Science.gov

Sample records for kindes und adoleszentenalter

  1. Two Kinds of Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Two Kinds of Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table ... minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ...

  2. Two Kinds of Argument?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Kane distinguishes between two kinds of argument: the interpretation/use argument and the validity argument. This commentary considers whether there really are two kinds of argument, two arguments, or just one. It concludes that there is just one argument: the validity argument. (Contains 2 figures and 5 notes.)

  3. Two Kinds of Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Two Kinds of Stroke Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... are often a warning sign for future strokes. Stroke Can Affect Anyone Award-winning actress Julie Harris ...

  4. Causal essentialism in kinds.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woo-kyoung; Taylor, Eric G; Kato, Daniel; Marsh, Jessecae K; Bloom, Paul

    2013-06-01

    The current study examines causal essentialism, derived from psychological essentialism of concepts. We examine whether people believe that members of a category share some underlying essence that is both necessary and sufficient for category membership and that also causes surface features. The main claim is that causal essentialism is restricted to categories that correspond to our intuitive notions of existing kinds and hence is more attenuated for categories that are based on arbitrary criteria. Experiments 1 and 3 found that people overtly endorse causal essences in nonarbitrary kinds but are less likely to do so for arbitrary categories. Experiments 2 and 4 found that people were more willing to generalize a member's known causal relations (or lack thereof) when dealing with a kind than when dealing with an arbitrary category. These differences between kinds and arbitrary categories were found across various domains-not only for categories of living things, but also for artefacts. These findings have certain real-world implications, including how people make sense of mental disorders that are treated as real kinds. PMID:23098315

  5. Can Kindness Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    There's no doubt that children's home environments have a huge impact on the kind of people they become. But so do their educational environments. A number of schools are beginning to realize it's worth it to spend the time on "soft" skills such as empathy. Even forgetting the recent scary headlines about bullying, teachers know that a classroom…

  6. Two Kinds of Electron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    In the 1930s physicists were confronted by two conflicting values for the charge of the electron as measured with great precision by two different methods. Could it be that there are two kinds of (negative) electrons, differing in charge by a fraction of a percent? The experiments were reconciled when a small systematic error in one of the…

  7. Teaching Repayment of Parents' Kindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bum Jung; Sung, Kyu-taik

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces a Buddhist Sutra about the deep kindness of mothers and ways of repaying mothers' kindness. The Sutra has been used to teach children about mothers' kindness and the obligation to repay to their mothers in their old age. It contains discourses about 10 types of kindness that a mother bestows on her child and how to repay…

  8. Branchen und Unternehmensbereiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Regine

    Dieses Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über die Haupteinsatzgebiete von Mathematikern, Informatikern, Naturwissenschaftlern und Ingenieuren in den wichtigsten Wirtschaftsbranchen und Unternehmensbereichen. Dabei werden ausbildungsnahe Aufgabenbereiche ebenso beschrieben wie eher fachferne Tätigkeiten und neben den klassischen Branchen und Berufsbildern auch neue Tätigkeitsfelder für MINT-Fachkräfte beschrieben.

  9. Diskrepanzen und Kongruenzen: Das Dilemma des afrikanischen Kindes zwischen Familie und Schule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Annemarie

    1986-03-01

    This article expounds the theory that the failure of school is due to the incompatibility of the educational goals of school and traditional upbringing in Africa. The thesis is put forward by adherents of the psychoanalytical model of child development and seeks to emphasize the discrepancies between the childhood where children are not frustrated and where their needs are cared for and the school education which represses the drives and its socialization of children. Finding a number of anthropological studies are discussed and reinterpretations of the ethno-psychoanalytical materials attempted. Neither the evaluation of childhood in Africa nor the theory that with school come wholly new expectations of behaviour (e.g., a performance requirement) can no longer be maintained. In conclusion, other explanations for the difficulties encountered by school in Africa are offered.

  10. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    1997-05-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  11. Kinds of Knowledge in Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Clayton

    Solving equations in elementary algebra requires knowledge of the permitted operations, and knowledge of what operation to use at a given point in the solution process. While just these kinds of knowledge would be adequate for an ideal solver, human solvers appear to need and use other kinds of knowledge. First, many errors seem to indicate that…

  12. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  13. Physikunterricht und Kalter Krieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieß, Falk; Kremer, Armin

    Die Indienstnahme des Physikunterrichts für militaristische und politische Zwecke ist in Deutschland nichts Neues: Die Wurzeln liegen im Kaiserreich und im Faschismus ("Wehrphysik"), und die Praxis im Kalten Krieg stellt hier nichts Außergewöhnliches, sondern lediglich eine auffällige Kontinuität dar.

  14. [Are Mental Disorders Natural Kinds?].

    PubMed

    Flórez Quintero, Daian Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    A problem for both philosophers of Psychiatry and Psychiatrists within the domain of nosology is to determine which could be the more appropriate model to classify mental illnesses. Such an endeavor also requires questioning the very nature of mental illness. While trying to cope with the philosophical challenges of such a task, Peter Zachar purports to show that the nosological work in Psychiatry should not adhere to the model of natural kinds. He even considers that it is mistaken to treat mental disorders as natural kinds. Nonetheless, Zachar's view on the existence of natural kinds-even in domains where there is little room for doubting about their existence, like Chemistry-is very unstable. In 2001 he holds that there are no natural kinds, but in 2008 he argues that his objections to the model of natural kinds are more the manifestation of his skepticism against a tradition. Although the problem of the existence of natural kinds shall not be dealt with in this article, a brief description on how deflated is Zachar's view on this matter in 2008 is presented, with the central part of the article devoted to reconstruct and examine his rationale for the thesis that mental disorders are not natural kinds. In the critical section of this paper, it is suggested that, although Zachar's thesis may be right, the arguments he gives to support it are quite flawed. PMID:26578221

  15. Geoinformation und Staat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zypries, Brigitte

    2002-09-01

    Geoinformationen besaßen als Grundlage militärischer Interventionen schon immer einen hohen Stellenwert für den Staat. Im Zeitalter der modernen Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien wächst in demokratischen Staaten die Bedeutung von Geodaten weit über den Verteidigungsbereich hinaus. Brigitte Zypries, Staatssekretärin im Bundesministerium des Innern (BMI) und Vorsitzende des Interministeriellen Ausschusses für Geoinformationswesen (IMAGI), sprach mit Dipl.-Geogr. Ute C. Bauerüber die Anwendung und Koordinierung von Geodaten in Politik und Staat.

  16. Roboter und Zuckerstangen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siebert, Heike

    Bei Produktion und Logistik denkt man sofort an Fabriken, Lagerhallen und Gabelstapler und nicht unbedingt an Zellbiologie. Sieht man etwas genauer hin erscheint dieser Gedankensprung jedoch gar nicht mehr so unpassend. In einer lebenden Zelle laufen eine Vielzahl von Produktions-, Transport- und Regulationsprozessen ab. Soll etwa ein gerade verfügbarer Rohstoff abgebaut werden, muss vielleicht ein Signal ein Gen erreichen, das ein geeignetes Enzym kodiert. Die Aktivierung des Gens führt über mehrere Zwischenstationen zur Produktion des Enzyms, das schließlich noch dahin gelangen muss, wo es gebraucht wird. Ist der Bedarf gedeckt, muss wiederum die Enzymproduktion eingestellt werden.

  17. Sternbilder und ihre Mythen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasching, Gerhard

    Die Sternbilder, die seit alters her die Menschen in ihren Bann gezogen haben, und die damit verbundenen Mythen werden in zweifacher Weise vorgestellt. Erstens ist es die Absicht, dem Leser zu helfen, sich am Sternenhimmel zurechtzufinden, und zweitens will es ihm die Vielfalt der Bilder vermitteln, die damit verbunden sind. Am Anfang des Buches stehen die prächtigen Erzählungen aus Ovids Metamorphosen. Dann ist vom Sternenhimmel im Jahreskreis die Rede, um den Leser anzuregen, diesen fast unendlichen Bilderreichtum sich selbst durch eigene Beobachtungen zu erschließen. Ein umfangreicher Abschnitt behandelt die einzelnen Sternbilder und das hierzu überlieferte Wissen. Sternkarten und alte Kupferstiche aus dem Bestand der Österreichischen Nationalbibliothek zeigen, wie man sich in früheren Jahrhunderten den Sternenhimmel vorgestellt hat. Sternsagen und Mythen werden erzählt und auch das ptolemäische und das kopernikanische Weltsystem werden einander gegenübergestellt. Ausführliche Sachverzeichnisse mit über 3000 Suchbegriffen erleichtern den Zugang zu Stern- und Sternbildnamen und zur Mythologie.

  18. Integument und Anhangsorgane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schliemann, Harald

    Das Integument umhüllt den Wirbeltierkörper lückenlos. In der embryonalen Mundbucht (Stomodaeum) und der Afterbucht (Proctodaeum) grenzt es an die Auskleidung des Darmrohres. Über die generelle Bedeutung einer Haut als Abgrenzung zwischen Körperinnenraum und Außenmedium hinaus hat es bei Schädeltieren ein breites Spektrum von Funktionen. Die wichtigsten sind: Mechanischer Schutz durch Verhornungen und Verknöch erungen; Wundheilung; Schutz vor Wasserverlust; Schutz vor Infektionen durch bakterizide Drüsensekrete und immunkompetente Zellen; Schutz vor kurzwelliger Strahlung durch Pigmente; Schutz vor Überwärmung durch Schweißdrüsensekrete und Schutz vor Wärmeverlust durch Federn und Haare; Ausbildung lokomotorisch wichtiger Strukturen wie Federn, Flug- und Schwimmhäute, Krallen und Hufe; Redukt ion des Strömungswiderstandes durch Dämpfungshaut; Abgabe von Sekreten zur Ernährung (Milch); Ausbildung von Strukturen zu Nahrungserwerb und_-bearbeitung, z. B. Zähne, Barten;

  19. The KIND Workshop Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirch, Willow Ann

    The National Association for Humane and Environmental Education (NAHEE) produces this workshop guide which offers a scripted workshop with handouts for elementary educators interested in sharing curriculum-based activities dedicated to helping young people develop values of kindness and respect toward people, animals, and the Earth. This guide…

  20. Katzenaugen und Sternsteine: Spielwiese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucke, Christian; Schlichting, Hans-Joachim

    2004-07-01

    Edelsteine vom Typ Chrysoberyll sind auch unter der Kurzbezeichnung Katzenauge bekannt. Im Chrysoberyll eingelagert sind feine, parallel angeordnete, metallisch glänzende Nadeln aus Rutil (Titandioxid). Auch Hohlkanäle und Risse durchziehen das Material. Lichtreflexion an diesen Einlagerungen und Kanälen erklärt das Lichtband, das dem Stein zu seinem Namen verhalf.

  1. Falten und fliegen: Papierflieger und ihre Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Werner

    2004-09-01

    Mit Papierfliegern können wichtige Eigenschaften der Aerodynamik anschaulich vermittelt werden: ein Blatt Papier, ein paar Faltungen und schon kann man experimentieren. Allerdings sind beim Trimmen des Fliegers einige Punkte zu beachten. Besonders wichtig ist die Y-Stellung der Flügel, die ihm Flugstabilität verleiht. Ist der Flieger fertig, dann gilt es, die dem Modell am besten angepasste Wurftechnik herauszufinden. Dazu variiert man Wurfgeschwindigkeit und Abwurfwinkel. Den Boden kann ein Papierflieger auf vier prinzipiell verschiedenen Flugkurven erreichen: Optimal ist die Gerade, dann fliegt er am weitesten.

  2. Messung und Analyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Sell, Hendrik; Sottek, Roland; Guidati, Sandro; Helfer, Martin

    Für die Beurteilung von Akustik und Fahrkomfort eines Fahrzeugs gilt in der Fahrzeugentwicklung immer noch der alte Grundsatz: "Der Kunde fährt nicht am Prüfstand, sondern auf der Straße“. Daher werden Gesamtbeurteilungen des Entwicklungsstandes und Konkurrenzvergleiche (Benchmarking) nach wie vor auf der Straße durchgeführt, meist auf ausgewählten Fahrbahnen am Prüfgelände oder im Rahmen der regelmäßigen Winter- und Sommererprobungen unter extremen Witterungsverhältnissen.

  3. Getreide, Brot und Feine Backwaren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Grabowski, Hans-Uwe; Rolfe, Birgit

    Getreide und Getreideerzeugnisse sind ebenso wie Brot und Feine Backwaren nach dem Lebensmittel- und Futtermittel-Gesetzbuch (LFGB) [1] Lebensmittel im Sinne des Artikels 2 der VO (EG) Nr. 178/2002 (BasisVO) (s. auch Kap. 1.6/2.4.1/3.2). Gesetzlich festgelegte Begriffsbestimmungen gibt es für diese Lebensmittel nicht. Man muss sich daher allgemeiner Verkehrsauffassungen bedienen, wie sie von der Deutschen Lebensmittelbuch-Kommission in Form von Leitsätzen erarbeitet und veröffentlicht wurden [2]. Der Gesundheitsschutz und der Schutz des Verbrauchers vor Täuschung sind in der Basis-VO und dem LFGB geregelt.

  4. Unternehmens- und Marktstatistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grömling, Michael; Scheinost, Ulrich

    Deutschland verfügt über ein gut ausgebautes System amtlicher und nicht amtlicher Unternehmens- und Marktstatistiken, das sich in einem fortwährenden Wandel befindet. Wird es sinnvoll genutzt, können für einzelne Marktteilnehmer wie für die gesamte Gesellschaft kostspielige Fehlentwicklungen vermieden werden. Dazu bedarf es eines sachkundigen Überblicks über die Vielfalt der Statistiken und der zwischen ihnen bestehenden Beziehungen sowie einer ständigen Anpassung an die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung. Als eine mögliche Orientierung kann der auf der Güter- und Faktorebene zu beobachtende Wandel dienen. Einer adäquaten Abbildung der ökonomischen Realität stehen in Deutschland mit seiner starken Verrechtlichung der Statistik jedoch mancherlei Schwierigkeiten im Wege. Teilweise tiefgreifende Reformbestrebungen sind vor allem auf europäischer Ebene im Gange. Als eine ergebnisorientierte Innovation für das Gesamtsystem der Unternehmens- und Marktstatistik wird ein modular aufgebautes System vorgestellt, das auch bei unterschiedlichen und sich wandelnden Rahmenbedingungen schrittweise realisiert werden kann.

  5. Datenintegration und Deduplizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleiholder, Jens; Schmid, Joachim

    In Unternehmen liegen viele Daten heutzutage immer seltener vollständig an einem einzigen physikalischen Ort vor, sondern sind weltweit verteilt. Dies liegt zum einen an der immer besser gewordenen Infrastruktur, die eine solche Verteilung auf einfache Art und Weise ermöglicht, und zum anderen an der Tatsache, dass viele Unternehmen weltweit tätig sind. So fallen Daten weltweit an, werden aber jeweils lokal - vor Ort - gespeichert. Daher müssen oft mehrere Datenquellen genutzt werden, um einen aktuellen, vollständigen und genauen Überblick über die vorhandenen Daten zu gewinnen. Datenintegration hilft, indem sie Daten aus mehreren Quellen zusammenführt und einheitlich darstellt. Diese integrierten Daten können genutzt werden, um sich einen Überblick über das Unternehmen zu verschaffen, z.B. wenn Unternehmen fusionieren und nur noch eine Kundendatenbank bestehen bleiben soll, oder wenn zu einem Kunden die Daten aus den verschiedenen Fachabteilungen zusammengeführt werden sollen. Anhand eines solchen Beispiels, der Integration von Kundendaten zu Kfz- und Lebensversicherungen erläutern wir im Folgenden einzelne Techniken.

  6. Geologie der terrestrischen Planeten und Monde.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöffler, D.

    Contents: 1. Inhalt und Aufgabe der Planetologie. 2. Aufbau des Sonnensystems. 3. Methoden der Exploration und Analyse der Planeten und Monde. 4. Geologische Grundprozesse auf den terrestrischen Planeten und Monden. 5. Geologische Formationen der planetaren Oberflächen. 6. Gesteine und Mineralien der planetaren Krusten. 7. Der innere Aufbau der terrestrischen planetaren Körper. 8. Vergleichende geologische Entwicklungsgeschichte der terrestrischen Planeten und des Mondes. 9. Ursprung und Entstehung der terrestrischen planetaren Körper.

  7. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  8. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  9. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  10. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  11. 7 CFR 201.9 - Kind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.9 Kind. The name of each kind of seed present in excess of 5 percent... seed are named on the label, the name of each kind shall be accompanied by the percentage of each....

  12. Patentierung und Patentlage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Uwe

    Gewerbliche Schutzrechte nehmen in der nationalen Rechts- und Wirtschaftsordnung sowie auch auf internationaler Ebene stetig an Bedeutung zu. Sie dienen dem Schutz geistigen Eigentums und sind für jeden Gewerbetreibenden nicht nur im Hinblick darauf von Bedeutung, eigene Rechte zu sichern, sondern auch insofern von Relevanz, dass ein Verstoß gegen Rechte Dritter zu vermeiden ist. Zu den gewerblichen Schutzrechten gehören unter anderem Kennzeichenrechte, Geschmacksmusterrechte sowie die sogenannten technischen Schutzrechte in Form des Patents sowie des Gebrauchsmusters. Die folgenden Ausführungen befassen sich ausschließlich mit den technischen Schutzrechten und geben eine kurze Einführung in die Voraussetzungen, das Entstehen und den Wegfall sowie in die Wirkungen technischer Schutzrechte. Beleuchtet wird die Situation im Wesentlichen im Hinblick auf nationale technische Schutzrechte, d. h. auf Deutsche Patente und Gebrauchsmuster sowie auf Europäische Patente, die Schutz in Deutschland entfalten. Die Möglichkeit der Erlangung von Schutzrechten im außereuropäischen Ausland wird nur am Rande gestreift.

  13. Technikwissenschaft - Erfinden und Entdecken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnemann, Gerhard

    Umrissen wird das allgemeine Ziel der Technikwissenschaft, konstruktiv zu verwerten und nicht-natürlich Entdeckbares zu erfinden. Wir befinden uns in einer Umwälzung der Technik im Verlauf der wissenschaftlich-technischen Revolution, auf dem Wege zu einem neuen Techniktyp. Dieser schafft und nutzt die künstliche Intelligenz. Dazu benötigt der in der Technik tätige Mensch spezielle Kenntnisse und Erfahrungen in kreativ-konstruktiver, -gestalterischer und erfinderischer Sicht mit dem Einsatz spezieller Strukturen und Sprachen. Vorschläge zur Arbeitsweise in der Technik werden gegeben.Translated AbstractTechnological Science-Invent and DiscoverThe general aim of engineering science is outlined to utilize results constructively and to invent something that cannot be discovered in nature. We are now in a period of transformation of technology in the course of scientific-technological revolution, on the way to a new type of technology. This new type creates and utilizes artificial intelligence. For this, man acitive in this field requires special knowledge and experiences in a creative, constructive, design-oriented and ultimately inventive way by deploying special structures and languages. There are also made some proposals concerning the method of working in the field of technology.

  14. Venture Kapital und Life Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Sebastian; Beermann, Christian

    Um sich weiter im internationalen Wettbewerb behaupten zu können, müssen deutsche Unternehmen heute in Schlüsseltechnologien wie die Medizintechnik und die Biotechnologie, zusammenfassend unter dem Begriff der Life Sciences bekannt, investieren. Eine führende Wettbewerbsposition erfordert immer die konsequente Weiterentwicklung von Produkten und Lösungen, um Innovationspotenziale in medizinische Verfahren umzusetzen. Die damit unmittelbar verbundenen hohen Ausgaben für Forschung und Entwicklung stellen ein bedeutendes Problem junger Life Science Unternehmen dar. Vor allem die, verglichen mit nicht-medizinischen Branchen, längeren Forschungs- und Entwicklungszyklen in der Frühphase eines Life Science Unternehmens und die längere Dauer bis zur Profitabilität erhöhen das Risiko der Finanzinvestoren. Die Zeitdauer, um ein medizinisches Produkt bis zur Marktreife zu entwickeln und letztlich auf dem Markt anzubieten, kann aufgrund der notwendigen intensiven Forschung nur unscharf geplant werden und erhöht die Unsicherheit über den Zeitpunkt der ersten Einnahmen. Damit verschärfen sich gerade im Life Science Bereich allgemeine Problematiken von Gründungs- und Wachstumsfinanzierungen wie starke Informationsasymmetrien zwischen Gründer und potentiellen Kapitalgebern. Oftmals ist die Entwicklung einer innovativen Technologie abhängig von einzelnen Personen, von deren Wissen und Engagement die Umsetzung und der Erfolg eines gesamten Produktkonzeptes abhängen.

  15. Kometen und Asteroiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgeest, Ulf; Staude, Jakob; Hahn, Gerhard; Harris, Alan W.; Jaumann, Ralf; Köhler, Ulrich; Kührt, Ekkehard; Schulz, Rita; Neukum, Gerhard; Arnold, Gabriele; Keller, Horst Uwe; Denk, Tilmann; Müller, Thomas; Wulff, André; Maruhn, Nicolaus; Fischer, Daniel; Trieloff, Mario; Althaus, Tilmann

    Contents: Die Kleinkörper des Sonnensystems. Kern, Koma und Schweife. Ziele der Planetenforschung. ROSETTA: Naherkundung von Kometen. Asteroiden: Trümmer aus planetarer Urzeit. Kleinkörper im Infrarotweltall. Selbs beobachten! Apocalypse - not now! Meteoriten - Boten aus der Urzeit des Sonnensystems.

  16. Tipps und Tricks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häger, Wolfgang; Bauermeister, Dirk

    Hier wollen wir einige uns nützlich erscheinende Hinweise zur Arbeit mit dem Inventor geben. Dabei geht es vor allem darum, das Arbeiten mit dem Inventor zu vereinfachen. Die Beispiele stellen eine unvollständige Aufzählung dar und sollen dazu anregen, nach alternativen Vorgehensweisen zu suchen (hier sei noch einmal ausdrücklich auf das Internet verwiesen).

  17. Arbeitsgestaltung und Mitarbeiterqualifizierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Oberdorfer, Werner; Hörner, Barbara; Holm, Ruth; Pirner, Evelin

    Die Wertkette gliedert ein Unternehmen in strategisch relevante Tätigkeiten, um dadurch Kostenverhalten sowie vorhandene und potenzielle Differenzierungsquellen zu verstehen. Wenn ein Unternehmen diese strategisch wichtigen Aktivitäten billiger oder besser als seine Konkurrenten erledigt, verschafft es sich einen Wettbewerbsvorteil." Michael Porter, 1985

  18. The Young Learner: Encouraging Kindness in Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1988-01-01

    Contains two motivational tools, a Kind Award and a Pass-It-On poem, which are designed to encourage children to be kind to animals. Includes examples on how to use the tools, and reproducible masters to be used in both instances. (TW)

  19. Online Literacy Is a Lesser Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Web skimming may be a kind of literacy but it's not the kind that matters most. In this article, the author contends that web skimming indicates a decline of literacy. The author discusses research conducted by Jakob Nielsen, a Web researcher, on how users skim web pages. He shows how the web is damaging the right way to read.

  20. Wirkstoffe, Medikamente und Mathematische Bildverarbeitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Günter J.; Lorenz, Dirk A.; Maaß, Peter; Preckel, Hartwig; Trede, Dennis

    Die Entwicklung neuer Medikamente ist langwierig und teuer. Der erste Schritt ist hierbei die Suche nach neuen Wirkstoffkandidaten, die für die Behandlung bislang schwer therapierbarer Krankheiten geeignet sind. Hierfür stehen der Pharma- und Biotechnologieindustrie riesige Substanzbibliotheken zur Verfügung. In diesen Bibliotheken werden die unterschiedlichsten Substanzen gesammelt, die entweder synthetisch hergestellt oder aus Pilzen, Bakterienkulturen und anderen Lebewesen gewonnen werden können.

