition. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate a variety of cell physiological processes, including metabolism, growth, differentiation, and survival. Many studies from in vitro and animal models have provided evidence that RTKs play important roles in the pathogenic process of renal fibrosis. It is also showed that tyrosine kinases inhibitors (TKIs) have anti-fibrotic effects in basic research and clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the evidence for involvement of specific RTKs in renal fibrosis process and the employment of TKIs as a therapeutic approach for renal fibrosis. PMID:27331812

  2. Calcium-Oxidant Signaling Network Regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation upon Matrix Deprivation*

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, Ananthalakshmy; Amirtham, Usha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-01-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has recently been implicated in anoikis resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that activate AMPK upon matrix detachment remain unexplored. In this study, we show that AMPK activation is a rapid and sustained phenomenon upon matrix deprivation, whereas re-attachment to the matrix leads to its dephosphorylation and inactivation. Because matrix detachment leads to loss of integrin signaling, we investigated whether integrin signaling negatively regulates AMPK activation. However, modulation of focal adhesion kinase or Src, the major downstream components of integrin signaling, failed to cause a corresponding change in AMPK signaling. Further investigations revealed that the upstream AMPK kinases liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) contribute to AMPK activation upon detachment. In LKB1-deficient cells, we found AMPK activation to be predominantly dependent on CaMKKβ. We observed no change in ATP levels under detached conditions at early time points suggesting that rapid AMPK activation upon detachment was not triggered by energy stress. We demonstrate that matrix deprivation leads to a spike in intracellular calcium as well as oxidant signaling, and both these intracellular messengers contribute to rapid AMPK activation upon detachment. We further show that endoplasmic reticulum calcium release-induced store-operated calcium entry contributes to intracellular calcium increase, leading to reactive oxygen species production, and AMPK activation. We additionally show that the LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK axis and intracellular calcium levels play a critical role in anchorage-independent cancer sphere formation. Thus, the Ca2+/reactive oxygen species-triggered LKB1/CaMKK-AMPK signaling cascade may provide a quick, adaptable switch to promote survival of metastasizing cancer cells. PMID:27226623

  3. Activation of the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Is Critical for Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-Shuang; Zheng, Zhong; Su, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Fei; Ling, Michelle; Zou, Min; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are recognized as candidate progenitor cells for bone regeneration. However, the mechanism of hUCMSC osteogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling is involved in hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Particularly, the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38 signaling pathways maintained a consistent level in hUCMSCs through the entire 21-day osteogenic differentiation period. At the same time, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signaling significantly increased from day 5, peaked at day 9, and declined thereafter. Moreover, gene profiling of osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity measurement, and alizarin red staining demonstrated that the application of U0126, a specific inhibitor for ERK activation, completely prohibited hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation. However, when U0126 was removed from the culture at day 9, ERK activation and osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs were partially recovered. Together, these findings demonstrate that the activation of ERK signaling is essential for hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation, which points out the significance of ERK signaling pathway to regulate the osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs as an alternative cell source for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26989682

  4. Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids Promote Wound Healing through Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAP Kinases) Signaling Pathway in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Yang, Dong Joo; Kulkarni, Atul; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ki Woo

    2015-01-01

    Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) are secondary metabolites found in diverse marine, freshwater, and terrestrial organisms. Evidence suggests that MAAs have several beneficial effects on skin homeostasis such as protection against UV radiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, MAAs are also involved in the modulation of skin fibroblasts proliferation. However, the regulatory function of MAAs on wound repair in human skin is not yet clearly elucidated. To investigate the roles of MAAs on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes, three MAAs, Shinorine (SH), Mycosporine-glycine (M-Gly), and Porphyra (P334) were purified from Chlamydomonas hedlyei and Porphyra yezoensis. We found that SH, M-Gly, and P334 have significant effects on the wound healing process in human keratinocytes and these effects were mediated by activation of focal adhesion kinases (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). These results suggest that MAAs accelerate wound repair by activating the FAK-MAPK signaling pathways. This study also indicates that MAAs can act as a new wound healing agent and further suggests that MAAs might be a novel biomaterial for wound healing therapies. PMID:26703626

  5. Herpes simplex virus-1 infection causes the secretion of a type I interferon-antagonizing protein and inhibits signaling at or before Jak-1 activation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Karen E.; Knipe, David M.

    2010-01-05

    Host cells respond to viral infection by the production of type I interferons (IFNs), which induce the expression of antiviral genes. Herpes simplex virus I (HSV-1) encodes many mechanisms that inhibit the type I IFN response, including the ICP27-dependent inhibition of type I IFN signaling. Here we show inhibition of Stat-1 nuclear accumulation in cells that express ICP27. ICP27 expression also induces the secretion of a small, heat-stable type I IFN antagonizing protein that inhibits Stat-1 nuclear accumulation. We show that the inhibition of IFN-induced Stat-1 phosphorylation occurs at or upstream of Jak-1 phosphorylation. Finally, we show that ISG15 expression is induced after IFNalpha treatment in mock-infected cells, but not cells infected with WT HSV-1 or ICP27{sup -} HSV-1. These data suggest that HSV-1 has evolved multiple mechanisms to inhibit IFN signaling not only in infected cells, but also in neighboring cells, thereby allowing for increased viral replication and spread.

  6. SRC protein tyrosine kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and NF-kappaBp65 signaling in commercial and wild-type turkey leukocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies comparing signaling in wild-type turkey (WT) leukocytes and commercial turkey (CT) leukocytes found that the activity of protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) and MAP kinases, ERK 1/2 and p38, were significantly higher in WT leukocytes compared to CT lines upon exposure to both SE and OPSE on days...

  7. Antagonizing amyloid-β/calcium-sensing receptor signaling in human astrocytes and neurons: a key to halt Alzheimer's disease progression?

    PubMed Central

    Dal Prà, Ilaria; Chiarini, Anna; Armato, Ubaldo

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes’ roles in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) promotion are important, since they survive soluble or fibrillar amyloid-β peptides (Aβs) neurotoxic effects, undergo alterations of intracellular and intercellular Ca2+ signaling and gliotransmitters release via the Aβ/α7-nAChR (α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) signaling, and overproduce/oversecrete newly synthesized Aβ42 oligomers, NO, and VEGF-A via the Aβ/CaSR (calcium-sensing receptor) signaling. Recently, it was suggested that the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) inhibitor nitromemantine would block the synapse-destroying effects of Aβ/α7-nAChR signaling. Yet, this and the progressive extracellular accrual and spreading of Aβ42 oligomers would be stopped well upstream by NPS 2143, an allosteric CaSR antagonist (calcilytic). PMID:25883618

  8. The Pim-1 Protein Kinase Is an Important Regulator of MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Levels and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Ying; Song, Jin H.; Mahajan, Sandeep; DuPont, Rachel; McEachern, Kristen; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Cortes, Jorge E.; Minden, Mark D.; Ebens, Allen; Mims, Alice; LaRue, Amanda C.

    2014-01-01

    MET, the receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), plays an important role in signaling normal and tumor cell migration and invasion. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized mechanism that promotes MET expression in multiple tumor cell types. The levels of the Pim-1 protein kinase show a positive correlation with the levels of MET protein in human tumor cell lines and patient-derived tumor materials. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA), Pim knockout mice, small-molecule inhibitors, and overexpression of Pim-1, we confirmed this correlation and found that Pim-1 kinase activity regulates HGF-induced tumor cell migration, invasion, and cell scattering. The novel biochemical mechanism for these effects involves the ability of Pim-1 to control the translation of MET by regulating the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) on S406. This targeted phosphorylation is required for the binding of eIF4B to the eIF3 translation initiation complex. Importantly, Pim-1 action was validated by the evaluation of patient blood and bone marrow from a phase I clinical trial of a Pim kinase inhibitor, AZD1208. These results suggest that Pim inhibitors may have an important role in the treatment of patients where MET is driving tumor biology. PMID:24777602

  9. Neuroblastoma Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Networks Involve FYN and LYN in Endosomes and Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ailan; Stokes, Matthew P.; Kuehn, Emily D.; George, Lynn; Comb, Michael; Grimes, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays a central role in creating a highly dynamic network of interacting proteins that reads and responds to signals from growth factors in the cellular microenvironment. Cells of the neural crest employ multiple signaling mechanisms to control migration and differentiation during development. It is known that defects in these mechanisms cause neuroblastoma, but how multiple signaling pathways interact to govern cell behavior is unknown. In a phosphoproteomic study of neuroblastoma cell lines and cell fractions, including endosomes and detergent-resistant membranes, 1622 phosphorylated proteins were detected, including more than half of the receptor tyrosine kinases in the human genome. Data were analyzed using a combination of graph theory and pattern recognition techniques that resolve data structure into networks that incorporate statistical relationships and protein-protein interaction data. Clusters of proteins in these networks are indicative of functional signaling pathways. The analysis indicates that receptor tyrosine kinases are functionally compartmentalized into distinct collaborative groups distinguished by activation and intracellular localization of SRC-family kinases, especially FYN and LYN. Changes in intracellular localization of activated FYN and LYN were observed in response to stimulation of the receptor tyrosine kinases, ALK and KIT. The results suggest a mechanism to distinguish signaling responses to activation of different receptors, or combinations of receptors, that govern the behavior of the neural crest, which gives rise to neuroblastoma. PMID:25884760

  10. IL-1RT1 signaling antagonizes IL-11 induced STAT3 dependent cardiac and antral stomach tumor development through myeloid cell enrichment.

    PubMed

    Buzzelli, Jon N; Pavlic, Dan I; Chalinor, Heather V; O'Connor, Louise; Menheniott, Trevelyan R; Giraud, Andrew S; Judd, Louise M

    2015-01-20

    IL-1 is key driver of gastric tumorigenesis and is a downstream target of IL-11 signaling. Recently, IL-1 cytokines, particularly IL-1β, have been flagged as therapeutic targets for gastric cancer treatment. Here, we assess the requirement for IL-1 signaling in gastric tumorigenesis. gp130757FF xIL-1RT1-/- mice were generated to determine the pathological consequence of ablated IL-1 signaling in the IL-11 dependent gp130757FF mouse model of gastric tumorigenesis. Gastric lesions in gp130757FF xIL-1RT1-/- mice were increased in incidence and size compared to gp130757FF mice. Proximal gastric lesions originated from the cardiac region and were associated with elevated STAT3 activation, loss of specialized gastric cells and a modulated immune response including increased expression of TNF-α and MDSC associated genes. Administration of IL-11 to IL-1RT1-/- mice showed similar changes to gp130757FF xIL-1RT1-/- mice. Spleens from IL-11 treated wildtype mice showed an enrichment of MDSC and gp130757FF xIL-1RT1-/- mice had increased MDSCs in the stomach compared to gp130757FF mice. Furthermore, crossing TNF-α-/- to gp130757FF mice resulted in reduced lesion size. We conclude that IL-1 signaling antagonizes IL-11/STAT3 mediated pathology and the genetic deletion of IL-1RT1 results in increased tumor burden. We provide evidence that a likely mechanism is due to IL-11/STAT3 dependent enrichment of MDSCs. PMID:25528766

  11. Intersecting roles of protein tyrosine kinase and calcium signaling during fertilization.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, William H

    2013-01-01

    The oocyte is a highly specialized cell that must respond to fertilization with a preprogrammed series of signal transduction events that establish a block to polyspermy, trigger resumption of the cell cycle and execution of a developmental program. The fertilization-induced calcium transient is a key signal that initiates the process of oocyte activation and studies over the last several years have examined the signaling pathways that act upstream and downstream of this calcium transient. Protein tyrosine kinase signaling was found to be an important component of the upstream pathways that stimulated calcium release at fertilization in oocytes from animals that fertilize externally, but a similar pathway has not been found in mammals which fertilize internally. The following review will examine the diversity of signaling in oocytes from marine invertebrates, amphibians, fish and mammals in an attempt to understand the basis for the observed differences. In addition to the pathways upstream of the fertilization-induced calcium transient, recent studies are beginning to unravel the role of protein tyrosine kinase signaling downstream of the calcium transient. The PYK2 kinase was found to respond to fertilization in the zebrafish system and seems to represent a novel component of the response of the oocyte to fertilization. The potential impact of impaired PTK signaling in oocyte quality will also be discussed. PMID:23201334

  12. Notch1 signaling antagonizes transforming growth factor-β pathway and induces apoptosis in rabbit trophoblast stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tao; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Jing; Niu, Yuyu; Si, Wei; Wei, Qiang; Ji, Weizhi

    2014-04-15

    During mammalian development, placental growth needs to be tightly controlled by apoptosis. However, despite the potentially significant problems, the strategies used to balance growth and apoptosis have remained elusive. Here we report that activation of the Notch1 signal pathway inhibits transduction of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling, which leads to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in rabbit trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). The subcellular location of notch intracellular domain 1 (NICD1) appears to determine whether TGF-β signaling will be inhibited or not. Moreover, changes in NICD1 subcellular location are regulated by intracellular calcium distribution. Collectively, these results establish a potential mechanism whereby TSCs can balance growth and apoptosis, and thus guarantee the development of the fetus. PMID:24251382

  13. Production of recombinant human apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Volynets, Galyna P; Gorbatiuk, Oksana B; Kukharenko, Oleksandr P; Usenko, Mariya O; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M

    2016-10-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mediator of the MAPK signaling cascade, which regulates different cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, and differentiation. The increased activity of ASK1 is associated with a number of human diseases and this protein kinase is considered as promising therapeutic target. In the present study, the kinase domain of human ASK1 was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) in soluble form. The expression level of ASK1 was around 0.3-0.47 g per 1 L after using auto-induction protocol or IPTG induction. A one-step on column method for the efficient purification of recombinant ASK1 was performed. Our approach yields sufficient amount of recombinant ASK1, which can be used for inhibitor screening assays and different crystallographic studies. PMID:27245507

  14. Emerging roles of protein kinase CK2 in abscisic acid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vilela, Belmiro; Pagès, Montserrat; Riera, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) regulates many aspects of plant growth and development as well as responses to multiple stresses. Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation or ubiquitination have pivotal roles in the regulation of ABA signaling. In addition to the positive regulator sucrose non-fermenting-1 related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2), the relevance of the role of other protein kinases, such as CK2, has been recently highlighted. We have recently established that CK2 phosphorylates the maize ortholog of open stomata 1 OST1, ZmOST1, suggesting a role of CK2 phosphorylation in the control of ZmOST1 protein degradation (Vilela et al., 2015). CK2 is a pleiotropic enzyme involved in multiple developmental and stress-responsive pathways. This review summarizes recent advances that taken together suggest a prominent role of protein kinase CK2 in ABA signaling and related processes. PMID:26579189

  15. Crosstalk and Signaling Switches in Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascades

    PubMed Central

    Fey, Dirk; Croucher, David R.; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.

    2012-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades control cell fate decisions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis by integrating and processing intra- and extracellular cues. However, similar MAPK kinetic profiles can be associated with opposing cellular decisions depending on cell type, signal strength, and dynamics. This implies that signaling by each individual MAPK cascade has to be considered in the context of the entire MAPK network. Here, we develop a dynamic model of feedback and crosstalk for the three major MAPK cascades; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and also include input from protein kinase B (AKT) signaling. Focusing on the bistable activation characteristics of the JNK pathway, this model explains how pathway crosstalk harmonizes different MAPK responses resulting in pivotal cell fate decisions. We show that JNK can switch from a transient to sustained activity due to multiple positive feedback loops. Once activated, positive feedback locks JNK in a highly active state and promotes cell death. The switch is modulated by the ERK, p38, and AKT pathways. ERK activation enhances the dual specificity phosphatase (DUSP) mediated dephosphorylation of JNK and shifts the threshold of the apoptotic switch to higher inputs. Activation of p38 restores the threshold by inhibiting ERK activity via the PP1 or PP2A phosphatases. Finally, AKT activation inhibits the JNK positive feedback, thus abrogating the apoptotic switch and allowing only proliferative signaling. Our model facilitates understanding of how cancerous deregulations disturb MAPK signal processing and provides explanations for certain drug resistances. We highlight a critical role of DUSP1 and DUSP2 expression patterns in facilitating the switching of JNK activity and show how oncogene induced ERK hyperactivity prevents the normal apoptotic switch explaining the failure of certain drugs to

  16. Global Effects of Kinase Inhibitors on Signaling Networks Revealed by Quantitative Phosphoproteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cuiping; Olsen, Jesper V.; Daub, Henrik; Mann, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Aberrant signaling causes many diseases, and manipulating signaling pathways with kinase inhibitors has emerged as a promising area of drug research. Most kinase inhibitors target the conserved ATP-binding pocket; therefore specificity is a major concern. Proteomics has previously been used to identify the direct targets of kinase inhibitors upon affinity purification from cellular extracts. Here we introduce a complementary approach to evaluate the effects of kinase inhibitors on the entire cell signaling network. We used triple labeling SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) to compare cellular phosphorylation levels for control, epidermal growth factor stimulus, and growth factor combined with kinase inhibitors. Of thousands of phosphopeptides, less than 10% had a response pattern indicative of targets of U0126 and SB202190, two widely used MAPK inhibitors. Interestingly, 83% of the growth factor-induced phosphorylation events were affected by either or both inhibitors, showing quantitatively that early signaling processes are predominantly transmitted through the MAPK cascades. In contrast to MAPK inhibitors, dasatinib, a clinical drug directed against BCR-ABL, which is the cause of chronic myelogenous leukemia, affected nearly 1,000 phosphopeptides. In addition to the proximal effects on ABL and its immediate targets, dasatinib broadly affected the downstream MAPK pathways. Pathway mapping of regulated sites implicated a variety of cellular functions, such as chromosome remodeling, RNA splicing, and cytoskeletal organization, some of which have been described in the literature before. Our assay is streamlined and generic and could become a useful tool in kinase drug development. PMID:19651622

  17. TEC protein tyrosine kinase is involved in the Erk signaling pathway induced by HGF

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Feifei; Jiang, Yinan; Zheng, Qiping; Yang, Xiaoming; Wang, Siying

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} TEC is rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated by HGF-stimulation in vivo or after partial hepatectomy in mice. {yields} TEC enhances the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE) in HGF signaling pathway in hepatocyte. {yields} TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation through the Erk-MAPK pathway. -- Abstract: Background/aims: TEC, a member of the TEC family of non-receptor type protein tyrosine kinases, has recently been suggested to play a role in hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. This study aims to investigate the putative mechanisms of TEC kinase regulation of hepatocyte differentiation, i.e. to explore which signaling pathway TEC is involved in, and how TEC is activated in hepatocyte after hepatectomy and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation. Methods: We performed immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunoblotting (IB) to examine TEC tyrosine phosphorylation after partial hepatectomy in mice and HGF stimulation in WB F-344 hepatic cells. The TEC kinase activity was determined by in vitro kinase assay. Reporter gene assay, antisense oligonucleotide and TEC dominant negative mutant (TEC{sup KM}) were used to examine the possible signaling pathways in which TEC is involved. The cell proliferation rate was evaluated by {sup 3}H-TdR incorporation. Results: TEC phosphorylation and kinase activity were increased in 1 h after hepatectomy or HGF treatment. TEC enhanced the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE). Inhibition of MEK1 suppressed TEC phosphorylation. Blocking TEC activity dramatically decreased the activation of Erk. Reduced TEC kinase activity also suppressed the proliferation of WB F-344 cells. These results suggest TEC is involved in the Ras-MAPK pathway and acts between MEK1 and Erk. Conclusions: TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration and is involved in HGF-induced Erk signaling pathway.

  18. ACK1/TNK2 Tyrosine Kinase: Molecular Signaling and Evolving Role in Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Kiran; Mahajan, Nupam P.

    2014-01-01

    Deregulated tyrosine kinase signaling alters cellular homeostasis to drive cancer progression. The emergence of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, ACK1 as an oncogenic kinase, has uncovered novel mechanisms by which tyrosine kinase signaling promotes cancer progression. While early studies focused on ACK1 (also known as activated Cdc42-associated kinase 1 or TNK2) as a cytosolic effecter of activated transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), wherein it shuttles between the cytosol and the nucleus to rapidly transduce extracellular signals from the RTKs to the intracellular effectors, recent data unfold a new aspect of its functionality as an epigenetic regulator. ACK1 interacts with the Estrogen Receptor (ER)/histone demethylase KDM3A (JHDM2a) complex, modifies KDM3A by tyrosine phosphorylation to regulate transcriptional outcome at HOXA1 locus to promote the growth of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer. It is also well established that ACK1 regulates the activity of Androgen Receptor (AR) by tyrosine phosphorylation to fuel the growth of hormone-refractory prostate cancers. Further, recent explosion in genomic sequencing has revealed recurrent ACK1 gene amplification and somatic mutations in a variety of human malignancies, providing a molecular basis for its role in neoplastic transformation. In this review, we will discuss the various facets of ACK1 signaling, including its newly uncovered epigenetic regulator function, which enables cells to bypass the blockade to major survival pathways to promote resistance to standard cancer treatments. Not surprisingly, cancer cells appear to acquire an `addiction’ to ACK1 mediated survival, particularly under stress conditions, such as growth factor deprivation or genotoxic insults or hormone deprivation. With the accelerated development of potent and selective ACK1 inhibitors, targeted treatment for cancers harboring aberrant ACK1 activity may soon become a clinical reality. PMID:25347744

  19. Identification of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1 (ERK1) Direct Substrates using Stable Isotope Labeled Kinase Assay-Linked Phosphoproteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang; Wang, Pengcheng; Cao, Pianpian; Zhu, Jian-kang; Tao, W. Andy

    2014-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation signaling is extensively involved in cellular functions and human diseases, and unraveling phosphorylation networks requires the identification of substrates targeted by kinases, which has remained challenging. We report here a novel proteomic strategy to identify the specificity and direct substrates of kinases by coupling phosphoproteomics with a sensitive stable isotope labeled kinase reaction. A whole cell extract was moderately dephosphorylated and subjected to in vitro kinase reaction under the condition in which 18O-ATP is the phosphate donor. The phosphorylated proteins are then isolated and identified by mass spectrometry, in which the heavy phosphate (+85.979 Da) labeled phosphopeptides reveal the kinase specificity. The in vitro phosphorylated proteins with heavy phosphates are further overlapped with in vivo kinase-dependent phosphoproteins for the identification of direct substrates with high confidence. The strategy allowed us to identify 46 phosphorylation sites on 38 direct substrates of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, including multiple known substrates and novel substrates, highlighting the ability of this high throughput method for direct kinase substrate screening. PMID:25022875

  20. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphoinositol-3 kinase mediate IGF-1 induced proliferation of fetal sheep cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Sundgren, Nathan C; Giraud, George D; Schultz, Jess M; Lasarev, Michael R; Stork, Philip J S; Thornburg, Kent L

    2003-12-01

    Growth of the fetal heart involves cardiomyocyte enlargement, division, and maturation. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is implicated in many aspects of growth and is likely to be important in developmental heart growth. IGF-1 stimulates the IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) and downstream signaling pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K). We hypothesized that IGF-1 stimulates cardiomyocyte proliferation and enlargement through stimulation of the ERK cascade and stimulates cardiomyocyte differentiation through the PI3K cascade. In vivo administration of Long R3 IGF-1 (LR3 IGF-1) did not stimulate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but led to a decreased percentage of cells that were binucleated in vivo. In culture, LR3 IGF-1 increased myocyte bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) uptake by three- to five-fold. The blockade of either ERK or PI3K signaling (by UO-126 or LY-294002, respectively) completely abolished BrdU uptake stimulated by LR3 IGF-1. LR3 IGF-1 did not increase footprint area, but as expected, phenylephrine stimulated an increase in binucleated cardiomyocyte size. We conclude that 1) IGF-1 through IGF1R stimulates cardiomyocyte division in vivo; hyperplastic growth is the most likely explanation of IGF-1 stimulated heart growth in vivo; 2) IGF-1 through IGF1R does not stimulate binucleation in vitro or in vivo; 3) IGF-1 through IGF1R does not stimulate hypertrophy either in vivo or in vitro; and 4) IGF-1 through IGF1R requires both ERK and PI3K signaling for proliferation of near-term fetal sheep cardiomyocytes in vitro. PMID:12947030

  1. Cellular context–mediated Akt dynamics regulates MAP kinase signaling thresholds during angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hellesøy, Monica; Lorens, James B.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of new blood vessels by sprouting angiogenesis is tightly regulated by contextual cues that affect angiogeneic growth factor signaling. Both constitutive activation and loss of Akt kinase activity in endothelial cells impair angiogenesis, suggesting that Akt dynamics mediates contextual microenvironmental regulation. We explored the temporal regulation of Akt in endothelial cells during formation of capillary-like networks induced by cell–cell contact with vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and vSMC-associated VEGF. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 strongly inhibited network formation, whereas hemiphosphorylated Akt1 epi-alleles with reduced kinase activity had an intermediate inhibitory effect. Conversely, inhibition of Akt signaling did not affect endothelial cell migration or morphogenesis in vSMC cocultures that generate capillary-like structures. We found that endothelial Akt activity is transiently blocked by proteasomal degradation in the presence of SMCs during the initial phase of capillary-like structure formation. Suppressed Akt activity corresponded to the increased endothelial MAP kinase signaling that was required for angiogenic endothelial morphogenesis. These results reveal a regulatory principle by which cellular context regulates Akt protein dynamics, which determines MAP kinase signaling thresholds necessary drive a morphogenetic program during angiogenesis. PMID:26023089

  2. Electrochemical detection of protein kinase activity based on carboxypeptidase Y digestion triggered signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huanshun; Wang, Xinxu; Guo, Yunlong; Zhou, Yunlei; Ai, Shiyun

    2015-04-15

    An effective assay method for monitoring protein kinase activity and screening inhibitors is greatly beneficial to kinase-related drug discovery, early diagnosis of diseases, and therapeutic effect evaluation. Herein, we develop a simple electrochemical method for detecting the activity of casein kinase II (CK2) based on phosphorylation against carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) digestion triggered signal amplification, where CK2 catalyzed phosphorylation event protects the substrate peptide from the digestion of CPY, maintains the repulsive force of the substrate peptide towards the redox probe, and results in a weak electrochemical signal. Whereas, without phosphorylation, the substrate peptide is digested by CPY and a strong electrochemical signal is obtained. The detection feasibility is demonstrated for the assay of CK2 activity with low detection limit of 0.047unit/mL. Moreover, the biosensor was used for the analysis of kinase inhibition. Based on the electrochemical signal dependent inhibitor concentration, the IC50 value of ellagic acid was estimated to be 39.77nM. The proposed method is also successfully applied to analyze CK2 activity in cell lysates, proving the applicability in complex biological samples. PMID:25460885

  3. Antagonism between phytohormone signalling underlies the variation in disease susceptibility of tomato plants under elevated CO2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuai; Li, Xin; Sun, Zenghui; Shao, Shujun; Hu, Lingfei; Ye, Meng; Zhou, Yanhong; Xia, Xiaojian; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Increasing CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) have the potential to disrupt plant–pathogen interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems, but the research in this area has often produced conflicting results. Variations in phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) signalling could be associated with variations in the responses of pathogens to plants grown under elevated [CO2]. In this study, interactions between tomato plants and three pathogens with different infection strategies were compared. Elevated [CO2] generally favoured SA biosynthesis and signalling but repressed the JA pathway. The exposure of plants to elevated [CO2] revealed a lower incidence and severity of disease caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and by Pseudomonas syringae, whereas plant susceptibility to necrotrophic Botrytis cinerea increased. The elevated [CO2]-induced and basal resistance to TMV and P. syringae were completely abolished in plants in which the SA signalling pathway nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) had been silenced or in transgenic plants defective in SA biosynthesis. In contrast, under both ambient and elevated [CO2], the susceptibility to B. cinerea highly increased in plants in which the JA signalling pathway proteinase inhibitors (PI) gene had been silenced or in a mutant affected in JA biosynthesis. However, plants affected in SA signalling remained less susceptible to this disease. These findings highlight the modulated antagonistic relationship between SA and JA that contributes to the variation in disease susceptibility under elevated [CO2]. This information will be critical for investigating how elevated CO2 may affect plant defence and the dynamics between plants and pathogens in both agricultural and natural ecosystems. PMID:25657213

  4. Oxidative-stress-induced afterdepolarizations and calmodulin kinase II signaling.

    PubMed

    Xie, Lai-Hua; Chen, Fuhua; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S; Weiss, James N

    2009-01-01

    In the heart, oxidative stress caused by exogenous H(2)O(2) has been shown to induce early afterdepolarizations (EADs) and triggered activity by impairing Na current (I(Na)) inactivation. Because H(2)O(2) activates Ca(2+)/calmodulin kinase (CaMK)II, which also impairs I(Na) inactivation and promotes EADs, we hypothesized that CaMKII activation may be an important factor in EADs caused by oxidative stress. Using the patch-clamp and intracellular Ca (Ca(i)) imaging in Fluo-4 AM-loaded rabbit ventricular myocytes, we found that exposure to H(2)O(2) (0.2 to 1 mmol/L) for 5 to 15 minutes consistently induced EADs that were suppressed by the I(Na) blocker tetrodotoxin (10 micromol/L), as well as the I(Ca,L) blocker nifedipine. H(2)O(2) enhanced both peak and late I(Ca,L), consistent with CaMKII-mediated facilitation. By prolonging the action potential plateau and increasing Ca influx via I(Ca,L), H(2)O(2)-induced EADs were also frequently followed by DADs in response to spontaneous (ie, non-I(Ca,L)-gated) sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release after repolarization. The CaMKII inhibitor KN-93 (1 micromol/L; n=4), but not its inactive analog KN-92 (1 micromol/L, n=5), prevented H(2)O(2)-induced EADs and DADs, and the selective CaMKII peptide inhibitor AIP (autocamtide-2-related inhibitory peptide) (2 micromol/L) significantly delayed their onset. In conclusion, H(2)O(2)-induced afterdepolarizations depend on both impaired I(Na) inactivation to reduce repolarization reserve and enhancement of I(Ca,L) to reverse repolarization, which are both facilitated by CaMKII activation. Our observations support a link between increased oxidative stress, CaMKII activation, and afterdepolarizations as triggers of lethal ventricular arrhythmias in diseased hearts. PMID:19038865

  5. Evidence that phytochrome functions as a protein kinase in plant light signalling

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ah-Young; Han, Yun-Jeong; Baek, Ayoung; Ahn, Taeho; Kim, Soo Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Son, Minky; Lee, Keun Woo; Shen, Yu; Song, Pill-Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that plant phytochromes are autophosphorylating serine/threonine kinases. However, the biochemical properties and functional roles of putative phytochrome kinase activity in plant light signalling are largely unknown. Here, we describe the biochemical and functional characterization of Avena sativa phytochrome A (AsphyA) as a potential protein kinase. We provide evidence that phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) are phosphorylated by phytochromes in vitro. Domain mapping of AsphyA shows that the photosensory core region consisting of PAS-GAF-PHY domains in the N-terminal is required for the observed kinase activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that transgenic plants expressing mutant versions of AsphyA, which display reduced activity in in vitro kinase assays, show hyposensitive responses to far-red light. Further analysis reveals that far-red light-induced phosphorylation and degradation of PIF3 are significantly reduced in these transgenic plants. Collectively, these results suggest a positive relationship between phytochrome kinase activity and photoresponses in plants. PMID:27173885

  6. Evidence that phytochrome functions as a protein kinase in plant light signalling.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ah-Young; Han, Yun-Jeong; Baek, Ayoung; Ahn, Taeho; Kim, Soo Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Son, Minky; Lee, Keun Woo; Shen, Yu; Song, Pill-Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that plant phytochromes are autophosphorylating serine/threonine kinases. However, the biochemical properties and functional roles of putative phytochrome kinase activity in plant light signalling are largely unknown. Here, we describe the biochemical and functional characterization of Avena sativa phytochrome A (AsphyA) as a potential protein kinase. We provide evidence that phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) are phosphorylated by phytochromes in vitro. Domain mapping of AsphyA shows that the photosensory core region consisting of PAS-GAF-PHY domains in the N-terminal is required for the observed kinase activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that transgenic plants expressing mutant versions of AsphyA, which display reduced activity in in vitro kinase assays, show hyposensitive responses to far-red light. Further analysis reveals that far-red light-induced phosphorylation and degradation of PIF3 are significantly reduced in these transgenic plants. Collectively, these results suggest a positive relationship between phytochrome kinase activity and photoresponses in plants. PMID:27173885

  7. New protein kinase and protein phosphatase families mediate signal transduction in bacterial catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Galinier, A; Kravanja, M; Engelmann, R; Hengstenberg, W; Kilhoffer, M C; Deutscher, J; Haiech, J

    1998-02-17

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is the prototype of a signal transduction mechanism. In enteric bacteria, cAMP was considered to be the second messenger in CCR by playing a role reminiscent of its actions in eukaryotic cells. However, recent results suggest that CCR in Escherichia coli is mediated mainly by an inducer exclusion mechanism. In many Gram-positive bacteria, CCR is triggered by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, which activates HPr kinase, presumed to be one of the most ancient serine protein kinases. We here report cloning of the Bacillus subtilis hprK and hprP genes and characterization of the encoded HPr kinase and P-Ser-HPr phosphatase. P-Ser-HPr phosphatase forms a new family of phosphatases together with bacterial phosphoglycolate phosphatase, yeast glycerol-3-phosphatase, and 2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate phosphatase whereas HPr kinase represents a new family of protein kinases on its own. It does not contain the domain structure typical for eukaryotic protein kinases. Although up to now the HPr modifying/demodifying enzymes were thought to exist only in Gram-positive bacteria, a sequence comparison revealed that they also are present in several Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. PMID:9465101

  8. RAS signalling through PI3-Kinase controls cell migration via modulation of Reelin expression

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Esther; Molina-Arcas, Miriam; Krygowska, Agata Adelajda; East, Philip; Warne, Patricia; Nicol, Alastair; Downward, Julian

    2016-01-01

    RAS signalling through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-Kinase) has been shown to have an essential role in tumour initiation and maintenance. RAS also regulates cell motility and tumour invasiveness, but the role of direct RAS binding to PI3-Kinase in this remains uncertain. Here, we provide evidence that disruption of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase p110α decreases cell motility and prevents activation of Rac GTPase. Analysis of gene expression in cells lacking RAS interaction with p110α reveals increased levels of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin and activation of its downstream pathway resulting in upregulation of E-cadherin expression. Induction of the Reelin/E-cadherin axis is also observed in Kras mutant lung tumours that are regressing due to blockade of RAS interaction with PI3-Kinase. Furthermore, loss of Reelin correlates with decreased survival of lung and breast cancer patients. Reelin thus plays a role in restraining RAS and PI3-kinase promotion of cell motility and potentially tumour metastasis. PMID:27071537

  9. Angiotensin II-triggered kinase signaling cascade in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bali, Anjana; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have projected the renin-angiotensin system as a central component of the physiological and pathological processes of assorted neurological disorders. Its primary effector hormone, angiotensin II (Ang II), not only mediates the physiological effects of vasoconstriction and blood pressure regulation in cardiovascular disease but is also implicated in a much wider range of neuronal activities and diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, neuronal injury, and cognitive disorders. Ang II produces different actions by acting on its two subtypes of receptors (AT1 and AT2); however, the well-known physiological actions of Ang II are mainly mediated through AT1 receptors. Moreover, recent studies also suggest the important functional role of AT2 receptor in the brain. Ang II acts on AT1 receptors and conducts its functions via MAP kinases (ERK1/2, JNK, and p38MAPK), glycogen synthase kinase, Rho/ROCK kinase, receptor tyrosine kinases (PDGF and EGFR), and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (Src, Pyk2, and JAK/STAT). AT1R-mediated NADPH oxidase activation also leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species, widely implicated in neuroinflammation. These signaling cascades lead to glutamate excitotoxicity, apoptosis, cerebral infarction, astrocyte proliferation, nociception, neuroinflammation, and progression of other neurological disorders. The present review focuses on the Ang II-triggered signal transduction pathways in central nervous system. PMID:26574890

  10. Large-Scale Analysis of Kinase Signaling in Yeast Pseudohyphal Development Identifies Regulation of Ribonucleoprotein Granules.

    PubMed

    Shively, Christian A; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Norman, Kaitlyn L; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Xu, Tao; Sheidy, Daniel T; Dobry, Craig J; Sabath, Ivan; Cosky, Eric E P; Tran, Elizabeth J; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Andrews, Philip C; Kumar, Anuj

    2015-10-01

    Yeast pseudohyphal filamentation is a stress-responsive growth transition relevant to processes required for virulence in pathogenic fungi. Pseudohyphal growth is controlled through a regulatory network encompassing conserved MAPK (Ste20p, Ste11p, Ste7p, Kss1p, and Fus3p), protein kinase A (Tpk2p), Elm1p, and Snf1p kinase pathways; however, the scope of these pathways is not fully understood. Here, we implemented quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify each of these signaling networks, generating a kinase-dead mutant in filamentous S. cerevisiae and surveying for differential phosphorylation. By this approach, we identified 439 phosphoproteins dependent upon pseudohyphal growth kinases. We report novel phosphorylation sites in 543 peptides, including phosphorylated residues in Ras2p and Flo8p required for wild-type filamentous growth. Phosphoproteins in these kinase signaling networks were enriched for ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granule components, and we observe co-localization of Kss1p, Fus3p, Ste20p, and Tpk2p with the RNP component Igo1p. These kinases localize in puncta with GFP-visualized mRNA, and KSS1 is required for wild-type levels of mRNA localization in RNPs. Kss1p pathway activity is reduced in lsm1Δ/Δ and pat1Δ/Δ strains, and these genes encoding P-body proteins are epistatic to STE7. The P-body protein Dhh1p is also required for hyphal development in Candida albicans. Collectively, this study presents a wealth of data identifying the yeast phosphoproteome in pseudohyphal growth and regulatory interrelationships between pseudohyphal growth kinases and RNPs. PMID:26447709

  11. Large-Scale Analysis of Kinase Signaling in Yeast Pseudohyphal Development Identifies Regulation of Ribonucleoprotein Granules

    PubMed Central

    Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Xu, Tao; Sheidy, Daniel T.; Dobry, Craig J.; Sabath, Ivan; Cosky, Eric E. P.; Tran, Elizabeth J.; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Andrews, Philip C.; Kumar, Anuj

    2015-01-01

    Yeast pseudohyphal filamentation is a stress-responsive growth transition relevant to processes required for virulence in pathogenic fungi. Pseudohyphal growth is controlled through a regulatory network encompassing conserved MAPK (Ste20p, Ste11p, Ste7p, Kss1p, and Fus3p), protein kinase A (Tpk2p), Elm1p, and Snf1p kinase pathways; however, the scope of these pathways is not fully understood. Here, we implemented quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify each of these signaling networks, generating a kinase-dead mutant in filamentous S. cerevisiae and surveying for differential phosphorylation. By this approach, we identified 439 phosphoproteins dependent upon pseudohyphal growth kinases. We report novel phosphorylation sites in 543 peptides, including phosphorylated residues in Ras2p and Flo8p required for wild-type filamentous growth. Phosphoproteins in these kinase signaling networks were enriched for ribonucleoprotein (RNP) granule components, and we observe co-localization of Kss1p, Fus3p, Ste20p, and Tpk2p with the RNP component Igo1p. These kinases localize in puncta with GFP-visualized mRNA, and KSS1 is required for wild-type levels of mRNA localization in RNPs. Kss1p pathway activity is reduced in lsm1Δ/Δ and pat1Δ/Δ strains, and these genes encoding P-body proteins are epistatic to STE7. The P-body protein Dhh1p is also required for hyphal development in Candida albicans. Collectively, this study presents a wealth of data identifying the yeast phosphoproteome in pseudohyphal growth and regulatory interrelationships between pseudohyphal growth kinases and RNPs. PMID:26447709

  12. Rho kinase signaling pathways during stretch in primary alveolar epithelia.

    PubMed

    DiPaolo, Brian C; Margulies, Susan S

    2012-05-15

    Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) maintain integrity of the blood-gas barrier with actin-anchored intercellular tight junctions. Stretched type I-like AECs undergo magnitude- and frequency-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling into perijunctional actin rings. On the basis of published studies in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs), we hypothesize that RhoA activity, Rho kinase (ROCK) activity, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain II (MLC2) increase in stretched type I-like AECs in a manner that is dependent on stretch magnitude, and that RhoA, ROCK, or MLC2 activity inhibition will attenuate stretch-induced actin remodeling and preserve barrier properties. Primary type I-like AEC monolayers were stretched biaxially to create a change in surface area (ΔSA) of 12%, 25%, or 37% in a cyclic manner at 0.25 Hz for up to 60 min or left unstretched. Type I-like AECs were also treated with Rho pathway inhibitors (ML-7, Y-27632, or blebbistatin) and stained for F-actin or treated with the myosin phosphatase inhibitor calyculin-A and quantified for monolayer permeability. Counter to our hypothesis, ROCK activity and MLC2 phosphorylation decreased in type I-like AECs stretched to 25% and 37% ΔSA and did not change in monolayers stretched to 12% ΔSA. Furthermore, RhoA activity decreased in type I-like AECs stretched to 37% ΔSA. In contrast, MLC2 phosphorylation in HPAECs increased when HPAECs were stretched to 12% ΔSA but then decreased when they were stretched to 37% ΔSA, similar to type I-like AECs. Perijunctional actin rings were observed in unstretched type I-like AECs treated with the Rho pathway inhibitor blebbistatin. Myosin phosphatase inhibition increased MLC2 phosphorylation in stretched type I-like AECs but had no effect on monolayer permeability. In summary, stretch alters RhoA activity, ROCK activity, and MLC2 phosphorylation in a manner dependent on stretch magnitude and cell type. PMID:22287611

  13. Rho kinase signaling pathways during stretch in primary alveolar epithelia

    PubMed Central

    DiPaolo, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) maintain integrity of the blood-gas barrier with actin-anchored intercellular tight junctions. Stretched type I-like AECs undergo magnitude- and frequency-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling into perijunctional actin rings. On the basis of published studies in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs), we hypothesize that RhoA activity, Rho kinase (ROCK) activity, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain II (MLC2) increase in stretched type I-like AECs in a manner that is dependent on stretch magnitude, and that RhoA, ROCK, or MLC2 activity inhibition will attenuate stretch-induced actin remodeling and preserve barrier properties. Primary type I-like AEC monolayers were stretched biaxially to create a change in surface area (ΔSA) of 12%, 25%, or 37% in a cyclic manner at 0.25 Hz for up to 60 min or left unstretched. Type I-like AECs were also treated with Rho pathway inhibitors (ML-7, Y-27632, or blebbistatin) and stained for F-actin or treated with the myosin phosphatase inhibitor calyculin-A and quantified for monolayer permeability. Counter to our hypothesis, ROCK activity and MLC2 phosphorylation decreased in type I-like AECs stretched to 25% and 37% ΔSA and did not change in monolayers stretched to 12% ΔSA. Furthermore, RhoA activity decreased in type I-like AECs stretched to 37% ΔSA. In contrast, MLC2 phosphorylation in HPAECs increased when HPAECs were stretched to 12% ΔSA but then decreased when they were stretched to 37% ΔSA, similar to type I-like AECs. Perijunctional actin rings were observed in unstretched type I-like AECs treated with the Rho pathway inhibitor blebbistatin. Myosin phosphatase inhibition increased MLC2 phosphorylation in stretched type I-like AECs but had no effect on monolayer permeability. In summary, stretch alters RhoA activity, ROCK activity, and MLC2 phosphorylation in a manner dependent on stretch magnitude and cell type. PMID:22287611

  14. Insulin Receptor Substrate 2-mediated Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Signaling Selectively Inhibits Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β to Regulate Aerobic Glycolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Justine; Shaw, Leslie M.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins that mediate the activation of signaling pathways in response to ligand stimulation of upstream cell surface receptors. Despite sharing a high level of homology and the ability to activate PI3K, only Irs-2 positively regulates aerobic glycolysis in mammary tumor cells. To determine the contribution of Irs-2-dependent PI3K signaling to this selective regulation, we generated an Irs-2 mutant deficient in the recruitment of PI3K. We identified four tyrosine residues (Tyr-649, Tyr-671, Tyr-734, and Tyr-814) that are essential for the association of PI3K with Irs-2 and demonstrate that combined mutation of these tyrosines inhibits glucose uptake and lactate production, two measures of aerobic glycolysis. Irs-2-dependent activation of PI3K regulates the phosphorylation of specific Akt substrates, most notably glycogen synthase kinase 3β (Gsk-3β). Inhibition of Gsk-3β by Irs-2-dependent PI3K signaling promotes glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis. The regulation of unique subsets of Akt substrates by Irs-1 and Irs-2 may explain their non-redundant roles in mammary tumor biology. Taken together, our study reveals a novel mechanism by which Irs-2 signaling preferentially regulates tumor cell metabolism and adds to our understanding of how this adaptor protein contributes to breast cancer progression. PMID:24811175

  15. Activation of MAP kinase signaling pathway in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as biomarker of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Châtel, A; Hamer, B; Talarmin, H; Dorange, G; Schröder, H C; Müller, W E G

    2010-03-01

    Stimulation of MAP kinase signal transduction pathway by various stressful stimuli was investigated in the marine bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Analyses were performed in animals exposed in laboratory to selected pollutants and in mussels collected in winter and summer along the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia). Effects of oxidative stress, induced by tributyltin, hydrogen peroxide and water soluble fraction of diesel fuel on the activation/phosphorylation of the three Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) p38, JNK and ERK using a newly developed ELISA procedure were evaluated. MAP kinase activation was analyzed 1h after exposure of mussels to chemical agents, and after recovery periods of 6 and 24h. Our results clearly indicated that pollutants generated different patterns of induction of the MAPK phosphorylation. Indeed, only pp38 and pJNK were activated with 11, 33 and 100 microg/L TBT, reaching a maximum activation after 6h in seawater following treatment of mussels with 11 microg/L TBT. Treatment with 0.074 and 0.222 mM H2O2 enhanced activation of both p38 and ERK. These two kinases were activated after 1h exposure, followed by a diminution after 6h of recovery in seawater and a reactivation after 24h. The levels of phosphorylated P38 and JNK were increased after mussel exposure with 7.5, 15 and 30% of water soluble fraction of diesel oil. P38 was activated concentration dependently at 1h exposure. Additionally, field study pointed out seasonal differences in MAP kinases activation as mussels collected during summer had a higher enzyme activation state than in winter, as well as sampling site differences which could be correlated to the industrial/tourism activity and environmental stresses (salinity). All the results converge towards MAP kinase signaling pathway being induced by various pollutants in M. galloprovincialis. This signaling cascade should be considered as a possible biomarker of environmental stress and pollution. PMID:19948362

  16. T Cell Receptor (TCR) Antagonism without a Negative Signal: Evidence from T Cell Hybridomas Expressing Two Independent TCRs

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Sabine H.; Bolliger, Luca; Carbone, Francis R.; Palmer, Ed

    1999-01-01

    Antagonist peptides inhibit T cell responses by an unknown mechanism. By coexpressing two independent T cell receptors (TCRs) on a single T cell hybridoma, we addressed the question of whether antagonist ligands induce a dominant-negative signal that inhibits the function of a second, independent TCR. The two receptors, Vα2Vβ5 and Vα2Vβ10, restricted by H-2Kb and specific for the octameric peptides SIINFEKL and SSIEFARL, respectively, were coexpressed on the same cell. Agonist stimulation demonstrated that the two receptors behaved independently with regard to antigen-induced TCR downregulation and intracellular biochemical signaling. The exposure of one TCR (Vα2Vβ5) to antagonist peptides could not inhibit a second independent TCR (Vα2Vβ10) from responding to its antigen. Thus, our data clearly demonstrate that these antagonist ligands do not generate a dominant-negative signal which affects the responsiveness of the entire cell. In addition, a kinetic analysis showed that even 12 h after engagement with their cognate antigen and 10 h after reaching a steady-state of TCR internalization, T cells were fully inhibited by the addition of antagonist peptides. The window of susceptibility to antagonist ligands correlated exactly with the time required for the responding T cells to commit to interleukin 2 production. The data support a model where antagonist ligands can competitively inhibit antigenic peptides from productively engaging the TCR. This competitive inhibition is effective during the entire commitment period, where sustained TCR engagement is essential for full T cell activation. PMID:9892608

  17. Sensory Protein Kinase Signaling in Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae: Host Location and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Ressurreição, Margarida; Kirk, Ruth S; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M; Page, Nigel M; Walker, Anthony J

    2015-12-01

    Schistosoma mansoni cercariae display specific behavioral responses to abiotic/biotic stimuli enabling them to locate and infect the definitive human host. Here we report the effect of such stimulants on signaling pathways of cercariae in relation to host finding and invasion. Cercariae exposed to various light/temperature regimens displayed modulated protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activities, with distinct responses at 37 °C and intense light/dark, when compared to 24 °C under normal light. Kinase activities were localized to regions including the oral sensory papillae, acetabular ducts, tegument, acetabular glands, and nervous system. Furthermore, linoleic acid modulated PKC and ERK activities concurrent with the temporal release of acetabular gland components. Attenuation of PKC, ERK, and p38 MAPK activities significantly reduced gland component release, particularly in response to linoleic acid, demonstrating the importance of these signaling pathways to host penetration mechanisms. PMID:26401028

  18. Protein kinase Cι expression and oncogenic signaling mechanisms in cancer.

    PubMed

    Murray, Nicole R; Kalari, Krishna R; Fields, Alan P

    2011-04-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrates that PKCι is an oncogene and prognostic marker that is frequently targeted for genetic alteration in many major forms of human cancer. Functional data demonstrate that PKCι is required for the transformed phenotype of lung, pancreatic, ovarian, prostate, colon, and brain cancer cells. Future studies will be required to determine whether PKCι is also an oncogene in the many other cancer types that also overexpress PKCι. Studies of PKCι using genetically defined models of tumorigenesis have revealed a critical role for PKCι in multiple stages of tumorigenesis, including tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. Recent studies in a genetic model of lung adenocarcinoma suggest a role for PKCι in transformation of lung cancer stem cells. These studies have important implications for the therapeutic use of aurothiomalate (ATM), a highly selective PKCι signaling inhibitor currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Significant progress has been made in determining the molecular mechanisms by which PKCι drives the transformed phenotype, particularly the central role played by the oncogenic PKCι-Par6 complex in transformed growth and invasion, and of several PKCι-dependent survival pathways in chemo-resistance. Future studies will be required to determine the composition and dynamics of the PKCι-Par6 complex, and the mechanisms by which oncogenic signaling through this complex is regulated. Likewise, a better understanding of the critical downstream effectors of PKCι in various human tumor types holds promise for identifying novel prognostic and surrogate markers of oncogenic PKCι activity that may be clinically useful in ongoing clinical trials of ATM. PMID:20945390

  19. An AGEF-1/Arf GTPase/AP-1 Ensemble Antagonizes LET-23 EGFR Basolateral Localization and Signaling during C. elegans Vulva Induction

    PubMed Central

    Skorobogata, Olga; Escobar-Restrepo, Juan M.; Rocheleau, Christian E.

