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Sample records for kinase tmk assays

  1. Escherichia coli thymidylate kinase: molecular cloning, nucleotide sequence, and genetic organization of the corresponding tmk locus.

    PubMed Central

    Reynes, J P; Tiraby, M; Baron, M; Drocourt, D; Tiraby, G

    1996-01-01

    Thymidylate kinase (dTMP kinase; EC 2.7.4.9) catalyzes the phosphorylation of dTMP to form dTDP in both de novo and salvage pathways of dTTP synthesis. The nucleotide sequence of the tmk gene encoding this essential Escherichia coli enzyme is the last one among all the E. coli nucleoside and nucleotide kinase genes which has not yet been reported. By subcloning the 24.0-min region where the tmk gene has been previously mapped from the lambda phage 236 (E9G1) of the Kohara E. coli genomic library (Y. Kohara, K. Akiyama, and K. Isono, Cell 50:495-508, 1987), we precisely located tmk between acpP and holB genes. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of tmk, including the end portion of an upstream open reading frame (ORF 340) of unknown function that may be cotranscribed with the pabC gene. The tmk gene was located clockwise of and just upstream of the holB gene. Our sequencing data allowed the filling in of the unsequenced gap between the acpP and holB genes within the 24-min region of the E. coli chromosome. Identification of this region as the E. coli tmk gene was confirmed by functional complementation of a yeast dTMP kinase temperature-sensitive mutant and by in vitro enzyme assay of the thymidylate kinase activity in cell extracts of E. coli by use of tmk-overproducing plasmids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the E. coli tmk gene showed significant similarity to the sequences of the thymidylate kinases of vertebrates, yeasts, and viruses as well as two uncharacterized proteins of bacteria belonging to Bacillus and Haemophilus species. PMID:8631667

  2. Signaling via the Trichoderma atroviride mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk1 differentially affects mycoparasitism and plant protection

    PubMed Central

    Reithner, Barbara; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Stoppacher, Norbert; Pucher, Marion; Brunner, Kurt; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasite of a number of plant pathogenic fungi thereby employing morphological changes and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and antibiotics. The function of the tmk1 gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during fungal growth, mycoparasitic interaction, and biocontrol was examined in T. atroviride. Δtmk1 mutants exhibited altered radial growth and conidiation, and displayed de-regulated infection structure formation in the absence of a host-derived signal. In confrontation assays, tmk1 deletion caused reduced mycoparasitic activity although attachment to Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea hyphae was comparable to the parental strain. Under chitinase-inducing conditions, nag1 and ech42 transcript levels and extracellular chitinase activities were elevated in a Δtmk1 mutant, whereas upon direct confrontation with R. solani or B. cinerea a host-specific regulation of ech42 transcription was found and nag1 gene transcription was no more inducible over an elevated basal level. Δtmk1 mutants exhibited higher antifungal activity caused by low molecular weight substances, which was reflected by an over-production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone and peptaibol antibiotics. In biocontrol assays, a Δtmk1 mutant displayed a higher ability to protect bean plants against R. solani. PMID:17509915

  3. Insights into the structure-function relationship of Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK).

    PubMed

    Doharey, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Verma, Pravesh; Verma, Anita; Rathaur, Sushma; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is a debilitating disease caused by lymph dwelling nematodal parasites like Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. Thymidylate kinase of B. malayi is a key enzyme in the de novo and salvage pathways for thymidine 5'-triphosphate (dTTP) synthesis. Therefore, B. malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK) is an essential enzyme for DNA biosynthesis and an important drug target to rein in filariasis. In the present study, the structural and functional changes associated with recombinant BmTMK, in the presence of protein denaturant GdnHCl, urea and pH were studied. GdnHCl and urea induced unfolding of BmTMK is non-cooperative and influence the functional property of the enzyme much lower than their Cm values. The study delineate that BmTMK is more prone to ionic perturbation. The dimeric assembly of BmTMK is an absolute requirement for enzymatic acitivity and any subtle change in dimeric conformation due to denaturation leads to loss of enzymatic activity. The pH induced changes on structure and activity suggests that selective modification of active site microenvironment pertains to difference in activity profile. This study also envisages that chemical moieties which acts by modulating oligomeric assembly, could be used for better designing of inhibitors against BmTMK enzyme. PMID:27044348

  4. Signaling via the Trichoderma atroviride mitogen-activated protein kinase Tmk 1 differentially affects mycoparasitism and plant protection.

    PubMed

    Reithner, Barbara; Schuhmacher, Rainer; Stoppacher, Norbert; Pucher, Marion; Brunner, Kurt; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2007-11-01

    Trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasite of a number of plant pathogenic fungi thereby employing morphological changes and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and antibiotics. The function of the tmk 1 gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) during fungal growth, mycoparasitic interaction, and biocontrol was examined in T. atroviride. Deltatmk 1 mutants exhibited altered radial growth and conidiation, and displayed de-regulated infection structure formation in the absence of a host-derived signal. In confrontation assays, tmk 1 deletion caused reduced mycoparasitic activity although attachment to Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea hyphae was comparable to the parental strain. Under chitinase-inducing conditions, nag 1 and ech 42 transcript levels and extracellular chitinase activities were elevated in a Deltatmk 1 mutant, whereas upon direct confrontation with R. solani or B. cinerea a host-specific regulation of ech 42 transcription was found and nag 1 gene transcription was no more inducible over an elevated basal level. Deltatmk 1 mutants exhibited higher antifungal activity caused by low molecular weight substances, which was reflected by an over-production of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone and peptaibol antibiotics. In biocontrol assays, a Deltatmk 1 mutant displayed a higher ability to protect bean plants against R. solani. PMID:17509915

  5. Identification of the role of a MAP kinase Tmk2 in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei).

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingyu; Dong, Yanmei; Zhao, Qiushuang; Wang, Fangzhong; Liu, Kuimei; Jiang, Baojie; Fang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of MAPKs in signal transduction, their functions in the cellulase hyper-producing filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina haven't been studied except for the Hog1-like Tmk3. In this work, we constructed and explored the features of H. jecorina Δtmk2 to identify the role of this Slt2-homologous Tmk2. It is suggested from the results that Tmk2 is involved in cell wall integrity, sporulation and cellulase production. Although bearing similar roles in cell wall integrity maintenance, Tmk2 and Tmk3 appear to also have distinct functions: Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance while Tmk2 does not; Tmk2 participates in sporulation but not Tmk3; Tmk3 is involved in promoting cellulase production while Tmk2 is involved in repressing cellulase formation. These studies provide the first insight into the function of Tmk2 in H. jecorina and contribute to understanding the signal transduction processes leading to the regulation of cellulase production in this important cellulase hyper-producer. PMID:25339247

  6. Identification of the role of a MAP kinase Tmk2 in Hypocrea jecorina (Trichoderma reesei)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mingyu; Dong, Yanmei; Zhao, Qiushuang; Wang, Fangzhong; Liu, Kuimei; Jiang, Baojie; Fang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important role of MAPKs in signal transduction, their functions in the cellulase hyper-producing filamentous fungus Hypocrea jecorina haven't been studied except for the Hog1-like Tmk3. In this work, we constructed and explored the features of H. jecorina Δtmk2 to identify the role of this Slt2-homologous Tmk2. It is suggested from the results that Tmk2 is involved in cell wall integrity, sporulation and cellulase production. Although bearing similar roles in cell wall integrity maintenance, Tmk2 and Tmk3 appear to also have distinct functions: Tmk3 participates in high osmolarity resistance while Tmk2 does not; Tmk2 participates in sporulation but not Tmk3; Tmk3 is involved in promoting cellulase production while Tmk2 is involved in repressing cellulase formation. These studies provide the first insight into the function of Tmk2 in H. jecorina and contribute to understanding the signal transduction processes leading to the regulation of cellulase production in this important cellulase hyper-producer. PMID:25339247

  7. Synthesis, molecular docking and Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK) enzyme inhibition study of novel derivatives of [6]-shogaol.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vinay Kr; Doharey, Pawan K; Kumar, Vikash; Saxena, J K; Siddiqi, M I; Rathaur, Sushma; Narender, Tadigoppula

    2015-03-26

    [6]-Shogaol (1) was isolated from Zingiber officinale. Twelve novel compounds have been synthesized and evaluated for their Brugia malayi thymidylate kinase (BmTMK) inhibition activity, which plays important role for the DNA synthesis in parasite. [6]-Shogaol (1) and shogaol with thymine head group (2), 5-bromouracil head group (3), adenine head group (4) and 2-amino-3-methylpyridine head group (5) showed potential inhibitory effect on BmTMK activity. Further molecular docking studies were carried out to explore the putative binding mode of compounds 1-5. PMID:25659753

  8. The TMK1 gene from Arabidopsis codes for a protein with structural and biochemical characteristics of a receptor protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C; Schaller, G E; Patterson, S E; Kwok, S F; Meyerowitz, E M; Bleecker, A B

    1992-01-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones that code for a protein with structural and biochemical properties similar to the receptor protein kinases from animals were obtained from Arabidopsis. Structural features of the predicted polypeptide include an amino-terminal membrane targeting signal sequence, a region containing blocks of leucine-rich repeat elements, a single putative membrane spanning domain, and a characteristic serine/threonine-specific protein kinase domain. The gene coding for this receptor-like transmembrane kinase was designated TMK1. Portions of the TMK1 gene were expressed in Escherichia coli, and antibodies were raised against the recombinant polypeptides. These antibodies immunodecorated a 120-kD polypeptide present in crude extracts and membrane preparations. The immunodetectable band was present in extracts from leaf, stem, root, and floral tissues. The kinase domain of TMK1 was expressed as a fusion protein in E. coli, and the purified fusion protein was found capable of autophosphorylation on serine and threonine residues. The possible role of the TMK1 gene product in transmembrane signaling is discussed. PMID:1332795

  9. The transcription factor Ste12 mediates the regulatory role of the Tmk1 MAP kinase in mycoparasitism and vegetative hyphal fusion in the filamentous fungus Trichoderma atroviride.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Sabine; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent antagonists able to combat plant pathogenic fungi by direct parasitism. An essential step in this mycoparasitic fungus-fungus interaction is the detection of the fungal host followed by activation of molecular weapons in the mycoparasite by host-derived signals. The Trichoderma atroviride MAP kinase Tmk1, a homolog of yeast Fus3/Kss1, plays an essential role in regulating the mycoparasitic host attack, aerial hyphae formation and conidiation. However, the transcription factors acting downstream of Tmk1 are hitherto unknown. Here we analyzed the functions of the T. atroviride Ste12 transcription factor whose orthologue in yeast is targeted by the Fus3 and Kss1 MAP kinases. Deletion of the ste12 gene in T. atroviride not only resulted in reduced mycoparasitic overgrowth and lysis of host fungi but also led to loss of hyphal avoidance in the colony periphery and a severe reduction in conidial anastomosis tube formation and vegetative hyphal fusion events. The transcription of several orthologues of Neurospora crassa hyphal fusion genes was reduced upon ste12 deletion; however, the Δste12 mutant showed enhanced expression of mycoparasitism-relevant chitinolytic and proteolytic enzymes and of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase Tmk2. Based on the comparative analyses of Δste12 and Δtmk1 mutants, an essential role of the Ste12 transcriptional regulator in mediating outcomes of the Tmk1 MAPK pathway such as regulation of the mycoparasitic activity, hyphal fusion and carbon source-dependent vegetative growth is suggested. Aerial hyphae formation and conidiation, in contrast, were found to be independent of Ste12. PMID:25356841

  10. The Transcription Factor Ste12 Mediates the Regulatory Role of the Tmk1 MAP Kinase in Mycoparasitism and Vegetative Hyphal Fusion in the Filamentous Fungus Trichoderma atroviride

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Sabine; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus Trichoderma are potent antagonists able to combat plant pathogenic fungi by direct parasitism. An essential step in this mycoparasitic fungus-fungus interaction is the detection of the fungal host followed by activation of molecular weapons in the mycoparasite by host-derived signals. The Trichoderma atroviride MAP kinase Tmk1, a homolog of yeast Fus3/Kss1, plays an essential role in regulating the mycoparasitic host attack, aerial hyphae formation and conidiation. However, the transcription factors acting downstream of Tmk1 are hitherto unknown. Here we analyzed the functions of the T. atroviride Ste12 transcription factor whose orthologue in yeast is targeted by the Fus3 and Kss1 MAP kinases. Deletion of the ste12 gene in T. atroviride not only resulted in reduced mycoparasitic overgrowth and lysis of host fungi but also led to loss of hyphal avoidance in the colony periphery and a severe reduction in conidial anastomosis tube formation and vegetative hyphal fusion events. The transcription of several orthologues of Neurospora crassa hyphal fusion genes was reduced upon ste12 deletion; however, the Δste12 mutant showed enhanced expression of mycoparasitism-relevant chitinolytic and proteolytic enzymes and of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase Tmk2. Based on the comparative analyses of Δste12 and Δtmk1 mutants, an essential role of the Ste12 transcriptional regulator in mediating outcomes of the Tmk1 MAPK pathway such as regulation of the mycoparasitic activity, hyphal fusion and carbon source-dependent vegetative growth is suggested. Aerial hyphae formation and conidiation, in contrast, were found to be independent of Ste12. PMID:25356841

  11. Expression of a gibberellin-induced leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein kinase in deepwater rice and its interaction with kinase-associated protein phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Knaap, E. van der; Sauter, M.; Kende, H. . DOE Plant Research Lab.); Song, W.Y.; Ruan, D.L.; Ronald, P.C. . Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-06-01

    The authors identified in deepwater rice (Oryza sativa L.) a gene encoding a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like transmembrane protein kinase, OsTMK (O. sativa transmembrane kinase). The transcript levels of OsTMK increased in the rice internode in response to gibberellin. Expression of OsTMK was especially high in regions undergoing cell division and elongation. The kinase domain of OsTMK was enzymatically active autophosphorylating on serine and threonine residues. A cDNA encoding a rice ortholog of a kinase-associated type 2C protein phosphatase (OsKAPP) was cloned. KAPPs are putative downstream components in kinase-mediated signal transduction pathways. The kinase interaction domain of OsKAPP was phosphorylated in vitro by the kinase domain of OsTMK. RNA gel-blot analysis indicated that the expression of OsTMK and OsKAPP was similar in different tissues of the rice plant. In protein-binding assays, OsKAPP interacted with a receptor-like protein kinase, RLK5 of Arabidopsis, but not with the protein kinase domains of the rice and maize receptor-like protein kinases Xa21 and ZmPK1, respectively.

  12. A High-Throughput Radiometric Kinase Assay.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Peterson, Jeffrey R

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant kinase signaling has been implicated in a number of diseases. While kinases have become attractive drug targets, only a small fraction of human protein kinases have validated inhibitors. Screening of libraries of compounds against a kinase or kinases of interest is routinely performed during kinase inhibitor development to identify promising scaffolds for a particular target and to identify kinase targets for compounds of interest. Screening of more focused compound libraries may also be conducted in the later stages of inhibitor development to improve potency and optimize selectivity. The dot blot kinase assay is a robust, high-throughput kinase assay that can be used to screen a number of small-molecule compounds against one kinase of interest or several kinases. Here, a protocol for a dot blot kinase assay used for measuring insulin receptor kinase activity is presented. This protocol can be readily adapted for use with other protein kinases. PMID:26501904

  13. Structure Guided Development of Novel Thymidine Mimetics targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa Thymidylate Kinase: from Hit to Lead Generation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun Yong; Plummer, Mark S.; Starr, Jeremy; Desbonnet, Charlene R.; Soutter, Holly; Chang, Jeanne; Miller, J. Richard; Dillman, Keith; Miller, Alita A.; Roush, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Thymidylate kinase (TMK) is a potential chemotherapeutic target because it is directly involved in the synthesis of an essential component, thymidine triphosphate, in DNA replication. All reported TMK inhibitors are thymidine analogs, which might retard their development as potent therapeutics due to cell permeability and off-target activity against human TMK. A small molecule hit (1, IC50 = 58 μM), which has reasonable inhibition potency against Pseudomonas aeruginosa TMK (PaTMK), was identified by the analysis of the binding mode of thymidine or TP5A in a PaTMK homology model. This hit (1) was co-crystallized with PaTMK, and several potent PaTMK inhibitors (leads, 46, 47, 48, and 56, IC50 = 100–200 nM) were synthesized using computer aided design approaches including virtual synthesis/screening, which was used to guide the design of inhibitors. The binding mode of the optimized leads in PaTMK overlaps with that of other bacterial TMKs, but not with human TMK which shares few common features with the bacterial enzymes. Therefore, the optimized TMK inhibitors described here should be useful for the development of antibacterial agents targeting TMK without undesired off-target effects. In addition, an inhibition mechanism associated with the LID loop, which mimics the process of phosphate transfer from ATP to dTMP, was proposed based on X-ray co-crystal structures, homology models, and SAR results. PMID:22243413

  14. Sensitive kinase assay linked with phosphoproteomics for identifying direct kinase substrates.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liang; Wang, Wen-Horng; Iliuk, Anton; Hu, Lianghai; Galan, Jacob A; Yu, Shuai; Hans, Michael; Geahlen, Robert L; Tao, W Andy

    2012-04-10

    Our understanding of the molecular control of many disease pathologies requires the identification of direct substrates targeted by specific protein kinases. Here we describe an integrated proteomic strategy, termed kinase assay linked with phosphoproteomics, which combines a sensitive kinase reaction with endogenous kinase-dependent phosphoproteomics to identify direct substrates of protein kinases. The unique in vitro kinase reaction is carried out in a highly efficient manner using a pool of peptides derived directly from cellular kinase substrates and then dephosphorylated as substrate candidates. The resulting newly phosphorylated peptides are then isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. A further comparison of these in vitro phosphorylated peptides with phosphopeptides derived from endogenous proteins isolated from cells in which the kinase is either active or inhibited reveals new candidate protein substrates. The kinase assay linked with phosphoproteomics strategy was applied to identify unique substrates of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), a protein-tyrosine kinase with duel properties of an oncogene and a tumor suppressor in distinctive cell types. We identified 64 and 23 direct substrates of Syk specific to B cells and breast cancer cells, respectively. Both known and unique substrates, including multiple centrosomal substrates for Syk, were identified, supporting a unique mechanism that Syk negatively affects cell division through its centrosomal kinase activity. PMID:22451900

  15. Identifying Kinase Substrates via a Heavy ATP Kinase Assay and Quantitative Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Müller, André C; Giambruno, Roberto; Weißer, Juliane; Májek, Peter; Hofer, Alexandre; Bigenzahn, Johannes W; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Jessen, Henning J; Bennett, Keiryn L

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based in vitro kinase screens play an essential role in the discovery of kinase substrates, however, many suffer from biological and technical noise or necessitate genetically-altered enzyme-cofactor systems. We describe a method that combines stable γ-[(18)O2]-ATP with classical in vitro kinase assays within a contemporary quantitative proteomic workflow. Our approach improved detection of known substrates of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL1; and identified potential, new in vitro substrates. PMID:27346722

  16. Identifying Kinase Substrates via a Heavy ATP Kinase Assay and Quantitative Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Müller, André C.; Giambruno, Roberto; Weißer, Juliane; Májek, Peter; Hofer, Alexandre; Bigenzahn, Johannes W.; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Jessen, Henning J.; Bennett, Keiryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based in vitro kinase screens play an essential role in the discovery of kinase substrates, however, many suffer from biological and technical noise or necessitate genetically-altered enzyme-cofactor systems. We describe a method that combines stable γ-[18O2]-ATP with classical in vitro kinase assays within a contemporary quantitative proteomic workflow. Our approach improved detection of known substrates of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ABL1; and identified potential, new in vitro substrates. PMID:27346722

  17. Enzymatic assay for calmodulins based on plant NAD kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, A.C.; Jarrett, H.W.; Cormier, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    NAD kinase with increased sensitivity to calmodulin was purified from pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L., Willet Wonder). Assays for calmodulin based on the activities of NAD kinase, bovine brain cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase, and human erythrocyte Ca/sup 2 -/-ATPase were compared for their sensitivities to calmodulin and for their abilities to discriminate between calmodulins from different sources. The activities of the three enzymes were determined in the presence of various concentrations of calmodulins from human erythrocyte, bovine brain, sea pansy (Renilla reniformis), mung bean seed (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek), mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), and Tetrahymena pyriformis. The concentrations of calmodulin required for 50% activation of the NAD kinase (K/sub 0.5/) ranged from 0.520 ng/ml for Tetrahymena to 2.20 ng/ml for bovine brain. The A/sub 0.5/ s ranged from 19.6 ng/ml for bovine brain calmodulin to 73.5 ng/ml for mushroom calmodulin for phosphodiesterase activation. The K/sub 0.5/'s for the activation of Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase ranged from 36.3 ng/mol for erythrocyte calmodulin to 61.7 ng/ml for mushroom calmodulin. NAD kinase was not stimulated by phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, cardiolipin, or palmitoleic acid in the absence or presence of Ca/sup 2 +/. Palmitic acid had a slightly stimulatory effect in the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ (10% of maximum), but no effect in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. Palmitoleic acid inhibited the calmodulin-stimulated activity by 50%. Both the NAD kinase assay and radioimmunoassay were able to detect calmodulin in extracts containing low concentrations of calmodulin. Estimates of calmodulin contents of crude homogenates determined by the NAD kinase assay were consistent with amounts obtained by various purification procedures. 30 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  18. Comparison of Luminescence ADP Production Assay and Radiometric Scintillation Proximity Assay for Cdc7 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Toshimitsu; Shum, David; Parisi, Monika; Santos, Ruth E.; Radu, Constantin; Calder, Paul; Rizvi, Zahra; Frattini, Mark G.; Djaballah, Hakim

    2013-01-01

    Several assay technologies have been successfully adapted and used in HTS to screen for protein kinase inhibitors; however, emerging comparative analysis studies report very low hit overlap between the different technologies, which challenges the working assumption that hit identification is not dependent on the assay method of choice. To help address this issue, we performed two screens on the cancer target, Cdc7-Dbf4 heterodimeric protein kinase, using a direct assay detection method measuring [33P]-phosphate incorporation into the substrate and an indirect method measuring residual ADP production using luminescence. We conducted the two screens under similar conditions, where in one, we measured [33P]-phosphate incorporation using scintillation proximity assay (SPA), and in the other, we detected luminescence signal of the ATP-dependent luciferase after regenerating ATP from residual ADP (LUM). Surprisingly, little or no correlation were observed between the positives identified by the two methods; at a threshold of 30% inhibition, 25 positives were identified in the LUM screen whereas the SPA screen only identified two positives, Tannic acid and Gentian violet, with Tannic acid being common to both. We tested 20 out of the 25 positive compounds in secondary confirmatory study and confirmed 12 compounds including Tannic acid as Cdc7-Dbf4 kinase inhibitors. Gentian violet, which was only positive in the SPA screen, inhibited luminescence detection and categorized as a false positive. This report demonstrates the strong impact in detection format on the success of a screening campaign and the importance of carefully designed confirmatory assays to eliminate those compounds that target the detection part of the assay. PMID:21564015

  19. Identification of transglutaminase 2 kinase substrates using a novel on-chip activity assay.

    PubMed

    Jung, Se-Hui; Kong, Deok-Hoon; Jeon, Hye-Yoon; Ji, Su-Hyun; Han, Eun-Taek; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo

    2016-08-15

    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in a wide variety of cellular processes through its multifunctional activities. TG2 kinase has emerged as an important regulator of apoptosis, as well as of chromatin structure and function. However, systematic investigation of TG2 kinase substrates is limited due to a lack of a suitable TG2 kinase activity assays. Thus, we developed a novel on-chip TG2 kinase activity assay for quantitative determination of TG2 kinase activity and for screening TG2 kinase substrate proteins in a high-throughput manner. Quantitative TG2 kinase activity was determined by selective detection of substrate protein phosphorylation on the surface of well-type amine arrays. The limit of detection (LOD) of this assay was 4.34μg/ml. We successfully applied this new activity assay to the kinetic analysis of 27 TG2-related proteins for TG2 kinase activity in a high-throughput manner and determined Michaelis-Menten constants (Km) of these proteins. We used the Km values and cellular locations of the TG2-related proteins to construct a substrate affinity map for TG2 kinase. Therefore, this on-chip TG2 kinase activity assay has a strong potential for the systematic investigation of substrate proteins and will be helpful for studying new physiological functions. PMID:27040940

  20. A rapid assay for assessment of sphingosine kinase inhibitors and substrates

    PubMed Central

    Kharel, Yugesh; Mathews, Thomas P.; Kennedy, Andrew J.; Houck, Joseph D.; Macdonald, Timohy L.; Lynch, Kevin R.

    2011-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases catalyze the transfer of phosphate from ATP to sphingosine to generate sphingosine 1-phosphate, an important bioactive lipid molecule that mediates a diverse range of cell signaling processes. The conventional assay of sphingosine kinase enzymatic activity uses [γ-32P]ATP and sphingosine as substrates with the radiolabeled S1P product recovered by organic extraction, displayed by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. While this assay is sensitive and accurate, it is slow and labor intensive and thus precludes the simultaneous screening of more than a few inhibitor compounds. Herein we describe a 96 well assay for sphingosine kinases that is rapid and reproducible. Our method, which takes advantage of the limited solubility of S1P, detects radioactive S1P adhering to the plate by scintillation proximity counting. Our procedure obviates extraction into organic solvents, post-reaction transfers and chromatography. Further, our assay enables assessment of both inhibitors and substrates, and can detect endogenous sphingosine kinase activity in cell and tissue extracts. The sphingosine kinase kinetic parameter, Km, and the Ki values of inhibitors determined with our assay and the conventional assay were indistinguishable. These results document that our assay is well suited for the screening of chemical libraries of sphingosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:21216217

  1. Photocleavable Peptide-Oligonucleotide Conjugates for Protein Kinase Assays by MALDI-TOF MS†

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangchang; Khan, Faraz; Dai, Qing; Sylvester, Juliesta E.; Kron, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Robust methods for highly parallel, quantitative analysis of cellular protein tyrosine kinase activities may provide tools critically needed to decipher oncogenic signaling, discover new targeted drugs, diagnose cancer and monitor patients. Here, we describe proof-of-principle for a novel protein kinase assay with potential to answer these challenges. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry provides an ideal tool for label-free multiplexed analysis of peptide phosphorylation, but is poorly matched to homogeneous assays and complex samples. Thus, we conjugated a common oligonucleotide tag to multiple peptide substrates, offering efficient capture from solution-phase kinase reactions by annealing to the complementary sequence tethered to PEG-passivated superparamagnetic microparticles. To enable reversible conjugation, we developed a novel bifunctional cross-linker allowing simple and efficient preparation of photocleavable peptide-oligonucleotide conjugates. After washing away contaminants and photorelease, MALDI-TOF analysis yielded relative phosphorylation of each peptide with high sensitivity and specificity. Validating the hybridization-mediated multiplexed kinase assay, when three peptide substrate-oligonucleotide conjugates were mixed with the tyrosine kinase c-Abl and ATP, we readily observed their differential phosphorylation yet measured a common IC50 for the Abl kinase inhibitor imatinib. This new assay enables analysis of protein kinase activities in a multiplexed format amenable to screening inhibitors against multiple kinases in parallel, an important capability for drug discovery and predictive diagnostics. PMID:22772337

  2. A potent and highly selective peptide substrate for protein kinase C assay.

    PubMed Central

    Toomik, R; Ek, P

    1997-01-01

    Protein kinases exhibit substrate specificities that are often primarily determined by the amino acids around the phosphorylation sites. Peptides corresponding to protein kinase C phosphorylation sites in several different proteins were synthesized on SPOTs membrane which has recently been found to be applicable for studies of protein kinase specificity. After phosphorylation with protein kinase C, we chose the best phosphorylated peptides for the investigation of the importance of amino acids immediately adjacent to the phosphorylation site. The selectivity of the best protein kinase C substrates from this study was analysed with protein kinases A, CK1 and CK2. According to these tests, the most favourable characteristics of SPOTs-membrane-associated peptides were demonstrated by peptide KRAKRKTAKKR. Kinetic analysis of peptide phosphorylation with protein kinase C revealed an apparent Km of 0.49 +/- 0.13 microM and Vmax of 10.0 +/- 0.5 nmol/min per mg with soluble peptide KRAKRKTAKKR. In addition, we assayed several other soluble peptides commonly used as protein kinase C substrates. Peptide KRAKRKTAKKR showed the lowest Km and the highest Vmax/Km value in comparison with peptides FKKSFKL, pEKRPSQRSKYL and KRAKRKTTKKR. Furthermore, of the peptides tested, KRAKRKTAKKR was the most selective substrate for protein kinase C. The favourable kinetic parameters combined with the selectivity should make the KRAKRKTAKKR peptide useful as a substrate for protein kinase C in the assays of both purified enzyme and in crude cell extracts. PMID:9065763

  3. KINATEST-ID: a pipeline to develop phosphorylation-dependent terbium sensitizing kinase assays.

    PubMed

    Lipchik, Andrew M; Perez, Minervo; Bolton, Scott; Dumrongprechachan, Vasin; Ouellette, Steven B; Cui, Wei; Parker, Laurie L

    2015-02-25

    Nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases (NRTKs) are essential for cellular homeostasis and thus are a major focus of current drug discovery efforts. Peptide substrates that can enhance lanthanide ion luminescence upon tyrosine phosphorylation enable rapid, sensitive screening of kinase activity, however design of suitable substrates that can distinguish between tyrosine kinase families is a huge challenge. Despite their different substrate preferences, many NRTKs are structurally similar even between families. Furthermore, the development of lanthanide-based kinase assays is hampered by incomplete understanding of how to integrate sequence selectivity with metal ion binding, necessitating laborious iterative substrate optimization. We used curated proteomic data from endogenous kinase substrates and known Tb(3+)-binding sequences to build a generalizable in silico pipeline with tools to generate, screen, align, and select potential phosphorylation-dependent Tb(3+)-sensitizing substrates that are most likely to be kinase specific. We demonstrated the approach by developing several substrates that are selective within kinase families and amenable to high-throughput screening (HTS) applications. Overall, this strategy represents a pipeline for developing efficient and specific assays for virtually any tyrosine kinase that use HTS-compatible lanthanide-based detection. The tools provided in the pipeline also have the potential to be adapted to identify peptides for other purposes, including other enzyme assays or protein-binding ligands. PMID:25689372

  4. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Prerna; Shi, Haibin; Baumgartner, Matthew; Camacho, Carlos J.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP) assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein) and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery for this important

  5. A Cell-Based Assay for Measuring Endogenous BcrAbl Kinase Activity and Inhibitor Resistance.

    PubMed

    Ouellette, Steven B; Noel, Brett M; Parker, Laurie L

    2016-01-01

    Kinase enzymes are an important class of drug targets, particularly in cancer. Cell-based kinase assays are needed to understand how potential kinase inhibitors act on their targets in a physiologically relevant context. Current cell-based kinase assays rely on antibody-based detection of endogenous substrates, inaccurate disease models, or indirect measurements of drug action. Here we expand on previous work from our lab to introduce a 96-well plate compatible approach for measuring cell-based kinase activity in disease-relevant human chronic myeloid leukemia cell lines using an exogenously added, multi-functional peptide substrate. Our cellular models natively express the BcrAbl oncogene and are either sensitive or have acquired resistance to well-characterized BcrAbl tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This approach measures IC50 values comparable to established methods of assessing drug potency, and its robustness indicates that it can be employed in drug discovery applications. This medium-throughput assay could bridge the gap between single target focused, high-throughput in vitro assays and lower-throughput cell-based follow-up experiments. PMID:27598410

  6. In vitro and in vivo assays of protein kinase CK2 activity.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Renaud; Sautel, Céline F; Moucadel, Virginie; Laudet, Béatrice; Filhol, Odile; Cochet, Claude

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase 2) is recognized as a central component in the control of the cellular homeostasis; however, much remains unknown regarding its regulation and its implication in cellular transformation and carcinogenesis. Moreover, study of CK2 function and regulation in a cellular context is complicated by the dynamic multisubunit architecture of this protein kinase. Although a number of robust techniques are available to assay CK2 activity in vitro, there is a demand for sensitive and specific assays to evaluate its activity in living cells. We hereby provide a detailed description of several assays for monitoring the CK2 activity and its subunit interaction in living cells. The guidelines presented herein should enable researchers in the field to establish strategies for cellular screenings of CK2 inhibitors. PMID:21050938

  7. A chromism-based assay (CHROBA) technique for in situ detection of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Tomizaki, Kin-ya; Jie, Xu; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2005-03-15

    A unique chromism-based assay technique (CHROBA) using photochromic spiropyran-containing peptides has been firstly established for detection of protein kinase A-catalyzed phosphorylation. The alternative method has advantages that avoid isolation and/or immobilization of kinase substrates to remove excess reagents including nonreactive isotope-labeled ATP or fluorescently-labeled anti-phosphoamino acid antibodies from the reaction mixture. Such a novel protocol based on thermocoloration of the spiropyran moiety in the peptide can offer not only an efficient screening method of potent kinase substrates but also a versatile analytical tool for monitoring other post-translational modification activities. PMID:15745830

  8. Application of a coupled enzyme assay to characterize nicotinamide riboside kinases.

    PubMed

    Dölle, Christian; Ziegler, Mathias

    2009-02-15

    The recently identified nicotinamide riboside kinases (Nrks) constitute a distinct pathway of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. Here we present the combination of an established optical adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) test, the pyruvate kinase/lactate dehydrogenase system, with the Nrk-catalyzed reaction to determine kinetic properties of these enzymes, in particular affinities for ATP. The assay allows variation of both nucleoside and phosphate donor substrates, thereby providing major advantages for the characterization of these enzymes. We confirm previously established kinetic parameters and identify differences in substrate selectivity between the two human Nrk isoforms. The proposed assay is inexpensive and may be applied for high-throughput screening. PMID:19027704

  9. KiC assay: a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach for kinase client screening and activity analysis [corrected].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yadong; Thelen, Jay J

    2012-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications (PTMs) involved in the transduction of cellular signals. The number of kinases in eukaryotic genomes ranges from several hundred to over one thousand. And with rapidly evolving mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches, thousands to tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) have been reported from various eukaryotic organisms, from man to plants. In this relative context, few bona fide kinase-client relationships have been identified to date. To merge the gap between these phosphosites and the cognate kinases that beget these events, comparable large-scale methodologies are required. We describe in detail a MS-based method for identifying kinase-client interactions and quantifying kinase activity. We term this novel Kinase-Client assay, the KiC assay. The KiC assay relies upon the fact that substrate specificities of many kinases are largely determined by primary amino acid sequence or phosphorylation motifs, which consist of key amino acids surrounding the phosphorylation sites. The workflow for detecting kinase-substrate interactions includes four major steps: (1) preparation of purified kinases and synthetic peptide library, (2) in vitro kinase peptide library assay, (3) liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis, and (4) data processing and interpretation. Kinase activity is quantified with the KiC assay by monitoring spectral counts of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated peptides as the readout from LC-tandem mass spectrometry. The KiC assay can be applied as a discovery assay to screen kinases against a synthetic peptide library to find kinase-client relationships or as a targeted assay to characterize kinase kinetics. PMID:22665311

  10. Cellular impedance assays for predictive preclinical drug screening of kinase inhibitor cardiovascular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lamore, Sarah D; Kamendi, Harriet W; Scott, Clay W; Dragan, Yvonne P; Peters, Matthew F

    2013-10-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) toxicity is a leading contributor to drug attrition. Implementing earlier testing has successfully reduced human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene-related arrhythmias. How- ever, analogous assays targeting functional CV effects remain elusive. Demand to address this gap is particularly acute for kinase inhibitors (KIs) that suffer frequent CV toxicity. The drug class also presents some particularly challenging requirements for assessing functional CV toxicity. Specifically, an assay must sense a downstream response that integrates diverse kinase signaling pathways. In addition, sufficient throughput is essential for handling inherent KI nonselectivity. A new opportunity has emerged with cellular impedance technology, which detects spontaneous beating cardiomyocytes. Impedance assays sense morphology changes downstream of cardiomyocyte contraction. To evaluate cardiomyocyte impedance assays for KI screening, we investigated two distinct KI classes where CV toxicity was discovered late and target risks remain unresolved. Microtubule-associated protein/microtubule affinity regulating kinase (MARK) inhibitors decrease blood pressure in dogs, whereas checkpoint kinase (Chk) inhibitors (AZD7762, SCH900776) exhibit dose-limiting CV toxicities in clinical trials. These in vivo effects manifested in vitro as cardiomyocyte beat cessation. MARK effects were deemed mechanism associated because beat inhibition potencies correlated with kinase inhibition, and gene knockdown and microtubule-targeting agents suppressed beating. MARK inhibitor impedance and kinase potencies aligned with rat blood pressure effects. Chk inhibitor effects were judged off-target because Chk and beat inhibition potencies did not correlate and knockdowns did not alter beating. Taken together, the data demonstrate that cardiomyocyte impedance assays can address three unmet needs-detecting KI functional cardiotoxicity in vitro, determining mechanism of action, and supporting safety structure

  11. Development of a microplate-based, electrophoretic fluorescent protein kinase a assay: comparison with filter-binding and fluorescence polarization assay formats.