  1. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  2. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  3. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  4. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 381.163 Section 381.163 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  5. 9 CFR 381.163 - “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 381.163 Section 381.163 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Composition § 381.163 “(Kind) baked” or “(Kind) roasted.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated, that has been cooked in dry source heat, e.g., oven roasted or oven baked....

  6. Not-so Random Acts of Kindness: A Guide to Intentional Kindness in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binfet, John-Tyler

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about random acts of kindness- acts performed spontaneously and often to strangers. The topic of kindness and the benefits arising from performing kind acts holds both empirical and applied interest in the fields of education and psychology. Encouraging students to reflect upon and perform intentional acts of kindness…

  7. ...und Einstein hatte doch recht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, Clifford M.; Leuchs, Anne; Leuchs, Gerd

    Keine wissenschaftliche Theorie ist auf solche Faszination auch außerhalb der Wissenschaft gestoßen wie die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie von Albert Einstein, und keine wurde so nachdrücklich mit den Mitteln der modernen Physik überprüft. Wie hat sie diesen Test mit Raumsonden, Radioastronomie, Atomuhren und Supercomputern standgehalten? Hatte Einstein recht? Mit der Autorität des Fachmanns und dem Flair des unvoreingenommenen Erzählers schildert Clifford Will die Menschen, Ideen und Maschinen hinter den Tests der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie. Ohne Formeln und Fachjargon wird der leser mit Einsteins Gedanken vertraut und erfährt von der Bestätigung seiner Vorhersagen, angefangen bei der Lichtablenkung im Schwerefeld der Sonne 1919 bis zu den ausgefeilten Kreiselexperimenten auf dem Space Shuttle. Die Allgemeine Relativitätstheorie hat nich nur alle diese Tests bestanden, sie hat darüber hinaus wesentlich beigetragen zu unserem Verständnis von Phänomenen wie Pulsaren, Quasaren, Schwarzen Löchern und Gravitationslinsen. Dieses Buch erzählt lebendig und spannend die Geschichte einer der größten geistigen Leistungen unserer Zeit.

  8. Pyropheophorbide und a as a catabolite of ethylene-induced chlorophyll und a degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Shimokawa, Keishi; Hashizume, Akihito ); Shioi, Yuzo )

    1990-05-01

    An enzyme extract prepared from ethylene-induced degreening Citrus fruits contains chlorophyll (Chl) degrading enzymes. The fate of Chl carbons during an enzymatic degradation was investigated using Chl {und a}-{sup 14}C. Accompanying the disappearance of labelled Chl {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a} appeared and accumulation of pyropheophorbide {und a} was observed. HydroxyChl {und a} was also detected, but this is thought to be an artifact during chromatography. Unlike ethylene-induced Citrus fruits (in vivo), further degradation of pyropheophorbide {und a} did not occur in vitro enzyme system. This suggests that there is a lack of enzyme(s) and/or cofactor(s) for further degradation. It is concluded that Chl {und a} degraded enzymatically by the following order: Chl {und a}, chlorophyllide {und a}, pheophorbide {und a} and pyropheophorbide {und a}.

  9. Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung und Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm

    Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne und Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.

  10. Diversity in Classrooms: Teaching Kindness through Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frieman, Barry B.; Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of folktales from India to teach kindness to kindergarten and primary school children. Notes that the "King of the Banyan Deer Tale" is particularly effective in early childhood, whereas the "Dooth Tale" is effective with older children. Supplemental activities are briefly described, such as food preparation, games and music, and…

  11. Evidence for a Distinct Kind of Noun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soja, Nancy N.

    1994-01-01

    Examined the spontaneous speech of four children and their parents for use of determiners with NP-type nouns and count nouns. Found that the parents made a clear distinction between the two kinds of nouns, omitting determiners with the NP-type nouns but not with the count nouns. The children all made the same distinction by four years of age. (HTH)

  12. Identifying Kinds of Reasoning in Collective Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, AnnaMarie; Singletary, Laura M.; Smith, Ryan C.; Wagner, Patty Anne; Francisco, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    We combine Peirce's rule, case, and result with Toulmin's data, claim, and warrant to differentiate between deductive, inductive, abductive, and analogical reasoning within collective argumentation. In this theoretical article, we illustrate these kinds of reasoning in episodes of collective argumentation using examples from one…

  13. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Senior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the senior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense) Teacher."…

  14. [KIND Worksheet Packet: Wild Animals (Junior).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Humane and Environmental Education, East Haddam, CT.

    This packet is the junior part of a series of worksheet packets available at both junior (grades 3-4) and senior (grades 5-6) levels that covers a variety of humane and environmental topics. Each packet includes 10 worksheets, all of which originally appeared in past issues of the annual teaching magazine "KIND (Kids in Nature's Defense) Teacher."…

  15. Methodological Encounters with the Phenomenal Kind

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Block’s well-known distinction between phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness has generated a large philosophical literature about putative conceptual connections between the two. The scientific literature about whether they come apart in any actual cases is rather smaller. Empirical evidence gathered to date has not settled the issue. Some put this down to a fundamental methodological obstacle to the empirical study of the relation between phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness. Block (2007) has drawn attention to the methodological puzzle and attempted to answer it. While the evidence Block points to is relevant and important, this paper puts forward a more systematic framework for addressing the puzzle. To give it a label, the approach is to study phenomenal consciousness as a natural kind. The approach allows consciousness studies to move beyond initial means of identifying instances of the kind like verbal report, and to find its underlying nature. It is well-recognised that facts about an underlying kind may allow identification of instances of the kind that do not match the initial means of identification (cp. non-liquid samples of water). This paper shows that the same method can be deployed to investigate phenomenal consciousness independently of access consciousness. PMID:22654148

  16. Polynomial Asymptotes of the Second Kind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This note uses the analytic notion of asymptotic functions to study when a function is asymptotic to a polynomial function. Along with associated existence and uniqueness results, this kind of asymptotic behaviour is related to the type of asymptote that was recently defined in a more geometric way. Applications are given to rational functions and…

  17. Measuring Kindness at School: Psychometric Properties of a School Kindness Scale for Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binfet, John Tyler; Gadermann, Anne M.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we sought to create and validate a brief measure to assess students' perceptions of kindness in school. Participants included 1,753 students in Grades 4 to 8 attending public schools in a large school district in southern British Columbia. The School Kindness Scale (SKS) demonstrated a unidimensional factor structure and adequate…

  18. Renaturierung und Management von Heiden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Härdtle, Werner; Assmann, Thorsten; van Diggelen, Rudy; von Oheimb, Goddert

    Heiden zählen zu den ältesten und besonders reizvollen Kulturlandschaften Nordwesteuropas. Sie sind bezeichnend für nährstoffarme Böden in wintermilden Gebieten mit hohen Sommerniederschlägen. Während Heiden vor wenigen Jahrhunderten noch weit verbreitet und für manche Landschaften sogar prägend waren, hat sich ihr Areal heute auf wenige, meist in Naturschutzgebieten gelegene Restbestände verkleinert. Zu diesem Rückgang haben maßgeblich Änderungen der Landnutzung, aber auch Nährstoffeinträge aus umgebenden Agrarflächen und atmogene Depositionen beigetragen. In den meisten Ländern der Europäischen Union sind Heiden heute gesetzlich geschützte Ökosysteme, da diese, neben ihrem Erholungswert für den Menschen, Pflanzen- und Tierarten beherbergen, die außerhalb von Heiden nicht oder kaum überlebensfähig sind.

  19. Software evolution. What kind of evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Carbonell, J. J.; Parets-Llorca, J.

    2001-06-01

    Most Software Systems capable of adapting to the environment or of performing some kind of adaptive activity (such as pattern learning, behavior simulations and the like) use concepts and models from Biology. Nevertheless, such approaches are based on the Modern Synthesis, i.e., Darwinism plus Mendelism, and this implies preadaptive mutations in, and subsequent selection of the better adapted individuals. These pre-adaptive changes usually do not produce the desired effect, are virtually useless and require some kind of backtracking for the system to obtain profit from adaptation. It is our contention that an evolutionary approach in Software Systems development cannot be based on pre-adaptive mutations, but rather on post-adaptive ones, that is, anticipatory mutations and modifications (Lamarkism). A novel way of understanding evolution in Software Systems based on applied Lamarkism is presented and a framework that allows the incorporation of modifications according to the necessities of the system and the will of the modeller is proposed.

  20. Kind of images in printed photo books

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fageth, Reiner; Schütz, Peter; Wagner, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    This paper describes the usage of images in tangible products as a function of its origin, coming from digital still cameras (DSC) or mobile devices. It is also shown, that pictures from mobile devices are mainly used to complete story telling in photo books, they are currently not a driver for generating this kind of high value products. Images taken from mobile devices generate to a great extent only prints mainly ordered via kiosk systems.

  1. Ressourceneinsatzplanung In der Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Sebastian; Handschin, Edmund; Rehtanz, Christian; Schultz, Rüdiger

    Der ökologisch nachhaltige, wirtschaftlich effiziente und politisch faire Umgang mit den Ressourcen der Erde ist eine der größten Herausforderungen an die Menschheit im 21. Jahrhundert und impliziert Paradigmenwechsel in allen Bereichen des gesellschaftlichen Lebens. Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik sind traditionell Bereiche, in denen der optimale Umgang mit kostbaren und beschränkt verfügbaren Ressourcen von erstrangiger Bedeutung ist. Zur Lösung der damit verbundenen komplexen Entscheidungsprobleme sind mathematische Methoden schon seit längerem im Einsatz. Hierbei können aber noch längst nicht alle bislang aufgetretenen Probleme fundiert angegangen werden. Der wachsende wirtschaftliche und ökologische Druck auf die Effizienz der Produktions-und Versorgungssysteme sowie stärkere Schwankungen von Angebot und Nachfrage führen zu neuen Herausforderungen, für die neue mathematische Methoden und Algorithmen entwickelt werden müssen.

  2. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  3. Studying the teaching of kindness: A conceptual model for evaluating kindness education programs in schools.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Deanna M; deBlois, Madeleine; Dominguez, Violeta; Walsh, Michele E

    2016-10-01

    Recent research suggests that school-based kindness education programs may benefit the learning and social-emotional development of youth and may improve school climate and school safety outcomes. However, how and to what extent kindness education programming influences positive outcomes in schools is poorly understood, and such programs are difficult to evaluate in the absence of a conceptual model for studying their effectiveness. In partnership with Kind Campus, a widely adopted school-based kindness education program that uses a bottom-up program framework, a methodology called concept mapping was used to develop a conceptual model for evaluating school-based kindness education programs from the input of 123 middle school students and approximately 150 educators, school professionals, and academic scholars. From the basis of this model, recommendations for processes and outcomes that would be useful to assess in evaluations of kindness education programs are made, and areas where additional instrument development may be necessary are highlighted. The utility of the concept mapping method as an initial step in evaluating other grassroots or non-traditional educational programming is also discussed. PMID:27376750

  4. [Evidenzbasierte Leitlinien, Anspruch und Wirklichkeit].

    PubMed

    Gutsch, Johannes; Reif, Marcus; Müller-Hübenthal, Boris; Matthiessen, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Mit der Konzeption der «Evidenzbasierten Medizin» und den «Evidenzbasierten Leitlinien» soll mithilfe von Formalisierungsprozeduren die ärztliche Irrtumsanfälligkeit kalkulierbar gemacht werden. Quantifizierte objektive Aussagen über die therapeutische Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung sollen die individuelle ärztliche Beurteilung der therapeutischen Wirksamkeit überflüssig machen. Damit kommt der Befolgung von formalen Regeln die entscheidende Rolle bei der Beantwortung der Frage nach dem Wahrheitsgehalt und dem Wirklichkeitsbezug zu. Im Rahmen evidenzbasierter Leitlinien werden vorrangig die Ergebnisse randomisierter kontrollierter Studien (RCT) oder Meta-Analysen solcher Studien herangezogen. Am Beispiel der S3-Leitlinie «Malignes Melanom» wird hier eine evidenzbasierte Urteilsbildung zur Wirksamkeit einer unkonventionellen Therapie - hier mit einem Mistelpräparat - analytisch nachvollzogen. Die für die Beurteilung dieser unkonventionellen Therapie herangezogene randomisierte Studie wird genauer methodisch analysiert. Obwohl sie keine statistisch basierte Aussage zulässt, wurde eine Leitlinienempfehlung auf Basis dieser Studie abgeleitet. Es wird gezeigt, dass 1) allein die Existenz einer einzigen RCT mit hoher Evidenz gleichgesetzt wird, 2) die Ergebnisse trotz beträchtlicher Fehlinterpretationen in eine S3-Leitlinie einfließen und 3) Meinungen anstelle kritischer wissenschaftlicher Analysen verarbeitet werden. Unsere Untersuchung zeigt, dass noch so ausgefeilte epistemologische und methodologische Formalien den Arzt nicht von der Pflicht entbinden, auf Basis seiner ärztlichen Erfahrung und professionellen Kompetenz den Realitätswert der ihm zur Verfügung stehenden Information zu beurteilen. PMID:27161555

  5. [Vegetarische und vegane Ernährung bei Kindern - Stand der Forschung und Forschungsbedarf].

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus; Müller, Stine

    2016-01-01

    Die Praxis vegetarischer Ernährungsformen ist in Deutschland im letzten Jahrzehnt deutlich angestiegen. Allerdings ist der Anteil vegetarischer und veganer Kinder dabei unbekannt. Studien mit Erwachsenen zeigen das präventive Potenzial, aber auch potenzielle Schwachstellen pflanzenbasierter Kostformen. Die Vorteile und Risiken einer vegetarischen bzw. veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter wurden bisher jedoch relativ selten untersucht. Außerdem lassen das unterschiedliche Alter der Kinder, das heterogene Studiendesign sowie die teilweise geringe Probandenzahl der Studien keine verbindlichen Aussagen zu. In dieser Übersichtsarbeit werden die Ergebnisse der wenigen Studien zu vegetarisch und vegan ernährten Kindern (< 12 Jahren) in Nordamerika und Europa zusammengefasst. Demnach lag die Zufuhr von Nahrungsenergie und Makronährstoffen vegetarischer und veganer Kinder meist näher an den Empfehlungen der Fachgesellschaften als die Ernährung gleichaltriger Mischkostkinder. Ebenso wiesen vegetarisch und vegan ernährte Kinder eine höhere Zufuhr von und bessere Versorgung mit verschiedenen Vitaminen und Mineralstoffen auf. Häufiger zeigten sich jedoch Defizite bei Vitamin B12, Zink, Kalzium, Eisen und Vitamin D. Das Wachstum und die Entwicklung vegetarisch und vegan ernährter Kinder entsprachen weitgehend den Referenzstandards, wobei sie dazu tendierten, leichter, schlanker und (< 5 Jahren) auch kleiner zu sein. Aufgrund der unzureichenden Studienlage besteht erheblicher Forschungsbedarf zu den Auswirkungen einer vegetarischen und veganen Ernährung im Kindesalter. PMID:27160086

  6. Restaurierung von Seen und Renaturierung von Seeufern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüneberg, Björn; Ostendorp, Wolfgang; Leßmann, Dieter; Wauer, Gerlinde; Nixdorf, Brigitte

    Süßwasserseen haben als ökosysteme und Lebensraum für Pflanzen und Tiere eine herausragende Bedeutung für die Artenvielfalt auf der Erde und prägen als Landschaftselemente unsere natürliche Umwelt. Seen fungieren als natürliche Stoffsenken, vor allem für Kohlenstoff und Nährstoffe, aber auch als Senken für in ihren Einzugsgebieten emittierte gelöste und feste Schadstoffe. Darüber hinaus ist Wasser eine wichtige Naturressource. Süßwasserseen stellen in den meisten Regionen der Erde lebenswichtige Quellen für die Versorgung mit Trinkwasser und tierischem Eiweiß (Fischfang) dar. Sie dienen als Wasserspeicher für die landwirtschaftliche und industrielle Nutzung. Auch für Erholungsaktivitäten des Menschen kommt ihnen eine große Bedeutung zu.

  7. Bewegungsapparat: Postcraniales Skelett und Muskulatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Martin S.

    Der Bewegungsapparat bestimmt die Form des Wirbeltierkörpers. So lässt sich z. B. aus der Gestalt eines Fisches auf seine bevorzugt e Schwimmweise schließen (S. 61). Bei den aquatisch en Schädeltieren dominiert die Fortbewegung mit axialem Antrieb; bei den meisten Tetrapoda findet sich eine Kombination aus axialem Antrieb und Bewegung durch Gliedmaßen. Selbst beim höchst spezialisierten Gang, der bipeden Bewegung des Menschen, sind Torsionsbewegungen des Rumpfes noch maßgeblich und bestimmen auch die Grundform des menschlichen Körpers (z. B. die Taille). Obwohl die verschiedenen Antriebsmechanismen eine funktionelle Einheit bilden, werden im Folgenden das Axialskelett sowie der Schulter- und Beckengürtel mit den zugehörigen Extremitäten getrennt besprochen.

  8. Lineare und verzweigte Blockcopolymere aus Polypeptiden und synthetischen Polymeren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukula, Hildegard

    2001-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von linearen und verzweigten amphiphilen Polypeptid-Blockcopolymeren. Die Frage nach dem Einfluss der Topologie und Konformation der Blockcopolymere auf die supramolekularen und kolloidalen Eigenschaften bildete einen wichtigen Aspekt bei den Untersuchungen. Die Blockcopolymere wurden nach einem mehrstufigen Reaktionsschema durch Kombination von anionischer und ringöffnender Polymerisation von Aminosäuren-N-Carboxyanhydriden (NCA) synthetisiert. Die Untersuchung der Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere hinsichtlich ihres Aggregationsverhaltens in fester Phase sowie in verdünnter wässriger Lösung erfolgte mittels Streumethoden (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) sowie abbildender Methoden (TEM). Durch Einsatz der Blockcopolymere als polymere Stabilisatoren in der Emulsionspolymerisation wurden Oberflächen funktionalisierte Latizes erhalten. Als Beispiel für eine pharmazeutische Anwendung wurden bioverträgliche Polypeptid-Blockcopolymere als Wirkstoff-Trägersysteme in der Krebstherapie eingesetzt. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers having amphiphilic character. The studies focused on the impact of the block copolymers' conformation and architecture on the supramolecular and colloidal properties. The polypeptide block copolymers were prepared in a multi-step process involving the anionic synthesis of (poly)amino-functional polymers (polystyrene and polybutadiene) which where used as macroinitiators for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides (NCA) of protected a-aminoacids. Supramolecular structures of the block copolymers in the solid state as well as in diluted aqueous solution were investigated using scattering (SAXS, WAXS, DLS) and microscopic (TEM) methods. Both linear and branched polypeptide block copolymers were used as polymeric stabilizers in the emulsion polymerization of styrene to yield polypeptide

  9. Dynamische Motorvermessung mit verschiedenen Methoden und Modellen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Alexander

    Die stark zunehmenden gesetzlichen und wirtschaftlichen Vorgaben zur Senkung von Kraftstoffverbrauch und Abgasemissionen stellen große Anforderungen an die weitere Entwicklung von Benzin- und Dieselmotoren. Hierbei sind grundlegende Fortschritte durch Konstruktion und auslegungsbedingte Maßnahmen im Bereich der Einspritzung, Gemischaufbereitung, Aufladung, Brennverfahren und Abgasnachbehandlung zu erreichen. Ein wesentlicher Teil dieser Verbesserungen wird jedoch durch eine Zunahme von Variabilitäten erreicht wie z.B. verstellbaren Vor-, Haupt- und Nacheinspritzungen, variablem Raildruck, variablen Nockenwellensteuerwinkeln, Ventilhüben, Drall-/Tumbleklappen sowie verstellbaren Abgasturbinen, Abgasrückführströmen und Abgasnachbehandlungssystemen. Dadurch steigt die Zahl der Stellglieder (Aktoren) stark an. Hinzu kommen zusätzliche Sensoren wie z.B. für Luftzahl, NOx, Brennraumdruck, Abgastemperatur und Abgasdruck. Deshalb nimmt der Umfang der Steuerungs-, Regelungs- und Diagnosefunktionen in der Motorelektronik (ECU) stark zu. Bild 7-1 zeigt als Beispiel den Signalfluss für die gesteuerten und geregelten Größen eines Dieselmotors in einer beispielhaften Prüfstandsumgebung.

  10. Nanoglasses: a new kind of noncrystalline materials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Summary Nanoglasses are a new class of noncrystalline solids. They differ from today’s glasses due to their microstructure that resembles the microstructure of polycrystals. They consist of regions with a melt-quenched glassy structure connected by interfacial regions, the structure of which is characterized (in comparison to the corresponding melt-quenched glass) by (1) a reduced (up to about 10%) density, (2) a reduced (up to about 20%) number of nearest-neighbor atoms and (3) a different electronic structure. Due to their new kind of atomic and electronic structure, the properties of nanoglasses may be modified by (1) controlling the size of the glassy regions (i.e., the volume fraction of the interfacial regions) and/or (2) by varying their chemical composition. Nanoglasses exhibit new properties, e.g., a Fe90Sc10 nanoglass is (at 300 K) a strong ferromagnet whereas the corresponding melt-quenched glass is paramagnetic. Moreover, nanoglasses were noted to be more ductile, more biocompatible, and catalytically more active than the corresponding melt-quenched glasses. Hence, this new class of noncrystalline materials may open the way to technologies utilizing the new properties. PMID:24062978

  11. What kind of discipline is psychoanalysis?

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo

    2015-06-01

    Current controversies involving clinical, conceptual and empirical research shed light on how psychoanalysis confronts its nature and its future. Some relevant debates in which Wallerstein, Green, Hoffman, Eagle and Wolitzky, Safran, Stern, Blass and Carmeli, and Panksepp have participated are examined regarding the characteristics of their argumentation. Agreements and disagreements are explored to find ways that could have allowed the discussion to progress. Two foci are highlighted in these debates: (a) whether a clinical common ground exists in psychoanalysis and what kind of procedure could contribute to further clarification; (b) complementation of in-clinical and extra-clinical evidence. Both aspects are scrutinized: the possibility of complementing diverse methodologies, and the nature of the shared clinical evidence examined in clinical discussion groups such as those promoted by the IPA Clinical Observation Committee. The importance of triangulation and consilience is brought to bear regarding their contribution to the robustness of psychoanalysis. So as to strengthen a critical perspective that enhances the discipline's argumentative field, psychoanalysis should take into account arguments from different sources according to their specific merits. By doing this, psychoanalysis increases its relevance within the current interdisciplinary dialogue. PMID:26173887

  12. KIND Clubs: A Humane Education Innovation That's Working.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Patty

    1990-01-01

    The Kids in Nature's Defense (KIND) Club and the "adopt" a teacher program are described. The importance of animals and the environment is emphasized. Information on how to start a KIND Club is provided. (KR)

  13. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  14. Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, John S.

    2013-02-01

    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in A System of Logic. However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have always employed, of kinds as being types that need not have necessary and sufficient characters and properties, or essences. These competing views employ different approaches to scientific methodologies: Mill's class-kinds are not formed by induction but by deduction, while Whewell's type-kinds are inductive. More recently, phylogenetic kinds (clades, or monophyletic-kinds) are inductively projectible, and escape Mill's strictures. Mill's version represents a shift in the notions of kinds from the biological to the physical sciences.

  15. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  16. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  17. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  18. 7 CFR 201.12 - Name of kind and variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.12 Name of kind and variety. The representation of kind or...

  19. What kind of computation is intelligence. A framework for integrating different kinds of expertise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekaran, B.

    1989-01-01

    The view that the deliberative aspect of intelligent behavior is a distinct type of algorithm; in particular, a goal-seeking exploratory process using qualitative representations of knowledge and inference is elaborated. There are other kinds of algorithms that also embody expertise in domains. The different types of expertise and how they can and should be integrated to give full account of expert behavior are discussed.