    2014-01-01

    LET-23 Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling specifies the vulval cell fates during C. elegans larval development. LET-23 EGFR localization on the basolateral membrane of the vulval precursor cells (VPCs) is required to engage the LIN-3 EGF-like inductive signal. The LIN-2 Cask/LIN-7 Veli/LIN-10 Mint (LIN-2/7/10) complex binds LET-23 EGFR, is required for its basolateral membrane localization, and therefore, vulva induction. Besides the LIN-2/7/10 complex, the trafficking pathways that regulate LET-23 EGFR localization have not been defined. Here we identify vh4, a hypomorphic allele of agef-1, as a strong suppressor of the lin-2 mutant Vulvaless (Vul) phenotype. AGEF-1 is homologous to the mammalian BIG1 and BIG2 Arf GTPase guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), which regulate secretory traffic between the Trans-Golgi network, endosomes and the plasma membrane via activation of Arf GTPases and recruitment of the AP-1 clathrin adaptor complex. Consistent with a role in trafficking we show that AGEF-1 is required for protein secretion and that AGEF-1 and the AP-1 complex regulate endosome size in coelomocytes. The AP-1 complex has previously been implicated in negative regulation of LET-23 EGFR, however the mechanism was not known. Our genetic data indicate that AGEF-1 is a strong negative regulator of LET-23 EGFR signaling that functions in the VPCs at the level of the receptor. In line with AGEF-1 being an Arf GEF, we identify the ARF-1.2 and ARF-3 GTPases as also negatively regulating signaling. We find that the agef-1(vh4) mutation results in increased LET-23 EGFR on the basolateral membrane in both wild-type and lin-2 mutant animals. Furthermore, unc-101(RNAi), a component of the AP-1 complex, increased LET-23 EGFR on the basolateral membrane in lin-2 and agef-1(vh4); lin-2 mutant animals. Thus, an AGEF-1/Arf GTPase/AP-1 ensemble functions opposite the LIN-2/7/10 complex to antagonize LET-23 EGFR basolateral membrane localization and signaling

  20. Nucleostemin Rejuvenates Cardiac Progenitor Cells and Antagonizes Myocardial Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hariharan, Nirmala; Quijada, Pearl; Mohsin, Sadia; Joyo, Anya; Samse, Kaitlen; Monsanto, Megan; De La Torre, Andrea; Avitabile, Daniele; Ormachea, Lucia; McGregor, Michael J.; Tsai, Emily J; Sussman, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Functional decline in stem cell-mediated regeneration contributes to aging associated with cellular senescence in c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). Clinical implementation of CPC-based therapy with elderly patients would benefit tremendously from understanding molecular characteristics of senescence to antagonize aging. Nucleostemin (NS) is a nucleolar protein regulating stem cell proliferation and pluripotency. OBJECTIVES The goal is to demonstrate that NS preserves characteristics associated with “stemness” in CPCs and antagonizes myocardial senescence and aging. METHODS CPCs isolated from human fetal (FhCPC) and adult failing (AhCPC) hearts, as well as young (YCPC) and old mice (OCPC), were studied for senescence characteristics and NS expression. Heterozygous knockout mice with one functional allele of NS (NS+/−) were used to demonstrate that NS preserves myocardial structure and function and slows characteristics of aging. RESULTS NS expression is decreased in AhCPCs relative to FhCPC, correlating with lowered proliferation potential and shortened telomere length. AhCPC characteristics resemble OCPCs, which have a phenotype induced by NS silencing, resulting in cell flattening, senescence, multinucleated cells, decreased S phase progression, diminished expression of stemness markers and up-regulation of p53 and p16. CPC senescence resulting from NS loss is partially p53 dependent and is rescued by concurrent silencing of p53. Mechanistically, NS induction correlates with Pim-1 kinase-mediated stabilization of c-Myc. Engineering OCPCs and AhCPCs to overexpress NS decreases senescent and multinucleated cells, restores morphology, and antagonizes senescence, thereby preserving phenotypic properties of “stemness.” Early cardiac aging with decline in cardiac function, increase in senescence markers p53 and p16, telomere attrition, and accompanied CPC exhaustion is evident in NS+/− mice. CONCLUSIONS Youthful properties and antagonism of

  1. The role of the Janus kinase family/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway in fibrotic renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Futoshi; Meldrum, Kirstan K.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several years, a number of cytokines and growth factors including transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, and angiotensin II have been shown to play a crucial role in renal fibrosis. The Janus kinase family (JAK) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) constitute one of the primary signaling pathways that regulate cytokine expression, and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway has increasingly been implicated in the pathophysiology of renal disease. This review examines the role of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in fibrotic renal disease. The JAK/STAT signaling pathway is activated in a variety of renal diseases and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of renal fibrosis. Experimental evidence suggests that inhibition of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, in particular JAK2 and STAT3, may suppress renal fibrosis and protect renal function. However, it is incompletely understood which cells activate the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and which JAK/STAT signaling pathway is activated in each renal disease. Research regarding JAK/STAT signaling and its contribution to renal disease is still ongoing in humans. Future studies are required to elucidate the potential role of JAK/STAT signaling inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in the attenuation of renal fibrosis. PMID:22883438

  2. Histone demethylase dUTX antagonizes JAK-STAT signaling to maintain proper gene expression and architecture of the Drosophila testis niche

    PubMed Central

    Tarayrah, Lama; Herz, Hans-Martin; Shilatifard, Ali; Chen, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells reside in microenvironments called niches, where they are regulated by both extrinsic cues, such as signaling from neighboring cells, and intrinsic factors, such as chromatin structure. Here we report that in the Drosophila testis niche an H3K27me3-specific histone demethylase encoded by Ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat gene on the X chromosome (dUTX) maintains active transcription of the Suppressor of cytokine signaling at 36E (Socs36E) gene by removing the repressive H3K27me3 modification near its transcription start site. Socs36E encodes an inhibitor of the Janus kinase signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway. Whereas much is known about niche-to-stem cell signaling, such as the JAK-STAT signaling that is crucial for stem cell identity and activity, comparatively little is known about signaling from stem cells to the niche. Our results reveal that stem cells send feedback to niche cells to maintain the proper gene expression and architecture of the niche. We found that dUTX acts in cyst stem cells to maintain gene expression in hub cells through activating Socs36E transcription and preventing hyperactivation of JAK-STAT signaling. dUTX also acts in germline stem cells to maintain hub structure through regulating DE-Cadherin levels. Therefore, our findings provide new insights into how an epigenetic factor regulates crosstalk among different cell types within an endogenous stem cell niche, and shed light on the biological functions of a histone demethylase in vivo. PMID:23364332

  3. Protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase contribute to the chondroprotective effect of morroniside on osteoarthritis chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liang; Zeng, Guoqing; Liu, Zejun; Zhang, Bing; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Honghai; Zheng, Xinpeng; Song, Gang; Kang, Jian; Xia, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive studies on the multifaceted roles of morroniside, the main active constituent of iridoid glycoside from Corni Fructus, the effect of morroniside on osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the influence of morroniside on cultured human OA chondrocytes and a rat experimental model of OA. The results showed that morroniside enhanced the cell viability and the levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression (PCNA), type II collagen and aggrecan in human OA chondrocytes, indicating that morroniside promoted chondrocyte survival and matrix synthesis. Furthermore, different doses of morroniside activated protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in human OA chondrocytes, and in turn, triggered AKT/S6 and ERK/P70S6K/S6 pathway, respectively. The PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 or the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated the effect of morroniside on human OA chondrocytes, indicating that the activation of AKT and ERK contributed to the regulation of morroniside in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, the intra-articular injection of morroniside elevated the level of proteoglycans in cartilage matrix and the thickness of articular cartilage in a rat experimental model of OA, with the increase of AKT and ERK activation. As a consequence, morroniside has chondroprotective effect on OA chondrocytes, and may have the therapeutic potential for OA treatment. PMID:25754021

  4. Protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase contribute to the chondroprotective effect of morroniside on osteoarthritis chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Zeng, Guoqing; Liu, Zejun; Zhang, Bing; Cui, Xu; Zhao, Honghai; Zheng, Xinpeng; Song, Gang; Kang, Jian; Xia, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Despite extensive studies on the multifaceted roles of morroniside, the main active constituent of iridoid glycoside from Corni Fructus, the effect of morroniside on osteoarthritis (OA) chondrocytes remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the influence of morroniside on cultured human OA chondrocytes and a rat experimental model of OA. The results showed that morroniside enhanced the cell viability and the levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression (PCNA), type II collagen and aggrecan in human OA chondrocytes, indicating that morroniside promoted chondrocyte survival and matrix synthesis. Furthermore, different doses of morroniside activated protein kinase B (AKT) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in human OA chondrocytes, and in turn, triggered AKT/S6 and ERK/P70S6K/S6 pathway, respectively. The PI3K/AKT inhibitor LY294002 or the MEK/ERK inhibitor U0126 attenuated the effect of morroniside on human OA chondrocytes, indicating that the activation of AKT and ERK contributed to the regulation of morroniside in human OA chondrocytes. In addition, the intra-articular injection of morroniside elevated the level of proteoglycans in cartilage matrix and the thickness of articular cartilage in a rat experimental model of OA, with the increase of AKT and ERK activation. As a consequence, morroniside has chondroprotective effect on OA chondrocytes, and may have the therapeutic potential for OA treatment. PMID:25754021

  5. The tomato kinome and the tomato kinase library ORFeome: novel resources for the study of kinases and signal transduction in tomato and solanaceae species.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra K; Calviño, Mauricio; Brauer, Elizabeth K; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Strickler, Susan; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Stratmann, Johannes W; Popescu, George V; Mueller, Lukas A; Popescu, Sorina C

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase-driven phosphorylation constitutes the core of cellular signaling. Kinase components of signal transduction pathways are often targeted for inactivation by pathogens. The study of kinases and immune signal transduction in the model crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) would benefit from the availability of community-wide resources for large scale and systems-level experimentation. Here, we defined the tomato kinome and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the tomato kinome and 15 other plant species. We constructed a tomato kinase library (TOKN 1.0) of over 300 full-length open reading frames (ORF) cloned into a recombination-based vector. We developed a high-throughput pipeline to isolate and transform tomato protoplasts. A subset of the TOKN 1.0 library kinases were expressed in planta, were purified, and were used to generate a functional tomato protein microarray. All resources created were utilized to test known and novel associations between tomato kinases and Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effectors in a large-scale format. Bsk7 was identified as a component of the plant immune response and a candidate effector target. These resources will enable comprehensive investigations of signaling pathways and host-pathogen interactions in tomato and other Solanaceae spp. PMID:24047240

  6. GIT1/βPIX signaling proteins and PAK1 kinase regulate microtubule nucleation.

    PubMed

    Černohorská, Markéta; Sulimenko, Vadym; Hájková, Zuzana; Sulimenko, Tetyana; Sládková, Vladimíra; Vinopal, Stanislav; Dráberová, Eduarda; Dráber, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Microtubule nucleation from γ-tubulin complexes, located at the centrosome, is an essential step in the formation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. However, the signaling mechanisms that regulate microtubule nucleation in interphase cells are largely unknown. In this study, we report that γ-tubulin is in complexes containing G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1), p21-activated kinase interacting exchange factor (βPIX), and p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) in various cell lines. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed association of GIT1, βPIX and activated PAK1 with centrosomes. Microtubule regrowth experiments showed that depletion of βPIX stimulated microtubule nucleation, while depletion of GIT1 or PAK1 resulted in decreased nucleation in the interphase cells. These data were confirmed for GIT1 and βPIX by phenotypic rescue experiments, and counting of new microtubules emanating from centrosomes during the microtubule regrowth. The importance of PAK1 for microtubule nucleation was corroborated by the inhibition of its kinase activity with IPA-3 inhibitor. GIT1 with PAK1 thus represent positive regulators, and βPIX is a negative regulator of microtubule nucleation from the interphase centrosomes. The regulatory roles of GIT1, βPIX and PAK1 in microtubule nucleation correlated with recruitment of γ-tubulin to the centrosome. Furthermore, in vitro kinase assays showed that GIT1 and βPIX, but not γ-tubulin, serve as substrates for PAK1. Finally, direct interaction of γ-tubulin with the C-terminal domain of βPIX and the N-terminal domain of GIT1, which targets this protein to the centrosome, was determined by pull-down experiments. We propose that GIT1/βPIX signaling proteins with PAK1 kinase represent a novel regulatory mechanism of microtubule nucleation in interphase cells. PMID:27012601

  7. Jelly Belly Trans-Synaptic Signaling to Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Regulates Neurotransmission Strength and Synapse Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbough, Jeffrey; Kent, Karla S.; Broadie, Kendal; Weiss, Joseph B.

    2012-01-01

    In Drosophila the secreted signaling molecule Jelly Belly (Jeb) activates Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (Alk), a receptor tyrosine kinase, in multiple developmental and adult contexts. We have shown previously that Jeb and Alk are highly enriched at Drosophila synapses within the CNS neuropil and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) and postulated a conserved intercellular signaling function. At the embryonic and larval NMJ Jeb is localized in the motor neuron presynaptic terminal whereas Alk is concentrated in the muscle postsynaptic domain surrounding boutons, consistent with anterograde trans-synaptic signaling. Here, we show by functional inhibition of Jeb-Alk signaling that neurotransmission is regulated by Jeb secretion. Jeb is a novel negative regulator of neuromuscular transmission. Reduction or inhibtion of Alk function results in enhanced synaptic transmission. Activation of Alk conversely inhibits synaptic transmission. Restoration of wildtype postsynaptic Alk expression in Alk partial loss-of-function mutants rescues NMJ transmission phenotypes and confirms that postsynaptic Alk regulates NMJ transmission. The effects of impaired Alk signaling on neurotransmission are observed in the absence of associated changes in NMJ structure. Complete removal of Jeb in motor neurons, however, disrupts both presynaptic bouton architecture and postsynaptic differentiation. Non-physiologic activation of Alk signaling also negatively regulates NMJ growth. Activation of Jeb-Alk signaling triggers the Ras-MAP kinase cascade in both pre- and postsynaptic compartments. These novel roles for Jeb-Alk signaling in the modulation of synaptic function and structure have potential implications for recently reported Alk functions in human addiction, retention of spatial memory, cognitive dysfunction in neurofibromatosis and the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:22949158

  8. The lipid kinase PIP5K1C regulates pain signaling and sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Brittany D.; Loo, Lipin; Street, Sarah E.; Ma, Anqi; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Stashko, Michael A.; Jin, Jian; Janzen, William P.; Frye, Stephen V.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Numerous pain-producing (pronociceptive) receptors signal via phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate (PIP2) hydrolysis. However, it is currently unknown which lipid kinases generate PIP2 in nociceptive dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and if these kinases regulate pronociceptive receptor signaling. Here, we found that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5 kinase type 1C (PIP5K1C) is expressed at higher levels than any other PIP5K and, based on experiments with Pip5k1c+/− mice, generates at least half of all PIP2 in DRG neurons. Additionally, Pip5k1c haploinsufficiency reduces pronociceptive receptor signaling and TRPV1 sensitization in DRG neurons as well as thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in mouse models of chronic pain. We identified a novel small molecule inhibitor of PIP5K1C (UNC3230) in a high-throughput screen. UNC3230 lowered PIP2 levels in DRG neurons and attenuated hypersensitivity when administered intrathecally or into the hindpaw. Our studies reveal that PIP5K1C regulates PIP2- dependent nociceptive signaling and suggest that PIP5K1C is a novel therapeutic target for chronic pain. PMID:24853942

  9. Acetaldehyde alters MAP kinase signalling and epigenetic histone modifications in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shivendra D; Lee, Youn Ju; Park, Pil-hoon; Aroor, Annayya R

    2007-01-01

    Although both oxidative and non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol are involved in generating ethanol matabolic stress (Emess), the oxidative metabolite acetaldehyde plays a critical role in the cellular actions of ethanol. We have investigated the effects of acetaldehyde on p42/44 MAP kinase, p46/p54 c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/JNK2) and p38 MAP kinase in hepatocytes. Acetaldehyde caused temporal activation of p42/44 MAPK followed by JNK, but the activation of the p42/44 MAPK was not a prerequisite for the JNK activation. Activation ofJNK1 by acetaldehyde was greater than JNK2. Ethanol and acetaldehyde activatedJNK have opposing roles; ethanol-induced JNK activation increased apoptosis whereas that by acetaldehyde decreased apoptosis. Acetaldehyde also caused histone H3 acetylation at Lys9 and phosphorylation of histone H3 at Serl0 and 28, the latter being dependent on p38 MAP kinase. Phosphorylation at Ser28 was higher than at Serl0. Thus acetaldehyde distinctively alters MAP kinase signalling and histone modifications, processes involved in transcriptional activation. PMID:17590997

  10. Sensory Protein Kinase Signaling in Schistosoma mansoni Cercariae: Host Location and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Ressurreição, Margarida; Kirk, Ruth S.; Rollinson, David; Emery, Aidan M.; Page, Nigel M.; Walker, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Schistosoma mansoni cercariae display specific behavioral responses to abiotic/biotic stimuli enabling them to locate and infect the definitive human host. Here we report the effect of such stimulants on signaling pathways of cercariae in relation to host finding and invasion. Cercariae exposed to various light/temperature regimens displayed modulated protein kinase C (PKC), extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activities, with distinct responses at 37°C and intense light/dark, when compared to 24°C under normal light. Kinase activities were localized to regions including the oral sensory papillae, acetabular ducts, tegument, acetabular glands, and nervous system. Furthermore, linoleic acid modulated PKC and ERK activities concurrent with the temporal release of acetabular gland components. Attenuation of PKC, ERK, and p38 MAPK activities significantly reduced gland component release, particularly in response to linoleic acid, demonstrating the importance of these signaling pathways to host penetration mechanisms. PMID:26401028

  11. Tumor Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Signaling and Development of Metastatic Disease in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ree, Anne Hansen; Kristensen, Annette Torgunrud; Saelen, Marie Grøn; de Wijn, Rik; Edvardsen, Hege; Jovanovic, Jovana; Abrahamsen, Torveig Weum; Dueland, Svein; Flatmark, Kjersti

    2012-01-01

    Background Recognizing EGFR as key orchestrator of the metastatic process in colorectal cancer, but also the substantial heterogeneity of responses to anti-EGFR therapy, we examined the pattern of composite tumor kinase activities governed by EGFR-mediated signaling that might be implicated in development of metastatic disease. Patients and Methods Point mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA and ERBB2 amplification were determined in primary tumors from 63 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer scheduled for radical treatment. Using peptide arrays with tyrosine kinase substrates, ex vivo phosphopeptide profiles were generated from the same baseline tumor samples and correlated to metastasis-free survival. Results Unsupervised clustering analysis of the resulting phosphorylation of 102 array substrates defined two tumor classes, both consisting of cases with and without KRAS/BRAF mutations. The smaller cluster group of patients, with tumors generating high ex vivo phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-related substrates, had a particularly aggressive disease course, with almost a half of patients developing metastatic disease within one year of follow-up. Conclusion High phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-mediated signaling activity of the primary tumor, rather than KRAS/BRAF mutation status, was identified as a hallmark of poor metastasis-free survival in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer undergoing radical treatment of the pelvic cavity. PMID:23226389

  12. Multiple signal amplification electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensors for sensitive protein kinase activity analysis and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zonghua; Yan, Zhiyong; Sun, Na; Liu, Yang

    2015-06-15

    A novel electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor was built for the detection of kinase activity based on multiple signal amplification nanoprobes. In this strategy, the Xanthine oxidase (XOD) and 5'-phosphate group end DNA conjugated AuNPs was integrated with the phosphorylated peptide by Zr(4+). The XOD on gold nanoparticles can catalyze dissolved oxygen to produce H2O2 in the presence of hypoxanthine (HA) which acts as a coreactor for luminol ECL reaction. In addition, due to the excellent catalytic activity of gold nanoparticle toward luminol ECL reaction and its large surface area that can accommodate large number of XOD and DNA on the surface, the ECL signal of luminol was significantly amplified, affording a highly sensitive ECL analysis of kinase activity. The as-proposed biosensor presents a low detection limit of 0.09 U mL(-1) for protein kinase A (PKA) activity, wide linear range (from 0.1 to 10 U mL(-1)) and excellent stability even in serum samples. This biosensor can also be applied for quantitative kinase inhibitor evaluation. The robust ECL biosensor provides a valuable tool for the high throughput assay in the applications of clinic diagnostic and therapeutic. PMID:25682506

  13. Human CD180 Transmits Signals via the PIM-1L Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Nicole; Zajonz, Alexandra; Burger, Matthew T.; Schweighoffer, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors of the innate immune system that recognize conserved structural motifs and activate cells via a downstream signaling cascade. The CD180/MD1 molecular complex is an unusual member of the TLR family, since it lacks the components that are normally required for signal transduction by other TLRs. Therefore the CD180/MD 1 complex has been considered of being incapable of independently initiating cellular signals. Using chemogenetic approaches we identified specifically the membrane bound long form of PIM-1 kinase, PIM-1L as the mediator of CD180-dependent signaling. A dominant negative isoform of PIM-1L, but not of other PIM kinases, inhibited signaling elicited by cross-linking of CD180, and this effect was phenocopied by PIM inhibitors. PIM-1L was directed to the cell membrane by its N-terminal extension, where it colocalized and physically associated with CD180. Triggering CD180 also induced increased phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein BAD in a PIM kinase-dependent fashion. Also in primary human B cells, which are the main cells expressing CD180 in man, cross-linking of CD180 by monoclonal antibodies stimulated cell survival and proliferation that was abrogated by specific inhibitors. By associating with PIM-1L, CD180 can thus obtain autonomous signaling capabilities, and this complex is then channeling inflammatory signals into B cell survival programs. Pharmacological inhibition of PIM-1 should therefore provide novel therapeutic options in diseases that respond to innate immune stimulation with subsequently increased B cell activity, such as lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis. PMID:26555723

  14. Human CD180 Transmits Signals via the PIM-1L Kinase.

    PubMed

    Egli, Nicole; Zajonz, Alexandra; Burger, Matthew T; Schweighoffer, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important sensors of the innate immune system that recognize conserved structural motifs and activate cells via a downstream signaling cascade. The CD180/MD1 molecular complex is an unusual member of the TLR family, since it lacks the components that are normally required for signal transduction by other TLRs. Therefore the CD180/MD 1 complex has been considered of being incapable of independently initiating cellular signals. Using chemogenetic approaches we identified specifically the membrane bound long form of PIM-1 kinase, PIM-1L as the mediator of CD180-dependent signaling. A dominant negative isoform of PIM-1L, but not of other PIM kinases, inhibited signaling elicited by cross-linking of CD180, and this effect was phenocopied by PIM inhibitors. PIM-1L was directed to the cell membrane by its N-terminal extension, where it colocalized and physically associated with CD180. Triggering CD180 also induced increased phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein BAD in a PIM kinase-dependent fashion. Also in primary human B cells, which are the main cells expressing CD180 in man, cross-linking of CD180 by monoclonal antibodies stimulated cell survival and proliferation that was abrogated by specific inhibitors. By associating with PIM-1L, CD180 can thus obtain autonomous signaling capabilities, and this complex is then channeling inflammatory signals into B cell survival programs. Pharmacological inhibition of PIM-1 should therefore provide novel therapeutic options in diseases that respond to innate immune stimulation with subsequently increased B cell activity, such as lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis. PMID:26555723

  15. The channel-kinase TRPM7, revealing the untold story of Mg(2+) in cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Carsten; Brandao, Katherine; Perraud, Anne-Laure

    2014-01-01

    Ion homeostasis dysregulations have severe effects on human health, impairing the effectiveness and appropriateness of major cellular events, including immune responses. The adverse effects of Mg(2+) deficiency on cellular physiology are well known and documented, but mechanistic insights into Mg(2+) sensitive signal transduction are still lacking. TRPM7 and its sister channel TRPM6 stand out as the only known fusions of an ion pore with a Ser/Thr kinase domain. Both channels are permeable to divalent cations and are central regulators of Mg(2+) homeostasis. One crucial aspect of TRPM7 function we have extensively studied is the relationship between its ion channel portion and its C-terminal Ser/Thr kinase domain. The modulation of ion channels by phosphorylation through exogenous kinases is common, however the covalent bound between the TRPM7 channel and its kinase suggests a novel kind of link between ion-entry and signal transduction events. Current knowledge supports a reciprocal "two-way street" model where TRPM7-kinase modulates ion transport function through Ser/Thr phosphorylation, and in turn, channel gating and ionic conditions in close proximity to the pore regulate TRPM7-kinase mediated signaling. We have shown that TRPM7 acts as a sensor of Mg(2+)-availability, adjusting key cellular functions such as the rate of cellular protein translation to the Mg(2+) nutritional status. Since molecular mechanisms controlling rates of protein translation are critical for cell growth and division in response to nutrient availability, this could have relevance for example for therapies targeted at molecules shaping the cancerous translational apparatus. In our quest to understand the biology of Mg(2+) in the context of immune responses, we found that TRPM7 associates with, and phosphorylates phospholipase C gamma 2 (PLCγ2), a pivotal molecule in the signaling pathway following B-cell receptor (BCR) activation. This contributes to the Mg(2+)-dependent modulation of

  16. MEK Kinase 2 and the Adaptor Protein Lad Regulate Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 5 Activation by Epidermal Growth Factor via Src

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiyong; Wei, Xudong; Kesavan, Kamala; Garrington, Timothy P.; Fan, Ruihua; Mei, Junjie; Anderson, Steven M.; Gelfand, Erwin W.; Johnson, Gary L.

    2003-01-01

    Lad is an SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein that binds MEK kinase 2 (MEKK2), a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase for the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) and JNK pathways. Lad and MEKK2 are in a complex in resting cells. Antisense knockdown of Lad expression and targeted gene disruption of MEKK2 expression results in loss of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and stress stimuli-induced activation of ERK5. Activation of MEKK2 and the ERK5 pathway by EGF and stress stimuli is dependent on Src kinase activity. The Lad-binding motif is encoded within amino acids 228 to 282 in the N terminus of MEKK2, and expression of this motif blocks Lad-MEKK2 interaction, resulting in inhibition of Src-dependent activation of MEKK2 and ERK5. JNK activation by EGF is similarly inhibited by loss of Lad or MEKK2 expression and by blocking the interaction of MEKK2 and Lad. Our studies demonstrate that Src kinase activity is required for ERK5 activation in response to EGF, MEKK2 expression is required for ERK5 activation by Src, Lad and MEKK2 association is required for Src activation of ERK5, and EGF and Src stimulation of ERK5-regulated MEF2-dependent promoter activity requires a functional Lad-MEKK2 signaling complex. PMID:12640115

  17. Propranolol Improves Impaired Hepatic Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling after Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Natasha C; Song, Juquan; Boehning, Darren; Kraft, Robert; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    Severe burn injury is associated with induction of the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress leads to activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), suppression of insulin receptor signaling via phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and subsequent insulin resistance. Marked and sustained increases in catecholamines are prominent after a burn. Here, we show that administration of propranolol, a nonselective β1/2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, attenuates ER stress and JNK activation. Attenuation of ER stress by propranolol results in increased insulin sensitivity, as determined by activation of hepatic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt. We conclude that catecholamine release is responsible for the ER stress response and impaired insulin receptor signaling after burn injury. PMID:22396018

  18. Rho-Associated Kinase Inhibitors Promote Microglial Uptake Via the ERK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fu, Peicai; Tang, Ronghua; Yu, Zhiyuan; Li, Caihong; Chen, Xue; Xie, Minjie; Wang, Wei; Luo, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Microglia are immunocompetent cells in the central nervous system that take up tissue debris and pathogens. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) has been identified as an important regulator of uptake, proliferation, secretion, and differentiation in a number of cell types. Although ROCK plays critical roles in the microglial secretion of inflammatory factors, migration, and morphology, its effects on microglial uptake activity have not been well characterized. In the present study, we found that treatment of BV2 microglia and primary microglia with the ROCK inhibitors Y27632 and fasudil increased uptake activity and was associated with morphological changes. Furthermore, western blots showed that this increase in uptake activity was mediated through the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade, indicating the importance of ROCK in regulating microglial uptake activity. PMID:26779919

  19. Recently emerging signaling landscape of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Attar, Rukset; Arslan, Belkis Atasever; Romero, Mirna Azalea; ul Haq, Muhammad Fahim; Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    Research over the years has progressively and sequentially provided near complete resolution of regulators of the DNA repair pathways which are so important for cancer prevention. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (ATM), a high-molecular-weight PI3K-family kinase has emerged as a master regulator of DNA damage signaling and extensive cross-talk between ATM and downstream proteins forms an interlaced signaling network. There is rapidly growing scientific evidence emphasizing newly emerging paradigms in ATM biology. In this review, we provide latest information regarding how oxidative stress induced activation of ATM can be utilized as a therapeutic target in different cancer cell lines and in xenografted mice. Moreover, crosstalk between autophagy and ATM is also discussed with focus on how autophagy inhibition induces apoptosis in cancer cells. PMID:25169474

  20. Hydrogen Peroxide Sensing and Signaling by Protein Kinases in the Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Burgoyne, Joseph R.; Oka, Shin-ichi; Ale-Agha, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidants were once principally considered perpetrators of injury and disease. However, this has become an antiquated view, with cumulative evidence showing that the oxidant hydrogen peroxide serves as a signaling molecule. Hydrogen peroxide carries vital information about the redox state of the cell and is crucial for homeostatic regulation during health and adaptation to stress. Recent Advances: In this review, we examine the contemporary concepts for how hydrogen peroxide is sensed and transduced into a biological response by introducing post-translational oxidative modifications on select proteins. Oxidant sensing and signaling by kinases are of particular importance as they integrate oxidant signals into phospho-regulated pathways. We focus on CAMKII, PKA, and PKG, kinases whose redox regulation has notable impact on cardiovascular function. Critical Issues: In addition, we examine the mechanism for regulating intracellular hydrogen peroxide, considering the net concentrations that may accumulate. The effects of endogenously generated oxidants are often modeled by applying exogenous hydrogen peroxide to cells or tissues. Here we consider whether model systems exposed to exogenous hydrogen peroxide have relevance to systems where the oxidant is generated endogenously, and if so, what concentration can be justified in terms of relevance to health and disease. Future Directions: Improving our understanding of hydrogen peroxide signaling and the sensor proteins that it can modify will help us develop new strategies to regulate intracellular signaling to prevent disease. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1042–1052. PMID:22867279

  1. Human pre-B cell receptor signal transduction: evidence for distinct roles of PI3kinase and MAP-kinase signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Anbazhagan, Kolandaswamy; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Isabelle, Piec; Stella, Ibata; Céline, Alleaume-De Martel; Bissac, Eliane; Bertrand, Brassart; Rémy, Nyga; Naomi, Taylor; Vincent, Fuentes; Rochette, Jacques; Lassoued, Kaïss

    2013-01-01

    Pre-BCR acts as a critical checkpoint in B cell development. However, its signalling cascade still remains indistinctly characterised in human. We investigated pre-BCR signalling pathway to examine its regulation in normal primary pre-B lymphocytes and pre-B cell lines. In cell lines, early signalling events occurring after pre-BCR stimulation include phosphorylation of Lyn, Blk and Syk together with ZAP70, Btk, Vav, PLC-γ2 and various adaptor proteins, such as BLNK, LAB, LAT and SLP-76. Further downstream, these molecules induced activation of the PI3K/AKT and MAP-kinase resulting in an augmentation of canonical NF-κB pathways and cFos/AP1 activation. PI3K and MAPK exerted opposing effects on the pre-BCR-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB and c-Fos/AP1 pathways. Immediate nuclear export of FoxO3A and delayed import of IRF4 were additional events observed after pre-BCR crosslinking in primary cells. Pre-BCR-induced down-regulation of Rag1, Rag2, E2A and Pax5 transcripts occurred in a PI3K-dependent manner. Finally we bring evidence that pre-BCR stimulation or co stimulation with CD19 enhances cell cycle signal. PMID:25400915

  2. Morelloflavone, a biflavonoid, inhibits tumor angiogenesis by targeting rho GTPases and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiufeng; Yi, Tingfang; Yi, Zhengfang; Cho, Sung Gook; Qu, Weijing; Pinkaew, Decha; Fujise, Ken; Liu, Mingyao

    2009-01-15

    Morelloflavone, a biflavonoid extracted from Garcinia dulcis, has shown antioxidative, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the function and the mechanism of this compound in cancer treatment and tumor angiogenesis have not been elucidated to date. In this study, we postulated that morelloflavone might have the ability to inhibit angiogenesis, the pivotal step in tumor growth, invasiveness, and metastasis. We showed that morelloflavone could inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and capillary-like tube formation of primary cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. Morelloflavone effectively inhibited microvessel sprouting of endothelial cells in the mouse aortic ring assay and the formation of new blood microvessels induced by VEGF in the mouse Matrigel plug assay. Furthermore, morelloflavone inhibited tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of prostate cancer cells (PC-3) in xenograft mouse tumor model in vivo, suggesting that morelloflavone inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. To understand the underlying mechanism of morelloflavone on the inhibitory effect of tumor growth and angiogenesis, we showed that morelloflavone could inhibit the activation of both RhoA and Rac1 GTPases but have little effect on the activation of Cdc42 GTPase. Additionally, morelloflavone inhibited the phosphorylation and activation of Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase/ERK pathway kinases without affecting VEGF receptor 2 activity. Together, our results indicate that morelloflavone exerts antiangiogenic action by targeting the activation of Rho-GTPases and ERK signaling pathways. These findings are the first to reveal the novel functions of morelloflavone in tumor angiogenesis and its molecular basis for the anticancer action. PMID:19147565

  3. Alternative Activation Mechanisms of Protein Kinase B Trigger Distinct Downstream Signaling Responses.

    PubMed

    Balzano, Deborah; Fawal, Mohamad-Ali; Velázquez, Jose V; Santiveri, Clara M; Yang, Joshua; Pastor, Joaquín; Campos-Olivas, Ramón; Djouder, Nabil; Lietha, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) is an important mediator of signals that control various cellular processes including cell survival, growth, proliferation, and metabolism. PKB promotes these processes by phosphorylating many cellular targets, which trigger distinct downstream signaling events. However, how PKB is able to selectively target its substrates to induce specific cellular functions remains elusive. Here we perform a systematic study to dissect mechanisms that regulate intrinsic kinase activity versus mechanisms that specifically regulate activity toward specific substrates. We demonstrate that activation loop phosphorylation and the C-terminal hydrophobic motif are essential for high PKB activity in general. On the other hand, we identify membrane targeting, which for decades has been regarded as an essential step in PKB activation, as a mechanism mainly affecting substrate selectivity. Further, we show that PKB activity in cells can be triggered independently of PI3K by initial hydrophobic motif phosphorylation, presumably through a mechanism analogous to other AGC kinases. Importantly, different modes of PKB activation result in phosphorylation of distinct downstream targets. Our data indicate that specific mechanisms have evolved for signaling nodes, like PKB, to select between various downstream events. Targeting such mechanisms selectively could facilitate the development of therapeutics that might limit toxic side effects. PMID:26286748

  4. Multiple signals modulate the activity of the complex sensor kinase TodS

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Jiménez, Hortencia; Ortega, Álvaro; García-Fontana, Cristina; Ramos, Juan Luis; Krell, Tino

    2015-01-01

    The reason for the existence of complex sensor kinases is little understood but thought to lie in the capacity to respond to multiple signals. The complex, seven-domain sensor kinase TodS controls in concert with the TodT response regulator the expression of the toluene dioxygenase pathway in Pseudomonas putida F1 and DOT-T1E. We have previously shown that some aromatic hydrocarbons stimulate TodS activity whereas others behave as antagonists. We show here that TodS responds in addition to the oxidative agent menadione. Menadione but no other oxidative agent tested inhibited TodS activity in vitro and reduced PtodX expression in vivo. The menadione signal is incorporated by a cysteine-dependent mechanism. The mutation of the sole conserved cysteine of TodS (C320) rendered the protein insensitive to menadione. We evaluated the mutual opposing effects of toluene and menadione on TodS autophosphorylation. In the presence of toluene, menadione reduced TodS activity whereas toluene did not stimulate activity in the presence of menadione. It was shown by others that menadione increases expression of glucose metabolism genes. The opposing effects of menadione on glucose and toluene metabolism may be partially responsible for the interwoven regulation of both catabolic pathways. This work provides mechanistic detail on how complex sensor kinases integrate different types of signal molecules. PMID:24986263

  5. Dermatophytes Activate Skin Keratinocytes via Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling and Induce Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Achterman, Rebecca R.; Moyes, David L.; Thavaraj, Selvam; Smith, Adam R.; Blair, Kris M.

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes cause superficial and cutaneous fungal infections in immunocompetent hosts and invasive disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, the host mechanisms that regulate innate immune responses against these fungi are largely unknown. Here, we utilized commercially available epidermal tissues and primary keratinocytes to assess (i) damage induction by anthropophilic, geophilic, and zoophilic dermatophyte strains and (ii) the keratinocyte signaling pathways, transcription factors, and proinflammatory responses induced by a representative dermatophyte, Trichophyton equinum. Initially, five dermatophyte species were tested for their ability to invade, cause tissue damage, and induce cytokines, with Microsporum gypseum inducing the greatest level of damage and cytokine release. Using T. equinum as a representative dermatophyte, we found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were predominantly affected, with increased levels of phospho-p38 and phospho-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) but decreased levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Notably, the NF-κB and PI3K pathways were largely unaffected. T. equinum also significantly increased expression of the AP-1-associated transcription factor, c-Fos, and the MAPK regulatory phosphatase, MKP1. Importantly, the ability of T. equinum to invade, cause tissue damage, activate signaling and transcription factors, and induce proinflammatory responses correlated with germination, indicating that germination may be important for dermatophyte virulence and host immune activation. PMID:25667269

  6. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 activation in endothelial cells exposed to cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Kito, H.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/ERK2) are activated and might play a role in enhanced proliferation and morphological change induced by strain. Bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) were subjected to an average of 6 or 10% strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for up to 4 h. Cyclic strain caused strain- and time-dependent phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2. Peak phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 induced by 10% strain were at 10 min. A specific ERK1/ERK2 kinase inhibitor, PD-98059, inhibited phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/ERK2 but did not inhibit the increased cell proliferation and cell alignment induced by strain. Treatment of BAEC with 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1, 4-benzohydroquinone, to deplete inositol trisphosphate-sensitive calcium storage, and gadolinium chloride, a Ca2+ channel blocker, did not inhibit the activation of ERK1/ERK2. Strain-induced ERK1/ERK2 activation was partly inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor calphostin C and completely inhibited by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein. These data suggest that 1) ERK1/ERK2 are not critically involved in the strain-induced cell proliferation and orientation, 2) strain-dependent activation of ERK1/ERK2 is independent of intracellular and extracellular calcium mobilization, and 3) protein kinase C activation and tyrosine kinase regulate strain-induced activation of ERK1/ERK2.

  7. HCMV pUS28 initiates pro-migratory signaling via activation of Pyk2 kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Vomaske, Jennifer; Varnum, Susan M.; Melnychuk, Ryan; Smith, Patricia; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Shutthanandan, Janani I.; Streblow, Daniel N.

    2010-12-10

    The HCMV-encoded chemokine receptor US28 mediates smooth muscle cell (SMC) and macrophage motility and this activity has been implicated in the acceleration of vascular disease. US28 induced SMC migration involves the activation of the protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) Src and Focal adhesion kinase as well as the small GTPase RhoA. In the current study, we examined the involvement of the PTK Pyk2 in US28-induced cellular motility. Expression of a Pyk2 lacking the autophosphorylation site (Tyr-402) blocks US28-mediated SMC migration in response to RANTES, while the kinase-inactive mutant failed to elicit the same negative effect on migration. US28 stimulation with RANTES results in ligand-dependent and calcium-dependent phosphorylation of Pyk2 Tyr-402 and induced the formation of an active Pyk2 kinase complex containing several novel Pyk2 binding proteins. Interestingly, expression of the autophosphorylation site mutant Pyk2 F402Y did not abrogate the formation of an active Pyk2 kinase complex, but instead prevented US28-mediated activation of RhoA. These findings represent the first demonstration that US28 signals through Pyk2 and that this PTK participates in US28-mediated cellular motility via activation of RhoA. Additionally, US28 activated RhoA via Pyk2 in the U373 glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, the Pyk2 kinase complex in U373 contained several proteins known to participate in glioma tumorigenesis. These results provide a potential mechanistic link between HCMV-US28 and glioblastoma cell activation and motility.

  8. Slow Inhibition and Conformation Selective Properties of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 and 2 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Johannes; Xiao, Yao; Pardi, Arthur; Ahn, Natalie G.

    2016-01-01

    The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway is a target for anticancer therapy, validated using inhibitors of B-Raf and MAP kinase kinase (MKK) 1 and 2. Clinical outcomes show a high frequency of acquired resistance in patient tumors, involving upregulation of activity of the MAP kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2. Thus, inhibitors for ERK1/2 are potentially important for targeted therapeutics against cancer. The structures and potencies of different ERK inhibitors have been published, but their kinetic mechanisms have not been characterized. Here we perform enzyme kinetic studies on six representative ERK inhibitors, with potencies varying from 100 pM to 20 μM. Compounds with significant biological activity (IC50 < 100 nM) that inhibit in the subnanomolar range (Vertex-11e and SCH772984) display slow-onset inhibition and represent the first inhibitors of ERK2 known to demonstrate slow dissociation rate constants (values of 0.2 and 1.1 h−1, respectively). Furthermore, we demonstrate using kinetic competition assays that Vertex-11e binds with differing affinities to ERK2 in its inactive, unphosphorylated and active, phosphorylated forms. Finally, two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation nuclear magnetic resonance experiments reveal that distinct conformational states are formed in complexes of Vertex-11e with inactive and active ERK2. Importantly, two conformers interconvert in equilibrium in the active ERK2 apoenzyme, but Vertex-11e strongly shifts the equilibrium completely to one conformer. Thus, a high-affinity, slow dissociation inhibitor stabilizes different enzyme conformations depending on the activity state of ERK2 and reveals properties of conformational selection toward the active kinase. PMID:25350931

  9. Zebrafish WNK Lysine Deficient Protein Kinase 1 (wnk1) Affects Angiogenesis Associated with VEGF Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Chuan; Kou, Fong-Ji; Lu, Jeng-Wei; Wang, Horng-Dar; Huang, Chou-Long; Yuh, Chiou-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The WNK1 (WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1) protein is a serine/threonine protein kinase with emerging roles in cancer. WNK1 causes hypertension and hyperkalemia when overexpressed and cardiovascular defects when ablated in mice. In this study, the role of Wnk1 in angiogenesis was explored using the zebrafish model. There are two zebrafish wnk1 isoforms, wnk1a and wnk1b, and both contain all the functional domains found in the human WNK1 protein. Both isoforms are expressed in the embryo at the initiation of angiogenesis and in the posterior cardinal vein (PCV), similar to fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (flt4). Using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides against wnk1a and wnk1b, we observed that wnk1 morphants have defects in angiogenesis in the head and trunk, similar to flk1/vegfr2 morphants. Furthermore, both wnk1a and wnk1b mRNA can partially rescue the defects in vascular formation caused by flk1/vegfr2 knockdown. Mutation of the kinase domain or the Akt/PI3K phosphorylation site within wnk1 destroys this rescue capability. The rescue experiments provide evidence that wnk1 is a downstream target for Vegfr2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2) and Akt/PI3K signaling and thereby affects angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, we found that knockdown of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (flk1/vegfr2) or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (flt4/vegfr3) results in a decrease in wnk1a expression, as assessed by in situ hybridization and q-RT-PCR analysis. Thus, the Vegf/Vegfr signaling pathway controls angiogenesis in zebrafish via Akt kinase-mediated phosphorylation and activation of Wnk1 as well as transcriptional regulation of wnk1 expression. PMID:25171174

  10. Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5)-mediated signalling cascade regulates expression of iron superoxide dismutase gene in Arabidopsis under salinity stress

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Yu; Chen, Wei-hua; Jia, Wensuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are involved in plant adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses but the upstream signalling process that modulates their expression is not clear. Expression of two iron SODs, FSD2 and FSD3, was significantly increased in Arabidopsis in response to NaCl treatment but blocked in transgenic MKK5-RNAi plant, mkk5. Using an assay system for transient expression in protoplasts, it was found that mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 5 (MKK5) was also activated in response to salt stress. Overexpression of MKK5 in wild-type plants enhanced their tolerance to salt treatments, while mkk5 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to salt stress in germination on salt-containing media. Moreover, another kinase, MPK6, was also involved in the MKK5-mediated iron superoxide dismutase (FSD) signalling pathway in salt stress. The kinase activity of MPK6 was totally turned off in mkk5, whereas the activity of MPK3 was only partially blocked. MKK5 interacted with the MEKK1 protein that was also involved in the salt-induced FSD signalling pathway. These data suggest that salt-induced FSD2 and FSD3 expressions are influenced by MEKK1 via MKK5–MPK6-coupled signalling. This MAP kinase cascade (MEKK1, MKK5, and MPK6) mediates the salt-induced expression of iron superoxide dismutases. PMID:26136265

  11. Mechanisms of cell signaling by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: from mitochondria to MAP kinases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levonen, A. L.; Patel, R. P.; Brookes, P.; Go, Y. M.; Jo, H.; Parthasarathy, S.; Anderson, P. G.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Many of the biological and pathological effects of nitric oxide (NO) are mediated through cell signaling pathways that are initiated by NO reacting with metalloproteins. More recently, it has been recognized that the reaction of NO with free radicals such as superoxide and the lipid peroxyl radical also has the potential to modulate redox signaling. Although it is clear that NO can exert both cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions, the focus of this overview are those reactions that could lead to protection of the cell against oxidative stress in the vasculature. This will include the induction of antioxidant defenses such as glutathione, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in response to blood flow, and modulation of mitochondrial function and its impact on apoptosis. Models are presented that show the increased synthesis of glutathione in response to shear stress and inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It appears that in the vasculature NO-dependent signaling pathways are of three types: (i) those involving NO itself, leading to modulation of mitochondrial respiration and soluble guanylate cyclase; (ii) those that involve S-nitrosation, including inhibition of caspases; and (iii) autocrine signaling that involves the intracellular formation of peroxynitrite and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Taken together, NO plays a major role in the modulation of redox cell signaling through a number of distinct pathways in a cellular setting.