    PubMed

    Miick, Siobhan M; Jalali, Shila; Dwyer, Brian P; Havens, John; Thomas, Donald; Jimenez, Manuel A; Simpson, Mathew T; Zile, Betsy; Huss, Karen L; Campbell, Robert M

    2005-06-01

    A microplate-based electrophoretic assay has been developed for the serine/threonine kinase protein kinase A (PKA). The ElectroCapture PKA assay developed uses a positively charged, lissamine-rhodamine-labeled kemptide peptide substrate for the kinase reaction and Nanogen's ElectroCapture HTS Workstation and 384-well laminated membrane plates to electrophoretically separate the negatively charged phosphorylated peptide product from the kinase reaction mix. After the electrophoretic separation, the amount of rhodamine-labeled phosphopeptide product was quantified using a Tecan Ultra384 fluorescence reader. The ElectroCapture PKA assay was validated with both known PKA inhibitors and library compounds. The pK(iapp) results obtained in the ElectroCapture PKA assay were comparable to those generated with current radioactive filter-binding assay and antibody-based competitive fluorescence polarization PKA assay formats. PMID:15964934

  12. Silver nanoclusters-based fluorescence assay of protein kinase activity and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shen, Congcong; Xia, Xiaodong; Hu, Shengqiang; Yang, Minghui; Wang, Jianxiu

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive fluorescence method for monitoring the activity and inhibition of protein kinase (PKA) has been developed using polycytosine oligonucleotide (dC12)-templated silver nanoclusters (Ag NCs). Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) was found to enhance the fluorescence of Ag NCs, while the hydrolysis of ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by PKA decreased the fluorescence of Ag NCs. Compared to the existing methods for kinase activity assay, the developed method does not involve phosphorylation of the substrate peptides, which significantly simplifies the detection procedures. The method exhibits high sensitivity, good selectivity, and wide linear range toward PKA detection. The inhibition effect of kinase inhibitor H-89 on the activity of PKA was also studied. The sensing protocol was also applied to the assay of drug-stimulated activation of PKA in HeLa cell lysates. PMID:25517425

  13. Assessment of the integrity of compounds stored in assay-ready plates using a kinase sentinel assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ada; Zhao, Xiaoning; Mercer, Laina; Su, Cheng; Zalameda, Leeanne; Liu, Yichin; Lembke, Amanda; Eastwood, Heather; Dang, Son; Oung, Thim; Xia, Xiaoyang; Young, Stephen W; Xiao, Shouhua; McCarter, John D

    2013-09-01

    Sentinel assays are a convenient adjunct to LC-MS purity assessment to monitor the integrity of compounds in pharmaceutical screening collections over time. To assess the stability of compounds stored both at room temperature and at -20°C in assay-ready plates that were either vacuum pack-sealed using a convenient industrial vacuum sealing method or individually sealed using conventional foil seals, a diverse collection of ~ 5,000 compounds was assayed using a robust biochemical kinase assay at intervals over a one year period. Assay results at each time point were compared to those of initial assay using a series of correlations of compound Percent of Control (POC) values as well as IC50 values of a subset of compounds in 200 nL or 500 nL plates. The fraction of hits in common between initial assays and assays at later time points ranged from 82% to 95% over one year and remained relatively constant over time with all storage temperatures or sealing methods tested. A majority of the hits that exhibited a consistent gradual trend to lower potency over one year storage were shifted to lower potency upon the rapid removal of DMSO solvent. Compound precipitation rather than compound decomposition is the likely reason for trends to lower potency for most such compounds over the storage period. Plates stored at room temperature featured a significantly higher fraction of hits that exhibited a trend to lower apparent potency than those stored at -20°C suggesting that this lower temperature is preferable for longer-term storage. PMID:23651141

  14. Modular, Antibody-free Time-Resolved LRET Kinase Assay Enabled by Quantum Dots and Tb3+-sensitizing Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wei; Parker, Laurie L.

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent drug screening assays are essential for tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovery. Here we demonstrate a flexible, antibody-free TR-LRET kinase assay strategy that is enabled by the combination of streptavidin-coated quantum dot (QD) acceptors and biotinylated, Tb3+ sensitizing peptide donors. By exploiting the spectral features of Tb3+ and QD, and the high binding affinity of the streptavidin-biotin interaction, we achieved multiplexed detection of kinase activity in a modular fashion without requiring additional covalent labeling of each peptide substrate. This strategy is compatible with high-throughput screening, and should be adaptable to the rapidly changing workflows and targets involved in kinase inhibitor discovery.

  15. The Peptide Microarray-Based Resonance Light Scattering Assay for Sensitively Detecting Intracellular Kinase Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Liu, Xia; Liu, Dianjun; Wang, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    The peptide microarray technology is a robust, reliable, and efficient technique for large-scale determination of enzyme activities, and high-throughput profiling of substrate/inhibitor specificities of enzymes. Here, the activities of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) in different cell lysates have been detected by a peptide microarray-based resonance light scattering (RLS) assay with gold nanoparticle (GNP) probes. Highly sensitive detection of PKA activity in 0.1 μg total cell proteins of SHG-44 (human glioma cell) cell lysate (corresponding to 200 cells) is achieved by a selected peptide substrate. The experimental results also demonstrate that the RLS assay can be employed to evaluate the chemical regulation of intracellular kinase activity. PMID:26490469

  16. A homogeneous fluorescence polarization assay adaptable for a range of protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Elizabeth A; Huang, Kuo-Sen; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Wei; Mark, David; Sportsman, J Richard

    2003-04-01

    Recently, a new technology for high-throughput screening has been developed, called IMAP(patent pending). IMAP technology has previously been implemented in an assay for cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE). The authors describe the development of a homogeneous, non-antibody-based fluorescence polarization (FP) assay for a variety of protein kinases. In this assay, fluorescently labeled peptide substrate phosphorylated by the kinase is captured on modified nanoparticles through interactions with immobilized metal (M(III)) coordination complexes, resulting in a change from low to high polarization values. This assay is applicable to protein kinases that phosphorylate serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues. The IMAP platform is very compatible with high-throughput robotics and can be applied to the 1536-well format. As there are hundreds of different kinases coded for in the human genome, the assay platform described in this report is a valuable new tool in drug discovery. PMID:12844437

  17. Assaying Bcr-Abl kinase activity and inhibition in whole cell extracts by phosphorylation of substrates immobilized on agarose beads

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ding; Nair-Gill, Evan; Sher, Dorie A.; Parker, Laurie L.; Campbell, Jennifer M.; Siddiqui, Mariah; Stock, Wendy; Kron, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a current and increasing demand for simple, robust, nonradioactive assays of protein tyrosine kinase activity with applications for clinical diagnosis and high-throughput screening of potential molecularly targeted therapeutic agents. One significant challenge is to detect and measure the activity of specific kinases with key roles in cell signaling as an approach to distinguish normal cells from cancer cells and as a means of evaluating targeted drug efficacy and resistance in cancer cells. Here, we describe a method in which kinase substrates fused to glutathione-S-transferase and immobilized on glutathione agarose beads are phosphorylated, eluted, and then assayed to detect kinase activity. The activity of recombinant, purified c-Abl kinase or Bcr-Abl kinase in whole cell extracts can be detected with equivalent specificity, sensitivity, and reproducibility. Similarly, inhibition of recombinant c-Abl or Bcr-Abl in cells or cell extracts by imatinib mesylate and other Bcr-Abl targeted kinase inhibitors is readily assayed. This simple kinase assay is sufficiently straightforward and robust for use in clinical laboratories and is potentially adaptable to high-throughput assay formats. PMID:16236241

  18. Identifying GSK-3β kinase inhibitors of Alzheimer's disease: Virtual screening, enzyme, and cell assays.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hsin; Hsieh, Yu-Shao; Wu, Yih-Ru; Hsu, Chia-Jen; Chen, Hsuan-Chiang; Huang, Wun-Han; Chang, Kuo-Hsuan; Hsieh-Li, Hsiu Mei; Su, Ming-Tsan; Sun, Ying-Chieh; Lee, Guan-Chiun; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen

    2016-06-30

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is widely known as a critical target protein for treating Alzheimer's disease (AD). We utilized virtual screening to search databases for compounds with the potential to be used in drugs targeting GSK-3β kinase, and kinase as well as cell assays to investigate top-scored, selected compounds. Virtual screening of >1.1 million compounds in the ZINC and in-house databases was conducted using an optimized computational protocol in the docking program GOLD. Of the top-ranked compounds, 16 underwent a luminescent kinase assay and a cell assay using HEK293 cells expressing DsRed-tagged ΔK280 in the repeat domain of tau (tauRD). The compounds VB-003 (a potent GSK-3β inhibitor) and VB-008 (AM404, an anandamide transport inhibitor), with determined IC50 values of 0.25 and 5.4μM, respectively, were identified as reducing tau aggregation. Both compounds increased expression of phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) and reduced endogenous tau phosphorylation at the sites of Ser202, Thr231, and Ser396. In the ∆K280 tauRD-DsRed SH-SY5Y cells, VB-008, but not VB-003, enhanced HSPB1 and GRP78 expression, increased ∆K280 tauRD-DsRed solubility, and promoted neurite outgrowth. Thus VB-008 performed best to the end of the present study. The identified compound VB-008 may guide the identification and synthesis of potential inhibitors analogous to this compound. PMID:27094783

  19. Single cell kinase signaling assay using pinched flow coupled droplet microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Ramji, Ramesh; Wang, Ming; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Tan Shao Weng, Daniel; Thakor, Nitish V.; Teck Lim, Chwee; Chen, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics has shown potential in high throughput single cell assays by encapsulating individual cells in water-in-oil emulsions. Ordering cells in a micro-channel is necessary to encapsulate individual cells into droplets further enhancing the assay efficiency. This is typically limited due to the difficulty of preparing high-density cell solutions and maintaining them without cell aggregation in long channels (>5 cm). In this study, we developed a short pinched flow channel (5 mm) to separate cell aggregates and to form a uniform cell distribution in a droplet-generating platform that encapsulated single cells with >55% encapsulation efficiency beating Poisson encapsulation statistics. Using this platform and commercially available Sox substrates (8-hydroxy-5-(N,N-dimethylsulfonamido)-2-methylquinoline), we have demonstrated a high throughput dynamic single cell signaling assay to measure the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in lung cancer cells triggered by cell surface ligand binding. The phosphorylation of the substrates resulted in fluorescent emission, showing a sigmoidal increase over a 12 h period. The result exhibited a heterogeneous signaling rate in individual cells and showed various levels of drug resistance when treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib. PMID:24926389

  20. Direct assay of thymidine kinase bound to ion-exchange paper for dot spotting and enzyme blotting analysis

    SciTech Connect

    van den Berg, K.J.

    1986-05-15

    The direct assay of thymidine kinase (Tk) bound to ion-exchange paper was investigated as a means to further simplify the analytical procedure. Thymidine kinase bound firmly and quantitatively to ion-exchange paper at near neutral pH. The enzymatic properties of Tk did not change while bound to the ion-exchange paper. The amount of phosphorylated /sup 12//sub 5/IdU or /sup 125/IdC formed on ion-exchange paper was proportional to the amount of applied Tk. Enzymatic activity could be determined visually by autoradiography or by gamma counting. This method was relatively independent of the protein concentration or volume of the sample and which allows the assay from dilute solutions. A simplified dot spot method that can be used for the assay of thymidine kinase activity in cell extracts is described. Thymidine kinase could also be visualized after electrophoresis and blotting on ion-exchange paper.

  1. Fluorescence polarization-based assays for detecting compounds binding to inactive c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 and p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Ansideri, Francesco; Lange, Andreas; El-Gokha, Ahmed; Boeckler, Frank M; Koch, Pierre

    2016-06-15

    Two fluorescein-labeled pyridinylimidazoles were synthesized and evaluated as probes for the binding affinity determination of potential kinase inhibitors to the c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 (JNK3) and p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Fluorescence polarization (FP)-based competition binding assays were developed for both enzymes using 1-(3',6'-dihydroxy-3-oxo-3H-spiro[isobenzofuran-1,9'-xanthen]-5-yl)-3-(4-((4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(methylthio)-1H-imidazol-5-yl)pyridin-2-yl)amino)phenyl)thiourea (5) as an FP probe (JNK3: Kd = 3.0 nM; p38α MAPK: Kd = 5.7 nM). The validation of the assays with known inhibitors of JNK3 and p38α MAPK revealed that both FP assays correlate very well with inhibition data received by the activity assays. This, in addition to the viability of both FP-based binding assays for the high-throughput screening procedure, makes the assays suitable as inexpensive prescreening protocols for JNK3 and p38α MAPK inhibitors. PMID:26954235

  2. Assay of adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate by stimulation of protein kinase: a method not involving radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Handa, A.K.; Bressan, R.A.

    1980-03-01

    In order to meet a need for a cAMP assay which is not subject to interference by compounds in plant extracts, and which is suitable for use on occasions separated by many /sup 32/P half-lives, an assay based on cAMP-dependent protein kinase has been developed which does not require the use of (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. Instead of measuring the cAMP-stimulated increase in the rate of transfer of (..gamma..-/sup 32/P) phosphate from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP to protein, the rate of loss of ATP from the reaction mixture is determined. The ATP remaining after the protein kinase reaction is assayed by ATP-dependent chemiluminescence of the firefly luciferin-luciferase system. Under conditions of the protein kinase reaction in which a readily measurable decrease in ATP concentration occurs, the logarithm of the concentration of ATP decreases in proportion to the cAMP concentration, i.e., the reaction can be described by the equation: (ATP) = (ATP)/sub 0/ e/sup -(cAMP)kt/. The assay based on this relationship can detect less than 1 pmol of cAMP. The levels of cAMP found with this assay after partial purification of the cAMP from rat tissue, algal cells, and the media in which the cells were grown agreed with measurements made by the cAMP binding-competition assay of Gilman, and the potein kinase stimulation assay based on transfer of (/sup 32/P) phosphate from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP to protein. All of the enzymes and chemicals required for the assay of cAMP by protein kinase catalyzed loss of ATP can be stored frozen for months, making the assay suitable for occasional use.

  3. Modular, Antibody-free Time-Resolved LRET Kinase Assay Enabled by Quantum Dots and Tb3+-sensitizing Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wei; Parker, Laurie L.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent drug screening assays are essential for tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovery. Here we demonstrate a flexible, antibody-free TR-LRET kinase assay strategy that is enabled by the combination of streptavidin-coated quantum dot (QD) acceptors and biotinylated, Tb3+ sensitizing peptide donors. By exploiting the spectral features of Tb3+ and QD, and the high binding affinity of the streptavidin-biotin interaction, we achieved multiplexed detection of kinase activity in a modular fashion without requiring additional covalent labeling of each peptide substrate. This strategy is compatible with high-throughput screening, and should be adaptable to the rapidly changing workflows and targets involved in kinase inhibitor discovery. PMID:27426233

  4. Modular, Antibody-free Time-Resolved LRET Kinase Assay Enabled by Quantum Dots and Tb(3+)-sensitizing Peptides.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Parker, Laurie L

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent drug screening assays are essential for tyrosine kinase inhibitor discovery. Here we demonstrate a flexible, antibody-free TR-LRET kinase assay strategy that is enabled by the combination of streptavidin-coated quantum dot (QD) acceptors and biotinylated, Tb(3+) sensitizing peptide donors. By exploiting the spectral features of Tb(3+) and QD, and the high binding affinity of the streptavidin-biotin interaction, we achieved multiplexed detection of kinase activity in a modular fashion without requiring additional covalent labeling of each peptide substrate. This strategy is compatible with high-throughput screening, and should be adaptable to the rapidly changing workflows and targets involved in kinase inhibitor discovery. PMID:27426233

  5. Discovery of a broad spectrum antiproliferative agent with selectivity for DDR1 kinase: cell line-based assay, kinase panel, molecular docking, and toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Elkamhawy, Ahmed; Park, Jung-Eun; Cho, Nam-Chul; Sim, Taebo; Pae, Ae Nim; Roh, Eun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report compound KST9046, a new agent possessing quinazoline-urea scaffold. Preliminary biological evaluation done by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA, showed a great inhibitory effect of KST9046 over the 60 cell-line tumor panel. Accordingly, it was selected for a dose-response assay; a broad spectrum antiproliferative activity with GI(50) ranging from 1.3 to 3.9 µM was exerted. To explore a potential kinase inhibitory effect, KST9046 was applied at a single dose of 10 µM against a kinase panel of 347 different enzymes representing >50% of the predicted human protein kinome. Interestingly, selective inhibition of 76% was observed on DDR1 kinase. Further, KST9046 showed an IC(50) value of 4.38 µM for DDR1. A molecular docking model presented KST9046 as a potential type III inhibitor for DDR1 kinase with an allosteric mode of interaction, which may offer an explanation for its selectivity. As further investigation, CYP450 assay was carried out for KST9046, it showed a promising toxicity profile against four different isoforms. Based on these findings, KST9046 can be further evaluated as a promising safe new hit for the development of broad spectrum anticancer agents with a selectivity for DDR1 kinase. PMID:25807298

  6. Bioluminescence assay of creatine kinase and its isoenzymes in serum and cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Tarkkanen, P; Komor, S; Cornely, C; Hacke, W; Greiling, H

    1979-09-01

    We examined the sensitivity of bioluminescence for the determination of very low concentrations of creatine kinase brain-type subunit (CK-BB) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid. To optimize the sensitivity of CK-isoenzyme assays and eliminate possible sources of error, we separated the isoenzyme fractions by using inhibiting anti-MM and precipitating anti-MM and anti-BB antibodies. The results with the bioluminescence assay correlated with spectrophotometric values such that r = 0.97 for the total CK activity and r = 0.98 for the CK-B activity. The reproducibility of the present method was comparable with the spectrophotometric method and was even better at low enzyme activities. The within-series precision for assay of total CK activity at 2 U/L corresponded to a CV of 9%; at 13 U/L the CV was 5.8%. All the assays were carried out at 25 degrees C. Even at this low temperature, CK activities as low as 0.2 U/L could be determined. In eight patients without any evidence of cerebral cell damage, total CK activity in cerebrospinal fluid was x = 1.05 +/- 0.6 U/L, and CK-BB activity was x = 0.7 +/- 0.4 U/L. In sera of these patients CK-BB activity was x = 0.6 +/- 0.5 U/L. Differences in CK and CK-BB activities in four patients with transient or progressive brain-cell damage are discussed. PMID:466791

  7. Identification of antifungal niphimycin from Streptomyces sp. KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Yoon; Kim, Jeong Do; Hong, Jin Sung; Ham, Jong Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok

    2013-07-01

    Microbial culture extracts are used for natural product screening to find antifungal lead compounds. A microbial culture extract library was constructed using 343 actinomycete isolates to examine the value of the adenylate kinase (AK) assay for screening to identify antifungal metabolites that disrupt cell integrity in plant pathogenic fungi. A culture extract of Streptomyces sp. strain KP6107 lysed cells of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici which resulted in high AK activity. The active ingredient N-1 was purified from the culture extract using various chromatographic procedures and identified to be the guanidyl-polyol macrolide antibiotic, niphimycin, which is a potent fungal cell membrane disruptor. Niphimycin showed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Alternaria mali, Aspergillus oryzae, Colletotrichum coccodes, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Cercospora canescens, Cylindrocarpon destructans, F. oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum, F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, and Rhizoctonia solani at concentrations of 8-64 µg ml(-1). Anthracnose development in pepper plants was completely inhibited by treatment with 50 µg ml(-1) niphimycin, which was as effective as chlorothalonil. These results show that the AK assay is an efficient and selective tool in screening for cell membrane/wall disruptors of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:22915202

  8. A novel photoelectrochemical biosensor for protein kinase activity assay based on phosphorylated graphite-like carbon nitride.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Zhou, Yunlei; Xu, Yan; Xu, Huijie; Wang, Minghui; Yin, Huanshun; Ai, Shiyun

    2016-08-31

    Protein kinases are general and significant regulators in the cell signaling pathway, and it is still greatly desired to achieve simple and quick kinase detection. Herein, we develop a simple and sensitive photoelectrochemical strategy for the detection of protein kinase activity based on the bond between phosphorylated peptide and phosphorylated graphite-like carbon nitride (P-g-C3N4) conjugates triggered by Zr(4+) ion coordination. Under optimal conditions, the increased photocurrent is proportional to the protein kinase A (PKA) concentration ranging from 0.05 to 50 U/mL with a detection limit of 0.077 U/mL. Moreover, this photoelectrochemical assay can be also applied to quantitative analysis of kinase inhibition. The results indicated that the IC50 value (inhibitor concentration producing 50% inhibitor) for ellagic acid was 9.1 μM. Moreover, the developed method is further applied to detect PKA activity in real samples, which contains serum from healthy person and gastric cancer patients and breast tissue from healthy person and breast cancer patients. Therefore, the established protocol provides a new and simple tool for assay of kinase activity and its inhibitors with low cost and high sensitivity. PMID:27506341

  9. Assays To Detect the Formation of Triphosphates of Unnatural Nucleotides: Application to Escherichia coli Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Mariko F; Shaw, Ryan W; Moses, Jennifer D; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Kim, Myong-Jung; Kim, Myong-Sang; Hoshika, Shuichi; Karalkar, Nilesh; Benner, Steven A

    2016-03-18

    One frontier in synthetic biology seeks to move artificially expanded genetic information systems (AEGIS) into natural living cells and to arrange the metabolism of those cells to allow them to replicate plasmids built from these unnatural genetic systems. In addition to requiring polymerases that replicate AEGIS oligonucleotides, such cells require metabolic pathways that biosynthesize the triphosphates of AEGIS nucleosides, the substrates for those polymerases. Such pathways generally require nucleoside and nucleotide kinases to phosphorylate AEGIS nucleosides and nucleotides on the path to these triphosphates. Thus, constructing such pathways focuses on engineering natural nucleoside and nucleotide kinases, which often do not accept the unnatural AEGIS biosynthetic intermediates. This, in turn, requires assays that allow the enzyme engineer to follow the kinase reaction, assays that are easily confused by ATPase and other spurious activities that might arise through "site-directed damage" of the natural kinases being engineered. This article introduces three assays that can detect the formation of both natural and unnatural deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, assessing their value as polymerase substrates at the same time as monitoring the progress of kinase engineering. Here, we focus on two complementary AEGIS nucleoside diphosphates, 6-amino-5-nitro-3-(1'-β-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-2(1H)-pyridone and 2-amino-8-(1'-β-D-2'-deoxyribofuranosyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(8H)-one. These assays provide new ways to detect the formation of unnatural deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in vitro and to confirm their incorporation into DNA. Thus, these assays can be used with other unnatural nucleotides. PMID:26829203

  10. A system for assaying homologous recombination at the endogenous human thymidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, M.B.; Little, J.B. ); Potter, H. ); Yandell, D.W. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-08-01

    A system for assaying human interchromosomal recombination in vitro was developed, using a cell line containing two different mutant thymidine kinase genes (TK) on chromosomes 17. Heteroalleles were generated in the TK{sup +/+} parent B-lymphoblast cell line WIL-2 by repeated exposure to the alkylating nitrogen mustard ICR-191, which preferentially causes +1 or {minus}1 frameshifts. Resulting TK{sup {minus}/{minus}} mutants were selected in medium containing the toxic thymidine analog trifluorothymidine. In two lines, heterozygous frameshifts were located in exons 4 and 7 of the TK gene separated by {approx}8 kilobases. These lines undergo spontaneous reversion to TK{sup +} at a frequency of < 10{sup {minus}7}, and revertants can be selected in cytidine/hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium. The nature and location of these heteroallelic mutations make large deletions, rearrangements, nondisjunction, and reduplication unlikely mechanisms for reversion to TK{sup +}. The mode of reversion to TK{sup +} was specifically assessed by DNA sequencing, use of single-strand conformation polymorphisms, and analysis of various restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the TK gene on chromosome 17. The data suggest that a proportion of revertants has undergone recombination and gene conversion at the TK locus, with concomitant loss of frameshifts and allele loss at linked RFLPs. Models are presented for the origin of two recombinants.

  11. Readout technologies for highly miniaturized kinase assays applicable to high-throughput screening in a 1536-well format.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, Martin; Boettcher, Andreas; Becker, Damaris; Meder, Gabriele; Blank, Jutta; Leder, Lukas; Forstner, Michael; Ottl, Johannes; Mayr, Lorenz M

    2006-09-01

    This article discusses the development of homogeneous, miniaturized assays for the identification of novel kinase inhibitors from very large compound collections. In particular, the suitability of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-RET) based on phospho-specific antibodies, an antibody-independent fluorescence polarization (FP) approach using metal-coated beads (IMAP technology), and the determination of adenosine triphosphate consumption through chemiluminescence is evaluated. These readouts are compared with regard to assay sensitivity, compound interference, reagent consumption, and performance in a 1536-well format, and practical considerations for their application in primary screening or in the identification of kinase substrates are discussed. All of the tested technologies were found to be suitable for miniaturized high-throughput screening (HTS) in principle, but each of them has distinct limitations and advantages. Therefore, the target-specific selection of the most appropriate readout technology is recommended to ensure maximal relevance of HTS campaigns. PMID:16760365

  12. Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowers gastric adenocarcinoma TMK1 cell proliferation via bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu; Yu Le; Cho, C.H.

    2008-06-27

    Proteasome inhibitor is a novel class of cancer therapeutics, of which the mechanism of action is not fully understood. It is reported that proteasome inhibitor enhances bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in osteoblasts to stimulate bone formation. BMP signaling is also an important tumor-suppressing pathway in gastric carcinogenesis. We therefore sought to determine the anti-mitogenic effect of proteasome inhibition in relation to BMP signaling in gastric cancer cells. Results showed that proteasome inhibitor MG-132 significantly suppressed the proliferation and the colony-forming ability of gastric cancer TMK1 cells. In this connection, MG-132 activated BMP signaling, manifested as an increase in Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and up-regulation of p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} mRNA and protein expression. Knockdown of BMP receptor II by RNA interference abolished Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, p21{sup Waf1/Cip1} induction, and the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by MG-132. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 up-regulated the expression of BMP1 and BMP4 and suppressed the expression of Smad6. Knockdown of Smad6 also mimicked the effect of MG-132 on BMP signaling. Collectively, these findings suggest that inhibition of proteasome suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation via activation of BMP signaling. This discovery may open up a novel therapeutic avenue to proteasome inhibitors for the management of gastric cancer.