  20. Levels and kinds of explanation: lessons from neuropsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Sam

    2014-01-01

    I use an example from neuropsychiatry, namely delusional misidentification, to show a distinction between levels of explanation and kinds of explanation. Building on a pragmatic view of explanation, different kinds of explanation arise because we have different kinds of explanatory concerns. One important kind of explanatory concern involves asking a certain kind of “why” question. Answering such questions provides a personal explanation, namely, renders intelligible the beliefs and actions of other persons. I use contrasting theories of delusional misidentification to highlight how different facts about the phenomenon that is being explained impose constraints on the availability of personal explanation. PMID:24808882

  1. Biologie statt Philosophie? Evolutionäre Kulturerklärungen und ihre Grenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illies, Christian

    Vor über siebzig Jahren fand man in einer Höhle nahe Hohlenstein-Stadel, im heutigen Baden-Württemberg, eine Frau, die keiner bekannten Spezies und nicht einmal eindeutig den Hominiden zugeordnet werden konnte. Wegen ihres Aussehens wurde sie schon bald als "Löwenfrau“ bekannt (unterdessen wird sie als "Löwenmensch“ bezeichnet, da die in solchen Fragen Klarheit schaffenden Geschlechtsteile bei der Figur fehlen und in Zeiten von gender mainstreaming derartige Festlegungen gerne vermieden werden), denn sie hatte eine menschlich-aufrechte, unbehaarte Gestalt mit weiblichen Rundungen, aber zugleich eine Mähne, sowie Augen, Ohren und Schnauze eines Löwen. Eine sehr weitläufige Verwandte des Minotaurus, so schien es, und doch wesentlich älter als alle Bewohner des Olymps, denn vermutlich wurde die knapp 30 cm große Skulptur bereits in der Altsteinzeit vor etwa 32.000 Jahren aus Mammut-Elfenbein geschnitzt. Wir wissen nicht, ob sie kultischen Zwecken diente oder ein Kind mit ihr spielte, ob sie als Glücksbringer für die Jagd oder als Schamanin mit Löwenmaske verehrt und gefürchtet wurde. Aber die Löwenfrau legt nahe, dass der Mensch schon im Morgendämmern seiner Kultur über die eigene Nähe, aber auch Distanz zum Tier nachgedacht haben muss. Die Frage nach der menschlichen Selbstverortung begegnet uns in dieser Figur, und sie bestimmt viele Zeugnisse menschlichen Nachdenkens, welche uns die Altertumswissenschaften vorlegen. Mit dem Begriff "animal rationale“, wie er unter Bezug auf Aristoteles geprägt wurde, findet sie schließlich ihre klassische, für das Abendland lange Zeit maßgebliche Antwort: Der Mensch als Tier, dessen spezifisches Merkmal die Vernunftbegabtheit ist, die ihn zugleich von allen anderen Tieren abgrenzt und über sie stellt. Aber wo genau verläuft die Grenze? Und wie kann der Mensch beides zugleich sein? Die aristotelische Definition beantwortet diese Fragen nach der Doppelnatur nicht, sondern erhebt das offene R

  2. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  3. 7 CFR 201.26 - Kind, variety, and hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind, variety, and hybrid. 201.26 Section 201.26... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.26 Kind, variety, and hybrid. The label shall bear the name of each... kind or variety named on the label is “hybrid” seed, it shall be so designated on the label. If two...

  4. A criterion for two kinds of Peierls transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, Wang; C, Wu; X, Sun

    1985-03-01

    Two different kinds of Peierls transitions can exist depending on the anisotropic ratio γ of intrachain and interchain coupling. γ has a critical value γo if γ>γo, the Peierls transition will exhibit a CDW accompanied by a metal-semiconductor transition (kind I); if γ > γo, only CDW and superlattice occur at Peierls transition (kind II). Some experimental evidences are discussed.

  5. Mikro- und Nanokapseln aus Funktionspolymeren, Biopolymeren und Proteinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Corinna

    2001-03-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird die Beschichtung von kolloidalen Templaten mit Hilfe der Layer-by-layer Technik beschrieben. Mit ihr ist es möglich, die Oberfläche der Template mit sehr dünnen und gut definierten Filmen zu versehen. Durch Auflösung der Template werden Kapseln hergestellt, die je nach Zusammensetzung der Beschichtung unterschiedliche Eigenschaften aufweisen. In this thesis the coating of colloid templates using the layer-by-layer technique is described. The surface of the templates is modified with thin, well defined films. After dissolving the templates, hollow capsules with different properties are obtained.

  6. Dentalwerkstoffe und Dentalimplantate - Teil 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltermeier, Andreas

    Wie in allen Bereichen der Medizin findet auch in der Zahnmedizin eine kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung der verwendeten Werkstoffe statt. Gerade für Zahnersatz werden Werkstoffe gesucht, die zum einen ästhetisch, zum anderen haltbar und darüber hinaus auch körperverträglich sind. Auch steigt immer mehr der Wunsch der Patienten nach ästhetischen und zugleich biokompatiblen Materialien. Wurde früher fast ausschließlich als Füllungsmaterial im Seitenzahngebiet quecksilberhaltiges Amalgam verwendet, hat der Zahnarzt heutzutage eine große Auswahl an verschiedenen zahnfarbenen Materialien: zum einen werden sog. Komposite verwendet, das aus einer Polymermatrix mit eingebetteten Füllstoffen besteht, zum anderen können diverse Dentalkeramiken verwendet werden. Besonders die Verwendung von Hochleistungskeramiken, wie beispielsweise Zirkonoxid, das sich bereits als Bremsscheiben für Sportwägen, Hitzeschilde im Space Shuttle und als Kugelköpfe künstlicher Hüftgelenke bewährt hat, spielt heutzutage eine große Rolle bei der Verdrängung des Metalls aus der Mundhöhle. War es früher nur möglich, einen verloren gegangen Zahn mittels einer Brücke, die ein Beschleifen der Nachbarzähne zur Folge hat, oder durch herausnehmbaren Zahnersatz zu ersetzen, ist es heutzutage mit der modernen Implantologie möglich, Zahnersatz zahnschonend einzugliedern. Auch kann mittels Dentalimplantaten dem Wunsch vieler Patienten nach festem Zahnersatz anstelle eines herausnehmbaren Zahnersatzes entsprochen werden. So kann mit Hilfe neuer biokompatiblen Werkstoffe sowohl der ästhetische Anspruch befriedigt als auch das Selbstwertgefühl vieler Patienten angehoben werden.

  7. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  8. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  9. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  10. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  11. 29 CFR 548.404 - Kinds of jobs or employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Kinds of jobs or employees. 548.404 Section 548.404 Labor... Application § 548.404 Kinds of jobs or employees. The application should describe or otherwise identify the... name but may be described in terms of job classification, department, location or other...

  12. Biological Essentialism and the Tidal Change of Natural Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The vision of natural kinds that is most common in the modern philosophy of biology, particularly with respect to the question whether species and other taxa are natural kinds, is based on a revision of the notion by Mill in "A System of Logic." However, there was another conception that Whewell had previously captured well, which taxonomists have…

  13. 14 CFR 77.5 - Kinds of objects affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kinds of objects affected. 77.5 Section 77...) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE (Eff. until 1-18-11) General § 77.5 Kinds of objects affected. This part applies to: (a) Any object of natural growth, terrain, or permanent or temporary...

  14. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  15. Knowledge of Natural Kinds in Semantic Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Katy; Smith, Edward E.; Grossman, Murray

    2008-01-01

    We examined the semantic impairment for natural kinds in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) using an inductive reasoning paradigm. To learn about the relationships between natural kind exemplars and how these are distinguished from manufactured artifacts, subjects judged the strength of arguments such as…

  16. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (PIK) Program § 1435.503 In-kind payments. (a) CCC will, through such methods as CCC deems appropriate, make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC will use its inventory in making an in-kind payment based on the following priority: (1)...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (PIK) Program § 1435.503 In-kind payments. (a) CCC will, through such methods as CCC deems appropriate, make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC will use its inventory in making an in-kind payment based on the following priority: (1)...

  18. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  19. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  20. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  1. 9 CFR 592.20 - Kinds of services available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kinds of services available. 592.20 Section 592.20 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION VOLUNTARY INSPECTION OF EGG PRODUCTS General § 592.20 Kinds of...

  2. 14 CFR 77.5 - Kinds of objects affected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kinds of objects affected. 77.5 Section 77.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE OBJECTS AFFECTING NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE General § 77.5 Kinds of objects affected. This part applies to: (a) Any object of natural growth,...

  3. Small Modular Reactor: First of a Kind (FOAK) and Nth of a Kind (NOAK) Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lauren M. Boldon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-08-01

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) refer to any reactor design in which the electricity generated is less than 300 MWe. Often medium sized reactors with power less than 700 MWe are also grouped into this category. Internationally, the development of a variety of designs for SMRs is booming with many designs approaching maturity and even in or nearing the licensing stage. It is for this reason that a generalized yet comprehensive economic model for first of a kind (FOAK) through nth of a kind (NOAK) SMRs based upon rated power, plant configuration, and the fiscal environment was developed. In the model, a particular project’s feasibility is assessed with regards to market conditions and by commonly utilized capital budgeting techniques, such as the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), Payback, and more importantly, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for comparison to other energy production technologies. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the effects of changing debt, equity, interest rate, and conditions on the LCOE. The economic model is primarily applied to the near future water cooled SMR designs in the United States. Other gas cooled and liquid metal cooled SMR designs have been briefly outlined in terms of how the economic model would change. FOAK and NOAK SMR costs were determined for a site containing seven 180 MWe water cooled SMRs and compared to a site containing one 1260 MWe reactor. With an equal share of debt and equity and a 10% cost of debt and equity, the LCOE was determined to be $79 $84/MWh and $80/MWh for the SMR and large reactor sites, respectively. With a cost of equity of 15%, the SMR LCOE increased substantially to $103 $109/MWh. Finally, an increase in the equity share to 70% at the 15% cost of equity resulted in an even higher LCOE, demonstrating the large variation in results due to financial and market factors. The NPV and IRR both decreased with increasing LCOE. Unless the price of electricity

  4. Conceptual and linguistic representations of kinds and classes

    PubMed Central

    Prasada, Sandeep; Hennefield, Laura; Otap, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesis that our conceptual systems provide two formally distinct ways of representing categories by investigating the manner in which lexical nominals (e.g., tree, picnic table) and phrasal nominals (e.g., black bird, birds that like rice) are interpreted. Four experiments found that lexical nominals may be mapped onto kind representations whereas phrasal nominals map onto class representations but not kind representations. Experiment 1 found that phrasal nominals, unlike lexical nominals, are mapped onto categories whose members need not be of a single kind. Experiments 2 and 3 found that categories named by lexical nominals enter into both class inclusion and kind hierarchies and thus support both class inclusion (is a) and kind specification (kind of) relations, whereas phrasal nominals map onto class representations which support only class inclusion relations. Experiment 4 showed that the two types of nominals represent hierarchical relations in different ways. Phrasal nominals (e.g., white bear) are mapped onto classes that have criteria of membership in addition to those specified by the class picked out by the head noun of the phrase (e.g., bear). In contrast, lexical nominals (e.g., polar bear) specify one way to meet the criteria specified by the more general kind concept (e.g., bear). Implications for the language-conceptual system interface, representation of hierarchical relations, lexicalization, and theories of conceptual combination are discussed. PMID:22671567

  5. Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen (Babelsberg).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Describes the Hochschule fur Film und Fernsehen, an institution of higher education for the study of film and television production in Babelsberg, Germany (formerly the German Democratic Republic). Discusses the major reorientations in the school caused by Germany's reunification. (SR)

  6. Satellitenbewegung, band III: Natiirliche und gesteuerte bewegung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochim, E. F.

    2014-12-01

    Im dritten Band der Satellitenbewegung werden in fortlaufender Nummerierung einige für Untersuchungen der Bewegung der künstlichen Satelliten wichtige Grundlagen der Astrodynamik mit ausführlichen mathematischen Formelsystemen behandelt. Dazu zählen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der Bewegung der natürlichen Himmelskörper, die Steuerung und Kontrolle von künstlichen Objekten, und insbesondere die für eine Satellitenbahnanalyse wichtigen physikalischen Beeinflussungen einer Satellitenbewegung. Mathematisch entscheidend ist die Wahl geeigneter Bahnparameter, die ein bestimmtes Bewegungsproblem widerspruchsfrei und singularitätenfrei zu behandeln gestatten. Für die Behandlung routinemäßiger Aufgabenstellungen der Satellitenbewegung, in erster Linie einer präzisen Bahnbestimmung und Bahnverbesserung, kann auf eine Fülle von lehrbuchartigen Monographien verwiesen werden, so dass diese Problematik in der vorliegenden Arbeit nur angedeutet werden soll.

  7. Simulation und virtuelle Realität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Estorff, Otto; Markiewicz, Marian; Özkan, Ali; Zaleski, Olgierd; Blumrich, Reinhard; Genuit, Klaus; Fiebig, André

    Mit Hilfe akustischer Berechnungen ist es möglich, aufwendige Messungen an Fahrzeugprototypen deutlich zu reduzieren. Dieses Kapitel gibt einen kurzen Überblick über die wichtigsten derzeit verfügbaren Methoden. Dabei wird zunächst auf Elementverfahren, wie die Finite-Elemente-Methode (FEM) und die Boundary-Elemente-Methode (BEM), näher eingegangen. Während diese vor allem im tieffrequenten Bereich eingesetzt werden, kommen bei höheren Frequenzen vermehrt Verfahren zum Einsatz, die auf Energieformulierungen beruhen. Exemplarisch wird hier die Funktionsweise und der Einsatz der Statistischen-Energie-Analyse (SEA) erläutert. Anhand von repräsentativen Beispielen werden die Einsatzmöglichkeiten und Grenzen der verschiedenen Verfahren aufgezeigt, wobei vor allem auch auf Vergleiche zwischen Rechnung und Messung eingegangen wird.

  8. Acts of kindness and acts of novelty affect life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Kathryn E; Bardi, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment was designed to establish the effects of acts of kindness and acts of novelty on life satisfaction. Participants aged 18-60 took part on a voluntary basis. They were randomly assigned to perform either acts of kindness, acts of novelty, or no acts on a daily basis for 10 days. Their life satisfaction was measured before and after the 10-day experiment. As expected, performing acts of kindness or acts of novelty resulted in an increase in life satisfaction. PMID:20575332

  9. How Natural a Kind Is “Eukaryote?”

    PubMed Central

    Doolittle, W. Ford

    2014-01-01

    Systematics balances uneasily between realism and nominalism, uncommitted as to whether biological taxa are discoveries or inventions. If the former, they might be taken as natural kinds. I briefly review some philosophers’ concepts of natural kinds and then argue that several of these apply well enough to “eukaryote.” Although there are some sticky issues around genomic chimerism and when eukaryotes first appeared, if we allow for degrees in the naturalness of kinds, existing eukaryotes rank highly, higher than prokaryotes. Most biologists feel this intuitively: All I attempt to do here is provide some conceptual justification. PMID:24890508

  10. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... their greatest dimension and there shall be no bone particles larger than 2.0 mm in their greatest dimension. (c) “Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry)” shall not have a calcium content exceeding...

  11. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... from the mechanical separation process that fails to meet the bone particle size or calcium content... “Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry) “ shall have a maximum size no greater than 1.5 mm (millimeter)...

  12. On two kinds of intermediate orbits for asteroid explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shengxian; Hou, Xiyun; Liu, Lin

    2013-07-01

    In the paper, two kinds of intermediate orbits for asteroid explorations are proposed. One is around the collinear libration points of the Sun-asteroid restricted three-body problem. The other is around the asteroid itself. The first kind of intermediate orbit is applicable to asteroids with known masses, while the second is suitable for asteroids with unknown or negligible masses. Analytical solutions of these two intermediate orbits in the simplified models are introduced first, and then numerical algorithms are used to refine them to obtain the true orbits in the real force model. At last, the problem of station-keeping is addressed. The linear optimal feedback control law is used, and numerical simulations are made to both kinds of intermediate orbits. The results show that both kinds of orbits are feasible. The cost is reasonable and mainly depends on the initial insertion error.

  13. Inequalities involving modified Bessel functions of the first kind II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baricz, Arpad; Neuman, Edward

    2007-08-01

    The intrinsic properties, including logarithmic convexity (concavity), of the modified Bessel functions of the first kind and some other related functions are obtained. Several inequalities involving functions under discussion are established.

  14. Ein mobiler und offener Kernspintomograph: Kernspintomographie für Medizin und Materialforschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blümich, Bernhard; Kölker, Christian; Casanova, Federico; Perlo, Juan; Felder, Jörg

    2005-09-01

    An der RWTH Aachen wurde der erste offene und mobile Kernspintomograph entwickelt. Anders als die normalerweise riesigen und unbeweglichen Geräte besitzt er keine enge Magnetröhre. So kann er auch in große Untersuchungsobjekte hinein schauen, ohne dass diese zerstört werden müssen. Wie eine Lupe erfasst er dabei ein begrenztes Volumen um den Aufsatzpunkt herum. Neben der Medizin ermöglicht der offene Tomograph viele neue Anwendungsgebiete, vor allem in der Materialprüfung und Qualitätskontrolle. Der Aachener Prototyp kann auch das Fließprofil und die Geschwindigkeitsverteilung strömender Flüssigkeiten sichtbar machen. Sein offenes Prinzip erforderte neue technische Komponenten und modifizierte bildgebende Verfahren. Die Messzeit pro Bild kann heute schon unter einer Viertelstunde liegen.

  15. BOLD signal and functional connectivity associated with loving kindness meditation.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2014-05-01

    Loving kindness is a form of meditation involving directed well-wishing, typically supported by the silent repetition of phrases such as "may all beings be happy," to foster a feeling of selfless love. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the neural substrate of loving kindness meditation in experienced meditators and novices. We first assessed group differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during loving kindness meditation. We next used a relatively novel approach, the intrinsic connectivity distribution of functional connectivity, to identify regions that differ in intrinsic connectivity between groups, and then used a data-driven approach to seed-based connectivity analysis to identify which connections differ between groups. Our findings suggest group differences in brain regions involved in self-related processing and mind wandering, emotional processing, inner speech, and memory. Meditators showed overall reduced BOLD signal and intrinsic connectivity during loving kindness as compared to novices, more specifically in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCu), a finding that is consistent with our prior work and other recent neuroimaging studies of meditation. Furthermore, meditators showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas novices showed greater functional connectivity during loving kindness between the PCC/PCu and other cortical midline regions of the default mode network, the bilateral posterior insula lobe, and the bilateral parahippocampus/hippocampus. These novel findings suggest that loving kindness meditation involves a present-centered, selfless focus for meditators as compared to novices. PMID:24944863

  16. Anreicherung von Webinhalten mit Semantik - Microformats und RDFa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausenblas, Michael

    Semantik in Webinhalten wird heftig diskutiert. Teilweise wird es auch schon praktiziert. Dieser Beitrag geht auf semantisches HTML, Microformats und RDFa näher ein und zeigt anhand von praktischen Beispielen, wie und wo diese verwendet werden können.

  17. Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer und Meister der Beobachtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg und der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg und Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi und Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente und Meßtechniken und bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie und der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. und 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.

  18. Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland. Entwicklungs-, Umsetzungs- und Fortschreibungsprozess der Bund-Länder-Strategie für Städte und Regionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issaoui, Mariam; Sinz, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Die Ministerkonferenz für Raumordnung stellte im Mai 2010 fest, dass sich die „Leitbilder und Handlungsstrategien für die Raumentwicklung in Deutschland“ (2006) bewährt haben und bei der Gestaltung der räumlichen Entwicklung umgesetzt werden. Um die Leitbilder den sich verändernden wirtschaftlichen, sozialen und naturräumlichen Rahmenbedingungen anzupassen und die Erkenntnisse aus dem bisherigen Diskussions- und Umsetzungsprozess in Politik und Praxis einzubeziehen, sind sie zu ergänzen und weiterzuentwickeln. Im Mittelpunkt der Fortschreibung werden die Themen „Partnerschaften und Strategien für Stadtregionen und ländliche Räume“, „Mobilität und Logistik“ sowie „Klimaschutz und Energieversorgung“ stehen.

  19. Terahertz spectroscopic investigation of four kinds of vitamins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guozhong; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Cunlin

    2009-11-01

    The terahertz spectra of four kinds of vitamins are presented. The refractive index and absorption spectra of these vitamins are obtained by the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The full-geometry optimizations and frequency calculations using the density functional theory are applied to obtain the structure and vibration frequencies of these vitamin molecules. The calculated vibration frequencies are compared with the experimental data. The results show that there are terahertz fingerprint absorptions for all of four kinds of vitamins. The terahertz absorbance spectra of vitamins result from not only the intramolecular vibration modes, but also the intermolecular interaction or phonon modes.

  20. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  1. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  2. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  3. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  4. 9 CFR 351.3 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CERTIFICATION OF TECHNICAL ANIMAL FATS FOR EXPORT Scope of Certification Service § 351.3 Kind of... this part for specific lots of technical animal fat for export, if the fat was rendered from materials... provided in the regulations in this part, that the technical animal fat is eligible for certification...

  5. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... standards. Class, grade, and other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle,...

  6. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... standards. Class, grade, and other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle,...

  7. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) MEATS, PREPARED MEATS, AND MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a... standards. Class, grade, and other quality may be determined under said standards for meat of cattle,...

  8. Book Talk. Books About All Kinds of Heroes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Judy

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated listing of books about all kinds of heroes for elementary school students. Stories include the young King Arthur; an assertive, baseball-playing heroine who becomes a princess; an older brother dealing with his younger brother; a Christmas story; civil rights icon Rosa Parks; and the cow who jumped over the moon. (SM)

  9. Robots and Rodents: Children's Inferences about Living and Nonliving Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jipson, Jennifer L.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    This study tests the firm distinction children are said to make between living and nonliving kinds. Three, 4-, and 5-year-old children and adults reasoned about whether items that varied on 3 dimensions (alive, face, behavior) had a range of properties (biological, psychological, perceptual, artifact, novel, proper names). Findings demonstrate…

  10. 7 CFR 868.31 - Kinds of inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kinds of inspection services. 868.31 Section 868.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND...

  11. 7 CFR 868.31 - Kinds of inspection services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kinds of inspection services. 868.31 Section 868.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS AND...

  12. Design Principles for Online Instruction: A New Kind of Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toporski, Neil; Foley, Tim

    2004-01-01

    In the 1900s, distance education attempted to mimic the traditional classroom lecture via the transmission of live or "canned" broadcasts, regardless of the technologies used: satellite, television, film, or radio. These kinds of media predisposed distance education (DE) to closely adhere to the lecture (sit and absorb) model, where content was…

  13. [Character identification of 12 kinds of pilose antler medicinal materials].

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Guo, Y; Ren, W

    1999-09-01

    In this paper, commercial medicinal materials of 12 kinds of pilose antler, Cervus nippon, C. elaphus, C. albirostris, C. unicolor, C. eldihainanus, C. timorensis C. porinus, Dama dama, Rangifer farandus, Alces alces, Elaphurus davidianus, Capreolus capreolus were compared and identified. A key and simple character illustration were listed. PMID:12571919

  14. The 3 Kinds of School Safety since 9/11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrow, John

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the three kinds of school safety: (1) physical; (2) emotional; and (3) intellectual, and details how to determine if a school is safe. Excellence in schools demands that schools be physically, emotionally, and intellectually safe for students, while "good enough" schools are simply physically safe. Here, the author…

  15. 32 CFR 701.11 - Processing specific kinds of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Processing specific kinds of records. 701.11 Section 701.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING...

  16. The Kind of Schools We Need: Personal Essays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot W.

    This book of essays sets forth Eisner's theories of aesthetic intelligence, or theories that rethink the connections among art, literacy, research, and evaluation. The book is divided into four sections of four essays each. The first section, "Cognition and Representation," explains how the process of education expands and deepens the kinds of…

  17. What Kind of Learning Environment Do Newly Qualified Teachers Create?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Tarja; Kaikkonen, Pauli

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of recent studies, language teaching has educational, cultural, and social objectives. The purpose of this study was firstly to investigate whether the new objectives of foreign language learning and teaching are put into effect, and secondly to examine what kind of learning environments teachers create. The main research data…

  18. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a) Grading service under the regulations shall consist of the determination and certification and other... information received from the inspection system having jurisdiction over the products involved. (c)...