  12. Chemical Genetics Approach Reveals Importance of cAMP and MAP Kinase Signaling to Lipid and Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon-E; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Ahn, Joon-Woo; Hwang, Hyemin; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we attempted to understand signaling pathways behind lipid biosynthesis by employing a chemical genetics approach based on small molecule inhibitors. Specific signaling inhibitors of MAP kinase or modulators of cAMP signaling were selected to evaluate the functional roles of each of the key signaling pathways in three different microalgal species: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Chlorella vulgaris, and Haematococcus pluvialis. Our results clearly indicate that cAMP signaling pathways are indeed positively associated with microalgal lipid biosynthesis. In contrast, MAP kinase pathways in three microalgal species are all negatively implicated in both lipid and carotenoid biosynthesis. PMID:25563422

  13. Induction of Central Host Signaling Kinases during Pneumococcal Infection of Human THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Thomas P.; Scholz, Annemarie; Kiachludis, Delia; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a widespread colonizer of the mucosal epithelia of the upper respiratory tract of human. However, pneumococci are also responsible for numerous local as well as severe systemic infections, especially in children under the age of five and the elderly. Under certain conditions, pneumococci are able to conquer the epithelial barrier, which can lead to a dissemination of the bacteria into underlying tissues and the bloodstream. Here, specialized macrophages represent an essential part of the innate immune system against bacterial intruders. Recognition of the bacteria through different receptors on the surface of macrophages leads thereby to an uptake and elimination of bacteria. Accompanied cytokine release triggers the migration of leukocytes from peripheral blood to the site of infection, where monocytes differentiate into mature macrophages. The rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during phagocytosis, resulting in the engulfment of bacteria, is thereby tightly regulated by receptor-mediated phosphorylation cascades of different protein kinases. The molecular cellular processes including the modulation of central protein kinases are only partially solved. In this study, the human monocytic THP-1 cell line was used as a model system to examine the activation of Fcγ and complement receptor-independent signal cascades during infection with S. pneumoniae. Pneumococci cultured either in chemically defined or complex medium showed no significant differences in pneumococcal phagocytosis by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) differentiated THP-1 cells. Double immuno-fluorescence microscopy and antibiotic protection assays demonstrated a time-dependent uptake and killing of S. pneumoniae 35A inside of macrophages. Infections of THP-1 cells in the presence of specific pharmacological inhibitors revealed a crucial role of actin polymerization and importance of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Protein kinase B (Akt) as well during

  14. Induction of Central Host Signaling Kinases during Pneumococcal Infection of Human THP-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Thomas P; Scholz, Annemarie; Kiachludis, Delia; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a widespread colonizer of the mucosal epithelia of the upper respiratory tract of human. However, pneumococci are also responsible for numerous local as well as severe systemic infections, especially in children under the age of five and the elderly. Under certain conditions, pneumococci are able to conquer the epithelial barrier, which can lead to a dissemination of the bacteria into underlying tissues and the bloodstream. Here, specialized macrophages represent an essential part of the innate immune system against bacterial intruders. Recognition of the bacteria through different receptors on the surface of macrophages leads thereby to an uptake and elimination of bacteria. Accompanied cytokine release triggers the migration of leukocytes from peripheral blood to the site of infection, where monocytes differentiate into mature macrophages. The rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during phagocytosis, resulting in the engulfment of bacteria, is thereby tightly regulated by receptor-mediated phosphorylation cascades of different protein kinases. The molecular cellular processes including the modulation of central protein kinases are only partially solved. In this study, the human monocytic THP-1 cell line was used as a model system to examine the activation of Fcγ and complement receptor-independent signal cascades during infection with S. pneumoniae. Pneumococci cultured either in chemically defined or complex medium showed no significant differences in pneumococcal phagocytosis by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) differentiated THP-1 cells. Double immuno-fluorescence microscopy and antibiotic protection assays demonstrated a time-dependent uptake and killing of S. pneumoniae 35A inside of macrophages. Infections of THP-1 cells in the presence of specific pharmacological inhibitors revealed a crucial role of actin polymerization and importance of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and Protein kinase B (Akt) as well during

  15. p38 and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases Regulate the Myogenic Program at Multiple Steps

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenguo; Woodring, Pamela J.; Bhakta, Kunjan S.; Tamura, Kumiko; Wen, Fang; Feramisco, James R.; Karin, Michael; Wang, Jean Y. J.; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2000-01-01

    The extracellular signals which regulate the myogenic program are transduced to the nucleus by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). We have investigated the role of two MAPKs, p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), whose activities undergo significant changes during muscle differentiation. p38 is rapidly activated in myocytes induced to differentiate. This activation differs from those triggered by stress and cytokines, because it is not linked to Jun–N-terminal kinase stimulation and is maintained during the whole process of myotube formation. Moreover, p38 activation is independent of a parallel promyogenic pathway stimulated by insulin-like growth factor 1. Inhibition of p38 prevents the differentiation program in myogenic cell lines and human primary myocytes. Conversely, deliberate activation of endogenous p38 stimulates muscle differentiation even in the presence of antimyogenic cues. Much evidence indicates that p38 is an activator of MyoD: (i) p38 kinase activity is required for the expression of MyoD-responsive genes, (ii) enforced induction of p38 stimulates the transcriptional activity of a Gal4-MyoD fusion protein and allows efficient activation of chromatin-integrated reporters by MyoD, and (iii) MyoD-dependent myogenic conversion is reduced in mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from p38α−/− embryos. Activation of p38 also enhances the transcriptional activities of myocyte enhancer binding factor 2A (MEF2A) and MEF2C by direct phosphorylation. With MEF2C, selective phosphorylation of one residue (Thr293) is a tissue-specific activating signal in differentiating myocytes. Finally, ERK shows a biphasic activation profile, with peaks of activity in undifferentiated myoblasts and postmitotic myotubes. Importantly, activation of ERK is inhibitory toward myogenic transcription in myoblasts but contributes to the activation of myogenic transcription and regulates postmitotic responses (i.e., hypertrophic growth) in myotubes. PMID

  16. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling in Cancer and Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lipovka, Yulia; Konhilas, John P

    2015-01-01

    The AMP-protein kinase (AMPK) pathway is very versatile as it regulates cellular energetic homeostasis in many different tissue types. An appreciation for the importance of AMPK signalling and regulation in cardiovascular and tumor biology is increasing. Recently, a link has been established between anti-cancer therapy and susceptibility to cardiac disease. It has been shown that some anti-cancer drugs lead to an increased risk of cardiac disease, underlined by de-regulation of AMPK signalling. This review explores the AMPK signalling axis in both cardiac and tumor metabolism. We then examine off-target AMPK inhibition by cancer drugs and how this may translate into increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Finally, we discuss the implication of deregulated AMPK signalling during different stages of cardiac hypertrophy. Better understanding of the molecular pathways behind pathological processes will lead to the development of more effective therapeutics for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26798768

  17. Spatial and Temporal Regulation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activation and Intracellular Signal Transduction.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, John J M; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M; Dahan, Sophie; Dominguez, Michel; Posner, Barry I

    2016-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) exemplify how receptor location is coupled to signal transduction. Extracellular binding of ligands to these RTKs triggers their concentration into vesicles that bud off from the cell surface to generate intracellular signaling endosomes. On the exposed cytosolic surface of these endosomes, RTK autophosphorylation selects the downstream signaling proteins and lipids to effect growth factor and polypeptide hormone action. This selection is followed by the recruitment of protein tyrosine phosphatases that inactivate the RTKs and deliver them by membrane fusion and fission to late endosomes. Coincidentally, proteinases inside the endosome cleave the EGF and insulin ligands. Subsequent inward budding of the endosomal membrane generates multivesicular endosomes. Fusion with lysosomes then results in RTK degradation and downregulation. Through the spatial positioning of RTKs in target cells for EGF and insulin action, the temporal extent of signaling, attenuation, and downregulation is regulated. PMID:27023845

  18. Early redox, Src family kinase, and calcium signaling integrate wound responses and tissue regeneration in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sa Kan; Freisinger, Christina M.; LeBert, Danny C.

    2012-01-01

    Tissue injury can lead to scar formation or tissue regeneration. How regenerative animals sense initial tissue injury and transform wound signals into regenerative growth is an unresolved question. Previously, we found that the Src family kinase (SFK) Lyn functions as a redox sensor in leukocytes that detects H2O2 at wounds in zebrafish larvae. In this paper, using zebrafish larval tail fins as a model, we find that wounding rapidly activated SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia. The immediate SFK and calcium signaling in epithelia was important for late epimorphic regeneration of amputated fins. Wound-induced activation of SFKs in epithelia was dependent on injury-generated H2O2. A SFK member, Fynb, was responsible for fin regeneration. This work provides a new link between early wound responses and late regeneration and suggests that redox, SFK, and calcium signaling are immediate “wound signals” that integrate early wound responses and late epimorphic regeneration. PMID:23045550

  19. Suppression of Mitochondrial Biogenesis through Toll-Like Receptor 4–Dependent Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in Endotoxin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua A.; Stallons, L. Jay; Collier, Justin B.; Chavin, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Although disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and biogenesis (MB) is a widely accepted pathophysiologic feature of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI), the molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are unknown. In this study, we examined the signaling pathways responsible for the suppression of MB in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of MB, was noted at the mRNA level at 3 hours and protein level at 18 hours in the renal cortex, and was associated with loss of renal function after LPS treatment. LPS-mediated suppression of PGC-1α led to reduced expression of downstream regulators of MB and electron transport chain proteins along with a reduction in renal cortical mitochondrial DNA content. Mechanistically, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) knockout mice were protected from renal injury and disruption of MB after LPS exposure. Immunoblot analysis revealed activation of tumor progression locus 2/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (TPL-2/MEK/ERK) signaling in the renal cortex by LPS. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling attenuated renal dysfunction and loss of PGC-1α, and was associated with a reduction in proinflammatory cytokine (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-1β) expression at 3 hours after LPS exposure. Neutralization of TNF-α also blocked PGC-1α suppression, but not renal dysfunction, after LPS-induced AKI. Finally, systemic administration of recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α alone was sufficient to produce AKI and disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis. These findings indicate an important role for the TLR4/MEK/ERK pathway in both LPS-induced renal dysfunction and suppression of MB. TLR4/MEK/ERK/TNF-α signaling may represent a novel therapeutic target to prevent mitochondrial dysfunction and AKI produced by sepsis. PMID:25503387

  20. Role of Fyn kinase in signaling associated with epiboly during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dipika; Holets, Lesya; Zhang, Xiaoming; Kinsey, William H

    2005-09-15

    The function of Fyn kinase during zebrafish development through the blastula stage was investigated through the use of dominant-negative constructs designed to suppress the function of zebrafish c-Fyn. Microinjection of SH2 domain-containing fusion protein or mRNA encoding the mutated, catalytically inactive Fyn at 45 min post-insemination had no significant effect during cleavage and did not inhibit formation of the yolk syncitial layer. Smoothing of the enveloping cell layer at the midblastula transition occurred normally and expression of bon/mixer and mezzo, zygotic transcription factors indicated that activation of the zygotic genome did occur. Signaling pathways involved with axis determination such as beta-catenin, activin, and nodal appeared to function normally as evidenced by expression of boz, goosecoid, and mezzo. However, while formation of the yolk syncitial layer was normal, the marginal blastomeres failed to migrate toward the vegetal pole and epiboly did not occur, a phenotype similar but distinct from that resulting from suppression of c-Yes kinase. The block to development was prevented by co-injection of c-Fyn mRNA with the dominant-negative construct indicating that it was a specific effect. Injection of the dominant-negative mRNA into individual blastomeres indicated that the effect was exerted on the intrinsic ability of the individual blastomeres to respond to signals directing epiboly and not on the signals themselves. Analysis of the pattern of calcium signaling in experimental and control embryos demonstrated that the elevated [Ca2+]i characteristic of the marginal blastomeres was suppressed. Together, these observations indicate that Fyn kinase plays an important role in epiboly, possibly through its effects in calcium signaling. PMID:16112104

  1. Apelin/APJ signaling promotes hypoxia-induced proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells via phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingchang; Liu, Qiming; Hu, Xinqun; Fang, Zhenfei; Huang, Feng; Tang, Liang; Zhou, Shenghua

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can adhere to the endothelium at sites of hypoxia/ischemia and participate in the formation of novel vessels through differentiating into endothelial cells (ECs). Apelin is an endogenous ligand for the G protein‑coupled receptor APJ, and apelin/APJ signaling has a role in cardiovascular function. The present study aimed to investigate the role of apelin/APJ signaling in the regulation of EPC proliferation under hypoxia. The results showed that hypoxia was able to induce EPC proliferation, accompanied with an upregulation of hypoxia‑inducible factor (HIF)‑1α as well as apelin/APJ signaling. Further investigation indicated that siRNA‑mediated knockdown of apelin or APJ expression attenuated the hypoxia‑induced proliferation of EPCs, suggesting that apelin/APJ signaling has an important role in hypoxia‑induced EPC proliferation. Moreover, the phosphoinositide‑3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway was found to be involved in the apelin/APJ‑mediated EPC proliferation under hypoxia. Based on these findings, the present study suggested that hypoxia‑induced upregulation of HIF‑1α promotes the expression of apelin and APJ, which further activate the downstream PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, a key promoter of EPC proliferation. In conclusion, the present study highlighted the role of apelin/APJ in the regulation of EPC proliferation, and apelin/APJ may therefore serve as a potential target for the prevention of hypoxic ischemic injury. PMID:26018184

  2. G12 Signaling through c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase Promotes Breast Cancer Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Juneja, Juhi; Cushman, Ian; Casey, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Signaling through the heterotrimeric G protein, G12, via Rho induces a striking increase in breast cancer cell invasion. In this study, evidence is provided that the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) is a key downstream effector of G12 on this pathway. Expression of constitutively-active Gα12 or activation of G12 signaling by thrombin leads to increased JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. Pharmacologic inhibition of JNK or knockdown of JNK expression by siRNA significantly decreases G12-induced JNK activation as well as the ability of breast cancer cells to invade a reconstituted basement membrane. Furthermore, expression of dominant-negative Rho or treatment of cells with an inhibitor of the Rho kinase, ROCK, reduces G12-induced JNK and c-Jun activation, and ROCK inhibitor treatment also inhibits G12-induced cellular invasion. JNK knockdown or ROCK inhibitor treatment has no effect on activation of Rho by G12. Taken together, our data indicate that JNK activation is required for G12-induced invasion of breast cancer cells and that JNK is downstream of Rho and ROCK on this pathway. This study implicates a G12-stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in cancer cell invasion, and supports a role for JNK in cancer progression. PMID:22087220

  3. Spatial Organization in Protein Kinase A Signaling Emerged at the Base of Animal Evolution.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Aye, Thin Thin; Snel, Berend; van Breukelen, Bas; Scholten, Arjen; Heck, Albert J R

    2015-07-01

    In phosphorylation-directed signaling, spatial and temporal control is organized by complex interaction networks that diligently direct kinases toward distinct substrates to fine-tune specificity. How these protein networks originate and evolve into complex regulatory machineries are among the most fascinating research questions in biology. Here, spatiotemporal signaling is investigated by tracing the evolutionary dynamics of each functional domain of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and its diverse set of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Homologues of the catalytic (PKA-C) and regulatory (PKA-R) domains of the (PKA-R)2-(PKA-C)2 holoenzyme were found throughout evolution. Most variation was observed in the RIIa of PKA-R, crucial for dimerization and docking to AKAPs. The RIIa domain was not observed in all PKA-R homologues. In the fungi and distinct protist lineages, the RIIa domain emerges within PKA-R, but it displays large sequence variation. These organisms do not harbor homologues of AKAPs, suggesting that efficient docking to direct spatiotemporal PKA activity evolved in multicellular eukaryotes. To test this in silico hypothesis, we experimentally screened organisms with increasing complexity by cAMP-based chemical proteomics to reveal that the occurrence of PKA-AKAP interactions indeed coincided and expanded within vertebrates, suggesting a crucial role for AKAPs in the advent of metazoan multicellularity. PMID:26066639

  4. Activation of JAK2 kinase mediated by the interleukin 6 signal transducer gp130.

    PubMed Central

    Narazaki, M; Witthuhn, B A; Yoshida, K; Silvennoinen, O; Yasukawa, K; Ihle, J N; Kishimoto, T; Taga, T

    1994-01-01

    The interleukin 6 receptor-associated signal transducer, gp130, is shared by receptor complexes for leukemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin M, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and interleukin 11. We show here that JAK2 kinase is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in mouse embryonic stem cells whose pluripotentiality is maintained only by gp130-sharing cytokines after stimulation that is known to induce gp130 homodimerization. JAK1 is also tyrosine phosphorylated, but to a lesser extent, under the same conditions. Comparable results are obtained with hemopoietic lineage cells such as myeloid leukemic M1 cells and pro-B-cell line-derived transfectants expressing gp130, the former of which differentiate into macrophages after stimulation of gp130 and the latter of which initiate DNA synthesis. gp130-dimerizing stimulus upregulates kinase activity of JAK2 as revealed by immunocomplex kinase assay. Deletion or point mutation in the membrane-proximal cytoplasmic motifs in gp130 that are conserved in the hemopoietic cytokine receptor family results in the loss of tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK2, which coincides with the lack of signal transducing capability of gp130 mutants. Images PMID:8134389

  5. Irisin promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via activating the MAP kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xiaoyong; Yong Qiao, Xiao; Nie, Ying; Ma, Yaxian; Xian Ma, Ya; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Ran; Yin, Weiyao; Yao Yinrg, Wei; Hu, Ying; Xu, Wenming; Ming Xu, Wen; Xu, Liangzhi; Zhi Xu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is able to improve skeletal health. However, the mechanisms are poorly known. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, have been shown to mediate beneficial effects of exercise in many disorders. In the current study, we demonstrated that irisin promotes osteoblast proliferation, and increases the expression of osteoblastic transcription regulators, such as Runt-related transcription factor-2, osterix/sp7; and osteoblast differentiation markers, including alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1 alpha-1, osteocalcin, and osteopontin in vitro. Irisin also increase ALP activity and calcium deposition in cultured osteoblast. These osteogenic effects were mediated by activating the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB023580 or pERK by U0126 abolished the proliferation and up-regulatory effects of irisin on Runx2 expression and ALP activity. Together our observation suggest that irisin directly targets osteoblast, promoting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via activating P38/ERK MAP kinase signaling cascades in vitro. Whether irisin can be utilized as the therapeutic agents for osteopenia and osteoporosis is worth to be further pursued. PMID:26738434

  6. Janus Kinase 1 Is Essential for Inflammatory Cytokine Signaling and Mammary Gland Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhito; Wehde, Barbara L; Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Taemook; Rajbhandari, Nirakar; Shin, Ha Youn; Triplett, Aleata A; Rädler, Patrick D; Schuler, Fabian; Villunger, Andreas; Kang, Keunsoo; Hennighausen, Lothar; Wagner, Kay-Uwe

    2016-06-01

    Despite a wealth of knowledge about the significance of individual signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), essential functions of their upstream Janus kinases (JAKs) during postnatal development are less well defined. Using a novel mammary gland-specific JAK1 knockout model, we demonstrate here that this tyrosine kinase is essential for the activation of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT6 in the mammary epithelium. The loss of JAK1 uncouples interleukin-6-class ligands from their downstream effector, STAT3, which leads to the decreased expression of STAT3 target genes that are associated with the acute-phase response, inflammation, and wound healing. Consequently, JAK1-deficient mice exhibit impaired apoptosis and a significant delay in mammary gland remodeling. Using RNA sequencing, we identified several new JAK1 target genes that are upregulated during involution. These include Bmf and Bim, which are known regulators of programmed cell death. Using a BMF/BIM-double-knockout epithelial transplant model, we further validated that the synergistic action of these proapoptotic JAK1 targets is obligatory for the remodeling of the mammary epithelium. The collective results of this study suggest that JAK1 has nonredundant roles in the activation of particular STAT proteins and this tyrosine kinase is essential for coupling inflammatory cytokine signals to the cell death machinery in the differentiated mammary epithelium. PMID:27044867

  7. Irisin promotes osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via activating the MAP kinase signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yong Qiao, Xiao; Nie, Ying; Xian Ma, Ya; Chen, Yan; Cheng, Ran; Yao Yinrg, Wei; Hu, Ying; Ming Xu, Wen; Zhi Xu, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is able to improve skeletal health. However, the mechanisms are poorly known. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, secreted by skeletal muscle in response to exercise, have been shown to mediate beneficial effects of exercise in many disorders. In the current study, we demonstrated that irisin promotes osteoblast proliferation, and increases the expression of osteoblastic transcription regulators, such as Runt-related transcription factor-2, osterix/sp7; and osteoblast differentiation markers, including alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1 alpha-1, osteocalcin, and osteopontin in vitro. Irisin also increase ALP activity and calcium deposition in cultured osteoblast. These osteogenic effects were mediated by activating the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p-p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB023580 or pERK by U0126 abolished the proliferation and up-regulatory effects of irisin on Runx2 expression and ALP activity. Together our observation suggest that irisin directly targets osteoblast, promoting osteoblast proliferation and differentiation via activating P38/ERK MAP kinase signaling cascades in vitro. Whether irisin can be utilized as the therapeutic agents for osteopenia and osteoporosis is worth to be further pursued. PMID:26738434

  8. Protein Kinase C alpha (PKCα) dependent signaling mediates endometrial cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haughian, James M.; Reno, Elaine M.; Thorne, Alicia M.; Bradford, Andrew P.

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy, yet molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying its etiology and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. We sought to define a functional role for the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform, PKCα, in an established cell model of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Ishikawa cells depleted of PKCα protein grew slower, formed fewer colonies in anchorage-independent growth assays and exhibited impaired xenograft tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with impaired growth, PKCα knockdown increased levels of the cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors p21Cip1/WAF1 (p21) and p27Kip1 (p27). Despite the absence of functional phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) protein in Ishikawa cells, PKCα knockdown reduced Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and concomitantly inhibited phosphorylation of the Akt target, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). PKCα knockdown also resulted in decreased basal ERK phosphorylation and attenuated ERK activation following EGF stimulation. p21 and p27 expression was not increased by treatment of Ishikawa cells with ERK and Akt inhibitors, suggesting PKCα regulates CDK expression independently of Akt and ERK. Immunohistochemical analysis of grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma revealed aberrant PKCα expression, with foci of elevated PKCα staining, not observed in normal endometrium. These studies demonstrate a critical role for PKCα signaling in endometrial tumorigenesis by regulating expression of CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 and activation of Akt and ERK dependent proliferative pathways. Thus, targeting PKCα may provide novel therapeutic options in endometrial tumors. PMID:19672862

  9. Differential regulation and role of Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase-M in innate immunity signaling

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jianmin; Xie, Qifa; Wilson, Ingred; Li, Liwu

    2007-01-01

    Toll-like-receptor mediated signaling is finely regulated by a complex intracellular protein network including the interleukin-1 receptor associate kinases (IRAKs). IRAK-4, 1, and 2 may positively regulate innate immunity signaling through the activation of various downstream kinases such as MAPKs. In contrast, IRAK-M plays an inhibitory role through unknown mechanism. In this report, we show that IRAK-M is ubiquitously present in the cell, and becomes exclusively cytoplasmic upon bacterial lipoprotein Pam3CSK4 challenge. Furthermore, using bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild type, IRAK1−/−, and IRAK-M−/− mice, we have herein demonstrated that IRAK-M selectively attenuates bacterial lipopeptide Pam3CSK4-induced p38 activation, but not ERK or JNK. IRAK1−/− and IRAK-M−/− BMDM display distinct activation profile of various MAP kinases upon Pam3CSK4 challenge, indicating that IRAK-M exerts its inhibitory effect through an IRAK1 independent pathway. Pam3CSK4 challenge leads to rapid decrease of MKP-1 protein level in IRAK-M−/− BMDM as well as THP-1 cells with decreased IRAK-M expression through siRNA interference. Our findings indicate that IRAK-M selectively attenuates p38 activation and inhibits innate immunity through stabilizing MKP-1. PMID:17379480

  10. Decoding the oxidative stress hypothesis in diabetic embryopathy through proapoptotic kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peixin; Reece, E Albert; Wang, Fang; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat

    2015-05-01

    Maternal diabetes-induced birth defects occur in 6-10% of babies born to mothers with pregestational diabetes, representing a significant maternal-fetal health problem. Currently, these congenital malformations represent a significant maternal-fetal medicine issue, but are likely to create an even greater public health threat as 3 million women of reproductive age (19-44 years) have diabetes in the United States alone, and this number is expected to double by 2030. Neural tube defects (NTDs) and congenital heart defects are the most common types of birth defects associated with maternal diabetes. Animal studies have revealed that embryos under hyperglycemic conditions exhibit high levels of oxidative stress resulting from enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant capability. Oxidative stress activates a set of proapoptotic kinase signaling intermediates leading to abnormal cell death in the embryonic neural tube, which causes NTD formation. Work in animal models also has revealed that maternal diabetes triggers a series of signaling intermediates: protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, PKCα, βII and δ; apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1; c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2; caspase; and apoptosis. Specifically, maternal diabetes in rodent models activates the proapoptotic unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. A reciprocal causation between JNK1/2 activation and ER stress exists in diabetic embryopathy. Molecular studies further demonstrate that deletion of the genes for Prkc, Ask1, Jnk1, or Jnk2 abolishes maternal diabetes-induced neural progenitor apoptosis and ameliorates NTD formation. Similar preventive effects are also observed when apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, JNK1/2, or ER stress is inhibited. Cell membrane stabilizers and antioxidant supplements are also effective in prevention of diabetes-induced birth defects. Mechanistic studies have revealed important insights into our understanding the cause

  11. Inhibition of diacylglycerol kinases as a physiological way to promote diacylglycerol signaling.

    PubMed

    Baldanzi, Gianluca

    2014-05-01

    Diacylglycerol is a key regulator of cell physiology, controlling the membrane recruitment and activation of signaling molecules. Accordingly, diacylglycerol generation and metabolism are strictly controlled, allowing for localized regulation of its concentration. While the increased production of diacylglycerol upon receptor triggering is well recognized, the modulation of diacylglycerol metabolism by diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) is less characterized. Some agonists induce DGK activation and recruitment to the plasma membrane, promoting diacylglycerol metabolism to phosphatidic acid. Conversely, several reports indicate that signaling pathways that selectively inhibits DGK isoforms can enhance cellular diacylglycerol levels and signal transduction. For example, the impairment of DGKθ activity by RhoA binding to the catalytic domain represents a conserved mechanism controlling diacylglycerol signaling from Caenorhabditis elegans motoneurons to mammalian hepatocytes. Similarly, DGKα activity is inhibited in lymphocytes by TCR signaling, thus contributing to a rise in diacylglycerol concentration for downstream signaling. Finally, DGKμ activity is inhibited by ischemia-reperfusion-generated reactive oxygen species in airway endothelial cells, promoting diacylglycerol-mediated ion channel opening and edema. In those systems, DGKs provide a gatekeeper function by blunting diacylglycerol levels or possibly establishing permissive domains for diacylglycerol signaling. In this review, I discuss the possible general relevance of DGK inhibition to enhanced diacylglycerol signaling. PMID:24582387

  12. Redundant canonical and noncanonical Caenorhabditis elegans p21-activated kinase signaling governs distal tip cell migrations.

    PubMed

    Peters, Eldon C; Gossett, Andrea J; Goldstein, Bob; Der, Channing J; Reiner, David J

    2013-02-01

    p21-activated kinases (Paks) are prominent mediators of Rac/Cdc42-dependent and -independent signaling and regulate signal transduction and cytoskeletal-based cell movements. We used the reproducible migrations of the Caenorhabditis elegans gonadal distal tip cells to show that two of the three nematode Pak proteins, MAX-2 and PAK-1, function redundantly in regulation of cell migration but are regulated by very different mechanisms. First, we suggest that MAX-2 requires CED-10/Rac function and thus functions canonically. Second, PIX-1 and GIT-1 function in the same role as PAK-1, and PAK-1 interaction with PIX-1 is required for PAK-1 activity; thus, PAK-1 functions noncanonically. The human Pak-Pix-Git complex is central to noncanonical Pak signaling and requires only modest Rac/CDC-42 input. Unlike the human complex, our results suggest that the C. elegans Pak-Pix-Git complex requires PAK-1 kinase domain activity. This study delineates signaling network relationships in this cell migration model, thus providing potential further mechanistic insights and an assessment of total Pak contribution to cell migration events. PMID:23390595

  13. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling: Regulating Neural Crest Development One Phosphate at a Time

    PubMed Central

    Fantauzzo, Katherine A.; Soriano, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) bind to a subset of growth factors on the surface of cells and elicit responses with broad roles in developmental and postnatal cellular processes. Receptors in this subclass consist of an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a single transmembrane domain, and an intracellular domain harboring a catalytic tyrosine kinase and regulatory sequences that are phosphorylated either by the receptor itself or various interacting proteins. Once activated, RTKs bind signaling molecules and recruit effector proteins to mediate downstream cellular responses through various intracellular signaling pathways. In this chapter, we will highlight the role of a subset of RTK families in regulating the activity of neural crest cells (NCCs) and the development of their derivatives in mammalian systems. NCCs are migratory, multipotent cells that can be subdivided into four axial populations, cranial, cardiac, vagal and trunk. These cells migrate throughout the vertebrate embryo along defined pathways and give rise to unique cell types and structures. Interestingly, individual RTK families often have specific functions in a subpopulation of NCCs that contribute to the diversity of these cells and their derivatives in the mammalian embryo. We will additionally discuss current methods used to investigate RTK signaling, including genetic, biochemical, large-scale proteomic and biosensor approaches, which can be applied to study intracellular signaling pathways active downstream of this receptor subclass during NCC development. PMID:25662260

  14. Potent and Selective CK2 Kinase Inhibitors with Effects on Wnt Pathway Signaling in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Dowling, James E; Alimzhanov, Marat; Bao, Larry; Chuaqui, Claudio; Denz, Christopher R; Jenkins, Emma; Larsen, Nicholas A; Lyne, Paul D; Pontz, Timothy; Ye, Qing; Holdgate, Geoff A; Snow, Lindsay; O'Connell, Nichole; Ferguson, Andrew D

    2016-03-10

    The Wnt pathway is an evolutionarily conserved and tightly regulated signaling network with important roles in embryonic development and adult tissue regeneration. Impaired Wnt pathway regulation, arising from mutations in Wnt signaling components, such as Axin, APC, and β-catenin, results in uncontrolled cell growth and triggers oncogenesis. To explore the reported link between CK2 kinase activity and Wnt pathway signaling, we sought to identify a potent, selective inhibitor of CK2 suitable for proof of concept studies in vivo. Starting from a pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine lead (2), we identified compound 7h, a potent CK2 inhibitor with picomolar affinity that is highly selectivity against other kinase family enzymes and inhibits Wnt pathway signaling (IC50 = 50 nM) in DLD-1 cells. In addition, compound 7h has physicochemical properties that are suitable for formulation as an intravenous solution, has demonstrated good pharmacokinetics in preclinical species, and exhibits a high level of activity as a monotherapy in HCT-116 and SW-620 xenografts. PMID:26985319

  15. The Tec Kinase-Regulated Phosphoproteome Reveals a Mechanism for the Regulation of Inhibitory Signals in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tampella, Giacomo; Kerns, Hannah M; Niu, Deqiang; Singh, Swati; Khim, Socheath; Bosch, Katherine A; Garrett, Meghan E; Moguche, Albanus; Evans, Erica; Browning, Beth; Jahan, Tahmina A; Nacht, Mariana; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Plebani, Alessandro; Hamerman, Jessica A; Rawlings, David J; James, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Previous work has shown conflicting roles for Tec family kinases in regulation of TLR-dependent signaling in myeloid cells. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of the role of the Tec kinases Btk and Tec kinases in regulating TLR signaling in several types of primary murine macrophages. We demonstrate that primary resident peritoneal macrophages deficient for Btk and Tec secrete less proinflammatory cytokines in response to TLR stimulation than do wild-type cells. In contrast, we found that bone marrow-derived and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages deficient for Btk and Tec secrete more proinflammatory cytokines than do wild-type cells. We then compared the phosphoproteome regulated by Tec kinases and LPS in primary peritoneal and bone marrow-derived macrophages. From this analysis we determined that Tec kinases regulate different signaling programs in these cell types. In additional studies using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we found that Tec and Btk promote phosphorylation events necessary for immunoreceptor-mediated inhibition of TLR signaling. Taken together, our results are consistent with a model where Tec kinases (Btk, Tec, Bmx) are required for TLR-dependent signaling in many types of myeloid cells. However, our data also support a cell type-specific TLR inhibitory role for Btk and Tec that is mediated by immunoreceptor activation and signaling via PI3K. PMID:26026062

  16. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 modulates the antioxidant response by transcriptionally controlling Sirtuin 1 expression in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Royuela, Nuria; Rathore, Moeez G; Allende-Vega, Nerea; Annicotte, Jean-Sébastien; Fajas, Lluis; Ramachandran, Bindu; Gulick, Tod; Villalba, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Cancer cell metabolism differs from that of non-transformed cells in the same tissue. This specific metabolism gives tumor cells growing advantages besides the effect in increasing anabolism. One of these advantages is immune evasion mediated by a lower expression of the mayor histocompatibility complex class I molecules. The extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 regulates both mayor histocompatibility complex class I expression and metabolic activity. However, the mechanisms underlying are largely unknown. We show here that extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 regulates the transcription of the NADH(+)-dependent histone deacetylase silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Sirtuin 1) in leukemic Jurkat T cells. This involves the activation of the transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor-2 and its binding to the sirt1 promoter. In addition, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 is required for T cell receptor-induced and oxidative stress-induced full Sirtuin 1 expression. Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 induces the expression of promoters containing the antioxidant response elements through a Sirtuin 1-dependent pathway. On the other hand, down modulation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 expression impairs the anti-oxidant response. Notably, the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-5 inhibitor BIX02189 induces apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia tumor cells without affecting T cells from healthy donors. Our results unveil a new pathway that modulates metabolism in tumor cells. This pathway represents a promising therapeutic target in cancers with deep metabolic layouts such as acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:24880091

  17. The Yeast Sks1p Kinase Signaling Network Regulates Pseudohyphal Growth and Glucose Response

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Cole; Kweon, Hye Kyong; Sheidy, Daniel; Shively, Christian A.; Mellacheruvu, Dattatreya; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.; Andrews, Philip C.; Kumar, Anuj

    2014-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergoes a dramatic growth transition from its unicellular form to a filamentous state, marked by the formation of pseudohyphal filaments of elongated and connected cells. Yeast pseudohyphal growth is regulated by signaling pathways responsive to reductions in the availability of nitrogen and glucose, but the molecular link between pseudohyphal filamentation and glucose signaling is not fully understood. Here, we identify the glucose-responsive Sks1p kinase as a signaling protein required for pseudohyphal growth induced by nitrogen limitation and coupled nitrogen/glucose limitation. To identify the Sks1p signaling network, we applied mass spectrometry-based quantitative phosphoproteomics, profiling over 900 phosphosites for phosphorylation changes dependent upon Sks1p kinase activity. From this analysis, we report a set of novel phosphorylation sites and highlight Sks1p-dependent phosphorylation in Bud6p, Itr1p, Lrg1p, Npr3p, and Pda1p. In particular, we analyzed the Y309 and S313 phosphosites in the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit Pda1p; these residues are required for pseudohyphal growth, and Y309A mutants exhibit phenotypes indicative of impaired aerobic respiration and decreased mitochondrial number. Epistasis studies place SKS1 downstream of the G-protein coupled receptor GPR1 and the G-protein RAS2 but upstream of or at the level of cAMP-dependent PKA. The pseudohyphal growth and glucose signaling transcription factors Flo8p, Mss11p, and Rgt1p are required to achieve wild-type SKS1 transcript levels. SKS1 is conserved, and deletion of the SKS1 ortholog SHA3 in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans results in abnormal colony morphology. Collectively, these results identify Sks1p as an important regulator of filamentation and glucose signaling, with additional relevance towards understanding stress-responsive signaling in C. albicans. PMID:24603354

  18. Membrane localization of scaffold proteins promotes graded signaling in the yeast MAP kinase cascade

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Satoe; Pryciak, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade pathways can show various input-output behaviors, including either switch-like or graded responses to increasing levels of stimulus. Prior studies suggest that switch-like behavior is promoted by positive feedback loops and nonprocessive phosphorylation reactions, but it is unclear whether graded signaling is a default behavior or if it must be enforced by separate mechanisms. Scaffold proteins have been hypothesized to promote graded behavior. Results Here, we experimentally probe the determinants of graded signaling in the yeast mating MAPK pathway. We find that graded behavior is robust, as it resists perturbation by loss of several negative feedback regulators. However, the pathway becomes switch-like when activated by a crosstalk stimulus that bypasses multiple upstream components. To dissect the contributing factors, we developed a method for gradually varying the signal input at different pathway steps in vivo. Input at the beginning of the kinase cascade produced a sharp, threshold-like response. Surprisingly, the scaffold protein Ste5 increased this threshold behavior when limited to the cytosol. However, signaling remained graded whenever Ste5 was allowed to function at the plasma membrane. Conclusions The results suggest that the MAPK cascade module is inherently ultrasensitive, but is converted to a graded system by the pathway-specific activation mechanism. Scaffold-mediated assembly of signaling complexes at the plasma membrane allows faithful propagation of weak signals, which consequently reduces pathway ultrasensitivity. These properties help shape the input-output properties of the system to fit the physiological context. PMID:18722124

  19. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 within the ventral tegmental area regulates responses to stress.

    PubMed

    Iñiguez, Sergio D; Vialou, Vincent; Warren, Brandon L; Cao, Jun-Li; Alcantara, Lyonna F; Davis, Lindsey C; Manojlovic, Zarko; Neve, Rachael L; Russo, Scott J; Han, Ming-Hu; Nestler, Eric J; Bolaños-Guzmán, Carlos A

    2010-06-01

    Neurotrophic factors and their signaling pathways have been implicated in the neurobiological adaptations in response to stress and the regulation of mood-related behaviors. A candidate signaling molecule implicated in mediating these cellular responses is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), although its functional role in mood regulation remains to be fully elucidated. Here we show that acute (1 d) or chronic (4 weeks) exposure to unpredictable stress increases phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and of two downstream targets (ribosomal S6 kinase and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1) within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), an important substrate for motivated behavior and mood regulation. Using herpes simplex virus-mediated gene transfer to assess the functional significance of this ERK induction, we show that overexpressing ERK2 within the VTA increases susceptibility to stress as measured in the forced swim test, responses to unconditioned nociceptive stimuli, and elevated plus maze in Sprague Dawley male rats, and in the tail suspension test and chronic social defeat stress procedure in C57BL/6 male mice. In contrast, blocking ERK2 activity in the VTA produces stress-resistant behavioral responses in these same assays and also blocks a chronic stress-induced reduction in sucrose preference. The effects induced by ERK2 blockade were accompanied by decreases in the firing frequency of VTA dopamine neurons, an important electrophysiological hallmark of resilient-like behavior. Together, these results strongly implicate a role for ERK2 signaling in the VTA as a key modulator of responsiveness to stress and mood-related behaviors. PMID:20519540

  20. Signaling of cell fate determination by the TPD1 small protein and EMS1 receptor kinase

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Gengxiang; Liu, Xiaodong; Owen, Heather A.; Zhao, Dazhong

    2008-01-01

    Sexual reproduction requires the specification of cells with distinct fates in plants and animals. The EMS1 (also known as EXS) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK) and TPD1 small protein play key roles in regulating somatic and reproductive cell fate determination in Arabidopsis anthers. Here, we show that ectopic expression of TPD1 causes abnormal differentiation of somatic and reproductive cells in anthers. In addition, ectopic TPD1 activity requires functional EMS1. Yeast two-hybrid, pull-down, and coimmunoprecipitation analyses further demonstrate that TPD1 interacts with EMS1 in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, TPD1 induces EMS1 phosphorylation in planta. Thus, our results suggest that TPD1 serves as a ligand for the EMS1 receptor kinase to signal cell fate determination during plant sexual reproduction. PMID:18250314

  1. Introduction of p130cas signaling complex formation upon integrin-mediated cell adhesion: a role for Src family kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Vuori, K; Hirai, H; Aizawa, S; Ruoslahti, E

    1996-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion triggers intracellular signaling cascades, including tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins. Among these are the focal adhesion proteins p130cas (Cas) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Here we identify the kinase(s) mediating integrin-induced Cas phosphorylation and characterize protein-protein interactions mediated by phosphorylated Cas. We found that expression of a constitutively active FAK in fibroblasts results in a consecutive tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas. This effect required the autophosphorylation site of FAK, which is a binding site for Src family kinases. Integrin-mediated phosphorylation of Cas was not, however, compromised in fibroblasts lacking FAK. In contrast, adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas was reduced in cells lacking Src, whereas enhanced phosphorylation of Cas was observed Csk- cells, in which Src kinases are activated. These results suggest that Src kinases are responsible for the integrin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas. FAK seems not to be necessary for phosphorylation of Cas, but when autophosphorylated, FAK may recruit Src family kinases to phosphorylate Cas. Cas was found to form complexes with Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing signaling molecules, such as the SH2/SH3 adapter protein Crk, following integrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors C3G and Sos were found in the Cas-Crk complex upon integrin ligand binding. These observations suggest that Cas serves as a docking protein and may transduce signals to downstream signaling pathways following integrin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:8649368

  2. Complex formation and catalytic activation by the PII signaling protein of N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase from Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Maheswaran, Mani; Urbanke, Claus; Forchhammer, Karl

    2004-12-31

    The signal transduction protein P(II) from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 forms a complex with the key enzyme of arginine biosynthesis, N-acetyl-l-glutamate kinase (NAGK). Here we report the effect of complex formation on the catalytic properties of NAGK. Although pH and ion dependence are not affected, the catalytic efficiency of NAGK is strongly enhanced by binding of P(II), with K(m) decreasing by a factor of 10 and V(max) increasing 4-fold. In addition, arginine feedback inhibition of NAGK is strongly decreased in the presence of P(II), resulting in a tight control of NAGK activity under physiological conditions by P(II). Analysis of the NAGK-P(II) complex suggests that one P(II) trimer binds to one NAGK hexamer with a K(d) of approximately 3 nm. Complex formation is strongly affected by ATP and ADP. ADP is a strong inhibitor of complex formation, whereas ATP inhibits complex formation only in the absence of divalent cations or in the presence of Mg(2+) ions, together with increased 2-oxoglutarate concentrations. Ca(2+) is able to antagonize the negative effect of ATP and 2-oxoglutarate. ADP and ATP exert their adverse effect on NAGK-P(II) complex formation through binding to the P(II) protein. PMID:15502156

  3. Nuclear Phosphatidylinositol Signaling: Focus on Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate Kinases and Phospholipases C.

    PubMed

    Poli, Alessandro; Billi, Anna Maria; Mongiorgi, Sara; Ratti, Stefano; McCubrey, James A; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Cocco, Lucio; Ramazzotti, Giulia

    2016-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) metabolism represents the core of a network of signaling pathways which modulate many cellular functions including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. An array of kinases, phosphatases, and lipases acts on PI creating an important number of second messengers involved in different cellular processes. Although, commonly, PI signaling was described to take place at the plasma membrane, many evidences indicated the existence of a PI cycle residing in the nuclear compartment of eukaryotic cells. The discovery of this mechanism shed new light on many nuclear functions, such as gene transcription, DNA modifications, and RNA expression. As these two PI cycles take place independently of one another, understanding how nuclear lipid signaling functions and modulates nuclear output is fundamental in the study of many cellular processes. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1645-1655, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26626942

  4. Spironolactone attenuates experimental uremic cardiomyopathy by antagonizing marinobufagenin.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jiang; Shidyak, Amjad; Periyasamy, Sankaridrug M; Haller, Steven; Taleb, Mohamed; El-Okdi, Nasser; Elkareh, Jihad; Gupta, Shalini; Gohara, Sabry; Fedorova, Olga V; Cooper, Christopher J; Xie, Zijian; Malhotra, Deepak; Bagrov, Alexei Y; Shapiro, Joseph I

    2009-12-01

    Spironolactone has been noted to attenuate cardiac fibrosis. We have observed that the cardiotonic steroid marinobufagenin plays an important role in the diastolic dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis seen with experimental renal failure. We performed the following studies to determine whether and how spironolactone might ameliorate these changes. First, we studied rats subjected to partial nephrectomy or administration of exogenous marinobufagenin. We found that spironolactone (20 mg/kg per day) attenuated the diastolic dysfunction as assessed by ventricular pressure-volume loops and essentially eliminated cardiac fibrosis as assessed by trichrome staining and Western blot. Next, we examined the effects of spironolactone and its major metabolite, canrenone (both 100 nM), on marinobufagenin stimulation of rat cardiac fibroblasts. Both spironolactone and canrenone prevented the stimulation of collagen production by 1 nM marinobufagenin but not 100 nM marinobufagenin, as assessed by proline incorporation and procollagen 1 expression, as well as signaling through the sodium-potassium-ATPase, as evidenced by protein kinase C isoform delta translocation and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activation. Both spironolactone and canrenone also altered ouabain binding to cultured porcine cells in a manner consistent with competitive inhibition. Our data suggest that some of the antifibrotic effects of spironolactone may be attributed to antagonism of marinobufagenin signaling through the sodium-potassium-ATPase. PMID:19884563

  5. SUCROSE NON-FERMENTING 1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE 2 (SNRK2): A FAMILY OF PROTEIN KINASES INVOLVED IN HYPEROSMOTIC STRESS SIGNALING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our understanding of plant adaptation to abiotic stresses, which include drought, salinity, non-optimal temperatures and poor soil nutrition, is still limiting although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the gene players and signaling partners. Several protein kinases get acti...