  13. Adaptation of a 2D in-gel kinase assay to trace phosphotransferase activities in the human pathogen Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Arras, Dirk; Leclercq, Olivier; Gherardini, Pier Federico; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Faigle, Wolfgang; Loew, Damarys; Späth, Gerald F

    2011-08-24

    The protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani undergoes various developmental transitions during its infectious cycle that are triggered by environmental signals encountered inside insect and vertebrate hosts. Intracellular differentiation of the pathogenic amastigote stage is induced by pH and temperature shifts that affect protein kinase activities and downstream protein phosphorylation. Identification of parasite proteins with phosphotransferase activity during intracellular infection may reveal new targets for pharmacological intervention. Here we describe an improved protocol to trace this activity in L. donovani extracts at high resolution combining in-gel kinase assay and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. This 2D procedure allowed us to identify proteins that are associated with amastigote ATP-binding, ATPase, and phosphotransferase activities. The 2D in-gel kinase assay, in combination with recombinant phospho-protein substrates previously identified by phospho-proteomics analyses, provides a novel tool to establish specific protein kinase-substrate relationships thus improving our understanding of Leishmania signal transduction with relevance for future drug development. PMID:21443974

  14. Assay of creatine kinase in microtiter plates using thio-NAD to allow monitoring at 405 nM.

    PubMed

    Florini, J R

    1989-11-01

    An assay system for creatine kinase using microtiter plates and a plate reader that records absorbancies at 405 nM has been devised. The system is an adaptation of well-established assays that couple creatine kinase with the reactions catalyzed by hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), to give a measurable increase in reduced pyridine nucleotide quantitated by absorbance at 340 nM. Two features of this system are modified for reading at 405 nM: (i) The thioamido derivative of NAD is used because its reduced form exhibits a substantial increase in absorbance at 405 nM, the most commonly available wavelength on microplate readers; and (ii) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides is used because it can reduce either NAD or NADP (unlike most other G6PDH enzymes, which require NADP), thus making it unnecessary to use the more expensive thio-NADP. The rate of thio-NAD reduction is linear with enzyme concentration and time over a 20-fold range of concentrations of purified creatine kinase, and the assay also works well with myogenic cells allowed to grow and differentiate in the 96-well plate in which the assay is performed. This system offers considerable savings in cells, time, and material in studies of muscle cell differentiation, for which creatine kinase levels are frequently measured. It also provides a potential method for the convenient and economical measurement of activities of many other enzymes that can be coupled to reduction of thio-NAD. PMID:2610356

  15. Quantitative Profiling of Protein Tyrosine Kinases in Human Cancer Cell Lines by Multiplexed Parallel Reaction Monitoring Assays.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Lin, De; Lee, Hyoung-Joo; Li, Ming; Liebler, Daniel C

    2016-02-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in cellular signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cell division, and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of PTK-activated pathways, often by receptor overexpression, gene amplification, or genetic mutation, is a causal factor underlying numerous cancers. In this study, we have developed a parallel reaction monitoring-based assay for quantitative profiling of 83 PTKs. The assay detects 308 proteotypic peptides from 54 receptor tyrosine kinases and 29 nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in a single run. Quantitative comparisons were based on the labeled reference peptide method. We implemented the assay in four cell models: 1) a comparison of proliferating versus epidermal growth factor-stimulated A431 cells, 2) a comparison of SW480Null (mutant APC) and SW480APC (APC restored) colon tumor cell lines, and 3) a comparison of 10 colorectal cancer cell lines with different genomic abnormalities, and 4) lung cancer cell lines with either susceptibility (11-18) or acquired resistance (11-18R) to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. We observed distinct PTK expression changes that were induced by stimuli, genomic features or drug resistance, which were consistent with previous reports. However, most of the measured expression differences were novel observations. For example, acquired resistance to erlotinib in the 11-18 cell model was associated not only with previously reported up-regulation of MET, but also with up-regulation of FLK2 and down-regulation of LYN and PTK7. Immunoblot analyses and shotgun proteomics data were highly consistent with parallel reaction monitoring data. Multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring assays provide a targeted, systems-level profiling approach to evaluate cancer-related proteotypes and adaptations. Data are available through Proteome eXchange Accession PXD002706. PMID:26631510

  16. A label-free and sensitive fluorescent assay for one step detection of protein kinase activity and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Yan, Xu; Su, Xingguang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a label-free, highly sensitive and simple assay for one step detection of protein kinase (PKA) activity and inhibition that avoids the fluorescent dye process has been established. The detection was based on the fluorescence (FL) quenching of peptide-Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) caused by antibody modified Au nanoparticles (anti-Au NPs) via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). With PKA and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) introduced, the substrate peptide of Ag NCs could react with PKA via targeted phosphorylation, and followed by the linking interactions between peptide-Ag NCs and anti-Au NPs. According to the fluorescence quenching of Ag NCs, the activity of protein kinase can be facilely monitored in the range of 0.1-2000 mU/μL with high sensitivity. The detection limit for PKA is 0.039 mU/μL. We further explored the inhibitory effect of H-89 for protein kinase activity. The developed method was also applied to the investigation of drug-induced PKA activation in HeLa cells, which provides a promising means for screening of kinase-related drugs and the clinical diagnosis of disease. PMID:27543031

  17. Phos-tag analysis of Rab10 phosphorylation by LRRK2: a powerful assay for assessing kinase function and inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Genta; Katsemonova, Kristina; Tonelli, Francesca; Lis, Pawel; Baptista, Marco A.S.; Shpiro, Natalia; Duddy, Graham; Wilson, Steve; Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Ho, Shu-Leong; Reith, Alastair D.; Alessi, Dario R.

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations that activate the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause inherited Parkinson's disease. Recent work has revealed that LRRK2 directly phosphorylates a conserved threonine/serine residue in the effector-binding switch-II motif of a number of Rab GTPase proteins, including Rab10. Here we describe a facile and robust method to assess phosphorylation of endogenous Rab10 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), lung and spleen-derived B-cells, based on the ability of the Phos-tag reagent to retard the electrophoretic mobility of LRRK2-phosphorylated Rab10. We exploit this assay to show that phosphorylation of Rab10 is ablated in kinase-inactive LRRK2[D2017A] knockin MEFs and mouse lung, demonstrating that LRRK2 is the major Rab10 kinase in these cells/tissue. We also establish that the Phos-tag assay can be deployed to monitor the impact that activating LRRK2 pathogenic (G2019S and R1441G) knockin mutations have on stimulating Rab10 phosphorylation. We show that upon addition of LRRK2 inhibitors, Rab10 is dephosphorylated within 1–2 min, markedly more rapidly than the Ser935 and Ser1292 biomarker sites that require 40–80 min. Furthermore, we find that phosphorylation of Rab10 is suppressed in LRRK2[S910A+S935A] knockin MEFs indicating that phosphorylation of Ser910 and Ser935 and potentially 14-3-3 binding play a role in facilitating the phosphorylation of Rab10 by LRRK2 in vivo. The Rab Phos-tag assay has the potential to significantly aid with evaluating the effect that inhibitors, mutations and other factors have on the LRRK2 signalling pathway. PMID:27474410

  18. Phos-tag analysis of Rab10 phosphorylation by LRRK2: a powerful assay for assessing kinase function and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ito, Genta; Katsemonova, Kristina; Tonelli, Francesca; Lis, Pawel; Baptista, Marco A S; Shpiro, Natalia; Duddy, Graham; Wilson, Steve; Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Ho, Shu-Leong; Reith, Alastair D; Alessi, Dario R

    2016-09-01

    Autosomal dominant mutations that activate the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause inherited Parkinson's disease. Recent work has revealed that LRRK2 directly phosphorylates a conserved threonine/serine residue in the effector-binding switch-II motif of a number of Rab GTPase proteins, including Rab10. Here we describe a facile and robust method to assess phosphorylation of endogenous Rab10 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), lung and spleen-derived B-cells, based on the ability of the Phos-tag reagent to retard the electrophoretic mobility of LRRK2-phosphorylated Rab10. We exploit this assay to show that phosphorylation of Rab10 is ablated in kinase-inactive LRRK2[D2017A] knockin MEFs and mouse lung, demonstrating that LRRK2 is the major Rab10 kinase in these cells/tissue. We also establish that the Phos-tag assay can be deployed to monitor the impact that activating LRRK2 pathogenic (G2019S and R1441G) knockin mutations have on stimulating Rab10 phosphorylation. We show that upon addition of LRRK2 inhibitors, Rab10 is dephosphorylated within 1-2 min, markedly more rapidly than the Ser(935) and Ser(1292) biomarker sites that require 40-80 min. Furthermore, we find that phosphorylation of Rab10 is suppressed in LRRK2[S910A+S935A] knockin MEFs indicating that phosphorylation of Ser(910) and Ser(935) and potentially 14-3-3 binding play a role in facilitating the phosphorylation of Rab10 by LRRK2 in vivo The Rab Phos-tag assay has the potential to significantly aid with evaluating the effect that inhibitors, mutations and other factors have on the LRRK2 signalling pathway. PMID:27474410

  19. A microtiter-based assay for protein kinase activity suitable for the analysis of large numbers of samples, and its application to the study of Drosophila learning mutants.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, J D; Dudai, Y

    1988-02-15

    We have developed a microtiter-based assay for protein kinase activity which depends on the immobilization of substrate proteins to nitrocellulose. The technique makes use of a filtration manifold, allowing as much as a 10-fold increase in efficiency as compared to other protein kinase assays. We have used this assay to measure cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in Drosophila learning and memory mutants, with exogenous and endogenous substrates. An alteration was found in the affinity of PKA in the mutant turnip. The procedure should be useful for rapid screening of mutants and drugs and could be adapted to additional types of protein kinases as well as protein phosphatases. PMID:3369684

  20. A western blot assay to measure cyclin dependent kinase activity in cells or in vitro without the use of radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Cody W; Taylor, Ryan G; Kubara, Philip M; Marshall, Kris; Meijer, Laurent; Golsteyn, Roy M

    2013-09-17

    We developed a quantitative method to measure the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) by western blotting, without radioisotopes. We prepared a recombinant protein substrate based upon the natural Cdk1 substrate, PP1Cα. By combining this substrate in a western blot method using fluorochrome based antibodies and phospho-imager analysis, we measured the Km of ATP binding to Cdk1 to be 3.5 μM. We then measured Cdk1 activity in cell extracts from interphase or mitotic cells, and demonstrated that previously identified Cdk inhibitors could be detected by this assay. Our data show that we have a safe, reliable assay to identify Cdk1 inhibitors and measure Cdk1 activity. PMID:23954627

  1. Development and implementation of a miniaturized high-throughput time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer assay to identify small molecule inhibitors of polo-like kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Sharlow, Elizabeth R; Leimgruber, Stephanie; Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S

    2007-12-01

    Polo-like kinase (Plk) 1 is a key enzyme involved in regulating the mammalian cell cycle that is also a validated anticancer drug target. Nonetheless, there are relatively few readily available potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of Plk1. To increase the availability of pharmacologically valuable Plk1 inhibitors, we describe herein the development, variability assessment, validation, and implementation of a 384-well automated, miniaturized high-throughput time-resolved fluorescence energy transfer screening assay designed to identify Plk1 kinase inhibitors. Using a small molecule library of pharmaceutically active compounds to gauge high-throughput assay robustness and reproducibility, we found nine general kinase inhibitors, including H-89, which was selected as the minimum control. We then interrogated a 97,101 compound library from the National Institutes of Health repository for small molecule inhibitors of Plk1 kinase activity. The initial primary hit rate in a single 10 microM concentration format was 0.21%. Hit compounds were subjected to concentration-response confirmation and interference assays. Identified in the screen were seven compounds with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values below 1 microM, 20 compounds with IC50 values between 1 microM and 5 microM, and eight compounds with IC50 values between 5 and 10 microM, which could be assigned to seven distinct chemotype classes. Hit compounds were also examined for their ability to inhibit other kinases such as protein kinase D, focal adhesion kinase, rho-associated coiled coil protein kinase 2, c-jun NH2-terminal kinase 3, and protein kinase A via experimentation or data-mining. These compounds should be useful as probes for the biological activity of Plk1 and as leads for the development of new selective inhibitors of Plk1. PMID:18181689

  2. Preparation of Antibodies and Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Lapatinib and Nilotinib.

    PubMed

    Saita, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Yuta; Shin, Masashi; Nakano, Yukitaka

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the production of the first specific antibodies against the tyrosine kinase inhibitors lapatinib and nilotinib. Anti-lapatinib antibody was obtained by immunizing rabbits with an antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin using 3-chloro-4-((3-fluorobenzyl)oxy)aniline. Anti-nilotinib antibody was produced by immunizing mice with an antigen conjugated with bovine serum albumin using 2-(5-amino-2-methylanilino)-4-(3-pyridyl)pyrimidine. The generated antibodies were used to develop highly sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for lapatinib and nilotinib in human serum. The assays were capable of detecting lapatinib and nilotinib at serum concentrations as low as 40 and 8 ng/mL, respectively. Using the two ELISAs, drugs levels were easily measured in the serum of rats after a single dose oral administration of lapatinib or nilotinib. The assays are therefore expected be valuable tools for therapeutic drug monitoring in the clinical setting and pharmacokinetic studies of lapatinib and nilotinib. PMID:26424026

  3. Universal quantitative kinase assay based on diagonal SCX chromatography and stable isotope dimethyl labeling provides high-definition kinase consensus motifs for PKA and human Mps1.

    PubMed

    Hennrich, Marco L; Marino, Fabio; Groenewold, Vincent; Kops, Geert J P L; Mohammed, Shabaz; Heck, Albert J R

    2013-05-01

    In order to understand cellular signaling, a clear understanding of kinase-substrate relationships is essential. Some of these relationships are defined by consensus recognition motifs present in substrates making them amendable for phosphorylation by designated kinases. Here, we explore a method that is based on two sequential steps of strong cation exchange chromatography combined with differential stable isotope labeling, to define kinase consensus motifs with high accuracy. We demonstrate the value of our method by evaluating the motifs of two very distinct kinases: cAMP regulated protein kinase A (PKA) and human monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) kinase, also known as TTK. PKA is a well-studied basophilic kinase with a relatively well-defined motif and numerous known substrates in vitro and in vivo. Mps1, a kinase involved in chromosome segregation, has been less well characterized. Its substrate specificity is unclear and here we show that Mps1 is an acidophilic kinase with a striking tendency for phosphorylation of threonines. The final outcomes of our work are high-definition kinase consensus motifs for PKA and Mps1. Our generic method, which makes use of proteolytic cell lysates as a source for peptide-substrate libraries, can be implemented for any kinase present in the kinome. PMID:23510141

  4. A Fluorescence Immunochromatographic Assay Using Europium (III) Chelate Microparticles for Rapid, Quantitative and Sensitive Detection of Creatine Kinase MB.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xiao-Hong; Liang, Rong-Liang; Liu, Tian-Cai; Dong, Zhi-Ning; Wu, Ying-Song; Li, Lin-Hai

    2016-05-01

    The isoenzyme creatine kinase MB is very important for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Some CK-MB immunoassays are sensitive, accurate and available for clinical application, but they are expensive and time-consuming procedures. Furthermore, conventional fluorescence immunochromatographic assays (FL-ICAs) have suffered from background fluorescence interference and low analytical sensitivity. A rapid and simple FL-ICA with Eu (III) chelate polystyrene microparticles was developed to determine CK-MB in 50uL serum samples using a portable test strip reader by measuring the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (HT) and the control line (HC) in 12 min. The assay was reliable with a good correlation coefficient between HT/HC ratio and CK-MB concentration in samples. A linear range was 0.85-100.29 ng/mL for CK-MB, and the LOD was 0.029 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) were both <10 % and the average recoveries were from 90.17 % -112.63 % for CK-MB. The system performed well in interference experiments. Furthermore, a highly significant correlation (r = 0.9794, P < 0.001) between this method and the commercially available bioMérieux mini VIDAS system were attained for measuring 120 CK-MB samples. These results indicated that the Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based FL-ICA is simple, fast, highly sensitive, reliable, and reproducible for point-of-care testing of CK-MB concentrations in serum. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27034063

  5. Identification of Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase 1 (ERK1) Direct Substrates using Stable Isotope Labeled Kinase Assay-Linked Phosphoproteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Liang; Wang, Pengcheng; Cao, Pianpian; Zhu, Jian-kang; Tao, W. Andy

    2014-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation signaling is extensively involved in cellular functions and human diseases, and unraveling phosphorylation networks requires the identification of substrates targeted by kinases, which has remained challenging. We report here a novel proteomic strategy to identify the specificity and direct substrates of kinases by coupling phosphoproteomics with a sensitive stable isotope labeled kinase reaction. A whole cell extract was moderately dephosphorylated and subjected to in vitro kinase reaction under the condition in which 18O-ATP is the phosphate donor. The phosphorylated proteins are then isolated and identified by mass spectrometry, in which the heavy phosphate (+85.979 Da) labeled phosphopeptides reveal the kinase specificity. The in vitro phosphorylated proteins with heavy phosphates are further overlapped with in vivo kinase-dependent phosphoproteins for the identification of direct substrates with high confidence. The strategy allowed us to identify 46 phosphorylation sites on 38 direct substrates of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, including multiple known substrates and novel substrates, highlighting the ability of this high throughput method for direct kinase substrate screening. PMID:25022875

  6. FLiK: a direct-binding assay for the identification and kinetic characterization of stabilizers of inactive kinase conformations.

    PubMed

    Simard, Jeffrey R; Rauh, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the hundreds of kinase inhibitors currently in discovery and preclinical phases, the number of FDA-approved kinase inhibitors remains very low by comparison, a discrepancy which reflects the challenges which accompanies kinase inhibitor development. Targeting protein kinases with ATP-competitive inhibitors has been the classical approach to inhibit kinase activity, but the highly conserved nature of the ATP-binding site often contributes to the poor inhibitor selectivity. To address this problem, we developed a high-throughput screening technology that can discriminate for inhibitors, which stabilize inactive kinase conformations by binding within allosteric pockets in the kinase domain. Here, we describe how to use the Fluorescence Labels in Kinases approach to measure the K(d) of ligands as well as how to kinetically characterize the binding and dissociation of ligands to the kinase. We also describe how this technology can be used to rapidly screen small molecule libraries in high throughput. PMID:25399645

  7. Effects of insulin on perfused liver from streptozotocin-diabetic and untreated rats: /sup 13/C NMR assay of pyruvate kinase flux

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.M.

    1987-01-27

    The effects of insulin in vitro on perfused liver from streptozotocin-diabetic rats and their untreated littermates during gluconeogenesis from either (3-/sup 13/C)alanine + ethanol or (2-/sup 13/C)pyruvate + NH/sub 4/Cl + ethanol were studied by /sup 13/C NMR. A /sup 13/C NMR determination of the rate of pyruvate kinase flux under steady-state conditions of active gluconeogenesis was developed; this assay includes a check on the reuse of recycled pyruvate. The preparations studied provided gradations of pyruvate kinase flux within the confines of the assay's requirement of active gluconeogenesis. By this determination, the rate of pyruvate kinase flux was 0.74 +/- 0.04 of the gluconeogenic rate in liver from 24-h-fasted controls; in liver from 12-h fasted controls, relative pyruvate kinase flux increased to 1.0 +/- 0.2. In diabetic liver, this flux was undetectable by the authors NMR method. Insulin's hepatic influence in vitro was greatest in the streptozotocin model of type 1 diabetes: upon treatment of diabetic liver with 7 nM insulin in vitro, a partial reversal of many of the differences noted between diabetic and control liver was demonstrated by /sup 13/C NMR. A major effect of insulin in vitro upon diabetic liver was the induction of a large increase in the rate of pyruvate kinase flux, bringing relative and absolute fluxes up to the levels measured in 24-h-fasted controls. By way of comparison, the effects of ischemia on diabetic liver were studied by /sup 13/C NMR to test whether changes in allosteric effectors under these conditions could also increase pyruvate kinase flux. A large increase in this activity was demonstrated in ischemic diabetic liver.

  8. Combination of immunoprecipitation (IP)-ATP_Glo kinase assay and melanogenesis for the assessment of potent and safe PAK1-blockers in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh Cao Quan; Be Tu, Pham Thi; Tawata, Shinkichi; Maruta, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Cucurbitacin I (CBI) is a triterpene from a bitter melon called Goya grown in Okinawa, Japan, and directly inhibits both the Tyr-kinase JAK2 and the G protein RAC, leading to the inactivation of PAK1 (RAC/CDC42-activated kinase 1). Bio 30, a propolis produced in New Zealand, contains CAPE (caffeic acid phenethyl ester) as the major anti-cancer ingredient which directly down-regulates RAC, leading to the inactivation of PAK1. Since PAK1 is essential for the growth of RAS cancer cells such as A549 cell line which carry an oncogenic K-RAS mutant, and the melanogenesis in skin cells, here using these PAK1-blockers as model compounds, we introduce a new approach to the quick assessment of PAK1-blockers in cell culture. First, combining the immuno-precipitation (IP) of PAK1 from cell lysate and the in vitro ATP_Glo kinase assay kit (called "Macaroni-Western" assay), we confirmed that both CBI and Bio 30 inactivate PAK1 in A549 lung cancer cells in 24 h, and inhibit their PAK1-dependent growth in 72 h. Furthermore, we verified that CBI inhibits the PAK1/PAK4-dependent melanogenesis in melanoma cells by far more than 50%, while Bio 30 inhibits the melanogenesis only by 50%, with only a merginal effect on their growth per se. Since the "Macaroni-Western" kinase assay and melanogenesis are both rather simple and quick, the combination of these two cell culture assays would be highly useful for selecting both "potent" (highly cell-permeable) and "safe" (non-toxic) natural or synthetic PAK1-blockers. PMID:26370527

  9. Development of a robust flow cytometry-based pharmacodynamic assay to detect phospho-protein signals for phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway plays an important role in multiple myeloma (MM), a blood cancer associated with uncontrolled proliferation of bone marrow plasma cells. This study aimed to develop a robust clinical pharmacodynamic (PD) assay to measure the on-target PD effects of the selective PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 in MM patients. Methods We conducted an in vitro drug wash-out study to evaluate the feasibility of biochemical approaches in measuring the phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein (S6), one of the commonly used PD markers for PI3K pathway inhibition. We then developed a 7-color phospho-specific flow cytometry assay, or phospho flow assay, to measure the phosphorylation state of intracellular S6 in bone marrow aspirate (BMA) and peripheral blood (PB). Integrated mean fluorescence intensity (iMFI) was used to calculate fold changes of phosphorylation. Assay sensitivity was evaluated by comparing phospho flow with Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. Finally, a sample handling method was developed to maintain the integrity of phospho signal during sample shipping and storage to ensure clinical application. Results The phospho flow assay provided single-cell PD monitoring of S6 phosphorylation in tumor and surrogate cells using fixed BMA and PB, assessing pathway modulation in response to GDC-0941 with sensitivity similar to that of MSD assay. The one-shot sample fixation and handling protocol herein demonstrated exceptional preservation of protein phosphorylation. In contrast, the IHC assay was less sensitive in terms of signal quantification while the biochemical approach (MSD) was less suitable to assess PD activities due to the undesirable impact associated with cell isolation on the protein phosphorylation in tumor cells. Conclusions We developed a robust PD biomarker assay for the clinical evaluation of PI3K inhibitors in MM, allowing one to decipher the PD response in a relevant cell

  10. TiO2/MWNTs nanocomposites-based electrochemical strategy for label-free assay of casein kinase II activity and inhibition.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Zhifeng; Wang, Yonghong; Wang, Kemin; Su, Jing; Yan, Genping

    2012-05-15

    In this paper, a novel label-free electrochemical strategy has been developed for assay of casein kinase II (CK2) activity and inhibition using TiO(2)/MWNTs nanocomposites. This detection system takes advantage of specific binding of the phosphate groups with TiO(2) nanoparticles and fast electron transfer rate of MWNTs. In this strategy, the synthesized TiO(2)/MWNTs nanocomposite was firstly deposited on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The presence of MWNTs not only increased the surface area of the electrode but also promoted electron-transfer reaction. In the presence of CK2, the kinase reaction resulted in the phosphorylation of peptide substrates. The phosphorylated peptides were subsequently captured to the surface of GCE modified with TiO(2)/MWNTs nanocomposite through specific binding of the phosphate groups with TiO(2) nanoparticles. Then the access of redox probe [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) to electrode surface was blocked. As a result, the decrease peak currents were related to the concentrations of the CK2, providing a sensing mechanism for monitoring peptides phosphorylation. The electrochemical strategy can be employed to assay CK2 activity with a low detection limit of 0.07 U/mL. The linear range of the assay for CK2 was 0-0.5 U/mL. Furthermore, the interferences experiments of PKA and inhibition of CK2 have been also studied by using this strategy. PMID:22417874

  11. Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence-Based Assay to Monitor Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling in a High-Throughput Format

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Mohammed Akli; Trebaux, Julien; Vallaghe, Julie; Charrier-Savournin, Fabienne; Al-Hosaini, Khaled; Gonzalez Moya, Arturo; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Pfleger, Kevin D. G.; Trinquet, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) are key components of multiple important cell signaling pathways regulating diverse biological responses. This signaling is characterized by phosphorylation cascades leading to ERK1/2 activation and promoted by various cell surface receptors including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). We report the development of a new cell-based Phospho-ERK1/2 assay (designated Phospho-ERK), which is a sandwich proximity-based assay using the homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence technology. We have validated the assay on endogenously expressed ERK1/2 activated by the epidermal growth factor as a prototypical RTK, as well as various GPCRs belonging to different classes and coupling to different heterotrimeric G proteins. The assay was successfully miniaturized in 384-well plates using various cell lines endogenously, transiently, or stably expressing the different receptors. The validation was performed for agonists, antagonists, and inhibitors in dose–response as well as kinetic analysis, and the signaling and pharmacological properties of the different receptors were reproduced. Furthermore, the determination of a Z′-factor value of 0.7 indicates the potential of the Phospho-ERK assay for high-throughput screening of compounds that may modulate ERK1/2 signaling. Finally, our study is of great interest in the current context of investigating ERK1/2 signaling with respect to the emerging concepts of biased ligands, G protein-dependent/independent ERK1/2 activation, and functional transactivation between GPCRs and RTKs, illustrating the importance of considering the ERK1/2 pathway in cell signaling PMID:25002860

  12. Dominant negative selection of vaccinia virus using a thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase fusion gene and the prodrug azidothymidine

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, Georg W. . E-mail: falknef@baxter.com

    2005-07-05

    The Escherichia coli thymidine kinase/thymidylate kinase (tk/tmk) fusion gene encodes an enzyme that efficiently converts the prodrug 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) into its toxic triphosphate derivative, a substance which stops DNA chain elongation. Integration of this marker gene into vaccinia virus that normally is not inhibited by AZT allowed the establishment of a powerful selection procedure for recombinant viruses. In contrast to the conventional vaccinia thymidine kinase (tk) selection that is performed in tk-negative cell lines, AZT selection can be performed in normal (tk-positive) cell lines. The technique is especially useful for the generation of replication-deficient vaccinia viruses and may also be used for gene knock-out studies of essential vaccinia genes.

  13. Microfluidic Cell Deformability Assay for Rapid and Efficient Kinase Screening with the CRISPR-Cas9 System.

    PubMed

    Han, Xin; Liu, Zongbin; Zhao, Li; Wang, Feng; Yu, Yang; Yang, Jianhua; Chen, Rui; Qin, Lidong

    2016-07-18

    Herein we report a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated loss-of-function kinase screen for cancer cell deformability and invasive potential in a high-throughput microfluidic chip. In this microfluidic cell separation platform, flexible cells with high deformability and metastatic propensity flowed out, while stiff cells remained trapped. Through deep sequencing, we found that loss of certain kinases resulted in cells becoming more deformable and invasive. High-ranking candidates identified included well-reported tumor suppressor kinases, such as chk2, IKK-α, p38 MAPKs, and DAPK2. A high-ranking candidate STK4 was chosen for functional validation and identified to play an important role in the regulation of cell deformability and tumor suppression. Collectively, we have demonstrated that CRISPR-based on-chip mechanical screening is a potentially powerful strategy to facilitate systematic genetic analyses. PMID:27258939

  14. Zirconium-metalloporphyrin frameworks as a three-in-one platform possessing oxygen nanocage, electron media, and bonding site for electrochemiluminescence protein kinase activity assay.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Yao; Cai, Chang; Cosnier, Serge; Zeng, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Xue-Ji; Shan, Dan

    2016-06-01

    A Zr-based metal-organic framework with zinc tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)-porphyrin (ZnTCPP) groups (MOF-525-Zn) was utilized to develop a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for highly sensitive protein kinase activity assay. In this work, in terms of ECL measurements and cyclic voltammetry, the cathodic ECL behaviors of MOF-525-Zn in aqueous media were thoroughly investigated for the first time. The photoelectric active groups ZnTCPP on the MOF-525-Zn frameworks could promote the generation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) via a series of electrochemical and chemical reactions, resulting in a strong and stable red irradiation at 634 nm. Additionally, the surfactant tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB) further facilitated dissolved oxygen to interact with the active sites ZnTCPP of MOF-525-Zn. Furthermore, the inorganic Zr-O clusters of MOF-525-Zn were simultaneously served as the recognition sites of phosphate groups. And then, an ultrasensitive ECL sensor was proposed for protein kinase A (PKA) activity detection with a linear range from 0.01 to 20 U mL(-1) and a sensitive detection limit of 0.005 U mL(-1). This biosensor can also be applied for quantitative kinase inhibitor screening. Finally, it exhibits good performance with high stability and acceptable fabrication reproducibility, which provide a valuable strategy for clinic diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:27218308

  15. Optimized thymidylate kinase assay, based on enzymatically synthesized 5-(/sup 125/I)iododeoxyuridine monophosphate and its application to an immunological study of herpes simplex virus thymidine-thymidylate kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstroem, A.R.G.; Gronowitz, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    The biological synthesis and purification of 5-(/sup 125/I)iododeoxyuridine monophosphate (IdUMP) are described. The specificity of IdUMP as substrate in the thymidylate monophosphate kinase (TMPK) assay is demonstrated, and a 100-fold gain in sensitivity as compared to the conventional TMPK assay is shown. TMPK measurements of isozymes derived from herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells, uninfected cells, and tumor biopsies were performed. The results showed a significant difference in dependence of phosphate donor concentration present for TMPK activity from HSV-infected cells compared to the corresponding activity from uninfected cells, while only a minor difference in pH optima was observed for these enzyme activities. The increased sensitivity made it possible to detect and quantify HSV TMPK-blocking antibodies (ab) present in human sera. Sera from HSV ab-positive individuals were found to block the two HSV TMPKs to varying degrees and with different specificities. The immunological relationship between the TMPK and thymidine kinase (TK) induced by HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively, was studied by comparing the capacities of different sera to block the two enzymatic activities. The results showed that the capacity to block HSV-1 TK and TMPK was proportional for all of the sera studied, while sera that preferentially blocked only the HSV-2 TMPK or HSV-2 TK were found. It was concluded that the HSV-2 TMPK and TK activities are less related than the corresponding activities for HSV-1 and that the HSV-2 enzyme activities are mediated by different catalytic sites.

  16. Zirconium-metalloporphyrin frameworks as a three-in-one platform possessing oxygen nanocage, electron media, and bonding site for electrochemiluminescence protein kinase activity assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guang-Yao; Cai, Chang; Cosnier, Serge; Zeng, Hai-Bo; Zhang, Xue-Ji; Shan, Dan

    2016-06-01

    A Zr-based metal-organic framework with zinc tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)-porphyrin (ZnTCPP) groups (MOF-525-Zn) was utilized to develop a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for highly sensitive protein kinase activity assay. In this work, in terms of ECL measurements and cyclic voltammetry, the cathodic ECL behaviors of MOF-525-Zn in aqueous media were thoroughly investigated for the first time. The photoelectric active groups ZnTCPP on the MOF-525-Zn frameworks could promote the generation of singlet oxygen (1O2) via a series of electrochemical and chemical reactions, resulting in a strong and stable red irradiation at 634 nm. Additionally, the surfactant tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOAB) further facilitated dissolved oxygen to interact with the active sites ZnTCPP of MOF-525-Zn. Furthermore, the inorganic Zr-O clusters of MOF-525-Zn were simultaneously served as the recognition sites of phosphate groups. And then, an ultrasensitive ECL sensor was proposed for protein kinase A (PKA) activity detection with a linear range from 0.01 to 20 U mL-1 and a sensitive detection limit of 0.005 U mL-1. This biosensor can also be applied for quantitative kinase inhibitor screening. Finally, it exhibits good performance with high stability and acceptable fabrication reproducibility, which provide a valuable strategy for clinic diagnostics and therapeutics.A Zr-based metal-organic framework with zinc tetrakis(carboxyphenyl)-porphyrin (ZnTCPP) groups (MOF-525-Zn) was utilized to develop a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensor for highly sensitive protein kinase activity assay. In this work, in terms of ECL measurements and cyclic voltammetry, the cathodic ECL behaviors of MOF-525-Zn in aqueous media were thoroughly investigated for the first time. The photoelectric active groups ZnTCPP on the MOF-525-Zn frameworks could promote the generation of singlet oxygen (1O2) via a series of electrochemical and chemical reactions, resulting in a strong and stable red

  17. Clinical utility of a two-site immunoradiometric assay for creatine kinase-MB in the detection of perioperative myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    DePuey, E.G.; Aessopos, A.; Monroe, L.R.; Hall, R.J.; Thompson, W.L.; Sonnemaker, R.E.; Burdine, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    In 144 patients, creatine kinase MB was measured serially at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h using a two-site immunoradionmetric assay (IRMA). Cardiac enzymes were also measured, including SGOT, LDH, total CPK, and CK-MB by electrophoresis. The presence of perioperative myocardial infarction (poMI) was established in 24 patients by the appearance of new electrocardiographic Q waves and/or new wall motion abnormalities detected by radionuclide ventriculography. In patients without poMI, CK-MB (IRMA) was elevated at 0 to 8 h but decreased by 16 h. In patients with poMI, peak values occurred at 16 to 24 h. Using a threshold value of 8.5 EU/I, patients with poMI could be distinguished from those without with 97% accuracy (sensitivity = 88%, specificity = 99%). We conclude that the CK-MB (IRMA) can serve as a valuable postoperative screening tet for poMI.