  19. 7 CFR 54.4 - Kind of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MEAT PRODUCTS (GRADING, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) Regulations Service § 54.4 Kind of service. (a) Grading service under the regulations shall consist of the determination and certification and other... information received from the inspection system having jurisdiction over the products involved. (c)...

  20. What Kinds of Errors Are Salient in Communication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuz, Roger J.; Roberts, Richard M.

    The flow of normal conversation is often impeded by error. These errors can be divided into at least three categories: phonological, lexical, and pragmatic. A study was designed to assess whether different kinds of errors affect conversation in different ways. Forty-four subjects listened to tapes of conversations. Each conversation contained…

  1. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor...

  2. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor...

  3. 7 CFR 1435.503 - In-kind payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Processor Sugar Payment-In-Kind..., make payments in the form of sugar held in CCC inventory. (b) To the maximum extent practicable, CCC... sugar held in storage by the processor; (2) CCC-owned sugar held in storage by any other processor...

  4. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  5. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  6. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  7. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  8. 27 CFR 25.182 - Kinds of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Transfer to Another Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.182 Kinds of containers. A brewer may transfer beer without payment of tax from one brewery to another brewery belonging to the same brewer (a) in the brewer's packages or (b) in...

  9. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” and “Mechanically Separated Turkey.” (b) “Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry)” shall not have a... percent when made from mature chickens or from turkeys as defined in § 381.170(a)(l)(vi) and (vii) and...

  10. 9 CFR 381.173 - Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...” and “Mechanically Separated Turkey.” (b) “Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry)” shall not have a... percent when made from mature chickens or from turkeys as defined in § 381.170(a)(l)(vi) and (vii) and...

  11. Movie Review: "It's Kind of a Funny Story"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, Frankie

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal disconnections, social withdrawal, and loneliness are often precursors to depression and suicidal ideation. In the film "It's Kind of a Funny Story", the plot describes a protagonist who has become so relationally desolate among family, friends, and peers that he has taken delight in the thought of ending his life. The main character…

  12. Electron topological transitions of 3½ kind in beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikitik, G. P.; Sharlai, Yu. V.

    2015-12-01

    An analysis of known experimental literature data on the temperature dependence of magnetic susceptibility of beryllium. It is shown that this dependence can be explained if we take into account that beryllium has an electron topological transition of 3½ kind near the Fermi level.

  13. Engagement and Kindness in Digitally Mediated Learning with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramp, Andy; Lamond, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the significance of designing online learning led by the principle of direct and meaningful participant engagement. It considers the notion of kindness as a crucial value contributing to pedagogy and the development of meaningful learning relationships. The paper challenges the "delivery" approach to online learning,…

  14. Electron Topological Transitions of 31/2 Kind in Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikitik, G. P.; Sharlai, Yu. V.

    2016-06-01

    We consider electron topological transitions associated with certain points of band-contact lines in metals. These transitions are 31/2 kind according to the classification of Lifshits and are widespread in metals with inversion symmetry and a weak spin-orbit interaction. The 31/2 -order transitions can be detected with the magnetic susceptibility. As an example, we consider these transitions in graphite.

  15. Estimating design costs for first-of-a-kind projects

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    Modern scientific facilities are often outcomes of projects that are first-of-a-kind, that is, minimal historical data are available for project costs and schedules. However, at Fermilab, there was an opportunity to execute two similar projects consecutively. In this paper, a comparative study of the design costs for these two projects is presented using earned value methodology. This study provides some insights into how to estimate the cost of a replicated project.

  16. A new kind of monitor for ophthalmic operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, Y.; Lin, L.; Jiang, W.; C-Y Lu, Stephen; Besio, Walter G.

    2005-01-01

    The integrity of the vision channel is often checked using VEP in order to avoiding damaging important tissue during an ophthalmic operation. But the measurement of before operations has strong side effects, it may damage the eyeball. We will introduce a new kind for monitoring ophthalmic operations in this paper. It uses visual electrical evoked potential to check the integrity of the vision access and it can monitor ophthalmic operations and avoid damaging any tissue, so it ensures the safety of the operation.

  17. Volkszählung und Mikrozensus1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, Heinz

    Die Volkszählung (Zensus) ist seit langem weltweit eine statistische Erhebung über Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit. In vielen Ländern wird sie heute in etwa 10jährigem Abstand durchgeführt. In Deutschland wurde sie in den 80er Jahren zum Politikum. Datenschutzängste, verbunden mit politischen Vorgängen (Friedensbewegung), erregten die Menschen, und das Bundesverfassungsgericht steckte neue Grenzen ab. Nach kontroversen Auseinandersetzungen, an denen die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) konstruktiv beteiligt war, kam es zur Volkszählung 1987. Den nachfolgenden Paradigmenwechsel hin zu einem registergestützten Zensus 2011 hat die DStatG ebenfalls kreativ mitgestaltet. Im Beitrag wird dieser Weg nachgezeichnet. Das neue Konzept wird vorgestellt und kritisch gewürdigt. Betroffen war auch der Mikrozensus als größte Bevölkerungs- und Arbeitsmarktstichprobe zwischen den Zensen. Nicht zuletzt durch das Wirken eines wissenschaftlichen Beirats, dessen Mitglieder von der DStatG vorgeschlagen wurden, blieb diese Erhebung in ihrem Kern für die Zukunft erhalten.

  18. Generalizations and kinds in natural science: the case of species.

    PubMed

    Reydon, Thomas A C

    2006-06-01

    Species in biology are traditionally perceived as kinds of organisms about which explanatory and predictive generalizations can be made, and biologists commonly use species in this manner. This perception of species is, however, in stark contrast with the currently accepted view that species are not kinds or classes at all, but individuals. In this paper I investigate the conditions under which the two views of species might be held simultaneously. Specifically, I ask whether upon acceptance of an ontology of species as diachronic segments of the tree of life (this is one version of the species as individuals ontology) species can perform the epistemic role of kinds of organisms to which explanatory and predictive generalizations apply. I show that, for species-level segments of the tree of life, several requirements have to be met before the performance of this epistemic role is possible, and I argue that these requirements can be met by defining species according to the Composite Species Concept proposed by Kornet and McAllister in the 1990s. PMID:16769557

  19. The methane monooxygenase intrinsic activity of kinds of methanotrophs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingxin; Xin, Jiaying; Chen, Linlin; Xia, Chungu

    2009-06-01

    Methanotrophs have promising applications in the epoxidation of some alkenes and some chlorinated hydrocarbons and in the production of a biopolymer, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate; PHB). In contrast with methane monooxygenase (MMO) activity and ability of PHB synthesis of four kinds of methanotrophic bacteria Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, M. trichosporium IMV3011, Methylococcus capsulatus HD6T, Methylomonas sp. GYJ3, and the mixture of the four kinds of strains, M. trichosporium OB3b is the highest of the four in the activity of propene epoxidation (10.72 nmol/min mg dry weight of cell [dwc]), the activity of naphthalene oxidation (22.7 mmol/mg dwc), and ability in synthesis of PHB(11% PHB content in per gram dry weight of cell in 84 h). It could be feasible to improve the MMO activity by mixing four kinds of methanotrophs. The MMO activity dramatically decreased when the cellular PHB accumulated in the second stage. The reason for this may be the dilution of the MMO system in the cells with increasing PHB contents. It has been found that the PHB contents at the level of 1-5% are beneficial to the cells for maintenance of MMO epoxidation activity when enough PHB have been accumulated. Moreover, it was also found that high particulate methane monooxygenase activity may contribute to the synthesis of PHB in the cell, which could be used to improve the yield of PHB in methanotrophs. PMID:19052919

  20. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  1. Vom Urknall zum Zerfall. Die Welt zwischen Anfang und Ende.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsch, H.

    Contents: Der Tanz mit dem Ozean. Galaktische Landkarte. Das Maß der Dinge. Der würfelnde Gott der Quantenphysik. Geheimnisvolle Felder. Materie und Antimaterie. Quarks - Urstoff unserer Welt. Zerfallende Protonen und die Einheit der Physik. Der Zauberofen. Das überschaubare Universum. Das explodierende Universum. Nachhall der Schöpfung. Der achtfache Weg der kosmischen Entwicklung. Das Ende der Welt. Einheit in der Vielfalt. Das geistige Universum. Gott und das absurde Universum.

  2. Das menschliche Gehör und Grundlagen der Psychoakustik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus; Sottek, Roland

    Das menschliche Gehör ist ein äußerst komplexes Empfangs- und Signalverarbeitungssystem. Es ist als Schallanalysator in Leistungsfähigkeit und Vielseitigkeit von technisch-analytischen Verfahren nach wie vor unerreicht. Die Signalverarbeitung läuft auf Grundlage komplexer Prozesse ab, die in ihrer Gesamtheit bislang nicht vollständig erfasst sind. Verschiedene Modelle zur gehörgerechten Zeit- und Frequenzanalyse ahmen jene komplexen Prozesse und Verarbeitungsmechanismen nach, die im menschlichen Gehör vollzogen werden.

  3. Test chips for custom ICs - Six kinds of test structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Griswold, T. W.; Pina, C. A.; Timoc, C.

    1982-01-01

    Microelectronic test chips contain a number of test structures that are used for a variety of purposes in fabricating integrated circuits. For convenience, their use is divided into six groups: layout-rule evaluating, process-parameter extraction, device-parameter extraction, circuit-parameter extraction, initial-fabrication failure analysis, and reliability failure analysis. A given test structure can be used to gather information in a number of these groups. Examples are given here of the kinds of parameters that can be obtained in each of these groups. A table is included summarizing various device failures common to bulk CMOS and indicating failure mechanisms appearing after wafer fabrication and after stress.

  4. Reforming the culture of healthcare: the case for intelligent kindness

    PubMed Central

    Campling, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the culture of healthcare in the light of the two reports by Robert Francis into the care at Mid Staffordshire. This editorial encourages a comprehensive exploration of the conditions that promote a benign caring culture and make outbreaks of cruel neglect and abuse of patients less likely. Creating and sustaining such a culture is dependent on being honest and realistic about the forces that threaten to undermine it. The editorial argues that being able to confidently articulate the positive values that should define healthcare culture is particularly important at this time. The case is made for a conscious focus on the concept of intelligent kindness. PMID:26191415

  5. Simple formulas for Stirling numbers of the second kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, A. A.; Ho, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    For large values of k, especially those closer to n, the expression for S(n, k), the Stirling numbers (of the second kind) can become quite cumbersome to deal with. In this paper, we obtained simple formulas for S(n, n - r) for small values of r. Our formulas contain only a combination of r combinatorial terms. As a consequence, our results revealed the fact that our values of S(n, n - r) are indeed far lower than the upper bounds given by Rennie and Dobson.

  6. Loving-Kindness and Compassion Meditation: Potential for Psychological Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Grossman, Paul; Hinton, Devon E.

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness-based meditation interventions have become increasingly popular in contemporary psychology. Other closely related meditation practices include loving-kindness meditation (LKM) and compassion meditation (CM), exercises oriented toward enhancing unconditional, positive emotional states of kindness and compassion. This article provides a review of the background, the techniques, and the empirical contemporary literature of LKM and CM. The literature suggests that LKM and CM are associated with an increase in positive affect and a decrease in negative affect. Preliminary findings from neuroendocrine studies indicate that CM may reduce stress-induced subjective distress and immune response. Neuroimaging studies suggest that LKM and CM may enhance activation of brain areas that are involved in emotional processing and empathy. Finally, preliminary intervention studies support application of these strategies in clinical populations. It is concluded that, when combined with empirically supported treatments, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, LKM and CM may provide potentially useful strategies for targeting a variety of different psychological problems that involve interpersonal processes, such as social anxiety, marital conflict, anger, and coping with the strains of long-term caregiving. PMID:21840289

  7. The Spanish in-kind contribution to ESO - Pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bilbao, L.; Ballester, P.

    2011-11-01

    Ever since entering ESO in 2006, Spain has made an in-kind contribution invarious fields. In the Pipeline Systems Department (PSD), this contribution hasbeen made to a number of projects, in particular to the CPL (Common Pipeline Library), to the pipelines of the instruments ISAAC, SofI and FORS, and to theintegration of the pipeline for the new VISTA telescope into the DFS (Data FlowSystem) at Paranal. Some of these projects started with the VLT a decade ago, and have experiencedan evolution since, as a consequence of standardization processes, of thesearch of elements in common and, especially in the last couple of years, ofthe efforts to provide the astronomy community with 'science-ready' dataproducts. At the same time, the PSD faces new challenges today, as the dramatic increase in the data volume of the Paranal Observatory since the start of operations of VISTA, or the needs of the pipelines of the future instruments of the E-ELT. In the latter, more concretely, the current status of the CPL is being analyzed, with the goal of establishing the necessary changes to meet those future needs.In this article we introduce briefly these projects and detail the Spanish in-kind contribution to them.

  8. Supraleitung und Interkontinentalraketen „On-line computing“ zwischen Militär, Industrie und Wissenschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knolle, Johannes; Joas, Christian

    Der zweite Weltkrieg und der Kalte Krieg veränderten nicht nur das Verhältnis zwischen Militär, Industrie und Wissenschaft, sondern auch die wissenschaftliche Praxis von Physikern und anderen Wissenschaftlern. In den 1950er Jahren stellte die Entwicklung von Interkontinentalraketen die Auftragnehmer des Militärs in der Industrie vor komplexe Fragestellungen, zu deren Lösung sie auf die Expertise von Wissenschaftlern angewiesen waren. Industrieunternehmen gründeten eigene Forschungseinheiten zur Lösung technischer und wissenschaftlicher Probleme.

  9. A new kind of uncertainty for a new kind of modernity? Expertise in an age of risk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munk, A.

    2009-04-01

    Modernity is not what it used to be (see for example Giddens 1991, Beck 1992, Bauman 2000, Luhman 2005). It has, so the sociologists tell us, mutated in order to thrive in a new age of risk and uncertainty. Some might say that it is not quite thriving yet. Whereas old modernity relied on experts to evaluate the problems opposing society and devise solutions for them - savoir pour prevoir, prevoir pour pouvoir - new modernity can no longer indulge in such straightforwardness. The hazards facing us have become so undeniably complex and in multiple ways produced by the very social activities they threaten, that uncontroversial fixes based on indisputable evidence can no longer be assumed. What role for expertise, then, in this increasingly complicated social landscape? As a starting point for thinking about this question, the paper sets out to explore the concept of uncertainty. After all, when it comes to hazards, this is what experts are expected to handle. Has it mutated as well? Does it make sense to speak of a new kind of uncertainty for a new kind of modernity? In its first modernity setting, uncertainty was what had to be transformed into some sort of certainty (see for example Latour 1999). In the case of the inherent uncertainties related to hazards and risk this task was accomplished with the emergence of probability theory and actuarial science (see for example Hacking 1979, 1990). Expertise in old modernity thus acquired a lot of its straightforwardness from its belief in uncomplicating uncertainty by transforming it into certainty. So, why is it still complicated? A crucial point in Latour's argument is that expertise works by reducing complexity in order to amplify facts (certainties). This requires a sense of direction and an agreement as to what is deemed important. Markets, for example, possess this. So do scientific communities and political institutions. But do the combined constituencies implicated by the complex risks facing society possess it

  10. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  11. Haptische Modellierung und Deformation einer Kugelzelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippritt, Darius; Wiemann, Martin; Lipinski, Hans-Gerd

    Haptische Simulationsmodelle dienen in der Medizin in erster Linie dem Training operativer Eingriffe. Sie basieren zumeist auf physikalischen Gewebemodellen, welche eine sehr genaue Simulation der biomechanischen Eigenschaften des betreffenden Gewebes erlauben, aber gleichzeitig sehr rechenintensiv und damit zeitaufwändig in der Ausführung sind. Die menschliche Wahrnehmung kann allerdings auch eine ungenaue haptische Modellierung psychooptisch ausgleichen. Daher kann es sinnvoll sein, haptische Simulationen auch mit nicht vollständig physikalisch definierten Deformationsmodellen durchzuführen. Am Beispiel der haptischer Simulation einer in-vitro Fertilisation wird gezeigt, dass durch die Anwendung eines geometrischen Deformationsmodells eine künstliche Befruchtung unter realistischen experimentellen Bedingungen in Echtzeit haptisch simuliert und damit trainiert werden kann.

  12. Newtons Principia Mathematica Philosophia und Plancks Elementarkonstanten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompe, R.; Treder, H.-J.

    Die Newtonschen Prinzipien, zusammen mit den Planckschen Elementarkonstanten, erweisen sich als gesichertes Fundament der Physik und der exakten Wissenschaften aller Richtungen.Der Begriffsfundus der Physik ist ausreichend für alle physikalischen aber auch weiterreichenden Probleme anderer Naturwissenschaften und Technik. Es zeigt sich, daß die klassische Physik von vornherein so angelegt wurde, daß sie über die Physik der makroskopischen Körper weit hinaus-greifen kann.Translated AbstractNewton's Principia Mathematica Philosophia and Planck's Elementary ConstantsTogether with Planck's elementary constants Newton's principles prove a guaranteed basis of physics and exact sciences of all directions.The conceptions in physics are competent at all physical problems as well as technology too. Classical physics was founded in such a way to reach far beyond the physics of macroscopic bodies.

  13. Biochips und ihr Einsatz in der Lebensmittelanalytik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Ingrid; Zeltz, Patric

    Mit der Verbreitung des Begriffes "Biochip“ in den biotechnologischen Medien wurde Ende der 1990er-Jahre zunächst der Eindruck erweckt, dass die Computerelektronik in die molekularbiologischen Anwendungen eingestiegen ist [18]. In nur wenigen Jahren hat sich die Biochiptechnologie zu einem Verfahren entwickelt, das aus der molekularbiologischen Grundlagenforschung nicht mehr wegzudenken ist und über eine Vielzahl von Einsatzbereichen verfügt. Die Biochiptechnologie ermöglicht die Miniaturisierung von DNA-, RNA- bzw. Proteinanalytik in hochparallelen Formaten. Dieser hohe Parallelisierungsgrad ist einer der wesentlichen Vorteile dieser Technik gegenüber klassischen molekularbiologischen Methoden. Sie wird heutzutage vor allem in der Genomforschung eingesetzt, für Genexpressionsstudien, zum Screening von single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in der pharmakogenetischen Forschung sowie in der Erforschung von Erbkrankheiten und in der Krebsforschung [1, 7, 19]. Neben vielen weiteren Bereichen finden Biochips auch spezielle Anwendungen in der Lebensmittelanalytik.

  14. Mol-Gastronomie Vinaigrettes und Benetzung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilgis, Thomas

    2005-03-01

    Dass wir Salatblätter mit einer Vinaigrette übergießen, hat natürlich einen kulinarischen Grund: Die Kombination von Essig und Öl verleiht Salat erheblich an Geschmack. Nicht nur durch deren Eigengeschmack, sondern auch durch die Lösungseigenschaften von Geschmacksstoffen. Allerdings liefern Salatsaucen auch einen physikalischen Grund für ihre Beliebtheit: die Benetzungsfähigkeit der Blätter.

  15. Instandhaltung und Plant Asset Management - zwei Welten?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, Alexander

    Der Begriff des Asset Management wird nicht mehr nur in der Finanzwelt gebraucht, sondern seit einigen Jahren auch zunehmend in der produzierenden Industrie, insbesondere in der Prozessindustrie. Die Interessengemeinschaft Automatisierungstechnik der Prozessindustrie, NAMUR, hat bereits im Jahr 2001 eine entsprechende Empfehlung zum Thema anlagennahes Asset Management (Plant Asset Management) vorgelegt. In dieser Empfehlung (NAMUR NE 91) taucht der Begriff 'Instandhaltung' in verschiedener Verwendung 15 Mal auf. Die klassische Instandhaltung ist seit vielen Jahren wohl etabliert und definiert, was die große Anzahl Richtlinien, Beschreibungen und Standards belegt (DIN 31051, VDI 2884, VDI 2888, VDI 2889, VDI 2890). Eine oft geäußerte Kritik dem Plant Asset Management gegenüber ist, dass im Grunde nichts Neues angeboten wird, über die Instandhaltung hinaus. Auf der anderen Seite wird das Plant Asset Management seit über zehn Jahren vermehrt gebraucht und etabliert. Dieser scheinbare Widerspruch soll in diesem Beitrag ausgeräumt werden. Als Motivation sollen drei Beispiele kurz beschrieben werden.

  16. Therapeutisches Management kutaner und genitaler Warzen.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Hans Michael

    2016-09-01

    Mindestens 10 % der Bevölkerung erkranken während ihres Lebens an einer Infektion mit humanen Papillomaviren (HPV), welche sich klinisch anhand der Ausbildung kutaner oder genitaler Warzen manifestiert. Obwohl Warzen ubiquitär sind, existieren keine definierten Behandlungen. Warzen zeigen, insbesondere in den ersten sechs Monaten, eine erhöhte Selbstheilungsrate. Dieser Umstand erschwert die Interpretation von Studien, da häufig Patienten mit Neuinfektionen zusammen mit Patienten mit Altinfektionen behandelt werden. Lokalisationen, Größe und Dicke der Warzen sind ebenfalls in den meisten Fällen nicht berücksichtigt. Ziel dieses Übersichtsartikels ist eine Analyse des vorliegenden Studienmaterials, unter der für den klinischen Alltag so wichtigen Berücksichtigung von Subtypen und Lokalisationen. Insbesondere die Abgrenzung zwischen frischen und chronisch-therapieresistenten Verrucae vulgares spiegelt sich in einem Therapiealgorithmus wider. Bei genitalen Warzen wird der Therapiealgorithmus deutlicher durch das Ausmaß der infizierten Fläche als durch das Alter der Warzen bestimmt. Bei immunkompetenten Personen muss es mit den hier aufgezeigten therapeutischen Methoden immer das Ziel sein, eine komplette Abheilung zu erzielen. PMID:27607029

  17. Elektronische Citizen Cards in Deutschland und Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Bernd

    Meine sehr geehrten Damen und Herren, der Bedarf an elektronischen Identitäten entsteht durch die wachsende Mobilität der Gesellschaft bei einem gleichzeitig steigenden Bedarf an Onlinepräsenz. Diese elektronischen Identitäten machen natürlich auch vor den staatlichen Ausweisen nicht halt, wie zum Beispiel dem Reisepass, aber auch dem Personalausweis und weiteren Ausweisdokumenten. Wobei es bei den staatlich herausgegebenen oder kontrollierten Ausweisen immer um zwei verschiedene Dinge geht: Einmal um die hoheitliche Funktion, wie zum Beispiel beim Reisepass. Hier geht es zum Beispiel darum, in einem Europa mit gefallenen Grenzen und bei freiem Reiseverkehr für alle Personen, die in diesem Raum wohnen, insbesondere auch im Schengener Raum, die Möglichkeit zu schaffen, auch künftig noch Personenkontrollen durchzuführen. Auch der Reiseverkehr über die europäischen Grenzen hinaus ist insofern ein Problem, da die Identitätenprüfung an den Grenzkontrollen immer schwieriger wird. Deswegen braucht man an dieser Stelle Möglichkeiten, um eine Personenüberprüfung durchzuführen, um feststellen zu können, dass diese Person auch zum Dokument gehört.

  18. Superluminal Neutrinos: The Good Kind of Science Controversy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucibella, Michael

    2012-03-01

    After OPERA released results indicating neutrinos were traveling faster than the speed of light, a number of vocal of scientists said that they shouldn't have prematurely engaged in ``science by press release.'' However, controversial claims like this, if handled right, can actually be a boon to science. Getting the public interested in cutting edge physics is notoriously difficult, but the public is always interested in hearing about a controversy. The press conference and following debate becomes a great teaching moment that offers the public a unique opportunity to get an inside and have an in-depth look at how science works. Scientists willing to publicly engage in this kind of civil controversy are important because when other scientific controversies arise, ones with major public policy implications, the public starts out with a better understanding of how science works, and scientists have better practice managing questions from the public.