  6. Competing G protein-coupled receptor kinases balance G protein and β-arrestin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Domitille; Durand, Guillaume; Gallay, Nathalie; Rizk, Aurélien; Ahn, Seungkirl; Kim, Jihee; Violin, Jonathan D; Dupuy, Laurence; Gauthier, Christophe; Piketty, Vincent; Crépieux, Pascale; Poupon, Anne; Clément, Frédérique; Fages, François; Lefkowitz, Robert J; Reiter, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs) are involved in nearly all aspects of chemical communications and represent major drug targets. 7TMRs transmit their signals not only via heterotrimeric G proteins but also through β-arrestins, whose recruitment to the activated receptor is regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). In this paper, we combined experimental approaches with computational modeling to decipher the molecular mechanisms as well as the hidden dynamics governing extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation by the angiotensin II type 1A receptor (AT1AR) in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells. We built an abstracted ordinary differential equations (ODE)-based model that captured the available knowledge and experimental data. We inferred the unknown parameters by simultaneously fitting experimental data generated in both control and perturbed conditions. We demonstrate that, in addition to its well-established function in the desensitization of G-protein activation, GRK2 exerts a strong negative effect on β-arrestin-dependent signaling through its competition with GRK5 and 6 for receptor phosphorylation. Importantly, we experimentally confirmed the validity of this novel GRK2-dependent mechanism in both primary vascular smooth muscle cells naturally expressing the AT1AR, and HEK293 cells expressing other 7TMRs. PMID:22735336

  7. Grb2, a Double-Edged Sword of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Belov, Artur A.; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2013-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) exhibit basal tyrosine phosphorylation and activity in the absence of ligand stimulation, which has been attributed to the “leaky” nature of tyrosine kinase autoinhibition and stochastic collisions of receptors in the membrane bilayer. This basal phosphorylation does not produce a signal of sufficient amplitude and intensity to manifest in a biological response and hence is considered to be a passive, futile process that does not have any biological function. This paradigm has now been challenged by a study showing that the basal phosphorylation of RTKs is a physiologically relevant process that is actively inhibited by the intracellular adaptor protein growth factor receptor-bound 2 (Grb2) and serves to “prime” receptors for a rapid response to ligand stimulation. Grb2 is conventionally known for playing positive roles in RTK signaling. The discovery of a negative regulatory role for Grb2 reveals that this adaptor acts as a double-edged sword in the regulation of RTK signaling. PMID:23131845

  8. Phosphoproteomics reveals malaria parasite Protein Kinase G as a signalling hub regulating egress and invasion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mahmood M.; Solyakov, Lev; Bottrill, Andrew R.; Flueck, Christian; Siddiqui, Faiza A.; Singh, Shailja; Mistry, Sharad; Viskaduraki, Maria; Lee, Kate; Hopp, Christine S.; Chitnis, Chetan E.; Doerig, Christian; Moon, Robert W.; Green, Judith L.; Holder, Anthony A.; Baker, David A.; Tobin, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the key phosphorylation-dependent signalling pathways in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, remains rudimentary. Here we address this issue for the essential cGMP-dependent protein kinase, PfPKG. By employing chemical and genetic tools in combination with quantitative global phosphoproteomics, we identify the phosphorylation sites on 69 proteins that are direct or indirect cellular targets for PfPKG. These PfPKG targets include proteins involved in cell signalling, proteolysis, gene regulation, protein export and ion and protein transport, indicating that cGMP/PfPKG acts as a signalling hub that plays a central role in a number of core parasite processes. We also show that PfPKG activity is required for parasite invasion. This correlates with the finding that the calcium-dependent protein kinase, PfCDPK1, is phosphorylated by PfPKG, as are components of the actomyosin complex, providing mechanistic insight into the essential role of PfPKG in parasite egress and invasion. PMID:26149123

  9. Phosphoproteomics reveals malaria parasite Protein Kinase G as a signalling hub regulating egress and invasion.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mahmood M; Solyakov, Lev; Bottrill, Andrew R; Flueck, Christian; Siddiqui, Faiza A; Singh, Shailja; Mistry, Sharad; Viskaduraki, Maria; Lee, Kate; Hopp, Christine S; Chitnis, Chetan E; Doerig, Christian; Moon, Robert W; Green, Judith L; Holder, Anthony A; Baker, David A; Tobin, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the key phosphorylation-dependent signalling pathways in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, remains rudimentary. Here we address this issue for the essential cGMP-dependent protein kinase, PfPKG. By employing chemical and genetic tools in combination with quantitative global phosphoproteomics, we identify the phosphorylation sites on 69 proteins that are direct or indirect cellular targets for PfPKG. These PfPKG targets include proteins involved in cell signalling, proteolysis, gene regulation, protein export and ion and protein transport, indicating that cGMP/PfPKG acts as a signalling hub that plays a central role in a number of core parasite processes. We also show that PfPKG activity is required for parasite invasion. This correlates with the finding that the calcium-dependent protein kinase, PfCDPK1, is phosphorylated by PfPKG, as are components of the actomyosin complex, providing mechanistic insight into the essential role of PfPKG in parasite egress and invasion. PMID:26149123

  10. Imipramine protects retinal ganglion cells from oxidative stress through the tyrosine kinase receptor B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ming-lei; Liu, Guo-hua; Guo, Jin; Yu, Shu-juan; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration is irreversible in glaucoma and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB)-associated signaling pathways have been implicated in the process. In this study, we attempted to examine whether imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, may protect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC degeneration through the activation of the TrkB pathway in RGC-5 cell lines. RGC-5 cell lines were pre-treated with imipramine 30 minutes before exposure to H2O2. Western blot assay showed that in H2O2 -damaged RGC-5 cells, imipramine activated TrkB pathways through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/TrkB phosphorylation. TUNEL staining assay also demonstrated that imipramine ameliorated H2O2 -induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells. Finally, TrkB-IgG intervention was able to reverse the protective effect of imipramine on H2O2 -induced RGC-5 apoptosis. Imipramine therefore protects RGCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the TrkB signaling pathway. PMID:27127489

  11. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  12. Drug-induced alterations in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway: implications for reinforcement and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haifeng; Li, Yanqin; Wang, Xi; Lu, Lin

    2008-02-01

    Drug addiction, characterized by high rates of relapse, is recognized as a kind of neuroadaptive disorder. Since the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is critical to neuroplasticity in the adult brain, understanding the role this pathway plays is important for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying drug addiction and relapse. Here, we review previous literatures that focus on the effects of exposure to cocaine, amphetamine, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), nicotine, morphine, and alcohol on ERK signaling in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system; these alterations of ERK signaling have been thought to contribute to the drug's rewarding effects and to the long-term maladaptation induced by drug abuse. We then discuss the possible upstreams of the ERK signaling pathway activated by exposure of drugs of abuse and the environmental cues previously paired with drugs. Finally, we argue that since ERK activation is a key molecular process in reinstatement of conditioned place preference and drug self-administration, the pharmacological manipulation of the ERK pathway is a potential treatment strategy for drug addiction. PMID:18041576

  13. Rapid and transient palmitoylation of the tyrosine kinase Lck mediates Fas signaling

    PubMed Central

    Akimzhanov, Askar M.; Boehning, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylation is the posttranslational modification of proteins with a 16-carbon fatty acid chain through a labile thioester bond. The reversibility of protein palmitoylation and its profound effect on protein function suggest that this modification could play an important role as an intracellular signaling mechanism. Evidence that palmitoylation of proteins occurs with the kinetics required for signal transduction is not clear, however. Here we show that engagement of the Fas receptor by its ligand leads to an extremely rapid and transient increase in palmitoylation levels of the tyrosine kinase Lck. Lck palmitoylation kinetics are consistent with the activation of downstream signaling proteins, such as Zap70 and PLC-γ1. Inhibiting Lck palmitoylation not only disrupts proximal Fas signaling events, but also renders cells resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Knockdown of the palmitoyl acyl transferase DHHC21 eliminates activation of Lck and downstream signaling after Fas receptor stimulation. Our findings demonstrate highly dynamic Lck palmitoylation kinetics that are essential for signaling downstream of the Fas receptor. PMID:26351666

  14. Rapid and transient palmitoylation of the tyrosine kinase Lck mediates Fas signaling.

    PubMed

    Akimzhanov, Askar M; Boehning, Darren

    2015-09-22

    Palmitoylation is the posttranslational modification of proteins with a 16-carbon fatty acid chain through a labile thioester bond. The reversibility of protein palmitoylation and its profound effect on protein function suggest that this modification could play an important role as an intracellular signaling mechanism. Evidence that palmitoylation of proteins occurs with the kinetics required for signal transduction is not clear, however. Here we show that engagement of the Fas receptor by its ligand leads to an extremely rapid and transient increase in palmitoylation levels of the tyrosine kinase Lck. Lck palmitoylation kinetics are consistent with the activation of downstream signaling proteins, such as Zap70 and PLC-γ1. Inhibiting Lck palmitoylation not only disrupts proximal Fas signaling events, but also renders cells resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Knockdown of the palmitoyl acyl transferase DHHC21 eliminates activation of Lck and downstream signaling after Fas receptor stimulation. Our findings demonstrate highly dynamic Lck palmitoylation kinetics that are essential for signaling downstream of the Fas receptor. PMID:26351666

  15. AMP-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Activation by Resveratrol Modulates Amyloid-β Peptide Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Giliberto, Luca; Zhao, Haitian; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Wu, Qingli; Simon, James E.; Janle, Elsa M.; Lobo, Jessica; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition into cerebral amyloid plaques. The natural polyphenol resveratrol promotes anti-aging pathways via the activation of several metabolic sensors, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Resveratrol also lowers Aβ levels in cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for this effect is largely unknown. Moreover, the bioavailability of resveratrol in the brain remains uncertain. Here we show that AMPK signaling controls Aβ metabolism and mediates the anti-amyloidogenic effect of resveratrol in non-neuronal and neuronal cells, including in mouse primary neurons. Resveratrol increased cytosolic calcium levels and promoted AMPK activation by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β. Direct pharmacological and genetic activation of AMPK lowered extracellular Aβ accumulation, whereas AMPK inhibition reduced the effect of resveratrol on Aβ levels. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the AMPK target mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) to trigger autophagy and lysosomal degradation of Aβ. Finally, orally administered resveratrol in mice was detected in the brain where it activated AMPK and reduced cerebral Aβ levels and deposition in the cortex. These data suggest that resveratrol and pharmacological activation of AMPK have therapeutic potential against Alzheimer disease. PMID:20080969

  16. An Asymmetry-to-Symmetry Switch in Signal Transmission by the Histidine Kinase Receptor for TMAO

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Jason O.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2012-06-28

    The osmoregulator trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), commonplace in aquatic organisms, is used as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration in many bacterial species. The TMAO reductase (Tor) pathway for respiratory catalysis is controlled by a receptor system that comprises the TMAO-binding protein TorT, the sensor histidine kinase TorS, and the response regulator TorR. Here we study the TorS/TorT sensor system to gain mechanistic insight into signaling by histidine kinase receptors. We determined crystal structures for complexes of TorS sensor domains with apo TorT and with TorT (TMAO); we characterized TorS sensor associations with TorT in solution; we analyzed the thermodynamics of TMAO binding to TorT-TorS complexes; and we analyzed in vivo responses to TMAO through the TorT/TorS/TorR system to test structure-inspired hypotheses. TorS-TorT(apo) is an asymmetric 2:2 complex that binds TMAO with negative cooperativity to form a symmetric active kinase.

  17. An Asymmetry-to-Symmetry Switch in Signal Transmission by the Histidine Kinase Receptor for TMAO

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jason O.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The osmoregulator trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), commonplace in aquatic organisms, is used as the terminal electron acceptor for respiration in many bacterial species. The TMAO reductase (Tor) pathway for respiratory catalysis is controlled by a receptor system that comprises the TMAO-binding protein TorT, the sensor histidine kinase TorS and the response regulator TorR. Here we study the TorS/TorT sensor system to gain mechanistic insight into signaling by histidine kinase receptors. We determined crystal structures for complexes of TorS sensor domains with apo TorT and with TorT(TMAO); we characterized TorS sensor associations with TorT in solution; we analyzed the thermodynamics of TMAO binding to TorT-TorS complexes; and we analyzed in vivo responses to TMAO through the TorT/TorS/TorR system to test structure-inspired hypotheses. TorS-TorT(apo) is an asymmetric 2:2 complex that binds TMAO with negative cooperativity to form a symmetric active kinase. PMID:22483119

  18. Inhibition of Janus kinase signaling during controlled mechanical ventilation prevents ventilation-induced diaphragm dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ira J.; Godinez, Guillermo L.; Singh, Baljit K.; McCaughey, Kelly M.; Alcantara, Raniel R.; Gururaja, Tarikere; Ho, Melissa S.; Nguyen, Henry N.; Friera, Annabelle M.; White, Kathy A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Hansen, Derek; Romero, Jason M.; Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Claypool, Mark D.; Li, Wei; Lang, Wayne; Yam, George C.; Gelman, Marina S.; Ding, Rongxian; Yung, Stephanie L.; Creger, Daniel P.; Chen, Yan; Singh, Rajinder; Smuder, Ashley J.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Sollanek, Kurt J.; Powers, Scott K.; Masuda, Esteban S.; Taylor, Vanessa C.; Payan, Donald G.; Kinoshita, Taisei; Kinsella, Todd M.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) is associated with the development of diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction, and respiratory muscle weakness is thought to contribute significantly to delayed weaning of patients. Therefore, therapeutic strategies for preventing these processes may have clinical benefit. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway in CMV-mediated diaphragm wasting and weakness in rats. CMV-induced diaphragm atrophy and contractile dysfunction coincided with marked increases in STAT3 phosphorylation on both tyrosine 705 (Tyr705) and serine 727 (Ser727). STAT3 activation was accompanied by its translocation into mitochondria within diaphragm muscle and mitochondrial dysfunction. Inhibition of JAK signaling during CMV prevented phosphorylation of both target sites on STAT3, eliminated the accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3 within the mitochondria, and reversed the pathologic alterations in mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress in the diaphragm, and maintained normal diaphragm contractility. In addition, JAK inhibition during CMV blunted the activation of key proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm, as well as diaphragm atrophy. These findings implicate JAK/STAT3 signaling in the development of diaphragm muscle atrophy and dysfunction during CMV and suggest that the delayed extubation times associated with CMV can be prevented by inhibition of Janus kinase signaling.—Smith, I. J., Godinez, G. L., Singh, B. K., McCaughey, K. M., Alcantara, R. R., Gururaja, T., Ho, M. S., Nguyen, H. N., Friera, A. M., White, K. A., McLaughlin, J. R., Hansen, D., Romero, J. M., Baltgalvis, K. A., Claypool, M. D., Li, W., Lang, W., Yam, G. C., Gelman, M. S., Ding, R., Yung, S. L., Creger, D. P., Chen, Y., Singh, R., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Kwon, O.-S., Sollanek, K. J., Powers, S. K., Masuda, E. S., Taylor, V. C., Payan, D. G

  19. Inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 enhances endochondral bone formation by increasing chondrocyte survival.

    PubMed

    Eaton, G J; Zhang, Q-S; Diallo, C; Matsuzawa, A; Ichijo, H; Steinbeck, M J; Freeman, T A

    2014-01-01

    Endochondral ossification is the result of chondrocyte differentiation, hypertrophy, death and replacement by bone. The careful timing and progression of this process is important for normal skeletal bone growth and development, as well as fracture repair. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 (ASK1) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is activated by reactive oxygen species and other cellular stress events. Activation of ASK1 initiates a signaling cascade known to regulate diverse cellular events including cytokine and growth factor signaling, cell cycle regulation, cellular differentiation, hypertrophy, survival and apoptosis. ASK1 is highly expressed in hypertrophic chondrocytes, but the role of ASK1 in skeletal tissues has not been investigated. Herein, we report that ASK1 knockout (KO) mice display alterations in normal growth plate morphology, which include a shorter proliferative zone and a lengthened hypertrophic zone. These changes in growth plate dynamics result in accelerated long bone mineralization and an increased formation of trabecular bone, which can be attributed to an increased resistance of terminally differentiated chondrocytes to undergo cell death. Interestingly, under normal cell culture conditions, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ASK1 KO mice show no differences in either MAPK signaling or osteogenic or chondrogenic differentiation when compared with wild-type (WT) MEFs. However, when cultured with stress activators, H2O2 or staurosporine, the KO cells show enhanced survival, an associated decrease in the activation of proteins involved in death signaling pathways and a reduction in markers of terminal differentiation. Furthermore, in both WT mice treated with the ASK1 inhibitor, NQDI-1, and ASK1 KO mice endochondral bone formation was increased in an ectopic ossification model. These findings highlight a previously unrealized role for ASK1 in regulating endochondral bone formation. Inhibition of ASK1 has

  20. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signalling in SLE T cells is influenced by oestrogen and disease activity.

    PubMed

    Gorjestani, S; Rider, V; Kimler, B F; Greenwell, C; Abdou, N I

    2008-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that occurs primarily in women of reproductive age. The disease is characterized by exaggerated T-cell activity and abnormal T-cell signalling. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is involved in the maintenance of T-cell tolerance that fails in patients with SLE. Oestrogen is a female sex hormone that binds to nuclear receptors and alters the rate of gene transcription. Oestrogen can also act through the plasma membrane and rapidly stimulate second messengers including calcium flux and kinase activation. In this study, we investigated whether oestrogen influences the activation of MAPK signalling through the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in activated SLE T cells. SLE and control T cells were cultured in serum-free medium without and with oestradiol (10(-7) M) for 18 h. The T cells were activated with phorbol 12 myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin for various time points (0-60 min), and the amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2 was measured by immunoblotting. There were no differences in ERK1/2 phosphorylation between SLE and control T cells at 5 and 15 min after the activation stimulus. However, comparison between the amount of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in SLE T cells from the same patients cultured without and with oestradiol showed a significant oestrogen-dependent suppression (P=0.48) of ERK1/2 in patients with inactive/mild systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) (0-2) compared with patients with moderate (4-6) or active (8-12) SLEDAI scores. These results suggest that the suppression of MAPK through ERK1/2 phosphorylation is sensitive to oestradiol in patients with inactive or mild disease, but the sensitivity is not maintained when disease activity increases. Furthermore, studies are now necessary to understand the mechanisms by which oestrogen influences MAPK activation in SLE T cells. PMID:18539708

  1. The Tec kinase-regulated phosphoproteome reveals a mechanism for the regulation of inhibitory signals in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tampella, Giacomo; Kerns, Hannah M.; Niu, Deqiang; Singh, Swati; Khim, Socheath; Bosch, Katherine A.; Garrett, Meghan E.; Moguche, Albanus; Evans, Erica; Browning, Beth; Jahan, Tahmina A.; Nacht, Mariana; Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro; Plebani, Alessandro; Hamerman, Jessica A.; Rawlings, David J.; James, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work has shown conflicting roles for Tec family kinases in regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent signalling in myeloid cells. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of the role of Btk and Tec kinases in regulating TLR signalling in several types of primary murine macrophages. We demonstrate that primary resident peritoneal macrophages deficient for Btk and Tec secrete less pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to TLR stimulation than wild type cells. In contrast, we found that bone marrow-derived and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages deficient for Btk and Tec secrete more pro-inflammatory cytokines than wild type cells. We then compared the phosphoproteome regulated by Tec kinases and lipopolysaccharide in primary peritoneal and bone marrow derived macrophages. From this analysis we determined that Tec kinases regulate different signalling programs in these cell types. In additional studies using bone marrow-derived macrophages, we find that Tec and Btk promote phosphorylation events necessary for immunoreceptor-mediated inhibition of TLR signalling. Taken together, our results are consistent with a model where Tec kinases (Btk, Tec, Bmx) are required for TLR-dependent signalling in many types of myeloid cells. However, our data also support a cell type-specific TLR-inhibitory role for Btk and Tec that is mediated by immunoreceptor activation and signalling via PI3K. PMID:26026062

  2. Identification of intracellular signaling pathways that induce myotonic dystrophy protein kinase expression during myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Marta; Canicio, Judith; Palacín, Manuel; Zorzano, Antonio; Kaliman, Perla

    2002-08-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common inherited adult neuromuscular disorder. DM is caused by a CTG expansion in the 3'-untranslated region of a protein kinase gene (DMPK). Decreased DMPK protein levels may contribute to the pathology of DM, as revealed by gene target studies. However, the postnatal regulation of DMPK expression and its pathophysiological role remain undefined. We studied the regulation of DMPK protein and mRNA expression during myogenesis in rat L6E9 myoblasts, mouse C2C12 myoblasts, and 10T1/2 fibroblasts stably expressing the myogenic transcription factor MyoD (10T1/2-MyoD). We detected DMPK as an 80-kDa protein mainly localized to the cytosolic fraction of skeletal muscle cells. DMPK expression and protein kinase activity were enhanced in IGF-II-differentiated cells. In L6E9 and C2C12 cells, DMPK expression was regulated through the same signaling pathways (i.e. phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, nuclear factor-kappaB, nitric oxide synthase, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase) that had been described as being crucial for the myogenesis induced by either low serum or IGF-II. However, in 10T1/2-MyoD cells, p38 MAPK inhibition blocked cell fusion and caveolin-3 expression without affecting DMPK up-regulation. These results suggest that although DMPK is induced during myogenesis, its expression cannot be totally associated with the development of a fully differentiated phenotype. PMID:12130568

  3. PfIRR Interacts with HrIGF-I and Activates the MAP-kinase and PI3-kinase Signaling Pathways to Regulate Glycogen Metabolism in Pinctada fucata

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; He, Mao-xian

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways are major intracellular signaling modules and conserved among eukaryotes that are known to regulate diverse cellular processes. However, they have not been investigated in the mollusk species Pinctada fucata. Here, we demonstrate that insulin-related peptide receptor of P. fucata (pfIRR) interacts with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (hrIGF-I), and stimulates the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways in P. fucata oocytes. We also show that inhibition of pfIRR by the inhibitor PQ401 significantly attenuates the basal and hrIGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and PI3K/Akt at amino acid residues threonine 308 and serine 473. Furthermore, our experiments show that there is cross-talk between the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways, in which MAPK kinase positively regulates the PI3K pathway, and PI3K positively regulates the MAPK cascade. Intramuscular injection of hrIGF-I stimulates the PI3K and MAPK pathways to increase the expression of pfirr, protein phosphatase 1, glucokinase, and the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase, decreases the mRNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, decreases glucose levels in hemocytes, and increases glycogen levels in digestive glands. These results suggest that the MAPK and PI3K pathways in P. fucata transmit the hrIGF-I signal to regulate glycogen metabolism. PMID:26911653

  4. Studies on mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in the alveolar macrophages of chronic bronchitis rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Guo-Lin; Yang, Ya-Ru; Liu, Juan; Lv, Xiong-Wen; Li, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a potent stimulator of inflammatory responses in alveolar macrophages (AMs), activates several intracellular signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). In the present study, we investigated the MAPK pathway in AMs of chronic bronchitis (CB) rats. CB was induced by endotracheal instillation of LPS followed by Bacillus Calmette Guerin injection through the caudal vein 1 week later. Specific inhibitors were used and protein phosphorylations were detected by Western blot. We found that Genistein (PTK inhibitor) could inhibit protein kinase C (PKC), phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt or PKB) MAPK signaling pathway with different degrees, LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) could not only inhibit phospho-PI3K/Akt expression, but also inhibit p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) phosphorylation. Calphostin C (PKC inhibitor) could inhibit phospho-PKC expression and exerted significant effects on extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation, however, it had no impact on p38 and JNK phosphorylation. These results demonstrated that the LPS mediated signaling pathway of MAPK in AMs of CB rats could be described as follows: PTK-PI3K-Akt-JNK/p38 or PTK-PI3K-PKC-ERK, and PI3K may have a negative regulation on the activation of downstream proteins. PMID:25467375

  5. Treponema denticola Activates Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signal Pathways through Toll-Like Receptor 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, John; Rehani, Kunal; Martin, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Treponema denticola, a spirochete indigenous to the oral cavity, is associated with host inflammatory responses to anaerobic polymicrobial infections of the root canal, periodontium, and alveolar bone. However, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the recognition of T. denticola by the innate immune system and the underlying cell signaling pathways that regulate the inflammatory response to T. denticola are currently unresolved. In this study, we demonstrate that T. denticola induces innate immune responses via the utilization of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) but not TLR4. Assessment of TLR2/1 and TLR2/6 heterodimers revealed that T. denticola predominantly utilizes TLR2/6 for the induction of cellular responses. Analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in T. denticola-stimulated monocytes identified a prolonged up-regulation of the MAPK extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, while no discernible increase in phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) levels was observed. With the aid of pharmacological inhibitors selectively targeting ERK1/2 via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 kinase and p38, we further demonstrate that ERK1/2 and p38 play a major role in T. denticola-mediated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:17923521

  6. The Hybrid Histidine Kinase LadS Forms a Multicomponent Signal Transduction System with the GacS/GacA Two-Component System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Redelberger, David; Fadel, Firas; Filloux, Alain; Sivaneson, Melissa; de Bentzmann, Sophie; Bordi, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In response to environmental changes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to switch from a planktonic (free swimming) to a sessile (biofilm) lifestyle. The two-component system (TCS) GacS/GacA activates the production of two small non-coding RNAs, RsmY and RsmZ, but four histidine kinases (HKs), RetS, GacS, LadS and PA1611, are instrumental in this process. RetS hybrid HK blocks GacS unorthodox HK autophosphorylation through the formation of a heterodimer. PA1611 hybrid HK, which is structurally related to GacS, interacts with RetS in P. aeruginosa in a very similar manner to GacS. LadS hybrid HK phenotypically antagonizes the function of RetS by a mechanism that has never been investigated. The four sensors are found in most Pseudomonas species but their characteristics and mode of signaling may differ from one species to another. Here, we demonstrated in P. aeruginosa that LadS controls both rsmY and rsmZ gene expression and that this regulation occurs through the GacS/GacA TCS. We additionally evidenced that in contrast to RetS, LadS signals through GacS/GacA without forming heterodimers, either with GacS or with RetS. Instead, we demonstrated that LadS is involved in a genuine phosphorelay, which requires both transmitter and receiver LadS domains. LadS signaling ultimately requires the alternative histidine-phosphotransfer domain of GacS, which is here used as an Hpt relay by the hybrid kinase. LadS HK thus forms, with the GacS/GacA TCS, a multicomponent signal transduction system with an original phosphorelay cascade, i.e. H1LadS→D1LadS→H2GacS→D2GacA. This highlights an original strategy in which a unique output, i.e. the modulation of sRNA levels, is controlled by a complex multi-sensing network to fine-tune an adapted biofilm and virulence response. PMID:27176226

  7. Decoding the oxidative stress hypothesis in diabetic embryopathy through pro-apoptotic kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peixin; Reece, E. Albert; Wang, Fang; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat

    2014-01-01

    Maternal diabetes-induced birth defects occur in 6-10% of babies born to mothers with pregestational diabetes, representing a significant maternal-fetal health problem. Currently, these congenital malformations represent a significant maternal-fetal medicine issue, but are likely to create an even greater public health threat as 3 million women of reproductive age (19-44 years) have diabetes in the United States alone, and this number is expected to double by 2030. Neural tube defects (NTDs) and congenital heart defects are the most common types of birth defects associated with maternal diabetes. Animal studies have revealed that embryos under hyperglycemic conditions exhibit high levels of oxidative stress resulting from enhanced production of reactive oxygen species and impaired antioxidant capability. Oxidative stress activates a set of pro-apoptotic kinase signaling intermediates leading to abnormal cell death in the embryonic neural tube, which causes NTD formation. Work in animal models also has revealed that maternal diabetes triggers a series of signaling intermediates: protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, PKCα, βII and δ; apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), caspase and apoptosis. Specifically, maternal diabetes in rodent models activates the pro-apoptotic unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. A reciprocal causation between JNK1/2 activation and ER stress exists in diabetic embryopathy. Molecular studies further demonstrate that deletion of the genes for PKCα, Ask1, Jnk1 or Jnk2 abolishes maternal diabetes-induced neural progenitor apoptosis and ameliorates NTD formation. Similar preventive effects are also observed when ASK1, JNK1/2 or ER stress is inhibited. Cell membrane stabilizers and antioxidant supplements are also effective in prevention of diabetes-induced birth defects. Mechanistic studies have revealed important insights into our understanding the cause of diabetic

  8. Minireview: role of kinases and chromatin remodeling in progesterone signaling to chromatin.

    PubMed

    Vicent, Guillermo P; Nacht, A Silvina; Zaurín, Roser; Ballaré, Cecilia; Clausell, Jaime; Beato, Miguel

    2010-11-01

    Steroid hormones regulate gene expression by interaction of their receptors with hormone-responsive elements on DNA or with other transcription factors, but they can also activate cytoplasmic signaling cascades. Rapid activation of Erk by progestins via an interaction of the progesterone receptor (PR) with the estrogen receptor is critical for transcriptional activation of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter and other progesterone target genes. Erk activation leads to the phosphorylation of PR, activation of mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1, and the recruitment of a complex of the three activated proteins and of P300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) to a single nucleosome, resulting in the phosphoacetylation of histone H3 and the displacement of heterochromatin protein 1γ. Hormone-dependent gene expression requires ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. Two switch/sucrose nonfermentable-like complexes, Brahma-related gene 1-associated factor (BAF) and polybromo-BAF are present in breast cancer cells, but only BAF is recruited to the MMTV promoter and cooperates with PCAF during activation of hormone-responsive promoters. PCAF acetylates histone H3 at K14, an epigenetic mark recognized by BAF subunits, thus anchoring the complex to chromatin. BAF catalyzes localized displacement of histones H2A and H2B, facilitating access of nuclear factor 1 and additional PR complexes to the hidden hormone-responsive elements on the MMTV promoter. The linker histone H1 is a structural component of chromatin generally regarded as a general repressor of transcription. However, it contributes to a better regulation of the MMTV promoter by favoring a more homogeneous nucleosome positioning, thus reducing basal transcription and actually enhancing hormone induced transcription. During transcriptional activation, H1 is phosphorylated and displaced from the promoter. The kinase cyclin-dependent kinase 2 is activated after progesterone treatment and could

  9. Lyn tyrosine kinase promotes silencing of ATM-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fukumoto, Yasunori Kuki, Kazumasa; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Honda, Takuya; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Hitomi; Kubota, Sho; Ide, Yudai; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-09-26

    Highlights: • Inhibition of Src family kinases decreased γ-H2AX signal. • Inhibition of Src family increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. • shRNA-mediated knockdown of Lyn increased phosphorylation of Kap1 by ATM. • Ectopic expression of Src family kinase suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. • Src is involved in upstream signaling for inactivation of ATM signaling. - Abstract: DNA damage activates the DNA damage checkpoint and the DNA repair machinery. After initial activation of DNA damage responses, cells recover to their original states through completion of DNA repair and termination of checkpoint signaling. Currently, little is known about the process by which cells recover from the DNA damage checkpoint, a process called checkpoint recovery. Here, we show that Src family kinases promote inactivation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent checkpoint signaling during recovery from DNA double-strand breaks. Inhibition of Src activity increased ATM-dependent phosphorylation of Chk2 and Kap1. Src inhibition increased ATM signaling both in G2 phase and during asynchronous growth. shRNA knockdown of Lyn increased ATM signaling. Src-dependent nuclear tyrosine phosphorylation suppressed ATM-mediated Kap1 phosphorylation. These results suggest that Src family kinases are involved in upstream signaling that leads to inactivation of the ATM-dependent DNA damage checkpoint.

  10. The protein kinase LKB1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Raja, Erna; Edlund, Karolina; Kahata, Kaoru; Zieba, Agata; Morén, Anita; Watanabe, Yukihide; Voytyuk, Iryna; Botling, Johan; Söderberg, Ola; Micke, Patrick; Pyrowolakis, George; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Moustakas, Aristidis

    2016-01-01

    The protein kinase LKB1 regulates cell metabolism and growth and is implicated in intestinal and lung cancer. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates cell differentiation during development and tissue homeostasis. We demonstrate that LKB1 physically interacts with BMP type I receptors and requires Smad7 to promote downregulation of the receptor. Accordingly, LKB1 suppresses BMP-induced osteoblast differentiation and affects BMP signaling in Drosophila wing longitudinal vein morphogenesis. LKB1 protein expression and Smad1 phosphorylation analysis in a cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients demonstrated a negative correlation predominantly in a subset enriched in adenocarcinomas. Lung cancer patient data analysis indicated strong correlation between LKB1 loss-of-function mutations and high BMP2 expression, and these two events further correlated with expression of a gene subset functionally linked to apoptosis and migration. This new mechanism of BMP receptor regulation by LKB1 has ramifications in physiological organogenesis and disease. PMID:26701726

  11. Direct Modulation of Heterotrimeric G Protein-coupled Signaling by a Receptor Kinase Complex.

    PubMed

    Tunc-Ozdemir, Meral; Urano, Daisuke; Jaiswal, Dinesh Kumar; Clouse, Steven D; Jones, Alan M

    2016-07-01

    Plants and some protists have heterotrimeric G protein complexes that activate spontaneously without canonical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In Arabidopsis, the sole 7-transmembrane regulator of G protein signaling 1 (AtRGS1) modulates the G protein complex by keeping it in the resting state (GDP-bound). However, it remains unknown how a myriad of biological responses is achieved with a single G protein modulator. We propose that in complete contrast to G protein activation in animals, plant leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR RLKs), not GPCRs, provide this discrimination through phosphorylation of AtRGS1 in a ligand-dependent manner. G protein signaling is directly activated by the pathogen-associated molecular pattern flagellin peptide 22 through its LRR RLK, FLS2, and co-receptor BAK1. PMID:27235398

  12. Attenuation of serum inducibility of immediate early genes by oncoproteins in tyrosine kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, C L; Prochownik, E V; Imperiale, M J; Jove, R

    1993-01-01

    Immediate early genes involved in controlling cell proliferation are rapidly and transiently induced following stimulation of susceptible cells with serum. To study how oncoproteins regulate immediate early genes, we examined serum inducibility of these genes in cells transformed by various oncoproteins. We found that induction of the immediate early gene, c-fos, by serum stimulation was markedly attenuated in four independent cell lines stably transformed by the v-Src tyrosine kinase. Cells chronically transformed by other oncoproteins implicated in tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, including v-Sis, v-Ras, and v-Raf, showed the same pattern of attenuation. In contrast, serum inducibility of c-fos was not attenuated in cells transformed by simian virus 40, which is thought to transform cells through a different pathway. Cell cycle analyses showed that proliferation of these transformed cell lines could be arrested effectively in 0.1% serum, demonstrating that the attenuation was not simply due to continuous cycling of transformed cells after serum deprivation. Moreover, serum inducibility of other immediate early genes, including c-jun, junB, egr-1, and NGFI-B, also was strikingly attenuated by these same oncoproteins. Nuclear run-on transcription assays established that this attenuation of serum inducibility occurred at the transcriptional level. Finally, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that serum-starved v-Src-transformed cells were viable and able to progress into S phase of the cell cycle after serum stimulation, even though the induction of immediate early genes was greatly attenuated in these cells. Our results suggest that activation of immediate early genes is repressed by chronic stimulation of tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in transformed cells. Images PMID:8384301

  13. Cellular Notch responsiveness is defined by phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent signals

    PubMed Central

    Mckenzie, Grahame; Ward, George; Stallwood, Yvette; Briend, Emmanuel; Papadia, Sofia; Lennard, Andrew; Turner, Martin; Champion, Brian; Hardingham, Giles E

    2006-01-01

    Background Notch plays a wide-ranging role in controlling cell fate, differentiation and development. The PI3K-Akt pathway is a similarly conserved signalling pathway which regulates processes such as differentiation, proliferation and survival. Mice with disrupted Notch and PI3K signalling show phenotypic similarities during haematopoietic cell development, suggesting functional interaction between these pathways. Results We show that cellular responsiveness to Notch signals depends on the activity of the PI3K-Akt pathway in cells as diverse as CHO cells, primary T-cells and hippocampal neurons. Induction of the endogenous PI3K-Akt pathway in CHO cells (by the insulin pathway), in T-cells (via TCR activation) or in neurons (via TrKB activation) potentiates Notch-dependent responses. We propose that the PI3K-Akt pathway exerts its influence on Notch primarily via inhibition of GSK3-beta, a kinase known to phosphorylate and regulate Notch signals. Conclusion The PI3K-Akt pathway acts as a "gain control" for Notch signal responses. Since physiological levels of intracellular Notch are often low, coincidence with PI3K-activation may be crucial for induction of Notch-dependent responses. PMID:16507111

  14. Control of Cardiac Repolarization by Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Signaling to Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ballou, Lisa M.; Lin, Richard Z.; Cohen, Ira S.

    2014-01-01

    Upregulation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is a common alteration in human cancer, and numerous drugs that target this pathway have been developed for cancer treatment. However, recent studies have implicated inhibition of the PI3K signaling pathway as the cause of a drug-induced long QT syndrome in which alterations in several ion currents contribute to arrhythmogenic drug activity. Surprisingly, some drugs that were thought to induce long QT syndrome by direct block of the rapid delayed rectifier (IKr) also appear to inhibit PI3K signaling, an effect that may contribute to their arrhythmogenicity. The importance of PI3K in regulating cardiac repolarization is underscored by evidence that QT interval prolongation in diabetes also may result from changes in multiple currents due to decreased insulin activation of PI3K in the heart. How PI3K signaling regulates ion channels to control the cardiac action potential is poorly understood. Hence, this review summarizes what is known about the impact of PI3K and its downstream effectors including Akt on sodium, potassium and calcium currents in cardiac myocytes. We also refer to some studies in non-cardiac cells that provide insight into potential mechanisms of ion channel regulation by this signaling pathway in the heart. Drug development and safety could be improved with a better understanding of the mechanisms by which PI3K regulates cardiac ion channels and the extent to which PI3K inhibition contributes to arrhythmogenic susceptibility. PMID:25552692

  15. Protein kinase G signaling in cardiac pathophysiology: Impact of proteomics on clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Jonathan A; Holewinski, Ronald J; Crowgey, Erin L; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2016-03-01

    The protective role of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-stimulated protein kinase G (PKG) in the heart makes it an attractive target for therapeutic drug development to treat a variety of cardiac diseases. Phosphodiesterases degrade cGMP, thus phosphodiesterase inhibitors that can increase PKG are of translational interest and the subject of ongoing human trials. PKG signaling is complex, however, and understanding its downstream phosphorylation targets and upstream regulation are necessary steps toward safe and efficacious drug development. Proteomic technologies have paved the way for assays that allow us to peer broadly into signaling minutia, including protein quantity changes and phosphorylation events. However, there are persistent challenges to the proteomic study of PKG, such as the impact of the expression of different PKG isoforms, changes in its localization within the cell, and alterations caused by oxidative stress. PKG signaling is also dependent upon sex and potentially the genetic and epigenetic background of the individual. Thus, the rigorous application of proteomics to the field will be necessary to address how these effectors can alter PKG signaling and interfere with pharmacological interventions. This review will summarize PKG signaling, how it is being targeted clinically, and the proteomic challenges and techniques that are being used to study it. PMID:26670943

  16. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L.; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Uhlig, Holm H.; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers. PMID:26320862

  17. Single cell kinase signaling assay using pinched flow coupled droplet microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Ramji, Ramesh; Wang, Ming; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Tan Shao Weng, Daniel; Thakor, Nitish V.; Teck Lim, Chwee; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics has shown potential in high throughput single cell assays by encapsulating individual cells in water-in-oil emulsions. Ordering cells in a micro-channel is necessary to encapsulate individual cells into droplets further enhancing the assay efficiency. This is typically limited due to the difficulty of preparing high-density cell solutions and maintaining them without cell aggregation in long channels (>5 cm). In this study, we developed a short pinched flow channel (5 mm) to separate cell aggregates and to form a uniform cell distribution in a droplet-generating platform that encapsulated single cells with >55% encapsulation efficiency beating Poisson encapsulation statistics. Using this platform and commercially available Sox substrates (8-hydroxy-5-(N,N-dimethylsulfonamido)-2-methylquinoline), we have demonstrated a high throughput dynamic single cell signaling assay to measure the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in lung cancer cells triggered by cell surface ligand binding. The phosphorylation of the substrates resulted in fluorescent emission, showing a sigmoidal increase over a 12 h period. The result exhibited a heterogeneous signaling rate in individual cells and showed various levels of drug resistance when treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib. PMID:24926389

  18. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E; Cuny, Gregory D; Uhlig, Holm H; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N

    2015-09-17

    RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers. PMID:26320862

  19. Protein Kinase C Signaling Mediates a Program of Cell Cycle Withdrawal in the Intestinal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Mark R.; Clark, Jennifer A.; Leontieva, Olga; Uronis, Joshua M.; Black, Adrian R.; Black, Jennifer D.

    2000-01-01

    Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of signal transduction molecules have been widely implicated in regulation of cell growth and differentiation, although the underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly defined. Using combined in vitro and in vivo intestinal epithelial model systems, we demonstrate that PKC signaling can trigger a coordinated program of molecular events leading to cell cycle withdrawal into G0. PKC activation in the IEC-18 intestinal crypt cell line resulted in rapid downregulation of D-type cyclins and differential induction of p21waf1/cip1 and p27kip1, thus targeting all of the major G1/S cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. These events were associated with coordinated alterations in expression and phosphorylation of the pocket proteins p107, pRb, and p130 that drive cells to exit the cell cycle into G0 as indicated by concomitant downregulation of the DNA licensing factor cdc6. Manipulation of PKC isozyme levels in IEC-18 cells demonstrated that PKCα alone can trigger hallmark events of cell cycle withdrawal in intestinal epithelial cells. Notably, analysis of the developmental control of cell cycle regulatory molecules along the crypt–villus axis revealed that PKCα activation is appropriately positioned within intestinal crypts to trigger this program of cell cycle exit–specific events in situ. Together, these data point to PKCα as a key regulator of cell cycle withdrawal in the intestinal epithelium. PMID:11076962

  20. Porcine circovirus type 2 replication is impaired by inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Wei Li; Liu Jue

    2009-03-30

    Postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which is primarily caused by porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), is an emerging and important swine disease. We have recently shown that PCV2 induces nuclear factor kappa B activation and its activation is required for active replication, but the other cellular factors involved in PCV2 replication are not well defined. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) which served as an important component of cellular signal transduction pathways has been shown to regulate many viral infections. In this report, we show that PCV2 activates ERK1/2 in PCV2-infected PK15 cells dependent on viral replication. The PCV2-induced ERK1/2 leads to phosphorylation of the ternary complex factor Elk-1, which kinetically paralleled ERK1/2 activation. Inhibition of ERK activation with U0126, a specific MEK1/2 inhibitor, significantly reduced viral progeny release. Investigations into the mechanism of ERK1/2 regulation revealed that inhibition of ERK activation leads to decreased viral transcription and lower virus protein expression. These data indicate that the ERK signaling pathway is involved in PCV2 infection and beneficial to PCV2 replication in the cultured cells.

  1. Coronin 1 Regulates Cognition and Behavior through Modulation of cAMP/Protein Kinase A Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chun-Lei; Moshous, Despina; Studer, Vera; Schneider, Jacques; Genoud, Christel; Fossoud, Catherine; Gambino, Frédéric; Khelfaoui, Malik; Müller, Christian; Bartholdi, Deborah; Rossez, Helene; Stiess, Michael; Houbaert, Xander; Jaussi, Rolf; Frey, Daniel; Kammerer, Richard A.; Deupi, Xavier; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Lüthi, Andreas; Humeau, Yann; Pieters, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and behavioral disorders are thought to be a result of neuronal dysfunction, but the underlying molecular defects remain largely unknown. An important signaling pathway involved in the regulation of neuronal function is the cyclic AMP/Protein kinase A pathway. We here show an essential role for coronin 1, which is encoded in a genomic region associated with neurobehavioral dysfunction, in the modulation of cyclic AMP/PKA signaling. We found that coronin 1 is specifically expressed in excitatory but not inhibitory neurons and that coronin 1 deficiency results in loss of excitatory synapses and severe neurobehavioral disabilities, including reduced anxiety, social deficits, increased aggression, and learning defects. Electrophysiological analysis of excitatory synaptic transmission in amygdala revealed that coronin 1 was essential for cyclic–AMP–protein kinase A–dependent presynaptic plasticity. We further show that upon cell surface stimulation, coronin 1 interacted with the G protein subtype Gαs to stimulate the cAMP/PKA pathway. The absence of coronin 1 or expression of coronin 1 mutants unable to interact with Gαs resulted in a marked reduction in cAMP signaling. Strikingly, synaptic plasticity and behavioral defects of coronin 1–deficient mice were restored by in vivo infusion of a membrane-permeable cAMP analogue. Together these results identify coronin 1 as being important for cognition and behavior through its activity in promoting cAMP/PKA-dependent synaptic plasticity and may open novel avenues for the dissection of signal transduction pathways involved in neurobehavioral processes. PMID:24667537

  2. Contribution of PIP-5 kinase I{alpha} to raft-based Fc{gamma}RIIA signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Szymanska, Ewelina; Korzeniowski, Marek; Raynal, Patrick; Sobota, Andrzej; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna

    2009-04-01

    Receptor Fc{gamma}IIA (Fc{gamma}RIIA) associates with plasma membrane rafts upon activation to trigger signaling cascades leading to actin polymerization. We examined whether compartmentalization of PI(4,5)P{sub 2} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2}-synthesizing PIP5-kinase I{alpha} to rafts contributes to Fc{gamma}RIIA signaling. A fraction of PIP5-kinase I{alpha} was detected in raft-originating detergent-resistant membranes (DRM) isolated from U937 monocytes and other cells. The DRM of U937 monocytes contained also a major fraction of PI(4,5)P{sub 2}. PIP5-kinase I{alpha} bound PI(4,5)P{sub 2}, and depletion of the lipid displaced PIP5-kinase I{alpha} from the DRM. Activation of Fc{gamma}RIIA in BHK transfectants led to recruitment of the kinase to the plasma membrane and enrichment of DRM in PI(4,5)P{sub 2}. Immunofluorescence studies revealed that in resting cells the kinase was associated with the plasma membrane, cytoplasmic vesicles and the nucleus. After Fc{gamma}RIIA activation, PIP5-kinase I{alpha} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2} co-localized transiently with the activated receptor at distinct cellular locations. Immunoelectron microscopy studies revealed that PIP5-kinase I{alpha} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2} were present at the edges of electron-dense assemblies containing activated Fc{gamma}RIIA in their core. The data suggest that activation of Fc{gamma}RIIA leads to membrane rafts coalescing into signaling platforms containing PIP5-kinase I{alpha} and PI(4,5)P{sub 2}.

  3. Targeting the interaction of Aurora kinases and SIRT1 mediated by Wnt signaling pathway in colorectal cancer: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Subramaniyan, Boopathi; Jagadeesan, Kaviya; Ramakrishnan, Sabitha; Mathan, Ganeshan

    2016-08-01

    The Aurora kinases belong to the family of serine/threonine kinase, a central regulator of mitosis and their expression increased during G2/M phase. It is classified into Aurora A, B and C, each has distinct roles in cellular processes, which includes regulation of spindle assembly, function of centrosomes, cytoskeleton and cytokinesis. During cancer growth, their rapid increase makes most attractive marker for cancer treatment at present. However Aurora A kinase is known to be a marker for cancer therapy, the most important serine/threonine kinase of Aurora B kinase involvement in cancer is still inadequate. Subsequently, the recent findings revealed that the class III histone deacetylase of SIRT1 is a key regulator to activate Aurora kinases from S phase damaged DNA through Wnt signaling pathway. Even if both Aurora A kinase and SIRT1 serve as a marker for cancer therapy, the present review reveals it is interaction in Wnt signaling pathway that solely for colorectal cancer. PMID:27470380

  4. Experimental Evolution Identifies Vaccinia Virus Mutations in A24R and A35R That Antagonize the Protein Kinase R Pathway and Accompany Collapse of an Extragenic Gene Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Greg; Kitzman, Jacob O.; Shendure, Jay

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most new human infectious diseases emerge from cross-species pathogen transmissions; however, it is not clear how viruses adapt to productively infect new hosts. Host restriction factors represent one species-specific barrier that viruses may initially have little ability to inhibit in new hosts. For example, viral antagonists of protein kinase R (PKR) vary in their ability to block PKR-mediated inhibition of viral replication, in part due to PKR allelic variation between species. We previously reported that amplification of a weak PKR antagonist encoded by rhesus cytomegalovirus, rhtrs1, improved replication of a recombinant poxvirus (VVΔEΔK+RhTRS1) in several resistant primate cells. To test whether amplification increases the opportunity for mutations that improve virus replication with only a single copy of rhtrs1 to evolve, we passaged rhtrs1-amplified viruses in semipermissive primate cells. After passage, we isolated two viruses that contained only a single copy of rhtrs1 yet replicated as well as the amplified virus. Surprisingly, rhtrs1 was not mutated in these viruses; instead, we identified mutations in two vaccinia virus (VACV) genes, A24R and A35R, either of which was sufficient to improve VVΔEΔK+RhTRS1 replication. Neither of these genes has previously been implicated in PKR antagonism. Furthermore, the mutation in A24R, but not A35R, increased resistance to the antipoxviral drug isatin-β-thiosemicarbazone, suggesting that these mutations employ different mechanisms to evade PKR. This study supports our hypothesis that gene amplification may provide a “molecular foothold,” broadly improving replication to facilitate rapid adaptation, while subsequent mutations maintain this efficient replication in the new host without requiring gene amplification. IMPORTANCE Understanding how viruses adapt to a new host may help identify viruses poised to cross species barriers before an outbreak occurs. Amplification of rhtrs1, a weak viral

  5. Drosophila Spidey/Kar Regulates Oenocyte Growth via PI3-Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Cinnamon, Einat; Sawala, Annick; Tittiger, Claus; Paroush, Ze'ev

    2016-01-01

    Cell growth and proliferation depend upon many different aspects of lipid metabolism. One key signaling pathway that is utilized in many different anabolic contexts involves Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its membrane lipid products, the Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphates. It remains unclear, however, which other branches of lipid metabolism interact with the PI3K signaling pathway. Here, we focus on specialized fat metabolizing cells in Drosophila called larval oenocytes. In the presence of dietary nutrients, oenocytes undergo PI3K-dependent cell growth and contain very few lipid droplets. In contrast, during starvation, oenocytes decrease PI3K signaling, shut down cell growth and accumulate abundant lipid droplets. We now show that PI3K in larval oenocytes, but not in fat body cells, functions to suppress lipid droplet accumulation. Several enzymes of fatty acid, triglyceride and hydrocarbon metabolism are required in oenocytes primarily for lipid droplet induction rather than for cell growth. In contrast, a very long chain fatty-acyl-CoA reductase (FarO) and a putative lipid dehydrogenase/reductase (Spidey, also known as Kar) not only promote lipid droplet induction but also inhibit oenocyte growth. In the case of Spidey/Kar, we show that the growth suppression mechanism involves inhibition of the PI3K signaling pathway upstream of Akt activity. Together, the findings in this study show how Spidey/Kar and FarO regulate the balance between the cell growth and lipid storage of larval oenocytes. PMID:27500738

  6. Metabotropic NMDA receptor signaling couples Src family kinases to pannexin-1 during excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Weilinger, Nicholas L; Lohman, Alexander W; Rakai, Brooke D; Ma, Evelyn M M; Bialecki, Jennifer; Maslieieva, Valentyna; Rilea, Travis; Bandet, Mischa V; Ikuta, Nathan T; Scott, Lucas; Colicos, Michael A; Teskey, G Campbell; Winship, Ian R; Thompson, Roger J

    2016-03-01

    Overactivation of neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) causes excitotoxicity and is necessary for neuronal death. In the classical view, these ligand-gated Ca(2+)-permeable ionotropic receptors require co-agonists and membrane depolarization for activation. We report that NMDARs signal during ligand binding without activation of their ion conduction pore. Pharmacological pore block with MK-801, physiological pore block with Mg(2+) or a Ca(2+)-impermeable NMDAR variant prevented NMDAR currents, but did not block excitotoxic dendritic blebbing and secondary currents induced by exogenous NMDA. NMDARs, Src kinase and Panx1 form a signaling complex, and activation of Panx1 required phosphorylation at Y308. Disruption of this NMDAR-Src-Panx1 signaling complex in vitro or in vivo by administration of an interfering peptide either before or 2 h after ischemia or stroke was neuroprotective. Our observations provide insights into a new signaling modality of NMDARs that has broad-reaching implications for brain physiology and pathology. PMID:26854804

  7. Crystal Structure and Oligomeric State of the RetS Signaling Kinase Sensory Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, X.; Jaw, J; Robinson, H; Schubot, F

    2010-01-01

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa may cause both acute and chronic-persistent infections in predisposed individuals. Acute infections require the presence of a functional type III secretion system (T3SS), whereas chronic P. aeruginosa infections are characterized by the formation of drug-resistant biofilms. The T3SS and biofilm formation are reciprocally regulated by the signaling kinases LadS, RetS, and GacS. RetS downregulates biofilm formation and upregulates expression of the T3SS through a unique mechanism. RetS forms a heterodimeric complex with GacS and thus prevents GacS autophosphorylation and downstream signaling. The signals that regulate RetS are not known but RetS possesses a distinctive periplasmic sensor domain that is believed to serve as receptor for the regulatory ligand. We have determined the crystal structure of the RetS sensory domain at 2.0 {angstrom} resolution. The structure closely resembles those of carbohydrate binding modules of other proteins, suggesting that the elusive ligands are likely carbohydrate moieties. In addition to the conserved beta-sandwich structure, the sensory domain features two alpha helices which create a unique surface topology. Protein-protein crosslinking and fluorescence energy transfer experiments also revealed that the sensory domain dimerizes with a dissociation constant of K{sub d} = 580 {+-} 50 nM, a result with interesting implications for our understanding of the underlying signaling mechanism.