  18. Src homology 2 domain-based high throughput assays for profiling downstream molecules in receptor tyrosine kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Takuro; Chamnongpol, Sangpen; Jiang, Xin; Li, Xianqiang

    2006-05-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are evolutionary conserved small protein modules that bind specifically to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides. More than 100 SH2 domains have been identified in proteins encoded by the human genome. The binding specificity of these domains plays a critical role in signaling within the cell, mediating the relocalization and interaction of proteins in response to changes in tyrosine phosphorylation states. Here we developed an SH2 domain profiling method based on a multiplexed fluorescent microsphere assay in which various SH2 domains are used to probe the global state of tyrosine phosphorylation within a cell and to screen synthetic peptides that specifically bind to each SH2 domain. The multiplexed, fluorescent microsphere-based assay is a recently developed technology that can potentially detect a wide variety of interactions between biological molecules. We constructed 25-plex SH2 domain-GST fusion protein-conjugated fluorescent microsphere sets to investigate phosphorylation-mediated cell signaling through the specific binding of SH2 domains to activated target proteins. The response of HeLa, COS-1, A431, and 293 cells and four breast cancer cell lines to epidermal growth factor and insulin were quantitatively profiled using this novel microsphere-based, multiplexed, high throughput assay system. PMID:16477079

  19. Expression of the herpes thymidine kinase gene in Xenopus laevis oocytes: an assay for the study of deletion mutants constructed in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, S L; Gavis, E R

    1980-01-01

    When Xenopus laevis oocyte nuclei are injected with a recombinant plasmid containing the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (tk) gene, a 100-fold increase in tk enzymatic activity is observed. Three lines of evidence show that this increase in tk activity is a result of the expression of the HSV tk gene. First, the enzymatic activity is selectively inactivated by the IgG fraction of antiserum raised against HSV tk protein. Second, a polypeptide that comigrates with authentic HSV tk on polyacrylamide gels is synthesized uniquely by oocytes injected with the HSV tk gene. Third, the induced tk activity found in injected oocytes is capable of phosphorylating deoxycytidine, a substrate that is utilized by HSV tk but not by cellular tk. We have used these observations to establish an assay for examining the activity of mutated variants of the HSV tk gene. Two sets of deletion mutants of the tk gene were constructed in vitro. In one set varying amounts of 5' flanking and intragenic sequences are deleted. The other set is deleted at the 3' end of the gene. By testing the activity of each mutant in the oocyte injection assay we have delimited functional boundaries corresponding to the 5' and 3' termini of the HSV tk gene. Images PMID:6258155

  20. Response of phage T4 polynucleotide kinase toward dinucleotides containing apurinic sites: Design of a sup 32 P-postlabeling assay for apurinic sites in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Weinfeld, M.; Liuzzi, M.; Paterson, M.C. )

    1990-02-20

    The authors have examined the capacity of bacteriophage T4 polynucleotide kinase to phosphorylate the partially depurinated products of d-ApA, namely d-SpA and d-ApS (where S represents an apurinic deoxyribose group). It was observed that the enzyme acted only on the latter isomer. Since molecules of this type (d-NpS) are the sole apurinic site containing products resulting from the combined digestion of lightly depurinated DNA by snake venom phosphodiesterase and calf alkaline phosphatase they were able to devise a postlabeling assay for these biologically important DNA lesions. The method offers several advantages, including (a) elimination of the need for prelabeled DNA, (b) high (femtomole range) sensitivity, and (c) nearest-neighbor analysis of bases 5{prime} to apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. Using this assay, they obtained a value for the rate of depurination of form I pRSV neo plasmid DNA. The rate of depurination of poly(dA), treated in a similar fashion, was found to be {approximately}1 base per 10{sup 3} nucleotides per hour.

  1. A Rapid Phenotypic Assay for Detection of Acyclovir-Resistant Varicella-Zoster Virus with Mutations in the Thymidine Kinase Open Reading Frame

    PubMed Central

    Sahli, Roland; Andrei, Graciela; Estrade, Christine; Snoeck, Robert; Meylan, Pascal R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Susceptibility assays by cell culture methods are time-consuming and are particularly difficult to perform with varicella-zoster virus (VZV). To overcome this limitation, we have adapted a functional test of the viral thymidine kinase (TK) in TK-deficient (tdk mutant) bacteria to detect ACV-resistant VZV in clinical samples. After PCR amplification, the complete viral TK open reading frame (ORF) is purified from PCR primers, digested with two restriction enzymes, and ligated in an oriented fashion into a bacterial expression vector. The ligation products are then used to transform tdk mutant bacteria. After transformation, an aliquot of the bacteria is plated onto a plate with minimal medium containing (i) ampicillin to select for plasmids carrying the viral TK ORF and (ii) isopropyl β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) to induce its expression. An identical aliquot of bacteria is also plated onto a medium containing, in addition to the components described above, 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR). Compared to the number of transformants on FUdR-free medium, the number of colonies carrying TK derived from susceptible strains was reduced by 86%, on average, in the presence of FUdR. In contrast, the number of transformants carrying TK from resistant strains with a mutant TK were reduced by only 4%, on average, on FUdR-containing plates. We have assessed the validity of this assay with cell culture isolates and several clinical samples including two cerebrospinal fluid samples from which no virus could be isolated. This colony reduction assay allowed the correct identification of the TK phenotype of each VZV isolate tested and can be completed within 3 days of receipt of the sample. PMID:10722484

  2. Protein tyrosine kinase inhibition and cell proliferation: is the [3H]-thymidine uptake assay representative of the T-lymphocyte proliferation rate?

    PubMed

    Spinozzi, F; Pagliacci, M C; Agea, E; Migliorati, G; Riccardi, C; Bertotto, A; Nicoletti, I

    1995-01-01

    T-cell growth is controlled to a large degree by extracellular signals that bind to specific receptors on the surface of cells. A number of these receptors have intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity. Their action on second messenger generation, and thus on cell proliferation, has been indirectly demonstrated by the decrease in [3H]-thymidine (TdR) uptake that follows co-stimulation of T-cells with mitogens and PTK inhibitors such as genistein (GEN). In this paper we report that the [3H]-TdR uptake assay is not a valid and reliable tool for investigating the proliferative activity of certain T-cell lines. In fact, a concomitant assessment of both [3H]-TdR uptake and cell cycle progression demonstrated that GEN is able to block G2/M progression of Jurkat T-lymphocytes even at doses (5 micrograms/ml) that do not influence [3H]-TdR uptake. Pretreatment with sodium o-vanadate (100 nM) could not reverse the GEN-related cell cycle perturbation, but was able to restore optimal [3H]-TdR uptake. Finally, GEN treatment was able to induce concentration-dependent apoptotic cell death of Jurkat T-cells. The control of cell activation, proliferation and programmed cell death is undoubtedly influenced by receptor-associated PTKs. The final effect on cell survival is almost entirely dependent on the activation state of the cell. The [3H]-TdR uptake assay seems to be inadequate for a correct interpretation of the expected results. PMID:7655707

  3. Toward selective CK2alpha and CK2alpha' inhibitors: Development of a novel whole-cell kinase assay by Autodisplay of catalytic CK2alpha'.

    PubMed

    Bollacke, Andre; Nienberg, Christian; Le Borgne, Marc; Jose, Joachim

    2016-03-20

    Human protein kinase CK2 is an emerging target for the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutics. CK2 is a tetramer composed of two catalytically active α- and/or α'-subunits, bound to a dimer of the regulatory β-subunit. Inhibitors targeting one of the two isoforms of the catalytically active CK2-subunit (α- and α') are important to study the distinct functions of these isoforms toward different CK2 associated pathologies. The present study for the first time describes the successful Autodisplay of the CK2α'-subunit, the paralogous isoform of CK2α. Expression on the cell surface of E. coli of CK2α' alone and in combination with the regulatory CK2β-subunit was confirmed by outer membrane isolation and protease accessibility test. Kinase activity of surface displayed CK2 could be detected with a CE-based assay and was found to be 3.06×10(-6) μmol/min for CK2α' alone and 1.02×10(-5) μmol/min when expressed in combination with CK2β. The comparison of the influence of NaCl on activity of the α'-subunit alone and in combination with the non-catalytically active β-subunit indicated interaction of both subunits on the cell surface. TMCB (4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-(dimethylamino)-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl)acetic acid), a known CK2 inhibitor described with distinct Ki values of 83 nM and 21 nM for the two different catalytic CK2 subunits α and α' was used for testing. First, inhibition of TMCB toward the purified CK2 holoenzyme CK2α2β2 was determined and resulted in a Ki value of 10.1 nM. Second, Ki values were determined with the surface displayed isoform CK2 holoenzymes and turned out to be of 31.1 nM for CK2α2β2 and 19.6 nM for CK2α'2β2. The inhibition data as obtained represented the distinct affinities of TMCB toward the two isoform holoenzymes. This indicated, that the surface display of CKα and CK2α', in the context of the corresponding holoenzymes, can be used to identify selective compounds. A set of twelve ATP competitive CK2 inhibitors

  4. Novel 5-substituted-2-anilinoquinolines with 3-(morpholino or 4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propoxy moiety as broad spectrum antiproliferative agents: Synthesis, cell based assays and kinase screening.

    PubMed

    El-Damasy, Ashraf Kareem; Cho, Nam-Chul; Pae, Ae Nim; Kim, Eunice Eunkyeong; Keum, Gyochang

    2016-07-15

    A series of new 2-anilinoquinolines possessing 3-(morpholino or 4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)propoxy moiety at C5 of quinoline has been designed and synthesized as potential anticancer agents. Their antiproliferative activities were evaluated against a panel of 60 cancer cell lines at NCI and compared with gefitinib as a reference compound. Most of the tested compounds displayed potent and broad spectrum antiproliferative activities. Compounds 7d, 7f and 7g showed strong inhibitory and lethal effects at 10μM concentration. Moreover, they manifested superior potencies and efficacies than gefitinib across the most tested cell lines. Compound 7d, with 4-chloro-3-trifluoromethylphenyl group, proved to be the most potent and efficacious derivative in this series, with mean GI50 and TGI values of 1.62μM and 3.47μM, respectively. Kinase screening of 7d against a panel of 47 oncogenic kinases revealed its selective inhibitory effect (96% inhibition) towards TrkA kinase. Furthermore, the most potent compounds showed low cytotoxic effects against HFF-1 normal cell line. PMID:27241691

  5. Enzymatic Manufacture of Deoxythymidine-5'-Triphosphate with Permeable Intact Cells of E. coli Coexpressing Thymidylate Kinase and Acetate Kinase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiao; Qian, Yahui; Ding, Qingbao; Ou, Ling

    2015-12-28

    A one-pot process of enzymatic synthesis of deoxythymidine-5'-triphosphate (5'-dTTP) employing whole cells of recombinant Escherichia coli coexpressing thymidylate kinase (TMKase) and acetate kinase (ACKase) was developed. Genes tmk and ack from E. coli were cloned and inserted into pET28a(+), and then transduced into E. coli BL21 (DE3) to form recombinant strain pTA in which TMKase and ACKase were simultaneously overexpressed. It was found that the relative residual specific activities of TMKase and ACKase, in pTA pretreated with 20 mM ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) at 25°C for 30 min, were 94% and 96%, respectively. The yield of 5'-dTTP reached above 94% from 5 mM deoxythymidine 5'-monophosphate (5'-dTMP) and 15 mM acetyl phosphate catalyzed with intact cells of pTA pretreated with EDTA. The process was so effective that only 0.125 mM adenosine-5'- triphosphate was sufficient to deliver the phosphate group from acetyl phosphate to dTMP and dTDP. PMID:26370798

  6. A scintillation proximity assay for the Raf/MEK/ERK kinase cascade: high-throughput screening and identification of selective enzyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    McDonald, O B; Chen, W J; Ellis, B; Hoffman, C; Overton, L; Rink, M; Smith, A; Marshall, C J; Wood, E R

    1999-03-15

    We have developed a quantitative scintillation proximity assay (SPA) that reproduces the Raf/MEK/ERK signal transduction pathway. The components of this assay include human cRaf1, MEK1, and ERK2 and a biotinylated peptide substrate for ERK2. cRaf1 was expressed as a his-tagged protein in insect cells in an active form. MEK1 and ERK2 were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione S-transferase (GST)-fusion proteins in their inactive forms. ERK2 was removed from the GST portion of the fusion protein by cleavage with thrombin protease. When the purified components are incubated together, cRaf-1 phosphorylates and activates MEK1, MEK1 phosphorylates and activates ERK2, and ERK2 phosphorylates the peptide, biotin-AAATGPLSPGPFA. Phosphorylation of the peptide using [gamma-33P]ATP is detected following binding to streptavidin-coated SPA beads. The assay detects inhibitors of cRaf1, MEK1, or ERK2, and has been used to screen large numbers of compounds. The specific target of inhibition was subsequently identified with secondary assays described herein. PMID:10075822

  7. Molecular cloning of the duck mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) gene and the development of a quantitative real-time PCR assay to detect its expression.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shoulin; Han, Xiangan; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Tian, Mingxing; Wang, Xiaolan; Hou, Wanwan; Yue, Jiaping; Wang, Guijun; Yu, Shengqing

    2014-09-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1) acts as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and is involved in a wide variety of biological processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation, transcription regulation, and development. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 plays an important role in inducing cell death in bacterial infections. In this study, the duck MAPK1 gene was cloned for the first time from the Cherry Valley duck. Sequence analysis showed that duck MAPK1 cDNA is 1,557 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1,107 bp. It encodes 368 amino acids, with 85.4, 84.5, and 97.3% homology with the human, mouse, and chicken MAPK1 gene, respectively. Furthermore, a SYBR Green quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to detect duck MAPK1 expression. Following Riemerella anatipestifer infection by virulent strain Yb2, MAPK1 mRNA level increased more than 200-fold in the duck spleens, suggesting that increased duck MAPK1 expression can be used as an indicator of bacterial infection. Our results provide ground work to warrant further studies of the duck MAPK1 gene in bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24974389

  8. Identification of Human IKK-2 Inhibitors of Natural Origin (Part I): Modeling of the IKK-2 Kinase Domain, Virtual Screening and Activity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Esther; Guasch, Laura; Iwaszkiewicz, Justyna; Mulero, Miquel; Salvadó, Maria-Josepa; Pinent, Montserrat; Zoete, Vincent; Grosdidier, Aurélien; Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Michielin, Olivier; Pujadas, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Background Their large scaffold diversity and properties, such as structural complexity and drug similarity, form the basis of claims that natural products are ideal starting points for drug design and development. Consequently, there has been great interest in determining whether such molecules show biological activity toward protein targets of pharmacological relevance. One target of particular interest is hIKK-2, a serine-threonine protein kinase belonging to the IKK complex that is the primary component responsible for activating NF-κB in response to various inflammatory stimuli. Indeed, this has led to the development of synthetic ATP-competitive inhibitors for hIKK-2. Therefore, the main goals of this study were (a) to use virtual screening to identify potential hIKK-2 inhibitors of natural origin that compete with ATP and (b) to evaluate the reliability of our virtual-screening protocol by experimentally testing the in vitro activity of selected natural-product hits. Methodology/Principal Findings We thus predicted that 1,061 out of the 89,425 natural products present in the studied database would inhibit hIKK-2 with good ADMET properties. Notably, when these 1,061 molecules were merged with the 98 synthetic hIKK-2 inhibitors used in this study and the resulting set was classified into ten clusters according to chemical similarity, there were three clusters that contained only natural products. Five molecules from these three clusters (for which no anti-inflammatory activity has been previously described) were then selected for in vitro activity testing, in which three out of the five molecules were shown to inhibit hIKK-2. Conclusions/Significance We demonstrated that our virtual-screening protocol was successful in identifying lead compounds for developing new inhibitors for hIKK-2, a target of great interest in medicinal chemistry. Additionally, all the tools developed during the current study (i.e., the homology model for the hIKK-2 kinase domain and

  9. The split Renilla luciferase complementation assay is useful for identifying the interaction of Epstein-Barr virus protein kinase BGLF4 and a heat shock protein Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Guo, W; Long, C; Zhou, H; Wang, H; Sun, X

    2016-03-01

    Protein-protein interactions can regulate different cellular processes, such as transcription, translation, and oncogenic transformation. The split Renilla luciferase complementation assay (SRLCA) is one of the techniques that detect protein-protein interactions. The SRLCA is based on the complementation of the LN and LC non-functional halves of Renilla luciferase fused to possibly interacting proteins which after interaction form a functional enzyme and emit luminescence. The BGLF4 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a viral protein kinase that is expressed during the early and late stages of lytic cycles, which can regulate multiple cellular and viral substrates to optimize the DNA replication environment. The heat shock protein Hsp90 is a molecular chaperone that maintains the integrity of structure and function of various interacting proteins, which can form a complex with BGLF4 and stabilize its expression in cells. The interaction between BGLF4 and Hsp90 could be specifically detected through the SRLCA. The region of aa 250-295 of BGLF4 is essential for the BGLF4/Hsp90 interaction and the mutation of Phe-254, Leu-266, and Leu-267 can disrupt this interaction. These results suggest that the SRLCA can specifically detect the BGLF4/Hsp90 interaction and provide a reference to develop inhibitors that disrupt the BGLF4/Hsp90 interaction. PMID:26982469

  10. Assay for mutagenesis in heterozygous diploid human lymphoblasts

    DOEpatents

    Skopek, Thomas R.; Liber, Howard L.; Penman, Bruce W.; Thilly, William G.; Hoppe, IV, Henry

    1981-01-01

    An assay is disclosed for determining mutagenic damage caused by the administration of a known or suspected mutagen to diploid human lymphoblastoid cell lines. The gene locus employed for this assay is the gene for thymidine kinase, uridine kinase, or cytidine deaminase. Since human lymphoblastoid cells contain two genes for these enzymes, heterozygotes of human lymphoblastoid cells are used in this assay.

  11. Serological thymidine kinase 1 is a biomarker for early detection of tumours--a health screening study on 35,365 people, using a sensitive chemiluminescent dot blot assay.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi Heng; Huang, Shou Qing; Wang, Yande; Yang, Ai Zhen; Wen, Jian; Xu, Xiao Hong; Chen, Yan; Chen, Qu Bo; Wang, Ying Hong; He, Ellen; Zhou, Ji; Skog, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Serological thymidine kinase 1 (STK1) is a reliable proliferation marker for prognosis, monitoring tumour therapy, and relapse. Here we investigated the use of STK1 in health screening for early detection of pre-malignant and malignant diseases. The investigation was based on 35,365 participants in four independent health screening studies in China between 2005-2011. All participants were clinically examined. The concentration of STK1 was determined by a sensitive chemiluminescent dot blot ECL assay. The ROCvalue of the STK1 assay was 0.96. At a cut-off STK1 value of 2.0 pM, the likelihood (+) value was 236.5, and the sensitivity and the specificity were 0.78 and 0.99, respectively. The relative number of city-dwelling people with elevated STK1 values (≥2.0 pM) was 0.8% (198/26,484), while the corresponding value for the group of oil-field workers was 5.8% (514/8,355). The latter group expressed significantly higher frequency of refractory anaemia, fatty liver, and obesity, compared to the city dwellers, but no cases of breast hyperplasia or prostate hyperplasia. Furthermore, people working in oil drilling/oil transportation showed higher STK1 values and higher frequency of pre-malignancies and benign diseases than people working in the oil-field administration. In the STK1 elevated group of the city-dwelling people, a statistically significantly higher number of people were found to have malignancies, pre-malignancies of all types, moderate/severe type of hyperplasia of breast or prostate, or refractory anaemia, or to be at high risk for hepatitis B, compared to people with normal STK1 values (<2.0 pM). No malignancies were found in the normal STK1 group. In the elevated STK1 group 85.4% showed diseases linked to a higher risk for pre-/early cancerous progression, compared to 52.4% of those with normal STK1 values. Among participants with elevated STK1 values, 8.8% developed new malignancies or progress in their pre-malignancies within 5 to 72 months, compared

  12. Seeding collaborations to advance kinase science with the GSK Published Kinase Inhibitor Set (PKIS).

    PubMed

    Drewry, David H; Willson, Timothy M; Zuercher, William J

    2014-01-01

    To catalyze research on historically untargeted protein kinases, we created the PKIS, an annotated set of 367 small molecule kinase inhibitors. The set has been widely distributed to academic collaborators as an open access tool. It has been used to identify chemical starting points for development of chemical probes for orphan kinases and to investigate kinase signaling in high content phenotypic assays. Access to the set comes with few restrictions other than the requirement that assay results be released into the public domain for the benefit of the entire research community. Examples from the efforts of several collaborators are summarized. PMID:24283969

  13. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  14. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  15. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  18. Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpI by mammalian casein kinase II and casein kinase I

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, C.; Jackson, W. ); Traugh, J.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpI is the predominant viral glycoprotein within the plasma membranes of infected cells. This viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated on its polypeptide backbone during biosynthesis. In this report, the authors investigated the protein kinases which participate in the phosphorylation events. Under in vivo conditions, VZV gpI was phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by protein kinases present within lysates of either VZV-infected or uninfected cells. Because this activity was diminished by heparin, a known inhibitor of casein kinase II, isolated gpI was incubated with purified casein kinase II and shown to be phosphorylated in an in vitro assay containing ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. The same glycoprotein was phosphorylated when ({sup 32}P)GTP was substituted for ({sup 32}P)ATP in the protein kinase assay. They also tested whether VZV gpI was phosphorylated by two other ubiquitous mammalian protein kinases--casein kinase I and cyclic AMP-dependent kinase--and found that only casein kinase I modified gpI. When the predicted 623-amino-acid sequence of gpI was examined, two phosphorylation sites known to be optimal for casein kinase II were observed. In summary, this study showed that VZV gpI was phosphorylated by each of two mammalian protein kinases (casein kinase I and casein kinase II) and that potential serine-threonine phosphorylation sites for each of these two kinases were present in the viral glycoprotein.

  19. Oncoprotein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2001-02-27

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Fluorescence polarization assays in signal transduction discovery.

    PubMed

    Sportsman, J Richard; Daijo, Janet; Gaudet, Elizabeth A

    2003-05-01

    Fluorescence polarization (FP) has become widely employed for high throughput screening used in pharmaceutical drug discovery. Assays of important signal transduction targets are now adapted to FP. In this review we examine assays for cyclic adenosine monophosphate, phosphodiesterases, and protein kinases and phosphatases using FP competitive immunoassays and a direct enzymatic method called IMAP. PMID:12678698

  1. Topoisomerase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nitiss, John L.; Soans, Eroica; Rogojina, Anna; Seth, Aman; Mishina, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that play essential roles in DNA replication, transcription, chromosome segregation, and recombination. All cells have two major forms of topoisomerases: type I, which makes single-stranded cuts in DNA, and type II enzymes, which cut and pass double-stranded DNA. DNA topoisomerases are important targets of approved and experimental anti-cancer agents. The protocols described in this unit are of assays used to assess new chemical entities for their ability to inhibit both forms of DNA topoisomerase. Included are an in vitro assay for topoisomerase I activity based on relaxation of supercoiled DNA and an assay for topoisomerase II based on the decatenation of double-stranded DNA. The preparation of mammalian cell extracts for assaying topoisomerase activity is described, along with a protocol for an ICE assay for examining topoisomerase covalent complexes in vivo and an assay for measuring DNA cleavage in vitro. PMID:22684721

  2. Multiplexed tyrosine kinase activity detection in cancer cells using hydrogel immobilized substrate

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Alicia D.; Han, Wenquing; Liu, Bi; Palecek, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Kinases play a key role in cellular signaling, and the overactivation or overexpression of these kinases has been linked to a variety of cancers. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors treat the mechanism of these cancers by targeting the specific kinases that are overactive. Some patients, however, do not respond to these inhibitors or develop resistance to these inhibitors during treatment. Additionally, even within cancers of the same tissue type, different kinases may be overactive in different patients. For example, some lung cancers overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and respond to EGFR inhibitors, while other lung cancers do not overexpress EGFR and receive no benefit from this treatment. Even among patients exhibiting EGFR overexpression, some do not respond to EGFR kinase inhibitors because other kinases, such as Met kinase, are also overactivated. Here we describe a quantitative and specific multiplexed microfluidic assay using a hydrogel immobilized substrate for measuring the kinase activity of Met and Abl kinase from cancer cells. We immobilized kinase specific substrates into macroporous hydrogel micropillars in microchannels. These microchannels were incubated with 6 µl of a kinase reaction solution containing cancer cell lysate and measured kinase activity via fluorescence detection of a phosphotyrosine antibody. We showed that the assay can specifically measure the activity of both Met and Abl kinase within one microchannel with potential to measure the activity of as many as 5 kinases within one microchannel. The assay also detected Met kinase inhibition from lysates of cancer cells grown in the Met kinase inhibitor PHA665752. PMID:23624904

  3. Immobilized metal ion affinity-based fluorescence polarization (IMAP): advances in kinase screening.

    PubMed

    Sportsman, J Richard; Gaudet, Elizabeth A; Boge, Annegret

    2004-04-01

    The IMAP Fluorescence Polarization technology is a homogeneous antibody-free method for analysis of kinases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases. Recent developments to the technology include an enhancement of the reagent system (the Progressive Binding System) that significantly expands the range of useable concentrations of ATP, choices of substrates, and assay configurations. With the new Progressive System, we are able to design multiplexed assays that allow the simultaneous determination of multiple kinase activities. In addition, coupled assays are now possible, allowing the assay of kinases through natural or artificial coupling through kinase cascades. PMID:15165516

  4. Plant protein kinase substrates identification using protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shisong; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases regulate signaling pathways by phosphorylating their targets. They play critical roles in plant signaling networks. Although many important protein kinases have been identified in plants, their substrates are largely unknown. We have developed and produced plant protein microarrays with more than 15,000 purified plant proteins. Here, we describe a detailed protocol to use these microarrays to identify plant protein kinase substrates via in vitro phosphorylation assays on these arrays. PMID:25930701

  5. Identification of four plastid-localized protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andreas S; Gartmann, Hans; Fechler, Mona; Rödiger, Anja; Baginsky, Sacha; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    In chloroplasts, protein phosphorylation regulates important processes, including metabolism, photosynthesis, gene expression, and signaling. Because the hitherto known plastid protein kinases represent only a fraction of existing kinases, we aimed at the identification of novel plastid-localized protein kinases that potentially phosphorylate enzymes of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis (TBS) pathway. We screened publicly available databases for proteins annotated as putative protein kinase family proteins with predicted chloroplast localization. Additionally, we analyzed chloroplast fractions which were separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation by mass spectrometry. We identified four new candidates for protein kinases, which were confirmed to be plastid localized by expression of GFP-fusion proteins in tobacco leaves. A phosphorylation assay with the purified kinases confirmed the protein kinase activity for two of them. PMID:27214872

  6. Novel cinnoline-based inhibitors of LRRK2 kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Albert W; Adler, Marc; Aubele, Danielle L; Bowers, Simeon; Franzini, Maurizio; Goldbach, Erich; Lorentzen, Colin; Neitz, R Jeffrey; Probst, Gary D; Quinn, Kevin P; Santiago, Pam; Sham, Hing L; Tam, Danny; Truong, Anh P; Ye, Xiaocong M; Ren, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity is a therapeutic approach that may lead to new treatments for PD. Herein we report the discovery of a series of cinnoline-3-carboxamides that are potent against both wild-type and mutant LRRK2 kinase activity in biochemical assays. These compounds are also shown to be potent inhibitors in a cellular assay and to have good to excellent CNS penetration. PMID:23219325

  7. Helicase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Jing; Diaz, Jason; You, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Helicases are a class of enzymes which are motor proteins using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to move directionally along a nucliec acid phosphodiester backbone (such as DNA, RNA and DNA-RNA hybrids) and separate two annealed nucleic acid strands. Many cellular processes, such as transcription, DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair involve helicase activity. Here, we provide a protocol to analyze helicase activities in vitro. In this protocol, the DNA helicase protein Merkel cell polyomavirus large T-antigen was expressed in the mammalian cell line HEK293 and immoblized on an IgG resin. The helicase assay is performing while the protein is immoblized on IgG resin.

  8. Angiogenesis Assays.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis. PMID:26608294

  9. Evaluation of Kinase Activity Profiling Using Chemical Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Ruprecht, Benjamin; Zecha, Jana; Heinzlmeir, Stephanie; Médard, Guillaume; Lemeer, Simone; Kuster, Bernhard

    2015-12-18

    Protein kinases are important mediators of intracellular signaling and are reversibly activated by phosphorylation. Immobilized kinase inhibitors can be used to enrich these often low-abundance proteins, to identify targets of kinase inhibitors, or to probe their selectivity. It has been suggested that the binding of kinases to affinity beads reflects a kinase's activation status, a concept that is under considerable debate. To assess the merits of the idea, we performed a series of experiments including quantitative phosphoproteomics and purification of kinases by single or mixed affinity matrices from signaling activated or resting cancer cells. The data show that mixed affinity beads largely bind kinases independent of their activation status, and experiments using individual immobilized kinase inhibitors show mixed results in terms of preference for binding the active or inactive conformation. Taken together, activity- or conformation-dependent binding to such affinity resins depends (i) on the kinase, (ii) on the affinity probe, and (iii) on the activation status of the lysate or cell. As a result, great caution should be exercised when inferring kinase activity from such binding data. The results also suggest that assaying kinase activity using binding data is restricted to a limited number of well-chosen cases. PMID:26378887

  10. Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationships of novel biarylamine-based Met kinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, David K; Chen, Xiao-Tao; Tarby, Christine; Kaltenbach, Robert; Cai, Zhen-Wei; Tokarski, John S; An, Yongmi; Sack, John S; Wautlet, Barri; Gullo-Brown, Johnni; Henley, Benjamin J; Jeyaseelan, Robert; Kellar, Kristen; Manne, Veeraswamy; Trainor, George L; Lombardo, Louis J; Fargnoli, Joseph; Borzilleri, Robert M

    2010-09-03

    Biarylamine-based inhibitors of Met kinase have been identified. Lead compounds demonstrate nanomolar potency in Met kinase biochemical assays and significant activity in the Met-driven GTL-16 human gastric carcinoma cell line. X-ray crystallography revealed that these compounds adopt a bioactive conformation, in the kinase domain, consistent with that previously seen with 2-pyridone-based Met kinase inhibitors. Compound 9b demonstrated potent in vivo antitumor activity in the GTL-16 human tumor xenograft model.

  11. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C; Muskal, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  12. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C.; Muskal, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  13. Discovery of selective RIO2 kinase small molecule ligand.