  19. Combating terrorism - a response in kind. Student essay

    SciTech Connect

    Lum, T.

    1987-05-13

    Outside of armed conflicts representing nations with forces in uniforms, another kind of war has emerged waged by terrorists. For the past twenty years terrorists have waged war against nations for a variety of reasons. No rules of war govern their conduct nor do they observe any. Methods of combatting terrorism vary from nation to nation. Few nations agree totally on how to combat this form of lawlessness. This essay examines one approach and suggests another. President Reagan's ultimate decision to bomb Libya is examined through a discussion of the events, repercussions of these events, and world opinion of these events that preceded his decision. A harsher, more-controlled and personal approach to combatting terrorism is suggested and discussed.

  20. Spectrum of Volterra integral operator of the second kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amangaliyeva, Meiramkul; Jenaliyev, Muvasharkhan; Ergaliev, Madi; Ramazanov, Murat

    2016-08-01

    The article addresses the singular Volterra integral equation of the second kind, which has the 'incompressible' kernel. It is shown that the corresponding homogeneous equation on |λ| ≥ exp{|arg λ|}, arg λ ∈ [-π,π] has a continuous spectrum, and the multiplicity of the characteristic numbers grows with increasing |λ|. We use the Carleman-Vekua regularization method. We introduce the characteristic integral equation. We prove that the initial integral equation has eigen-functions, the multiplicity of which depends on the value of the spectral parameter λ. We prove the solvability theorem of the nonhomogeneous equation in a case when the right-hand side of the equation belongs to a certain class.

  1. Topological properties of the interaction between focusing regions kind cusped.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Niconoff, G; Santos-García, S I De Los; Torres-Rodríguez, M A; Xique, R Suárez; Vargas-Morales, M; Vara, P Martinez; Carbajal-Domínguez, A

    2016-06-27

    We study here the cusped-cusped interaction between two kinds of Pearcey optical fields by analyzing its topological structure. We do it in two steps; the first one is an irradiance interaction that allows us to identify organization regions. The second one is an amplitude interaction, where it is shown that the interference fringes are organized around the irradiance distribution. The topological behavior of the optical field is analyzed identifying regions with different phase functions, one of them, corresponds with a catastrophe function which has associated a focusing region, the other region can be approximated by a quadratic function. The main consequence heritage from the phase structure is interference fringes emerge from focusing regions having similar features like a topological charges. We show computational and experimental results which are in very well agreement with the theoretical model. PMID:27410617

  2. What Kind of Animal is the “Three Rs”?

    PubMed Central

    Hobson-West, Pru

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fifty years after the publication of The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique by Russell and Burch, this paper explores the contemporary role of the Three Rs. This is illustrated by reference to a recent social scientific study, which involved a total of 50 in-depth interviews with scientists who use animals and with other stakeholders in the debate. The data analysis shows how the Three Rs are conceptualised in at least three ways: firstly, as an ethical animal, either as a shorthand for a moral imperative, or as a route to managing an ethical dilemma; secondly, as a scientific animal, internal to the scientific method; and finally, as a political animal, with some stakeholders referring to the Three Rs as a way to promote consensus in a controversial domain. Pushing the metaphor a little further, the paper concludes that the Three Rs concept has become a kind of hybrid animal. PMID:20105021

  3. Herstellung von Chitosan und einige Anwendungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struszczyk, Marcin Henryk

    2001-05-01

    1. Die Deacetylierung von crabshell - Chitosan führte gleichzeitig zu einem drastischen Abfall der mittleren viscosimetrischen Molmasse ( Mv), insbesondere wenn die Temperatur und die Konzentration an NaOH erhöht werden. Diese Parameter beeinflussten jedoch nicht den Grad der Deacetylierung (DD). Wichtig ist jedoch die Quelle des Ausgangsmaterials: Chitin aus Pandalus borealis ist ein guter Rohstoff für die Herstellung von Chitosan mit niedrigem DD und gleichzeitig hoher mittlerer Mv, während Krill-Chitin (Euphausia superba) ein gutes Ausgangsmaterial zur Herstellung von Chitosan mit hohem DD und niedrigem Mv ist. Chitosan, das aus Insekten (Calliphora erythrocephala), unter milden Bedingungen (Temperatur: 100°C, NaOH-Konzentration: 40 %, Zeit: 1-2h ) hergestellt wurde, hatte die gleichen Eigenschaften hinsichtlich DD und Mv wie das aus Krill hergestellte Chitosan. Der Bedarf an Zeit, Energie und NaOH ist für die Herstellung von Insekten-Chitosan geringer als für crabshell-Chitosan vergleichbare Resultaten für DD und Mv. 2. Chitosan wurde durch den Schimmelpilz Aspergillus fumigatus zu Chitooligomeren fermentiert. Die Ausbeute beträgt 25%. Die Chitooligomere wurden mit Hilfe von HPLC und MALDI-TOF-Massenspektrmetrie identifiziert. Die Fermentationsmischung fördert die Immunität von Pflanzen gegen Bakterien und Virusinfektion. Die Zunahme der Immunität schwankt jedoch je nach System Pflanze-Pathogen. Die Fermentation von Chitosan durch Aspergillus fumigatus könnte eine schnelle und billige Methode zur Herstellung von Chitooligomeren mit guter Reinheit und Ausbeute sein. Eine partiell aufgereinigte Fermentationsmischung dieser Art könnte in der Landwirtschaft als Pathogeninhibitor genutzt werden. Durch kontrollierte Fermentation, die Chitooligomere in definierter Zusammensetzung (d.h. definierter Verteilung des Depolymerisationsgrades) liefert, könnte man zu Mischungen kommen, die für die jeweilige Anwendung eine optimale Bioaktivität besitzen. 3

  4. Mol-Gastronomie Granulare Fleischgerichte und molekulares Kleben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilgis, Thomas A.

    2005-09-01

    Buletten, Fleischküchle oder Kebabs, Köstlichkeiten aus gehacktem Fleisch bestimmter Körnung, finden sich in allen Kulturen. Physikalisch ein großes Problem, denn zu Tisch dürfen diese Gebilde nicht auseinander brechen und zerfallen. Für ausreichend Bindung und Klebung muss also gesorgt werden.

  5. Der neue Kosmos. Einführung in die Astronomie und Astrophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unsöld, Albrecht; Baschek, Bodo

    Der neue Kosmos bietet in überschaubarem Umfang eine zusammenhängende Einführung in das Gesamtgebiet der Astronomie und Astrophysik. Aus den Bereichen: Klassische Astronomie und Planetensystem, Instrumente und Beobachtungsverfahren, Sonne und Sterne, Milchstraße und Galaxien, Kosmologie, Entstehung des Planetensystems, Entwicklung der Erde und des Lebens werden die Beobachtungsmethoden und die Ergebnisse astronomischer Forschung sowie deren theoretische Grundlagen und wechselseitigen Zusammenhänge vermittelt. Die aktualisierte 7. Auflage berücksichtigt den raschen Fortschritt astronomischer Forschung der letzten drei Jahre von unserem Planetensystem und den Entdeckungen zahlreicher Planeten bei anderen Sternen, über die fernsten Galaxien und Quasare bis zur Entwicklung der modernen Kosmologie.

  6. Renaturierung von subalpinen und alpinen Ökosystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krautzer, B.; Klug, Brigitte

    Die große Vielfalt an alpinen und subalpinen Ökosystemen auf waldfreien Standorten stellt besonders hohe Anforderungen an Planung und Durchführung von Renaturierungsmaßnahmen. Zunehmende Meereshöhe, starke Hangneigungen und extreme klimatische Verhältnisse im Gebirge bedingen zudem seit jeher natürliche Erosionsprozesse. Die zahllosen menschlichen Aktivitäten der letzten Jahrzehnte, gepaart mit unzureichenden Begrünungsmaßnahmen, erhöhen dieses Risiko noch um ein Vielfaches: Geländekorrekturen im Zuge von Skipistenbauten, Almrevitalisierungen, Forst- und Almwegebauten, Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der touristischen Infrastruktur oder Wildbach- und Lawinenverbauungen. Nur durch Verwendung von hochwertigem, dem Standort angepasstem Pflanzen-oder Saatgutmaterial in Kombination mit der passenden Begrünungstechnik kann dieser Bedrohung dauerhaft entgegengewirkt werden. Dabei sind folgende limitierende Faktoren besonders zu beachten.

  7. Intelligent produzieren - Prozesse verstehen und mit innovativen Werkzeugen verbessern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Dieter

    Im Umfeld der stetig fortschreitenden Globalisierung und der damit verbundenen Verlagerung von Produktionsstätten und dem Transfer bekannter Technologien ist eine stetige Weiterentwicklung der Fertigungstechnik unumgänglich, um auch zukünftig am Standort Deutschland einen Technologievorsprung zu halten und Produkte zu fertigen, die weltweit konkurrenzfähig sind. Die Notwendigkeit zur permanenten Innovation ist unbestritten. Das Ziel muss es dabei sein, die Produktivität zu erhöhen, die Qualität der Produkte auf stets hohem Niveau zu halten bzw. die Qualität noch weiter zu steigern und gleichzeitig die Kosten stetig zu senken. Dies erfordert intelligente und innovative Werkzeugkonzepte für die Hochleistungsfertigung.

  8. Biokompatible Implantate und Neuentwicklungen in der Gynäkologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Kiechle, Marion

    Für den Einsatz in der Gynäkologie stehen heute eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher, biokompatibler Materialien und Implantate zur Verfügung. Auf eine Auswahl soll hier näher eingegangen werden, die die verschiedenen Materialien und Bauweisen repräsentieren. So sind Brustimplantate seit fast vier Jahrzehnten im Gebrauch für die Brustvergrösserung und den Brustwiederaufbau. Material, Bauweisen und medizinische Aspekte einschliesslich der kontroversen Diskussion um Silikon werden im folgenden erläutert. Neuere Entwicklungen von Verhütungstechniken für permanente Sterilisation wie den Filshie ClipTM für transabdominalen und den STOPTM für intraluminalen Verschluss der Eileiter oder die intrauterin plazierte Hormonspirale MirenaTM für zeitlich begrenzte Verhütung werden beschrieben. Eine neue Perspektive zur Verhinderung postoperativer intraabdominaler Adhäsionen stellt Spray-GelTM, ein Zweikomponenten Hydrogel aus Polyethylenglykol, dar.

  9. Strahlen-und kinetische Waffen: Neue Waffentechniken und Rüstungskontrolle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuneck, Götz

    Laserstrahlen, Mikrowellen oder elektromagnetische Beschleuniger lassen sich nicht nur für zivile, sondern für militärische Zwecke einsetzen. Die Aufgabe einer vorbeugenden Rüstungskontrolle wäre es, diese wie andere künftige Waffentechnologien auf ihren destabilisierenden Charakter hin zu untersuchen und ihre Stationierung zu beschränken oder zu verhindern.

  10. Einstein's idealism and a new kind of space research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, M. A.

    In 1935, Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen made an attempt to imagine quantum experimental nonsense or some impossible experiment (EPR-experiment) in order to justify their local realism in physics. However, in the mid-1960s, John Bell showed that it is possible to realize this kind of nonsense in laboratory. Today, when EPR-refutation of local realism is routine in modern experimental physics (Clauser and Freedman [1972]; Aspect, Dalibard and Roger [1982]; Zeilinger et al. [1998]), we must; nevertheless, remark that Albert Einstein was not always a realist. As is known, in his Special Relativitz A. Einstein introduced some pure idealistic principle which K. Godel developed in famous "Remark about the relationship between Relativity theorz and Idealistic Philosophy" (1949). Kurt Godel for the first time showed an existence of special-relativistic solipsism, assuming that objective simultaneity in experimental science "loses its objective meaning". Correspondingly, there is only subjective simultaneity, that is provable by calculations with the finite velocity of light and astronomical observations. In particular, this space solipsism means that when we observe the sun, we can see only what happend on Sun 8.33 minutes ago; in other words, we percieve only certain sensations or a certain collections of ideas of the past, but not the present. Similarly, when astronomers observe galaxies estimated to be two billion light years from the Earth, they see these galaxies as they were two billion light years ago not as they are Now. Thus, in accordance with this, we may await that in this context for some pairs of astronomical objects we cannot prove they exist NOW. Moreover, this new kind of space research could be connected with introduction of the Cognitive Dark Matter, or, what is associated with manifold of the large-scale events of the Universe as a whole which are realizing Now, beyond consciousness of the observers-humans. Because we cannot know

  11. Darwinische Kulturtheorie - Evolutionistische und "evolutionistische`` Theorien sozialen Wandels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antweiler, Christoph

    Evolutionistische Argumentationen außerhalb der Biologie sind weit verbreitet. Wenn sie vertreten werden, heißt das mitnichten, dass sie notwendigerweise von darwinischen Argumenten geprägt sind. Wenn man Evolution und Kultur aus explizit darwinischer Perspektive zusammen bringt, bedeutet das noch lange nicht unbedingt Soziobiologie. Und es bedeutet sicherlich nicht Sozialdarwinismus. Dieser Beitrag soll einen Überblick der so genannten evolutionären Ansätze bzw. evolutionistischen Ansätze zu menschlichen Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen geben. Es soll gezeigt werden, was in den Ansätzen analytisch zu trennen ist und was synthetisch zusammen gehört. Mein Beitrag ist nicht wissenschaftsgeschichtlich angelegt, sondern systematisch ausgerichtet und hat zwei Schwerpunkte (Antweiler 2008; Antweiler 2009b). Zum einen geht es um kausale Zusammenhänge von organischer Evolution und gesellschaftlichem Wandel. Auf der anderen Seite werden Analogien zwischen biotischer und kultureller Evolution erläutert, die als spezifische Ähnlichkeiten dieser beiden als grundsätzlich verschieden gesehenen Prozesse aufgefasst werden. Dadurch wird die Frage aufgeworfen, ob die Evolution von Organismen einerseits und die Transformation von Gesellschaften bzw. Kulturen andererseits, spezielle Fälle eines allgemeinen Modells von Evolution darstellen.

  12. Expertise bewerben und finden im Social Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polleres, Axel; Mochol, Malgorzata

    Im vorliegenden Beitrag diskutieren wir Rahmenbedingungen zur Kombination, Wiederverwendung und Erweiterung bestehender RDFVokabulare im Social Semantic Web. Hierbei konzentrieren wir uns auf das Anwendungsszenario des Auffindens und Bewerbens von Experten im Web oder Intranet. Wir präsentieren, wie RDF-Vokabulare einerseits und de facto Standardformate andererseits, die von täglich verwendeten Applikationen benutzt werden (z. B. vCard, iCal oder Dublin Core), kombiniert werden können, um konkrete Anwendungsfälle der Expertensuche und zum Management von Expertise zu lösen. Unser Fokus liegt darauf aufzuzeigen, dass für praktische Anwendungsszenarien nicht notwendigerweise neue Ontologien entwickelt werden müssen, sondern der Schlüssel vielmehr in der Integration von bestehenden, weit verbreiteten und sich ergänzenden Formaten zu einem kohärenten Netzwerk von Ontologien liegt. Dieser Ansatz garantiert sowohl direkte Anwendbarkeit von als auch niedrige Einstiegsbarrieren in Semantic Web-Technologien sowie einfache Integrierbarkeit in bestehende Applikationen. Die im Web verfügbaren und verwendeten RDFFormate decken zwar einen großen Bereich der Aspekte zur Beschreibung von Personen und Expertisen ab, zeigen aber auch signifikante Überlappungen. Bisher gibt es wenig systematische Ansätze, um diese Vokabulare zu verbinden, sei es in Form von allgemeingültigen Praktiken, die definieren, wann welches Format zu benutzen ist, oder in Form von Regeln, die Überlappungen zwischen einzelnen Formaten formalisieren. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert, wie bestehende Formate zur Beschreibung von Personen, Organisationen und deren Expertise kombiniert und, wo nötig, erweitert werden können. Darüber hinaus diskutieren wir Regelsprachen zur Beschreibung von Formatüberlappungen sowie deren praktische Verwendbarkeit zur Erstellung eines Ontologie-Netzwerks zur Beschreibung von Experten.

  13. Driving behavior and control in traffic system with two kinds of signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Hino, Yuki

    2014-06-01

    We study the vehicular traffic controlled by two kinds of signals which are positioned with a periodic configuration. We propose a microscopic model to explore the driving behavior in the traffic system with two kinds of signals. The control method of traffic flow by the combination of two kinds of signals is proposed. The dynamic model is described by the nonlinear map model and the CA model. The driving behavior is clarified for the traffic system controlled by two kinds of signals. The fundamental diagrams are derived for various combinations of two kinds of signals. The traffic flow through two kinds of signals is compared with that of a single kind of signals. The traffic flow displays the complex behavior different from the conventional traffic with a single kind of signals.

  14. 7 CFR 800.75 - Kinds of official inspection and weighing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kinds of official inspection and weighing services. 800.75 Section 800.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Kinds of Official Services § 800.75 Kinds of official inspection and...

  15. 7 CFR 800.75 - Kinds of official inspection and weighing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kinds of official inspection and weighing services. 800.75 Section 800.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Kinds of Official Services § 800.75 Kinds of official inspection and...

  16. 7 CFR 800.75 - Kinds of official inspection and weighing services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kinds of official inspection and weighing services. 800.75 Section 800.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Kinds of Official Services § 800.75 Kinds of official inspection and...

  17. 45 CFR 263.6 - What kinds of expenditures do not count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What kinds of expenditures do not count? 263.6... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.6 What kinds of expenditures do not count? The following kinds of expenditures do not count: (a)...

  18. Diagnose und Therapie einer Depression im höheren Lebensalter – Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen

    PubMed Central

    von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; Bönte, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Marceau, Lisa; Link, Carol; McKinlay, John

    2013-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Studienergebnissee aus dem englischsprachigen Raum zeigen, dass diagnostische und therapeutische Entscheidungen von Hausärzten bei der Versorgung von depressiven Patienten systematischen Einflüssen unterliegen, und dass sowohl Merkmale des Arztes als auch des Patienten unabhängig vom Krankheitsbild Einfluss auf diese Entscheidungen haben. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden Ergebnisse einer deutschen Studie präsentiert, in der die Einflüsse von Patienten- und Arztmerkmalen auf diagnostische und therapeutische ärztliche Entscheidungen bei einer Depression untersucht wurden. Unter Anwendung eines faktoriellen Experimentaldesigns spielten professionelle Schauspieler in Videofilmen die Rolle von Patienten, die Symptome für eine depressive Erkrankung äußern. In den Videofilmen, die alle auf einem identischen Skript basieren, wurden systematisch die Patientenmerkmale Alter (55 vs. 75 Jahre), Geschlecht und sozialer Status (Hausmeister vs. Lehrer) variiert. Die randomisierte Ärztestichprobe wurde nach dem Arztgeschlecht und professioneller Erfahrung (< 5 vs. > 15 Jahre) geschichtet. Der Videofilm wurde insgesamt 128 niedergelassenen Ärzten für Allgemeinmedizin und hausärztlich tätigen Internisten in ihrer Praxis vorgespielt. Danach wurden die Ärzte zu unterschiedlichen Aspekten von Diagnose und Therapie befragt. Es wurde erhoben, ob der Arzt dem Patienten über das gezeigte Gespräch hinausgehende Fragen stellen würde, welche Diagnosen er für wahrscheinlich hält, wie sicher er sich mit seiner Diagnose ist, welche diagnostischen Tests er anordnen würde, ob er den Patienten überweisen würde oder ob er Medikamente verordnen oder ihm Empfehlungen zur Änderung seines Lebensstils geben würde. Die Ergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass sowohl die Diagnose als auch die Therapie einer Depression durch niedergelassene Hausärzte in Deutschland nur geringfügig durch die untersuchten Merkmale der Patienten und der behandelnden Ärzte beeinflusst wird

  19. Radon anomalies on three kinds of faults in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, C.-Y.; Zhang, W.; King, B.-S.

    1993-01-01

    Radon emanation is known to be anomalously high along active faults in many parts of the world. We tested this relationship in California during July and early August 1992, using a portable radonmeter to conduct soil-air radon surveys at 5 sites across three kinds of faults: Creeping, locked, and freshly broken. Along a 350-m long survey line across a creeping segment of the San Andreas fault at Nyland Ranch in San Juan Bautista, we found anomalous radon concentrations not in the creep zone itself as determined by a creepmeter, but on the adjacent sides, 10 and 30 meters from the center line of the fault. The anomalous values were 5 times higher than the background values measured farther away from the fault. A similar radon anomaly was observed along a 420-m long survey line across a creeping segment of the Calaveras fault near 7th Street in Hollister. There, the anomalous values were about 6 to 11 times the background values and about 40 and 50 m from the center line of the fault. The double-peaked featire of the anomalies may be indicative of a relatively low gas permeability of the fault-gouge materials in the creeping zones and high permeability of fractured rocks in the adjacent shear zones. Along a 144-m survey line across the currently locked segment of the San Andreas fault at the Earthquake Trail near Olema, the radon concentration was indeed anomalously high in the fault zone, by a factor of two above background values. However, the maximum values (3 to 6 times background) again were recorded about 10 meters from the center line. Three weeks after the magnitude 7.5 Landers earthquake of 28 June 1992, we conducted a survey along a 300-m line across the earthquake fault alongside Encantado Road in the epicenter area. The radon values measured at the two main fault breaks were an order of magnitude higher than the background values. A similar result was found along a 420-m line alongside Reche Road about 1.7 km south of Encantado Road. ?? 1993 Birkha

  20. Methodik und Qualität statistischer Erhebungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug, Walter; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wiegert, Rolf

    Kapitel 8 wirft einen Blick hinter die Kulissen statistischer Arbeit und ihrer Methoden, insbesondere auch hinter die der amtlichen Statistik: Wie kommen die Myriaden von Zahlen zustande, die heute aus statistischen Quellenwerken aller Art und aus Datenbanken abgerufen werden können? Dabei wird deutlich, welche Schwierigkeiten bei Erhebungen, insbesondere bei Stichprobenerhebungen, zu überwinden sind, wie man Antwortverweigerer kooperativer stimmt, wie sich auch aus kleinen Stichproben auf intelligente Weise verlässliche Ergebnisse erzielen lassen und wie Großstichproben auf europäischer Ebene harmonisiert werden. Am Beispiel des Zensus 2011 wird gezeigt, wie sich eine Kombination von Stichproben und Registerauswertungen als Ersatz für eine Volkszählung nutzen lässt. Mitglieder der Deutschen Statistischen Gesellschaft waren daran kooperativ beteiligt.

  1. The Women of "Kabale und Liebe": A Teaching Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Naomi I.

    1976-01-01

    The three female characters in Schiller's "Kabale und Liebe" are analyzed. The article questions the value of using this play in a college curriculum because of the oppressive and unenlightened roles of the female characters. (TL)

  2. Einstein. Ein Genie und sein überfordertes Publikum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, E. P.

    Dieses Buch ist keine herkömmliche Biographie von Albert Einstein - vielmehr untersucht der Autor anhand charakteristischer Stationen in Einsteins Leben, dessen Denken und die Reaktionen seiner Zeitgenossen.

  3. Immersion freezing of different kinds of combustion ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Grawe, Sarah; Hellner, Lisa; Wex, Heike; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Stratmann, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Ice particles in the atmosphere influence both, weather and climate. Therefore it is important to know which kind of particles can act as ice nucleating particles (INP) under atmospheric conditions. In the last years, a lot of effort has been made to investigate the freezing abilities of natural INPs such as dusts and biological particles (Murray et al., 2012, Hoose and Möhler, 2012). However, there are only a few investigations concerning the ice nucleation ability of combustion ashes, which are the remains of fossil fuel and wood combustion and thus a possible source for anthropogenic INPs. Ash particles have similar compositions as mineral dust particles. However, the actual contribution of combustion ash particles to the atmospheric ice nucleation is rather unclear. A recent study by Umo et al. (2014) showed that combustion ashes could have a significant impact on the ice nucleation in clouds and thus should be the focus of further research. Ash particles can be lifted to the atmosphere by wind (bottom ashes) or directly during the combustion process (fly ashes). In the present study we investigated the freezing behavior of bottom ash particles which originated from wood as well as from coal. Additionally we investigated particles from fly ash from a coal-fired power plant. Particles were generated by dry dispersion and afterwards size selected with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA). The immersion freezing ability of the different ash particles was quantified utilizing the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS, Hartmann et al., 2011), where exactly one size segregated ash particle is immersed in a droplet. We found significant differences between the freezing abilities of the different ash types. Particles from wood bottom ashes initiate freezing at rather low temperatures near the homogenous freezing point (around -36°C). Particles from coal bottom ashes show significant higher ice nucleation abilities than the wood bottom ash, with

  4. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  5. Sinn und Möglichkeiten der Theoretischen Physik. Zum 300. Jahrestag von Newtons Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompe, R.; Thiessen, P. A.; Treder, H.-J.