  8. Diacylglycerol kinase-δ regulates AMPK signaling, lipid metabolism, and skeletal muscle energetics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lake Q; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Massart, Julie; Deshmukh, Atul S; Löfgren, Lars; Duque-Guimaraes, Daniella E; Ozilgen, Arda; Osler, Megan E; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-01-01

    Decrease of AMPK-related signal transduction and insufficient lipid oxidation contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previously, we identified that diacylglycerol kinase-δ (DGKδ), an enzyme involved in triglyceride biosynthesis, is reduced in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DGKδ plays a role in maintaining appropriate AMPK action in skeletal muscle and energetic aspects of contraction. Voluntary running activity was reduced in DGKδ(+/-) mice, but glycogen content and mitochondrial markers were unaltered, suggesting that DGKδ deficiency affects skeletal muscle energetics but not mitochondrial protein abundance. We next determined the role of DGKδ in AMPK-related signal transduction and lipid metabolism in isolated skeletal muscle. AMPK activation and signaling were reduced in DGKδ(+/-) mice, concomitant with impaired lipid oxidation and elevated incorporation of free fatty acids into triglycerides. Strikingly, DGKδ deficiency impaired work performance, as evident by altered force production and relaxation dynamics in response to repeated contractions. In conclusion, DGKδ deficiency impairs AMPK signaling and lipid metabolism, thereby highlighting the deleterious role of excessive lipid metabolites in the development of peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. DGKδ deficiency also influences skeletal muscle energetics, which may lead to low physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26530149

  9. Drosophila Spidey/Kar Regulates Oenocyte Growth via PI3-Kinase Signaling.

    PubMed

    Cinnamon, Einat; Makki, Rami; Sawala, Annick; Wickenberg, Leah P; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus; Paroush, Ze'ev; Gould, Alex P

    2016-08-01

    Cell growth and proliferation depend upon many different aspects of lipid metabolism. One key signaling pathway that is utilized in many different anabolic contexts involves Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and its membrane lipid products, the Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphates. It remains unclear, however, which other branches of lipid metabolism interact with the PI3K signaling pathway. Here, we focus on specialized fat metabolizing cells in Drosophila called larval oenocytes. In the presence of dietary nutrients, oenocytes undergo PI3K-dependent cell growth and contain very few lipid droplets. In contrast, during starvation, oenocytes decrease PI3K signaling, shut down cell growth and accumulate abundant lipid droplets. We now show that PI3K in larval oenocytes, but not in fat body cells, functions to suppress lipid droplet accumulation. Several enzymes of fatty acid, triglyceride and hydrocarbon metabolism are required in oenocytes primarily for lipid droplet induction rather than for cell growth. In contrast, a very long chain fatty-acyl-CoA reductase (FarO) and a putative lipid dehydrogenase/reductase (Spidey, also known as Kar) not only promote lipid droplet induction but also inhibit oenocyte growth. In the case of Spidey/Kar, we show that the growth suppression mechanism involves inhibition of the PI3K signaling pathway upstream of Akt activity. Together, the findings in this study show how Spidey/Kar and FarO regulate the balance between the cell growth and lipid storage of larval oenocytes. PMID:27500738

  10. Non-receptor-tyrosine Kinases Integrate Fast Glucocorticoid Signaling in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Silei; Roselli, Francesco; Patchev, Alexandre V.; Yu, Shuang; Almeida, Osborne F. X.

    2013-01-01

    Despite numerous descriptions of rapid effects of corticosterone on neuronal function, the intracellular mechanisms responsible for these changes remain elusive. The present comprehensive analysis reveals that signaling from a membrane-located G protein-coupled receptor activates PKC, Akt/PKB, and PKA, which subsequently trigger the phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinases Pyk2, Src, and Abl. These changes induce rapid cytoskeletal rearrangements (increased PSD-95 co-clustering) within the post-synaptic density; these events are accompanied by increased surface NMDA receptor expression, reflecting corticosterone-induced inhibition of NMDA receptor endocytosis. Notably, none of these signaling mechanisms require de novo protein synthesis. The observed up-regulation of ERK1/2 (downstream of NMDA receptor signaling) together with the fact that c-Abl integrates cytoplasmic and nuclear functions introduces a potential mechanism through which rapid signaling initiated at the plasma membrane may eventually determine the long term integrated response to corticosterone by impacting on the transcriptional machinery that is regulated by classical, nuclear mineralocorticoid, and glucocorticoid receptors. PMID:23818519

  11. N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) from oxygenic phototrophs: P(II) signal transduction across domains of life reveals novel insights in NAGK control.

    PubMed

    Beez, Sabine; Fokina, Oleksandra; Herrmann, Christina; Forchhammer, Karl

    2009-06-19

    N-Acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the first committed step in arginine biosynthesis in organisms that perform the cyclic pathway of ornithine synthesis. In eukaryotic and bacterial oxygenic phototrophs, the activity of NAGK is controlled by the P(II) signal transduction protein. Recent X-ray analysis of NAGK-P(II) complexes from a higher plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a cyanobacterium (Synechococcus elongatus) revealed that despite several differences, the overall structure of the complex is highly similar. The present study analyzes the functional conservation of P(II)-mediated NAGK regulation in plants and cyanobacteria to distinguish between universal properties and those that are specific for the different phylogenetic lineages. This study shows that plant and cyanobacterial P(II) proteins can mutually regulate the NAGK enzymes across the domains of life, implying a high selective pressure to conserve P(II)-NAGK interaction over more than 1.2 billion years of separate evolution. The non-conserved C-terminus of S. elongatus NAGK was identified as an element, which strongly enhances arginine inhibition and is responsible for most of the differences between S. elongatus and A. thaliana NAGK with respect to arginine sensitivity. Both P(II) proteins relieve arginine inhibition of NAGK, and in both lineages, P(II)-mediated relief from arginine inhibition is antagonized by 2-oxoglutarate. Together, these properties highlight the conserved role of P(II) as a signal integrator of the C/N balance sensed as 2-oxoglutarate to regulate arginine synthesis in oxygenic phototrophs. PMID:19409905

  12. Pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation related to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Juan; Sha, Xiang-Yin; Liu, Yi; Yang, Rui-Ming; Wen, Ye

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate whether the abnormal differentiation of the pterygium epithelium is related to the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in vitro. METHODS The expression levels of phosphorylated ERK (P-ERK), keratin family members including K19 and K10 and the ocular master control gene Pax-6 were measured in 16 surgically excised pterygium tissues and 12 eye bank conjunctiva. In colony-forming cell assays, the differences in clone morphology and in K10, K19, P-ERK and Pax-6 expression between the head and body were investigated. When cocultured with the ERK signaling pathway inhibitor PD98059, the changes in clone morphology, colony-forming efficiency, differentiated marker K10, K19 and Pax-6 expression and P-ERK protein expression level were examined by immunoreactivity and Western blot analysis. RESULTS The expression of K19 and Pax-6 decreased in the pterygium, especially in the head. No staining of K10 was found in the normal conjunctiva epithelium, but it was found to be expressed in the superficial cells in the head of the pterygium. Characteristic upregulation of P-ERK was observed by immunohistochemistry. The clone from the head with more differentiated cells in the center expressed more K10, and the clone from the body expressed more K19. The P-ERK protein level increased in the pterygium epithelium compared with conjunctiva and decreased when cocultured with PD98059. The same medium with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 was more effective in promoting clonal growth than conventional medium with 3T3 murine feeder layers. It was observed that the epithelium clone co-cultured with the inhibitor had decreased K10 expression and increased K19 and Pax-6 expression. CONCLUSION We suggest ERK signaling pathway activation might play a role in the pterygium epithelium abnormal differentiation. PMID:26682158

  13. Activation of cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase Stimulates Cardiac ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels via a ROS/Calmodulin/CaMKII Signaling Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yongping; Zhang, Dai-Min; Lin, Yu-Fung

    2011-01-01

    Background Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is recognized as an important signaling component in diverse cell types. PKG may influence the function of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, an ion channel critical for stress adaptation in the heart; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study was designed to address this issue. Methods and Findings Single-channel recordings of cardiac KATP channels were performed in both cell-attached and inside-out patch configurations using transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells and rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes. We found that Kir6.2/SUR2A (the cardiac-type KATP) channels were activated by cGMP-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast in a concentration-dependent manner in cell-attached patches obtained from HEK293 cells, an effect mimicked by the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP whereas abolished by selective PKG inhibitors. Intriguingly, direct application of PKG moderately reduced rather than augmented Kir6.2/SUR2A single-channel currents in excised, inside-out patches. Moreover, PKG stimulation of Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells was abrogated by ROS/H2O2 scavenging, antagonism of calmodulin, and blockade of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), respectively. Exogenous H2O2 also concentration-dependently stimulated Kir6.2/SUR2A channels in intact cells, and its effect was prevented by inhibition of calmodulin or CaMKII. PKG stimulation of KATP channels was confirmed in intact ventricular cardiomyocytes, which was ROS- and CaMKII-dependent. Kinetically, PKG appeared to stimulate these channels by destabilizing the longest closed state while stabilizing the long open state and facilitating opening transitions. Conclusion The present study provides novel evidence that PKG exerts dual regulation of cardiac KATP channels, including marked stimulation resulting from intracellular signaling mediated by ROS (H2O2 in

  14. A novel ALK secondary mutation and EGFR signaling cause resistance to ALK kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takaaki; Koivunen, Jussi; Ogino, Atsuko; Yanagita, Masahiko; Nikiforow, Sarah; Zheng, Wei; Lathan, Christopher; Marcoux, J. Paul; Du, Jinyan; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Capelletti, Marzia; Shimamura, Takeshi; Ercan, Dalia; Stumpfova, Magda; Xiao, Yun; Weremowicz, Stanislawa; Butaney, Mohit; Heon, Stephanie; Wilner, Keith; Christensen, James G.; Eck, Michel J.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Lindeman, Neal; Gray, Nathanael S.; Rodig, Scott J.; Jänne, Pasi A.

    2011-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), including crizotinib, are effective treatments in preclinical models and in cancer patients with ALK-translocated cancers. However, their efficacy will ultimately be limited by the development of acquired drug resistance. Here we report two mechanisms of ALK TKI resistance identified from, a crizotinib treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient and in a cell line generated from the resistant tumor (DFCI076), and from studying a resistant version of the ALK TKI (TAE684) sensitive H3122 cell line. The crizotinib resistant DFCI076 cell line, harboured a unique L1152R ALK secondary mutation, and was also resistant to the structurally unrelated ALK TKI TAE684. Although the DFCI076 cell line was still partially dependent on ALK for survival, it also contained concurrent co-activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling. In contrast, the TAE684 resistant (TR3) H3122 cell line did not contain an ALK secondary mutation but instead harboured co-activation of EGFR signalling. Dual inhibition of both ALK and EGFR was the most effective therapeutic strategy for the DFCI076 and H3122 TR3 cell lines. We further identified a subset (3/50; 6%) of treatment naïve NSCLC patients with ALK rearrangements that also had concurrent EGFR activating mutations. Our studies identify resistance mechanisms to ALK TKIs mediated by both ALK and by a bypass signalling pathway mediated by EGFR. These mechanisms can occur independently, or in the same cancer, suggesting that the combination of both ALK and EGFR inhibitors may represent an effective therapy for these subsets of NSCLC patients. PMID:21791641

  15. Mechanism of inhibition of Raf-1 by protein kinase A.

    PubMed Central

    Häfner, S; Adler, H S; Mischak, H; Janosch, P; Heidecker, G; Wolfman, A; Pippig, S; Lohse, M; Ueffing, M; Kolch, W

    1994-01-01

    The cytoplasmic Raf-1 kinase is essential for mitogenic signalling by growth factors, which couple to tyrosine kinases, and by tumor-promoting phorbol esters such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, which activate protein kinase C (PKC). Signalling by the Raf-1 kinase can be blocked by activation of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). The molecular mechanism of this inhibition is not precisely known but has been suggested to involve attenuation of Raf-1 binding to Ras. Using purified proteins, we show that in addition to weakening the interaction of Raf-1 with Ras, PKA can inhibit Raf-1 function directly via phosphorylation of the Raf-1 kinase domain. Phosphorylation by PKA interferes with the activation of Raf-1 by either PKC alpha or the tyrosine kinase Lck and even can downregulate the kinase activity of Raf-1 previously activated by PKC alpha or amino-terminal truncation. This type of inhibition can be dissociated from the ability of Raf-1 to associate with Ras, since (i) the isolated Raf-1 kinase domain, which lacks the Ras binding domain, is still susceptible to inhibition by PKA, (ii) phosphorylation of Raf-1 by PKC alpha alleviates the PKA-induced reduction of Ras binding but does not prevent the downregulation of Raf-1 kinase activity by PKA and (iii) cAMP agonists antagonize transformation by v-Raf, which is Ras independent. Images PMID:7935389

  16. Chrysin inhibits human airway smooth muscle cells proliferation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yun-Shi; Feng, Gan-Zhu; Du, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease characterized by an increased mass of airway smooth muscle (ASM). Chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), a natural flavonoid, has been shown to exert multiple biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-oxidant effects, as well as the potency to ameliorate asthma in animal models. The objective of the present study was to identify the underlying mechanism of the therapeutic effects of chrysin. The impact of chrysin on basal and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced proliferation and apoptosis of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) was investigated. Furthermore, the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway was evaluated in HASMCs. The results revealed that chrysin significantly inhibited basal as well as PDGF-induced HASMC proliferation, most likely through the suppression of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. However, chrysin did not significantly reduce PDGF-induced apoptosis of HASMCs. The present study indicated that chrysin may be a promising medication for controlling airway remodeling and clinical manifestations of asthma. PMID:26502995

  17. Src Family Kinases Promote Silencing of ATR-Chk1 Signaling in Termination of DNA Damage Checkpoint*

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Yasunori; Morii, Mariko; Miura, Takahito; Kubota, Sho; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Honda, Takuya; Okamoto, Aya; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Iwama, Atsushi; Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage checkpoint arrests cell cycle progression to allow time for repair. Once DNA repair is completed, checkpoint signaling is terminated. Currently little is known about the mechanism by which checkpoint signaling is terminated, and the disappearance of DNA lesions is considered to induce the end of checkpoint signaling; however, here we show that the termination of checkpoint signaling is an active process promoted by Src family tyrosine kinases. Inhibition of Src activity delays recovery from the G2 phase DNA damage checkpoint following DNA repair. Src activity is required for the termination of checkpoint signaling, and inhibition of Src activity induces persistent activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and Rad3-related (ATR) and Chk1 kinases. Src-dependent nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation and v-Src expression suppress the ATR-mediated Chk1 and Rad17 phosphorylation induced by DNA double strand breaks or DNA replication stress. Thus, Src family kinases promote checkpoint recovery through termination of ATR- and Chk1-dependent G2 DNA damage checkpoint. These results suggest a model according to which Src family kinases send a termination signal between the completion of DNA repair and the initiation of checkpoint termination. PMID:24634213

  18. Hypoxia induces a phase transition within a kinase signaling network in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Shi, Qihui; Remacle, Francoise; Qin, Lidong; Shackelford, David B; Shin, Young Shik; Mischel, Paul S; Levine, R D; Heath, James R

    2013-04-01

    Hypoxia is a near-universal feature of cancer, promoting glycolysis, cellular proliferation, and angiogenesis. The molecular mechanisms of hypoxic signaling have been intensively studied, but the impact of changes in oxygen partial pressure (pO2) on the state of signaling networks is less clear. In a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cancer cell model, we examined the response of signaling networks to targeted pathway inhibition between 21% and 1% pO2. We used a microchip technology that facilitates quantification of a panel of functional proteins from statistical numbers of single cells. We find that near 1.5% pO2, the signaling network associated with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1)--a critical component of hypoxic signaling and a compelling cancer drug target--is deregulated in a manner such that it will be unresponsive to mTOR kinase inhibitors near 1.5% pO2, but will respond at higher or lower pO2 values. These predictions were validated through experiments on bulk GBM cell line cultures and on neurosphere cultures of a human-origin GBM xenograft tumor. We attempt to understand this behavior through the use of a quantitative version of Le Chatelier's principle, as well as through a steady-state kinetic model of protein interactions, both of which indicate that hypoxia can influence mTORC1 signaling as a switch. The Le Chatelier approach also indicates that this switch may be thought of as a type of phase transition. Our analysis indicates that certain biologically complex cell behaviors may be understood using fundamental, thermodynamics-motivated principles. PMID:23530221

  19. Cadmium activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, Mio; Inamura, Hisako; Matsumura, Ken-ichi; Matsuoka, Masato

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium exposure induces ERK5 phosphorylation in HK-2 renal proximal tubular cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BIX02189 treatment suppresses cadmium-induced ERK5 but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BIX02189 treatment suppresses cadmium-induced CREB and c-Fos phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ERK5 activation by cadmium exposure may play an anti-apoptotic role in HK-2 cells. -- Abstract: We examined the effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) exposure on the phosphorylation and functionality of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5), a recently identified member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells. Following exposure to CdCl{sub 2}, ERK5 phosphorylation increased markedly, but the level of total ERK5 was unchanged. ERK5 phosphorylation following CdCl{sub 2} exposure was rapid and transient, similar to the time course of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment of HK-2 cells with the MAPK/ERK kinase 5 inhibitor, BIX02189, suppressed CdCl{sub 2}-induced ERK5 but not ERK1/2 phosphorylation. The CdCl{sub 2}-induced increase of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor-1 (ATF-1), as well as the accumulation of mobility-shifted c-Fos protein, were suppressed by BIX02189 treatment. Furthermore, BIX02189 treatment enhanced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and increased the level of cytoplasmic nucleosomes in HK-2 cells exposed to CdCl{sub 2}. These findings suggest that ERK5 pathway activation by CdCl{sub 2} exposure might induce the phosphorylation of cell survival-transcription factors, such as CREB, ATF-1, and c-Fos, and may exert a partial anti-apoptotic role in HK-2 cells.

  20. Inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway reduces caspase-14 expression in impaired keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Ningning; Pang, Shuguang; Song, Haiyan; An, Liguo; Ma, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Several investigations have revealed that caspase-14 is responsible for the epidermal differentiation and cornification, as well as the regulation of moisturizing effect. However, the precise regulation mechanism is still not clear. This study was aimed to investigate the expression of caspase-14 in filaggrin-deficient normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) and to explore the possible mechanism that contributes to the regulation of caspase-14. Materials and Methods: The filaggrin-deficient NHEKs were induced by transfection with lentivirus (LV) vector encoding small hairpin RNAs (shRNA). The inhibitors SB203580, PD98059 and SP600125 were used for suppressing the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p44/42 MAPK and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK). The expression of filaggrin, p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and SAPK/JNK, caspase-14, keratin1and keratin2 were detected by western blot. Results: In filaggrin-deficient NHEKs, the expression of p38, p44/42 MAPK and SAPK/JNK and caspase-14 were significantly decreased. The inhibition of p38 and SAPK/JNK reduced the expression of caspase-14, while the p44/42 MAPK showed no consistent effects. Moreover, the filaggrin knockdown decreased the expression of keratin2, but had no effects on the level of keratin1. Conclusion: The decreased expression of caspase-14 in filaggrin-deficient NHEKs may be induced by the inactivation of MAPK signaling pathway. These provide a novel perspective to understand the mechanism for the protective effects of filaggrin and caspase-14 on skin barrier function. PMID:27096061

  1. Synbindin in Extracellular Signal-Regulated Protein Kinase Spatial Regulation and Gastric Cancer Aggressiveness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms that control the aggressiveness of gastric cancer (GC) remain poorly defined. Here we show that synbindin contributes to the aggressiveness of GC by activating extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling on the Golgi apparatus. Methods Expression of synbindin was examined in normal gastric mucosa (n = 44), intestinal metaplastic gastric mucosa (n = 66), and GC tissues (n=52), and the biological effects of synbindin on tumor growth and ERK signaling were detected in cultured cells, nude mice, and human tissue samples. The interaction between synbindin and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1)/ERK was determined by immunofluorescence and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays. The transactivation of synbindin by nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) was detected using luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results High expression of synbindin was associated with larger tumor size (120.8 vs 44.8cm3; P = .01), advanced tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage (P = .003), and shorter patient survival (hazard ratio = 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 2.27; P = .046). Synbindin promotes cell proliferation and invasion by activating ERK2 on the Golgi apparatus, and synbindin is directly transactivated by NF-κB. Synbindin expression level was statistically significantly higher in human GCs with activated ERK2 than those with low ERK2 activity (intensity score of 11.5, 95% CI = 10.4 to 12.4 vs intensity score of 4.6, 95% CI 3.9 to 5.3; P < .001). Targeting synbindin in xenograft tumors decreased ERK2 phosphorylation and statistically significantly reduced tumor volume (451.2mm3, 95% CI = 328.3 to 574.1 vs 726.1mm3, 95% CI = 544.2 to 908.2; P = .01). Conclusions Synbindin contributes to malignant phenotypes of GC by activating ERK on the Golgi, and synbindin is a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for GC. PMID:24104608

  2. The Histidine Kinase AHK5 Integrates Endogenous and Environmental Signals in Arabidopsis Guard Cells

    PubMed Central

    Desikan, Radhika; Horák, Jakub; Chaban, Christina; Mira-Rodado, Virtudes; Witthöft, Janika; Elgass, Kirstin; Grefen, Christopher; Cheung, Man-Kim; Meixner, Alfred J.; Hooley, Richard; Neill, Steven John; Hancock, John Travers; Harter, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Background Stomatal guard cells monitor and respond to environmental and endogenous signals such that the stomatal aperture is continually optimised for water use efficiency. A key signalling molecule produced in guard cells in response to plant hormones, light, carbon dioxide and pathogen-derived signals is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The mechanisms by which H2O2 integrates multiple signals via specific signalling pathways leading to stomatal closure is not known. Principal Findings Here, we identify a pathway by which H2O2, derived from endogenous and environmental stimuli, is sensed and transduced to effect stomatal closure. Histidine kinases (HK) are part of two-component signal transduction systems that act to integrate environmental stimuli into a cellular response via a phosphotransfer relay mechanism. There is little known about the function of the HK AHK5 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we report that in addition to the predicted cytoplasmic localisation of this protein, AHK5 also appears to co-localise to the plasma membrane. Although AHK5 is expressed at low levels in guard cells, we identify a unique role for AHK5 in stomatal signalling. Arabidopsis mutants lacking AHK5 show reduced stomatal closure in response to H2O2, which is reversed by complementation with the wild type gene. Over-expression of AHK5 results in constitutively less stomatal closure. Abiotic stimuli that generate endogenous H2O2, such as darkness, nitric oxide and the phytohormone ethylene, also show reduced stomatal closure in the ahk5 mutants. However, ABA caused closure, dark adaptation induced H2O2 production and H2O2 induced NO synthesis in mutants. Treatment with the bacterial pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flagellin, but not elf peptide, also exhibited reduced stomatal closure and H2O2 generation in ahk5 mutants. Significance Our findings identify an integral signalling function for AHK5 that acts to integrate multiple signals via H2O2 homeostasis and is independent

  3. Effect of training on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in rat soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Sam; Bruce, Clinton R; Spurrell, Brian E; Hawley, John A

    2002-08-01

    1. The effect of a chronic programme of either low- or moderate-to-high-intensity treadmill running on the activation of the extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways was determined in rat muscle. 2. Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of three groups: (i) sedentary (NT; n = 8); (ii) low-intensity training (8 m/min; LIT; n = 16); and (iii) moderate-to-high-intensity training (28 m/min; HIT; n = 16). The training regimens were planned so that animals covered the same distance and had similar glycogen utilization for both LIT and HIT exercise sessions. 3. A single bout of LIT or HIT following 8 weeks of training led to a twofold increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (P = 0.048) and a two- to threefold increase in p38 MAPK (P = 0.005). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation in muscle sampled 48 h after the last exercise bout was similar to sedentary values, while p38 MAPK phosphorylation was 70-80% lower than sedentary. One bout of LIT or HIT increased total ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK expression, with the magnitude of this increase being independent of prior exercise intensity or duration. Extracellular signal- regulated kinase 1/2 expression was increased three- to fourfold in muscle sampled 48 h after the last exercise bout irrespective of the prior training programme (P = 0.027), but p38 MAPK expression was approximately 90% lower than sedentary values. 4. In conclusion, exercise-training of different intensities/ durations results in selective postexercise activation of intracellular signalling pathways, which may be one mechanism regulating specific adaptations induced by diverse training programmes. PMID:12099995

  4. Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1, a target of NKX2-1/TTF-1 lineage-survival oncogene, inhibits apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1-mediated pro-apoptotic signaling in lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ida, Lisa; Yamaguchi, Tomoya; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Kajino, Taisuke; Shimada, Yukako; Suzuki, Motoshi; Takahashi, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    We previously identified receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) as a transcriptional target of the NKX2-1/TTF-1 lineage-survival oncogene in lung adenocarcinoma. ROR1 consequently sustains a favorable balance between pro-survival phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B and pro-apoptotic apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-p38MAPK signaling. In contrast to recent advances in understanding how ROR1 sustains pro-survival signaling, the mechanism of ROR1 repression of pro-apoptotic signaling remains rather elusive. In the present study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of ROR1-mediated inhibition of the ASK1-p38MAPK signaling pathway. Growth inhibition mediated by siROR1 was partially but significantly alleviated by ASK1 co-knockdown in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Also, ASK1 phosphorylation at Thr845, which reflects its activated state, was clearly inhibited by ROR1 overexpression in both steady state and oxidative stress-elicited conditions in MSTO-211H cells. In addition, we found that ROR1 was physically associated with ASK1 at the C-terminal serine threonine-rich domain of ROR1. Furthermore, ROR1 kinase activity was shown to be required to repress the ASK1-p38 axis and oxidative stress-induced cell death. The present findings thus support our notion that ROR1 sustains lung adenocarcinoma survival, at least in part, through direct physical interaction with ASK1 and consequential repression of the pro-apoptotic ASK1-p38 axis in a ROR1 kinase activity-dependent manner. PMID:26661061

  5. Constitutive Phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C Regulates D1 Dopamine Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Michele L.; Sibley, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The D1 dopamine receptor (D1DAR) is robustly phosphorylated by multiple protein kinases, yet the phosphorylation sites and functional consequences of these modifications are not fully understood. Here, we report that the D1DAR is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) in the absence of agonist stimulation. Phosphorylation of the D1DAR by PKC is constitutive in nature, can be induced by phorbol ester treatment or through activation of Gq-mediated signal transduction pathways, and is abolished by PKC inhibitors. We demonstrate that most, but not all, isoforms of PKC are capable of phosphorylating the receptor. To directly assess the functional role of PKC phosphorylation of the D1DAR, a site-directed mutagenesis approach was used to identify the PKC sites within the receptor. Five serine residues were found to mediate the PKC phosphorylation. Replacement of these residues had no effect on D1DAR expression or agonist-induced desensitization; however, G protein coupling and cAMP accumulation were significantly enhanced in PKC-null D1DAR. Thus, constitutive or heterologous PKC phosphorylation of the D1DAR dampens dopamine activation of the receptor, most likely occurring in a context-specific manner, mediated by the repertoire of PKC isozymes within the cell. PMID:20969574

  6. Sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling pathway as a potential therapeutic target of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Xi-Qian; Li, Yan-Li; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Xiao, Yi; Li, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Li-Qiong; Zhou, Yu-Shan; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Liu, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Li-Hui; Zhuang, Min; Chen, Yan-Ping; Ouyang, Sheng-Rong; Wu, Xu-Wei; Yang, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by extensive vascular remodelling, leading to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and eventual death due to right heart failure. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension involves vascular endothelial dysfunction and disordered vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, but the exact processes remain unknown. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes. S1P has been shown to regulate VSMC proliferation and migration and vascular tension via a family of five S1P G-protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-SIP5). S1P has been shown to have both a vasoconstrictive and vasodilating effect. The S1P receptors S1P1 and S1P3 promote, while S1P2 inhibits VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro in response to S1P. Moreover, it has been reported recently that sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P2 inhibitors might be useful therapeutic agents in the treatment of empirical pulmonary hypertension. The sphingosine kinase 1/S1P signalling pathways may play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Modulation of this pathway may offer novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26550106

  7. Sphingosine kinase 1/sphingosine 1-phosphate signalling pathway as a potential therapeutic target of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xi-Qian; Li, Yan-Li; Zhang, Yu-Xuan; Xiao, Yi; Li, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Li-Qiong; Zhou, Yu-Shan; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Liu, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Li-Hui; Zhuang, Min; Chen, Yan-Ping; Ouyang, Sheng-Rong; Wu, Xu-Wei; Yang, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by extensive vascular remodelling, leading to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and eventual death due to right heart failure. The pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension involves vascular endothelial dysfunction and disordered vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration, but the exact processes remain unknown. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid involved in a wide spectrum of biological processes. S1P has been shown to regulate VSMC proliferation and migration and vascular tension via a family of five S1P G-protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-SIP5). S1P has been shown to have both a vasoconstrictive and vasodilating effect. The S1P receptors S1P1 and S1P3 promote, while S1P2 inhibits VSMC proliferation and migration in vitro in response to S1P. Moreover, it has been reported recently that sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P2 inhibitors might be useful therapeutic agents in the treatment of empirical pulmonary hypertension. The sphingosine kinase 1/S1P signalling pathways may play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Modulation of this pathway may offer novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:26550106

  8. The involvement of Gab1 and PI 3-kinase in {beta}1 integrin signaling in keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwano, Yoshihiro; Fujimoto, Manabu . E-mail: fujimoto-m@umin.ac.jp; Watanabe, Rei; Ishiura, Nobuko; Nakashima, Hiroko; Komine, Mayumi; Hamazaki, Tatsuo S.; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Okochi, Hitoshi

    2007-09-14

    The control of the stem cell compartment in epidermis is closely linked to the regulation of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. {beta}1 integrins are expressed 2-fold higher by stem cells than transit-amplifying cells. Signaling from these {beta}1 integrins is critical for the regulation of the epidermal stem cell compartment. To clarify the functional relevance of this differential expression of {beta}1 integrins, we established HaCaT cells with high {beta}1integrin expression by repeated flow cytometric sorting of this population from the parental cell line. In these obtained cells expressing {beta}1 integrins by 5-fold, MAPK activation was markedly increased. Regarding the upstream of MAPK, Gab1 phosphorylation was also higher with high {beta}1 integrin expression, while Shc phosphorylation was not altered. In addition, enhanced phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation was also observed. These observations suggest that Gab1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase play pivotal roles in the {beta}1 integrin-mediated regulation of the epidermal stem cell compartment.

  9. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chen-Tzu; Chen, Bing-Chang; Yu, Chung-Chi; Weng, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Shih, Chung-Hung; Lin, Chien-Huang

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we explore the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Denbinobin-induced cell apoptosis was attenuated by an ASK1 dominant-negative mutant (ASK1DN), two antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH)), a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125), and an activator protein-1 (AP-1) inhibitor (curcumin). Treatment of A549 cells with denbinobin caused increases in ASK1 activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and these effects were inhibited by NAC and GSH. Stimulation of A549 cells with denbinobin caused JNK activation; this effect was markedly inhibited by NAC, GSH, and ASK1DN. Denbinobin induced c-Jun phosphorylation, the formation of an AP-1-specific DNA-protein complex, and Bim expression. Bim knockdown using a bim short interfering RNA strategy also reduced denbinobin-induced A549 cell apoptosis. The denbinobin-mediated increases in c-Jun phosphorylation and Bim expression were inhibited by NAC, GSH, SP600125, ASK1DN, JNK1DN, and JNK2DN. These results suggest that denbinobin might activate ASK1 through ROS production to cause JNK/AP-1 activation, which in turn induces Bim expression, and ultimately results in A549 cell apoptosis. PMID:19405983

  10. Phosphodiesterase 5/protein kinase G signal governs stemness of prostate cancer stem cells through Hippo pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Naihua; Mei, Liu; Fan, Xueying; Tang, Chao; Ji, Xing; Hu, Xinhua; Shi, Wei; Qian, Yu; Hussain, Musaddique; Wu, Junsong; Wang, Chaojun; Lin, Shaoqiang; Wu, Ximei

    2016-08-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) are critical for initiation, metastasis, and relapse of cancers, however, the underlying mechanism governing stemness of CSC remains unknown. Herein, we have investigated the roles of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) in stemness of prostate cancer cells. Both PDE5 and WW domain-containing transcription regulator protein-1 (TAZ), a core effector of Hippo pathway, are highly expressed in the PC3-derived cancer stem cells (PCSC). Either TAZ knockdown or inhibition of PDE5 activity attenuated colony formation, altered expression patterns of stem cell markers, and enhanced cisplatin cytotoxicity, resulting in attenuation of stemness in PCSC. In addition, inhibition of PDE5 activity by its specific inhibitors activates cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG), which in turn induces MST/LATS kinases, resulting in cytosolic degradation of TAZ and activation of Hippo pathway. Accordingly, knockdown of TAZ almost completely abolished PDE5 inhibitor-induced attenuation in stemness in cultured PCSC, whereas knockdown of TAZ not only abolished PDE5 inhibitor-induced attenuation in stemness but also facilitated PDE5 inhibitor-induced trans-differentiation in PCSC xenografts. Together, the present study has uncovered that PDE/cGMP/PKG signal targets to Hippo/TAZ pathway in maintaining stemness of PCSC, and suggested that PDE5 inhibitors in combination with chemotherapeutic agents could effectively prevent initiation, metastasis, and relapse of prostate cancer. PMID:27179930

  11. High fat diet induced obesity alters ovarian phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase signaling gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Nteeba, J.; Ross, J.W.; Perfield, J.W.; Keating, A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin regulates ovarian phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, important for primordial follicle viability and growth activation. This study investigated diet-induced obesity impacts on: 1) insulin receptor (Insr) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1); 2) PI3K components (Kit ligand (Kitlg), kit (c-Kit), protein kinase B alpha (Akt1) and forkhead transcription factor subfamily 3 (Foxo3a)); 3) xenobiotic biotransformation (microsomal epoxide hydrolase (Ephx1), Cytochrome P450 isoform 2E1 (Cyp2e1), Glutathione S-transferase (Gst) isoforms mu (Gstm) and pi (Gstp)) and 4) microRNA’s 184, 205, 103 and 21 gene expression. INSR, GSTM and GSTP protein levels were also measured. Obese mouse ovaries had decreased Irs1, Foxo3a, Cyp2e1, MiR-103, and MiR-21 but increased Kitlg, Akt1, and miR-184 levels relative to lean littermates. These results support that diet-induced obesity potentially impairs ovarian function through aberrant gene expression. PMID:23954404

  12. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 activation by addictive drugs: a signal toward pathological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Pascoli, Vincent; Cahill, Emma; Bellivier, Frank; Caboche, Jocelyne; Vanhoutte, Peter

    2014-12-15

    Addiction is a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder that is thought to occur in vulnerable individuals. Synaptic plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse in the so-called neuronal circuits of reward has been proposed to underlie behavioral adaptations that characterize addiction. By increasing dopamine in the striatum, addictive drugs alter the balance of dopamine and glutamate signals converging onto striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and activate intracellular events involved in long-term behavioral alterations. Our laboratory contributed to the identification of salient molecular changes induced by administration of addictive drugs to rodents. We pioneered the observation that a common feature of addictive drugs is to activate, by a double tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the striatum, which control a plethora of substrates, some of them being critically involved in cocaine-mediated molecular and behavioral adaptations. Herein, we review how the interplay between dopamine and glutamate signaling controls cocaine-induced ERK1/2 activation in MSNs. We emphasize the key role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor potentiation by D1 receptor to trigger ERK1/2 activation and its subsequent nuclear translocation where it modulates both epigenetic and genetic processes engaged by cocaine. We discuss how cocaine-induced long-term synaptic and structural plasticity of MSNs, as well as behavioral adaptations, are influenced by ERK1/2-controlled targets. We conclude that a better knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying ERK1/2 activation by drugs of abuse and/or its role in long-term neuronal plasticity in the striatum may provide a new route for therapeutic treatment in addiction. PMID:24844603

  13. Diabetes Causes Bone Marrow Endothelial Barrier Dysfunction by Activation of the RhoA–Rho-Associated Kinase Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mangialardi, Giuseppe; Katare, Rajesh; Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Meloni, Marco; Reni, Carlotta; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus causes bone marrow (BM) microangiopathy. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms responsible for BM endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. Methods and Results The analysis of differentially expressed transcripts in BM endothelial cells (BMECs) from type-1 diabetic and nondiabetic mice showed an effect of diabetes mellitus on signaling pathways controlling cell death, migration, and cytoskeletal rearrangement. Type-1 diabetic-BMECs displayed high reactive oxygen species levels, increased expression and activity of RhoA and its associated protein kinases Rho-associated kinase 1/Rho-associated kinase 2, and reduced Akt phosphorylation/activity. Likewise, diabetes mellitus impaired Akt-related BMEC functions, such as migration, network formation, and angiocrine factor-releasing activity, and increased vascular permeability. Moreover, high glucose disrupted BMEC contacts through Src tyrosine kinase phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin. These alterations were prevented by constitutively active Akt (myristoylated Akt), Rho-associated kinase inhibitor Y-27632, and Src inhibitors. Insulin replacement restored BMEC abundance, as assessed by flow cytometry analysis of the endothelial marker MECA32, and endothelial barrier function in BM of type-1 diabetic mice. Conclusion Redox-dependent activation of RhoA/Rho-associated kinase and Src/vascular endothelial cadherin signaling pathways, together with Akt inactivation, contribute to endothelial dysfunction in diabetic BM. Metabolic control is crucial for maintenance of endothelial cell homeostasis and endothelial barrier function in BM of diabetic mice. PMID:23307872

  14. Pharmacological inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling enhances cisplatin resistance in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Street, Catharine A; Routhier, Alissa A; Spencer, Carrie; Perkins, Ashley L; Masterjohn, Katherine; Hackathorn, Alexander; Montalvo, John; Dennstedt, Emily A; Bryan, Brad A

    2010-11-01

    The role of the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway in cell survival remains a very controversial issue, with its activation being pro-apoptotic in many cell types and anti-apoptotic in others. To test if ROCK inhibition contributes to tumor cell survival or death following chemotherapy, we treated cisplatin damaged neuroblastoma cells with a pharmacological ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) or sham, and monitored cell survival, accumulation of a chemoresistant phenotype, and in vivo tumor formation. Additionally, we assayed if ROCK inhibition altered the expression of genes known to be involved in cisplatin resistance. Our studies indicate that ROCK inhibition results in increased cell survival, acquired chemoresistance, and enhanced tumor survival following cisplatin cytotoxicity, due in part to altered expression of cisplatin resistance genes. These findings suggest that ROCK inhibition in combination with cisplatin chemotherapy may lead to enhanced tumor chemoresistance in neuroblastoma. PMID:20878077

  15. Pharmacological inhibition of Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling enhances cisplatin resistance in neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    STREET, CATHARINE A.; ROUTHIER, ALISSA A.; SPENCER, CARRIE; PERKINS, ASHLEY L.; MASTERJOHN, KATHERINE; HACKATHORN, ALEXANDER; MONTALVO, JOHN; DENNSTEDT, EMILY A.; BRYAN, BRAD A.

    2011-01-01

    The role of the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway in cell survival remains a very controversial issue, with its activation being pro-apoptotic in many cell types and anti-apoptotic in others. To test if ROCK inhibition contributes to tumor cell survival or death following chemotherapy, we treated cisplatin damaged neuroblastoma cells with a pharmacological ROCK inhibitor (Y27632) or sham, and monitored cell survival, accumulation of a chemoresistant phenotype, and in vivo tumor formation. Additionally, we assayed if ROCK inhibition altered the expression of genes known to be involved in cisplatin resistance. Our studies indicate that ROCK inhibition results in increased cell survival, acquired chemoresistance, and enhanced tumor survival following cisplatin cytotoxicity, due in part to altered expression of cisplatin resistance genes. These findings suggest that ROCK inhibition in combination with cisplatin chemotherapy may lead to enhanced tumor chemoresistance in neuroblastoma. PMID:20878077

  16. Neuron-restrictive Silencer Factor (NRSF) Represses Cocaine- and Amphetamine-regulated Transcript (CART) Transcription and Antagonizes cAMP-response Element-binding Protein Signaling through a Dual NRSE Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Sihan; Yuan, Lin; Yang, Yinxiang; Zhang, Bowen; Liu, Qingbin; Chen, Lin; Yue, Wen; Li, Yanhua; Pei, Xuetao

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide plays a pivotal role in neuroprotection against stroke-related brain injury. However, the regulatory mechanism on CART transcription, especially the repression mechanism, is not fully understood. Here, we show that the transcriptional repressor neuron-restrictive silencer elements (NRSF, also known as REST) represses CART expression through direct binding to two NRSF-binding elements (NRSEs) in the CART promoter and intron 1 (named pNRSE and iNRSE, respectively). EMSA show that NRSF binds to pNRSE and iNRSE directly in vitro. ChIP assays show that NRSF recruits differential co-repressor complexes including CoREST and HDAC1 to these NRSEs. The presence of both NRSEs is required for efficient repression of CART transcription as indicated by reporter gene assays. NRSF overexpression antagonizes forskolin-mediated up-regulation of CART mRNA and protein. Ischemia insult triggered by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) enhances NRSF mRNA levels and then NRSF antagonizes the CREB signaling on CART activation, leading to augmented cell death. Depletion of NRSF in combination with forskolin treatment increases neuronal survival after ischemic insult. These findings reveal a novel dual NRSE mechanism by which NRSF represses CART expression and suggest that NRSF may serve as a therapeutic target for stroke treatment. PMID:23086924

  17. β1 Integrin-Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) Signaling Modulates Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC) Survival

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Andrea Rachelle C.; Corredor, Raul G.; Obeso, Betty Albo; Trakhtenberg, Ephraim F.; Wang, Ying; Ponmattam, Jamie; Dvoriantchikova, Galina; Ivanov, Dmitry; Shestopalov, Valery I.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.; Fini, Mary Elizabeth; Bajenaru, Michaela Livia

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) integrity in the central nervous system (CNS) is essential for neuronal homeostasis. Signals from the ECM are transmitted to neurons through integrins, a family of cell surface receptors that mediate cell attachment to ECM. We have previously established a causal link between the activation of the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), degradation of laminin in the ECM of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), and RGC death in a mouse model of retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). Here we investigated the role of laminin-integrin signaling in RGC survival in vitro, and after ischemia in vivo. In purified primary rat RGCs, stimulation of the β1 integrin receptor with laminin, or agonist antibodies enhanced RGC survival in correlation with activation of β1 integrin’s major downstream regulator, focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Furthermore, β1 integrin binding and FAK activation were required for RGCs’ survival response to laminin. Finally, in vivo after RIRI, we observed an up-regulation of MMP-9, proteolytic degradation of laminin, decreased RGC expression of β1 integrin, FAK and Akt dephosphorylation, and reduced expression of the pro-survival molecule bcl-xL in the period preceding RGC apoptosis. RGC death was prevented, in the context of laminin degradation, by maintaining β1 integrin activation with agonist antibodies. Thus, disruption of homeostatic RGC-laminin interaction and signaling leads to cell death after retinal ischemia, and maintaining integrin activation may be a therapeutic approach to neuroprotection. PMID:23118988

  18. Tyrosine Kinase Signal Modulation: A Matter of H2O2 Membrane Permeability?

    PubMed Central

    Bertolotti, Milena; Bestetti, Stefano; García-Manteiga, Jose M.; Medraño-Fernandez, Iria; Dal Mas, Andrea; Malosio, Maria Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract H2O2 produced by extracellular NADPH oxidases regulates tyrosine kinase signaling inhibiting phosphatases. How does it cross the membrane to reach its cytosolic targets? Silencing aquaporin-8 (AQP8), but not AQP3 or AQP4, inhibited H2O2 entry into HeLa cells. Re-expression of AQP8 with silencing-resistant vectors rescued H2O2 transport, whereas a C173A-AQP8 mutant failed to do so. Lowering AQP8 levels affected H2O2 entry into the endoplasmic reticulum, but not into mitochondria. AQP8 silencing also inhibited the H2O2 spikes and phosphorylation of downstream proteins induced by epidermal growth factor. These observations lead to the hypothesis that H2O2 does not freely diffuse across the plasma membrane and AQP8 and other H2O2 transporters are potential targets for manipulating key signaling pathways in cancer and degenerative diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1447–1451. PMID:23541115

  19. NADPH Oxidase Biology and the Regulation of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Signaling and Cancer Drug Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Paletta-Silva, Rafael; Rocco-Machado, Nathália; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The outdated idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are only dangerous products of cellular metabolism, causing toxic and mutagenic effects on cellular components, is being replaced by the view that ROS have several important functions in cell signaling. In aerobic organisms, ROS can be generated from different sources, including the mitochondrial electron transport chain, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and lipoxygenase, but the only enzyme family that produces ROS as its main product is the NADPH oxidase family (NOX enzymes). These transfer electrons from NADPH (converting it to NADP−) to oxygen to make O2•−. Due to their stability, the products of NADPH oxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide are considered the most favorable ROS to act as signaling molecules. Transcription factors that regulate gene expression involved in carcinogenesis are modulated by NADPH oxidase, and it has emerged as a promising target for cancer therapies. The present review discusses the mechanisms by which NADPH oxidase regulates signal transduction pathways in view of tyrosine kinase receptors, which are pivotal to regulating the hallmarks of cancer, and how ROS mediate the cytotoxicity of several cancer drugs employed in clinical practice. PMID:23434665

  20. The Parkinson's Disease-Associated Protein Kinase LRRK2 Modulates Notch Signaling through the Endosomal Pathway.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yuzuru; Kobayashi, Yoshito; Inoshita, Tsuyoshi; Meng, Hongrui; Arano, Taku; Uemura, Kengo; Asano, Takeshi; Yoshimi, Kenji; Zhang, Chang-Liang; Matsumoto, Gen; Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Shioi, Go; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Hattori, Nobutaka; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2015-09-01

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of familial and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). We have identified two novel LRRK2-associated proteins, a HECT-type ubiquitin ligase, HERC2, and an adaptor-like protein with six repeated Neuralized domains, NEURL4. LRRK2 binds to NEURL4 and HERC2 via the LRRK2 Ras of complex proteins (ROC) domain and NEURL4, respectively. HERC2 and NEURL4 link LRRK2 to the cellular vesicle transport pathway and Notch signaling, through which the LRRK2 complex promotes the recycling of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (Dll1)/Delta (Dl) through the modulation of endosomal trafficking. This process negatively regulates Notch signaling through cis-inhibition by stabilizing Dll1/Dl, which accelerates neural stem cell differentiation and modulates the function and survival of differentiated dopaminergic neurons. These effects are strengthened by the R1441G ROC domain-mutant of LRRK2. These findings suggest that the alteration of Notch signaling in mature neurons is a component of PD etiology linked to LRRK2. PMID:26355680