    PubMed

    Varin, Thibault; Godfrey, Alexander G; Masquelin, Thierry; Nicolaou, Christos A; Evans, David A; Vieth, Michal

    2015-10-01

    We report the discovery and initial optimization of diphenpyramide and several of its analogs as hRIO2 kinase ligands. One of these analogs is the most selective hRIO2 ligand reported to date. Diphenpyramide is a Cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 inhibitor that was used as an anti-inflammatory agent. The RIO2 kinase affinity of diphenpyramide was discovered by serendipity while profiling of 13 marketed drugs on a large 456 kinase assay panel. The inhibition values also suggested a relative selectivity of diphenpyramide for RIO2 against the other kinases in the panel. Subsequently three available and eight newly synthesized analogs were assayed, one of which showed a 10 fold increased hRIO2 binding affinity. Additionally, this compound shows significantly better selectivity over assayed kinases, when compared to currently known RIO2 inhibitors. As RIO2 is involved in the biosynthesis of the ribosome and cell cycle regulation, our selective ligand may be useful for the delineation of the biological role of this kinase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases. PMID:25891899

  14. Prokaryotic Diacylglycerol Kinase and Undecaprenol Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Wade D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) and undecaprenol kinase (UDPK) are the lone members of a family of multispan membrane enzymes that are very small, lack relationships to any other family of proteins—including water soluble kinases, and that exhibit an unusual structure and active site architecture. Escherichia coli DAGK plays an important role in recycling diacylglycerol produced as a byproduct of biosynthesis of molecules located in the periplasmic space. UDPK seems to play an analogous role in Gram-positive bacteria, where its importance is evident by the fact that UDPK is essential for biofilm formation by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. DAGK has also long served as a model system for studies of membrane protein biocatalysis, folding, stability, and structure. This review explores our current understanding of the microbial physiology, enzymology, structural biology, and folding of the prokaryotic diacylglycerol kinase family, which is based on over 40 years of studies. PMID:22224599

  15. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  16. KEA: kinase enrichment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Alexander; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Multivariate experiments applied to mammalian cells often produce lists of proteins/genes altered under treatment versus control conditions. Such lists can be projected onto prior knowledge of kinase–substrate interactions to infer the list of kinases associated with a specific protein list. By computing how the proportion of kinases, associated with a specific list of proteins/genes, deviates from an expected distribution, we can rank kinases and kinase families based on the likelihood that these kinases are functionally associated with regulating the cell under specific experimental conditions. Such analysis can assist in producing hypotheses that can explain how the kinome is involved in the maintenance of different cellular states and can be manipulated to modulate cells towards a desired phenotype. Summary: Kinase enrichment analysis (KEA) is a web-based tool with an underlying database providing users with the ability to link lists of mammalian proteins/genes with the kinases that phosphorylate them. The system draws from several available kinase–substrate databases to compute kinase enrichment probability based on the distribution of kinase–substrate proportions in the background kinase–substrate database compared with kinases found to be associated with an input list of genes/proteins. Availability: The KEA system is freely available at http://amp.pharm.mssm.edu/lib/kea.jsp Contact: avi.maayan@mssm.edu PMID:19176546

  17. In Vitro Characterization of Derrone as an Aurora Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Nhung Thi My; Phuong, Thuong Thien; Nguyen, Trang Thi Nhu; Tran, Yen Thi Hai; Nguyen, Anh Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Thanh Lai; Bui, Khanh Thi Van

    2016-06-01

    Among mitotic kinases, Aurora kinases are the most widely studied, since their expression is restricted to mitosis. They play a key role in chromosome segregation and cell polyploidy. Aurora kinases are important therapeutic targets, and several research groups have directed their efforts toward the identification of kinase inhibitors. The aim of this study is to screen and characterize Aurora kinase inhibitors from natural substances extracted from plants that are used in the Vietnamese pharmacopoeia. We have characterized in vitro Derrone, extracted from Erythrina orientalis L. MURR, as a novel Aurora kinase inhibitor. This compound exhibited an ability to inhibit the phosphorylation of histone H3 at ser10 both in kinase assay and at the cellular level. The compound was more effective against Aurora kinase B, with a lower IC50 value as compared to Aurora A. Moreover, it impaired the mitotic spindle checkpoint and led to endoreduplication in cancer cells, a phenomenon caused by an Aurora B inhibitor. Interestingly, using the xCelligence system and real-time cell analysis (RTCA) software, we set up a comparison of cell proliferation profiles between cancer cells treated with Derrone and VX680-a well-known Aurora kinase inhibitor-and we found that these profiles exhibited considerable similarity in cell morphology, growth, and death. Additionally, Derrone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of MCF7 tumor spheroids. PMID:26983907

  18. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Dobrinic, Paula; Macek, Boris; Franjevic, Damjan; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Francoise; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD, and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells. PMID:25278935

  19. From Phosphosites to Kinases.

    PubMed

    Munk, Stephanie; Refsgaard, Jan C; Olsen, Jesper V; Jensen, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a pivotal role in propagating the phosphorylation-mediated signaling networks in living cells. With the overwhelming quantities of phosphoproteomics data being generated, the number of identified phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) is ever increasing. Often, proteomics investigations aim to understand the global signaling modulation that takes place in different biological conditions investigated. For phosphoproteomics data, identifying the kinases central to mediating this response is key. This has prompted several efforts to catalogue the immense amounts of phosphorylation data and known or predicted kinases responsible for the modifications. However, barely 20 % of the known phosphosites are assigned to a kinase, initiating various bioinformatics efforts that attempt to predict the responsible kinases. These algorithms employ different approaches to predict kinase consensus sequence motifs, mostly based on large scale in vivo and in vitro experiments. The context of the kinase and the phosphorylated proteins in a biological system is equally important for predicting association between the enzymes and substrates, an aspect that is also being tackled with available bioinformatics tools. This chapter summarizes the use of the larger phosphorylation databases, and approaches that can be applied to predict kinases that phosphorylate individual sites or that are globally modulated in phosphoproteomics datasets. PMID:26584935

  20. A Novel Mode of Protein Kinase Inhibition Exploiting Hydrophobic Motifs of Autoinhibited Kinases

    SciTech Connect

    S Eathiraj; R Palma; M Hirschi; E Volckova; E Nakuci; J Castro; C Chen; T Chan; D France; M Ashwell

    2011-12-31

    Protein kinase inhibitors with enhanced selectivity can be designed by optimizing binding interactions with less conserved inactive conformations because such inhibitors will be less likely to compete with ATP for binding and therefore may be less impacted by high intracellular concentrations of ATP. Analysis of the ATP-binding cleft in a number of inactive protein kinases, particularly in the autoinhibited conformation, led to the identification of a previously undisclosed non-polar region in this cleft. This ATP-incompatible hydrophobic region is distinct from the previously characterized hydrophobic allosteric back pocket, as well as the main pocket. Generalized hypothetical models of inactive kinases were constructed and, for the work described here, we selected the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase family as a case study. Initial optimization of a FGFR2 inhibitor identified from a library of commercial compounds was guided using structural information from the model. We describe the inhibitory characteristics of this compound in biophysical, biochemical, and cell-based assays, and have characterized the binding mode using x-ray crystallographic studies. The results demonstrate, as expected, that these inhibitors prevent activation of the autoinhibited conformation, retain full inhibitory potency in the presence of physiological concentrations of ATP, and have favorable inhibitory activity in cancer cells. Given the widespread regulation of kinases by autoinhibitory mechanisms, the approach described herein provides a new paradigm for the discovery of inhibitors by targeting inactive conformations of protein kinases.

  1. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mirshafiey, Abbas; Ghalamfarsa, Ghasem; Asghari, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of signal transduction pathways that mediate cell-to-cell communication and their function as relay points for signaling pathways. They have a key role in numerous processes that control cellular proliferation and differentiation, regulate cell growth and cellular metabolism, and promote cell survival and apoptosis. Recently, the role of RTKs including TCR, FLT-3, c-Kit, c-Fms, PDGFR, ephrin, neurotrophin receptor, and TAM receptor in autoimmune disorder, especially rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis has been suggested. In multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, RTKs and their tyrosine kinase enzymes are selective important targets for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) agents. TKIs, compete with the ATP binding site of the catalytic domain of several tyrosine kinases, and act as small molecules that have a favorable safety profile in disease treatment. Up to now, the efficacy of TKIs in numerous animal models of MS has been demonstrated, but application of these drugs in human diseases should be tested in future clinical trials. PMID:25337443

  2. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... break down faster than normal, a condition called hemolytic anemia . This test helps diagnose pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) . ... Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 32. Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias: red cell membrane and metabolic defects In: Goldman ...

  3. Autophosphorylation Activity of a Soluble Hexameric Histidine Kinase Correlates with the Shift in Protein Conformational Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Wojnowska, Marta; Yan, Jun; Sivalingam, Ganesh N.; Cryar, Adam; Gor, Jayesh; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Djordjevic, Snezana

    2013-01-01

    Summary In a commonly accepted model, in response to stimuli, bacterial histidine kinases undergo a conformational transition between an active and inactive form. Structural information on histidine kinases is limited. By using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), we demonstrate an exchange between two conformational populations of histidine kinase ExsG that are linked to different levels of kinase activity. ExsG is an atypical signaling protein that incorporates an uncommon histidine kinase catalytic core at the C terminus preceded by an N-terminal “receiver domain” that is normally associated with the response regulator proteins in two-component signal transduction systems. IM-MS analysis and enzymatic assays indicate that phosphorylation of the ExsG receiver domain stabilizes the “compact” form of the protein and inhibits kinase core activity; in contrast, nucleotide binding required for kinase activity is associated with the more open conformation of ExsG. PMID:24210218

  4. Pyruvate Kinase M2 Regulates Gene Transcription by Acting as A Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xueliang; Wang, Haizhen; Jenny, J. Yang; Liu, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is a glycolysis enzyme catalyzing conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to pyruvate with transferring a phosphate from PEP to ADP. We report here that PKM2 localizes to the cell nucleus. The levels of nuclear PKM2 correlate with cell proliferation. PKM2 activates transcription of MEK5 by phosphorylating stat3 at Y705. In vitro phosphorylation assays show that PKM2 is a protein kinase using PEP as phosphate donor. ADP competes with the protein substrate binding, indicating that the substrate may bind to the ADP site of PKM2. Our experiments suggest that PKM2 dimer is an active protein kinase, while the tetramer is an active pyruvate kinase. Expression a PKM2 mutant that exists as a dimer promotes cell proliferation, indicating that protein kinase activity of PKM2 plays a role in promoting cell proliferation. Our study reveals an important link between metabolism alteration and gene expression during tumor transformation and progression. PMID:22306293

  5. Activity-based kinase profiling of approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daisuke; Yokota, Koichi; Gouda, Masaki; Narumi, Yugo; Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Nishiwaki, Eiji; Akita, Kensaku; Kirii, Yasuyuki

    2013-02-01

    The specificities of nine approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, lapatinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, and pazopanib) were determined by activity-based kinase profiling using a large panel of human recombinant active kinases. This panel consisted of 79 tyrosine kinases, 199 serine/threonine kinases, three lipid kinases, and 29 disease-relevant mutant kinases. Many potential targets of each inhibitor were identified by kinase profiling at the K(m) for ATP. In addition, profiling at a physiological ATP concentration (1 mm) was carried out, and the IC(50) values of the inhibitors against each kinase were compared with the estimated plasma-free concentration (calculated from published pharmacokinetic parameters of plasma C(trough) and C(max) values). This analysis revealed that the approved kinase inhibitors were well optimized for their target kinases. This profiling also implicates activity at particular off-target kinases in drug side effects. Thus, large-scale kinase profiling at both K(m) and physiological ATP concentrations could be useful in characterizing the targets and off-targets of kinase inhibitors. PMID:23279183

  6. Enhanced expression of thymidine kinase in human cells following ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Boothman, D.A.; Davis, T.W.; Sahijdak, W.M.

    1994-09-30

    We investigated the induction of thymidine kinase transcription and enzymatic activity, and the activation of transcription factors binding to the thymidine kinase promoter, in human normal compared to tumor cells in culture before and after ionizing radiation. Northern blot, dot-blot, and thymidine kinase enzyme assays were used to observe thymidine kinase transcript and enzymatic changes before and after radiation. Temporal expression of thymidine kinase transcripts following an optimal induction dose of radiation was also studied. Gel mobility shift assays were performed using a 95-base pair fragment of the thymidine kinase promoter (containing the CCAAT box) to analyze transcription factor binding. Thymidine kinase transcript and enzymatic levels were higher in human tumor compared to normal cells. In contrast, levels of x-ray-activated thymidine kinase transcription factors were not significantly different in human neoplastic compared to normal cells. Elevated x-ray-induced thymidine kinase transcripts, enzymatic levels, and transcription factors are consistent with the loss of stringent cell growth regulation associated with neoplastic cells. The induction of thymidine kinase following ionizing radiation may be exploited in chemotherapeutic strategies which use halogenated pyrimidines and/or in various gene therapy strategies. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Global Analysis of Human Nonreceptor Tyrosine Kinase Specificity Using High-Density Peptide Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases phosphorylate substrates in the context of specific phosphorylation site sequence motifs. The knowledge of the specific sequences that are recognized by kinases is useful for mapping sites of phosphorylation in protein substrates and facilitates the generation of model substrates to monitor kinase activity. Here, we have adapted a positional scanning peptide library method to a microarray format that is suitable for the rapid determination of phosphorylation site motifs for tyrosine kinases. Peptide mixtures were immobilized on glass slides through a layer of a tyrosine-free Y33F mutant avidin to facilitate the analysis of phosphorylation by radiolabel assay. A microarray analysis provided qualitatively similar results in comparison with the solution phase peptide library “macroarray” method. However, much smaller quantities of kinases were required to phosphorylate peptides on the microarrays, which thus enabled a proteome scale analysis of kinase specificity. We illustrated this capability by microarray profiling more than 80% of the human nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). Microarray results were used to generate a universal NRTK substrate set of 11 consensus peptides for in vitro kinase assays. Several substrates were highly specific for their cognate kinases, which should facilitate their incorporation into kinase-selective biosensors. PMID:25164267

  8. Continuous spectrophotometric assay for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Chang, G G; Pan, F; Lin, Y H; Wang, H Y

    1984-11-01

    A simple, continuous assay for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases utilizing a commercially available pyrophosphate assay reagent kit was demonstrated. The method coupled aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity with pyrophosphate-dependent fructose-6-phosphate kinase, aldolase, triosephosphate isomerase, and glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. PPi formation was correlated with the oxidation of NADH, and was monitored continuously by the decrease of absorbance at 340 nm. PMID:6099060

  9. Peptide biosensors for the electrochemical measurement of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kerman, Kagan; Song, Haifeng; Duncan, James S; Litchfield, David W; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2008-12-15

    The kinase activities are elucidated using the novel redox-active cosubstrate adenosine 5'-[gamma-ferrocene] triphosphate (Fc-ATP), which enables the kinase-catalyzed transfer of a redox active gamma-phosphate-Fc to a hydroxyamino acid. In this report, a versatile electrochemical biosensor is developed for monitoring the activity and inhibition of a serine/threonine kinase, casein kinase 2 (CK2), and protein tyrosine kinases, Abl1-T315I and HER2, in buffered solutions and in cell lysates. The method is based on the labeling of a specific phosphorylation event with Fc, followed by electrochemical detection. The electrochemical response obtained from the "ferrocenylated" peptides enables monitoring the activity of the kinase and its substrate, as well as the inhibition of small molecule inhibitors on protein phosphorylation. Kinetic information was extracted from the electrochemical measurements for the determination of K(m) and V(m) values, which were in agreement with those previously reported. Kinase reactions were also performed in the presence of well-defined inhibitors of CK2, 4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-2-azabenzimidazole, 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole, and E-3-(2,3,4,5-tetrabromophenyl)acrylic acid as well as the nonspecific kinase inhibitors, staurosporine and N-benzoylstaurosporine. On the basis of the dependency of the Fc signal on inhibitor concentration, K(i) of the inhibitors was estimated, which were also in agreement with the literature values. The performance of the biosensor was optimized including the kinase reaction, incubation with Fc-ATP, and the small molecule inhibitors. Peptide modified electrochemical biosensors are promising candidates for cost-effective in vitro kinase activity and inhibitor screening assays. PMID:18989981

  10. OTSSP167 Abrogates Mitotic Checkpoint through Inhibiting Multiple Mitotic Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Aaron R.; Bekier, Michael E.; Taylor, William R.; Yen, Tim J.; Liu, Song-Tao

    2016-01-01

    OTSSP167 was recently characterized as a potent inhibitor for maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) and is currently tested in Phase I clinical trials for solid tumors that have not responded to other treatment. Here we report that OTSSP167 abrogates the mitotic checkpoint at concentrations used to inhibit MELK. The abrogation is not recapitulated by RNAi mediated silencing of MELK in cells. Although OTSSP167 indeed inhibits MELK, it exhibits off-target activity against Aurora B kinase in vitro and in cells. Furthermore, OTSSP167 inhibits BUB1 and Haspin kinases, reducing phosphorylation at histones H2AT120 and H3T3 and causing mislocalization of Aurora B and associated chromosomal passenger complex from the centromere/kinetochore. The results suggest that OTSSP167 may have additional mechanisms of action for cancer cell killing and caution the use of OTSSP167 as a MELK specific kinase inhibitor in biochemical and cellular assays. PMID:27082996

  11. OTSSP167 Abrogates Mitotic Checkpoint through Inhibiting Multiple Mitotic Kinases.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenbin; Arnst, Christopher; Tipton, Aaron R; Bekier, Michael E; Taylor, William R; Yen, Tim J; Liu, Song-Tao

    2016-01-01

    OTSSP167 was recently characterized as a potent inhibitor for maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) and is currently tested in Phase I clinical trials for solid tumors that have not responded to other treatment. Here we report that OTSSP167 abrogates the mitotic checkpoint at concentrations used to inhibit MELK. The abrogation is not recapitulated by RNAi mediated silencing of MELK in cells. Although OTSSP167 indeed inhibits MELK, it exhibits off-target activity against Aurora B kinase in vitro and in cells. Furthermore, OTSSP167 inhibits BUB1 and Haspin kinases, reducing phosphorylation at histones H2AT120 and H3T3 and causing mislocalization of Aurora B and associated chromosomal passenger complex from the centromere/kinetochore. The results suggest that OTSSP167 may have additional mechanisms of action for cancer cell killing and caution the use of OTSSP167 as a MELK specific kinase inhibitor in biochemical and cellular assays. PMID:27082996

  12. Graphene oxide-peptide nanocomplex as a versatile fluorescence probe of protein kinase activity based on phosphorylation protection against carboxypeptidase digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiang; Xu, Xiahong; Liu, Wei; Liu, Xin; Nie, Zhou; Qing, Meng; Nie, Lihua; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2013-06-18

    The research on complicated kinomics and kinase-target drug discovery requires the development of simple, cost-effective, and multiplex kinase assays. Herein, we propose a novel and versatile biosensing platform for the detection of protein kinase activity based on graphene oxide (GO)-peptide nanocomplex and phosphorylation-induced suppression of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) cleavage. Kinase-catalyzed phosphorylation protects the fluorophore-labeled peptide probe against CPY digestion and induces the formation of a GO/peptide nanocomplex resulting in fluorescence quenching, while the nonphosphopeptide is degraded by CPY to release free fluorophore as well as restore fluorescence. This GO-based nanosensor has been successfully applied to sensitively detect two model kinases, casein kinase (CKII) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) with low detection limits of 0.0833 mU/μL and 0.134 mU/μL, respectively. The feasibility of this GO-based sensor was further demonstrated by the assessment of kinase inhibition by staurosporine and H-89, in vitro kinase assay in cell lysates, and simultaneous detection of CKII and PKA activity. Moreover, the GO-based fluorescence anisotropy (FA) kinase assay has been also developed using GO as a FA signal amplifier. The proposed sensor is homogeneous, facile, universal, label-free, and applicable for multiplexed kinase assay, presenting a promising method for kinase-related biochemical fundamental research and inhibitor screening. PMID:23734972

  13. Activation of Cytosolic Pyruvate Kinase by Polyethylene Glycol.

    PubMed Central

    Podesta, F. E.; Plaxton, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    Homogeneous cytosolic pyruvate kinase from endosperm of germinating castor oil (Ricinus communis L. cv Hale) seeds was potently activated by polyethylene glycol. The addition of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol to the pyruvate kinase reaction mixture caused a 2.6-fold increase in maximal velocity and 12.5- and 2-fold reductions in Km values for phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP, respectively. Glycerol, ethylene glycol, and bovine serum albumin also enhanced pyruvate kinase activity, albeit to a lesser extent than polyethylene glycol. The addition of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol to the elution buffer during high-performance gel filtration chromatography of purified cytosolic pyruvate kinase helped to stabilize the active heterotetrameric native structure of the enzyme. A higher degree of inhibition by MgATP, but lower sensitivity to the inhibitors 3-phosphoglycerate and fructose- 1,6-bisphosphate, was also observed in the presence of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol. It is concluded that (a) plant cytosolic pyruvate kinase activity and regulation, like that of other regulatory pyruvate kinases, is modified by extreme dilution in the assay medium, probably as a result of deaggregation of the native tetrameric enzyme, and (b) ATP is probably the major metabolic effector of germinating castor endosperm cytosolic pyruvate kinase in vivo. PMID:12231936

  14. Activation of Cytosolic Pyruvate Kinase by Polyethylene Glycol.

    PubMed

    Podesta, F. E.; Plaxton, W. C.

    1993-09-01

    Homogeneous cytosolic pyruvate kinase from endosperm of germinating castor oil (Ricinus communis L. cv Hale) seeds was potently activated by polyethylene glycol. The addition of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol to the pyruvate kinase reaction mixture caused a 2.6-fold increase in maximal velocity and 12.5- and 2-fold reductions in Km values for phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP, respectively. Glycerol, ethylene glycol, and bovine serum albumin also enhanced pyruvate kinase activity, albeit to a lesser extent than polyethylene glycol. The addition of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol to the elution buffer during high-performance gel filtration chromatography of purified cytosolic pyruvate kinase helped to stabilize the active heterotetrameric native structure of the enzyme. A higher degree of inhibition by MgATP, but lower sensitivity to the inhibitors 3-phosphoglycerate and fructose- 1,6-bisphosphate, was also observed in the presence of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol. It is concluded that (a) plant cytosolic pyruvate kinase activity and regulation, like that of other regulatory pyruvate kinases, is modified by extreme dilution in the assay medium, probably as a result of deaggregation of the native tetrameric enzyme, and (b) ATP is probably the major metabolic effector of germinating castor endosperm cytosolic pyruvate kinase in vivo. PMID:12231936

  15. Phosphatidylinositol kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, P.T.; Heng, A.B.W.; Traugh, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PI) kinase was isolated from the postribosomal supernatant of rabbit reticulocytes. This activity was identified by the formation of a product that comigrated with phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) when purified PI was phosphorylated in the presence of (/sup 32/P)ATP and Mg/sup 2 +/. Three major peaks of PI kinase activity were resolved by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The first peak eluted at 50-100 mM NaCl together with several serine protein kinases, casein kinase (CK) I and protease activated kinase (PAK) I and II. The PI kinase was subsequently separated from the protein kinases by chromatography on phosphocellulose. The second peak eluted at 125-160 mM NaCl and contained another lipid kinase activity that produced a product which comigrated with phosphatidic acid on thin layer chromatography. The third peak, which eluted at 165-200 mM NaCl, partly comigrated with casein kinase (CK) II and an active protein kinase(s) which phosphorylated mixed histone and histone I. CK II and the histone kinase activities were also separated by chromatography on phosphocelluslose. The different forms of PI kinase were characterized and compared with respect to substrate and salt requirements.

  16. High-throughput, cell-free, liposome-based approach for assessing in vitro activity of lipid kinases.

    PubMed

    Demian, Douglas J; Clugston, Susan L; Foster, Meta M; Rameh, Lucia; Sarkes, Deborah; Townson, Sharon A; Yang, Lily; Zhang, Melvin; Charlton, Maura E

    2009-08-01

    Lipid kinases are central players in lipid signaling pathways involved in inflammation, tumorigenesis, and metabolic syndrome. A number of these kinase targets have proven difficult to investigate in higher throughput cell-free assay systems. This challenge is partially due to specific substrate interaction requirements for several of the lipid kinase family members and the resulting incompatibility of these substrates with most established, homogeneous assay formats. Traditional, cell-free in vitro investigational methods for members of the lipid kinase family typically involve substrate incorporation of [gamma-32P] and resolution of signal by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and autoradiograph densitometry. This approach, although highly sensitive, does not lend itself to high-throughput testing of large numbers of small molecules (100 s to 1 MM+). The authors present the development and implementation of a fully synthetic, liposome-based assay for assessing in vitro activity of phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate-4-kinase isoforms (PIP4KIIbeta and alpha) in 2 commonly used homogeneous technologies. They have validated these assays through compound testing in both traditional TLC and radioactive filterplate approaches as well as binding validation using isothermic calorimetry. A directed library representing known kinase pharmacophores was screened against type IIbeta phosphatidylinositol-phosphate kinase (PIPK) to identify small-molecule inhibitors. This assay system can be applied to other types and isoforms of PIPKs as well as a variety of other lipid kinase targets. PMID:19641220

  17. A conserved isoleucine maintains the inactive state of Bruton’s tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Boyken, Scott E.; Chopra, Nikita; Xie, Qian; Joseph, Raji E.; Wales, Thomas E.; Fulton, D. Bruce; Engen, John R.; Jernigan, Robert L.; Andreotti, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite high homology among non-receptor tyrosine kinases, different kinase families employ a diverse array of regulatory mechanisms. For example, the catalytic kinase domains of the Tec family kinases are inactive without assembly of the adjacent regulatory domains, whereas the Src kinase domains are autoinhibited by the assembly of similar adjacent regulatory domains. Using molecular dynamic simulations, biochemical assays, and biophysical approaches, we have uncovered an isoleucine residue in the kinase domain of the Tec family member Btk that, when mutated to the closely related leucine, leads to a shift in the conformational equilibrium of the kinase domain toward the active state. The single amino acid mutation results in measureable catalytic activity for the Btk kinase domain in the absence of the regulatory domains. We suggest this isoleucine side chain in the Tec family kinases acts as a ‘wedge’ that restricts the conformational space available to key regions in the kinase domain, preventing activation until the kinase domain associates with its regulatory subunits and overcomes the energetic barrier to activation imposed by the isoleucine side chain. PMID:25193673

  18. Ribosomal S6 Kinase Cooperates with Casein Kinase 2 to Modulate the Drosophila Circadian Molecular Oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Akten, Bikem; Tangredi, Michelle M.; Jauch, Eike; Roberts, Mary A.; Ng, Fanny; Raabe, Thomas; Jackson, F. Rob

    2009-01-01

    There is a universal requirement for post-translational regulatory mechanisms in circadian clock systems. Previous work in Drosophila has identified several kinases, phosphatases and an E3 ligase that are critical for determining the nuclear translocation and/or stability of clock proteins. The present study evaluated the function of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) in the Drosophila circadian system. In mammals, RSK1 is a light- and clock-regulated kinase known to be activated by the MAPK pathway, but there is no direct evidence that it functions as a component of the circadian system. Here, we show that Drosophila S6KII RNA displays rhythms in abundance, indicative of circadian control. Importantly, an S6KII null mutant exhibits a short-period circadian phenotype that can be rescued by expression of the wild-type gene in clock neurons, indicating a role for S6KII in the molecular oscillator. Peak PER clock protein expression is elevated in the mutant, indicative of enhanced stability, whereas per mRNA level is decreased, consistent with enhanced feedback repression. Gene reporter assays show that decreased S6KII is associated with increased PER repression. Surprisingly, we demonstrate a physical interaction between S6KII and the Casein Kinase 2 regulatory subunit (CK2β), suggesting a functional relationship between the two kinases. In support of such a relationship, there are genetic interactions between S6KII and CK2 mutations, in vivo, which indicate that CK2 activity is required for S6KII action. We propose that the two kinases cooperate within clock neurons to fine-tune circadian period, improving the precision of the clock mechanism. PMID:19144847

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Linn, Anning

    1996-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK.

  20. The response of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to cetuximab treatment depends on Aurora kinase A polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Alexander; Huhn, Maximilian; Wirth, Markus; Reiter, Rudolf; Rudelius, Martina; Piontek, Guido; Brockhoff, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of cetuximab-based anti-EGFR treatment and Aurora kinase A / B knockdown as a function of Aurora kinase polymorphism in HNSCC cell lines. Materials and methods First, protein expression of Aurora kinase A / B and EGFR and Aurora kinase A polymorphism were studied in tumour samples. The survival and proliferation of Aurora kinase A homo- (Cal27) and heterozygous (HN) HNSCC cell lines was evaluated using a colony formation assay and a flow cytometric assay. Also, aneuploidy was determined. EGFR signalling pathway were visualised by western blotting. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed the overexpression of Aurora kinase A / B in HNSCC. The knockdown of each kinase caused a significant decrease in clonogenic survival, independent of Aurora kinase A polymorphism. In contrast, cetuximab treatment impaired clonogenic survival only in the Aurora kinase A-homozygous cell line (Cal27). Conclusion This study provides in vitro evidence for the predictive value of Aurora kinase A polymorphism in the efficiency of cetuximab treatment. Resistance to cetuximab treatment can be overcome by simultaneous Aurora kinase A/B knockdown. PMID:24980817

  1. Regulation of eukaryotic-like protein kinase activity of DspA from Myxococcus xanthus by autophosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Reiko; Takegawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Yoshio

    2014-02-01

    A Myxococcus xanthus DspA contains 12 subdomains characteristic of eukaryotic-like protein kinases but with an atypical sequence, RDxSPHN, in the catalytic loop, different from the consensus motifs observed in Ser/Thr kinases (RDxKxxN) or Tyr kinases (RDx(A/R)A(A/R)N). DspA phosphorylated myelin basic protein (MBP) on Ser and Thr residues. Mutations of the SPHN motif within the catalytic loop to KPHN or KPEN for Ser/Thr kinases, AARN for Tyr kinases and TPHN or TSHN for Dictyostelium Tyr kinases markedly reduced autophosphorylation and kinase activities. Phosphorylation assays, Western blot analysis and mutational analysis revealed that DspA is a dual-specificity kinase that autophosphorylates on two Thr residues (Thr-199 and Thr-201) in the activation loop and two Tyr residues (Tyr-35 and Tyr-111). RD kinases such as DspA are activated by phosphorylation in the activation loop. Replacement of Thr-199 or/and Thr-201 in the DspA activation loop by alanine also almost abolished autophosphorylation and kinase activities. In addition, mutation of either Tyr-35 or Tyr-111 to phenylalanine decreased kinase activities against MBP, and double mutation abolished kinase activity. These results suggested that DspA is activated by dual autophosphorylation of Thr residues in the activation loop, and autophosphorylation on two Tyr residues of DspA are required for high-level kinase activity. PMID:24194533

  2. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF THE L5178Y/TK+/- YIELDS TK-/- MOUSE LYMPHOMA MUTAGENESIS ASSAY SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The L5178Y/TK t/- TK-/- mouse lymphoma mutagen assay, which allows selection of forward mutations at the autosomal thymidine kinase (TK) locus, uses a TK t/- heterozygous cell line, TK t/- 3.7.2C Quantitation of colonies of mutant TK-/- cells in the assay forms the basis for calc...

  3. Effect of Narrow Spectrum Versus Selective Kinase Inhibitors on the Intestinal Proinflammatory Immune Response in Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Biancheri, Paolo; Foster, Martyn R.; Fyfe, Matthew C. T.; MacDonald, Thomas T.; Sirohi, Sameer; Solanke, Yemisi; Wood, Eleanor; Rowley, Adele; Webber, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kinases are key mediators of inflammation, highlighting the potential of kinase inhibitors as treatments for inflammatory disorders. Selective kinase inhibitors, however, have proved disappointing, particularly in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Consequently, to improve efficacy, attention has turned to multikinase inhibition. Methods: The activity of a narrow spectrum kinase inhibitor, TOP1210, has been compared with selective kinase inhibitors (BIRB-796, dasatinib and BAY-61-3606) in a range of kinase assays, inflammatory cell assays, and in inflamed biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Effects on recombinant P38α, Src, and Syk kinase activities were assessed using Z-lyte assays (Invitrogen, Paisley, United Kingdom). Anti-inflammatory effects were assessed by measurement of proinflammatory cytokine release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, primary macrophages, HT29 cells, inflamed colonic UC biopsies, and myofibroblasts isolated from inflamed colonic UC mucosa. Results: TOP1210 potently inhibits P38α, Src, and Syk kinase activities. Similarly, TOP1210 demonstrates potent inhibitory activity against proinflammatory cytokine release in each of the cellular assays and the inflamed colonic UC biopsies and myofibroblasts isolated from inflamed colonic UC mucosa. Generally, the selective kinase inhibitors showed limited and weaker activity in the cellular assays compared with the broad inhibitory profile of TOP1210. However, combination of the selective inhibitors led to improved efficacy and potency in both cellular and UC biopsy assays. Conclusions: Targeted, multikinase inhibition with TOP1210 leads to a broad efficacy profile in both the innate and adaptive immune responses, with significant advantages over existing selective kinase approaches, and potentially offers a much improved therapeutic benefit in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27104822

  4. Ethanol increases affinity of protein kinase C for phosphatidylserine

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, J.H.

    1986-03-01

    Protein kinase C is a calcium-dependent enzyme that requires phospholipid for its activation. It is present in relatively high concentration in the brain and may be involved in neuronal function. The present experiments test whether the membrane disorder induced by ethanol affects the activity of kinase C by changing its interaction with membrane lipid. Fractions rich in kinase C were purified from rat brain cytosol by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. Enzyme activity was assayed by measuring the phosphorylation of histone H1. As expected, phosphatidylserine activated the enzyme, and the stimulation was further increased by the addition of calcium and/or diacylglycerol. At low concentration of free calcium (0.5-1..mu..M), ethanol (800 mM0 enhanced kinase C activity if the presence of phospholipid. similar results were observed in the absence of calcium. Double reciprocal plots of the data showed that ethanol increased the affinity of the enzyme for phosphatidylserine without affecting the V/sub max. The stimulation of kinase C activity by ethanol was not observed at high calcium concentrations. These experiments suggest that ethanol may activated protein kinase C at physiological levels of calcium by facilitating its transfer into the hydrophobic membrane environment.

  5. Design, Synthesis and Inhibitory Activity of Photoswitchable RET Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rubén; Nilsson, Jesper R.; Solano, Carlos; Andréasson, Joakim; Grøtli, Morten

    2015-01-01

    REarranged during Transfection (RET) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase required for normal development and maintenance of neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Deregulation of RET and hyperactivity of the RET kinase is intimately connected to several types of human cancers, most notably thyroid cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target for small-molecule kinase inhibitors. Novel approaches, allowing external control of the activity of RET, would be key additions to the signal transduction toolbox. In this work, photoswitchable RET kinase inhibitors based on azo-functionalized pyrazolopyrimidines were developed, enabling photonic control of RET activity. The most promising compound displays excellent switching properties and stability with good inhibitory effect towards RET in cell-free as well as live-cell assays and a significant difference in inhibitory activity between its two photoisomeric forms. As the first reported photoswitchable small-molecule kinase inhibitor, we consider the herein presented effector to be a significant step forward in the development of tools for kinase signal transduction studies with spatiotemporal control over inhibitor concentration in situ. PMID:25944708

  6. Design, Synthesis and Inhibitory Activity of Photoswitchable RET Kinase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Rubén; Nilsson, Jesper R.; Solano, Carlos; Andréasson, Joakim; Grøtli, Morten

    2015-05-01

    REarranged during Transfection (RET) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase required for normal development and maintenance of neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Deregulation of RET and hyperactivity of the RET kinase is intimately connected to several types of human cancers, most notably thyroid cancers, making it an attractive therapeutic target for small-molecule kinase inhibitors. Novel approaches, allowing external control of the activity of RET, would be key additions to the signal transduction toolbox. In this work, photoswitchable RET kinase inhibitors based on azo-functionalized pyrazolopyrimidines were developed, enabling photonic control of RET activity. The most promising compound displays excellent switching properties and stability with good inhibitory effect towards RET in cell-free as well as live-cell assays and a significant difference in inhibitory activity between its two photoisomeric forms. As the first reported photoswitchable small-molecule kinase inhibitor, we consider the herein presented effector to be a significant step forward in the development of tools for kinase signal transduction studies with spatiotemporal control over inhibitor concentration in situ.

  7. Targeting cancer with kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Stefan; Rahal, Rami; Stransky, Nicolas; Lengauer, Christoph; Hoeflich, Klaus P.