    Die Newtonschen Prinzipien und die aus ihnen gewonnene Erkenntnis der Existenz von Elementarkonstanten nach Planck, Einstein und Bohr erweisen sich zunehmend als tragfähiges Fundament nicht nur der Physik und ihrer Anwendung in der Technik, sondern überhaupt aller exakten Wissenschaften in breitestem Sinne des Wortes.Die physikalisch inhaltliche Klärung der Begriffe erfolgt seit Newton in engem Verbund mit der Entwicklung mathematischer Methoden. Diese Kombination erweist sich weiterhin als produktiv und sichert den Fortschritt der Physik und der exakten Wissenschaften.Wohl alle Probleme, die im Bereich der Technik Bedeutung haben können, lassen sich bei entsprechendem Aufwand bereits mit dem vorhandenen Fundus an Erkenntnissen und Methoden erfolgreich angehen.Der in der Wirklichkeit verankerte Zusammenhang von Gesetz und Zufall erweist sich als eine Manifestation der Dialektik in der Natur. Es gibt keinen absoluten Zufall. Sie kommt in allen Zweigen der Physik, nicht nur in der Thermodynamik und Quantenphysik, zutage, und muß bereits auf dem Niveau der Newtonschen Prinzipien und der Elementarkonstanten behandelt werden.Die theoretische Physik, so wie sie von Newton initiiert worden ist, wurde so angelegt, daß sie alle Seiten der Wirklichkeit, so weit sie in die Kompetenz der Physik fallen, umfaßt. Es besteht darum kein Gegensatz zwischen der klassischen Physik und der Quantenphysik. Es handelt sich lediglich um eine Differenzierung nach den unterschiedlichen physikalischen Inhalten und den angemessenen mathematischen Methoden, die natürlich von der Wahl der Probleme abhängen.Die theoretische Physik stellt eine allgemein zugängliche Zusammenfassung des gesicherten Wissens der Physik dar, das zugleich das Fundament der exakten Wissenschaften ist.Die theoretische Physik ist damit das Mittel der Verständigung innerhalb der Kooperation, die notwendig ist zur Lösung der großen komplexen Aufgaben der Wissenschaft und Technik.

  6. Physik gestern und heute Von der Metallstange zum Hochenergielaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2002-05-01

    Im Mai 1752 wurde in Marly bei Paris auf Anregung des amerikanischen Forschers und Politikers Benjamin Franklin erstmals die elektrische Natur des Blitzes nachgewiesen. Damals beschrieb Franklin auch eine technische Vorrichtung, die als Schutz von Gebäuden vor Blitzschlägen dienen sollte: den Blitzableiter. Diese aus heutiger Sicht scheinbar triviale Vorrichtung wurde aber keineswegs unmittelbar akzeptiert. Und bis heute ist die Forschung zum Schutz von Einrichtungen vor Blitzschlägen nicht abgeschlossen.

  7. Evolution: Treibende Kräfte in Natur und Kultur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuketits, Franz M.

    Vorbemerkung Der vorliegende Text ist sozusagen die Nachschrift meines im Dezember 2007 in Dresden gehaltenen Vortrags. Ich hielt den Vortrag im Wesentlichen in freier Rede, nur auf der Basis einiger Notizen, und schrieb den vollen Text danach. Dabei habe ich den Vortragsstil beibehalten. Allerdings habe ich nachträglich manches hinzugefügt, den Beitrag mit ein paar Anmerkungen versehen und einiges an zwischenzeitlich erschienener Literatur berücksichtigt.

  8. S1-Leitlinie zur UV-Phototherapie und Photochemotherapie.

    PubMed

    Herzinger, Thomas; Berneburg, Mark; Ghoreschi, Kamran; Gollnick, Harald; Hölzle, Erhard; Hönigsmann, Herbert; Lehmann, Percy; Peters, Thorsten; Röcken, Martin; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Schwarz, Thomas; Simon, Jan; Tanew, Adrian; Weichenthal, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Die heilsame Wirkung des Sonnenlichts war teilweise schon im Altertum bekannt und fand in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts wieder zunehmend Beachtung. Den Beginn der modernen Phototherapien markiert die Entwicklung einer Apparatur zur ultravioletten Bestrahlung der Hauttuberkulose durch Finnsen zu Beginn des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Zur Therapie von Hauterkrankungen finden beinahe ausschließlich die spektralen Bereiche unterhalb des sichtbaren Lichtes (ultraviolett) Anwendung. Seit den 1970er Jahren stehen zunehmend leistungsfähige künstliche Strahlenquellen bereit für die Therapie mit UVB, UVA und die Kombination von UVA mit Photosensibilisatoren (Photochemotherapie). Hohe strukturelle und prozedurale Qualitätsstandards sind unabdingbare Voraussetzung für die Durchführung einer gleichermaßen wirkungsvollen wie auch sicheren Phototherapie. Die Leitlinie formuliert den aktuellen Konsens führender Experten auf dem Gebiet der Phototherapie in Bezug auf die Indikationen für die jeweiligen Therapieverfahren, deren Gegenanzeigen und Nebenwirkungen und insbesondere für die Wahl der korrekten Dosis zu Beginn und im Verlauf einer Therapie sowie das Management von Nebenwirkungen. PMID:27509439

  9. Zahlen und Rechenvorgänge auf unterschiedlichen Abstraktionsniveaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rödler, Klaus

    "Das Verständnis geht langsam vor sich!" Diesen wichtigen Satz hörte ich bei einem Vortrag von Martin Lowsky. Auf die hier behandelte Fragestellung übertragen heißt das: Was eine Zahl ist und wie ich sie im Rechenvorgang einsetzen und interpretieren kann, das erschließt sich erst allmählich. Die Zahl des Rechenanfängers ist nicht dieselbe wie die des kompetenten Rechners und es ist nicht die Zahl des Lehrers oder der Lehrerin. Die Zahlen sind nur auf der Oberfläche der Worte und Zeichen gleich. Im Innern, im Verständnis, sind sie völlig verschieden! Ich glaube, dass die Missachtung dieser Divergenz dazu führt, dass manche Kinder in für den Lehrer und Lehrerin nicht nachvollziehbaren Routinen stecken bleiben, einfachste Informationen nicht wirklich integrieren. Die auf beiden Seiten wachsende Verunsicherung durch die nicht erkannte und daher nicht kommunizierbare Diskrepanz im inneren Zahlkonzept stört den allmählichen Aufbau strukturierter Zahlvorstellungen.

  10. Anwendung von Methoden der Logistik und Netzplantechnik zur präzedenz- und ressourcenbeschränkten Ablaufplanung von Echtzeitsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumzej, Roman; Lipičnik, Martin

    Grundlegende Zusammenhänge zwischen Logistik, Netzplantechnik und Echtzeit sowie den zugehörigen Arten der Ablaufplanung und ihrer Nutzung werden dargestellt. Das Echtzeitprinzip beinhaltet Rechtzeitigkeit von Abläufen, wobei es für eine frühzeitige Beendigung eines Ablaufs keinen Bonus gibt; im Gegensatz zum verspäteten Ablauf, dessen Konsequenzen in der Regel negativ und unabschätzbar sind. Das Just-in-Time-Prinzip gleicht dem der Echtzeit und wird vor allem in der Logistik zur Bezeichnung reibungsloser Abläufe in Beschaffungsketten verwendet. In der Netzplantechnik werden die kritischen Aktivitäten binnen eines Projektes bestimmt, die nicht verzögert werden dürfen, um das Projekt rechtzeitig zu beenden. Außerdem haben die drei Bereiche noch eine Gemeinsamkeit: um realistische Ablaufszenarien darzustellen, müssen in den Analysen auch begrenzte Ressourcen angemessen berücksichtigt werden.

  11. Giant Radio Jet Coming From Wrong Kind of Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    Giant jets of subatomic particles moving at nearly the speed of light have been found coming from thousands of galaxies across the Universe, but always from elliptical galaxies or galaxies in the process of merging -- until now. Using the combined power of the Hubble Space Telescope, the Very Large Array (VLA) and the 8-meter Gemini-South Telescope, astronomers have discovered a huge jet coming from a spiral galaxy similar to our own Milky Way. Radio-optical view of galaxy Combined HST and VLA image of the galaxy 0313-192. Optical HST image shows the galaxy edge-on; VLA image, shown in red, reveals giant jet of speeding particles. For more images, see this link below. CREDIT: Keel, Ledlow & Owen; STScI,NRAO/AUI/NSF, NASA "We've always thought spirals were the wrong kind of galaxy to generate these huge jets, but now we're going to have to re-think some of our ideas on what produces these jets," said William Keel, a University of Alabama astronomer who led the research team. Keel worked with Michael Ledlow of Gemini Observatory and Frazer Owen of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. The scientists reported their findings at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Seattle, Washington. "Further study of this galaxy may provide unique insights on just what needs to happen in a galaxy to produce these powerful jets of particles," Keel said. In addition, Owen said, "The loose-knit nature of the cluster of galaxies in which this galaxy resides may play a part in allowing this particular spiral to produce jets." Astronomers believe such jets originate at the cores of galaxies, where supermassive black holes provide the tremendous gravitational energy to accelerate particles to nearly the speed of light. Magnetic fields twisted tightly by spinning disks of material being sucked into the black hole are presumed to narrow the speeding particles into thin jets, like a nozzle on a garden hose. Both elliptical and spiral galaxies are believed to harbor supermassive

  12. VDI-Richtlinien - mit Technischen Regeln Wirtschaftlichkeit erhöhen und Standards setzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelartz, Johannes

    Der Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V. (VDI) ist ein gemeinnütziger, wirtschaftlich und politisch unabhängiger, technisch-wissenschaftlicher Verein von Ingenieuren und Naturwissenschaftlern. Mit über 137 000 persönlich zugeordneten Mitgliedern ist er eine der größten Ingenieur-Vereinigungen Europas und gilt in Deutschland als führender Sprecher der Technik und der Ingenieure. 1856 gegründet, hat er viele für die Technik wesentliche Entwicklungen in Gang gesetzt, so im Bereich der technischen Überwachung, der technischen Regelsetzung und Normung, der Arbeitsstudien, im gewerblichen Rechtsschutz und im Patentwesen. Seit seiner Gründung sieht es der VDI als seine Aufgabe, "das Zusammenwirken aller geistiger Kräfte der Technik im Bewusstsein ethischer Verantwortung zu fördern“ und die Lebensmöglichkeiten aller Menschen durch Entwicklung und sinnvoller Anwendung technischer Mittel zu verbessern.

  13. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  14. Children show heightened knew-it-all-along errors when learning new facts about kinds: Evidence for the power of kind representations in children's thinking.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Shelbie L; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about kinds of things in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this claim. Specifically, if the early cognitive system privileges kind (or generic) information in the proposed ways, then learning new facts about kinds should be so seamless that it is often accompanied by an impression that these facts were known all along. To test this prediction, we presented 4- to 7-year-old children with novel kind-wide and individual-specific facts, and we then asked children whether they had prior knowledge of these facts. As predicted, children were under the impression that they had known the kind-wide facts more often than the individual-specific facts, even though in reality they had just learned both (Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5). Importantly, learning facts about (nongeneric) plural sets of individuals was not similarly accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors (Experiment 4), highlighting the privileged status of kind information per se. Finally, we found that young children were able to correctly recognize their previous ignorance of newly learned generic facts when this ignorance was made salient before the learning event (Experiment 6), suggesting that children's frequent knew-it-all-along impressions about such facts truly stem from metacognitive difficulties rather than being a methodological artifact. In sum, these 6 studies indicate that learning information about kinds is accompanied by heightened knew-it-all-along errors. More broadly, this evidence supports the view that early cognition privileges kind representations. PMID:26147777

  15. Nicolaus Copernicus Gesamtausgabe. Band VI/1. Documenta Copernicana: Briefe (Texte und Übersetzungen).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühne, A.

    Im Auftrage der Kommission für die Copernicus-Gesamtausgabe, herausgegeben von H. M. Nobis und M. Folkerts. Band VI/1 wurde bearbeitet von A. Kühne unter Mitarbeit von F. Boockmann und S. Kirschner und Verwendung der Vorarbeiten von H. M. Nobis.

  16. Ferrofluide - ihre Grundlagen und Anwendungen: Magnetische Flüssigkeiten kontrollieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenbach, Stefan

    Strömung und Eigenschaften von Suspensionen kleiner magnetischer Teilchen, so genannten Ferrofluiden, lassen sich durch laborübliche Magnetfelder wesentlich beeinflussen. Dies ergibt neue Möglichkeiten in der Grundlagenforschung und erlaubt die Entwicklung interessanter technischer Anwendungen. So werden Ferrofluide beispielsweise im Dämpfungs- und Dichtungsbereich, in jüngerer Zeit auch im biomedizinischen Bereich eingesetzt.

  17. Tell me about Pangolins! Evidence that children are motivated to learn about kinds.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Park, JoAnn J

    2014-02-01

    We propose that conceptual development is facilitated by an early emerging bias that leads children to privilege learning about kinds of things in the world (e.g., dogs, chairs). Three studies (N = 144) provided evidence consistent with this proposal. When given a choice between finding out about a kind or about a concrete individual from that kind, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to find out about the kind. This preference was broad in scope, extending to both familiar (Experiment 3) and unfamiliar (Experiments 1 and 2) kinds. Children's desire to learn about kinds was also expressed flexibly rather than being automatically cued by superficial features of the task: Children who talked to an ostensibly ignorant experimenter did not favor the facts about kinds (Experiments 1 and 3). Moreover, children's preference was specific to kinds rather than extending to plural sets more generally: Children who chose between facts about a single individual and facts about multiple individuals did not favor the latter (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that conceptual development may be driven in part by a heightened motivation to learn about kinds. PMID:23379716

  18. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  19. Einfluss des Internets auf das Informations-, Einkaufs- und Verkehrsverhalten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Mark R.; Schiffner, Felix; Vogt, Walter

    Mit Daten aus eigenen Erhebungen können das einkaufsbezogene Informations- und Einkaufsverhalten im Zusammenhang mit den verkehrlichen Aspekten (Distanzen, Verkehrsmittel, Wegekopplungen) dargestellt werden. Die Differenzierung in die drei Produktkategorien des täglichen, mittelfristigen und des langfristigen Bedarfs berücksichtigt in erster Linie die Wertigkeit eines Gutes, die seine Erwerbshäufigkeit unmittelbar bestimmt. Der Einsatz moderner IKT wie das Internet eröffnet dem Endverbraucher neue Möglichkeiten bei Information und Einkauf. Die verkehrliche Relevanz von Online-Shopping wird deutlich, wenn man berücksichtigt, dass im Mittel rund 17% aller Online-Einkäufe, die die Probanden durchgeführt haben, Einkäufe in Ladengeschäften ersetzen. Dies gilt in verstärktem Maße für Online-Informationen: etwa die Hälfte hätte alternativ im stationären Einzelhandel stattgefunden. Da der Erwerb von Gütern des täglichen Bedarfs häufig nahräumlich und in relevantem Anteil nicht-motorisiert erfolgen kann, sind in diesem Segment - im Gegensatz zum mittel- und langfristigen Bedarf - nur geringe Substitutionseffekte zu beobachten.

  20. Informationsqualität - Definitionen, Dimensionen und Begriffe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohweder, Jan Philipp; Kasten, Gerhard; Malzahn, Dirk; Piro, Andrea; Schmid, Joachim

    Die Verbesserung und Sicherstellung der Informationsqualität wird in immer mehr Unternehmen als eigenständige Managementaufgabe von großer Wichtigkeit begriffen. IQ-Management ist ein elementarer Baustein in Systemintegrationsprojekten. Aber auch in bestehenden Prozessen mit heterogenen Datenquellen und Informationsnutzern ist eine hohe Informationsqualität die Grundvoraussetzung für funktionierende betriebliche Abläufe. Voraussetzung für ein effektives IQ-Management ist die Bewertung der Informationsqualität [Lee et al. 2006, S. 13 und S. 27]. In vielen Unternehmen ist Informationsqualität nur ein gefühlter Wert. Die meisten Anwender bringen ein gewisses Misstrauen den Daten gegenüber zum Ausdruck, dies jedoch ohne genaue Angabe der Fehlerart und -häufigkeit. Nicht selten werden kostspielige Projekte angestoßen, um die Informationsqualität zu verbessern, ohne sich vor einer IQ-Maßnahme durch eine Analyse ein genaues Bild über die tatsächlichen Probleme zu verschaffen. Nur auf der Basis einer umfassenden Bewertung der Informationsqualität können die notwendigen Ressourcenentscheidungen herbeigeführt, Ziele gesetzt und der Erfolg des IQ-Management beurteilt werden.

  1. 25 CFR 26.18 - What kinds of supportive services are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kinds of supportive services are available? 26.18 Section 26.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.18 What kinds of supportive services are available? The BIA or tribal service provider may...

  2. 25 CFR 26.18 - What kinds of supportive services are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kinds of supportive services are available? 26.18 Section 26.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.18 What kinds of supportive services are available? The BIA or tribal service provider may...

  3. 25 CFR 26.18 - What kinds of supportive services are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of supportive services are available? 26.18 Section 26.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.18 What kinds of supportive services are available? The BIA or tribal service provider may...

  4. 25 CFR 26.18 - What kinds of supportive services are available?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of supportive services are available? 26.18 Section 26.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM General Applicability § 26.18 What kinds of supportive services are available? The BIA or tribal service provider may...

  5. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  6. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  7. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  8. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds...

  9. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds...

  10. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds...

  11. 20 CFR 10.800 - What kind of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of medical records must providers...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Information for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 10.800 What kind of medical records must providers keep? Agency medical officers, private physicians and hospitals...

  12. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  13. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  14. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  15. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  16. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  17. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  18. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  19. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  20. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July...

  1. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support...

  2. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support...

  3. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  4. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  5. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  6. 43 CFR 3195.12 - What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) HELIUM CONTRACTS General Information § 3195.12 What is an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? It is a written contract between BLM...

  7. Loving-kindness meditation for posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kearney, David J; Malte, Carol A; McManus, Carolyn; Martinez, Michelle E; Felleman, Ben; Simpson, Tracy L

    2013-08-01

    Loving-kindness meditation is a practice designed to enhance feelings of kindness and compassion for self and others. Loving-kindness meditation involves repetition of phrases of positive intention for self and others. We undertook an open pilot trial of loving-kindness meditation for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Measures of PTSD, depression, self-compassion, and mindfulness were obtained at baseline, after a 12-week loving-kindness meditation course, and 3 months later. Effect sizes were calculated from baseline to each follow-up point, and self-compassion was assessed as a mediator. Attendance was high; 74% attended 9-12 classes. Self-compassion increased with large effect sizes and mindfulness increased with medium to large effect sizes. A large effect size was found for PTSD symptoms at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.89), and a medium effect size was found for depression at 3-month follow-up (d = -0.49). There was evidence of mediation of reductions in PTSD symptoms and depression by enhanced self-compassion. Overall, loving-kindness meditation appeared safe and acceptable and was associated with reduced symptoms of PTSD and depression. Additional study of loving-kindness meditation for PTSD is warranted to determine whether the changes seen are due to the loving-kindness meditation intervention versus other influences, including concurrent receipt of other treatments. PMID:23893519

  8. 45 CFR 681.12 - What kind of hearing is contemplated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What kind of hearing is contemplated? 681.12 Section 681.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.12 What kind of hearing is contemplated? The hearing is a formal...

  9. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine...-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  10. 31 CFR 594.515 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine....515 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6,...

  11. 31 CFR 597.511 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations, 15 CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. (c) U.S. financial institutions are authorized to conduct all... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine... Licensing Policy § 597.511 In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services....

  12. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of archival... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a) The... chapter. (d) The majority of our archival materials are 30 years old or older. (e) Records...

  13. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions. 1.168(i)-6 Section 1.168(i)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(i)-6 Like-kind exchanges...

  14. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.48 Kind...

  15. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... date received. Each in-kind contribution shall be reported as a contribution in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind contribution shall also be... schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art objects, and...

  16. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  17. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  18. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  19. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  20. 25 CFR 26.27 - What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? 26.27 Section 26.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES JOB PLACEMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAM Job Placement Services § 26.27 What kind of Job Placement support services can I expect? Service...

  1. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  2. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  3. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  4. 26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... an involuntary conversion, including a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion of MACRS... acquired for other MACRS property in a like-kind exchange or an involuntary conversion. (2) Relinquished... involuntary conversion. (3) Time of disposition is when the disposition of the relinquished MACRS...

  5. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  6. 20 CFR 10.800 - What kind of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kind of medical records must providers...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Information for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 10.800 What kind of medical records must providers keep? Agency medical officers, private physicians and hospitals...

  7. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  8. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  9. 20 CFR 30.700 - What kinds of medical records must providers keep?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kinds of medical records must providers... for Medical Providers Medical Records and Bills § 30.700 What kinds of medical records must providers keep? Federal Government medical officers, private physicians and hospitals are required to...

  10. 75 FR 51467 - ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN Challenges for Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN Challenges for Neurologic Devices) Study Children Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled ASK (Assess Specific Kinds of CHILDREN...

  11. 48 CFR 1516.303-74 - Determining the value of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... services does not exceed fair market values. (c) The value of any services or the use of personal or real... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Determining the value of in... Contracts 1516.303-74 Determining the value of in-kind contributions. In-kind contributions accepted from...

  12. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind..., and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  13. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind..., and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  14. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind..., and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  15. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind..., and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  16. 19 CFR 24.13 - Car, compartment, and package seals; kind, procurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 24.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Car, compartment, and package seals; kind..., and package seals; kind, procurement. (a) Customs seals accepted pursuant to § 24.13a of this...

  17. 9 CFR 381.165 - “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... heat.â 381.165 Section 381.165 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Standards of Identity or Composition § 381.165 “(Kind) barbecued prepared with moist heat.” Such product consists of ready-to-cook poultry of the kind indicated that has been cooked by the action of moist heat...

  18. 7 CFR 201.48 - Kind or variety considered pure seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kind or variety considered pure seed. 201.48 Section... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.48 Kind...

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.275 What kind of maintenance programs... will develop maintenance programs for GSA Fleet vehicles. The scheduled maintenance program must: (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kind of...

  20. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLE MANAGEMENT Scheduled Maintenance of Motor Vehicles § 102-34.275 What kind of maintenance programs... will develop maintenance programs for GSA Fleet vehicles. The scheduled maintenance program must: (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kind of...

  1. To the theory of volterra integral equations of the first kind with discontinuous kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apartsin, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    A nonclassical Volterra linear integral equation of the first kind describing the dynamics of an developing system with allowance for its age structure is considered. The connection of this equation with the classical Volterra linear integral equation of the first kind with a piecewise-smooth kernel is studied. For solving such equations, the quadrature method is applied.

  2. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  3. 45 CFR 2554.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What kind of conduct will result in program fraud...) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 2554.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who...

  4. Character Education: Students Develop "The Kindness Company" to Benefit Local Charities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    One can develop a family and consumer sciences (FCS) course that teaches character education, and allows students to experience the good feelings that come from helping others through The Kindness Company. The Kindness Company is a simulated company that produces items for donation to local charitable organizations. Students get management…

  5. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management system... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?...