  1. Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Amoebozoa constitute one of the primary divisions of eukaryotes, encompassing taxa of both biomedical and evolutionary importance, yet its genomic diversity remains largely unsampled. Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a solitary free-living amoebozoan. Results Ac encodes 15,455 compact intron-rich genes, a significant number of which are predicted to have arisen through inter-kingdom lateral gene transfer (LGT). A majority of the LGT candidates have undergone a substantial degree of intronization and Ac appears to have incorporated them into established transcriptional programs. Ac manifests a complex signaling and cell communication repertoire, including a complete tyrosine kinase signaling toolkit and a comparable diversity of predicted extracellular receptors to that found in the facultatively multicellular dictyostelids. An important environmental host of a diverse range of bacteria and viruses, Ac utilizes a diverse repertoire of predicted pattern recognition receptors, many with predicted orthologous functions in the innate immune systems of higher organisms. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the important role of LGT in the biology of Ac and in the diversification of microbial eukaryotes. The early evolution of a key signaling facility implicated in the evolution of metazoan multicellularity strongly argues for its emergence early in the Unikont lineage. Overall, the availability of an Ac genome should aid in deciphering the biology of the Amoebozoa and facilitate functional genomic studies in this important model organism and environmental host. PMID:23375108

  2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is required for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus replication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngnam; Lee, Changhee

    2015-10-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly enteropathogenic coronavirus of swine that causes acute enteritis with high mortality in nursery piglets. To date, the cellular factors involved in PEDV replication have not been well defined. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) that serves as a critical component of cellular signal transduction pathways to modulate a variety of cellular functions has been shown to regulate several viral infections. In the present study, we found that PEDV activates ERK1/2 early in infection independently of viral replication. The PEDV-induced ERK1/2 activation resulted in the phosphorylation of its downstream substrate Elk-1 in infected cells. Treatment with ERK inhibitors or ERK1/2 knockdown significantly suppressed viral progeny production. Inhibition of ERK activation also diminished viral protein expression and genomic and subgenomic RNA transcription. These findings indicate that the ERK signaling pathway plays an important role in the PEDV life cycle and beneficially contributes to viral infection. PMID:26115165

  3. Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitor restrains Wnt signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Pei; Lu, Kang; Geng, Ling-Yun; Zhou, Xiang-Xiang; Li, Xin-Yu; Wang, Xin

    2016-06-01

    The B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway serves an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and has been identified as a novel and effective therapeutic target of CLL, with particular focus its kinase factor, BTK. Previous studies have focused on combining the BTK inhibitor with additional chemotherapeutic agents to improve the prognosis of patients with CLL. Further investigation into the mechanism of the BTK inhibitor would promote an understanding of the pathogenesis of CLL. The current study investigated the association between ibrutinib and the Wnt signaling pathway, additionally focussing upon one of its regulators, metadherin (MTDH), which has been identified to be overexpressed in CLL and is considered a promoter of the Wnt pathway. The experiments in the current study were performed in the MEC-1 CLL cell line. Results indicated that MTDH, β-catenin and lymphoid-enhancing factor-1 were inhibited subsequent to ibrutinib treatment. The results indicate that in CLL, ibrutinib is likely to possess an inhibitory role in Wnt signaling. PMID:27082823

  4. The Raf Kinase Inhibitor Sorafenib Inhibits JAK-STAT Signal Transduction in Human Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Martin del Campo, Sara E; Levine, Kala M; Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L; Grignol, Valerie P; Fairchild, Ene T; Campbell, Amanda R; Trikha, Prashant; Mace, Thomas A; Paul, Bonnie K; Jaime-Ramirez, Alena Cristina; Markowitz, Joseph; Kondadasula, Sri Vidya; Guenterberg, Kristan D; McClory, Susan; Karpa, Volodymyr I; Pan, Xueliang; Olencki, Thomas E; Monk, J Paul; Mortazavi, Amir; Tridandapani, Susheela; Lesinski, Gregory B; Byrd, John C; Caligiuri, Michael A; Shah, Manisha H; Carson, William E

    2015-09-01

    Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that was originally developed as a Raf kinase inhibitor. We hypothesized that sorafenib would also have inhibitory effects on cytokine signaling pathways in immune cells. PBMCs from normal donors were treated with varying concentrations of sorafenib and stimulated with IFN-α or IL-2. Phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5 was measured by flow cytometry and confirmed by immunoblot analysis. Changes in IFN-α- and IL-2-stimulated gene expression were measured by quantitative PCR, and changes in cytokine production were evaluated by ELISA. Cryopreserved PBMCs were obtained from cancer patients before and after receiving 400 mg sorafenib twice daily. Patient PBMCs were thawed, stimulated with IL-2 or IFN-α, and evaluated for phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT5. Pretreatment of PBMCs with 10 μM sorafenib decreased STAT1 and STAT5 phosphorylation after treatment with IFN-α or IL-2. This inhibitory effect was observed in PBMCs from healthy donors over a range of concentrations of sorafenib (5-20 μM), IL-2 (2-24 nM), and IFN-α (10(1)-10(6) U/ml). This effect was observed in immune cell subsets, including T cells, B cells, NK cells, regulatory T cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Pretreatment with sorafenib also inhibited PBMC expression of IFN-α- and IL-2-regulated genes and inhibited NK cell production of IFN-γ, RANTES, MIP1-α, and MIG in response to IFN-α stimulation. PBMCs from patients receiving sorafenib therapy showed decreased responsiveness to IL-2 and IFN-α treatment. Sorafenib is a Raf kinase inhibitor that could have off-target effects on cytokine-induced signal transduction in immune effector cells. PMID:26238487

  5. Teneurin-4 promotes cellular protrusion formation and neurite outgrowth through focal adhesion kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Nobuharu; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Chou, Joshua; de Vega, Susana; Mizuniwa, Chihiro; Sekimoto, Kaori; Adachi, Naoki; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Arikawa-Hirasawa, Eri; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Akazawa, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Teneurin-4 (Ten-4), a transmembrane protein, is highly expressed in the central nervous system; however, its cellular and molecular function in neuronal differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the function of Ten-4 in neurite outgrowth. Ten-4 expression was induced during neurite outgrowth of the neuroblastoma cell line Neuro-2a. Ten-4 protein was localized at the neurite growth cones. Knockdown of Ten-4 expression in Neuro-2a cells decreased the formation of the filopodia-like protrusions and the length of individual neurites. Conversely, overexpression of Ten-4 promoted filopodia-like protrusion formation. In addition, knockdown and overexpression of Ten-4 reduced and elevated the activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rho-family small GTPases, Cdc42 and Rac1, key molecules for the membranous protrusion formation downstream of FAK, respectively. Inhibition of the activation of FAK and neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), which is a downstream regulator of FAK and Cdc42, blocked protrusion formation by Ten-4 overexpression. Further, Ten-4 colocalized with phosphorylated FAK in the filopodia-like protrusion regions. Together, our findings show that Ten-4 is a novel positive regulator of cellular protrusion formation and neurite outgrowth through the FAK signaling pathway.—Suzuki, N., Numakawa, T., Chou, J., de Vega, S., Mizuniwa, C., Sekimoto, K., Adachi, N., Kunugi, H., Arikawa-Hirasawa, E., Yamada, Y., Akazawa, C. Teneurin-4 promotes cellular protrusion formation and neurite outgrowth through focal adhesion kinase signaling. PMID:24344332

  6. Nucleolar localization signals of LIM kinase 2 function as a cell-penetrating peptide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nahoko; Niwa, Mikio; Hao, Yang; Yoshida, Tetsuhiko

    2010-12-01

    LIM Kinase 2 (LIMK2) is a LIM domain-containing protein kinase which regulates actin polymerization thorough phosphorylation of the actin depolymerizing factor cofilin. It is also known to function as a shuttle between the cytoplasm and nucleus in endothelial cells. A basic amino acid-rich motif in LIMK2 was previously identified to be responsible for this shuttling function, as a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS). Here it is shown that this nucleolar localization signal sequence also has the characteristic function of a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP). We synthesized LIMK2 NoLS-conjugated peptides and a protein and analyzed their cell-penetrating abilities in various types of cells. The BC-box motif of the Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein was used for the peptide. This motif previously has been reported to be involved in the neural differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells and skin-derived precursor cells. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was used as a large biologically active biomolecule for the protein. The LIMK2 NoLS-conjugated peptides and protein translocated across the cell membranes of fibroblast cells, neural stem cells, and even iPS cells. These results suggest that LIMK2 NoLS acts as a cell-penetrating peptide and its cell-penetrating ability is not restricted by cell type. Moreover, from an in vivo assay using a mouse brain, it was confirmed that NoLS has potential for transporting biomolecules across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:20937035

  7. Antithrombin Up-regulates AMP-activated Protein Kinase Signaling during Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Wang, Jinli; Gao, Junjie; Yang, Hui; Wang, Yanqing; Manithody, Chandrashekhara; Li, Ji; Rezaie, Alireza R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Antithrombin (AT) is a protein of the serpin superfamily involved in regulation of the proteolytic activity of the serine proteases of the coagulation system. AT is known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties when it binds to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on vascular cells. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important cardioprotective role during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). To determine whether the cardioprotective signaling function of AT is mediated through the AMPK pathway, we evaluated the cardioprotective activities of wild-type AT and its two derivatives, one having high affinity and the other no affinity for heparin, in an acute I/R injury model in C57BL/6J mice in which the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded. The serpin derivatives were given 5 min before reperfusion. The results showed that AT-WT can activate AMPK in both in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Blocking AMPK activity abolished the cardioprotective function of AT against I/R injury. The AT derivative having high affinity for heparin was more effective in activating AMPK and in limiting infraction, but the derivative lacking affinity for heparin was inactive in eliciting AMPK-dependent cardioprotective activity. Activation of AMPK by AT inhibited the inflammatory c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway during I/R. Further studies revealed that the AMPK activity induced by AT also modulates cardiac substrate metabolism by increasing glucose oxidation but inhibiting fatty acid oxidation during I/R. These results suggest that AT binds to HSPGs on heart tissues to invoke a cardioprotective function by triggering cardiac AMPK activation, thereby attenuating JNK inflammatory signaling pathways and modulating substrate metabolism during I/R. PMID:25230600

  8. Role of p38 MAP Kinase Signal Transduction in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Mintu; Koul, Sweaty

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) mediate a wide variety of cellular behaviors in response to extracellular stimuli. One of the main subgroups, the p38 MAP kinases, has been implicated in a wide range of complex biologic processes, such as cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell death, cell migration, and invasion. Dysregulation of p38 MAPK levels in patients are associated with advanced stages and short survival in cancer patients (e.g., prostate, breast, bladder, liver, and lung cancer). p38 MAPK plays a dual role as a regulator of cell death, and it can either mediate cell survival or cell death depending not only on the type of stimulus but also in a cell type specific manner. In addition to modulating cell survival, an essential role of p38 MAPK in modulation of cell migration and invasion offers a distinct opportunity to target this pathway with respect to tumor metastasis. The specific function of p38 MAPK appears to depend not only on the cell type but also on the stimuli and/or the isoform that is activated. p38 MAPK signaling pathway is activated in response to diverse stimuli and mediates its function by components downstream of p38. Extrapolation of the knowledge gained from laboratory findings is essential to address the clinical significance of p38 MAPK signaling pathways. The goal of this review is to provide an overview on recent progress made in defining the functions of p38 MAPK pathways with respect to solid tumor biology and generate testable hypothesis with respect to the role of p38 MAPK as an attractive target for intervention of solid tumors. PMID:24349632

  9. Activation of pp70/85 S6 kinases in interleukin-2-responsive lymphoid cells is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and inhibited by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Monfar, M; Lemon, K P; Grammer, T C; Cheatham, L; Chung, J; Vlahos, C J; Blenis, J

    1995-01-01

    Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and activation of the 70/85-kDa S6 protein kinases (alpha II and alpha I isoforms, referred to collectively as pp70S6k) have been independently linked to the regulation of cell proliferation. We demonstrate that these kinases lie on the same signalling pathway and that PI3K mediates the activation of pp70 by the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2). We also show that the activation of pp70S6k can be blocked at different points along the signalling pathway by using specific inhibitors of T-cell proliferation. Inhibition of PI3K activity with structurally unrelated but highly specific PI3K inhibitors (wortmannin or LY294002) results in inhibition of IL-2-dependent but not phorbol ester (conventional protein kinase C [cPKC])-dependent pp70S6k activation. The T-cell immunosuppressant rapamycin potently antagonizes IL-2-(PI3K)- and phorbol ester (cPKC)-mediated activation of pp70S6k. Thus, wortmannin and rapamycin antagonize IL-2-mediated activation of pp70S6k at distinct points along the PI3K-regulated signalling pathway, or rapamycin antagonizes another pathway required for pp70S6k activity. Agents that raise the concentration of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) and activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also inhibit IL-2-dependent activation of pp70S6k. In this case, inhibition appears to occur at least two points in this signalling path. Like rapamycin, PKA appears to act downstream of cPKC-mediated pp70S6k activation, and like wortmannin, PKA antagonizes IL-2-dependent activation of PI3K. The results with rapamycin and wortmannin are of added interest since the yeast and mammalian rapamycin targets resemble PI3K in the catalytic domain. PMID:7528328

  10. Cys-scanning Disulfide crosslinking and Bayesian modeling probe the transmembrane signaling mechanism of the histidine kinase, PhoQ

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Kathleen S; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Pellarin, Riccardo; Clinthorne, Graham D; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Goldberg, Shalom D; Goulian, Mark; Sali, Andrej; DeGrado, William F

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacteria transduce signals across the membrane using two-component systems (TCSs), consisting of a membrane-spanning sensor histidine kinase and a cytoplasmic response regulator. In Gram negative bacteria, the PhoPQ TCS senses cations and antimicrobial peptides, yet little is known about the structural changes involved in transmembrane signaling. We construct a model of PhoQ signal transduction using Bayesian inference, based on disulfide crosslinking data and homologous crystal structures. The data are incompatible with a single conformation but are instead consistent with two interconverting structures. These states differ in membrane depth of the periplasmic acidic patch and the reciprocal displacement of diagonal helices along the dimer interface. Studies of multiple histidine kinases suggest this repacking might be a common mode of signal transduction in sensor His-kinase receptors. Since a similar scissors model has been ruled out in CheA-linked chemoreceptors, the new evidence suggests that sensor His-kinase and CheA-linked receptors possess different signaling mechanisms. PMID:25087511

  11. Huntingtin Subcellular Localisation Is Regulated by Kinase Signalling Activity in the StHdhQ111 Model of HD

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Kathryn R.; Brooks, Simon P.; Dunnett, Stephen B.; Jones, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised primarily by motor abnormalities, and is caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in the huntingtin protein. Huntingtin dynamically shuttles between subcellular compartments, and the mutant huntingtin protein is mislocalised to cell nuclei, where it may interfere with nuclear functions, such as transcription. However, the mechanism by which mislocalisation of mutant huntingtin occurs is currently unknown. An immortalised embryonic striatal cell model of HD (StHdhQ111) was stimulated with epidermal growth factor in order to determine whether the subcellular localisation of huntingtin is dependent on kinase signalling pathway activation. Aberrant phosphorylation of AKT and MEK signalling pathways was identified in cells carrying mutant huntingtin. Activity within these pathways was found to contribute to the regulation of huntingtin and mutant huntingtin localisation, as well as to the expression of immediate-early genes. We propose that altered kinase signalling is a phenotype of Huntington’s disease that occurs prior to cell death; specifically, that altered kinase signalling may influence huntingtin localisation, which in turn may impact upon nuclear processes such as transcriptional regulation. Aiming to restore the balance of activity between kinase signalling networks may therefore prove to be an effective approach to delaying Huntington’s disease symptom development and progression. PMID:26660732

  12. Huntingtin Subcellular Localisation Is Regulated by Kinase Signalling Activity in the StHdhQ111 Model of HD.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Kathryn R; Brooks, Simon P; Dunnett, Stephen B; Jones, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised primarily by motor abnormalities, and is caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in the huntingtin protein. Huntingtin dynamically shuttles between subcellular compartments, and the mutant huntingtin protein is mislocalised to cell nuclei, where it may interfere with nuclear functions, such as transcription. However, the mechanism by which mislocalisation of mutant huntingtin occurs is currently unknown. An immortalised embryonic striatal cell model of HD (StHdhQ111) was stimulated with epidermal growth factor in order to determine whether the subcellular localisation of huntingtin is dependent on kinase signalling pathway activation. Aberrant phosphorylation of AKT and MEK signalling pathways was identified in cells carrying mutant huntingtin. Activity within these pathways was found to contribute to the regulation of huntingtin and mutant huntingtin localisation, as well as to the expression of immediate-early genes. We propose that altered kinase signalling is a phenotype of Huntington's disease that occurs prior to cell death; specifically, that altered kinase signalling may influence huntingtin localisation, which in turn may impact upon nuclear processes such as transcriptional regulation. Aiming to restore the balance of activity between kinase signalling networks may therefore prove to be an effective approach to delaying Huntington's disease symptom development and progression. PMID:26660732

  13. CD45, CD148, and Lyp/Pep: Critical Phosphatases Regulating Src Family Kinase Signaling Networks in Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hermiston, Michelle L.; Zikherman, Julie; Zhu, Jing W.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Reciprocal regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation by protein tyrosine kinases and phosphatases is central to normal immune cell function. Disruption of the equilibrium between protein tyrosine kinase and phosphatase activity can result in immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, or malignancy. Src family kinases play a central role in both immune cell function and disease due to their proximal position in numerous signal transduction cascades including those emanating from integrin, T and B cell antigen receptors, Fc, growth factor, and cytokine receptors. Given that tight regulation of Src family kinase activity is critical for appropriate responses to stimulation of these various signaling pathways, it is perhaps not surprising that multiple protein tyrosine phosphatases are involved in their regulation. Here, we focus on the role of three phosphatases, CD45, CD148, and LYP/PEP, which are critical regulators of src family kinase activity in hematopoietic cells. We review our current understanding of their structures, expression, functions in different hematopoietic cell subsets, regulation, and putative roles in disease. Finally, we discuss remaining questions that must be addressed if we are to have a clearer understanding of the coordinated regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation and signaling networks in hematopoietic cells and how they could potentially be manipulated therapeutically in disease. PMID:19290935

  14. Agonism and Antagonism at the Insulin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Louise; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Vestergaard, Kirsten; Schäffer, Lauge; Blagoev, Blagoy; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Kiselyov, Vladislav V.; De Meyts, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Insulin can trigger metabolic as well as mitogenic effects, the latter being pharmaceutically undesirable. An understanding of the structure/function relationships between insulin receptor (IR) binding and mitogenic/metabolic signalling would greatly facilitate the preclinical development of new insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been shown to exhibit antagonistic properties, with the exception of a crosslinked insulin dimer (B29-B’29). However, synthetic monomeric or dimeric peptides targeting sites 1 or 2 of the IR were shown to be either agonists or antagonists. We found here that the S961 peptide, previously described to be an IR antagonist, exhibited partial agonistic effects in the 1–10 nM range, showing altogether a bell-shaped dose-response curve. Intriguingly, the agonistic effects of S961 were seen only on mitogenic endpoints (3H-thymidine incorporation), and not on metabolic endpoints (14C-glucose incorporation in adipocytes and muscle cells). The agonistic effects of S961 were observed in 3 independent cell lines, with complete concordance between mitogenicity (3H-thymidine incorporation) and phosphorylation of the IR and Akt. Together with the B29-B’29 crosslinked dimer, S961 is a rare example of a mixed agonist/antagonist for the human IR. A plausible mechanistic explanation based on the bivalent crosslinking model of IR activation is proposed. PMID:23300584

  15. The Serine/Threonine Kinase STK11 Promotes Shigella flexneri Dissemination through Establishment of Cell-Cell Contacts Competent for Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dragoi, Ana-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is an intracellular pathogen that disseminates in the intestinal epithelium by displaying actin-based motility. We found that although S. flexneri displayed comparable actin-based motilities in the cytosols of HeLa229 and HT-29 epithelial cell lines, the overall dissemination process was much more efficient in HT-29 cells. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that as motile bacteria reached the cell cortex in HT-29 cells, they formed membrane protrusions that resolved into vacuoles, from which the bacteria escaped and gained access to the cytosol of adjacent cells. In HeLa229 cells, S. flexneri also formed membrane protrusions that extended into adjacent cells, but the protrusions rarely resolved into vacuoles. Instead, the formed protrusions collapsed and retracted, bringing the bacteria back to the cytosol of the primary infected cells. Silencing the serine/threonine kinase STK11 (also known as LKB1) in HT-29 cells decreased the efficiency of protrusion resolution into vacuoles. Conversely, expressing STK11 in HeLa229 cells, which lack the STK11 locus, dramatically increased the efficiency of protrusion resolution into vacuoles. S. flexneri dissemination in HT-29 cells led to the local phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in protrusions, a signaling event that was not observed in HeLa229 cells but was restored in STK11-expressing HeLa229 cells. Treatment of HT-29 cells with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib abrogated tyrosine kinase signaling in protrusions, which correlated with a severe decrease in the efficiency of protrusion resolution into vacuoles. We suggest that the formation of STK11-dependent lateral cell-cell contacts competent for tyrosine kinase signaling promotes S. flexneri dissemination in epithelial cells. PMID:25114112

  16. Signal pathways in up-regulation of chemokines by tyrosine kinase MER/NYK in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Mi; Robinson, Dan R; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2004-10-15

    The AXL/UFO family of tyrosine kinases is characterized by a common N-CAM (neural adhesion molecule)-related extracellular domain and a common ligand, GAS6 (growth arrest-specific protein 6). Family members are prone to transcriptional regulation and carry out diverse functions including the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, and survival. In this report, we describe a new role of MER/N-CAM-related kinase (NYK), a member of the AXL family of kinases, in the up-regulation of chemokines in prostate cancer cells. We show that NYK has elevated expression in a subset of tumor specimens and prostate cancer cell lines. Activation of NYK in the prostate cancer cell line DU145 does not cause a mitogenic effect; instead, it causes a differentiation phenotype. Microarray analysis revealed that NYK is a strong inducer of endocrine factors including interleukin (IL)-8 and several other angiogenic CXC chemokines as well as bone morphogenic factors. The dramatic increase of IL-8 expression is seen at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The downstream signals engaged by NYK were characterized, and those responsible for the up-regulation of IL-8 transcription were defined. In contrast to IL-1alpha, NYK-induced up-regulation of IL-8 in DU145 depends on the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase/Jun/Fos pathway, but not phosphoinositide 3'-kinase/nuclear factor-kappaB. These data define a new function of the AXL family of kinases and suggest a potential role of NYK in prostate cancer progression. PMID:15492251

  17. The PI 3-kinase and mTOR signaling pathways are important modulators of epithelial tubule formation.

    PubMed

    Walid, Shereaf; Eisen, Randi; Ratcliffe, Don R; Dai, Kezhi; Hussain, M Mahmood; Ojakian, George K

    2008-08-01

    Using MDCK cells as a model system, evidence is presented demonstrating that the signaling pathways mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) play important roles in the regulation of epithelial tubule formation. Incubation of cells with collagen gel overlays induced early (4-8 h) reorganization of cells (epithelial remodeling) into three-dimensional multicellular tubular structures over 24 h. An MDCK cell line stably expressing the PH domain of Akt, a PI 3-kinase downstream effector, coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP-Akt-PH) was used to determine the distribution of phosphatidyl inositol-3,4,5-P(3) (PIP(3)), a product of PI 3-kinase. GFP-Akt-PH was associated with lateral membranes in control cells. After incubation with collagen gel overlays, GFP-Akt-PH redistributed into the lamellipodia of migrating cells suggesting that PIP(3) plays a role in epithelial remodeling. Using the small molecule inhibitor LY-294002 that inhibits both mTOR and PI 3-kinase, we demonstrated that kinase activity was required for epithelial remodeling, disruption of cell junctions and subsequent modulation of tubule formation. Since the mTOR signaling pathway is downstream of PI 3-kinase, the effects of rapamycin, a specific mTOR inhibitor, on tubule formation were assessed. Rapamycin did not affect epithelial remodeling or GFP-Akt-PH redistribution but inhibited elongated tubule formation that occurred later (24 h) in morphogenesis. These results were further supported by using RNA interference to down-regulate mTOR and inhibit tubule formation. Our studies demonstrate that PI 3-kinase regulates early epithelial remodeling stages while mTOR modulates latter stages of tubule development. PMID:18366086

  18. Gene expression profiling and functional proteomic analysis reveal perturbed kinase-mediated signaling in genetic stroke susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Fornage, Myriam; Swank, Michael W; Boerwinkle, Eric; Doris, Peter A

    2003-09-29

    The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) is a model of heritable hypertension-associated cerebrovascular injury. This study sought to compare SHRSP to the stroke-resistant SHR strain to identify genes and protein pathways whose expression and/or function was significantly altered between the strains prior to the onset of stroke. Cerebral cortex gene expression profiles from male SHRSPs and matched SHRs were examined by Affymetrix microarray analysis. mRNAs encoding the brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor (TrkB) and multiple kinases of the MAPK/AKT signaling pathways, including JNK2, AKT2, and PI3K, were differentially expressed between SHRSP and SHR. Because these data suggest altered function in pathways involving MAP and AKT kinase activity, we performed Western blot using phosphorylation state-specific antibodies to characterize activity of MAP kinase and PI3K/AKT pathways. Changes in the levels of the phosphorylated forms of these kinases paralleled the changes in transcript levels observed between the strains. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide fragment mass fingerprinting were used to identify altered protein substrates of these kinases. Protein profiling of kinase substrates further supported the notion of perturbed kinase-mediated signaling in SHRSP and identified adenylyl cyclase associated protein 2, TOAD-64, propionyl CoA carboxylase, APG-1, and valosin-containing protein as kinase targets whose phosphorylation state is altered between these strains. Altered gene and protein expression patterns in SHRSP are consistent with increased vulnerability of this strain to cerebrovascular injury. PMID:12902546

  19. A novel signaling pathway associated with Lyn, PI 3-kinase and Akt supports the proliferation of myeloma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Mohd S.; Tsuyama, Naohiro; Obata, Masanori; Ishikawa, Hideaki

    2010-02-12

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a growth factor for human myeloma cells. We have recently found that in myeloma cells the activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 is not sufficient for the IL-6-induced proliferation, which further requires the activation of the src family kinases, such as Lyn. Here we showed that the Lyn-overexpressed myeloma cell lines had the higher proliferative rate with IL-6 and the enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and Akt. The IL-6-induced phosphorylation of STAT3 and ERK1/2 was not up-regulated in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, indicating that the Lyn-PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway is independent of these pathways. The PI 3-kinase was co-precipitated with Lyn in the Lyn-overexpressed cells of which proliferation with IL-6 was abrogated by the specific inhibitors for PI 3-kinase or Akt, suggesting that the activation of the PI 3-kinase-Akt pathway associated with Lyn is indeed related to the concomitant augmentation of myeloma cell growth. Furthermore, the decreased expression of p53 and p21{sup Cip1} proteins was observed in the Lyn-overexpressed cells, implicating a possible downstream target of Akt. This study identifies a novel IL-6-mediated signaling pathway that certainly plays a role in the proliferation of myeloma cells and this novel mechanism of MM tumor cell growth associated with Lyn would eventually contribute to the development of MM treatment.

  20. TEC and MAPK Kinase Signalling Pathways in T helper (TH) cell Development, TH2 Differentiation and Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Yashaswini; Wilson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the signalling events during T cell development and differentiation have been made in the past few decades. It is clear that ligation of the T cell receptor (TCR) triggers a series of proximal signalling cascades regulated by an array of protein kinases. These orchestrated and highly regulated series of events, with differential requirements of particular kinases, highlight the disparities between αβ+CD4+ T cells. Throughout this review we summarise both new and old studies, highlighting the role of Tec and MAPK in T cell development and differentiation with particular focus on T helper 2 (TH2) cells. Finally, as the allergy epidemic continues, we feature the role played by TH2 cells in the development of allergy and provide a brief update on promising kinase inhibitors that have been tested in vitro, in pre-clinical disease models in vivo and into clinical studies. PMID:24116341

  1. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Family Proteins and c-jun Signaling in Injury-induced Schwann Cell Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Jeong; Shin, Yoon Kyung; Park, Hwan Tae

    2014-06-01

    Schwann cells (SCs) in the peripheral nerves myelinate axons during postnatal development to allow saltatory conduction of nerve impulses. Well-organized structures of myelin sheathes are maintained throughout life unless nerves are insulted. After peripheral nerve injury, unidentified signals from injured nerves drive SC dedifferentiation into an immature state. Dedifferentiated SCs participate in axonal regeneration by producing neurotrophic factors and removing degenerating nerve debris. In this review, we focus on the role of mitogen activated protein kinase family proteins (MAP kinases) in SC dedifferentiation. In addition, we will highlight neuregulin 1 and the transcription factor c-jun as upstream and downstream signals for MAP kinases in SC responses to nerve injury. PMID:24963277

  2. Hypoxia promotes drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells via activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changfu; Zhang, Qiao; Yu, Tao; Sun, Shudong; Wang, Wenjun; Liu, Guangyao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Drug resistance has been recognized to be a major obstacle to the chemotherapy for osteosarcoma. And the potential importance of hypoxia as a target to reverse drug resistance in osteosarcoma has been indicated, though the mechanism underlining such role is not clarified. The present study aims to investigate the role of hypoxia in the drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells via activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling. Experimental design We investigated the promotion of the resistance to doxorubicin of osteosarcoma MG-63 and U2-os cells in vitro, and then determined the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)α and HIF-1β, the activation and regulatory role of AMPK in the osteosarcoma U2-os cells which were treated with doxorubicin under hypoxia. Results It was demonstrated that hypoxia significantly reduced the sensitivity of MG-63 and U2-os cells to doxorubicin, indicating an inhibited viability reduction and a reduced apoptosis promotion. And such reduced sensitivity was not associated with HIF-1α, though it was promoted by hypoxia in U2-os cells. Interestingly, the AMPK signaling was significantly promoted by hypoxia in the doxorubicin-treated U2-os cells, with a marked upregulation of phosphorylated AMPK (Thr 172) and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) (Ser 79), which were sensitive to the AMPK activator, AICAR and the AMPK inhibitor, Compound C. Moreover, the promoted AMPK activity by AICAR or the downregulated AMPK activity by Compound C significantly reduced or promoted the sensitivity of U2-os cells to doxorubicin. Conclusion The present study confirmed the AMPK signaling activation in the doxorubicin-treated osteosarcoma cells, in response to hypoxia, and the chemical upregulation or downregulation of AMPK signaling reduced or increased the chemo-sensitivity of osteosarcoma U2-os cells in vitro. Our study implies that AMPK inhibition might be a effective strategy to sensitize osteocarcoma cells to chemotherapy. PMID

  3. Role played by Disabled-2 in albumin induced MAP Kinase signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Diwakar, Ramaswamy Pearson, Alexander L.; Colville-Nash, Paul; Baines, Deborah L.; Dockrell, Mark E.C.

    2008-02-15

    Albumin has been shown to activate the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in proximal tubular cells (PTECs) of the kidney. Megalin, the putative receptor for albumin has potential signalling properties. However, the mechanisms by which megalin signals are unclear. The adaptor phosphoprotein Disabled-2 (Dab2) is known to interact with the cytoplasmic tail of megalin and may be involved in albumin-mediated MAPK signalling. In this study, we investigated the role of Dab2 in albumin-mediated MAPK signalling and further studied the role of Dab2 in albumin-induced TGF{beta}-1 secretion, a MAPK dependent event. We used RNA interference to knockdown Dab2 protein abundance in HKC-8 cells a model of human PTECs. Albumin activated ERK1,2 and Elk-1 in a MEK-1 dependent manner and resulted in secretion of TGF{beta}-1. In the absence of albumin, knockdown of Dab2 resulted in a trend towards increase in pERK1,2 consistent with its putative role as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. However albumin-induced ERK1,2 activation was completely abolished by Dab2 knockdown. Dab2 knockdown did not however result in inhibition of albumin-induced TGF{beta}-1 secretion. These results suggest that Dab2 is a ligand dependent bi-directional regulator of ERK1,2 activity by demonstrating that in addition to its more traditional role as an inhibitor of ERK1,2 it may also activate ERK1,2.

  4. Improvement of insulin signaling in myoblast cells by an addition of SKIP-binding peptide within Pak1 kinase domain.

    PubMed

    Ijuin, Takeshi; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in insulin-induced glucose incorporation in skeletal muscle were observed in Type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies revealed that the binding between skeletal muscle and kidney-enriched inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (SKIP) and p21-activated protein kinase (Pak1) at the plasma membrane is induced insulin-dependently and that this binding mediated a rapid and efficient termination of insulin signaling and a subsequent glucose uptake into skeletal muscle cells. Here, we identified 11-amino-acids peptide within kinase domain of Pak1, necessary and sufficient for SKIP binding. Expression of this region in C2C12 cells resulted in an increase in insulin signaling. Supplementation of a synthetic peptide of this sequence increased insulin signaling and insulin-induced glucose uptake into skeletal muscle cell lines. These findings suggest the physiological role of Pak1-SKIP binding in the regulation of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. PMID:25446075

  5. The catalytic activity of the kinase ZAP-70 mediates basal signaling and negative feedback of the T cell receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Debra A; Kadlecek, Theresa A.; Cantor, Aaron J.; Kuriyan, John

    2015-01-01

    T cell activation must be properly regulated to ensure normal T cell development and effective immune responses to pathogens and transformed cells while avoiding autoimmunity. The mechanisms controlling the fine-tuning of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and T cell activation are unclear. The Syk family kinase ζ chain–associated protein kinase of 70 kD (ZAP-70) is a critical component of the TCR signaling machinery that leads to T cell activation. To elucidate potential feedback targets that are dependent on the kinase activity of ZAP-70, we performed a mass spectrometry–based, phosphoproteomic study to quantify temporal changes in phosphorylation patterns after inhibition of ZAP-70 catalytic activity. Our results provide insights into the fine-tuning of the T cell signaling network before and after TCR engagement. The data indicate that the kinase activity of ZAP-70 stimulates negative feedback pathways that target the Src family kinase Lck and modulate the phosphorylation patterns of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) of the CD3 and ζ-chain components of the TCR, and of downstream signaling molecules, including ZAP-70. We developed a computational model that provides a unified mechanistic explanation for the experimental findings on ITAM phosphorylation in wild-type cells, ZAP-70–deficient cells, and cells with inhibited ZAP-70 catalytic activity. This model incorporates negative feedback regulation of Lck activity by the kinase activity of ZAP-70 and makes unanticipated specific predictions for the order in which tyrosines in the ITAMs of TCR ζ-chains must be phosphorylated to be consistent with the experimental data. PMID:25990959

  6. Keratins Modulate c-Flip/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1 and 2 Antiapoptotic Signaling in Simple Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Stéphane; Loranger, Anne; Marceau, Normand

    2004-01-01

    Among the large family of intermediate filament proteins, the keratin 8 and 18 (K8/K18) pair constitutes a hallmark for all simple epithelial cells, such as hepatocytes and mammary cells. Functional studies with different cell models have suggested that K8/K18 are involved in simple epithelial cell resistance to several forms of stress that may lead to cell death. We have reported recently that K8/K18-deprived hepatocytes from K8-null mice are more sensitive to Fas-mediated apoptosis. Here we show that upon Fas, tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor, or tumor necrosis factor alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor stimulation, an inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation sensitizes wild-type but not K8-null mouse hepatocytes to apoptosis and that a much weaker ERK1/2 activation occurs in K8-null hepatocytes. In turn, this impaired ERK1/2 activation in K8-null hepatocytes is associated with a drastic reduction in c-Flip protein, an event that also holds in a K8-null mouse mammary cell line. c-Flip, along with Raf-1, is part of a K8/K18-immunoisolated complex from wild-type hepatocytes, and Fas stimulation leads to further c-Flip and Raf-1 recruitment in the complex. This points to a new regulatory role of simple epithelium keratins in the c-Flip/ERK1/2 antiapoptotic signaling pathway. PMID:15282307

  7. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the BRI1 Receptor Kinase Emerges as a Component of Brassinosteriod Signaling in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential growth-promoting hormones that regulate many aspects of plant growth and development. Two leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) are involved in BR perception and signal transduction: BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), which is the BR receptor, ...

  8. Calcium/calmodulin inhibition of the BRI1 receptor kinase provides a possible link between calcium- and brassinosteroid-signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The receptor kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) is a key component in brassinosteroid (BR) perception and signaling transduction, which has broad impacts on plant growth and development. In the present study, we demonstrate that Arabidopsis calmodulin (CaM) binds to the recombinant cytoplas...

  9. Hydrogen peroxide induces activation of insulin signaling pathway via AMP-dependent kinase in podocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Piwkowska, Agnieszka; Rogacka, Dorota; Angielski, Stefan; Jankowski, Maciej

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activates the insulin signaling pathway and glucose uptake in podocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induces time-dependent changes in AMPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} enhances insulin signaling pathways via AMPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} stimulation of glucose uptake is AMPK-dependent. -- Abstract: Podocytes are cells that form the glomerular filtration barrier in the kidney. Insulin signaling in podocytes is critical for normal kidney function. Insulin signaling is regulated by oxidative stress and intracellular energy levels. We cultured rat podocytes to investigate the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) on the phosphorylation of proximal and distal elements of insulin signaling. We also investigated H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced intracellular changes in the distribution of protein kinase B (Akt). Western blots showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (100 {mu}M) induced rapid, transient phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR), the IR substrate-1 (IRS1), and Akt with peak activities at 5 min ({Delta} 183%, P < 0.05), 3 min ({Delta} 414%, P < 0.05), and 10 min ({Delta} 35%, P < 0.05), respectively. Immunostaining cells with an Akt-specific antibody showed increased intensity at the plasma membrane after treatment with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}>. Furthermore, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} inhibited phosphorylation of the phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN; peak activity at 10 min; {Delta} -32%, P < 0.05) and stimulated phosphorylation of the AMP-dependent kinase alpha subunit (AMPK{alpha}; 78% at 3 min and 244% at 10 min). The stimulation of AMPK was abolished with an AMPK inhibitor, Compound C (100 {mu}M, 2 h). Moreover, Compound C significantly reduced the effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on IR phosphorylation by about 40% (from 2.07 {+-} 0.28 to 1.28 {+-} 0.12, P < 0.05). In addition, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased glucose uptake in podocytes

  10. Calcium-independent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 by cyclic strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeda, M.; Takei, T.; Mills, I.; Sumpio, B. E.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that cyclic strain induces extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation in endothelial cells (EC). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ca2+ on the activation of ERK1/2. Bovine aortic EC were pretreated with a chelator of extracellular Ca2+, ethylaneglycol-bis(aminoethylether)-tetra-acetate (EGTA), a depleter of Ca2+ pools, 2,5-Di-(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone (BHQ), or a Ca2+ channel blocker, GdCl3, and subjected to an average 10 % strain at a rate of 60 cycles/min for 10 min. BHQ and GdCl3 did not inhibit the strain-induced ERK1/2 activation. Chelation of normal extracellular Ca2+ (1.8 mM) medium with EGTA (3 mM) acutely stimulated baseline phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2, thereby obscuring any strain-induced activation of ERK1/2. However, in EC preincubated for 24 hours in Ca2+-free medium, elevated baseline phosphorylation was minimally activated by EGTA (200 microM) such that cyclic strain stimulated ERK1/2 in the presence or absence of BHQ. These results suggest a Ca2+ independence of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway by cyclic strain. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  11. Opposing actions of TGF{beta} and MAP kinase signaling in undifferentiated hen granulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Dori C.; Haugen, Morgan J.; Johnson, A.L. . E-mail: johnson.128@nd.edu

    2005-10-21

    The present studies were conducted to establish interactions between transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family members, TGF{alpha} and betacellulin (BTC), relative to proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells in hen ovarian follicles. Results presented demonstrate expression of TGF{beta} isoforms, plus TGF{alpha}, BTC, and ErbB receptors in prehierarchal follicles, thus establishing the potential for autocrine/paracrine signaling and cross-talk within granulosa cells at the onset of differentiation. Treatment with TGF{alpha} or BTC increases levels of TGF{beta}1 mRNA in undifferentiated granulosa cells, while the selective inhibitor of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling, U0126, reverses these effects. Moreover, TGF{beta}1 attenuates c-myc mRNA expression and granulosa cell proliferation, while TGF{alpha} blocks both these inhibitory effects. Collectively, these data provide evidence that EGF family ligands regulate both the expression and biological actions of TGF{beta}1 in hen granulosa cells, and indicate that the timely interaction of these opposing factors is an important modulator of both granulosa cell proliferation and differentiation.

  12. Regulation of MAP kinase signaling cascade by microRNAs in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Raghuram, Badmi; Sheikh, Arsheed Hussain; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is one of the most conserved signaling cascade in plants regulating a plethora of cellular processes including normal growth and development, abiotic and biotic stress responses. The perception of external cues triggers the phosphorylation of three tier MAPKKK-MAPKK-MAPK cascade which finally modifies a downstream substrate thereby regulating the cellular processes. Whereas, the transcription regulation by MAPKs, mediated through their substrates is well studied in plants, the transcription and post-transcriptional regulation of the MAPK genes are poorly understood. Previous studies from the animals systems suggested the miRNAs regulate the post-transcriptional regulation of MAPK transcripts. Here we attempt to unravel the post-transcriptional regulation of MAPKs by miRNAs in model crop plant Oryza sativa. Using in silico tools, we predict the miRNAs for 98 out of 99 MAPK transcripts. The predicted miRNAs were validated for the biological relevance of their function. The inverse correlation between relative transcript levels between the MAPKs and their predicted miRNAs validated the in silico prediction. Taken together, this report demonstrates the significance of miRNAs in regulation of the MAPK pathway in plants with a new direction to study the plant signaling molecules. PMID:25482813

  13. Clinical significance of nerve growth factor and tropomyosin-receptor-kinase signaling pathway in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Qing; Xu, Yun-Fei; Guo, Sen; Liu, Yi; Ning, Shang-Lei; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Hui; Chen, Yu-Xin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between nerve growth factor-tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (NGF-TrkA) signaling pathway and prognosis in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC). METHODS: NGF and TrkA expression in 83 samples of IHCC was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Correlations between NGF-TrkA expression and clinicopathological features were analyzed by χ2 test. Moreover, we evaluated the association between NGF-TrkA and overall survival by univariate and multivariate analysis. With experiments in vitro, we investigated the crucial role of NGF-TrkA on proliferation and invasion of IHCC cells with recombinant NGF-β stimulation. RESULTS: We found that NGF and TrkA expression was significantly related with differentiation (P = 0.024) and intraneural invasion (P = 0.003), respectively. Additionally, double higher expression of NGF and TrkA was identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.003). Moreover, we demonstrated that NGF-TrkA signaling pathway can promote IHCC proliferation and invasion. CONCLUSION: NGF-TrkA double higher expression is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC. NGF-TrkA pathway can promote IHCC progression, indicating that NGF-TrkA may become a potential drug target. PMID:24744599

  14. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates striatal degeneration via the regulation of C1q

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung Joo; Cheon, So Young; Kim, Gyung Whan

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 (ASK1), an early signaling element in the cell death pathway, has been hypothesized to participate in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. The systemic administration of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) facilitates the development of selective striatal lesions. However, it remains unclear whether specific neurons are selectively targeted in 3-NP-infused striatal degeneration. Recently, it has been proposed that complement-mediated synapse elimination may be reactivated aberrantly in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesized that ASK1 is involved in striatal astrocyte reactivation; reactive astrocyte secretes molecules detrimental to neuron; and striatal neurons are more susceptible to these factors. Our results indicate that striatal astrocyte is reactivated and ASK1 level increases after 3-NP general and chronic infusion. Reactive striatal astrocyte increases TGF-beta differentially to cortex and striatum. ASK1 may be involved in regulation of astrocyte TGF-beta and it is linked to the C1q level in spatial and temporal, and moreover in the earlier stage of progressing striatal neuronal loss. Conclusively the present study suggests that ASK1 mediates 3-NP toxicity and regulates C1q level through the astrocyte TGF-beta. And also it may suggest that C1q level may be a surrogate of prediction marker representing neurodegenerative disease progress before developing behavioral impairment. PMID:26728245

  15. Atypical protein kinase C induces cell transformation by disrupting Hippo/Yap signaling

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, Andrew; Al-Masri, Maia; Liew-Spilger, Alyson; McCaffrey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial cells are major sites of malignant transformation. Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms are overexpressed and activated in many cancer types. Using normal, highly polarized epithelial cells (MDCK and NMuMG), we report that aPKC gain of function overcomes contact inhibited growth and is sufficient for a transformed epithelial phenotype. In 2D cultures, aPKC induced cells to grow as stratified epithelia, whereas cells grew as solid spheres of nonpolarized cells in 3D culture. aPKC associated with Mst1/2, which uncoupled Mst1/2 from Lats1/2 and promoted nuclear accumulation of Yap1. Of importance, Yap1 was necessary for aPKC-mediated overgrowth but did not restore cell polarity defects, indicating that the two are separable events. In MDCK cells, Yap1 was sequestered to cell–cell junctions by Amot, and aPKC overexpression resulted in loss of Amot expression and a spindle-like cell phenotype. Reexpression of Amot was sufficient to restore an epithelial cobblestone appearance, Yap1 localization, and growth control. In contrast, the effect of aPKC on Hippo/Yap signaling and overgrowth in NMuMG cells was independent of Amot. Finally, increased expression of aPKC in human cancers strongly correlated with increased nuclear accumulation of Yap1, indicating that the effect of aPKC on transformed growth by deregulating Hippo/Yap1 signaling may be clinically relevant. PMID:26269582

  16. Learned stressor resistance requires extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Christianson, John P.; Flyer-Adams, Johanna G.; Drugan, Robert C.; Amat, Jose; Daut, Rachel A.; Foilb, Allison R.; Watkins, Linda R.; Maier, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Behaviorally controllable stressors confer protection from the neurochemical and behavioral consequences of future uncontrollable stressors, a phenomenon termed “behavioral immunization”. Recent data implicate protein synthesis within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) as critical to behavioral immunization. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a series of controllable tailshocks and 1 week later to uncontrollable tailshocks, followed 24 h later by social exploration and shuttlebox escape tests. To test the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade in behavioral immunization, either D-AP5 or the MEK inhibitor U0126 was injected to the prelimbic (PL) or infralimbic (IL) mPFC prior to controllable stress exposure. Phosphorylated ERK and P70S6K, regulators of transcription and translation, were quantified by Western blot or immunohistochemistry after controllable or uncontrollable tailshocks. Prior controllable stress prevented the social exploration and shuttlebox performance deficits caused by the later uncontrollable stressor, and this effect was blocked by injections of D-AP5 into mPFC. A significant increase in phosphorylated ERK1 and ERK2, but not P70S6K, occurred within the PL and IL in rats exposed to controllable stress, but not to uncontrollable stress. However, U0126 only prevented behavioral immunization when injected to the PL. We provide evidence that NMDAR and ERK dependent signaling within the PL region is required for behavioral immunization, a learned form of stressor resistance. PMID:25324750

  17. Sargaquinoic acid promotes neurite outgrowth via protein kinase A and MAP kinases-mediated signaling pathways in PC12D cells.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Yuto; Tsang, Chi Kwan

    2003-08-01

    We previously isolated a nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent neurite outgrowth promoting substance MC14 (sargaquinoic acid) from a marine brown alga, Sargassum macrocarpum. In the present study, the NGF-potentiating activity of MC14 to neural differentiation of PC12D cells was investigated in detail. The treatment of cells with 3 microg/ml MC14 in the presence of 1.25-100 ng/ml NGF markedly enhanced the proportion of neurite-bearing cells compared with the NGF-only controls. In addition, MC14 significantly elevated the NGF-induced specific acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity in PC12D cells, suggesting that MC14 could morphologically and biochemically promote the differentiation of PC12D cells. The mechanism of action of MC14 was further investigated by pharmacological inhibition of several intracellular signaling molecules. Results indicated that the neurite outgrowth promoting activity of MC14 was almost completely blocked by 10 microM PD98059, suggesting that a TrkA-dependent MAP kinases-mediated signaling pathway may play a crucial role in modulating the effect of MC14. Besides, the MC14-enhanced neurite outgrowth was substantially suppressed by the pretreatment with 10 ng/ml protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, demonstrating that the adenylate cyclase-PKA signaling cascade was also involved in the action of MC14. In contrast, a PKC inhibitor chelerythrine chloride did not inhibit the neurite outgrowth promoting activity of MC14. Altogether, these results demonstrate that MC14 enhances the neurite outgrowth by cooperating at least two separated signaling pathways, a TrkA-MAP kinases pathway and an adenylate cyclase-PKA pathway, in PC12D cells. PMID:12850058

  18. Sequential Transphosphorylation of the BRI1/BAK1 Receptor Kinase Pair Regulates Early Events of the Brassinosteriod Signaling Pathway Promoting Plant Growth and Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development through a signal transduction pathway that is initiated by BR binding to the transmembrane receptor kinase BRI1. Activated BRI1 heterodimerizes with a second receptor kinase, BAK1, leading to enhanced signaling output. ...