    2015-01-01

    Kinase inhibitors have played an increasingly prominent role in the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Currently, more than 25 oncology drugs that target kinases have been approved, and numerous additional therapeutics are in various stages of clinical evaluation. In this Review, we provide an in-depth analysis of activation mechanisms for kinases in cancer, highlight recent successes in drug discovery, and demonstrate the clinical impact of selective kinase inhibitors. We also describe the substantial progress that has been made in designing next-generation inhibitors to circumvent on-target resistance mechanisms, as well as ongoing strategies for combining kinase inhibitors in the clinic. Last, there are numerous prospects for the discovery of novel kinase targets, and we explore cancer immunotherapy as a new and promising research area for studying kinase biology. PMID:25932675

  8. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Development of a Novel Phosphorylated AMPK Protection Assay for High-Throughput Screening Using TR-FRET Assay.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yazhou; Wang, Yunjie; Xu, Yuan; Li, Jia; Liao, Hong; Zhang, Luyong; Pang, Tao

    2015-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a conserved heterotrimeric kinase, serves as an energy sensor maintaining energy balance at both cellular and whole-body levels and plays multiple beneficial roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which makes AMPK an attractive target for diabetes and other metabolic disorders. To date, establishment of the physiologically relevant biochemical assay for AMPK has not been reported. Here we developed a phosphorylated AMPK protection assay based on a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay, using the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) to dephosphorylate AMPK. The partially dephosphorylated AMPK by PP2A had lower activity than phosphorylated AMPK. This specific TR-FRET assay for AMPK was optimized in the 384-well format and produced similar EC(50) values for AMPK activators AMP and A769662 and a similar IC(50) value for AMPK inhibitor compound C, as previously reported. Under the optimized conditions, the assay Z' factor calculated over 160 data points has an optimal value greater than 0.5, which is suitable for high-throughput screening. In conclusion, this phosphorylated AMPK protection assay we developed is very robust, sensitive, and simple to perform and may be useful as a high-throughput assay for identifying AMPK activators with the ability of preventing activated AMPK against dephosphorylation by phosphatase in the physiological conditions. PMID:25956678

  11. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2005-03-08

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  12. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit; Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2005-01-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  13. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1999-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  14. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  15. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1998-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  16. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning; Davis, Roger; Derijard, Benoit

    2003-02-04

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  17. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, M.; Hibi, M.; Lin, A.

    1997-02-25

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE is disclosed. The polypeptide has serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences. The method of detection of JNK is also provided. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites. 44 figs.

  18. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    1997-01-01

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  19. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Lin, Anning

    1999-11-30

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD or 55 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and theonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  20. Oncoprotein protein kinase

    DOEpatents

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2004-03-16

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  1. Solid-Phase Biological Assays for Drug Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsberg, Erica M.; Sicard, Clémence; Brennan, John D.

    2014-06-01

    In the past 30 years, there has been a significant growth in the use of solid-phase assays in the area of drug discovery, with a range of new assays being used for both soluble and membrane-bound targets. In this review, we provide some basic background to typical drug targets and immobilization protocols used in solid-phase biological assays (SPBAs) for drug discovery, with emphasis on particularly labile biomolecular targets such as kinases and membrane-bound receptors, and highlight some of the more recent approaches for producing protein microarrays, bioaffinity columns, and other devices that are central to small molecule screening by SPBA. We then discuss key applications of such assays to identify drug leads, with an emphasis on the screening of mixtures. We conclude by highlighting specific advantages and potential disadvantages of SPBAs, particularly as they relate to particular assay formats.

  2. Selective Pharmacologic Inhibition of a PASTA Kinase Increases Listeria monocytogenes Susceptibility to β-Lactam Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Pensinger, Daniel A.; Aliota, Matthew T.; Schaenzer, Adam J.; Boldon, Kyle M.; Ansari, Israr-ul H.; Vincent, William J. B.; Knight, Benjamin; Reniere, Michelle L.; Striker, Rob

    2014-01-01

    While β-lactam antibiotics are a critical part of the antimicrobial arsenal, they are frequently compromised by various resistance mechanisms, including changes in penicillin binding proteins of the bacterial cell wall. Genetic deletion of the penicillin binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated protein (PASTA) kinase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been shown to restore β-lactam susceptibility. However, the mechanism remains unclear, and whether pharmacologic inhibition would have the same effect is unknown. In this study, we found that deletion or pharmacologic inhibition of the PASTA kinase in Listeria monocytogenes by the nonselective kinase inhibitor staurosporine results in enhanced susceptibility to both aminopenicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics. Resistance to vancomycin, another class of cell wall synthesis inhibitors, or antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis was unaffected by staurosporine treatment. Phosphorylation assays with purified kinases revealed that staurosporine selectively inhibited the PASTA kinase of L. monocytogenes (PrkA). Importantly, staurosporine did not inhibit a L. monocytogenes kinase without a PASTA domain (Lmo0618) or the PASTA kinase from MRSA (Stk1). Finally, inhibition of PrkA with a more selective kinase inhibitor, AZD5438, similarly led to sensitization of L. monocytogenes to β-lactam antibiotics. Overall, these results suggest that pharmacologic targeting of PASTA kinases can increase the efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:24867981

  3. Selective pharmacologic inhibition of a PASTA kinase increases Listeria monocytogenes susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Pensinger, Daniel A; Aliota, Matthew T; Schaenzer, Adam J; Boldon, Kyle M; Ansari, Israr-ul H; Vincent, William J B; Knight, Benjamin; Reniere, Michelle L; Striker, Rob; Sauer, John-Demian

    2014-08-01

    While β-lactam antibiotics are a critical part of the antimicrobial arsenal, they are frequently compromised by various resistance mechanisms, including changes in penicillin binding proteins of the bacterial cell wall. Genetic deletion of the penicillin binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated protein (PASTA) kinase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been shown to restore β-lactam susceptibility. However, the mechanism remains unclear, and whether pharmacologic inhibition would have the same effect is unknown. In this study, we found that deletion or pharmacologic inhibition of the PASTA kinase in Listeria monocytogenes by the nonselective kinase inhibitor staurosporine results in enhanced susceptibility to both aminopenicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics. Resistance to vancomycin, another class of cell wall synthesis inhibitors, or antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis was unaffected by staurosporine treatment. Phosphorylation assays with purified kinases revealed that staurosporine selectively inhibited the PASTA kinase of L. monocytogenes (PrkA). Importantly, staurosporine did not inhibit a L. monocytogenes kinase without a PASTA domain (Lmo0618) or the PASTA kinase from MRSA (Stk1). Finally, inhibition of PrkA with a more selective kinase inhibitor, AZD5438, similarly led to sensitization of L. monocytogenes to β-lactam antibiotics. Overall, these results suggest that pharmacologic targeting of PASTA kinases can increase the efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics. PMID:24867981

  4. Cyclin-dependent kinases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are protein kinases characterized by needing a separate subunit - a cyclin - that provides domains essential for enzymatic activity. CDKs play important roles in the control of cell division and modulate transcription in response to several extra- and intracellular cues. The evolutionary expansion of the CDK family in mammals led to the division of CDKs into three cell-cycle-related subfamilies (Cdk1, Cdk4 and Cdk5) and five transcriptional subfamilies (Cdk7, Cdk8, Cdk9, Cdk11 and Cdk20). Unlike the prototypical Cdc28 kinase of budding yeast, most of these CDKs bind one or a few cyclins, consistent with functional specialization during evolution. This review summarizes how, although CDKs are traditionally separated into cell-cycle or transcriptional CDKs, these activities are frequently combined in many family members. Not surprisingly, deregulation of this family of proteins is a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer, and drug-targeted inhibition of specific members has generated very encouraging results in clinical trials. PMID:25180339

  5. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia.

    PubMed

    Roth Flach, Rachel J; Danai, Laura V; DiStefano, Marina T; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C; Czech, Michael P

    2016-07-29

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  6. Redox Regulation of Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Thu H.; Carroll, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases represent one of the largest families of genes found in eukaryotes. Kinases mediate distinct cellular processes ranging from proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. Ligand-mediated activation of receptor kinases can lead to the production of endogenous H2O2 by membrane-bound NADPH oxidases. In turn, H2O2 can be utilized as a secondary messenger in signal transduction pathways. This review presents an overview of the molecular mechanisms involved in redox regulation of protein kinases and its effects on signaling cascades. In the first half, we will focus primarily on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), whereas the latter will concentrate on downstream non-receptor kinases involved in relaying stimulant response. Select examples from the literature are used to highlight the functional role of H2O2 regarding kinase activity, as well as the components involved in H2O2 production and regulation during cellular signaling. In addition, studies demonstrating direct modulation of protein kinases by H2O2 through cysteine oxidation will be emphasized. Identification of these redox-sensitive residues may help uncover signaling mechanisms conserved within kinase subfamilies. In some cases, these residues can even be exploited as targets for the development of new therapeutics. Continued efforts in this field will further basic understanding of kinase redox regulation, and delineate the mechanisms involved in physiologic and pathological H2O2 responses. PMID:23639002

  7. Immunochromatographic assay on thread.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gina; Mao, Xun; Juncker, David

    2012-09-18

    Lateral-flow immunochromatographic assays are low-cost, simple-to-use, rapid tests for point-of-care screening of infectious diseases, drugs of abuse, and pregnancy. However, lateral flow assays are generally not quantitative, give a yes/no answer, and lack multiplexing. Threads have recently been proposed as a support for transporting and mixing liquids in lateral-flow immunochromatographic assays, but their use for quantitative high-sensitivity immunoassays has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we introduce the immunochromatographic assay on thread (ICAT) in a cartridge format that is suitable for multiplexing. The ICAT is a sandwich assay performed on a cotton thread knotted to a nylon fiber bundle, both of which are precoated with recognition antibodies against one target analyte. Upon sample application, the assay results become visible to the eye within a few minutes and are quantified using a flatbed scanner. Assay conditions were optimized, the binding curves for C-reactive protein (CRP) in buffer and diluted serum were established and a limit of detection of 377 pM was obtained. The possibility of multiplexing was demonstrated using three knotted threads coated with antibodies against CRP, osteopontin, and leptin proteins. The performance of the ICAT was compared with that of the paper-based and conventional assays. The results suggest that thread is a suitable support for making low-cost, sensitive, simple-to-use, and multiplexed diagnostic tests. PMID:22889381

  8. Phosphorylation of the 27-kDa heat shock protein via p38 MAP kinase and MAPKAP kinase in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Larsen, J K; Yamboliev, I A; Weber, L A; Gerthoffer, W T

    1997-11-01

    The 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP27) is expressed in a variety of tissues in the absence of stress and is thought to regulate actin filament dynamics, possibly by a phosphorylation/dephosphorylation mechanism. HSP27 has also been suggested to be involved in contraction of intestinal smooth muscle. We have investigated phosphorylation of HSP27 in airway smooth muscle in response to the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Carbachol increased 32P incorporation into canine tracheal HSP27 and induced a shift in the distribution of charge isoforms on two-dimensional gels to more acidic, phosphorylated forms. The canine HSP27 amino acid sequence includes three serine residues corresponding to sites in human HSP27 known to be phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase-2. To determine whether muscarinic receptors are coupled to a "stress response" pathway in smooth muscle culminating in phosphorylation of HSP27, we assayed MAPKAP kinase-2 activity and tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, the enzyme thought to activate MAPKAP kinase-2. Recombinant canine HSP27 expressed in Escherichia coli was a substrate for MAPKAP kinase-2 in vitro as well as a substrate for endogenous smooth muscle HSP27 kinase, which was activated by carbachol. Carbachol also increased tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. SB-203580, an inhibitor of p38 MAP kinases, reduced activation of endogenous HSP27 kinase activity and blocked the shift in HSP27 charge isoforms to acidic forms. We suggest that HSP27 in airway smooth muscle, in addition to being a stress response protein, is phosphorylated by a receptor-initiated signaling cascade involving muscarinic receptors, tyrosine phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, and activation of MAPKAP kinase-2. PMID:9374719

  9. Relocation of a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase activity during pollen tube reorientation

    PubMed Central

    Moutinho, A; Trewavas, AJ; Malho, R

    1998-01-01

    Pollen tube reorientation is a dynamic cellular event that is crucial for successful fertilization. We have shown previously that pollen tube orientation is regulated by cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]c). In this paper, we studied the activity of a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase during reorientation. The kinase activity was assayed in living cells by using confocal ratio imaging of BODIPY FL bisindolylmaleimide. We found that growing pollen tubes exhibited higher protein kinase activity in the apical region, whereas nongrowing cells showed uniform distribution. Modification of growth direction by diffusion of inhibitors/activators from a micropipette showed the spatial redistribution of kinase activity to predict the new growth orientation. Localized increases in [Ca2+]c induced by photolysis of caged Ca2+ that led to reorientation also increased kinase activity. Molecular and immunological assays suggest that this kinase may show some functional homology with protein kinase C. We suggest that the tip-localized gradient of kinase activity promotes Ca2+-mediated exocytosis and may act to regulate Ca2+ channel activity. PMID:9724696

  10. Rapid mercury assays

    SciTech Connect

    Szurdoki, S.; Kido, H.; Hammock, B.D.

    1996-10-01

    We have developed rapid assays with the potential of detecting mercury in environmental samples. our methods combine the simple ELISA-format with the selective, high affinity complexation of mercuric ions by sulfur-containing ligands. The first assay is based on a sandwich chelate formed by a protein-bound ligand immobilized on the wells of a microliter plate, mercuric ion of the analyzed sample, and another ligand conjugated to a reporter enzyme. The second assay involves competition between mercuric ions and an organomercury-conjugate to bind to a chelating conjugate. Several sulfur containing chelators (e.g., dithiocarbamates) and organomercurials linked to macromolecular carriers have been investigated in these assay formats. The assays detect mercuric ions in ppb/high ppt concentrations with high selectivity.

  11. Studying MAP Kinase pathways during early development of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Keren, Aviad; Bengal, Eyal

    2010-01-01

    The following chapter describes several methods involved in the detection of MAPK activities and phosphorylated proteins during early development of Xenopus laevis. The Xenopus embryo provides a powerful platform for biochemical studies. We describe here basic methods of embryo manipulations such as egg fertilization, embryo growth and maintenance, microinjection of capped RNA and antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs), and isolation of explants. In addition, we describe methods to detect phosphorylated proteins, to analyze kinase activity, and to interfere with signaling pathways. Immunohistochemical staining performed on whole embryos or on tissue sections is an additional method for the detection of phosphorylated proteins in the developing embryo. Approaches to activate or inhibit MAPK activities including the ectopic expression of mutated isoforms of MAPK kinase, or the incubation of embryo explants with pharmacological inhibitors are described. Finally, we describe an in vitro kinase assay specifically designed for the Xenopus embryo. PMID:20811998

  12. Microfluidic IEF technique for sequential phosphorylation analysis of protein kinases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Nakchul; Song, Simon; Choi, Hoseok; Lim, Bu-Taek; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-11-01

    Sequential phosphorylation of protein kinases play the important role in signal transduction, protein regulation, and metabolism in living cells. The analysis of these phosphorylation cascades will provide new insights into their physiological functions in many biological functions. Unfortunately, the existing methods are limited to analyze the cascade activity. Therefore, we suggest a microfluidic isoelectric focusing technique (μIEF) for the analysis of the cascade activity. Using the technique, we show that the sequential phosphorylation of a peptide by two different kinases can be successfully detected on a microfluidic chip. In addition, the inhibition assay for kinase activity and the analysis on a real sample have also been conducted. The results indicate that μIEF is an excellent means for studies on phosphorylation cascade activity.

  13. Overcoming compound fluorescence in the FLiK screening assay with red-shifted fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ralf; Gohla, Anne; Simard, Jeffrey R; Yadav, Dharmendra B; Fang, Zhizhou; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Rauh, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    In the attempt to discover novel chemical scaffolds that can modulate the activity of disease-associated enzymes, such as kinases, biochemical assays are usually deployed in high-throughput screenings. First-line assays, such as activity-based assays, often rely on fluorescent molecules by measuring a change in the total emission intensity, polarization state, or energy transfer to another fluorescent molecule. However, under certain conditions, intrinsic compound fluorescence can lead to difficult data analysis and to false-positive, as well as false-negative, hits. We have reported previously on a powerful direct binding assay called fluorescent labels in kinases ('FLiK'), which enables a sensitive measurement of conformational changes in kinases upon ligand binding. In this assay system, changes in the emission spectrum of the fluorophore acrylodan, induced by the binding of a ligand, are translated into a robust assay readout. However, under the excitation conditions of acrylodan, intrinsic compound fluorescence derived from highly conjugated compounds complicates data analysis. We therefore optimized this method by identifying novel fluorophores that excite in the far red, thereby avoiding compound fluorescence. With this advancement, even rigid compounds with multiple π-conjugated ring systems can now be measured reliably. This study was performed on three different kinase constructs with three different labeling sites, each undergoing distinct conformational changes upon ligand binding. It may therefore serve as a guideline for the establishment of novel fluorescence-based detection assays. PMID:23672540

  14. Digital microfluidic assay for protein detection.

    PubMed

    Mok, Janine; Mindrinos, Michael N; Davis, Ronald W; Javanmard, Mehdi

    2014-02-11

    Global studies of the human proteome have revealed a plethora of putative protein biomarkers. However, their application for early disease detection remains at a standstill without suitable methods to realize their utility in the clinical setting. There thus continues to be tremendous interest in developing new technology for sensitive protein detection that is both low in cost and carries a small footprint to be able to be used at the point of care. The current gold standard method for protein biomarker detection is the ELISA, which measures protein abundance using bulky fluorescent scanners that lack portability. Here, we present a digital microfluidic platform for protein biomarker detection that is low in cost compared with standard optical detection methods, without any compromise in sensitivity. This platform furthermore makes use of simple electronics, enabling its translation into a portable handheld device, and has been developed in a manner that can easily be adapted to assay different types of proteomic biomarkers. We demonstrate its utility in quantifying not only protein abundance, but also activity. Interleukin-6 abundance could be assayed from concentrations as low as 50 pM (an order of magnitude lower than that detectable by a comparable laboratory designed ELISA) using less than 5 μL of sample, and Abelson tyrosine kinase activity was detectable in samples containing 100 pM of kinase. PMID:24449893

  15. MAP kinase dynamics in yeast.

    PubMed

    van Drogen, F; Peter, M

    2001-09-01

    MAP kinase pathways play key roles in cellular responses towards extracellular signals. In several cases, the three core kinases interact with a scaffold molecule, but the function of these scaffolds is poorly understood. They have been proposed to contribute to signal specificity, signal amplification, or subcellular localization of MAP kinases. Several MAP kinases translocate to the nucleus in response to their activation, suggesting that nuclear transport may provide a regulatory mechanism. Here we describe new applications for Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP), to study dynamic translocations of MAPKs between different subcellular compartments. We have used these methods to measure the nuclear/cytoplasmic dynamics of several yeast MAP kinases, and in particular to address the role of scaffold proteins for MAP-kinase signaling. PMID:11730324

  16. Mutant strains of Tetrahymena thermophila defective in thymidine kinase activity: Biochemical and genetic characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, K.V.; Pearlman, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    Three mutant strains, one conditional, of Tetrahymena thermophila were defective in thymidine phosphorylating activity in vivo and in thymidine kinase activity in vitro. Nucleoside phosphotransferase activity in mutant cell extracts approached wild-type levels, suggesting that thymidine kinase is responsible for most, if not all, thymidine phosphorylation in vivo. Thymidine kinase activity in extracts of the conditional mutant strain was deficient when the cells were grown or assayed or both at the permissive temperature, implying a structural enzyme defect. Analysis of the reaction products from in vitro assays with partially purified enzymes showed that phosphorylation by thymidine kinase and nucleoside phosphotransferase occurred at the 5' position. Genetic analyses showed that the mutant phenotype was recessive and that mutations in each of the three mutant strains did not complement, suggesting allelism.

  17. [Kinase inhibitors and their resistance].

    PubMed

    Togashi, Yosuke; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-08-01

    Kinase cascades are involved in all stages of tumorigenesis through modulation of transformation and differentiation, cell-cycle progression, and motility. Advances in molecular targeted drug development allow the design and synthesis of inhibitors targeting cancer-associated signal transduction pathways. Potent selective inhibitors with low toxicity can benefit patients especially with several malignancies harboring an oncogenic driver addictive signal. This article evaluates information on solid tumor-related kinase signals and inhibitors, including receptor tyrosine kinase or serine/threonine kinase signals that lead to successful application in clinical settings. In addition, the resistant mechanisms to the inhibitors is summarized. PMID:26281685

  18. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P; Zorzano, A

    1997-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been cloned and characterized in a wide range of organisms. PI 3-kinases are activated by a diversity of extracellular stimuli and are involved in multiple cell processes such as cell proliferation, protein trafficking, cell motility, differentiation, regulation of cytoskeletal structure, and apoptosis. It has recently been shown that PI 3-kinase is a crucial second messenger in the signaling of myogenesis. Two structurally unrelated highly specific inhibitors of PI 3-kinase-wortmannin and LY294002-block the morphological and biochemical differentiation program of different skeletal-muscle cell models. Moreover, L6E9 myoblasts overexpressing a dominant-negative mutant of PI 3-kinase p85 regulatory subunit (Δp85) are unable to differentiate. Furthermore, PI 3-kinase is specifically involved in the insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-dependent myogenic pathway. Indeed, the ability of IGF-I, des-1,3-IGF-I, and IGF-II to promote cell fusion and muscle-specific protein expression is impaired after treatment with PI 3-kinase inhibitors or in cells overexpressing Δp85. The identification of additional key downstream elements of the IGF/PI 3-kinase myogenic cascade is crucial to a detailed understanding of the process of muscle differentiation and may generate new tools for skeletal and cardiac muscle regeneration therapies. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:198-202). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. PMID:21235885

  19. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  20. Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q; Inouye, M

    1996-01-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase is a ubiquitous nonspecific enzyme that evidently is designed to catalyze in vivo ATP-dependent synthesis of ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates from the corresponding diphosphates. Because Escherichia coli contains only one copy of ndk, the structural gene for this enzyme, we were surprised to find that ndk disruption yields bacteria that are still viable. These mutant cells contain a protein with a small amount NDP kinase activity. The protein responsible for this activity was purified and identified as adenylate kinase. This enzyme, also called myokinase, catalyzes the reversible ATP-dependent synthesis of ADP from AMP. We found that this enzyme from E. coli as well as from higher eukaryotes has a broad substrate specificity displaying dual enzymatic functions. Among the nucleoside monophosphate kinases tested, only adenylate kinase was found to have NDP kinase activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of NDP kinase activity associated with adenylate kinase. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8650159

  1. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  2. Thymidine uptake, thymidine incorporation, and thymidine kinase activity in marine bacterium isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, W.H.; Paul, J.H. )

    1990-05-01

    One assumption made in bacterial production estimates from ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation is that all heterotrophic bacteria can incorporate exogenous thymidine into DNA. Heterotrophic marine bacterium isolates from Tampa Bay, Fla., Chesapeake Bay, Md., and a coral surface microlayer were examined for thymidine uptake (transport), thymidine incorporation, the presence of thymidine kinase genes, and thymidine kinase enzyme activity. Of the 41 isolates tested, 37 were capable of thymidine incorporation into DNA. The four organisms that could not incorporate thymidine also transported the thymidine poorly and lacked thymidine kinase activity. Attempts to detect thymidine kinase genes in the marine isolates by molecular probing with gene probes made from Escherichia coli and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase genes proved unsuccessful. To determine if the inability to incorporate thymidine was due to the lack of thymidine kinase, one organism, Vibro sp. strain DI9, was transformed with a plasmid (pGQ3) that contained an E. coli thymidine kinase gene. Although enzyme assays indicated high levels of thymidine kinase activity in transformants, these cells still failed to incorporate exogenous thymidine into DNA or to transport thymidine into cells. These results indicate that the inability of certain marine bacteria to incorporate thymidine may not be solely due to the lack of thymidine kinase activity but may also be due to the absence of thymidine transport systems.

  3. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  4. DNA-PK assay

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Connelly, Margery A.

    2004-10-12

    The present invention provides a method for detecting DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity in a biological sample. The method includes contacting a biological sample with a detectably-labeled phosphate donor and a synthetic peptide substrate defined by the following features to provide specific recognition and phosphorylation by DNA-PK: (1) a phosphate-accepting amino acid pair which may include serine-glutamine (Ser-Gln) (SQ), threonine-glutamine (Thr-Gln) (TQ), glutamine-serine (Gln-Ser) (QS), or glutamine-threonine (Gln-Thr) (QT); (2) enhancer amino acids which may include glutamic acid or glutamine immediately adjacent at the amino- or carboxyl- side of the amino acid pair and forming an amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (3) a first spacer sequence at the amino terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (4) a second spacer sequence at the carboxyl terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit, which spacer sequences may include any combination of amino acids that does not provide a phosphorylation site consensus sequence motif; and, (5) a tag moiety, which may be an amino acid sequence or another chemical entity that permits separating the synthetic peptide from the phosphate donor. A compostion and a kit for the detection of DNA-PK activity are also provided. Methods for detecting DNA, protein phosphatases and substances that alter the activity of DNA-PK are also provided. The present invention also provides a method of monitoring protein kinase and DNA-PK activity in living cells. -A composition and a kit for monitoring protein kinase activity in vitro and a composition and a kit for monitoring DNA-PK activities in living cells are also provided. A method for identifying agents that alter protein kinase activity in vitro and a method for identifying agents that alter DNA-PK activity in living cells are also provided.

  5. SNAP Assay Technology.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    The most widely used immunoassay configuration is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) because the procedure produces highly sensitive and specific results and generally is easy to use. By definition, ELISAs are immunoassays used to detect a substance (typically an antigen or antibody) in which an enzyme is attached (conjugated) to one of the reactants and an enzymatic reaction is used to amplify the signal if the substance is present. Optimized ELISAs include several steps that are performed in sequence using a defined protocol that typically includes application of sample and an enzyme-conjugated antibody or antigen to an immobilized reagent, followed by wash and enzyme reaction steps. The SNAP assay is an in-clinic device that performs each of the ELISA steps in a timed sequential fashion with little consumer interface. The components and mechanical mechanism of the assay device are described. Detailed descriptions of features of the assay, which minimize nonspecific binding and enhance the ability to read results from weak-positive samples, are given. Basic principles used in assays with fundamentally different reaction mechanisms, namely, antigen-detection, antibody-detection, and competitive assays are given. Applications of ELISA technology, which led to the development of several multianalyte SNAP tests capable of testing for up to 6 analytes using a single-sample and a single-SNAP device are described. PMID:27154596

  6. DIRECT MODULATION OF THE PROTEIN KINASE A CATALYTIC SUBUNIT α BY GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, George B.; Howe, Alan K.; Nickl, Christian K.; Dostmann, Wolfgang R.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Deming, Paula B.

    2011-01-01

    The cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulates processes such as cell proliferation and migration following activation of growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), yet the signaling mechanisms that link PKA with growth factor receptors remain largely undefined. Here we report that RTKs can directly modulate the function of the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKA-C) through post-translational modification. In vitro kinase assays revealed that both the epidermal growth factor and platelet derived growth factor receptors (EGFR and PDGFR, respectively) tyrosine phosphorylate PKA-C. Mass spectrometry identified tyrosine 330 (Y330) as a receptor-mediated phosphorylation site and mutation of Y330 to phenylalanine (Y330F) all but abolished the RTK-mediated phosphorylation of PKA-C in vitro. Y330 resides within a conserved region at the C-terminal tail of PKA-C that allosterically regulates enzymatic activity. Therefore, the effect of phosphorylation at Y330 on the activity of PKA-C was investigated. The Km for a peptide substrate was markedly decreased when PKA-C subunits were tyrosine phosphorylated by the receptors as compared to un-phosphorylated controls. Importantly, tyrosine-phosphorylated PKA-C subunits were detected in cells stimulated with EGF, PDGF and FGF2 and in fibroblasts undergoing PDGF-mediated chemotaxis. These results demonstrate a direct, functional interaction between RTKs and PKA-C and identify tyrosine phosphorylation as a novel mechansim for regulating PKA activity. PMID:21866565

  7. Benzobisthiazoles Represent a Novel Scaffold for Kinase Inhibitors of CLK Family Members

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein kinases are essential regulators of most cellular processes and are involved in the etiology and progression of multiple diseases. The cdc2-like kinases (CLKs) have been linked to various neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic regulation, and virus infection, and the kinases have been recognized as potential drug targets. Here, we have developed a screening workflow for the identification of potent CLK2 inhibitors and identified compounds with a novel chemical scaffold structure, the benzobisthiazoles, that has not been previously reported for kinase inhibitors. We propose models for binding of these compounds to CLK family proteins and key residues in CLK2 that are important for the compound interactions and the kinase activity. We identified structural elements within the benzobisthiazole that determine CLK2 and CLK3 inhibition, thus providing a rationale for selectivity assays. In summary, our results will inform structure-based design of CLK family inhibitors based on the novel benzobisthiazole scaffold. PMID:26701387

  8. Purification of catalytic domain of rat spleen p72syk kinase and its phosphorylation and activation by protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, P; Heiland, M; Kornetzky, L; Medem, S; Laufs, R

    1998-01-01

    The catalytic domain of p72(syk) kinase (CDp72(syk)) was purified from a 30000 g particulate fraction of rat spleen. The purification procedure employed sequential chromatography on columns of DEAE-Sephacel and Superdex-200, and elution from HA-Ultrogel by chloride. The analysis of the final CDp72(syk) preparation by SDS/PAGE revealed a major silver-stained 40 kDa protein. The kinase was identified by covalent modification of its ATP-binding site with [14C]5'-fluorosulphonylbenzoyladenosine and by immunoblotting with a polyclonal antibody against the 'linker' region of p72(syk). By using poly(Glu4, Tyr1) as a substrate, the specific activity of the enzyme was determined as 18.5 nmol Pi/min per mg. Casein, histones H1 and H2B and myelin basic protein were efficiently phosphorylated by CDp72(syk). The kinase exhibited a limited ability to phosphorylate random polymers containing tyrosine residues. CDp72(syk) autophosphorylation activity was associated with an activation of the kinase towards exogenous substrates. The extent of activation was dependent on the substrates added. CDp72(syk) was phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) on serine and threonine residues. With a newly developed assay method, we demonstrated that the PKC-mediated phosphorylation had a strong activating effect on the tyrosine kinase activity of CDp72(syk). Studies extended to conventional PKC isoforms revealed an isoform-dependent manner (alpha > betaI = betaII > gamma) of CDp72(syk) phosphorylation. The different phosphorylation efficiencies of the PKC isoforms closely correlated with the ability to enhance the tyrosine kinase activity. PMID:9531509

  9. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 interacts with p21-activated kinase 6 to control neurite complexity in mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Civiero, Laura; Cirnaru, Maria Daniela; Beilina, Alexandra; Rodella, Umberto; Russo, Isabella; Belluzzi, Elisa; Lobbestael, Evy; Reyniers, Lauran; Hondhamuni, Geshanthi; Lewis, Patrick A; Van den Haute, Chris; Baekelandt, Veerle; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Bubacco, Luigi; Piccoli, Giovanni; Cookson, Mark R; Taymans, Jean-Marc; Greggio, Elisa

    2015-12-01

    Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a causative gene for Parkinson's disease, but the physiological function and the mechanism(s) by which the cellular activity of LRRK2 is regulated are poorly understood. Here, we identified p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) as a novel interactor of the GTPase/ROC domain of LRRK2. p21-activated kinases are serine-threonine kinases that serve as targets for the small GTP binding proteins Cdc42 and Rac1 and have been implicated in different morphogenetic processes through remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton such as synapse formation and neuritogenesis. Using an in vivo neuromorphology assay, we show that PAK6 is a positive regulator of neurite outgrowth and that LRRK2 is required for this function. Analyses of post-mortem brain tissue from idiopathic and LRRK2 G2019S carriers reveal an increase in PAK6 activation state, whereas knock-out LRRK2 mice display reduced PAK6 activation and phosphorylation of PAK6 substrates. Taken together, these results support a critical role of LRRK2 GTPase domain in cytoskeletal dynamics in vivo through the novel interactor PAK6, and provide a valuable platform to unravel the mechanism underlying LRRK2-mediated pathophysiology. We propose p21-activated kinase 6 (PAK6) as a novel interactor of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), a kinase involved in Parkinson's disease (PD). In health, PAK6 regulates neurite complexity in the brain and LRRK2 is required for its function, (a) whereas PAK6 is aberrantly activated in LRRK2-linked PD brain (b) suggesting that LRRK2 toxicity is mediated by PAK6. PMID:26375402