  6. Evidence for Kind Representations in the Absence of Language: Experiments with Rhesus Monkeys ("Macaca Mulatta")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Webb; Santos, Laurie R.

    2007-01-01

    How do we come to recognize and represent different kinds of objects in the world? Some developmental psychologists have hypothesized that learning language plays a crucial role in this capacity. If this hypothesis were correct, then non-linguistic animals should lack the capacity to represent objects as kinds. Previous research with rhesus…

  7. 7 CFR 201.36b - Name of kind and variety; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to color, shape, size, habit of growth, disease-resistance, or other characteristics of the kind or... such terms are not misleading. (e) Brand names and terms taken from trademarks may be associated with... clearly identified as being other than a part of the name of the kind or variety; for example, Ox...

  8. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management...

  9. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management...

  10. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards for Tribal or Tribal Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.53 What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? The... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management...

  11. Natural and Artifactual Kinds: Are Children Realists or Relativists about Categories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Four studies assessed whether children and adults saw categorization decisions as objective matters of fact or as invented conventions. Found that preschoolers treated basic-level animal and human-made artifact category decisions as objective, with kinds of animals treated as more objective than kinds of artifacts. Adults' judgments were similar…

  12. 34 CFR 413.3 - What kinds of activities are carried out?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of activities are carried out? 413.3 Section 413.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIONAL CENTER OR CENTERS FOR RESEARCH IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION General § 413.3 What kinds...

  13. IQM-Reifegradmodell für die Bewertung und Verbesserung des Information Lifecycle Management Prozesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baškarada, Saša; Gebauer, Marcus; Koronios, Andy; Gao, Jing

    Heutige Organisationen produzieren und speichern mehr Informationen als je zuvor. Der resultierende Informationsüberfluss, zusammen mit einem Mangel an Qualitätssicherung für das Information Lifecycle Management, führt zu einem unsicheren Status der Informationsqualität in vielen Organisationen. Weiterhin hat sich herausgestellt, dass das Bewerten, Verbessern und Steuern der Informationsqualität ein offenkundig schwieriges Unterfangen ist. Dieses Kapitel stellt ein Modell zur Bewertung und Verbesserung der Information Quality Management Capability Maturity (IQM-Reifegrad) vor. Es wird ein Satz von Kriterien vorgestellt, der aus Literaturrecherche und Fallstudien abgeleitet wurde. Die Reifegradindikatoren werden validiert und in einem mehrstufigen Reifegradmodell durch eine Delphi-Studie gruppiert. Das abgeleitete IQM-Reifegradmodell hilft Organisationen ihre bestehenden Praktiken im IQM zu bewerten und potentielle Lücken und Verbesserungsstrategien zu ermitteln.

  14. Endoskopie, minimal invasive chirurgische und navigierte Verfahren in der Urologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosse, Joachim; von Walter, Matthias; Jakse, Gerhard

    Betrachtet man die letzten 100 Jahre der Urologie in Deutschland seit Gründung ihrer Fachgesellschaft 1906 in Stuttgart, so sind sicherlich die letzten 25 Jahre von umfassenden Entwicklungen mit z. T. vollständigen Umwälzungen bisheriger Therapien und Methoden auf urologischen Fachgebiet gekennzeichnet. In erster Linie handelte es sich dabei um minimal invasive endoskopische Techniken wie perkutane Nierenchirurgie, Ureterorenoskopie, videoendoskopisch unterstütze transurethrale Elektroresektionen der Prostata und von Blasentumore sowie die Laparoskopie. Sie führten zu besseren operativen Ergebnissen und einer deutlichen Senkung der Morbidität der entsprechenden Behandlung urologischer Krankheitsbilder, mit der Konsequenz, dass einige bisher als Standard gültige offene Operationsverfahren abgelöst wurden.

  15. Terror mit Atomwaffen: reale Gefahr? Nukleare und Radiologische Waffen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harigel, Gert G.

    2006-01-01

    Können Terroristen sich nukleare Massenvernichtungswaffen beschaffen? Dazu müssten sie ausreichende Mengen an waffenfähigem, spaltbarem Material stehlen. Selbst der Bau einer primitiven Atombombe erfordert einen hohen technischen Aufwand und Spezialisten. Wahrscheinlicher ist deshalb der Diebstahl einer kleinen taktischen Kernwaffe. Alternativ könnten Terroristen sich radioaktives Material aus zivilen Quellen beschaffen und daraus eine Schmutzige Bombe bauen. Eine solche radiologische Waffe wäre keine echte Massenvernichtungswaffe, doch ihre psychologische Wirkung könnte stark sein. Das macht sie für Terroristen attraktiv, weswegen diese Gefahr ernst genommen werden muss.

  16. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching about environmental conservation. Topics of these games, puzzles include pollution, rainforests, endangered species, habitat destruction, and solid waste. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  17. KIND Reproducibles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIND Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented are 14 student worksheets for use in teaching the care of and humane treatment of animals. Topics of these games and puzzles include state animal trivia, domestic pets and wild animals. An answer sheet for teachers is included. (CW)

  18. Children Show Heightened Knew-It-All-Along Errors When Learning New Facts about Kinds: Evidence for the Power of Kind Representations in Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Cimpian, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Several proposals in the literature on conceptual development converge on the claim that information about "kinds of things" in the world has a privileged status in children's cognition, insofar as it is acquired, manipulated, and stored with surprising ease. Our goal in the present studies (N = 440) was to test a prediction of this…

  19. Historisches Rätsel Physik mit Gewehr und Eiern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Andreas

    2003-11-01

    Es fing schon gut an: Mit zehn Jahren saß der begabte Junge bereits in der Universität, wo ihn kein Geringerer als sein Vater persönlich unterrichtete. Damit schlug dieser zwei Fliegen mit einer Klappe: Sein Sohn lernte etwas Gescheites, und er war zugleich in sicherer Obhut.

  20. Gestresste Haut? - Aktueller Stand molekularer psychosomatischer Zusammenhänge und ihr Beitrag zu Ursachen und Folgen dermatologischer Erkrankungen.

    PubMed

    Peters, Eva M J

    2016-03-01

    In den 70er Jahren des vergangenen Jahrhunderts wurde zum ersten Mal ein pathogenetisch relevanter Zusammenhang zwischen Stress, im Sinne von psychosozialem Stress, und Krankheit am Beispiel von viralen Erkrankungen der Schleimhäute (wie Rhinovirus-, Coxsackie-Infektion) nachgewiesen. Seither nehmen Publikationen, die diese Zusammenhänge bis auf die molekulare Ebene erforschen, jährlich zu. Dennoch sind die Evidenzen für einen Einfluss von psychosozialer Belastung auf chronisch-entzündliche Hauterkrankungen und auf Hauttumoren wenig bekannt. In diesem Beitrag fassen wir die aktuellen Erkenntnisse aus Epidemiologie, Psychoneuroimmunologie und molekularer Psychosomatik narrativ zusammen. Sie belegen die vielfältigen krankheitsrelevanten Interaktionen zwischen endokrinem System, Nervensystem und Immunsystem. Im Fokus stehen stressinduzierte Verschiebungen in der Immunbalance bei ausgewählten Erkrankungen wie Neurodermitis, Psoriasis oder malignem Melanom. Ziel dieses Beitrages ist die Vermittlung psychosomatischen Grundlagenwissens bei chronischen Dermatosen. Dies reicht von der Ätiologie über die Symptomatik bis zu den therapeutischen Optionen. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt dabei auf den zugrunde liegenden molekularen Zusammenhängen sowohl aus der somatopsychischen als auch aus der psychosomatischen Perspektive. PMID:26972186

  1. WomanKind: an innovative model of health care response to domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Hadley, S M; Short, L M; Lezin, N; Zook, E

    1995-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of the WomanKind program in creating opportunities for discussing domestic violence and training health professionals. The WomanKind program is based on the belief that without such discussion, health care providers will continue to treat the medical and mental health problems that bring women to their doors without addressing the underlying pattern of abuse that is the root cause. WomanKind has evolved to integrate case management/advocacy services for victims of domestic abuse, in addition to education and consultation for health professionals. It also provides case management and advocacy services, including crisis intervention, assessment and evaluation, and ongoing assistance to battered women who suffer from physical, emotional, or sexual abuse by a current or former partner. The WomanKind staff consists of a director who oversees the program, including marketing and public relations, education and training, as well as assisting the full-time program coordinators at each of the three hospital sites. An intensive 40-hour training program provides the new WomanKind volunteers with an understanding of the issues of domestic abuse and violence, as well as knowledge of community resources. The program goals are elaborated in this article as well as the program marketing techniques. PMID:8574114

  2. Von Ringplaneten und schwarzen Löchern. Die Top-Themen der Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Hans-Ulrich

    Die spannendsten Monatsthemen der letzten Jahre. Wie alt ist das Universum? Woher kommen die Sterne? Beeinflusst der Mond das irdische Leben? Fast jeder mag sich diese und ähnliche Fragen schon einmal gestellt haben. Kurzweilig berichtet Hans-Ulrich Keller von alten Weisheiten und neuen Erkenntnissen aus der Wissenschaft. Mit vielen farbigen Bildern und Illustrationen sind diese "astronomischen Kurzgeschichten" Lesevergnügen und Informationsquelle zugleich. In über 20 Artikeln erfahren Sie z. B. etwas über: Das feurige Schicksal unseres Sonnensystems. Das Rätsel der dunklen Materie. Die Suche nach außerirdischen Intelligenzen.

  3. Erfassung tribologischer Zusammenhänge und Erkenntnisse in einer Datenbank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Peter Werner; Jacobs, Georg; Loos, J.; Rombach, Volker; Kurutas, Savas; Fröde, Astrid

    Die Datenbank enthält die tribologischen und stofflichen Daten, die innerhalb des Sonderforschungsbereichs 442 ermittelt wurden. Sie wird genutzt, um Informationen über die Eigenschaften von Schmierstoffen und Werkstoffverbunden, sowie über Prüfstände und Versuchsergebnisse zu erhalten. Diese Wissensbasis kann dazu beitragen, ökologisch verträgliche Tribosysteme mit Hilfe der Auswerte-Systeme (Module) auszulegen. Dabei handelt es sich um Berechnungswerkzeuge und Expertenwissen z. B. in Bezug auf die Auswahl von Schichtsystemen. Eine nähere Beschreibung der Auswerte-Systeme kann den folgenden Abschnitten entnommen werden.

  4. Remembering kinds: new evidence that categories are privileged in children's thinking.

    PubMed

    Cimpian, Andrei; Erickson, Lucy C

    2012-05-01

    What are the representations and learning mechanisms that underlie conceptual development? The present research provides evidence in favor of the claim that this process is guided by an early-emerging predisposition to think and learn about abstract kinds. Specifically, three studies (N=192) demonstrated that 4- to 7-year-old children have better recall for novel information about kinds (e.g., that dogs catch a bug called "fep") than for similar information about individuals (e.g., that a particular dog catches a bug called "fep"). By showing that children are particularly likely to retain information about kinds, this work not only provides a first empirical demonstration of a phenomenon that may be key to conceptual development but also makes it apparent that young children's thinking is suffused with abstractions rather than being perceptually-based and concrete. PMID:22197798

  5. NONVERBAL GENERICS: Human Infants Interpret Objects as Symbols of Object Kinds

    PubMed Central

    Csibra, Gergely; Shamsudheen, Rubeena

    2015-01-01

    Human infants are involved in communicative interactions with others well before they start to speak or understand language. It is generally thought that this communication is useful for establishing interpersonal relations and supporting joint activities, but, in the absence of symbolic functions that language provides, these early communicative contexts do not allow infants to learn about the world. However, recent studies suggest that when someone demonstrates something using an object as the medium of instruction, infants can conceive the object as an exemplar of the whole class of objects of the same kind. Thus, an object, just like a word, can play the role of a symbol that stands for something else than itself, and infants can learn generic knowledge about a kind of object from nonverbal communication about a single item of that kind. This rudimentary symbolic capacity may be one of the roots of the development of symbolic understanding in children. PMID:25251493

  6. Nonverbal generics: human infants interpret objects as symbols of object kinds.

    PubMed

    Csibra, Gergely; Shamsudheen, Rubeena

    2015-01-01

    Human infants are involved in communicative interactions with others well before they start to speak or understand language. It is generally thought that this communication is useful for establishing interpersonal relations and supporting joint activities, but, in the absence of symbolic functions that language provides, these early communicative contexts do not allow infants to learn about the world. However, recent studies suggest that when someone demonstrates something using an object as the medium of instruction, infants can conceive the object as an exemplar of the whole class of objects of the same kind. Thus, an object, just like a word, can play the role of a symbol that stands for something else than itself, and infants can learn general knowledge about a kind of object from nonverbal communication about a single item of that kind. This rudimentary symbolic capacity may be one of the roots of the development of symbolic understanding in children. PMID:25251493

  7. Orbifold singularities, Lie algebras of the third kind (LATKes), and pure Yang-Mills with matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedmann, Tamar

    2011-02-01

    We discover the unique, simple Lie algebra of the third kind, or LATKe, that stems from codimension 6 orbifold singularities and gives rise to a new kind of Yang-Mills theory which simultaneously is pure and contains matter. The root space of the LATKe is one-dimensional and its Dynkin diagram consists of one point. The uniqueness of the LATKe is a vacuum selection mechanism. [ {c} {The World in a Point?}{Blow-up of} C^3/Z_3| {Dynkin diagram of the LATKe}bullet {Pure Yang-Mills with matter}

  8. Fragments and absences: language and loss in Miriam Toews's A complicated kindness.

    PubMed

    Steffler, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Miriam Toews resists the conventional narrative of the adolescent leaving the small town, proposing instead that the community deserts Nomi Nickel. Nomi, facing maternal absence and the loss of her mother tongue, attempts to use linguistic and material fragments to connect word and world. Suffering from multiple and inexplicable desertions, she rejects the community's intolerance but values its kindness. Her contradictory responses to Plautdietsch, which is both deserting her and being rejected by her, complicate and challenge the concrete words and signs of adolescent protest and rebellion. Binaries separating word and world, kindness and judgement, margin and centre are challenged and collapsed in the course of Nomi's narrative. PMID:20715328

  9. GLATT Wirbelschichttechnologie zum Coating von Pulvern, Pellets und Mikropellets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grave, Annette; Pöllinger, Norbert

    Wirbelschichtverfahren wurden ursprünglich in der chemischen Verfahrenstechnik angewandt. Ende der 1950er Jahre fand die Wirbelschichttrocknung Eingang in die pharmazeutische Industrie, da eine verbesserte Trocknungseffizienz im Vergleich zu bestehenden Verfahren erzielt werden konnte. Viele Granulationsprozesse wurden durch Feuchtgranulation in einem Zwangsmischer durchgeführt, worauf ein Trocknungsschritt in einem Hordentrockner folgte. Je nach Produktqualität kann eine Hordentrocknung allerdings mehrere Tage dauern. Derart lange Trocknungszeiten können bei Anwendung der Wirbelschichttrocknung häufig auf weniger als eine Stunde verkürzt werden. Die Wirbelschichttrocknung ist eine besonders effektive und schonende Art der Trocknung, da die gesamte Oberfläche der einzelnen Partikel für den Wärme- und Feuchteübergang zur Verfügung steht.

  10. Grundlagen und Vollzug der amtlichen Lebensmittelkontrolle in Deutschland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaus, Annette

    Für Menschen besteht ein täglicher Bedarf an Lebensmitteln, die gesundheitlich unbedenklich, allgemein zum Verzehr geeignet und unverfälscht sein sollen. Lebensmittel sind vergängliche Naturprodukte und bergen in sich Gefahren, die mit dem natürlichen Verderbnisvorgang verbunden sind. Zusätzlich bestehen Risiken durch eine unsachgemäße Herstellung, Behandlung oder Verarbeitung, zum Beispiel durch ungeeignete Zutaten oder technologische Verfahren, falsche Lagertemperaturen oder Verwendung ungeeigneter Behältnisse. So lange wie Lebensmittel zum Zweck der Gewinnerzielung an andere abgegeben werden, besteht darüber hinaus die Versuchung, Kunden durch Verfälschung oder andere Manipulation zu übervorteilen.

  11. Suchmaschinen und Informationsqualität: Status quo, Problemfelder, Entwicklungstendenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, Christian; Gräfe, Gernot

    Das Thema Informationsqualität wird in den vorangegangenen Beiträgen umfangreich betrachtet. Die dabei geführte Diskussion zielt vordergründig auf organisatorische Dimensionen der Datenqualität, die strukturierte Datenanalyse oder Datenmanagementprozesse im Unternehmen ab. Dabei liegt ein Gro?teil der zur Unterstützung von Entscheidungsprozessen herangezogenen Informationen in Datenbanksystemen bzw. in einem Data Warehouse vor. Auf Basis verschiedener Analysetools (z. B. Online-Analytical-Processing) lassen sich diese Informationen dann systematisch auswerten. Allerdings können Entscheidungen nicht allein aufgrund der unternehmensintern vorliegenden Informationen getroffen werden. Vielmehr gilt es auch die aus der Unternehmensumwelt relevanten Informationen zu verarbeiten, die zum Teil über das Internet zugänglich sind. Im Gegensatz zu unternehmensinternen Datenbanksystemen handelt es sich beim Internet um ein schwach strukturiertes und offenes Netzwerk, weshalb die im Unternehmenskontext eingesetzten Analysetools kaum weiterhelfen, um Informationen mit hoher Qualität herauszufiltern. In dieser Situation spielen Suchmaschinen eine wichtige Rolle, um Informationen zu identifizieren und anhand verschiedener Kriterien in Form einer Suchergebnisseite zu sortieren. Konservative Schätzungen gehen davon aus, dass über Suchmaschinen zwischen 70 und 85 Prozent aller Informationsrecherchen im Internet erfolgen [Förster & Kreuz 2002, S. 68]. Teilweise beziffert man diesen Wert sogar auf über 90 Prozent [Schulz et al. 2005, S. 20]. Ungeachtet dieser herausragenden Stellung von Suchmaschinen kann konstatiert werden, dass die Qualität der Suchergebnisse oftmals nur gering ist.

  12. Homo sapiens und das 21. Jahrhundert - evolutionsbiologische Betrachtungen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehler, Jochen

    Was meinen wir, wenn wir vom 21. Jahrhundert sprechen? Es ist ein Zeitraum, der sich durch die Festlegung des Menschen ergibt, die nach Christi Geburt verstrichene Zeit in Jahren zu zählen. Eine kulturelle Leistung, die primär auf der Fähigkeit beruht, das Phänomen Zeit a priori wahrnehmen zu können. Die Antizipation der Zeit ist in der Welt der Organismen ein weit verbreitetes Prinzip. Entsprechend existieren auf zellulären bis zu zentralnervösen Ebenen verschiedenste Mechanismen, die dies ermöglichen. So basiert die Zeitwahrnehmung des Menschen auf zentralnervösen Strukturen und Prozessen phylogenetisch älterer Hirnstrukturen, die ihrerseits die Körperfunktionen von der zellulären bis zur Verhaltensebene steuern und regeln und sie damit an exogene Zeitregime, wie z. B. den Tag-Nacht-Rhythmus (circadianer Rhythmus), anpassen. Die Chronobiologie weist nach, welch große adaptive Bedeutung zeitantizipierende Mechanismen für die Organismen haben, das heißt Fitness fördernd sind (Piechulla 1999; Spork 2004). Die für verschiedene Kulturen des Menschen maßgebliche Zeitrechnung basiert auf der quantitativen Erfassung kosmisch oder irdisch regelmäßig wiederkehrender Ereignisse.

  13. College Students' Preferences for Various Kinds of Information about Educational Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillooly, William B.; Curcio, Ronald P.

    This report investigated which of seven kinds of information would be most valuable in helping students make a decision concerning personal adoption of a new educational practice. Three hundred education and noneducation majors from the University of New Hampshire completed questionnaires containing seven information sources: a) personal…

  14. How to Make Decisions with Different Kinds of Student Assessment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this book, best-selling author Susan M. Brookhart helps teachers and administrators understand the critical elements and nuances of assessment data and how that information can best be used to inform improvement efforts in the school or district. Readers will learn: (1) What different kinds of data can--and cannot--tell us about student…

  15. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  16. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  17. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  18. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What kind of maintenance programs must we have? 102-34.275 Section 102-34.275 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... must we have? You must have a scheduled maintenance program for each motor vehicle you own or...

  19. Understanding Students' Experiments--What Kind of Support Do They Need in Inquiry Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Julia Caroline; Kremer, Kerstin; Mayer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Inquiry learning is a widely recognized method for fostering inquiry competence in science education. Nevertheless, there is discussion about how to best support students while working on inquiry tasks (in this case: experiments on causal relationships). To identify the kind of support students need in order to design experiments in upper grades,…

  20. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  1. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  2. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  3. 31 CFR 595.513 - In-kind donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 774, supplement no. 1. Note to paragraph (b): Nongovernmental organizations that are... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-kind donations of medicine, medical... donations of medicine, medical devices, and medical services. (a) Effective July 6, 2006,...

  4. Machine-Aided Indexing in Practice: An Encounter with Automatic Indexing of the Third Kind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    This three-part report includes a brief history of the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) with a description of the collections and their accessibility; categorization of automatic indexing into three kinds with a brief description of the DDC system of machine-aided indexing; and an indication of some operational experiences with the system.…

  5. 20 CFR 10.625 - What kinds of decisions may be appealed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true What kinds of decisions may be appealed? 10.625 Section 10.625 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., AS AMENDED Appeals Process Review by the Employees' Compensation Appeals Board (ecab) § 10.625...

  6. 20 CFR 10.625 - What kinds of decisions may be appealed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of decisions may be appealed? 10.625 Section 10.625 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., AS AMENDED Appeals Process Review by the Employees' Compensation Appeals Board (ecab) § 10.625...

  7. 20 CFR 10.625 - What kinds of decisions may be appealed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kinds of decisions may be appealed? 10.625 Section 10.625 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR..., AS AMENDED Appeals Process Review by the Employees' Compensation Appeals Board (ecab) § 10.625...

  8. The Continuing Education Unit: A New Kind of Credit for Higher Education Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Grover J.

    The Continuing Education Unit (CEU) has come into the American higher educational scene as a relevant response to public needs. The need for some kind of measurement for noncredit continuing education was established at a nationwide conference. The CEU--10 contact hours of participation in an organized continuing education experience under…

  9. On a kind of Noether symmetries and conservation laws in k-cosymplectic field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, Juan Carlos; Roman-Roy, Narciso; Salgado, Modesto; Vilarino, Silvia

    2011-02-15

    This paper is devoted to studying symmetries of certain kinds of k-cosymplectic Hamiltonian systems in first-order classical field theories. Thus, we introduce a particular class of symmetries and study the problem of associating conservation laws to them by means of a suitable generalization of Noether's theorem.

  10. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such...

  12. Differentiating between Confrontive and Coercive Kinds of Parental Power-Assertive Disciplinary Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumrind, Diana

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, I differentiate between coercive and confrontive kinds of power assertion to elucidate the significantly different effects on children's well-being of authoritarian and authoritative styles of parental authority. Although both parenting styles (in contrast to the permissive style) are equally demanding, forceful, and…

  13. Remembering Kinds: New Evidence that Categories are Privileged in Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimpian, Andrei; Erickson, Lucy C.

    2012-01-01

    What are the representations and learning mechanisms that underlie conceptual development? The present research provides evidence in favor of the claim that this process is guided by an early-emerging predisposition to think and learn about abstract kinds. Specifically, three studies (N=192) demonstrated that 4- to 7-year-old children have better…

  14. What Kinds of Collaboration Do You Engage in for the Benefit of Your Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potash, Betsy; Oxford, Janelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors share what kinds of collaboration they engage in for the benefit of their students. The first author introduces the Bread Loaf Teacher Network which connects classes across the world--urban and rural, East Coast and West Coast, American, African, Indian, and European. The second author encourages teachers to consider…

  15. 45 CFR 681.12 - What kind of hearing is contemplated?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What kind of hearing is contemplated? 681.12 Section 681.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... contemplated? The hearing is a formal proceeding conducted by the ALJ during which a defendant will have...