  19. Discovery and structure activity relationship study of novel indazole amide inhibitors for extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2).

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Liu, Feifei; Jin, Nan; Tang, Shuai; Chen, Zhuxi; Yang, Xiaotong; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu; Jiang, Lei; Huang, Min; Cao, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    The discovery and optimization of a series of indazole amide based extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors via structure/knowledge based drug design and kinase screen is reported. The optimized compounds demonstrate potent inhibition of ERK1/2 enzyme activity, growth of BRAF mutant HT29 cells and ERK signaling in HT29 cells. PMID:27106711

  20. Involvement of the Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signalling pathway in the regulation of ERCC-1 mRNA levels by insulin.

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Kwon, W; Park, D; Bernier, M

    1998-01-01

    Expression of DNA repair enzymes, which includes ERCC-1, might be under the control of hormonal and growth factor stimulation. In the present study it was observed that insulin increased ERCC-1 mRNA levels both in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing human insulin receptors (HIRc cells) and in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the increase in ERCC-1 gene expression in HIRc cells, we used a variety of pharmacological tools known to inhibit distinct signalling pathways. None of these inhibitors affected the amount of ERCC-1 mRNA in unstimulated cells. The pretreatment of cells with two chemically unrelated phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase inhibitors, wortmannin and LY294002, failed to block the doubling of ERCC-1 mRNA content by insulin. Similarly, inhibition of pp70 S6 kinase by rapamycin had no apparent effects on this insulin response. In contrast, altering the p21(ras)-dependent pathway with either manumycin, an inhibitor of Ras farnesylation, or PD98059, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) kinase, suppressed the induction of ERCC-1 mRNA by insulin (P<0.001). Furthermore inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis negatively regulated the expression of this insulin-regulated gene (P<0.005). These results suggest that insulin enhances ERCC-1 mRNA levels by the activation of the Ras-ERK-dependent pathway without the involvement of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/pp70 S6 kinase. PMID:9531502

  1. FAK Acts as a Suppressor of RTK-MAP Kinase Signalling in Drosophila melanogaster Epithelia and Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Macagno, Juan Pablo; Diaz Vera, Jesica; Yu, Yachuan; MacPherson, Iain; Sandilands, Emma; Palmer, Ruth; Norman, Jim C.; Frame, Margaret; Vidal, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) regulate multiple signalling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. FAK interacts with several RTKs but little is known about how FAK regulates their downstream signalling. Here we investigated how FAK regulates signalling resulting from the overexpression of the RTKs RET and EGFR. FAK suppressed RTKs signalling in Drosophila melanogaster epithelia by impairing MAPK pathway. This regulation was also observed in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, suggesting it is a conserved phenomenon in humans. Mechanistically, FAK reduced receptor recycling into the plasma membrane, which resulted in lower MAPK activation. Conversely, increasing the membrane pool of the receptor increased MAPK pathway signalling. FAK is widely considered as a therapeutic target in cancer biology; however, it also has tumour suppressor properties in some contexts. Therefore, the FAK-mediated negative regulation of RTK/MAPK signalling described here may have potential implications in the designing of therapy strategies for RTK-driven tumours. PMID:24676055

  2. Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress Corrupts Coronary Collateral Growth by Activating Adenosine Monophosphate Activated KinaseSignaling

    PubMed Central

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Sam, Wai Johnn; Stevanov, Kelly; Enrick, Molly; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Kolz, Christopher; Thakker, Prashanth; Hardwick, James P.; Chen, Yeong-Renn; Dyck, Jason R.B.; Yin, Liya; Chilian, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our goal was to determine the mechanism by which mitochondrial oxidative stress impairs collateral growth in the heart. Approach and Results Rats were treated with rotenone (mitochondrial complex I inhibitor that increases reactive oxygen species production) or sham-treated with vehicle and subjected to repetitive ischemia protocol for 10 days to induce coronary collateral growth. In control rats, repetitive ischemia increased flow to the collateral-dependent zone; however, rotenone treatment prevented this increase suggesting that mitochondrial oxidative stress compromises coronary collateral growth. In addition, rotenone also attenuated mitochondrial complex I activity and led to excessive mitochondrial aggregation. To further understand the mechanistic pathway(s) involved, human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with 50 ng/ mL vascular endothelial growth factor, 1 µmol/L rotenone, and rotenone/vascular endothelial growth factor for 48 hours. Vascular endothelial growth factor induced robust tube formation; however, rotenone completely inhibited this effect (P<0.05 rotenone versus vascular endothelial growth factor treatment). Inhibition of tube formation by rotenone was also associated with significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation. Immunoblot analyses of human coronary artery endothelial cells with rotenone treatment showed significant activation of adenosine monophosphate activated kinase (AMPK)-α and inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase. Activation of AMPK-α suggested impairments in energy production, which was reflected by decrease in O2 consumption and bioenergetic reserve capacity of cultured cells. Knockdown of AMPK-α (siRNA) also preserved tube formation during rotenone, suggesting the negative effects were mediated by the activation of AMPK-α. Conversely, expression of a constitutively active AMPK-α blocked tube formation. Conclusions We conclude that activation of AMPK

  3. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Protects Against Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Breckenridge, David G.; Liles, John T.; Lebofsky, Margitta; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic activation and oxidant stress are key events in the pathophysiology of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. The initial mitochondrial oxidative stress triggered by protein adduct formation is amplified by c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and ultimately cell necrosis. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is considered the link between oxidant stress and JNK activation. The objective of the current study was to assess the efficacy and mechanism of action of the small-molecule ASK1 inhibitor GS-459679 in a murine model of APAP hepatotoxicity. APAP (300 mg/kg) caused extensive glutathione depletion, JNK activation and translocation to the mitochondria, oxidant stress and liver injury as indicated by plasma ALT activities and area of necrosis over a 24h observation period. Pretreatment with 30 mg/kg of GS-459679 almost completely prevented JNK activation, oxidant stress and injury without affected the metabolic activation of APAP. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of GS-459679, mice were treated with APAP and then with the inhibitor. Given 1.5h after APAP, GS-459679 was still protective, which was paralleled by reduced JNK activation and p-JNK translocation to mitochondria. However, GS-459679 treatment was not more effective than N-acetylcysteine, and the combination of GS-459679 and N-acetylcysteine exhibited similar efficacy as N-acetylcysteine monotherapy, suggesting that GS-459769 and N-acetylcysteine affect the same pathway. Importantly, inhibition of ASK1 did not impair liver regeneration as indicated by PCNA staining. In conclusion, the ASK1 inhibitor GS-459679 protected against APAP toxicity by attenuating JNK activation and oxidant stress in mice and may have therapeutic potential for APAP overdose patients. PMID:25818599

  4. Inhibitor of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Breckenridge, David G; Liles, John T; Lebofsky, Margitta; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic activation and oxidant stress are key events in the pathophysiology of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. The initial mitochondrial oxidative stress triggered by protein adduct formation is amplified by c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and ultimately cell necrosis. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is considered the link between oxidant stress and JNK activation. The objective of the current study was to assess the efficacy and mechanism of action of the small-molecule ASK1 inhibitor GS-459679 in a murine model of APAP hepatotoxicity. APAP (300 mg/kg) caused extensive glutathione depletion, JNK activation and translocation to the mitochondria, oxidant stress and liver injury as indicated by plasma ALT activities and area of necrosis over a 24h observation period. Pretreatment with 30 mg/kg of GS-459679 almost completely prevented JNK activation, oxidant stress and injury without affecting the metabolic activation of APAP. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of GS-459679, mice were treated with APAP and then with the inhibitor. Given 1.5h after APAP, GS-459679 was still protective, which was paralleled by reduced JNK activation and p-JNK translocation to mitochondria. However, GS-459679 treatment was not more effective than N-acetylcysteine, and the combination of GS-459679 and N-acetylcysteine exhibited similar efficacy as N-acetylcysteine monotherapy, suggesting that GS-459769 and N-acetylcysteine affect the same pathway. Importantly, inhibition of ASK1 did not impair liver regeneration as indicated by PCNA staining. In conclusion, the ASK1 inhibitor GS-459679 protected against APAP toxicity by attenuating JNK activation and oxidant stress in mice and may have therapeutic potential for APAP overdose patients. PMID:25818599

  5. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in forebrain neurones contributes to osmoregulatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dine, Julien; Ducourneau, Vincent R R; Fénelon, Valérie S; Fossat, Pascal; Amadio, Aurélie; Eder, Matthias; Israel, Jean-Marc; Oliet, Stéphane H R; Voisin, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressin secretion from the magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) is crucial for body fluid homeostasis. Osmotic regulation of MNC activity involves the concerted modulation of intrinsic mechanosensitive ion channels, taurine release from local astrocytes as well as excitatory inputs derived from osmosensitive forebrain regions. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) are mitogen-activated protein kinases that transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular post-translational and transcriptional responses, leading to changes in intrinsic neuronal properties and synaptic function. Here, we investigated whether ERK activation (i.e. phosphorylation) plays a role in the functioning of forebrain osmoregulatory networks. We found that within 10 min after intraperitoneal injections of hypertonic saline (3 m, 6 m) in rats, many phosphoERK-immunopositive neurones were observed in osmosensitive forebrain regions, including the MNC containing supraoptic nuclei. The intensity of ERK labelling was dose-dependent. Reciprocally, slow intragastric infusions of water that lower osmolality reduced basal ERK phosphorylation. In the supraoptic nucleus, ERK phosphorylation predominated in vasopressin neurones vs. oxytocin neurones and was absent from astrocytes. Western blot experiments confirmed that phosphoERK expression in the supraoptic nucleus was dose dependent. Intracerebroventricular administration of the ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U 0126 before a hyperosmotic challenge reduced the number of both phosphoERK-immunopositive neurones and Fos expressing neurones in osmosensitive forebrain regions. Blockade of ERK phosphorylation also reduced hypertonically induced depolarization and an increase in firing of the supraoptic MNCs recorded in vitro. It finally reduced hypertonically induced vasopressin release in the bloodstream. Altogether, these findings identify ERK phosphorylation as a new element contributing to the osmoregulatory mechanisms of

  6. The catalytic activity of the kinase ZAP-70 mediates basal signaling and negative feedback of the T cell receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Sjölin-Goodfellow, Hanna; Frushicheva, Maria P; Ji, Qinqin; Cheng, Debra A; Kadlecek, Theresa A; Cantor, Aaron J; Kuriyan, John; Chakraborty, Arup K; Salomon, Arthur R; Weiss, Arthur

    2015-05-19

    T cell activation by antigens binding to the T cell receptor (TCR) must be properly regulated to ensure normal T cell development and effective immune responses to pathogens and transformed cells while avoiding autoimmunity. The Src family kinase Lck and the Syk family kinase ZAP-70 (ζ chain-associated protein kinase of 70 kD) are sequentially activated in response to TCR engagement and serve as critical components of the TCR signaling machinery that leads to T cell activation. We performed a mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study comparing the quantitative differences in the temporal dynamics of phosphorylation in stimulated and unstimulated T cells with or without inhibition of ZAP-70 catalytic activity. The data indicated that the kinase activity of ZAP-70 stimulates negative feedback pathways that target Lck and thereby modulate the phosphorylation patterns of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) of the CD3 and ζ chain components of the TCR and of signaling molecules downstream of Lck, including ZAP-70. We developed a computational model that provides a mechanistic explanation for the experimental findings on ITAM phosphorylation in wild-type cells, ZAP-70-deficient cells, and cells with inhibited ZAP-70 catalytic activity. This model incorporated negative feedback regulation of Lck activity by the kinase activity of ZAP-70 and predicted the order in which tyrosines in the ITAMs of TCR ζ chains must be phosphorylated to be consistent with the experimental data. PMID:25990959

  7. LKB1 kinase-dependent and -independent defects disrupt polarity and adhesion signaling to drive collagen remodeling during invasion

    PubMed Central

    Konen, Jessica; Wilkinson, Scott; Lee, Byoungkoo; Fu, Haian; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Yi; Marcus, Adam I.

    2016-01-01

    LKB1 is a serine/threonine kinase and a commonly mutated gene in lung adenocarcinoma. The majority of LKB1 mutations are truncations that disrupt its kinase activity and remove its C-terminal domain (CTD). Because LKB1 inactivation drives cancer metastasis in mice and leads to aberrant cell invasion in vitro, we sought to determine how compromised LKB1 function affects lung cancer cell polarity and invasion. Using three-dimensional models, we show that LKB1 kinase activity is essential for focal adhesion kinase–mediated cell adhesion and subsequent collagen remodeling but not cell polarity. Instead, cell polarity is overseen by the kinase-independent function of its CTD and more specifically its farnesylation. This occurs through a mesenchymal-amoeboid morphological switch that signals through the Rho-GTPase RhoA. These data suggest that a combination of kinase-dependent and -independent defects by LKB1 inactivation creates a uniquely invasive cell with aberrant polarity and adhesion signaling that drives invasion into the microenvironment. PMID:26864623

  8. Signaling Pathways That Control Rho Kinase Activity Maintain the Embryonic Epicardial Progenitor State

    PubMed Central

    Artamonov, Mykhaylo V.; Jin, Li; Franke, Aaron S.; Momotani, Ko; Ho, Ruoya; Dong, Xiu Rong; Majesky, Mark W.; Somlyo, Avril V.

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies signaling pathways that play key roles in the formation and maintenance of epicardial cells, a source of progenitors for coronary smooth muscle cells (SMCs). After epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), mesenchymal cells invade the myocardium to form coronary SMCs. RhoA/Rho kinase activity is required for EMT and for differentiation into coronary SMCs, whereas cAMP activity is known to inhibit EMT in epithelial cells by an unknown mechanism. We use outgrowth of epicardial cells from E9.5 isolated mouse proepicardium (PE) explants, wild type and Epac1 null E12.5 mouse heart explants, adult rat epicardial cells, and immortalized mouse embryonic epicardial cells as model systems to identify signaling pathways that regulate RhoA activity to maintain the epicardial progenitor state. We demonstrate that RhoA activity is suppressed in the epicardial progenitor state, that the cAMP-dependent Rap1 GTP exchange factor (GEF), Epac, known to down-regulate RhoA activity through activation of Rap1 GTPase activity increased, that Rap1 activity increased, and that expression of the RhoA antagonistic Rnd proteins known to activate p190RhoGAP increased and associated with p190RhoGAP. Finally, EMT is associated with increased p63RhoGEF and RhoGEF-H1 protein expression, increased GEF-H1 activity, with a trend in increased p63RhoGEF activity. EMT is suppressed by partial silencing of p63RhoGEF and GEF-H1. In conclusion, we have identified new signaling molecules that act together to control RhoA activity and play critical roles in the maintenance of coronary smooth muscle progenitor cells in the embryonic epicardium. We suggest that their eventual manipulation could promote revascularization after myocardial injury. PMID:25733666

  9. cAMP signaling prevents podocyte apoptosis via activation of protein kinase A and mitochondrial fusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoying; Tao, Hua; Xie, Kewei; Ni, Zhaohui; Yan, Yucheng; Wei, Kai; Chuang, Peter Y; He, John Cijiang; Gu, Leyi

    2014-01-01

    Our previous in vitro studies suggested that cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling prevents adriamycin (ADR) and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced apoptosis in podocytes. As cAMP is an important second messenger and plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation and cytoskeleton formation via protein kinase A (PKA) or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) pathways, we sought to determine the role of PKA or Epac signaling in cAMP-mediated protection of podocytes. In the ADR nephrosis model, we found that forskolin, a selective activator of adenylate cyclase, attenuated albuminuria and improved the expression of podocyte marker WT-1. When podocytes were treated with pCPT-cAMP (a selective cAMP/PKA activator), PKA activation was increased in a time-dependent manner and prevented PAN-induced podocyte loss and caspase 3 activation, as well as a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. We found that PAN and ADR resulted in a decrease in Mfn1 expression and mitochondrial fission in podocytes. pCPT-cAMP restored Mfn1 expression in puromycin or ADR-treated podocytes and induced Drp1 phosphorylation, as well as mitochondrial fusion. Treating podocytes with arachidonic acid resulted in mitochondrial fission, podocyte loss and cleaved caspase 3 production. Arachidonic acid abolished the protective effects of pCPT-cAMP on PAN-treated podocytes. Mdivi, a mitochondrial division inhibitor, prevented PAN-induced cleaved caspase 3 production in podocytes. We conclude that activation of cAMP alleviated murine podocyte caused by ADR. PKA signaling resulted in mitochondrial fusion in podocytes, which at least partially mediated the effects of cAMP. PMID:24642777

  10. Noise exposure immediately activates cochlear mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Alagramam, Kumar N.; Stepanyan, Ruben; Jamesdaniel, Samson; Chen, Daniel H.-C.; Davis, Rickie R.

    2015-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major public health issue worldwide. Uncovering the early molecular events associated with NIHL would reveal mechanisms leading to the hearing loss. Our aim is to investigate the immediate molecular responses after different levels of noise exposure and identify the common and distinct pathways that mediate NIHL. Previous work showed mice exposed to 116 decibels sound pressure level (dB SPL) broadband noise for 1 h had greater threshold shifts than the mice exposed to 110 dB SPL broadband noise, hence we used these two noise levels in this study. Groups of 4–8-week-old CBA/CaJ mice were exposed to no noise (control) or to broadband noise for 1 h, followed by transcriptome analysis of total cochlear RNA isolated immediately after noise exposure. Previously identified and novel genes were found in all data sets. Following exposure to noise at 116 dB SPL, the earliest responses included up-regulation of 243 genes and down-regulation of 61 genes, while a similar exposure at 110 dB SPL up-regulated 155 genes and down-regulated 221 genes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was the major pathway in both levels of noise exposure. Nevertheless, both qualitative and quantitative differences were noticed in some MAPK signaling genes, after exposure to different noise levels. Cacna1b, Cacna1g, and Pla2g6, related to calcium signaling were down-regulated after 110 dB SPL exposure, while the fold increase in the expression of Fos was relatively lower than what was observed after 116 dB SPL exposure. These subtle variations provide insight on the factors that may contribute to the differences in NIHL despite the activation of a common pathway. PMID:25387536

  11. Biochemical and functional analysis of CTR1, a protein kinase that negatively regulates ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Yafan; Li, Hui; Hutchison, Claire E.; Laskey, James; Kieber, Joseph J.

    2003-01-01

    CTR1 encodes a negative regulator of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. The C-terminal domain of CTR1 is similar to the Raf family of protein kinases, but its first two-thirds encodes a novel protein domain. We used a variety of approaches to investigate the function of these two CTR1 domains. Recombinant CTR1 protein was purified from a baculoviral expression system, and shown to possess intrinsic Ser/Thr protein kinase activity with enzymatic properties similar to Raf-1. Deletion of the N-terminal domain did not elevate the kinase activity of CTR1, indicating that, at least in vitro, this domain does not autoinhibit kinase function. Molecular analysis of loss-of-function ctr1 alleles indicated that several mutations disrupt the kinase catalytic domain, and in vitro studies confirmed that at least one of these eliminates kinase activity, which indicates that kinase activity is required for CTR1 function. One missense mutation, ctr1-8, was found to result from an amino acid substitution within a new conserved motif within the N-terminal domain. Ctr1-8 has no detectable effect on the kinase activity of CTR1 in vitro, but rather disrupts the interaction with the ethylene receptor ETR1. This mutation also disrupts the dominant negative effect that results from overexpression of the CTR1 amino-terminal domain in transgenic Arabidopsis. These results suggest that CTR1 interacts with ETR1 in vivo, and that this association is required to turn off the ethylene-signaling pathway.

  12. Novel roles for class II Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase C2β in signalling pathways involved in prostate cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mavrommati, Ioanna; Cisse, Ouma; Falasca, Marco; Maffucci, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate several cellular functions such as proliferation, growth, survival and migration. The eight PI3K isoforms are grouped into three classes and the three enzymes belonging to the class II subfamily (PI3K-C2α, β and γ) are the least investigated amongst all PI3Ks. Interest on these isoforms has been recently fuelled by the identification of specific physiological roles for class II PI3Ks and by accumulating evidence indicating their involvement in human diseases. While it is now established that these isoforms can regulate distinct cellular functions compared to other PI3Ks, there is still a limited understanding of the signalling pathways that can be specifically regulated by class II PI3Ks. Here we show that PI3K-C2β regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activation in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. We further demonstrate that MEK/ERK and PI3K-C2β are required for PCa cell invasion but not proliferation. In addition we show that PI3K-C2β but not MEK/ERK regulates PCa cell migration as well as expression of the transcription factor Slug. These data identify novel signalling pathways specifically regulated by PI3K-C2β and they further identify this enzyme as a key regulator of PCa cell migration and invasion. PMID:26983806

  13. Regulation of Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) signaling by a reversible kinase/phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Ho, Melisa W Y; Yang, Xiaonian; Carew, Mark A; Zhang, Tong; Hua, Len; Kwon, Yong-Uk; Chung, Sung-Kee; Adelt, Stephan; Vogel, Günter; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L; Shears, Stephen B

    2002-03-19

    Regulation of Cl(-) channel conductance by Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) provides receptor-dependent control over salt and fluid secretion, cell volume homeostasis, and electrical excitability of neurones and smooth muscle. Ignorance of how Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) is synthesized has long hindered our understanding of this signaling pathway. We now show Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) synthesis by Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 1-phosphatase activity by an enzyme previously characterized as an Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) 1-kinase. Rationalization of these phenomena with a ligand binding model unveils Ins(1,3,4)P(3) as not simply an alternative kinase substrate, but also an activator of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 1-phosphatase. Stable overexpression of the enzyme in epithelial monolayers verifies its physiological role in elevating Ins(3,4,5,6)P(4) levels and inhibiting secretion. It is exceptional for a single enzyme to catalyze two opposing signaling reactions (1-kinase/1-phosphatase) under physiological conditions. Reciprocal coordination of these opposing reactions offers an alternative to general doctrine that intracellular signals are regulated by integrating multiple, distinct phosphatases and kinases. PMID:11909533

  14. Structural Mechanism for the Specific Assembly and Activation of the Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinase 5 (ERK5) Module*

    PubMed Central

    Glatz, Gábor; Gógl, Gergő; Alexa, Anita; Reményi, Attila

    2013-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation depends on a linear binding motif found in all MAPK kinases (MKK). In addition, the PB1 (Phox and Bem1) domain of MKK5 is required for extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) activation. We present the crystal structure of ERK5 in complex with an MKK5 construct comprised of the PB1 domain and the linear binding motif. We show that ERK5 has distinct protein-protein interaction surfaces compared with ERK2, which is the closest ERK5 paralog. The two MAPKs have characteristically different physiological functions and their distinct protein-protein interaction surface topography enables them to bind different sets of activators and substrates. Structural and biochemical characterization revealed that the MKK5 PB1 domain cooperates with the MAPK binding linear motif to achieve substrate specific binding, and it also enables co-recruitment of the upstream activating enzyme and the downstream substrate into one signaling competent complex. Studies on present day MAPKs and MKKs hint on the way protein kinase networks may evolve. In particular, they suggest how paralogous enzymes with similar catalytic properties could acquire novel signaling roles by merely changing the way they make physical links to other proteins. PMID:23382384

  15. Artocarpus altilis CG-901 alters critical nodes in the JH1-kinase domain of Janus kinase 2 affecting upstream JAK/STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Nash, Oyekanmi; Omotuyi, Olaposi; Lee, Joonku; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Ogbadu, Lucy

    2015-11-01

    As a key step in achieving low-cost, easily accessible anti-cancer therapy for low- and middle-income countries, we recently established the scientific basis for the folkloric use of Artocarpus altilis for the treatment of cancer by investigating the geranyl dihydrochalcone (CG-901) content and its interference with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation and blockage of further downstream signaling. In the current study, the CG-901 upstream target was queried by chemical fingerprinting similarity assessment, semi-empirical (PM6ESCF) QMMM and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Moderate (∼0.4) to high (∼0.7) Tanimoto scores were found when the CG-901 scaffold was compared to ligands co-crystallized with Janus kinases (JAK) 1-3. High negative energy values were obtained when the CG-901 was treated semi-empirically (PM6ESCF) within the classical field of JAK (1-3). Multiple nanosecond MD simulations showed that CG-901 did not cause any large structural perturbations in the nucleotide-binding, activation and catalytic loops within the kinase (JH1) domain of JAK (1-3); however, it reduced the energy required to attain metastability along the path to energy minima conformation. In comparison to JAK1 and Apo-state JAK2, JAK2-bound CG-901 exhibited a highly re-organized key intra-domain protein network; indicating atomic level interference with inter-residue communication. In conclusion, CG-901 isolated from A. altilis represents a broad-spectrum JAK inhibitor, which may underlie the mechanism of STAT3 phosphorylation blockage. Graphical abstract Upper panel Janus kinase 2 upstream signaling pathway. Lower panel Apo-JAK2 (left) and CG-901-bound JAK2 (right). PMID:26442513

  16. Distinct Signaling Properties of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinases 4 (MKK4) and 7 (MKK7) in Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingcai; Chen, Liang; Ko, Chia-I; Zhang, Lin; Puga, Alvaro; Xia, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways are integral components of the developmental regulatory network that guides progressive cell fate determination. MKK4 and MKK7 are upstream kinases of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), responsible for channeling physiological and environmental signals to their cellular responses. Both kinases are essential for survival of mouse embryos, but because of embryonic lethality, their precise developmental roles remain largely unknown. Using gene knock-out mouse ESCs, we studied the roles of MKK4 and MKK7 in differentiation in vitro. While MKK4 and MKK7 were dispensable for ESC self-renewal and pluripotency maintenance, they exhibited unique signaling and functional properties in differentiation. MKK4 and MKK7 complemented each other in activation of the JNK-c-Jun cascades and loss of both led to senescence upon cell differentiation. On the other hand, MKK4 and MKK7 had opposite effects on activation of the p38 cascades during differentiation. Specifically, MKK7 reduced p38 activation, while Mkk7(−/−) ESCs had elevated phosphorylation of MKK4, p38, and ATF2, and increased MEF2C expression. Consequently, Mkk7(−/−) ESCs had higher expression of MHC and MLC and enhanced formation of contractile cardiomyocytes. In contrast, MKK4 was required for p38 activation and Mkk4(−/−) ESCs exhibited diminished p-ATF2 and MEF2C expression, resulting in impaired MHC induction and defective cardiomyocyte differentiation. Exogenous MKK4 expression partially restored the ability of Mkk4(−/−) ESCs to differentiate into cardiomyocytes. Our results uncover complementary and interdependent roles of MKK4 and MKK7 in development, and identify the essential requirement for MKK4 in p38 activation and cardiomyocyte differentiation. PMID:22130668

  17. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-2 (IRAK2) is a critical mediator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling.

    PubMed

    Benosman, Samir; Ravanan, Palaniyandi; Correa, Ricardo G; Hou, Ying-Chen; Yu, Minjia; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Li, Xiaoxia; Thomas, James; Cuddy, Michael; Matsuzawa, Yasuko; Sano, Renata; Diaz, Paul; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Reed, John C

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when unfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the organelle, triggering signal transduction events that contribute either to cellular adaptation and recovery or alternatively to cellular dysfunction and death. ER stress has been implicated in numerous diseases. To identify novel modulators of ER stress, we undertook a siRNA library screen of the kinome, revealing Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-2 (IRAK2) as a contributor to unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling and ER stress-induced cell death. Knocking down expression of IRAK2 (but not IRAK1) in cultured mammalian cells suppresses ER stress-induced expression of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP and activation of stress kinases. Similarly, RNAi-mediated silencing of the IRAK family member Tube (but not Pelle) suppresses activation of stress kinase signaling induced by ER stress in Drosophila cells. The action of IRAK2 maps to the IRE1 pathway, rather than the PERK or ATF6 components of the UPR. Interestingly, ER stress also induces IRAK2 gene expression in an IRE1/XBP1-dependent manner, suggesting a mutually supporting amplification loop involving IRAK2 and IRE1. In vivo, ER stress induces Irak2 expression in mice. Moreover, Irak2 gene knockout mice display defects in ER stress-induced CHOP expression and IRE1 pathway signaling. These findings demonstrate an unexpected linkage of the innate immunity machinery to UPR signaling, revealing IRAK2 as a novel amplifier of the IRE1 pathway. PMID:23724040

  18. Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-2 (IRAK2) Is a Critical Mediator of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Ricardo G.; Hou, Ying-Chen; Yu, Minjia; Gulen, Muhammet Fatih; Li, Xiaoxia; Thomas, James; Cuddy, Michael; Matsuzawa, Yasuko; Sano, Renata; Diaz, Paul; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Reed, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when unfolded proteins accumulate in the lumen of the organelle, triggering signal transduction events that contribute either to cellular adaptation and recovery or alternatively to cellular dysfunction and death. ER stress has been implicated in numerous diseases. To identify novel modulators of ER stress, we undertook a siRNA library screen of the kinome, revealing Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-2 (IRAK2) as a contributor to unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling and ER stress-induced cell death. Knocking down expression of IRAK2 (but not IRAK1) in cultured mammalian cells suppresses ER stress-induced expression of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor CHOP and activation of stress kinases. Similarly, RNAi-mediated silencing of the IRAK family member Tube (but not Pelle) suppresses activation of stress kinase signaling induced by ER stress in Drosophila cells. The action of IRAK2 maps to the IRE1 pathway, rather than the PERK or ATF6 components of the UPR. Interestingly, ER stress also induces IRAK2 gene expression in an IRE1/XBP1-dependent manner, suggesting a mutually supporting amplification loop involving IRAK2 and IRE1. In vivo, ER stress induces Irak2 expression in mice. Moreover, Irak2 gene knockout mice display defects in ER stress-induced CHOP expression and IRE1 pathway signaling. These findings demonstrate an unexpected linkage of the innate immunity machinery to UPR signaling, revealing IRAK2 as a novel amplifier of the IRE1 pathway. PMID:23724040

  19. Compartmentalized signaling by GPI-anchored ephrin-A5 requires the Fyn tyrosine kinase to regulate cellular adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Davy, Alice; Gale, Nicholas W.; Murray, Elizabeth W.; Klinghoffer, Richard A.; Soriano, Philippe; Feuerstein, Claude; Robbins, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their corresponding surface-bound ligands, the ephrins, provide cues to the migration of cells and growth cones during embryonic development. Here we show that ephrin-A5, which is attached to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchor, induces compartmentalized signaling within a caveolae-like membrane microdomain when bound to the extracellular domain of its cognate Eph receptor. The physiological response induced by this signaling event is concomitant with a change in the cellular architecture and adhesion of the ephrin-A5-expressing cells and requires the activity of the Fyn protein tyrosine kinase. This study stresses the relevance of bidirectional signaling involving the ephrins and Eph receptors during brain development. PMID:10601038

  20. WRM-1 activates the LIT-1 protein kinase to transduce anterior/posterior polarity signals in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Rocheleau, C E; Yasuda, J; Shin, T H; Lin, R; Sawa, H; Okano, H; Priess, J R; Davis, R J; Mello, C C

    1999-06-11

    During C. elegans development, Wnt/WG signaling is required for differences in cell fate between sister cells born from anterior/posterior divisions. A beta-catenin-related gene, wrm-1, and the lit-1 gene are effectors of this signaling pathway and appear to downregulate the activity of POP-1, a TCF/LEF-related protein, in posterior daughter cells. We show here that lit-1 encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase homolog related to the Drosophila tissue polarity protein Nemo. We demonstrate that the WRM-1 protein binds to LIT-1 in vivo and that WRM-1 can activate the LIT-1 protein kinase when coexpressed in vertebrate tissue culture cells. This activation leads to phosphorylation of POP-1 and to apparent changes in its subcellular localization. Our findings provide evidence for novel regulatory avenues for an evolutionarily conserved Wnt/WG signaling pathway. PMID:10380924

  1. Salmonella induces SRC protein tyrosine kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and NF-kappaBp65 signaling pathways in commercial and wild-type turkey leukocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies comparing signaling in wild-type turkey (WT) leukocytes and commercial turkey (CT) leukocytes found that the activity of protein tyrosine kinases and MAP kinases, ERK 1/2 and p38, were significantly higher in WT leukocytes compared to CT lines upon exposure to both SE and OPSE on d...

  2. Protein kinase RNA- like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling pathway plays a major role in reactive oxygen species (ROS)- mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress- induced apoptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is considered one of the mechanisms contributing to reactive oxygen species (ROS)- mediated cell apoptosis. In diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), cell apoptosis is generally accepted as the etiological factor and closely related to cardiac ROS generation. ER stress is proposed the link between ROS and cell apoptosis; however, the signaling pathways and their roles in participating ER stress- induced apoptosis in DCM are still unclear. Methods In this study, we investigated the signaling transductions in ROS- dependent ER stress- induced cardiomocyte apoptosis in animal model of DCM. Moreover, in order to clarify the roles of IRE1 (inositol - requiring enzyme-1), PERK (protein kinase RNA (PKR)- like ER kinase) and ATF6 (activating transcription factor-6) in conducting apoptotic signal in ROS- dependent ER stress- induced cardiomocyte apoptosis, we further investigated apoptosis in high- glucose incubated cardiomyocytes with IRE1, ATF6 and PERK- knocked down respectively. Results we demonstrated that the ER stress sensors, referred as PERK, IRE1 and ATF6, were activated in ROS- mediated ER stress- induced cell apoptosis in rat model of DCM which was characterized by cardiac pump and electrical dysfunctions. The deletion of PERK in myocytes exhibited stronger protective effect against apoptosis induced by high- glucose incubation than deletion of ATF6 or IRE in the same myocytes. By subcellular fractionation, rather than ATF6 and IRE1, in primary cardiomyocytes, PERK was found a component of MAMs (mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes) which was the functional and physical contact site between ER and mitochondria. Conclusions ROS- stimulated activation of PERK signaling pathway takes the major responsibility rather than IRE1 or ATF6 signaling pathways in ROS- medicated ER stress- induced myocyte apoptosis in DCM. PMID:24180212

  3. AAMP Regulates Endothelial Cell Migration and Angiogenesis Through RhoA/Rho Kinase Signaling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Qiu, Juhui; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Tao; Yin, Tieying; Xie, Xiang; Wang, Guixue

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis is a complicated process including endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. AAMP plays a role in regulating cell migration of multiple cell types. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether AAMP regulates angiogenesis, and to clarify the role of AAMP in the VEGF-induced angiogenesis. We found that AAMP expressed in multiple cell types and mainly localized in cytoplasm and membrane in vascular endothelial cells. Using tube formation assay in vitro and aortic ring assay, siRNA-mediated knockdown and antibody blockade of AAMP impaired VEGF-induced endothelial cell tube formation and aortic ring angiogenic sprouting. Mechanistic studies showed that AAMP expression was significantly upregulated by VEGF in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Moreover, VEGF recruited AAMP to the cell membrane protrusions. AAMP regulates angiogenesis by mediating the spreading and migration of vascular endothelial cells. AAMP knock-down reduced VEGF-induced actin stress fibers and collagen gel contraction. Furthermore, we identified RhoA/Rho kinase signaling as an important factor that contributes to the action of AAMP in regulating endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Altogether, these data demonstrated the critical role of AAMP in angiogenesis and suggested blocking AAMP could serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for angiogenesis-related diseases. PMID:26350504

  4. Intestinal Epithelial Cell Tyrosine Kinase 2 Transduces IL-22 Signals To Protect from Acute Colitis.

    PubMed

    Hainzl, Eva; Stockinger, Silvia; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Berry, David; Lassnig, Caroline; Schwab, Clarissa; Rosebrock, Felix; Milinovich, Gabriel; Schlederer, Michaela; Wagner, Michael; Schleper, Christa; Loy, Alexander; Urich, Tim; Kenner, Lukas; Han, Xiaonan; Decker, Thomas; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias

    2015-11-15

    In the intestinal tract, IL-22 activates STAT3 to promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis and tissue healing. The mechanism has remained obscure, but we demonstrate that IL-22 acts via tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), a member of the Jak family. Using a mouse model for colitis, we show that Tyk2 deficiency is associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiota and exacerbates inflammatory bowel disease. Colitic Tyk2(-/-) mice have less p-STAT3 in colon tissue and their IECs proliferate less efficiently. Tyk2-deficient primary IECs show reduced p-STAT3 in response to IL-22 stimulation, and expression of IL-22-STAT3 target genes is reduced in IECs from healthy and colitic Tyk2(-/-) mice. Experiments with conditional Tyk2(-/-) mice reveal that IEC-specific depletion of Tyk2 aggravates colitis. Disease symptoms can be alleviated by administering high doses of rIL-22-Fc, indicating that Tyk2 deficiency can be rescued via the IL-22 receptor complex. The pivotal function of Tyk2 in IL-22-dependent colitis was confirmed in Citrobacter rodentium-induced disease. Thus, Tyk2 protects against acute colitis in part by amplifying inflammation-induced epithelial IL-22 signaling to STAT3. PMID:26432894

  5. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoosik; Iagovitina, Antonina; Ishihara, Keisuke; Fitzgerald, Kate M.; Deplancke, Bart; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2013-06-01

    Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), which induces zygotic genes through relief of their repression by transcriptional repressor Capicua. The levels of MAPK activation at the anterior and posterior termini are close to each other, but the expression patterns of MAPK-target genes, such as zerknüllt (zen) and tailless (tll), display strong anterior-posterior (AP) asymmetry. This region-specific response to MAPK activation provides a clear example of context-dependent interpretation of inductive signaling, a common developmental effect that remains poorly understood. In the past, the AP asymmetry of zen expression was attributed to a mechanism that depends on MAPK substrate competition. We present data suggesting that the asymmetric expression of tll is generated by a different mechanism, based on feedforward control and multiple enhancers of the tll gene. A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets.

  6. Signaling between two interacting sensor kinases promotes biofilms and colonization by a bacterial symbiont

    PubMed Central

    Norsworthy, Allison N.; Visick, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cells acclimate to fluctuating environments by utilizing sensory circuits. One common sensory pathway used by bacteria is two-component signaling (TCS), composed of an environmental sensor (the sensor kinase, SK) and a cognate, intracellular effector (the response regulator, RR). The squid symbiont Vibrio fischeri uses an elaborate TCS phosphorelay containing a hybrid SK, RscS, and two RRs, SypE and SypG, to control biofilm formation and host colonization. Here, we found that another hybrid SK, SypF, was essential for biofilms by functioning downstream of RscS to directly control SypE and SypG. Surprisingly, although wild-type SypF functioned as a SK in vitro, this activity was dispensable for colonization. In fact, only a single non-enzymatic domain within SypF, the HPt domain, was critical in vivo. Remarkably, this domain within SypF interacted with RscS to permit a bypass of RscS’s own HPt domain and SypF’s enzymatic function. This represents the first in vivo example of a functional SK that exploits the enzymatic activity of another SK, an adaptation that demonstrates the elegant plasticity in the arrangement of TCS regulators. PMID:25586643

  7. Bifurcation of Arabidopsis NLR Immune Signaling via Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiquan; Chen, Xin; Lin, Wenwei; Chen, Sixue; Lu, Dongping; Niu, Yajie; Li, Lei; Cheng, Cheng; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein complexes sense infections and trigger robust immune responses in plants and humans. Activation of plant NLR resistance (R) proteins by pathogen effectors launches convergent immune responses, including programmed cell death (PCD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and transcriptional reprogramming with elusive mechanisms. Functional genomic and biochemical genetic screens identified six closely related Arabidopsis Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) in mediating bifurcate immune responses activated by NLR proteins, RPS2 and RPM1. The dynamics of differential CPK1/2 activation by pathogen effectors controls the onset of cell death. Sustained CPK4/5/6/11 activation directly phosphorylates a specific subgroup of WRKY transcription factors, WRKY8/28/48, to synergistically regulate transcriptional reprogramming crucial for NLR-dependent restriction of pathogen growth, whereas CPK1/2/4/11 phosphorylate plasma membrane-resident NADPH oxidases for ROS production. Our studies delineate bifurcation of complex signaling mechanisms downstream of NLR immune sensors mediated by the myriad action of CPKs with distinct substrate specificity and subcellular dynamics. PMID:23382673

  8. Sex differences in fear extinction and involvements of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK).

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Shingo; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Ishii, Daisuke; Tomizawa, Haruna; Sutoh, Chihiro; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-09-01

    Stress-related disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and panic disorders, are disproportionately prevalent in females. However, the biological mechanism underlying these sex differences in the prevalence rate remains unclear. In the present study, we examined sex differences in fear memory, fear extinction, and spontaneous recovery of fear. We investigated the presence of sex differences in recent and remote fear memory in mice using contextual fear conditioning, as well as sex differences in spontaneous recovery of fear memory using a consecutive fear extinction paradigm. We examined the number of fear extinction days required to prevent spontaneous recovery of fear in either sex. We investigated whether ovariectomy affected fear extinction and spontaneous recovery. We also measured the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 in the dorsal hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex following fear extinction sessions. In our results, we found no sex difference in recent or remote fear memory. However, females required more fear extinction sessions compared to males to prevent spontaneous recovery. Within-extinction freezing also differed between males and females. Moreover, females required more extinction sessions than males to increase ERK2 phosphorylation in the dorsal hippocampus. Our data suggest that contextual fear extinction was unstable in females compared to males and that such sex differences may be related to the ERK2 phosphorylation in the hippocampus. PMID:26079214

  9. GSK621 Targets Glioma Cells via Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalings

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hong; Liu, Wei; Zhan, Shi-Kun; Pan, Yi-Xin; Bian, Liu-Guan; Sun, Bomin; Sun, Qing-Fang; Pan, Si-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the anti-glioma cell activity by a novel AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator GSK621. We showed that GSK621 was cytotoxic to human glioma cells (U87MG and U251MG lines), possibly via provoking caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death. Its cytotoxicity was alleviated by caspase inhibitors. GSK621 activated AMPK to inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and downregulate Tetraspanin 8 (Tspan8) in glioma cells. AMPK inhibition, through shRNA knockdown of AMPKα or introduction of a dominant negative (T172A) AMPKα, almost reversed GSK621-induced AMPK activation, mTOR inhibition and Tspan8 degradation. Consequently, GSK621’s cytotoxicity in glioma cells was also significantly attenuated by AMPKα knockdown or mutation. Further studies showed that GSK621, at a relatively low concentration, significantly potentiated temozolomide (TMZ)’s sensitivity and lethality against glioma cells. We summarized that GSK621 inhibits human glioma cells possibly via activating AMPK signaling. This novel AMPK activator could be a novel and promising anti-glioma cell agent. PMID:27532105

  10. Context-dependent transcriptional interpretation of mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoosik; Iagovitina, Antonina; Ishihara, Keisuke; Fitzgerald, Kate M.; Deplancke, Bart; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2013-01-01

    Terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo are patterned by the localized activation of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), which induces zygotic genes through relief of their repression by transcriptional repressor Capicua. The levels of MAPK activation at the anterior and posterior termini are close to each other, but the expression patterns of MAPK-target genes, such as zerknüllt (zen) and tailless (tll), display strong anterior-posterior (AP) asymmetry. This region-specific response to MAPK activation provides a clear example of context-dependent interpretation of inductive signaling, a common developmental effect that remains poorly understood. In the past, the AP asymmetry of zen expression was attributed to a mechanism that depends on MAPK substrate competition. We present data suggesting that the asymmetric expression of tll is generated by a different mechanism, based on feedforward control and multiple enhancers of the tll gene. A simple mathematical model of this mechanism correctly predicts how the wild-type expression pattern of tll changes in mutants affecting the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems and some of their direct targets. PMID:23822503

  11. Intestinal Epithelial Cell Tyrosine Kinase 2 Transduces IL-22 Signals To Protect from Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hainzl, Eva; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Berry, David; Lassnig, Caroline; Schwab, Clarissa; Rosebrock, Felix; Milinovich, Gabriel; Schlederer, Michaela; Wagner, Michael; Schleper, Christa; Loy, Alexander; Urich, Tim; Kenner, Lukas; Han, Xiaonan; Decker, Thomas; Strobl, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    In the intestinal tract, IL-22 activates STAT3 to promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis and tissue healing. The mechanism has remained obscure, but we demonstrate that IL-22 acts via tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), a member of the Jak family. Using a mouse model for colitis, we show that Tyk2 deficiency is associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiota and exacerbates inflammatory bowel disease. Colitic Tyk2−/− mice have less p-STAT3 in colon tissue and their IECs proliferate less efficiently. Tyk2-deficient primary IECs show reduced p-STAT3 in response to IL-22 stimulation, and expression of IL-22–STAT3 target genes is reduced in IECs from healthy and colitic Tyk2−/− mice. Experiments with conditional Tyk2−/− mice reveal that IEC-specific depletion of Tyk2 aggravates colitis. Disease symptoms can be alleviated by administering high doses of rIL-22–Fc, indicating that Tyk2 deficiency can be rescued via the IL-22 receptor complex. The pivotal function of Tyk2 in IL-22–dependent colitis was confirmed in Citrobacter rodentium–induced disease. Thus, Tyk2 protects against acute colitis in part by amplifying inflammation-induced epithelial IL-22 signaling to STAT3. PMID:26432894

  12. Prolactin-Stimulated Activation of ERK1/2 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases is Controlled by PI3-Kinase/Rac/PAK Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Achanta, Sirisha; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N.; Hoek, Jan B.; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    There is strong evidence that deregulation of prolactin (PRL) signaling contributes to pathogenesis and chemoresistance of breast cancer. Therefore, understanding cross-talk between distinct signal transduction pathways triggered by activation of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R), is essential for elucidating the pathogenesis of metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we applied a sequential inhibitory analysis of various signaling intermediates to examine the hierarchy of protein interactions within the PRL signaling network and to evaluate the relative contributions of multiple signaling branches downstream of PRL-R to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 in T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Quantitative measurements of the phosphorylation/activation patterns of proteins showed that PRL simultaneously activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and the JAK/STAT, phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. The specific blockade or siRNA-mediated suppression of SFK/FAK, JAK2/STAT5, PI3-kinase/PDK1/Akt, Rac/PAK or Ras regulatory circuits revealed that (1) the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is required for activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade upon PRL stimulation; (2) PI3-kinase-mediated activation of the c-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade occurs independent of signaling dowstream of STATs, Akt and PKC, but requires JAK2, SFKs and FAK activities; (3) activated PRL-R mainly utilizes the PI3-kinase-dependent Rac/PAK pathway rather than the canonical Shc/Grb2/SOS/Ras route to initiate and sustain ERK1/2 signaling. By interconnecting diverse signaling pathways PLR may enhance proliferation, survival, migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. PMID:21726627

  13. Prolactin-stimulated activation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases is controlled by PI3-kinase/Rac/PAK signaling pathway in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Achanta, Sirisha; Kolch, Walter; Kholodenko, Boris N; Hoek, Jan B; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2011-11-01

    There is strong evidence that deregulation of prolactin (PRL) signaling contributes to pathogenesis and chemoresistance of breast cancer. Therefore, understanding cross-talk between distinct signal transduction pathways triggered by activation of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R), is essential for elucidating the pathogenesis of metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we applied a sequential inhibitory analysis of various signaling intermediates to examine the hierarchy of protein interactions within the PRL signaling network and to evaluate the relative contributions of multiple signaling branches downstream of PRL-R to the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1 and ERK2 in T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Quantitative measurements of the phosphorylation/activation patterns of proteins showed that PRL simultaneously activated Src family kinases (SFKs) and the JAK/STAT, phosphoinositide-3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. The specific blockade or siRNA-mediated suppression of SFK/FAK, JAK2/STAT5, PI3-kinase/PDK1/Akt, Rac/PAK or Ras regulatory circuits revealed that (1) the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway is required for activation of the MAPK/ERK signaling cascade upon PRL stimulation; (2) PI3-kinase-mediated activation of the c-Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade occurs independent of signaling dowstream of STATs, Akt and PKC, but requires JAK2, SFKs and FAK activities; (3) activated PRL-R mainly utilizes the PI3-kinase-dependent Rac/PAK pathway rather than the canonical Shc/Grb2/SOS/Ras route to initiate and sustain ERK1/2 signaling. By interconnecting diverse signaling pathways PLR may enhance proliferation, survival, migration and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. PMID:21726627

  14. Tyrosine phosphorylation is a mandatory proximal step in radiation-induced activation of the protein kinase C signaling pathway in human B-lymphocyte precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, F M; Schieven, G L; Tuel-Ahlgren, L M; Dibirdik, I; Myers, D E; Ledbetter, J A; Song, C W

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation triggers a signal in human B-lymphocyte precursors that is intimately linked to an active protein-tyrosine kinase regulatory pathway. We show that in B-lymphocyte precursors, irradiation with gamma-rays leads to (i) stimulation of phosphatidylinositol turnover; (ii) downstream activation by covalent modification of multiple serine-specific protein kinases, including protein kinase C; and (iii) activation of nuclear factor kappa B. All of the radiation-induced signals were effectively prevented by the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein and herbimycin A. Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation is an important and perhaps mandatory proximal step in the activation of the protein kinase C signaling cascade in human B-lymphocyte precursors. Our report expands current knowledge of the radiation-induced signaling cascade by clarifying the chronological sequence of biochemical events that follow irradiation. Images PMID:8419931

  15. Heat Stress Alters Ovarian Insulin-Mediated Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase and Steroidogenic Signaling in Gilt Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Nteeba, Jackson; Sanz-Fernandez, M Victoria; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Ross, Jason W; Keating, Aileen F

    2015-06-01

    Heat stress (HS) compromises a variety of reproductive functions in several mammalian species. Inexplicably, HS animals are frequently hyperinsulinemic despite marked hyperthermia-induced hypophagia. Our objectives were to determine the effects of HS on insulin signaling and components essential to steroid biosynthesis in the pig ovary. Female pigs (35 ± 4 kg) were exposed to constant thermoneutral (20°C; 35%-50% humidity; n = 6) or HS conditions (35°C; 20%-35% humidity; n = 6) for either 7 (n = 10) or 35 days (n = 12). After 7 days, HS increased (P < 0.05) ovarian mRNA abundance of the insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), protein kinase B subunit 1 (AKT1), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHCGR), and aromatase (CYP19a). After 35 days, HS increased INSR, IRS1, AKT1, LDLR, LHCGR, CYP19a, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) ovarian mRNA abundance. In addition, after 35 days, HS increased ovarian phosphorylated IRS1 (pIRS1), phosphorylated AKT (pAKT), STAR, and CYP19a protein abundance. Immunostaining analysis revealed similar localization of INSR and pAKT1 in the cytoplasmic membrane and oocyte cytoplasm, respectively, of all stage follicles, and in theca and granulosa cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that HS alters ovarian insulin-mediated PI3K signaling pathway members, which likely impacts follicle activation and viability. In summary, environmentally induced HS is an endocrine-disrupting exposure that modifies ovarian physiology and potentially compromises production of ovarian hormones essential for fertility and pregnancy maintenance. PMID:25926439

  16. Muscarine enhances soluble amyloid precursor protein secretion in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y by a pathway dependent on protein kinase C(alpha), src-tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase but not phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Canet-Aviles, Rosa-Maria; Anderton, Mark; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J; Vaughan, Peter F T

    2002-06-15

    The signalling pathways by which muscarine and epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulate the secretion of the alpha-secretase cleavage product (sAPPalpha) of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) were examined in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y. Using specific inhibitors it was found that over 80% of sAPPalpha secretion, enhanced by muscarine, occurred via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and was dependent on protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and a member of the Src family of non-receptor tyrosine kinases (Src-TK). In contrast the stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion by EGF was not affected by inhibitors of PKC nor Src-TK but was dependent on ERK1/2. In addition muscarine-enhanced sAPPalpha secretion and ERK1/2 activation were inhibited 60 and 80%, respectively, by micromolar concentrations of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor wortmannin. In comparison wortmannin decreased EGF stimulation of sAPPalpha secretion and ERK 1/2 activation by approximately 40%. Unexpectedly, U73122, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C, did not inhibit muscarine enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion. These data are discussed in relation to a pathway for the enhancement of sAPPalpha secretion by muscarine which involves the activation of a Src-TK by G-protein beta/gamma-subunits leading to activation of PKCalpha, and ERK1/2 by a mechanism not involving phospholipase C. PMID:12191495

  17. Epidermal-growth-factor receptor and metalloproteinases mediate thromboxane A2-dependent extracellular-signal-regulated kinase activation.