  10. Multi-kinase inhibitor C1 triggers mitotic catastrophe of glioma stem cells mainly through MELK kinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Minata, Mutsuko; Gu, Chunyu; Joshi, Kaushal; Nakano-Okuno, Mariko; Hong, Christopher; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Kornblum, Harley I; Molla, Annie; Nakano, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly lethal brain tumor. Due to resistance to current therapies, patient prognosis remains poor and development of novel and effective GBM therapy is crucial. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) have gained attention as a therapeutic target in GBM due to their relative resistance to current therapies and potent tumor-initiating ability. Previously, we identified that the mitotic kinase maternal embryonic leucine-zipper kinase (MELK) is highly expressed in GBM tissues, specifically in GSCs, and its expression is inversely correlated with the post-surgical survival period of GBM patients. In addition, patient-derived GSCs depend on MELK for their survival and growth both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we demonstrate evidence that the role of MELK in the GSC survival is specifically dependent on its kinase activity. With in silico structure-based analysis for protein-compound interaction, we identified the small molecule Compound 1 (C1) is predicted to bind to the kinase-active site of MELK protein. Elimination of MELK kinase activity was confirmed by in vitro kinase assay in nano-molar concentrations. When patient-derived GSCs were treated with C1, they underwent mitotic arrest and subsequent cellular apoptosis in vitro, a phenotype identical to that observed with shRNA-mediated MELK knockdown. In addition, C1 treatment strongly induced tumor cell apoptosis in slice cultures of GBM surgical specimens and attenuated growth of mouse intracranial tumors derived from GSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Lastly, C1 treatment sensitizes GSCs to radiation treatment. Collectively, these data indicate that targeting MELK kinase activity is a promising approach to attenuate GBM growth by eliminating GSCs in tumors. PMID:24739874

  11. Biochemical Screening of Five Protein Kinases from Plasmodium falciparum against 14,000 Cell-Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Crowther, Gregory J.; Hillesland, Heidi K.; Keyloun, Katelyn R.; Reid, Molly C.; Lafuente-Monasterio, Maria Jose; Ghidelli-Disse, Sonja; Leonard, Stephen E.; He, Panqing; Jones, Jackson C.; Krahn, Mallory M.; Mo, Jack S.; Dasari, Kartheek S.; Fox, Anna M. W.; Boesche, Markus; El Bakkouri, Majida; Rivas, Kasey L.; Leroy, Didier; Hui, Raymond; Drewes, Gerard; Maly, Dustin J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Ojo, Kayode K.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010 the identities of thousands of anti-Plasmodium compounds were released publicly to facilitate malaria drug development. Understanding these compounds’ mechanisms of action—i.e., the specific molecular targets by which they kill the parasite—would further facilitate the drug development process. Given that kinases are promising anti-malaria targets, we screened ~14,000 cell-active compounds for activity against five different protein kinases. Collections of cell-active compounds from GlaxoSmithKline (the ~13,000-compound Tres Cantos Antimalarial Set, or TCAMS), St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (260 compounds), and the Medicines for Malaria Venture (the 400-compound Malaria Box) were screened in biochemical assays of Plasmodium falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinases 1 and 4 (CDPK1 and CDPK4), mitogen-associated protein kinase 2 (MAPK2/MAP2), protein kinase 6 (PK6), and protein kinase 7 (PK7). Novel potent inhibitors (IC50 < 1 μM) were discovered for three of the kinases: CDPK1, CDPK4, and PK6. The PK6 inhibitors are the most potent yet discovered for this enzyme and deserve further scrutiny. Additionally, kinome-wide competition assays revealed a compound that inhibits CDPK4 with few effects on ~150 human kinases, and several related compounds that inhibit CDPK1 and CDPK4 yet have limited cytotoxicity to human (HepG2) cells. Our data suggest that inhibiting multiple Plasmodium kinase targets without harming human cells is challenging but feasible. PMID:26934697

  12. Arginine kinase shows nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity toward deoxythymidine diphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Hernandez-Flores, Jose M; Lugo-Sanchez, Maria E; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D

    2016-06-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) (ATP: L-arginine phosphotransferase, E.C. 2.7.3.3) catalyzes the reversible transfer of ATP γ-phosphate group to L-arginine to synthetize phospho-arginine as a high-energy storage. Previous studies suggest additional roles for AK in cellular processes. Since AK is found only in invertebrates and it is homologous to creatine kinase from vertebrates, the objective of this work was to demonstrate nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity for shrimp AK. For this, AK from marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvAK) was purified and its activity was assayed for phosphorylation of TDP using ATP as phosphate donor. Moreover, by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) the phosphate transfer reaction was followed. Also, LvAK tryptophan fluorescence emission changes were detected by dTDP titration, suggesting that the hydrophobic environment of Trp 221, which is located in the top of the active site, is perturbed upon dTDP binding. The kinetic constants for both substrates Arg and dTDP were calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Besides, docking calculations suggested that dTDP could bind LvAK in the same cavity where ATP bind, and LvAK basic residues (Arg124, 126 and 309) stabilize the dTDP phosphate groups and the pyrimidine base interact with His284 and Ser122. These results suggest that LvAK bind and phosphorylate dTDP being ATP the phosphate donor, thus describing a novel alternate nucleoside diphosphate kinase-like activity for this enzyme. PMID:27072556

  13. Phosphorylation of Human Choline Kinase Beta by Protein Kinase A: Its Impact on Activity and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching Ching; Few, Ling Ling; Konrad, Manfred; See Too, Wei Cun

    2016-01-01

    Choline kinase beta (CKβ) is one of the CK isozymes involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine. CKβ is important for normal mitochondrial function and muscle development as the lack of the ckβ gene in human and mice results in the development of muscular dystrophy. In contrast, CKα is implicated in tumorigenesis and has been extensively studied as an anticancer target. Phosphorylation of human CKα was found to regulate the enzyme’s activity and its subcellular location. This study provides evidence for CKβ phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA). In vitro phosphorylation of CKβ by PKA was first detected by phosphoprotein staining, as well as by in-gel kinase assays. The phosphorylating kinase was identified as PKA by Western blotting. CKβ phosphorylation by MCF-7 cell lysate was inhibited by a PKA-specific inhibitor peptide, and the intracellular phosphorylation of CKβ was shown to be regulated by the level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a PKA activator. Phosphorylation sites were located on CKβ residues serine-39 and serine-40 as determined by mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis. Phosphorylation increased the catalytic efficiencies for the substrates choline and ATP about 2-fold, without affecting ethanolamine phosphorylation, and the S39D/S40D CKβ phosphorylation mimic behaved kinetically very similar. Remarkably, phosphorylation drastically increased the sensitivity of CKβ to hemicholinium-3 (HC-3) inhibition by about 30-fold. These findings suggest that CKβ, in concert with CKα, and depending on its phosphorylation status, might play a critical role as a druggable target in carcinogenesis. PMID:27149373

  14. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    PubMed Central

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  16. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  17. The EphA8 Receptor Regulates Integrin Activity through p110γ Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase in a Tyrosine Kinase Activity-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Changkyu; Park, Soochul

    2001-01-01

    Recent genetic studies suggest that ephrins may function in a kinase-independent Eph receptor pathway. Here we report that expression of EphA8 in either NIH 3T3 or HEK293 cells enhanced cell adhesion to fibronectin via α5β1- or β3 integrins. Interestingly, a kinase-inactive EphA8 mutant also markedly promoted cell attachment to fibronectin in these cell lines. Using a panel of EphA8 point mutants, we have demonstrated that EphA8 kinase activity does not correlate with its ability to promote cell attachment to fibronectin. Analysis using EphA8 extracellular and intracellular domain mutants has revealed that enhanced cell adhesion is dependent on ephrin A binding to the extracellular domain and the juxtamembrane segment of the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor. EphA8-promoted adhesion was efficiently inhibited by wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor. Additionally, we found that EphA8 had associated PI 3-kinase activity and that the p110γ isoform of PI 3-kinase is associated with EphA8. In vitro binding experiments revealed that the EphA8 juxtamembrane segment was sufficient for the formation of a stable complex with p110γ. Similar results were obtained in assay using cells stripped of endogenous ephrin A ligands by treatment with preclustered ephrin A5-Fc proteins. In addition, a membrane-targeted lipid kinase-inactive p110γ mutant was demonstrated to stably associate with EphA8 and suppress EphA8-promoted cell adhesion to fibronectin. Taken together, these results suggest the presence of a novel mechanism by which the EphA8 receptor localizes p110γ PI 3-kinase to the plasma membrane in a tyrosine kinase-independent fashion, thereby allowing access to lipid substrates to enable the signals required for integrin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:11416136

  18. MAP kinase-interacting kinases--emerging targets against cancer.

    PubMed

    Diab, Sarah; Kumarasiri, Malika; Yu, Mingfeng; Teo, Theodosia; Proud, Christopher; Milne, Robert; Wang, Shudong

    2014-04-24

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-interacting kinases (Mnks) regulate the initiation of translation through phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E). Mnk-mediated eIF4E activation promotes cancer development and progression. While the phosphorylation of eIF4E is necessary for oncogenic transformation, the kinase activity of Mnks seems dispensable for normal development. For this reason, pharmacological inhibition of Mnks could represent an ideal mechanism-based and nontoxic therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of Mnk biological roles, structures, and functions, as well as clinical implications. Importantly, we propose different strategies for identification of highly selective small molecule inhibitors of Mnks, including exploring a structural feature of their kinase domain, DFD motif, which is unique within the human kinome. We also argue that a combined targeting of Mnks and other pathways should be considered given the complexity of cancer. PMID:24613018

  19. Assays to Measure PTEN Lipid Phosphatase Activity In Vitro from Purified Enzyme or Immunoprecipitates.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Laura; Leslie, Nicholas R

    2016-01-01

    PTEN is a one of the most frequently mutated tumor suppressors in human cancers. It is essential for regulating diverse biological processes and through its lipid phosphatase activity regulates the PI 3-Kinase signaling pathway. Sensitive phosphatase assays are employed to study the catalytic activity of PTEN against phospholipid substrates. Here we describe protocols to assay PTEN lipid phosphatase activity using either purified enzyme (purified PTEN lipid phosphatase assay) or PTEN immunopurified from tissues or cultured cells (cellular IP PTEN lipid phosphatase assay) against vesicles containing radiolabeled PIP3 substrate. PMID:27514802

  20. Macroautophagic cargo sequestration assays.

    PubMed

    Seglen, Per O; Luhr, Morten; Mills, Ian G; Sætre, Frank; Szalai, Paula; Engedal, Nikolai

    2015-03-01

    Macroautophagy, the process responsible for bulk sequestration and lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm, is often monitored by means of the autophagy-related marker protein LC3. This protein is linked to the phagophoric membrane by lipidation during the final steps of phagophore assembly, and it remains associated with autophagic organelles until it is degraded in the lysosomes. The transfer of LC3 from cytosol to membranes and organelles can be measured by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence microscopy, but these assays provide no information about functional macroautophagic activity, i.e., whether the phagophores are actually engaged in the sequestration of cytoplasmic cargo and enclosing this cargo into sealed autophagosomes. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggest that macroautophagy can proceed independently of LC3. There is therefore a need for alternative methods, preferably effective cargo sequestration assays, which can monitor actual macroautophagic activity. Here, we provide an overview of various approaches that have been used over the last four decades to measure macroautophagic sequestration activity in mammalian cells. Particular emphasis is given to the so-called "LDH sequestration assay", which measures the transfer of the autophagic cargo marker enzyme LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) from the cytosol to autophagic vacuoles. The LDH sequestration assay was originally developed to measure macroautophagic activity in primary rat hepatocytes. Subsequently, it has found use in several other cell types, and in this article we demonstrate a further validation and simplification of the method, and show that it is applicable to several cell lines that are commonly used to study autophagy. PMID:25576638

  1. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  2. Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Inventor); Stowe, Raymond P. (Inventor); Koeing, David W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method for conducting an in vitro cell assay using a tetrazolium indicator is disclosed. The indicator includes a nonionic detergent which solubilizes a tetrazolium reduction product in vitro and has low toxicity for the cells. The incubation of test cells in the presence of zolium bromide and octoxynol (TRITON X-100) permits kinetics of the cell metabolism to be determined.

  3. Salinomycin causes migration and invasion of human fibrosarcoma cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Seon-Mi; Kim, Song Ja

    2016-06-01

    Salinomycin (SAL) is a polyether ionophore antibiotic that has recently been shown to regulate a variety of cellular responses in various human cancer cells. However, the effects of SAL on metastatic capacity of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells have not been elucidated. We investigated the effect of SAL on migration and invasion, with emphasis on the expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Treatment of SAL promoted the expression and activation of MMP-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as detected by western blot analysis, gelatin zymography, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. SAL also increased metastatic capacities, as determined by an increase in the migration and invasion of cells using the wound healing assay and the invasion assay, respectively. To confirm the detailed molecular mechanisms of these effects, we measured the activation of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3-kinase) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)s (ERK-1/2 and p38 kinase), as detected by the phosphorylated proteins through western blot analysis. SAL treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. Inhibition of PI3-kinase, ERK-1/2, and p38 kinase with LY294002, PD98059, and SB203580, respectively, in the presence of SAL suppressed the metastatic capacity by reducing MMP-2 expression, as determined by gelatin zymography. Our results indicate that the PI3-kinase and MAPK signaling pathways are involved in migration and invasion of HT1080 through induction of MMP-2 expression and activation. In conclusion, SAL significantly increases the metastatic capacity of HT1080 cells by inducing MMP-2 expression via PI3-kinase and MAPK pathways. Our results suggest that SAL may be a potential agent for the study of cancer metastatic capacities. PMID:27035160

  4. Isolation of chloroplastic phosphoglycerate kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Macioszek, J.; Anderson, L.E. ); Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-09-01

    We report here a method for the isolation of high specific activity phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) from chloroplasts. The enzyme has been purified over 200-fold from pea (Pisum sativum L.) stromal extracts to apparent homogeneity with 23% recovery. Negative cooperativity is observed with the two enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase/glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13) couple restored from the purified enzymes when NADPH is the reducing pyridine nucleotide, consistent with earlier results obtained with crude chloroplastic extracts. Michaelis Menten kinetics are observed when 3-phosphoglycerate is held constant and phosphoglycerate kinase is varied, which suggests that phosphoglycerate kinase-bound 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate may be the preferred substrate for glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase in the chloroplast.

  5. Neuronal migration and protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the six-layered structure of the mammalian cortex via the inside-out pattern of neuronal migration is fundamental to neocortical functions. Extracellular cues such as Reelin induce intracellular signaling cascades through the protein phosphorylation. Migrating neurons also have intrinsic machineries to regulate cytoskeletal proteins and adhesion properties. Protein phosphorylation regulates these processes. Moreover, the balance between phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is modified by extracellular cues. Multipolar-bipolar transition, radial glia-guided locomotion and terminal translocation are critical steps of radial migration of cortical pyramidal neurons. Protein kinases such as Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) involve these steps. In this review, I shall give an overview the roles of protein kinases in neuronal migration. PMID:25628530

  6. Protein Crystals of Raf Kinase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This image shows crystals of the protein raf kinase grown on Earth (photo a) and on USML-2 (photo b). The space-grown crystals are an order of magnitude larger. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals

  7. N-Terminal Mutations Modulate Yeast Snf1 Protein Kinase Function

    PubMed Central

    Estruch, F.; Treitel, M. A.; Yang, X.; Carlson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The SNF1 protein kinase is required for expression of glucose-repressed genes in response to glucose deprivation. The SNF4 protein is physically associated with SNF1 and positively affects the kinase activity. We report here the characterization of a dominant mutation, SNF1-G53R, that was isolated as a suppressor of the requirement for SNF4. The mutant SNF1-G53R protein is still responsive to SNF4 but has greatly elevated kinase activity in immune complex assays; in contrast, the activity is wild type in a protein blot assay. Deletion of the region N-terminal to the kinase domain (codons 5-52) reduces kinase activity in vitro, but the mutant SNF1-ΔN kinase is still dependent on SNF4. The N terminus is not required for the regulatory response to glucose. In gel filtration chromatography, the SNF1, SNF1-G53R and SNF1-ΔN proteins showed different elution profiles, consistent with differential formation of high molecular weight complexes. Taken together, the results suggest that the N terminus positively affects the function of the SNF1 kinase and may be involved in interaction with a positive effector other than SNF4. We also showed that the conserved threonine residue 210 in subdomain VIII, which is a phosphorylation site in other kinases, is essential for SNF1 activity. Finally, we present evidence that when the C terminus is deleted, overexpression of the SNF1 kinase domain is deleterious to the cell. PMID:1468623

  8. Tyrosine kinase gene rearrangements in epithelial malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Hsu, Peggy P.; Awad, Mark M.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements that lead to oncogenic kinase activation are observed in many epithelial cancers. These cancers express activated fusion kinases that drive the initiation and progression of malignancy, and often have a considerable response to small-molecule kinase inhibitors, which validates these fusion kinases as ‘druggable’ targets. In this Review, we examine the aetiologic, pathogenic and clinical features that are associated with cancers harbouring oncogenic fusion kinases, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), ROS1 and RET. We discuss the clinical outcomes with targeted therapies and explore strategies to discover additional kinases that are activated by chromosomal rearrangements in solid tumours. PMID:24132104

  9. Synthetic sulfoglycolipids targeting the serine-threonine protein kinase Akt.

    PubMed

    Costa, Barbara; Dangate, Milind; Vetro, Maria; Donvito, Giulia; Gabrielli, Luca; Amigoni, Loredana; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Lanzi, Cinzia; Ceriani, Michela; De Gioia, Luca; Filippi, Giulia; Cipolla, Laura; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Perego, Paola; Colombo, Diego

    2016-08-15

    The serine-threonine protein kinase Akt, also known as protein kinase B, is a key component of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mTOR axis. Deregulated activation of this pathway is frequent in human tumors and Akt-dependent signaling appears to be critical in cell survival. PI3K activation generates 3-phosphorylated phosphatidylinositols that bind Akt pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. The blockage of Akt PH domain/phosphoinositides interaction represents a promising approach to interfere with the oncogenic potential of over-activated Akt. In the present study, phosphatidyl inositol mimics based on a β-glucoside scaffold have been synthesized as Akt inhibitors. The compounds possessed one or two lipophilic moieties of different length at the anomeric position of glucose, and an acidic or basic group at C-6. Docking studies, ELISA Akt inhibition assays, and cellular assays on different cell models highlighted 1-O-octadecanoyl-2-O-β-d-sulfoquinovopyranosyl-sn-glycerol as the best Akt inhibitor among the synthesized compounds, which could be considered as a lead for further optimization in the design of Akt inhibitors. PMID:27316541

  10. In Vivo Inhibition of RIPK2 Kinase Alleviates Inflammatory Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Tigno-Aranjuez, Justine T.; Benderitter, Pascal; Rombouts, Frederik; Deroose, Frederik; Bai, XiaoDong; Mattioli, Benedetta; Cominelli, Fabio; Pizarro, Theresa T.; Hoflack, Jan; Abbott, Derek W.

    2014-01-01

    The RIPK2 kinase transduces signaling downstream of the intracellular peptidoglycan sensors NOD1 and NOD2 to promote a productive inflammatory response. However, excessive NOD2 signaling has been associated with numerous diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), sarcoidosis and inflammatory arthritis, making pharmacologic inhibition of RIPK2 an appealing strategy. In this work, we report the generation, identification, and evaluation of novel RIPK2 specific inhibitors. These compounds potently inhibit the RIPK2 tyrosine kinase activity in in vitro biochemical assays and cellular assays, as well as effectively reduce RIPK2-mediated effects in an in vivo peritonitis model. In conjunction with the development of these inhibitors, we have also defined a panel of genes whose expression is regulated by RIPK2 kinase activity. Such RIPK2 activation markers may serve as a useful tool for predicting settings likely to benefit from RIPK2 inhibition. Using these markers and the FDA-approved RIPK2 inhibitor Gefitinib, we show that pharmacologic RIPK2 inhibition drastically improves disease in a spontaneous model of Crohn Disease-like ileitis. Furthermore, using novel RIPK2-specific inhibitors, we show that cellular recruitment is inhibited in an in vivo peritonitis model. Altogether, the data presented in this work provides a strong rationale for further development and optimization of RIPK2-targeted pharmaceuticals and diagnostics. PMID:25213858

  11. Upconversion nanophosphor: an efficient phosphopeptides-recognizing matrix and luminescence resonance energy transfer donor for robust detection of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenghui; Chang, Lijuan; Wang, Honghong; Bai, Jie; Ren, Wei; Li, Zhengping

    2014-06-17

    Protein kinases play important regulatory roles in intracellular signal transduction pathways. The aberrant activities of protein kinases are closely associated with the development of various diseases, which necessitates the development of practical and sensitive assays for monitoring protein kinase activities as well as for screening of potential kinase-targeted drugs. We demonstrate here a robust luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET)-based protein kinase assay by using NaYF4:Yb,Er, one of the most efficient upconversion nanophosphors (UCNPs), as an autofluorescence-free LRET donor and a tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA)-labeled substrate peptide as the acceptor. Fascinatingly, besides acting as the LRET donor, NaYF4:Yb,Er UCNPs also serve as the phosphopeptide-recognizing matrix because the intrinsic rare earth ions of UCNPs can specifically capture the fluorescent phosphopeptides catalyzed by protein kinases over the unphosphorylated ones. Therefore, a sensitive and generic protein kinase assay is developed in an extremely simple mix-and-read format without any requirement of surface modification, substrate immobilization, separation, or washing steps, showing great potential in protein kinases-related clinical diagnosis and drug discovery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report by use of rare earth-doped UCNPs as both the phospho-recognizing and signal reporting elements for protein kinase analysis. PMID:24871878

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Kinase Interacting Protein 1, a Pollen Protein That Interacts with the Kinase Domain of PRK1, a Receptor-Like Kinase of Petunia1

    PubMed Central

    Skirpan, Andrea L.; McCubbin, Andrew G.; Ishimizu, Takeshi; Wang, Xi; Hu, Yi; Dowd, Peter E.; Ma, Hong; Kao, Teh-hui

    2001-01-01

    Many receptor-like kinases have been identified in plants and have been shown by genetic or transgenic knockouts to play diverse physiological roles; however, to date, the cytosolic interacting proteins of relatively few of these kinases have been identified. We have previously identified a predominantly pollen-expressed receptor-like kinase of petunia (Petunia inflata), named PRK1, and we have shown by the antisense RNA approach that it is required for microspores to progress from the unicellular to bicellular stage. To investigate the PRK1-mediated signal transduction pathway, PRK1-K cDNA, encoding most of the cytoplasmic domain of PRK1, was used as bait in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid screens of pollen/pollen tube cDNA libraries of petunia. A protein named kinase interacting protein 1 (KIP1) was found to interact very strongly with PRK1-K. This interaction was greatly reduced when lysine-462 of PRK1-K, believed to be essential for kinase activity, was replaced with arginine (the resulting protein is named PRK1-K462R). The amino acid sequence of KIP1 deduced from full-length cDNA contains an EF-hand Ca2+-binding motif and nine predicted coiled-coil regions. The yeast two-hybrid assay and affinity chromatography showed that KIP1 interacts with itself to form a dimer or higher multimer. KIP1 is present in a single copy in the genome, and is expressed predominantly in pollen with a similar temporal pattern to PRK1. In situ hybridization showed that PRK1 and KIP1 transcripts were localized in the cytoplasm of pollen. PRK1-K phosphorylated KIP1-NT (amino acids 1–716), whereas PRK1-K462R only weakly phosphorylated KIP1-NT in vitro. PMID:11500547

  13. Mycobacterium Cytidylate Kinase Appears to Be an Undruggable Target.

    PubMed

    Craig, Justin K; Risler, Jenni K; Loesch, Kimberly A; Dong, Wen; Baker, Dwight; Barrett, Lynn K; Subramanian, Sandhya; Samudrala, Ram; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2016-08-01

    New and improved drugs against tuberculosis are urgently needed as multi-drug-resistant forms of the disease become more prevalent. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytidylate kinase is an attractive target for screening due to its essentiality and different substrate specificity to the human orthologue. However, we selected the Mycobacterium smegmatis cytidylate kinase for screening because of the availability of high-resolution X-ray crystallographic data defining its structure and the high likelihood of active site structural similarity to the M. tuberculosis orthologue. We report the development and implementation of a high-throughput luciferase-based activity assay and screening of 19,920 compounds derived from small-molecule libraries and an in silico screen predicting likely inhibitors of the cytidylate kinase enzyme. Hit validation included a counterscreen for luciferase inhibitors that would result in false positives in the initial screen. Results of this counterscreen ruled out all of the putative cytidylate kinase inhibitors identified in the initial screening, leaving no compounds as candidates for drug development. Although a negative result, this study indicates that this important drug target may in fact be undruggable and serve as a warning for future investigations. PMID:27146385

  14. Regulation of cholesterol esterification by protein kinase C

    SciTech Connect

    Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

    1986-03-05

    They have recently identified acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase as the key enzyme for cholesterol esterification in the central nervous system. They found that the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase could be controlled by a phosphorylation-dephosphorylation mechanism. However, repeated attempts to identify cyclic AMP as the bioregulator for this reaction failed. Recently, they have studied the possible involvement of protein kinase C in the regulation of glial cholesterol esterification. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) can activate cellular cholesterol esterification in a complex, time-dependent manner. Phorbol analogues inactive toward protein kinase C are also ineffective in this assay. Furthermore, oleoyl-acetyl-glycerol mimics the effect of PMA, confirming the proposal that protein kinase C mediates the effect of these compounds and that the natural bioregulator is probably diacylglycerol. Receptor-mediated polyphosphatidyl-inositol cleavage often produces diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate. The synergic effects of these two compounds are known to be necessary to elicit other biological responses. Their preliminary studies using calcium ionophore A23187 indicates that Ca/sup + +/ is not required for cellular cholesterol esterification. In sum, glial cholesterol esterification is probably regulated by a calcium-independent and protein kinase C-dependent reaction.

  15. Protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation blocks juvenile hormone action.

    PubMed

    Kethidi, Damu R; Li, Yiping; Palli, Subba R

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile hormones (JH) regulate a wide variety of developmental and physiological processes in insects. Although the biological actions of JH are well documented, the molecular mechanisms underlying JH action are poorly understood. We studied the molecular basis of JH action using a JH response element (JHRE) identified in the promoter region of JH esterase gene cloned from Choristoneura fumiferana, which is responsive to JH and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In Drosophila melanogaster L57 cells, the JHRE-regulated reporter gene was induced by JH I, JH III, methoprene, and hydroprene. Nuclear proteins isolated from L57 cells bound to the JHRE and exposure of these proteins to ATP resulted in a reduction in their DNA binding. Either JH III or calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was able to restore the binding of nuclear proteins to the DNA. In addition, protein kinase C inhibitors increased and protein kinase C activators reduced the binding of nuclear proteins to the JHRE. In transactivation assays, protein kinase C inhibitors induced the luciferase gene placed under the control of a minimal promoter and the JHRE. These data suggest that protein kinase C mediated phosphorylation prevents binding of nuclear proteins to juvenile hormone responsive promoters resulting in suppression of JH action. PMID:16448742

  16. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  17. Building a human kinase gene repository: Bioinformatics, molecular cloning, and functional validation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaehong; Hu, Yanhui; Murthy, T. V. S.; Vannberg, Fredrik; Shen, Binghua; Rolfs, Andreas; Hutti, Jessica E.; Cantley, Lewis C.; LaBaer, Joshua; Harlow, Ed; Brizuela, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of proteins, lipids, sugars, nucleosides, and other important cellular metabolites and play key regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell physiology. Here, we describe the mining of public databases to collect the sequence information of all identified human kinase genes and the cloning of the corresponding ORFs. We identified 663 genes, 511 encoding protein kinases, and 152 encoding nonprotein kinases. We describe the successful cloning and sequence verification of 270 of these genes. Subcloning of this gene set in mammalian expression vectors and their use in high-throughput cell-based screens allowed the validation of the clones at the level of expression and the identification of previously uncharacterized modulators of the survivin promoter. Moreover, expressions of the kinase genes in bacteria, followed by autophosphorylation assays, identified 21 protein kinases that showed autocatalytic activity. The work described here will facilitate the functional assaying of this important gene family in phenotypic screens and their use in biochemical and structural studies. PMID:15928075

  18. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium.

    PubMed

    Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R A

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. PMID:6428927

  19. Phosphorylation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine kinase A PtkA by Ser/Thr protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peifu; Wong, Dennis; Li, Wu; Xie, Jianping; Av-Gay, Yossef

    2015-11-13

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), has inflicted about one third of mankind and claims millions of deaths worldwide annually. Signalling plays an important role in Mtb pathogenesis and persistence, and thus represents attractive resource for drug target candidates. Here, we show that protein tyrosine kinase A (PtkA) can be phosphorylated by Mtb endogenous eukaryotic-like Ser/Thr protein kinases (eSTPKs). Kinase assays showed that PknA, PknD, PknF, and PknK can phosphorylate PtkA in dose- and time-dependent manner. Enzyme kinetics suggests that PknA has the highest affinity and enzymatic efficiency towards PtkA. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction assay in surrogate host showed that PtkA interacts with multi-eSTPKs in vivo, including PknA. Lastly, we show that PtkA phosphorylation by eSTPKs occurs on threonine residues and may effect tyrosine phosphorylation levels and thus PtkA activity in vitro. These results demonstrate that PtkA can serve as a substrate to many eSTPKs and suggests that's its activity can be regulated. PMID:26417687

  20. Robust quantitative scratch assay

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Andrea; Angeli, Marc; Pastrello, Chiara; McQuaid, Rosanne; Li, Han; Jurisicova, Andrea; Jurisica, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing assay (or scratch assay) is a technique frequently used to quantify the dependence of cell motility—a central process in tissue repair and evolution of disease—subject to various treatments conditions. However processing the resulting data is a laborious task due its high throughput and variability across images. This Robust Quantitative Scratch Assay algorithm introduced statistical outputs where migration rates are estimated, cellular behaviour is distinguished and outliers are identified among groups of unique experimental conditions. Furthermore, the RQSA decreased measurement errors and increased accuracy in the wound boundary at comparable processing times compared to previously developed method (TScratch). Availability and implementation: The RQSA is freely available at: http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RQSA_Scripts.zip. The image sets used for training and validation and results are available at: (http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/trainingSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/validationSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSetResults.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSet_H1975.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSet_H1975Results.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RobustnessSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RobustnessSet.zip). Supplementary Material is provided for detailed description of the development of the RQSA. Contact: juris@ai.utoronto.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26722119

  1. Multi-kinase inhibitors, AURKs and cancer.

    PubMed

    Cicenas, Jonas; Cicenas, Erikas

    2016-05-01

    Inhibitors that impact function of kinases are valuable both for the biological research as well as therapy of kinase-associated diseases, such as different cancers. There are quite a number of inhibitors, which are quite specific for certain kinases and several of them are either already approved for the cancer therapy or are in clinical studies of various phases. However, that does not mean that each single kinase inhibitor is suitable for targeted therapy. Some of them are not effective others might be toxic or fail some other criteria for the use in vivo. On the other hand, even in case of successful therapy, many responders eventually develop resistance to the inhibitors. The limitations of various single kinase inhibitors can be fought using compounds which target multiple kinases. This tactics can increase effectiveness of the inhibitors by the synergistic effect or help to diminish the likelihood of drug resistance. To date, several families of kinases are quite popular targets of the inhibition in cancers, such as tyrosine kinases, cycle-dependent kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinases as well as their pathway "players" and aurora kinases. Aurora kinases play an important role in the control of the mitosis and are often altered in diverse human cancers. Here, we will describe the most interesting multi-kinase inhibitors which inhibit aurora kinases among other targets and their use in preclinical and clinical cancer studies. PMID:27038473

  2. A Discovery Strategy for Selective Inhibitors of c-Src in Complex with the Focal Adhesion Kinase SH3/SH2-binding Region

    PubMed Central

    Moroco, Jamie A.; Baumgartner, Matthew P.; Rust, Heather L.; Choi, Hwan Geun; Hur, Wooyoung; Gray, Nathanael S.; Camacho, Carlos J.; Smithgall, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The c-Src tyrosine kinase co-operates with the focal adhesion kinase to regulate cell adhesion and motility. Focal adhesion kinase engages the regulatory SH3 and SH2 domains of c-Src, resulting in localized kinase activation that contributes to tumor cell metastasis. Using assay conditions where c-Src kinase activity required binding to a tyrosine phosphopeptide based on the focal adhesion kinase SH3-SH2 docking sequence, we screened a kinase-biased library for selective inhibitors of the Src/focal adhesion kinase peptide complex versus c-Src alone. This approach identified an aminopyrimidinyl carbamate compound, WH-4-124-2, with nanomolar inhibitory potency and fivefold selectivity for c-Src when bound to the phospho-focal adhesion kinase peptide. Molecular docking studies indicate that WH-4-124-2 may preferentially inhibit the ‘DFG-out’ conformation of the kinase active site. These findings suggest that interaction of c-Src with focal adhesion kinase induces a unique kinase domain conformation amenable to selective inhibition. PMID:25376742

  3. Benzothiophene inhibitors of MK2. Part 2: Improvements in kinase selectivity and cell potency

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David R.; Meyers, Marvin J.; Kurumbail, Ravi G.; Caspers, Nicole; Poda, Gennadiy I.; Long, Scott A.; Pierce, Betsy S.; Mahoney, Matthew W.; Mourey, Robert J.; Parikh, Mihir D.; Pfizer

    2010-10-01

    Optimization of kinase selectivity for a set of benzothiophene MK2 inhibitors provided analogs with potencies of less than 500 nM in a cell based assay. The selectivity of the inhibitors can be rationalized by examination of X-ray crystal structures of inhibitors bound to MK2.

  4. Baculovirus protein PK2 subverts eIF2α kinase function by mimicry of its kinase domain C-lobe

    PubMed Central

    Li, John J.; Cao, Chune; Fixsen, Sarah M.; Young, Janet M.; Bando, Hisanori; Elde, Nels C.; Katsuma, Susumu; Dever, Thomas E.; Sicheri, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) by eIF2α family kinases is a conserved mechanism to limit protein synthesis under specific stress conditions. The baculovirus-encoded protein PK2 inhibits eIF2α family kinases in vivo, thereby increasing viral fitness. However, the precise mechanism by which PK2 inhibits eIF2α kinase function remains an enigma. Here, we probed the mechanism by which PK2 inhibits the model eIF2α kinase human RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) as well as native insect eIF2α kinases. Although PK2 structurally mimics the C-lobe of a protein kinase domain and possesses the required docking infrastructure to bind eIF2α, we show that PK2 directly binds the kinase domain of PKR (PKRKD) but not eIF2α. The PKRKD–PK2 interaction requires a 22-residue N-terminal extension preceding the globular PK2 body that we term the “eIF2α kinase C-lobe mimic” (EKCM) domain. The functional insufficiency of the N-terminal extension of PK2 implicates a role for the adjacent EKCM domain in binding and inhibiting PKR. Using a genetic screen in yeast, we isolated PK2-activating mutations that cluster to a surface of the EKCM domain that in bona fide protein kinases forms the catalytic cleft through sandwiching interactions with a kinase N-lobe. Interaction assays revealed that PK2 associates with the N- but not the C-lobe of PKRKD. We propose an inhibitory model whereby PK2 engages the N-lobe of an eIF2α kinase domain to create a nonfunctional pseudokinase domain complex, possibly through a lobe-swapping mechanism. Finally, we show that PK2 enhances baculovirus fitness in insect hosts by targeting the endogenous insect heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI)–like eIF2α kinase. PMID:26216977

  5. A Trichoderma atroviride stress-activated MAPK pathway integrates stress and light signals.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Naranjo, Edgardo Ulises; García-Esquivel, Mónica; Medina-Castellanos, Elizabeth; Correa-Pérez, Víctor Alejandro; Parra-Arriaga, Jorge Luis; Landeros-Jaime, Fidel; Cervantes-Chávez, José Antonio; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Cells possess stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) signalling pathways, which are activated practically in response to any cellular insult, regulating responses for survival and adaptation to harmful environmental changes. To understand the function of SAPK pathways in T. atroviride, mutants lacking the MAPKK Pbs2 and the MAPK Tmk3 were analysed under several cellular stresses, and in their response to light. All mutants were highly sensitive to cellular insults such as osmotic and oxidative stress, cell wall damage, high temperature, cadmium, and UV irradiation. Under oxidative stress, the Tmk3 pathway showed specific roles during development, which in conidia are essential for tolerance to oxidant agents and appear to play a minor role in mycelia. The function of this pathway was more evident in Δpbs2 and Δtmk3 mutant strains when combining oxidative stress or cell wall damage with light. Light stimulates tolerance to osmotic stress through Tmk3 independently of the photoreceptor Blr1. Strikingly, photoconidiation and expression of blue light regulated genes was severally affected in Δtmk3 and Δpbs2 strains, indicating that this pathway regulates light responses. Furthermore, Tmk3 was rapidly phosphorylated upon light exposure. Thus, our data indicate that Tmk3 signalling cooperates with the Blr photoreceptor complex in the activation of gene expression. PMID:26878111

  6. The role of Src kinase in the biology and pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba species are the causative agents of fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans. Haematogenous spread is thought to be a primary step, followed by blood–brain barrier penetration, in the transmission of Acanthmaoeba into the central nervous system, but the associated molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the role of Src, a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase in the biology and pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba. Methods Amoebistatic and amoebicidal assays were performed by incubating amoeba in the presence of Src kinase-selective inhibitor, PP2 (4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine) and its inactive analog, PP3 (4-amino-7-phenylpyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine). Using this inhibitor, the role of Src kinase in A. castellanii interactions with Escherichia coli was determined. Zymographic assays were performed to study effects of Src kinase on extracellular proteolytic activities of A. castellanii. The human brain microvascular endothelial cells were used to determine the effects of Src kinase on A. castellanii adhesion to and cytotoxicity of host cells. Results Inhibition of Src kinase using a specific inhibitor, PP2 (4-amino-5-(4 chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidine) but not its inactive analog, PP3 (4-amino-7-phenylpyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine), had detrimental effects on the growth of A. castellanii (keratitis isolate, belonging to the T4 genotype). Interestingly, inhibition of Src kinase hampered the phagocytic ability of A. castellanii, as measured by the uptake of non-invasive bacteria, but, on the contrary, invasion by pathogenic bacteria was enhanced. Zymographic assays revealed that inhibition of Src kinases reduced extracellular protease activities of A. castellanii. Src kinase inhibition had no significant effect on A. castellanii binding to and cytotoxicity of primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood–brain barrier. Conclusions For the first

  7. Pim Kinase Interacts with Nonstructural 5A Protein and Regulates Hepatitis C Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chorong; Min, Saehong; Park, Eun-Mee; Lim, Yun-Sook; Kang, Sangmin; Suzuki, Tetsuro; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on host cellular proteins for virus propagation. In order to identify the cellular factors involved in HCV propagation, we performed protein microarray assay using the HCV nonstructural 5A (NS5A) protein as a probe. Of ∼9,000 human cellular proteins immobilized in a microarray, approximately 90 cellular proteins were identified as NS5A interactors. Of these candidates, Pim1, a member of serine/threonine kinase family composed of three different isoforms (Pim1, Pim2, and Pim3), was selected for further study. Pim kinases share a consensus sequence which overlaps with kinase activity. Pim kinase activity has been implicated in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we verified the physical interaction between NS5A and Pim1 by both in vitro pulldown and coimmunoprecipitation assays. Pim1 interacted with NS5A through amino acid residues 141 to 180 of Pim1. We demonstrated that protein stability of Pim1 was increased by NS5A protein and this increase was mediated by protein interplay. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of Pim kinase abrogated HCV propagation. By employing HCV pseudoparticle entry and single-cycle HCV infection assays, we further demonstrated that Pim kinase was involved in HCV entry at a postbinding step. These data suggest that Pim kinase may represent a new host factor for HCV entry. IMPORTANCE Pim1 is an oncogenic serine/threonine kinase. HCV NS5A protein physically interacts with Pim1 and contributes to Pim1 protein stability. Since Pim1 protein expression level is upregulated in many cancers, NS5A-mediated protein stability may be associated with HCV pathogenesis. Either gene silencing or chemical inhibition of Pim kinase abrogated HCV propagation in HCV-infected cells. We further showed that Pim kinase was specifically required at an early entry step of the HCV life cycle. Thus, we have identified Pim kinase not only as an HCV cell

  8. Identification and functional analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yun; Wang, Chen; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades, consisting of three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases (MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK), are involved in important processes including plant immunity and hormone responses. The MAPKKKs comprise the largest family in the MAPK cascades, yet only a few of these genes have been associated with physiological functions, even in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China and worldwide. To explore MAPKKK functions in biotic and abiotic stress responses in canola, 66 MAPKKK genes were identified and 28 of them were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis of these canola MAPKKKs with homologous genes from representative species classified them into three groups (A–C), comprising four MAPKKKs, seven ZIKs, and 17 Raf genes. A further 15 interaction pairs between these MAPKKKs and the downstream BnaMKKs were identified through a yeast two-hybrid assay. The interactions were further validated through bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. In addition, by quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR, it was further observed that some of these BnaMAPKKK genes were regulated by different hormone stimuli, abiotic stresses, or fungal pathogen treatments. Interestingly, two novel BnaMAPKKK genes, BnaMAPKKK18 and BnaMAPKKK19, which could elicit hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, were successfully identified. Moreover, it was found that BnaMAPKKK19 probably mediated cell death through BnaMKK9. Overall, the present work has laid the foundation for further characterization of this important MAPKKK gene family in canola. PMID:24604738

  9. Identification and functional analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yun; Wang, Chen; Yang, Bo; Wu, Feifei; Hao, Xueyu; Liang, Wanwan; Niu, Fangfang; Yan, Jingli; Zhang, Hanfeng; Wang, Boya; Deyholos, Michael K; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-05-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling cascades, consisting of three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases (MAPKKK, MAPKK, and MAPK), are involved in important processes including plant immunity and hormone responses. The MAPKKKs comprise the largest family in the MAPK cascades, yet only a few of these genes have been associated with physiological functions, even in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in China and worldwide. To explore MAPKKK functions in biotic and abiotic stress responses in canola, 66 MAPKKK genes were identified and 28 of them were cloned. Phylogenetic analysis of these canola MAPKKKs with homologous genes from representative species classified them into three groups (A-C), comprising four MAPKKKs, seven ZIKs, and 17 Raf genes. A further 15 interaction pairs between these MAPKKKs and the downstream BnaMKKs were identified through a yeast two-hybrid assay. The interactions were further validated through bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analysis. In addition, by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, it was further observed that some of these BnaMAPKKK genes were regulated by different hormone stimuli, abiotic stresses, or fungal pathogen treatments. Interestingly, two novel BnaMAPKKK genes, BnaMAPKKK18 and BnaMAPKKK19, which could elicit hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death when transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, were successfully identified. Moreover, it was found that BnaMAPKKK19 probably mediated cell death through BnaMKK9. Overall, the present work has laid the foundation for further characterization of this important MAPKKK gene family in canola. PMID:24604738

  10. Drugging MYCN through an allosteric transition in Aurora Kinase A

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, William Clay; Meyerowitz, Justin Gabriel; Nekritz, Erin A.; Chen, Justin; Benes, Cyril; Charron, Elise; Simonds, Erin Fitzgerald; Seeger, Robert; Matthay, Katherine; Hertz, Nicholas T.; Eilers, Martin; Shokat, Kevan M.; Weiss, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary MYC proteins are major drivers of cancer, yet are considered undruggable, as their DNA binding domains are composed of two extended alpha helices with no apparent surfaces for small molecule binding. Proteolytic degradation of MYCN protein is regulated in part by a kinase-independent function of Aurora A. We describe a class of inhibitors that disrupts the native conformation of Aurora A, and drives degradation of MYCN protein across MYCN-driven cancers. Comparison of co-crystal structures with structure-activity relationships across multiple inhibitors and chemotypes, coupled with mechanistic studies and biochemical assays, delineates an Aurora A conformation-specific effect on proteolytic degradation of MYCN, rather than simple nanomolar-level inhibition of Aurora A kinase activity. PMID:25175806

  11. Application of Eukaryotic Elongation Factor-2 Kinase (eEF-2K) for Cancer Therapy: Expression, Purification, and High-Throughput Inhibitor Screening.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Clint D J; Devkota, Ashwini K; Dalby, Kevin N; Cho, Eun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinases have emerged as an important class of therapeutic targets, as they are known to be involved in pathological pathways linked to numerous human disorders. Major efforts to discover kinase inhibitors in both academia and pharmaceutical companies have centered on the development of robust assays and cost-effective approaches to isolate them. Drug discovery procedures often start with hit identification for lead development, by screening a library of chemicals using an appropriate assay in a high-throughput manner. Considering limitations unique to each assay technique and screening capability, intelligent integration of various assay schemes and level of throughput, in addition to the choice of chemical libraries, is the key to success of this initial step. Here, we describe the purification of the protein kinase, eEF-2K, and the utilization of three biochemical assays in the course of identifying small molecules that block its enzymatic reaction. PMID:26501899

  12. Hydrophobic Core Variations Provide a Structural Framework for Tyrosine Kinase Evolution and Functional Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Annie; Byrne, Dominic P.; Ferries, Samantha; Ruan, Zheng; Hanold, Laura E.; Katiyar, Samiksha; Kennedy, Eileen J.; Eyers, Patrick A.; Kannan, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are a group of closely related enzymes that have evolutionarily diverged from serine/threonine kinases (STKs) to regulate pathways associated with multi-cellularity. Evolutionary divergence of PTKs from STKs has occurred through accumulation of mutations in the active site as well as in the commonly conserved hydrophobic core. While the functional significance of active site variations is well understood, relatively little is known about how hydrophobic core variations contribute to PTK evolutionary divergence. Here, using a combination of statistical sequence comparisons, molecular dynamics simulations, mutational analysis and in vitro thermostability and kinase assays, we investigate the structural and functional significance of key PTK-specific variations in the kinase core. We find that the nature of residues and interactions in the hydrophobic core of PTKs is strikingly different from other protein kinases, and PTK-specific variations in the core contribute to functional divergence by altering the stability and dynamics of the kinase domain. In particular, a functionally critical STK-conserved histidine that stabilizes the regulatory spine in STKs is selectively mutated to an alanine, serine or glutamate in PTKs, and this loss-of-function mutation is accommodated, in part, through compensatory PTK-specific interactions in the core. In particular, a PTK-conserved phenylalanine in the I-helix appears to structurally and functionally compensate for the loss of STK-histidine by interacting with the regulatory spine, which has far-reaching effects on enzyme activity, inhibitor sensing, and stability. We propose that hydrophobic core variations provide a selective advantage during PTK evolution by increasing the conformational flexibility, and therefore the allosteric potential of the kinase domain. Our studies also suggest that Tyrosine Kinase Like kinases such as RAF are intermediates in PTK evolutionary divergence inasmuch as they

  13. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the thymidine kinase gene from herpesvirus of turkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.L.; Aparisio, D.I.; Bandyopadhyay, P.K.

    1989-06-01

    The thymidine kinase gene encoded by herpesvirus of turkeys has been identified and characterized. A viral mutant (ATR/sup 0/) resistant to 1-..beta..-D-arabinofuranosylthymine was isolated. This mutant was also resistant to 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy-..beta..-D-arabinofuronosyl)-5-methyluracil and was unable to incorporate (/sup 125/I)deoxycytidine into DNA. The mutant phenotype was rescued by a cloned region of the turkey herpesvirus genome whose DNA sequence was found to contain an open reading frame similar to that for known thymidine kinases from other viruses. When expressed in Escherichia coli, this open reading frame complemented a thymidine kinase-deficient strain and resulted in thymidine kinase activity in extracts assayed in vitro.

  14. Acanthamoeba castellanii Induces Host Cell Death via a Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sissons, James; Kim, Kwang Sik; Stins, Monique; Jayasekera, Samantha; Alsam, Selwa; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba castellanii is a serious human infection with fatal consequences, but it is not clear how the circulating amoebae interact with the blood-brain barrier and transmigrate into the central nervous system. We studied the effects of an Acanthamoeba encephalitis isolate belonging to the T1 genotype on human brain microvascular endothelial cells, which constitute the blood-brain barrier. Using an apoptosis-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we showed that Acanthamoeba induces programmed cell death in brain microvascular endothelial cells. Next, we observed that Acanthamoeba specifically activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Acanthamoeba-mediated brain endothelial cell death was abolished using LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor. These results were further confirmed using brain microvascular endothelial cells expressing dominant negative forms of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. This is the first demonstration that Acanthamoeba-mediated brain microvascular endothelial cell death is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. PMID:15845472

  15. Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive pantothenate kinase (coaA) mutants of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vallari, D S; Rock, C O

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants conditionally defective in the conversion of pantothenate to coenzyme A were isolated and characterized. The gene was designated coaA and localized between argEH and rpoB near min 90 of the chromosome. The coaA15(Ts) mutation caused a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype and temperature-dependent inactivation of pantothenate kinase activity assayed both in vivo and in vitro. At 30 degrees C, coaA15(Ts) extracts contained less than 20% of the wild-type pantothenate kinase activity; the kinase had near normal kinetic constants for the substrates ATP and pantothenate and was inhibited by coenzyme A to the same degree as the wild-type enzyme. These data define the coaA gene as the structural gene for pantothenate kinase. PMID:2824448

  16. West Nile virus methyltransferase domain interacts with protein kinase G

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The flaviviral nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) is a phosphoprotein, though the precise identities and roles of many specific phosphorylations remain unknown. Protein kinase G (PKG), a cGMP-dependent protein kinase, has previously been shown to phosphorylate dengue virus NS5. Methods We used mass spectrometry to specifically identify NS5 phosphosites. Co-immunoprecipitation assays were used to study protein-protein interactions. Effects on viral replication were measured via replicon system and plaque assay titering. Results We identified multiple sites in West Nile virus (WNV) NS5 that are phosphorylated during a WNV infection, and showed that the N-terminal methyltransferase domain of WNV NS5 can be specifically phosphorylated by PKG in vitro. Expressing PKG in cell culture led to an enhancement of WNV viral production. We hypothesized this effect on replication could be caused by factors beyond the specific phosphorylations of NS5. Here we show for the first time that PKG is also able to stably interact with a viral substrate, WNV NS5, in cell culture and in vitro. While the mosquito-borne WNV NS5 interacted with PKG, tick-borne Langat virus NS5 did not. The methyltransferase domain of NS5 is able to mediate the interaction between NS5 and PKG, and mutating positive residues in the αE region of the methyltransferase interrupts the interaction. These same mutations completely inhibited WNV replication. Conclusions PKG is not required for WNV replication, but does make a stable interaction with NS5. While the consequence of the NS5:PKG interaction when it occurs is unclear, mutational data demonstrates that this interaction occurs in a region of NS5 that is otherwise necessary for replication. Overall, the results identify an interaction between virus and a cellular kinase and suggest a role for a host kinase in enhancing flaviviral replication. PMID:23876037

  17. Characterization of the Catalytic and Nucleotide Binding Properties of the α-Kinase Domain of Dictyostelium Myosin-II Heavy Chain Kinase A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yidai; Ye, Qilu; Jia, Zongchao; Côté, Graham P

    2015-09-25

    The α-kinases are a widely expressed family of serine/threonine protein kinases that exhibit no sequence identity with conventional eukaryotic protein kinases. In this report, we provide new information on the catalytic properties of the α-kinase domain of Dictyostelium myosin-II heavy chain kinase-A (termed A-CAT). Crystallization of A-CAT in the presence of MgATP yielded structures with AMP or adenosine in the catalytic cleft together with a phosphorylated Asp-766 residue. The results show that the β- and α-phosphoryl groups are transferred either directly or indirectly to the catalytically essential Asp-766. Biochemical assays confirmed that A-CAT hydrolyzed ATP, ADP, and AMP with kcat values of 1.9, 0.6, and 0.32 min(-1), respectively, and showed that A-CAT can use ADP to phosphorylate peptides and proteins. Binding assays using fluorescent 2'/3'-O-(N-methylanthraniloyl) analogs of ATP and ADP yielded Kd values for ATP, ADP, AMP, and adenosine of 20 ± 3, 60 ± 20, 160 ± 60, and 45 ± 15 μM, respectively. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that Glu-713, Leu-716, and Lys-645, all of which interact with the adenine base, were critical for nucleotide binding. Mutation of the highly conserved Gln-758, which chelates a nucleotide-associated Mg(2+) ion, eliminated catalytic activity, whereas loss of the highly conserved Lys-722 and Arg-592 decreased kcat values for kinase and ATPase activities by 3-6-fold. Mutation of Asp-663 impaired kinase activity to a much greater extent than ATPase, indicating a specific role in peptide substrate binding, whereas mutation of Gln-768 doubled ATPase activity, suggesting that it may act to exclude water from the active site. PMID:26260792

  18. Discovering the first tyrosine kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Tony

    2015-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, animal tumor viruses were heralded as possible models for understanding human cancer. By the mid-1970s, the molecular basis by which tumor viruses transform cells into a malignant state was beginning to emerge as the first viral genomic sequences were reported and the proteins encoded by their transforming genes were identified and characterized. This was a time of great excitement and rapid progress. In 1978, prompted by the discovery from Ray Erikson’s group that the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) v-Src–transforming protein had an associated protein kinase activity specific for threonine, my group at the Salk Institute set out to determine whether the polyomavirus middle T-transforming protein had a similar kinase activity. Here, I describe the experiments that led to the identification of a kinase activity associated with middle T antigen and our serendipitous discovery that this activity was specific for tyrosine in vitro, and how this in turn led to the fortuitous observation that the v-Src–associated kinase activity was also specific for tyrosine. Our finding that v-Src increased the level of phosphotyrosine in cellular proteins in RSV-transformed cells confirmed that v-Src is a tyrosine kinase and transforms cells by phosphorylating proteins on tyrosine. My colleague Bart Sefton and I reported these findings in the March issue of PNAS in 1980. Remarkably, all of the experiments in this paper were accomplished in less than one month. PMID:26130799

  19. Macrophage Inflammatory Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ylostalo, Joni H.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent a widely distributed and functionally diverse population of innate myeloid cells involved in inflammatory response to pathogens, tissue homeostasis and tissue repair (Murray and Wynn, 2011). Macrophages can be broadly grouped into two subpopulations with opposing activites: M1 or pro-inflammatory macrophages that promote T-helper type 1 (Th1) cell immunity and tissue damage, and M2 or anti-inflammatory/alternatively activated macrophages implicated in Th2 response and resolution of inflammation. Here we describe a rapid assay we used previously to monitor changes in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages in response to therapeutic paracrine factors produced by adult stem cells (Bartosh et al., 2010; Ylostalo et al., 2012; Bartosh et al., 2013). The assay can be adapted appropriately to test macrophage response to other agents as well that will be referred to herein as ‘test reagents’ or ‘test compounds’. In this protocol, the mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1 is expanded as an adherent monolayer on petri dishes allowing for the cells to be harvested easily without enzymes or cell scrapers that can damage the cells. The macropahges are then stimulated in suspension with LPS and seeded into 12-well cell culture plates containing the test reagents. After 16–18 h, the medium conditioned by the macrophages is harvested and the cytokine profile in the medium determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We routinely measure levels of the pro-inflammtory cytokine TNF-alpha and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10).

  20. C. elegans chemotaxis assay.

    PubMed

    Margie, Olivia; Palmer, Chris; Chin-Sang, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms use chemotaxis to seek out food sources, avoid noxious substances, and find mates. Caenorhabditis elegans has impressive chemotaxis behavior. The premise behind testing the response of the worms to an odorant is to place them in an area and observe the movement evoked in response to an odorant. Even with the many available assays, optimizing worm starting location relative to both the control and test areas, while minimizing the interaction of worms with each other, while maintaining a significant sample size remains a work in progress (1-10). The method described here aims to address these issues by modifying the assay developed by Bargmann et al.(1). A Petri dish is divided into four quadrants, two opposite quadrants marked "Test" and two are designated "Control". Anesthetic is placed in all test and control sites. The worms are placed in the center of the plate with a circle marked around the origin to ensure that non-motile worms will be ignored. Utilizing a four-quadrant system rather than one 2 or two 1 eliminates bias in the movement of the worms, as they are equidistant from test and control samples, regardless of which side of the origin they began. This circumvents the problem of worms being forced to travel through a cluster of other worms to respond to an odorant, which can delay worms or force them to take a more circuitous route, yielding an incorrect interpretation of their intended path. This method also shows practical advantages by having a larger sample size and allowing the researcher to run the assay unattended and score the worms once the allotted time has expired. PMID:23644543

  1. Radon assay for SNO+

    SciTech Connect

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  2. Radon assay for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-01

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  3. Biosensors: Viruses for ultrasensitive assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional assay based on genetically engineered viral nanoparticles and nickel nanohairs can detect much lower levels of protein markers associated with heart attacks than conventional assays.

  4. Restricted Distribution of the Butyrate Kinase Pathway among Butyrate-Producing Bacteria from the Human Colon

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Petra; Duncan, Sylvia H.; McCrae, Sheila I.; Millar, Jacqueline; Jackson, Michelle S.; Flint, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    The final steps in butyrate synthesis by anaerobic bacteria can occur via butyrate kinase and phosphotransbutyrylase or via butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase. Degenerate PCR and enzymatic assays were used to assess the presence of butyrate kinase among 38 anaerobic butyrate-producing bacterial isolates from human feces that represent three different clostridial clusters (IV, XIVa, and XVI). Only four strains were found to possess detectable butyrate kinase activity. These were also the only strains to give PCR products (verifiable by sequencing) with degenerate primer pairs designed within the butyrate kinase gene or between the linked butyrate kinase/phosphotransbutyrylase genes. Further analysis of the butyrate kinase/phosphotransbutyrylase genes of one isolate, L2-50, revealed similar organization to that described previously from different groups of clostridia, along with differences in flanking sequences and phylogenetic relationships. Butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase activity was detected in all 38 strains examined, suggesting that it, rather than butyrate kinase, provides the dominant route for butyrate formation in the human colonic ecosystem that contains a constantly high concentration of acetate. PMID:15028695

  5. Protein kinase C is involved in the regulation of several calreticulin posttranslational modifications.

    PubMed

    Cristina Castañeda-Patlán, M; Razo-Paredes, Roberto; Carrisoza-Gaytán, Rolando; González-Mariscal, Lorenza; Robles-Flores, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly versatile lectin-like chaperone that affects many cellular functions both inside and outside the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. We previously reported that calreticulin interacts with several protein kinase C isozymes both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular determinants involved in the association between these proteins and the biochemical significance of their interaction. Using full-length or CRT-domain constructs expressed as GST-fusion proteins, we found that protein kinase C binds to the CRT N domain in overlay and pull-down assays. Phosphorylation experiments showed that only this CRT domain is phosphorylated by the kinase. Lectin blot analysis demonstrated that CRT is modified by N-glycosylation, but this modification did not affect its interaction with protein kinase C. We also demonstrated that although both domains of protein kinase C theta can bind to CRT, it is the catalytic one that binds with higher affinity to CRT. Immunofluorescence studies showed that CRT and PKC co-localize mainly at the ER (estimated in 35%). Activation of protein kinase C induced caused transient changes in CRT localization, and unexpectedly, also induced changes in posttranslational modifications found in the protein: CRT N-glycosylation is abolished, whereas tyrosine phosphorylation and O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine modification are increased. Together, these findings suggest that protein kinase C is involved in the regulation of CRT function. PMID:19800981

  6. Design of substrate-based BCR-ABL kinase inhibitors using the cyclotide scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yen-Hua; Henriques, Sónia T.; Wang, Conan K.; Thorstholm, Louise; Daly, Norelle L.; Kaas, Quentin; Craik, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The constitutively active tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL is the underlying cause of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Current CML treatments rely on the long-term use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), which target the ATP binding site of BCR-ABL. Over the course of treatment, 20–30% of CML patients develop TKI resistance, which is commonly attributed to point mutations in the drug-binding region. We design a new class of peptide inhibitors that target the substrate-binding site of BCR-ABL by grafting sequences derived from abltide, the optimal substrate of Abl kinase, onto a cell-penetrating cyclotide MCoTI-II. Three grafted cyclotides show significant Abl kinase inhibition in vitro in the low micromolar range using a novel kinase inhibition assay. Our work also demonstrates that a reengineered MCoTI-II with abltide sequences grafted in both loop 1 and 6 inhibits the activity of [T315I]Abl in vitro, a mutant Abl kinase harboring the “gatekeeper” mutation which is notorious for being multidrug resistant. Results from serum stability and cell internalization studies confirm that the MCoTI-II scaffold provides enzymatic stability and cell-penetrating properties to the lead molecules. Taken together, our study highlights that reengineered cyclotides incorporating abltide-derived sequences are promising substrate-competitive inhibitors for Abl kinase and the T315I mutant. PMID:26264857

  7. Selective inhibition of the kinase DYRK1A by targeting its folding process.

    PubMed

    Kii, Isao; Sumida, Yuto; Goto, Toshiyasu; Sonamoto, Rie; Okuno, Yukiko; Yoshida, Suguru; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Koike, Yuka; Abe, Minako; Nonaka, Yosuke; Ikura, Teikichi; Ito, Nobutoshi; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Autophosphorylation of amino-acid residues is part of the folding process of various protein kinases. Conventional chemical screening of mature kinases has missed inhibitors that selectively interfere with the folding process. Here we report a cell-based assay that evaluates inhibition of a kinase at a transitional state during the folding process and identify a folding intermediate-selective inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), which we refer to as FINDY. FINDY suppresses intramolecular autophosphorylation of Ser97 in DYRK1A in cultured cells, leading to its degradation, but does not inhibit substrate phosphorylation catalysed by the mature kinase. FINDY also suppresses Ser97 autophosphorylation of recombinant DYRK1A, suggesting direct inhibition, and shows high selectivity for DYRK1A over other DYRK family members. In addition, FINDY rescues DYRK1A-induced developmental malformations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Our study demonstrates that transitional folding intermediates of protein kinases can be targeted by small molecules, and paves the way for developing novel types of kinase inhibitors. PMID:27102360

  8. Ponatinib overcomes FGF2-mediated resistance in CML patients without kinase domain mutations

    PubMed Central

    Traer, Elie; Javidi-Sharifi, Nathalie; Agarwal, Anupriya; Dunlap, Jennifer; English, Isabel; Martinez, Jacqueline; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Wong, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Development of resistance to kinase inhibitors remains a clinical challenge. Kinase domain mutations are a common mechanism of resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), yet the mechanism of resistance in the absence of mutations remains unclear. We tested proteins from the bone marrow microenvironment and found that FGF2 promotes resistance to imatinib in vitro. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was uniquely capable of promoting growth in both short- and long-term assays through the FGF receptor 3/RAS/c-RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Resistance could be overcome with ponatinib, a multikinase inhibitor that targets BCR-ABL and FGF receptor. Clinically, we identified CML patients without kinase domain mutations who were resistant to multiple ABL kinase inhibitors and responded to ponatinib treatment. In comparison to CML patients with kinase domain mutations, these patients had increased FGF2 in their bone marrow when analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Moreover, FGF2 in the marrow decreased concurrently with response to ponatinib, further suggesting that FGF2-mediated resistance is interrupted by FGF receptor inhibition. These results illustrate the clinical importance of ligand-induced resistance to kinase inhibitors and support an approach of developing rational inhibitor combinations to circumvent resistance. PMID:24408322

  9. Acetylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is mediated by GCN5

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Juhyung; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Chiho; Song, Min-Young; Park, Kang-Sik; Oh, Young J.

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) is present as an acetylated form. • CDK5 is acetylated by GCN5. • CDK5’s acetylation site is mapped at Lys33. • Its acetylation may affect CDK5’s kinase activity. - Abstract: Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a member of atypical serine/threonine cyclin-dependent kinase family, plays a crucial role in pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Its kinase activity and substrate specificity are regulated by several independent pathways including binding with its activator, phosphorylation and S-nitrosylation. In the present study, we report that acetylation of CDK5 comprises an additional posttranslational modification within the cells. Among many candidates, we confirmed that its acetylation is enhanced by GCN5, a member of the GCN5-related N-acetyl-transferase family of histone acetyltransferase. Co-immunoprecipitation assay and fluorescent localization study indicated that GCN5 physically interacts with CDK5 and they are co-localized at the specific nuclear foci. Furthermore, liquid chromatography in conjunction with a mass spectrometry indicated that CDK5 is acetylated at Lys33 residue of ATP binding domain. Considering this lysine site is conserved among a wide range of species and other related cyclin-dependent kinases, therefore, we speculate that acetylation may alter the kinase activity of CDK5 via affecting efficacy of ATP coordination.

  10. Selective inhibition of the kinase DYRK1A by targeting its folding process

    PubMed Central

    Kii, Isao; Sumida, Yuto; Goto, Toshiyasu; Sonamoto, Rie; Okuno, Yukiko; Yoshida, Suguru; Kato-Sumida, Tomoe; Koike, Yuka; Abe, Minako; Nonaka, Yosuke; Ikura, Teikichi; Ito, Nobutoshi; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Autophosphorylation of amino-acid residues is part of the folding process of various protein kinases. Conventional chemical screening of mature kinases has missed inhibitors that selectively interfere with the folding process. Here we report a cell-based assay that evaluates inhibition of a kinase at a transitional state during the folding process and identify a folding intermediate-selective inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), which we refer to as FINDY. FINDY suppresses intramolecular autophosphorylation of Ser97 in DYRK1A in cultured cells, leading to its degradation, but does not inhibit substrate phosphorylation catalysed by the mature kinase. FINDY also suppresses Ser97 autophosphorylation of recombinant DYRK1A, suggesting direct inhibition, and shows high selectivity for DYRK1A over other DYRK family members. In addition, FINDY rescues DYRK1A-induced developmental malformations in Xenopus laevis embryos. Our study demonstrates that transitional folding intermediates of protein kinases can be targeted by small molecules, and paves the way for developing novel types of kinase inhibitors. PMID:27102360