    PubMed Central

    Gallet, Carole; Blaie, Stéphanie; Lévy-Toledano, Sylviane; Habib, Aïda

    2003-01-01

    The signalling pathways that link G-protein-coupled receptors to mitogen-activated protein kinases involve receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases and protein kinase C (PKC). We explored the pathways that are implicated in the thromboxane (TX) A(2)-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the role of the two TX receptor (TP) isoforms, TP alpha and TP beta. ERK activation by IBOP, a TX analogue, was dependent on epidermal-growth-factor receptor (EGFR) in TP alpha- or TP beta-transfected cells and in human aortic smooth muscle cells (hASMCs), since AG1478, a selective inhibitor of tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGFR, strongly blocked ERK and EGFR phosphorylation. In addition, EGFR transactivation leading to ERK activation involved matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), since BB2516, an inhibitor of MMP, decreased ERK and EGFR phosphorylation in TP alpha- or TP beta-transfected cells. Moreover, we showed that both isoforms activate ERK phosphorylation in an Src-kinase-dependent manner, whereas PKC was mainly implicated in ERK activation and EGFR phosphorylation by TP beta. In hASMCs, we showed that ERK activation depended on both pertussis-sensitive and -insensitive G alpha-proteins. We demonstrated further that EGFRs, PKC, Src kinase and MMPs are involved in ERK activation by TX. The results of the present study highlight a role for MMPs and PKC in EGFR transactivation triggered by the TPs and demonstrate this mechanism for the first time in primary cells, i.e. hASMCs. PMID:12534349

  18. A Role for a CXCR2/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase γ Signaling Axis in Acute and Chronic Vascular Permeability▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gavard, Julie; Hou, Xu; Qu, Yi; Masedunskas, Andrius; Martin, Daniel; Weigert, Roberto; Li, Xuri; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2009-01-01

    Most proangiogenic polypeptide growth factors and chemokines enhance vascular permeability, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the main target for anti-angiogenic-based therapies, and interleukin-8 (IL-8), a potent proinflammatory mediator. Here, we show that in endothelial cells IL-8 initiates a signaling route that converges with that deployed by VEGF at the level of the small GTPase Rac1 and that both act through the p21-activated kinase to promote the phosphorylation and internalization of VE-cadherin. However, whereas VEGF activates Rac1 through Src-related kinases, IL-8 specifically signals to Rac1 through its cognate G protein-linked receptor, CXCR2, and the stimulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) catalytic isoform, thereby providing a specific molecular targeted intervention in vascular permeability. These results prompted us to investigate the potential role of IL-8 signaling in a mouse model for retinal vascular hyperpermeability. Importantly, we observed that IL-8 is upregulated upon laser-induced retinal damage, which recapitulates enhanced vascularization, leakage, and inflammatory responses. Moreover, blockade of CXCR2 and PI3Kγ was able to limit neovascularization and choroidal edema, as well as macrophage infiltration, therefore contributing to reduce retinal damage. These findings indicate that the CXCR2 and PI3Kγ signaling pathway may represent a suitable target for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for human diseases characterized by vascular leakage. PMID:19255141

  19. Ligand-independent tyrosine kinase signalling in RTH 149 trout hepatoma cells: comparison among heavy metals and pro-oxidants.

    PubMed

    Burlando, Bruno; Magnelli, Valeria; Panfoli, Isabella; Berti, Elena; Viarengo, Aldo

    2003-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation depends on the activity of receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases and promote cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Different stressors are known to stimulate tyrosine kinase activities and this could explain a wide spectrum of effects that these agents produce on different organisms. We studied the effects of heavy metals and pro-oxidants on tyrosine kinase signalling in trout hepatoma cells (RTH 149) by Western immunoblotting. Use of antiphosphotyrosine showed that Hg(2+) and Cu(2+)in the microM range, and H(2)O(2) in the mM range, induced tyrosine phosphorylation. The effect of Cu(2+)was prevented by pre-incubation with genistein, while those of Hg(2+)and H(2)O(2) were only decreased, probably due to tyrosine kinase stimulation coupled to phosphatase inhibition. Phosphospecific antibodies against the three types of MAPKs showed that ERK is activated by heavy metals only, while p38 and SAPK/JNK are activated by H(2)O(2), Hg(2+), and Cu(2+) plus low H(2)O(2). Cell pre-incubation with p38 inhibitors indicated that ERK activation by H(2)O(2) is prevented by concomitant activation of p38. Phosphospecific STAT antibodies revealed activation by H(2)O(2) only. In conclusion, fish cell exposure to heavy metals and pro-oxidants produce specific tyrosine kinase responses, involving cross talk and redox modulatory effects. PMID:12876385

  20. Resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity involving extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and ternary complex factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rössler, Oliver G.; Glatzel, Daniel; Thiel, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Many intracellular functions have been attributed to resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin found in grapes and in other plants. Here, we show that resveratrol induces the expression of the transcription factor Egr-1 in human embryonic kidney cells. Using a chromosomally embedded Egr-1-responsive reporter gene, we show that the Egr-1 activity was significantly elevated in resveratrol-treated cells, indicating that the newly synthesized Egr-1 protein was biologically active. Stimulus-transcription coupling leading to the resveratrol-induced upregulation of Egr-1 expression and activity requires the protein kinases Raf and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK, while MAP kinase phosphatase-1 functions as a nuclear shut-off device that interrupts the signaling cascade connecting resveratrol stimulation with enhanced Egr-1 expression. On the transcriptional level, Elk-1, a key transcriptional regulator of serum response element-driven gene transcription, connects the intracellular signaling cascade elicited by resveratrol with transcription of the Egr-1 gene. These data were corroborated by the observation that stimulation of the cells with resveratrol increased the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. The SRE as well as the GC-rich DNA binding site of Egr-1 function as resveratrol-responsive elements. Thus, resveratrol regulates gene transcription via activation of the stimulus-regulated protein kinases Raf and ERK and the stimulus-responsive transcription factors TCF and Egr-1. - Highlights: • The plant polyphenol resveratrol upregulates Egr-1 expression and activity. • The stimulation of Egr-1 requires the protein kinases ERK and Raf. • Resveratrol treatment upregulates the transcriptional activation potential of Elk-1. • Resveratrol-induced stimulation of Egr-1 requires ternary complex factors. • Two distinct resveratrol-responsive elements were identified.

  1. T3-induced liver AMP-activated protein kinase signaling: Redox dependency and upregulation of downstream targets

    PubMed Central

    Videla, Luis A; Fernández, Virginia; Cornejo, Pamela; Vargas, Romina; Morales, Paula; Ceballo, Juan; Fischer, Alvaro; Escudero, Nicolás; Escobar, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the redox dependency and promotion of downstream targets in thyroid hormone (T3)-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling as cellular energy sensor to limit metabolic stresses in the liver. METHODS: Fed male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single ip dose of 0.1 mg T3/kg or T3 vehicle (NaOH 0.1 N; controls) and studied at 8 or 24 h after treatment. Separate groups of animals received 500 mg N-acetylcysteine (NAC)/kg or saline ip 30 min prior T3. Measurements included plasma and liver 8-isoprostane and serum β-hydroxybutyrate levels (ELISA), hepatic levels of mRNAs (qPCR), proteins (Western blot), and phosphorylated AMPK (ELISA). RESULTS: T3 upregulates AMPK signaling, including the upstream kinases Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase-1, with T3-induced reactive oxygen species having a causal role due to its suppression by pretreatment with the antioxidant NAC. Accordingly, AMPK targets acetyl-CoA carboxylase and cyclic AMP response element binding protein are phosphorylated, with the concomitant carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α (CPT-1α) activation and higher expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α and that of the fatty acid oxidation (FAO)-related enzymes CPT-1α, acyl-CoA oxidase 1, and acyl-CoA thioesterase 2. Under these conditions, T3 induced a significant increase in the serum levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, a surrogate marker for hepatic FAO. CONCLUSION: T3 administration activates liver AMPK signaling in a redox-dependent manner, leading to FAO enhancement as evidenced by the consequent ketogenic response, which may constitute a key molecular mechanism regulating energy dynamics to support T3 preconditioning against ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:25516653

  2. Inhibitor of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup; Breckenridge, David G.; Liles, John T.; Lebofsky, Margitta; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic activation and oxidant stress are key events in the pathophysiology of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. The initial mitochondrial oxidative stress triggered by protein adduct formation is amplified by c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and ultimately cell necrosis. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is considered the link between oxidant stress and JNK activation. The objective of the current study was to assess the efficacy and mechanism of action of the small-molecule ASK1 inhibitor GS-459679 in a murine model of APAP hepatotoxicity. APAP (300 mg/kg) caused extensive glutathione depletion, JNK activation and translocation to the mitochondria, oxidant stress and liver injury as indicated by plasma ALT activities and area of necrosis over a 24 h observation period. Pretreatment with 30 mg/kg of GS-459679 almost completely prevented JNK activation, oxidant stress and injury without affecting the metabolic activation of APAP. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of GS-459679, mice were treated with APAP and then with the inhibitor. Given 1.5 h after APAP, GS-459679 was still protective, which was paralleled by reduced JNK activation and p-JNK translocation to mitochondria. However, GS-459679 treatment was not more effective than N-acetylcysteine, and the combination of GS-459679 and N-acetylcysteine exhibited similar efficacy as N-acetylcysteine monotherapy, suggesting that GS-459769 and N-acetylcysteine affect the same pathway. Importantly, inhibition of ASK1 did not impair liver regeneration as indicated by PCNA staining. In conclusion, the ASK1 inhibitor GS-459679 protected against APAP toxicity by attenuating JNK activation and oxidant stress in mice and may have therapeutic potential for APAP overdose patients. - Highlights: • Two ASK1 inhibitors protected against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. • The ASK1 inhibitors protect when used as pre- or post-treatment. • Protection by ASK1 inhibitor is

  3. HAMP Domain Rotation and Tilting Movements Associated with Signal Transduction in the PhoQ Sensor Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Matamouros, Susana; Hager, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT HAMP domains are α-helical coiled coils that often transduce signals from extracytoplasmic sensing domains to cytoplasmic domains. Limited structural information has resulted in hypotheses that specific HAMP helix movement changes downstream enzymatic activity. These hypotheses were tested by mutagenesis and cysteine cross-linking analysis of the PhoQ histidine kinase, essential for resistance to antimicrobial peptides in a variety of enteric pathogens. These results support a mechanistic model in which periplasmic signals which induce an activation state generate a rotational movement accompanied by a tilt in α-helix 1 which activates kinase activity. Biochemical data and a high-confidence model of the PhoQ cytoplasmic domain indicate a possible physical interaction of the HAMP domain with the catalytic domain as necessary for kinase repression. These results support a model of PhoQ activation in which changes in the periplasmic domain lead to conformational movements in the HAMP domain helices which disrupt interaction between the HAMP and the catalytic domains, thus promoting increased kinase activity. PMID:26015499

  4. The Physarum polycephalum Genome Reveals Extensive Use of Prokaryotic Two-Component and Metazoan-Type Tyrosine Kinase Signaling.

    PubMed

    Schaap, Pauline; Barrantes, Israel; Minx, Pat; Sasaki, Narie; Anderson, Roger W; Bénard, Marianne; Biggar, Kyle K; Buchler, Nicolas E; Bundschuh, Ralf; Chen, Xiao; Fronick, Catrina; Fulton, Lucinda; Golderer, Georg; Jahn, Niels; Knoop, Volker; Landweber, Laura F; Maric, Chrystelle; Miller, Dennis; Noegel, Angelika A; Peace, Rob; Pierron, Gérard; Sasaki, Taeko; Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Schleicher, Michael; Singh, Reema; Spaller, Thomas; Storey, Kenneth B; Suzuki, Takamasa; Tomlinson, Chad; Tyson, John J; Warren, Wesley C; Werner, Ernst R; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Wilson, Richard K; Winckler, Thomas; Gott, Jonatha M; Glöckner, Gernot; Marwan, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Physarum polycephalum is a well-studied microbial eukaryote with unique experimental attributes relative to other experimental model organisms. It has a sophisticated life cycle with several distinct stages including amoebal, flagellated, and plasmodial cells. It is unusual in switching between open and closed mitosis according to specific life-cycle stages. Here we present the analysis of the genome of this enigmatic and important model organism and compare it with closely related species. The genome is littered with simple and complex repeats and the coding regions are frequently interrupted by introns with a mean size of 100 bases. Complemented with extensive transcriptome data, we define approximately 31,000 gene loci, providing unexpected insights into early eukaryote evolution. We describe extensive use of histidine kinase-based two-component systems and tyrosine kinase signaling, the presence of bacterial and plant type photoreceptors (phytochromes, cryptochrome, and phototropin) and of plant-type pentatricopeptide repeat proteins, as well as metabolic pathways, and a cell cycle control system typically found in more complex eukaryotes. Our analysis characterizes P. polycephalum as a prototypical eukaryote with features attributed to the last common ancestor of Amorphea, that is, the Amoebozoa and Opisthokonts. Specifically, the presence of tyrosine kinases in Acanthamoeba and Physarum as representatives of two distantly related subdivisions of Amoebozoa argues against the later emergence of tyrosine kinase signaling in the opisthokont lineage and also against the acquisition by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:26615215

  5. Tomato Protein Kinase 1b Mediates Signaling of Plant Responses to Necrotrophic Fungi and Insect Herbivory[W

    PubMed Central

    AbuQamar, Synan; Chai, Mao-Feng; Luo, Hongli; Song, Fengming; Mengiste, Tesfaye

    2008-01-01

    The tomato protein kinase 1 (TPK1b) gene encodes a receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase localized to the plasma membrane. Pathogen infection, mechanical wounding, and oxidative stress induce expression of TPK1b, and reducing TPK1b gene expression through RNA interference (RNAi) increases tomato susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and to feeding by larvae of tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) but not to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. TPK1b RNAi seedlings are also impaired in ethylene (ET) responses. Notably, susceptibility to Botrytis and insect feeding is correlated with reduced expression of the proteinase inhibitor II gene in response to Botrytis and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, the natural precursor of ET, but wild-type expression in response to mechanical wounding and methyl-jasmonate. TPK1b functions independent of JA biosynthesis and response genes required for resistance to Botrytis. TPK1b is a functional kinase with autophosphorylation and Myelin Basis Protein phosphorylation activities. Three residues in the activation segment play a critical role in the kinase activity and in vivo signaling function of TPK1b. In sum, our findings establish a signaling role for TPK1b in an ET-mediated shared defense mechanism for resistance to necrotrophic fungi and herbivorous insects. PMID:18599583

  6. The Physarum polycephalum Genome Reveals Extensive Use of Prokaryotic Two-Component and Metazoan-Type Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Schaap, Pauline; Barrantes, Israel; Minx, Pat; Sasaki, Narie; Anderson, Roger W.; Bénard, Marianne; Biggar, Kyle K.; Buchler, Nicolas E.; Bundschuh, Ralf; Chen, Xiao; Fronick, Catrina; Fulton, Lucinda; Golderer, Georg; Jahn, Niels; Knoop, Volker; Landweber, Laura F.; Maric, Chrystelle; Miller, Dennis; Noegel, Angelika A.; Peace, Rob; Pierron, Gérard; Sasaki, Taeko; Schallenberg-Rüdinger, Mareike; Schleicher, Michael; Singh, Reema; Spaller, Thomas; Storey, Kenneth B.; Suzuki, Takamasa; Tomlinson, Chad; Tyson, John J.; Warren, Wesley C.; Werner, Ernst R.; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Wilson, Richard K.; Winckler, Thomas; Gott, Jonatha M.; Glöckner, Gernot; Marwan, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Physarum polycephalum is a well-studied microbial eukaryote with unique experimental attributes relative to other experimental model organisms. It has a sophisticated life cycle with several distinct stages including amoebal, flagellated, and plasmodial cells. It is unusual in switching between open and closed mitosis according to specific life-cycle stages. Here we present the analysis of the genome of this enigmatic and important model organism and compare it with closely related species. The genome is littered with simple and complex repeats and the coding regions are frequently interrupted by introns with a mean size of 100 bases. Complemented with extensive transcriptome data, we define approximately 31,000 gene loci, providing unexpected insights into early eukaryote evolution. We describe extensive use of histidine kinase-based two-component systems and tyrosine kinase signaling, the presence of bacterial and plant type photoreceptors (phytochromes, cryptochrome, and phototropin) and of plant-type pentatricopeptide repeat proteins, as well as metabolic pathways, and a cell cycle control system typically found in more complex eukaryotes. Our analysis characterizes P. polycephalum as a prototypical eukaryote with features attributed to the last common ancestor of Amorphea, that is, the Amoebozoa and Opisthokonts. Specifically, the presence of tyrosine kinases in Acanthamoeba and Physarum as representatives of two distantly related subdivisions of Amoebozoa argues against the later emergence of tyrosine kinase signaling in the opisthokont lineage and also against the acquisition by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:26615215

  7. Dissecting the role of histidine kinase and HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in stress tolerance and pathogenicity of Parastagonospora nodorum on wheat.

    PubMed

    John, Evan; Lopez-Ruiz, Francisco; Rybak, Kasia; Mousley, Carl J; Oliver, Richard P; Tan, Kar-Chun

    2016-06-01

    The HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is activated through two-component histidine kinase (HK) signalling. This pathway was first characterized in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a regulator of osmotolerance. The fungus Parastagonospora nodorum is the causal agent of septoria nodorum blotch of wheat. This pathogen uses host-specific effectors in tandem with general pathogenicity mechanisms to carry out its infection process. Genes showing strong sequence homology to S. cerevisiae HOG1 signalling pathway genes have been identified in the genome of P. nodorum. In this study, we examined the role of the pathway in the virulence of P. nodorum on wheat by disrupting putative pathway component genes: HOG1 (SNOG_13296) MAPK and NIK1 (SNOG_11631) hybrid HK. Mutants deleted in NIK1 and HOG1 were insensitive to dicarboximide and phenylpyrrole fungicides, but not a fungicide that targets ergosterol biosynthesis. Furthermore, both Δnik1 and Δhog1 mutants showed increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress. However, HOG1, but not NIK1, is required for tolerance to elevated temperatures. HOG1 deletion conferred increased tolerance to 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone, a cereal phytoalexin. This suggests that the HOG1 signalling pathway is not exclusively associated with NIK1. Both Δnik1 and Δhog1 mutants retained the ability to infect and cause necrotic lesions on wheat. However, we observed that the Δhog1 mutation resulted in reduced production of pycnidia, asexual fruiting bodies that facilitate spore dispersal during late infection. Our study demonstrated the overlapping and distinct roles of a HOG1 MAPK and two-component HK signalling in P. nodorum growth and pathogenicity. PMID:26978567

  8. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced activation of Erk5 MAP-kinase is dependent on Mekk2, Mek1/2, PKC and PI3-kinase, and affects BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Tsioumpekou, Maria; Papadopoulos, Natalia; Burovic, Fatima; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Lennartsson, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) binds to its tyrosine kinase receptors (PDGFRs) and stimulates mitogenicity and survival of cells of mesenchymal origin. Activation of PDGFRs initiates a number of downstream signaling pathways, including phosphatidyl 3'-inositol kinase (PI3-kinase), phospholipase Cγ and MAP kinase pathways. In this report, we show that Erk5 MAP kinase is activated in response to PDGF-BB in the smooth muscle cell line MOVAS in a manner dependent on Mekk2, Mek1/2, Mek5, PI3-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC). The co-operation of Mek1/2 and Mekk2 in the activation of Erk5, suggests a close co-regulation between the Erk1/2 and Erk5 MAP kinase pathways. Furthermore, we found that classical PKCs are important for Erk5 activation. In addition, we found that PKCζ interacts with Erk5 and may exert a negative feed-back effect. We observed no nuclear accumulation of Erk5 in response to PDGF-BB stimulation, however, we identified a mechanism by which cytoplasmic Erk5 influences gene expression; Erk5 was essential for PDGF-BB-mediated Smad1/5/8 signaling by stimulating release and/or activation of bone morphogenetic protein(s) (BMPs). Thus, PDGF-BB-induced Erk5 activation involves parallel stimulatory and inhibitory pathways and promotes Smad1/5/8 signaling. PMID:27339033

  9. Targeting Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal–Regulated Kinase Kinase in the Mutant (V600E) B-Raf Signaling Cascade Effectively Inhibits Melanoma Lung Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arati; Tran, Melissa A.; Liang, Shile; Sharma, Arun K.; Amin, Shantu; Smith, Charles D.; Dong, Cheng; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant melanoma has a high propensity for metastatic spread, making it the most deadly form of skin cancer. B-RAF has been identified as the most mutated gene in these invasive cells and therefore an attractive therapeutic target. However, for uncertain reasons, chemotherapy inhibiting B-Raf has not been clinically effective. This has raised questions whether this pathway is important in melanoma metastasis or whether targeting a protein other than B-Raf in the signaling cascade could more effectively inhibit this pathway to reduce lung metastases. Here, we investigated the role played by V600EB-Raf in melanoma metastasis and showed that targeting this signaling cascade significantly reduces lung metastases. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)–mediated inhibition was used in mice to reduce expression (activity) of each member of the signaling cascade and effects on metastasis development were measured. Targeting any member of the signaling cascade reduced metastasis but inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal–regulated kinase kinase (Mek) 1 and Mek 2 almost completely prevented lung tumor development. Mechanistically, metastatic inhibition was mediated through reduction of melanoma cell extravasation through the endothelium and decreased proliferative capacity. Targeting B-Raf with the pharmacologic inhibitor BAY 43-9006, which was found ineffective in clinical trials and seems to act primarily as an angiogenesis inhibitor, did not decrease metastasis, whereas inhibition of Mek using U0126 decreased cellular proliferative capacity, thereby effectively reducing number and size of lung metastases. In summary, this study provides a mechanistic basis for targeting Mek and not B-Raf in the mutant V600EB-Raf signaling cascade to inhibit melanoma metastases. PMID:16912199

  10. Rational targeting of BRAF and PI3-Kinase signaling for melanoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Deuker, Marian M.; McMahon, Martin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors elicit initial regression of BRAF-mutated melanoma, drug resistance is an inevitable and fatal event. We recently reported that in genetically engineered mouse models of BRAF-mutated melanoma, isoform-selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibition cooperates with MAPK pathway inhibition to forestall the onset of MAPK pathway inhibitor resistance. PMID:27314067

  11. Rational targeting of BRAF and PI3-Kinase signaling for melanoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Deuker, Marian M; McMahon, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Although mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors elicit initial regression of BRAF-mutated melanoma, drug resistance is an inevitable and fatal event. We recently reported that in genetically engineered mouse models of BRAF-mutated melanoma, isoform-selective phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibition cooperates with MAPK pathway inhibition to forestall the onset of MAPK pathway inhibitor resistance. PMID:27314067

  12. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ limits B cell antigen receptor-dependent activation of ERK signaling to inhibit early antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Matthew L; Dong, Matthew B; Brink, Robert; Zhong, Xiao-Ping; DeFranco, Anthony L

    2013-10-15

    Signaling downstream of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) is tightly regulated to enable cells to gauge the strength and duration of antigen-receptor interactions and to respond appropriately. We investigated whether metabolism of the second messenger diacylglycerol (DAG) by members of the family of DAG kinases (DGKs) played a role in modulating the magnitude of signaling by DAG downstream of the BCR. In the absence of DGKζ, the threshold for BCR signaling, measured as activation of the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, was markedly reduced in mature follicular B cells, which resulted in enhanced responses to antigen in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of DAG signaling by DGKζ limited the number of antibody-secreting cells that were generated early in response to T cell-independent type 2 antigens, as well as to T cell-dependent antigens. Furthermore, the effect of loss of DGKζ closely resembled the effect of increasing the affinity of the BCR for antigen during the T cell-dependent antibody response. These results suggest that the magnitude of DAG signaling is important for translating the affinity of the BCR for antigen into the amount of antibody produced during the early stages of an immune response. PMID:24129701

  13. A Screen for Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Primed Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Substrates Identifies the p53 Inhibitor iASPP

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Crystal; Liao, Gangling; Goodwin, C. Rory; Hu, Jianfei; Xie, Zhi; dos Reis, Thaila F.; Newman, Rob; Rho, Heesool; Qian, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) LANA protein is essential for the replication and maintenance of virus genomes in latently KSHV-infected cells. LANA also drives dysregulated cell growth through a multiplicity of mechanisms that include altering the activity of the cellular kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). To investigate the potential impact of these changes in enzyme activity, we used protein microarrays to identify cell proteins that were phosphorylated by the combination of ERK and GSK-3. The assays identified 58 potential ERK-primed GSK-3 substrates, of which 23 had evidence for in vivo phosphorylation in mass spectrometry databases. Two of these, SMAD4 and iASPP, were selected for further analysis and were confirmed as ERK-primed GSK-3 substrates. Cotransfection experiments revealed that iASPP, but not SMAD4, was targeted for degradation in the presence of GSK-3. iASPP interferes with apoptosis induced by p53 family members. To determine the importance of iASPP to KSHV-infected-cell growth, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells were treated with an iASPP inhibitor in the presence or absence of the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3. Drug inhibition of iASPP activity induced apoptosis in BC3 and BCBL1 PEL cells but did not induce poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in virus-negative BJAB cells. The effect of iASPP inhibition was additive with that of Nutlin-3. Interfering with iASPP function is therefore another mechanism that can sensitize KSHV-positive PEL cells to cell death. IMPORTANCE KSHV is associated with several malignancies, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The KSHV-encoded LANA protein is multifunctional and promotes both cell growth and resistance to cell death. LANA is known to activate ERK and limit the activity of another kinase, GSK-3. To discover ways in which LANA manipulation of these two kinases might impact PEL cell survival, we screened a human

  14. Modulation of l-α-Lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Signaling by Cannabinoids*

    PubMed Central

    Anavi-Goffer, Sharon; Baillie, Gemma; Irving, Andrew J.; Gertsch, Jürg; Greig, Iain R.; Pertwee, Roger G.; Ross, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    GPR55 is activated by l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) but also by certain cannabinoids. In this study, we investigated the GPR55 pharmacology of various cannabinoids, including analogues of the CB1 receptor antagonist Rimonabant®, CB2 receptor agonists, and Cannabis sativa constituents. To test ERK1/2 phosphorylation, a primary downstream signaling pathway that conveys LPI-induced activation of GPR55, a high throughput system, was established using the AlphaScreen® SureFire® assay. Here, we show that CB1 receptor antagonists can act both as agonists alone and as inhibitors of LPI signaling under the same assay conditions. This study clarifies the controversy surrounding the GPR55-mediated actions of SR141716A; some reports indicate the compound to be an agonist and some report antagonism. In contrast, we report that the CB2 ligand GW405833 behaves as a partial agonist of GPR55 alone and enhances LPI signaling. GPR55 has been implicated in pain transmission, and thus our results suggest that this receptor may be responsible for some of the antinociceptive actions of certain CB2 receptor ligands. The phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidivarin, and cannabigerovarin are also potent inhibitors of LPI. These Cannabis sativa constituents may represent novel therapeutics targeting GPR55. PMID:22027819

  15. Regulation of dopamine D2 receptor-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling and spine formation by GABAA receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, Sehyoun; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Hyun; Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2015-01-23

    Dopamine (DA) signaling via DA receptors is known to control hippocampal activity that contributes to learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. In primary hippocampal neuronal culture, we observed that dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) co-localized with certain subtypes of GABAA receptors, namely α1, β3, and γ2 subunits, as revealed by double immunofluorocytochemical analysis. Treatment with the D2R agonist, quinpirole, was shown to elicit an increase in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in hippocampal neurons. This phosphorylation was inhibited by pretreatment with the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol. Furthermore, treatment of hippocampal neurons with quinpirole increased the dendritic spine density and this regulation was totally blocked by pretreatment with a MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor (PD98059), D2R antagonist (haloperidol), or by the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol. These results suggest that D2R-mediated ERK phosphorylation can control spine formation and that the GABAA receptor negatively regulates the D2R-induced spine formation through ERK signaling in hippocampal neurons, thus indicating a potential role of D2R in the control of hippocampal neuronal excitability. PMID:25483619

  16. Chapter Three - Ubiquitination and Protein Turnover of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in GPCR Signaling and Cellular Regulation.

    PubMed

    Penela, P

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for regulating a wide variety of physiological processes, and distinct mechanisms for GPCR inactivation exist to guarantee correct receptor functionality. One of the widely used mechanisms is receptor phosphorylation by specific G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), leading to uncoupling from G proteins (desensitization) and receptor internalization. GRKs and β-arrestins also participate in the assembly of receptor-associated multimolecular complexes, thus initiating alternative G-protein-independent signaling events. In addition, the abundant GRK2 kinase has diverse "effector" functions in cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolism homeostasis by means of the phosphorylation or interaction with non-GPCR partners. Altered expression of GRKs (particularly of GRK2 and GRK5) occurs during pathological conditions characterized by impaired GPCR signaling including inflammatory syndromes, cardiovascular disease, and tumor contexts. It is increasingly appreciated that different pathways governing GRK protein stability play a role in the modulation of kinase levels in normal and pathological conditions. Thus, enhanced GRK2 degradation by the proteasome pathway occurs upon GPCR stimulation, what allows cellular adaptation to chronic stimulation in a physiological setting. β-arrestins participate in this process by facilitating GRK2 phosphorylation by different kinases and by recruiting diverse E3 ubiquitin ligase to the receptor complex. Different proteolytic systems (ubiquitin-proteasome, calpains), chaperone activities and signaling pathways influence the stability of GRKs in different ways, thus endowing specificity to GPCR regulation as protein turnover of GRKs can be differentially affected. Therefore, modulation of protein stability of GRKs emerges as a versatile mechanism for feedback regulation of GPCR signaling and basic cellular processes. PMID:27378756

  17. BIN2 Functions Redundantly with Other Arabidopsis GSK3-Like Kinases to Regulate Brassinosteroid Signaling1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhenyan; Zhao, Jun; Peng, Peng; Chihara, Ray K.; Li, Jianming

    2009-01-01

    GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE3 (GSK3) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase involved in a variety of developmental signaling processes. The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encodes 10 GSK3-like kinases that are clustered into four groups. Forward genetic screens have so far uncovered eight mutants, all of which carry gain-of-function mutations in BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), one of the three members in group II. Genetic and biochemical studies have implicated a negative regulatory role for BIN2 in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Here, we report the identification of eight ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized loss-of-function bin2 alleles and one T-DNA insertional mutation each for BIN2 and its two closest homologs, BIN2-Like1 and BIN2-Like2. Our genetic, biochemical, and physiological assays revealed that despite functional redundancy, BIN2 plays a dominant role among the three group II members in regulating BR signaling. Surprisingly, the bin2bil1bil2 triple T-DNA insertional mutant still responds to BR and accumulates a more phosphorylated form of a BIN2 substrate than the wild-type plant. Using the specific GSK3 inhibitor lithium chloride, we have provided strong circumstantial evidence for the involvement of other Arabidopsis GSK3-like kinases in BR signaling. Interestingly, lithium chloride treatment was able to suppress the gain-of-function bin2-1 mutation but had a much weaker effect on a strong BR receptor mutant, suggesting the presence of a BIN2-independent regulatory step downstream of BR receptor activation. PMID:19395409

  18. The Canonical Wnt Signal Restricts the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/Fbw7-Dependent Ubiquitination and Degradation of Eya1 Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Haploinsufficiency of Eya1 causes the branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome, and abnormally high levels of Eya1 are linked to breast cancer progression and poor prognosis. Therefore, regulation of Eya1 activity is key to its tissue-specific functions and oncogenic activities. Here, we show that Eya1 is posttranslationally modified by ubiquitin and that its ubiquitination level is self-limited to prevent premature degradation. Eya1 has an evolutionarily conserved CDC4 phosphodegron (CPD) signal, a target site of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) kinase and Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase, which is required for Eya1 ubiquitination. Genetic deletion of Fbw7 and pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 significantly decrease Eya1 ubiquitination. Conversely, activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the canonical Wnt signal suppresses Eya1 ubiquitination. Compound Eya1+/−; Wnt9b+/− mutants exhibit an increased penetrance of renal defect, indicating that they function in the same genetic pathway in vivo. Together, these findings reveal that the canonical Wnt and PI3K/Akt signal pathways restrain the GSK3/Fbw7-dependent Eya1 ubiquitination, and they further suggest that dysregulation of this novel axis contributes to tumorigenesis. PMID:24752894

  19. Tyrosine Kinase 2-mediated Signal Transduction in T Lymphocytes Is Blocked by Pharmacological Stabilization of Its Pseudokinase Domain.

    PubMed

    Tokarski, John S; Zupa-Fernandez, Adriana; Tredup, Jeffrey A; Pike, Kristen; Chang, ChiehYing; Xie, Dianlin; Cheng, Lihong; Pedicord, Donna; Muckelbauer, Jodi; Johnson, Stephen R; Wu, Sophie; Edavettal, Suzanne C; Hong, Yang; Witmer, Mark R; Elkin, Lisa L; Blat, Yuval; Pitts, William J; Weinstein, David S; Burke, James R

    2015-04-24

    Inhibition of signal transduction downstream of the IL-23 receptor represents an intriguing approach to the treatment of autoimmunity. Using a chemogenomics approach marrying kinome-wide inhibitory profiles of a compound library with the cellular activity against an IL-23-stimulated transcriptional response in T lymphocytes, a class of inhibitors was identified that bind to and stabilize the pseudokinase domain of the Janus kinase tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), resulting in blockade of receptor-mediated activation of the adjacent catalytic domain. These Tyk2 pseudokinase domain stabilizers were also shown to inhibit Tyk2-dependent signaling through the Type I interferon receptor but not Tyk2-independent signaling and transcriptional cellular assays, including stimulation through the receptors for IL-2 (JAK1- and JAK3-dependent) and thrombopoietin (JAK2-dependent), demonstrating the high functional selectivity of this approach. A crystal structure of the pseudokinase domain liganded with a representative example showed the compound bound to a site analogous to the ATP-binding site in catalytic kinases with features consistent with high ligand selectivity. The results support a model where the pseudokinase domain regulates activation of the catalytic domain by forming receptor-regulated inhibitory interactions. Tyk2 pseudokinase stabilizers, therefore, represent a novel approach to the design of potent and selective agents for the treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:25762719

  20. The Brucella abortus virulence regulator, LovhK, is a sensor kinase in the general stress response signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye-Sook; Willett, Jonathan W.; Jain-Gupta, Neeta; Fiebig, Aretha; Crosson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Summary In the intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus, the general stress response (GSR) signaling system determines survival under acute stress conditions in vitro, and is required for long-term residence in a mammalian host. To date, the identity of the Brucella sensor kinase(s) that function to perceive stress and directly activate GSR signaling have remained undefined. We demonstrate that the flavin-binding sensor histidine kinase, LovhK (bab2_0652), functions as a primary B. abortus GSR sensor. LovhK efficiently and specifically phosphorylates the central GSR regulator, PhyR, and activates transcription of a set of genes that closely overlaps the known B. abortus GSR regulon. Deletion of lovhK severely compromises cell survival under defined oxidative and acid stress conditions. We further show that lovhK is required for cell survival during the early phase of mammalian cell infection and for establishment of long-term residence in a mouse infection model. Finally, we present evidence that particular regions of primary structure within the two N-terminal PAS domains of LovhK have distinct sensory roles under specific environmental conditions. This study elucidates new molecular components of a conserved signaling pathway that regulates B. abortus stress physiology and infection biology. PMID:25257300

  1. Cyclic GMP and protein kinase-G in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion: opportunities and obstacles for survival signaling

    PubMed Central

    Burley, D S; Ferdinandy, P; Baxter, G F

    2007-01-01

    It is clear that multiple signalling pathways regulate the critical balance between cell death and survival in myocardial ischaemia–reperfusion. Recent attention has focused on the activation of survival or salvage kinases, particularly during reperfusion, as a common mechanism of many cardioprotective interventions. The phosphatidyl inositol 3′-hydroxy kinase/Akt complex (PI3K/Akt) and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades have been widely promoted in this respect but the cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP/PKG) signal transduction cassette has been less systematically investigated as a survival cascade. We propose that activation of the cGMP/PKG signalling pathway, following activation of soluble or particulate guanylate cyclases, may play a pivotal role in survival signalling in ischaemia–reperfusion, especially in the classical preconditioning, delayed preconditioning and postconditioning paradigms. The resurgence of interest in reperfusion injury, largely as a result of postconditioning-related research, has confirmed that the cGMP/PKG pathway is a pivotal salvage mechanism in reperfusion. Numerous studies suggest that the infarct-limiting effects of preconditioning and postconditioning, exogenously donated nitric oxide (NO), natriuretic peptides, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and other diverse drugs and mediators such as HMG co-A reductase inhibitors (statins), Rho-kinase inhibitors and adrenomedullin, whether given before and during ischaemia, or specifically at the onset of reperfusion, may be mediated by activation or enhancement of the cGMP pathway, either directly or indirectly via endogenous NO generation downstream of PI3K/Akt. Putative mechanisms of protection include PKG regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis through the modification of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake mechanisms, and PKG-induced opening of ATP-sensitive K+ channels during ischaemia and/or reperfusion. At present, significant

  2. Echistatin prevents posterior capsule opacification in diabetic rabbit model via integrin linked kinase signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fengbin; Chen, Yingying; Liang, Hao; Tan, Shaojian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of disintegrin echistatin on integrin linked kinase (ILK) and subsequent PI3-K/Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways in the posterior capsule opacification (PCO) model of diabetic rabbit. Methods: 56 rabbits were injected alloxan to model diabetic. Then they accepted lens extraction surgery and randomly and intraoperatively injected distilled water (control group; n = 28) or 10.0 mg·L-1 echistatin (echistatin-treated group; n = 28) into the anterior chamber. Each group was subdivided into ten days group (n = 14) and six weeks group (n = 14) respectively. The PCO severity was evaluated with a slit lamp microscope and light microscope for 10 days and 6 weeks postoperatively. The levels of ILK in the posterior capsule were determined by Q-PCR, Western blotting and Immunohistochemistry. Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: 10 days and 6 weeks after surgery, the grades of PCO in the echistatin-treated group were lower than the control group. The lens epithelial cells (LECs) in the posterior capsule of echistatin-treated eyes had decreased degrees of proliferation and migration than the control group. And no significant side effects appeared after treated with echistatin. Echistatin could significantly reduce the expression of ILK in terms of both mRNA and protein levels. The phosphorylation levels of Akt and ERK1/2 were decreased in the echistatin-treated group compared with the control group. Conclusions: Echistatin could inhibit postoperative PCO occurrence and development in diabetic rabbit eyes, which may be related to down-regulation the expression of ILK and inhibition the PI3-K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. PMID:26823745

  3. Allopregnanolone increases mature excitatory synapses along dendrites via protein kinase A signaling.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Ishizuka, Y; Yamazaki, H; Shirao, T

    2015-10-01

    Allopregnanolone (APα; 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one) is synthesized in both the periphery and central nervous system and is known to be a potent positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor. Because APα was suggested to improve the symptoms of depression and Alzheimer's disease (AD), which involve synaptic dysfunction and loss, we examined whether APα affects excitatory synapses. Drebrin, which is an actin-binding protein, forms a unique stable actin structure in dendritic spines, and drebrin levels correlate positively with cognitive levels in AD and mild cognitive impairment. We investigated whether APα increases excitatory synapse density along dendrites of mature hippocampal neurons using drebrin-imaging-based evaluation of mature synapses. We prepared primary cultures of hippocampal neurons and either transfected them with GFP or immunostained them against drebrin. Morphological analysis of GFP-transfected neurons revealed that a 24-h exposure to 0.3 or 1 μM APα significantly increased dendritic spine density without any morphological changes to spines. Drebrin cluster density was also increased by 0.3 and 1 μM APα. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor H-89 inhibited the APα-induced increase in drebrin cluster density. These data demonstrate that APα increases mature excitatory synapses via activation of PKA. Therefore, the PKA-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway is likely to be involved in the APα-induced increase of mature excitatory synapses. Another possibility is that the PKA-dependent increase in AMPA receptors at dendritic spines mediates the APα function. In conclusion, our study indicates that APα may improve neuropsychiatric disorder outcomes via increasing the numbers of mature excitatory synapses. PMID:26241343

  4. Identification of methyl violet 2B as a novel blocker of focal adhesion kinase signaling pathway in cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hwan; Kim, Nam Doo; Lee, Jiyeon; Han, Gyoonhee; Sim, Taebo

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •FAK signaling cascade in cancer cells is profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B. •Methyl violet 2B identified by virtual screening is a novel allosteric FAK inhibitor. •Methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity. •Methyl violet 2B suppresses strongly the proliferation of cancer cells. •Methyl violet 2B inhibits focal adhesion, invasion and migration of cancer cells. -- Abstract: The focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling cascade in cancer cells was profoundly inhibited by methyl violet 2B identified with the structure-based virtual screening. Methyl violet 2B was shown to be a non-competitive inhibitor of full-length FAK enzyme vs. ATP. It turned out that methyl violet 2B possesses extremely high kinase selectivity in biochemical kinase profiling using a large panel of kinases. Anti-proliferative activity measurement against several different cancer cells and Western blot analysis showed that this substance is capable of suppressing significantly the proliferation of cancer cells and is able to strongly block FAK/AKT/MAPK signaling pathways in a dose dependent manner at low nanomolar concentration. Especially, phosphorylation of Tyr925-FAK that is required for full activation of FAK was nearly completely suppressed even with 1 nM of methyl violet 2B in A375P cancer cells. To the best of our knowledge, it has never been reported that methyl violet possesses anti-cancer effects. Moreover, methyl violet 2B significantly inhibited FER kinase phosphorylation that activates FAK in cell. In addition, methyl violet 2B was found to induce cell apoptosis and to exhibit strong inhibitory effects on the focal adhesion, invasion, and migration of A375P cancer cells at low nanomolar concentrations. Taken together, these results show that methyl violet 2B is a novel, potent and selective blocker of FAK signaling cascade, which displays strong anti-proliferative activities against a variety of human cancer cells and suppresses adhesion

  5. Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 regulates cytoskeletal organization and chemotaxis via catalytic and microtubule-specific interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Reszka, A A; Bulinski, J C; Krebs, E G; Fischer, E H

    1997-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2 are mitogen-activated protein kinases that act as key components in a signaling cascade linking growth factor receptors to the cytoskeleton and the nucleus. ERK2 mutants have been used to alter cytoskeletal regulation in Chinese hamster ovary cells without affecting cell growth or feedback signaling. Mutation of the unique loop L6 (residues 91-95), which is in a portion of the molecule that is cryptic upon the binding of ERK2 to the microtubules (MTs), generated significant morphological alterations. Most notable phenotypes were observed after expression of a combined mutant incorporating changes to both L6 and the TEY phosphorylation lip, including a 70% increase in cell spreading. Actin stress fibers in these cells, which normally formed a single broad parallel array, were arranged in three or more orientations or in fan-like arrays. MTs, which ordinarily extend longitudinally from the centrosome, spread radially, covering a larger surface area. Single, but not the double, mutations of the Thr and Tyr residues of the TEY phosphorylation lip caused a ca. 25% increase in cell spreading, accompanied by a threefold increase in chemotactic cell migration. Mutation of Lys-52 triggered a 48% increase in cell spreading but no alteration to chemotaxis. These findings suggest that wild-type ERK2 inhibits the organization of the cytoskeleton, the spreading of the cell, and chemotactic migration. This involves control of the orientation of actin and MTs and the positioning of focal adhesions via regulatory interactions that may occur on the MTs. Images PMID:9243503

  6. Structural basis for basal activity and autoactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling SnRK2 kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Ley-Moy; Soon, Fen-Fen; Zhou, X. Edward; West, Graham M.; Kovach, Amanda; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Griffin, Patrick R.; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H. Eric

    2014-10-02

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development, and responses to abiotic stresses. Central for ABA signaling is the ABA-mediated autoactivation of three monomeric Snf1-related kinases (SnRK2.2, -2.3, and -2.6). In the absence of ABA, SnRK2s are kept in an inactive state by forming physical complexes with type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Upon relief of this inhibition, SnRK2 kinases can autoactivate through unknown mechanisms. Here, we report the crystal structures of full-length Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 at 1.9- and 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, respectively. The structures, in combination with biochemical studies, reveal a two-step mechanism of intramolecular kinase activation that resembles the intermolecular activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. First, release of inhibition by PP2C allows the SnRK2s to become partially active because of an intramolecular stabilization of the catalytic domain by a conserved helix in the kinase regulatory domain. This stabilization enables SnRK2s to gain full activity by activation loop autophosphorylation. Autophosphorylation is more efficient in SnRK2.6, which has higher stability than SnRK2.3 and has well-structured activation loop phosphate acceptor sites that are positioned next to the catalytic site. Together, these data provide a structural framework that links ABA-mediated release of PP2C inhibition to activation of SnRK2 kinases.

  7. Hypoxic Tumor Kinase Signaling Mediated by STAT5A in Development of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Røe, K