  16. Object Manipulation Facilitates Kind-Based Object Individuation of Shape-Similar Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were partially replicated, showing that infants were…

  17. 12 CFR 792.11 - What kind of records are exempt from public disclosure?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... assure effective performance of the functions and activities for which NCUA is responsible and which do... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What kind of records are exempt from public disclosure? 792.11 Section 792.11 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1580 - Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special rules for In-Kind Distributions by Licensees. 107.1580 Section 107.1580 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Participating Securities Leverage § 107.1580...

  19. 34 CFR 655.10 - What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS-GENERAL... Secretary assist? Subpart A of 34 CFR parts 656, 657, and 669 and subpart B of 34 CFR parts 658, 660, 661 describe the kinds of projects that the Secretary assists under the International Education...

  20. First kind symmetric periodic solutions of the generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Angelo; Vidal, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to prove the existence of a new symmetric family of periodic solutions of the generalized van der Waals Hamiltonian. In fact, we prove the existence of several families of first kind symmetric periodic solutions as continuation of circular orbits of the Kepler problem in the spatial case.

  1. What Kinds of Advising Are Important to Community College Pre- and Posttransfer Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Janine M.; Smith, Cathleen L.; Muehleck, Jeanette K.

    2013-01-01

    Educators assert that academic advising before and after transferring enhances the success of baccalaureate degree-seeking students who begin at community colleges. Yet, there is little research that investigates the kinds of advising that are differentially important to pre- versus posttransfer students. In this study, we examined the importance…

  2. Polysemy and the Taxonomic Constraint: Children's Representation of Words That Label Multiple Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Mahesh; Snedeker, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    How do children resolve the problem of indeterminacy when learning a new word? By one account, children adopt a "taxonomic assumption" and expect the word to denote only members of a particular taxonomic category. According to one version of this constraint, young children should represent polysemous words that label multiple kinds--for…

  3. 41 CFR 102-34.275 - What kind of maintenance programs must we have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What kind of maintenance programs must we have? 102-34.275 Section 102-34.275 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 34-MOTOR VEHICLE MANAGEMENT...

  4. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance Managing Your...

  5. First Arkansas Mill of its kind turns sawdust into stove pellets

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This article describes a new mill in Arkansas that converts waste sawdust into pellets for use in a new kind of stove like the ones two Resource Conservation and Development Districts placed in 20 districts as a demonstration project. A review of the wood pellet industry and of this particular project is provided.

  6. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind... appropriate expenditure schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of...

  7. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind... appropriate expenditure schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of...

  8. Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are about Kinds Rather than Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandone, Amanda C.; Cimpian, Andrei; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Generic statements (e.g., "Lions have manes") make claims about kinds (e.g., lions as a category) and, for adults, are distinct from quantificational statements (e.g., "Most lions have manes"), which make claims about how many individuals have a given property. This article examined whether young children also understand that generics do not…

  9. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Darcher, Alana; Negi, Lobsang T; Raison, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here, we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another's affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work. PMID:25729374

  10. The neural mediators of kindness-based meditation: a theoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Darcher, Alana; Negi, Lobsang T.; Raison, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Although kindness-based contemplative practices are increasingly employed by clinicians and cognitive researchers to enhance prosocial emotions, social cognitive skills, and well-being, and as a tool to understand the basic workings of the social mind, we lack a coherent theoretical model with which to test the mechanisms by which kindness-based meditation may alter the brain and body. Here, we link contemplative accounts of compassion and loving-kindness practices with research from social cognitive neuroscience and social psychology to generate predictions about how diverse practices may alter brain structure and function and related aspects of social cognition. Contingent on the nuances of the practice, kindness-based meditation may enhance the neural systems related to faster and more basic perceptual or motor simulation processes, simulation of another’s affective body state, slower and higher-level perspective-taking, modulatory processes such as emotion regulation and self/other discrimination, and combinations thereof. This theoretical model will be discussed alongside best practices for testing such a model and potential implications and applications of future work. PMID:25729374

  11. 9 CFR 381.170 - Standards for kinds and classes, and for cuts of raw poultry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standards for kinds and classes, and for cuts of raw poultry. 381.170 Section 381.170 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  12. 27 CFR 19.643 - Brand name, kind, alcohol content, and State of distillation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... State of distillation may not be shown, except as part of the name and address required by 27 CFR 5.36(a... name and kind, as set out in 27 CFR part 5. (b) Alcohol content—(1) Mandatory statement. The label of... content, and State of distillation. 19.643 Section 19.643 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...

  13. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 201.34, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... agricultural or vegetable seeds and names of any treatment substance are properly stated shall include the... insure the kind, variety, or type of seed or any treatment substance on the seed is that which is...

  14. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  18. 9 CFR 381.174 - Limitations with respect to use of Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Mechanically Separated (Kind of Poultry). 381.174 Section 381.174 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  19. 36 CFR 1254.1 - What kinds of archival materials may I use for research?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... materials may I use for research? 1254.1 Section 1254.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... MATERIALS General Information § 1254.1 What kinds of archival materials may I use for research? (a) The... information about records and we make them available to the public for research unless they have...

  20. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance Managing Your...

  1. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance Managing Your...

  2. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance Managing Your...

  3. 40 CFR 35.4170 - What kinds of reporting does EPA require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kinds of reporting does EPA require? 35.4170 Section 35.4170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Technical Assistance Managing Your...

  4. Comparison of the Relative Effectiveness of Different Kinds of Reinforcers: A PEM Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Hsen-Hsing

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to apply the percentage of data points exceeding the median of baseline phase (PEM) approach for a meta-analysis of single-case experiments to compare the relative effectiveness of different kinds of reinforcers used in behavior modification. Altogether 153 studies were located, which produced 1091 effect…

  5. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. 189.3 Section 189.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... communication systems any messages concerning international or overseas aircraft operations described...

  6. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. 189.3 Section 189.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... communication systems any messages concerning international or overseas aircraft operations described...

  7. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. 189.3 Section 189.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... communication systems any messages concerning international or overseas aircraft operations described...

  8. 14 CFR 189.3 - Kinds of messages accepted or relayed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Kinds of messages accepted or relayed. 189.3 Section 189.3 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... communication systems any messages concerning international or overseas aircraft operations described...

  9. The Distributional Impact of In-Kind Public Benefits in European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Alari; Sutherland, Holly; Tsakloglou, Panos

    2010-01-01

    International comparisons of inequality based on measures of disposable income may not be valid if the size and incidence of publicly provided in-kind benefits differ across the countries considered. The benefits that are financed by taxation in one country may need to be purchased out of disposable income in another. We estimate the size and…

  10. The Emergence of Kind Concepts: A Rejoinder to Needham and Baillargeon (2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Fei; Carey, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Responds to Needham and Baillargeon's criticisms and offers an alternative resolution of the conflicting results between the laboratories regarding abilities of infants less than 12 months to use property/featural information for object individuation. Maintains that kind concepts are acquired as infants approach their first birthday and that…

  11. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  12. 13 CFR 142.2 - What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in program fraud enforcement? 142.2 Section 142.2 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Overview and Definitions § 142.2 What kind of conduct will result in program fraud enforcement? (a) Any person who makes, or causes to be made, a...

  13. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind... appropriate expenditure schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of...

  14. 11 CFR 104.13 - Disclosure of receipt and consumption of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(a). (2) Except for items noted in 11 CFR 104.13(b), each in-kind... appropriate expenditure schedule, in accordance with 11 CFR 104.3(b). (b) Contributions of stocks, bonds, art... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disclosure of receipt and consumption of...

  15. A New Kind of Laser Microphone Using High Sensitivity Pulsed Laser Vibrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chen-Chia; Trivedi, Sudhir; Jin, Feng; Swaminathan, V.; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a new kind of laser microphone using a highly sensitive pulsed laser vibrometer. By using the photo-electromotive-force (photo-EMF) sensors, we present data indicating the real-time detection of surface displacements as small as 4 pm.

  16. 25 CFR 900.53 - What kind of records shall the property management system maintain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kind of records shall the property management system maintain? 900.53 Section 900.53 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR, AND INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Standards...

  17. What Kind of Citizen? An Analysis of the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The social studies curriculum was recently revised in Turkey, running in a pilot scheme in the school year 2004-05. It was then implemented in primary schools all over Turkey from 2006. This study describes the kind of citizen it aims to form by analysing all of the documents relating to social studies teaching. The social studies curriculum for…

  18. Artifacts and Natural Kinds: Children's Judgments about Whether Objects Are Owned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Karen R.; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    People's behavior in relation to objects depends on whether they are owned. But how do people judge whether objects are owned? We propose that people expect human-made objects (artifacts) to be more likely to be owned than naturally occurring objects (natural kinds), and we examine the development of these expectations in young children.…

  19. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 201.34, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances..., variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid. (a) Indistinguishable seed and...

  20. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 201.34, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances..., variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid. (a) Indistinguishable seed and...

  1. 7 CFR 201.34 - Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 201.34, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Kind, variety, and type; treatment substances..., variety, and type; treatment substances; designation as hybrid. (a) Indistinguishable seed and...

  2. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  3. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  4. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  5. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  6. 34 CFR 637.11 - What kinds of projects are supported by this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of projects are supported by this program? 637.11 Section 637.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MINORITY SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING...

  7. Children with Their Dreams--What Kind of Reveries Are Accepted in School Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokinen, Kimmo; Pohjola, Kirsi Anneli

    2011-01-01

    The media and the contemporary consumer culture are central categories in modern childhood. They have opened new kinds of experiences and learning situations for children. In this article we are interested in the role of the media and consumption in schoolchildren's daily life. The data consist of writings and drawings of 7-12-year-old…

  8. 15 CFR 296.10 - Third party in-kind contribution of research services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget... party contributor of in-kind research has been executed by both parties and approved by NIST....

  9. 15 CFR 296.10 - Third party in-kind contribution of research services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget... party contributor of in-kind research has been executed by both parties and approved by NIST....

  10. 15 CFR 296.10 - Third party in-kind contribution of research services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget... party contributor of in-kind research has been executed by both parties and approved by NIST....

  11. 15 CFR 296.10 - Third party in-kind contribution of research services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget... party contributor of in-kind research has been executed by both parties and approved by NIST....

  12. 15 CFR 296.10 - Third party in-kind contribution of research services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL... services. NIST shall not issue a TIP award to a single recipient or joint venture whose proposed budget... party contributor of in-kind research has been executed by both parties and approved by NIST....

  13. Kinds of Support Anticipated and Preferred during Counseling: The Perceptions of Israeli School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatar, Moshe

    2000-01-01

    Examines the perceptions of Israeli school counselors regarding their own and their students' expectations during counseling and their perceptions of the kinds of support both sides expect the counselor to provide. Findings reveal that: counselors attribute higher expectations to their students; students strongly expect to receive instrumental…

  14. One Kind of Human Being: MACOS, the Human Sciences, and Governmentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivens, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary reform movements have roots in post-World War II changes. Back then, social reformers in the United States targeted education as a field for the human sciences to intervene and impart a new kind of knowledge into daily life. These experts developed Man: A Course of Study (MACOS), a science-based curriculum, steeped in biological and…

  15. Using Current Literature Selections to Nurture the Development of Kindness in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeece, Pauline Davey

    2009-01-01

    Learning to display kindness and compassion for others is a critical and ongoing developmental process and an important part of young children's evolving social competence (Han and Kemple in "Early Child Educ J" 34(3):241-246, 2006; Moore in "Early Child Educ Today" 19(3):36-44, 2004). The capacity to care emanates from physical and psychological…

  16. Artifacts Are Not Ascribed Essences, Not Are They Treated as Belonging to Kinds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloman, Steven A.; Malt, Barbara C.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates three theories of categorization in the domain of artifacts. Two are versions of psychological essentialism, positing that artifact categorization is a matter of judging membership in a kind by appealing to a belief about the underlying nature of the object. The third is called "minimalism," and it states that judgments of kind…

  17. Riding the Information Highway--Towards a New Kind of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, Mikko; Olkinuora, Erkki

    2007-01-01

    In the modern world, skimming through information quickly and finding the important nuggets of knowledge from amongst the information overload is an essential skill. One way to train oneself for this kind of literacy is reading on the internet, which requires continuous assessment of search results and specifying searches. In this article a…

  18. 34 CFR 664.10 - What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FULBRIGHT-HAYS GROUP PROJECTS ABROAD PROGRAM... does the Secretary assist? The Secretary assists projects designed to develop or improve programs in... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What kinds of projects does the Secretary assist?...

  19. 48 CFR 1516.303-74 - Determining the value of in-kind contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determining the value of in-kind contributions. 1516.303-74 Section 1516.303-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1516.303-74 Determining the value...

  20. Time to Get a New Mountain? The Role of Function in Children's Conceptions of Natural Kinds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiYanni, Cara; Kelemen, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Prior research indicates that young children are promiscuously teleological, attributing purpose not only to artifacts, but also to living and non-living natural entities. This study further examines the role of function in children's reasoning about different object kinds by indirectly probing children's intuitions about what types of entities…

  1. Coherence Formation when Learning from Text and Pictures: What Kind of Support for Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholome, Tobias; Bromme, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how 2 kinds of help when learning from text and pictures (mapping support and instructional guidance through prompts) influence the coherence formation process of integrating information into a mental model. It also explored spatial abilities and working memory span as potential moderators. In a computer-based setting, 84…

  2. Biegen und Brechen im Supercomputer: Duktile Verformungen und spröde Brüche von Kristallen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, Markus J.; Gao, Huajian

    2004-01-01

    Ob sich ein Material unter Krafteinwirkung duktil verformt oder spröde bricht, hängt davon ab, wie sich in ihm Defekte ausbreiten. Um das zu untersuchen, zerstören wir in Supercomputer-Simulationen Nanokristalle, die bis zu einer Milliarde virtueller Atome enthalten. Die Simulationen zeigen zum Beispiel, wie sich Risse an der Grenzfläche zwischen einem härteren und einem weicheren Material ausbreiten. Sie erlauben auch nie zuvor gesehene Einblicke in die mikroskopischen Prozesse während der duktilen Verformung eines Metalls: Das kollektive Verhalten von vielen tausend Versetzungen führt zu einer Kaltverfestigung des Kristalls. Er wird spröde und bricht.

  3. [COPD und Klangtherapie: Pilotstudie zur Wirksamkeit einer Behandlung mit Körpertambura bei COPD-Patienten].

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Bernhard; Schmidt, Stefan; Hartwig, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten mit chronisch-obstruktiver Lungenerkrankung (COPD; GOLD-Stadium A oder B) erbringen kann. Patienten und Methoden: 54 Probanden konnten je zur Hälfte in eine Behandlungsgruppe (Körpertambura) und eine aktive Kontrollgruppe (Atemtherapie) randomisiert werden. Eine Bestimmung der Lungenfunktionsmessparameter «Einsekundenkapazität» (FEV1) und «inspiratorische Vitalkapazität» (IVC) zu den Zeitpunkten T1 (Baseline), T2 (direkt nach Behandlung) und als Follow-up etwa 3 Wochen nach T1 (T3). Ergebnisse: Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte sich der Kontrollgruppe in beiden Werten signifikant überlegen. Die Zeit-×-Gruppe-Interaktion (Varianzanalyse) ergab p = 0,001 (FEV1) bzw. p = 0,04 (IVC). Die Behandlungsgruppe zeigte bei beiden Werten eine Verbesserung von klinischer Relevanz. Schlussfolgerung: Diese Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Klangbehandlung mittels einer Körpertambura - neben den schulmedizinischen, leitliniengerechten Therapien - eine zusätzliche, nebenwirkungsarme, aber durchaus klinisch wirksame Option für die Behandlung von COPD-Patienten darstellen kann, um deren Lebensqualität zu stabilisieren und zu verbessern. PMID:27606616

  4. Gebändigtes Knallgas: Brennstoffzellen im mobilen und stationären Einsatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waidhas, Manfred; Landes, Harald

    2001-07-01

    Die Brennstoffzelle hat aus technischer Sicht einen hohen Stand erreicht. Die PEMFC konnte ihre Zuverlässigkeit in einer Reihe von Nischenanwendungen, aber auch in Form erster mobiler und dezentraler Prototypen beweisen. Die SOFC und die MCFC konnten bereits in Anlagen von 100 kW und mehr in Erprobung gehen. Um jedoch wirtschaftlich konkur-renzfähig zu den etablierten Technologien der mobilen und dezentralen Energiewandlung zu werden, muss noch eine drastische Kostenreduktion sowohl beim Brennstoffzellen-Stack als auch bei den zu seinem Betrieb notwendigen Hilfsaggregaten erreicht werden. Für Fahrzeugantriebe muss außerdem eine Antwort auf die noch offene Treibstofffrage (Infrastruktur, H2-Erzeugung und H2-Speicherung) gefunden werden.

  5. Umsetzung von CE-Prozessen durch neue Methoden und interaktive 3-D-Modelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Andrea; Schulz, Torsten; Szymanski, Hans

    Innerhalb der EU gelten einheitliche Anforderungen an die Gestaltung von Maschinen, die in Form von grundlegenden Sicherheits- und Gesundheitsschutzanforderungen in der Maschinenrichtlinie (MaschRL) formuliert sind. Ihre Einhaltung dokumentiert der Hersteller mit der Konformitätserklärung und der Vergabe des CE-Zeichens. Die Maschinenrichtlinie ist ein Element des 1985 von der Europäischen Gemeinschaft (EG) beschriebenen "New Approach“ Rechtsetzungsmodells, das technologische Innovation ermöglicht und die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit der europäischen Industrie regelt. Es wurde erschaffen, um technische Handelshemmnisse im europäischen Binnenmarkt zu beseitigen und ein einheitliches Niveau hinsichtlich der Sicherheit der Produkte und dem Gesundheits- bzw. Verbraucherschutz zu gewährleisten. Alle Produkt-Richtlinien der EG, die später auf Grundlage des New Approach entstanden sind, weisen eine einheitliche Vorgehensweise auf, mit der diese Ziele erreicht werden sollen (VDI Verlag 11/2008).

  6. Analysis of competition among the kinds of energy at the era of complexed energy: General review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-12-01

    Present situation of competition among kinds of energy was analyzed, and energy industries and national policy for energy at the era of complexed energy. Possibilities of progress were reviewed and explained under the guiding principle of fair competition among the kinds of energy. Energy industries were classified into petroleum, town gas, and electricity. It was explained that decisive factors of competition among them were not only purchasing price but characteristics of application equipment. Problems involved in them were discussed. Competitive feature in the fields of industry and public welfare was explained in detail with review of future features. National policy for energy was discussed from the view points of holding of security, cost reduction, and adaptation to demands. Explanations of the present situation in Europe and America are mentioned.

  7. Measurement of Olfactory Characteristics for Two Kinds of Scent in a Single Breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsu, Kaori; Sato, Junta; Bannai, Yuichi; Okada, Kenichi

    This study describes a presentation technique of scent designed for users to recognize multiple scents during a very short time period. We measured the olfactory characteristics of subjects when two kinds of scents were presented in a single breath. We defined and measured the minimum ejection interval in which subjects could discriminate the two individually emitted pulses of scent, which we term “separable detection threshold”, and the minimum ejection interval in which they could specify both kinds of scents, “separable recognition threshold”. Further, “response time” and “duration of scent perception” were measured. As a result, we found the duration of scent perception and the separable recognition threshold were positively correlated. Knowledge of this olfactory characteristic brings us closer to being able to provide a greater sense of realism in multimedia environments, by describing more than one object by scent at the same time as the objects are seen on screen.

  8. The mind, the lab, and the field: Three kinds of populations in scientific practice.

    PubMed

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt; Giordano, Ryan; Edge, Michael D; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-08-01

    Scientists use models to understand the natural world, and it is important not to conflate model and nature. As an illustration, we distinguish three different kinds of populations in studies of ecology and evolution: theoretical, laboratory, and natural populations, exemplified by the work of R. A. Fisher, Thomas Park, and David Lack, respectively. Biologists are rightly concerned with all three types of populations. We examine the interplay between these different kinds of populations, and their pertinent models, in three examples: the notion of "effective" population size, the work of Thomas Park on Tribolium populations, and model-based clustering algorithms such as Structure. Finally, we discuss ways to move safely between three distinct population types while avoiding confusing models and reality. PMID:25753677

  9. Random Search Algorithm for Solving the Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equations of the Second Kind

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhimin; Yan, Zaizai; Yan, Jiao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a randomized numerical approach is used to obtain approximate solutions for a class of nonlinear Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. The proposed approach contains two steps: at first, we define a discretized form of the integral equation by quadrature formula methods and solution of this discretized form converges to the exact solution of the integral equation by considering some conditions on the kernel of the integral equation. And then we convert the problem to an optimal control problem by introducing an artificial control function. Following that, in the next step, solution of the discretized form is approximated by a kind of Monte Carlo (MC) random search algorithm. Finally, some examples are given to show the efficiency of the proposed approach. PMID:25072373

  10. Comparison of two kinds of cutaneous ureterostomy using in radical cystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian-Hua; Lu, Jing-Yi; Yao, Xu-Dong; Peng, Bo; Wang, Guang-Chun; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the merits and 10 year follow-up results of two kinds of cutaneous ureterostomy operation in patients with the radical cystectomy. Methods: We retrospective analyzed the information of patients underwent radical cystectomy in the past 10 years, comparing and analyzing the consequence of application value, early and long-term follow-up results using two kinds of cutaneous ureterostomy in patients with radical cystectomy. Results: Unilateral ureteral cutaneous ureterostomy didn’t increase patients’ early and long-term complications, and improved the patient’s life satisfaction. Conclusion: The unilateral cutaneous ureterostomy didn’t increase postoperative complications in patients, while improving the patient’s life satisfaction. Unilateral ureteral cutaneous ureterostomy is an important complement to urinary diversion after radical cystectomy and the best choice for cutaneous ureterostomy. PMID:26550423

  11. [GC-MS analysis of volatile constituents from five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood].

    PubMed

    Mei, Wen-Li; Zeng, Yan-Bo; Liu, Jun; Dai, Hao-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Volatile oils of five different kinds of Chinese eaglewood were extracted with aether at room temperature. The chemical constituents and relative contents of the volatile oils were analysed by GC-MS. It showed that all the five volatile oils were mainly composed of sesquiterpenes, aromatic constituents and fatty acids. Several sesquiterpenes, such as hinesol, nootkatone, valerenic acid, velleral, guaiol, gamma-gurjunene, gamma-selinene, viridiflorol, isoaromadendrene epoxide, valencene, alpha-costol et. al., together with several aromatic constituents, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol,4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol, phenylpropionic acid, 1-(benzyloxy)-8-naphthol, anisylacetone, et. al. were found in the volatile oils of Chinese eaglewood for the first time. The samilarities and differences of the volatile oils from the five kinds of Chinese eaglewood were compared. It suggested that the quality of Chinese eaglewood could be evaluated by GC-MS analyse of the volatile oil. PMID:17727060

  12. Two kinds of autism: a comparison of distinct understandings of psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Verhoeff, Berend

    2016-03-01

    In this article, I argue that the history and philosophy of autism need to account for two kinds of autism. Contemporary autism research and practice is structured, directed and connected by an 'ontological understanding of disease'. This implies that autism is understood as a disease like any other medical disease, existing independently of its particular manifestations in individual patients. In contrast, autism in the 1950s and 1960s was structured by a psychoanalytical framework and an 'individual understanding of disease'. This implied that autism was not a distinct disease but an idiosyncratic and meaningful response of the child to a disturbed development of the ego. These two kinds of autism are embedded in and reveal two very different 'styles of psychiatric thought'. PMID:26122535

  13. Kinds of well-being: A conceptual framework that provides direction for caring

    PubMed Central

    Todres, Les

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a conceptual framework by which different kinds and levels of well-being can be named, and as such, provides a foundation for a resource-oriented approach in situations of illness and vulnerability (rather than a deficit-oriented approach). Building on a previous paper that articulated the philosophical foundations of an existential theory of well-being (“Dwelling-mobility”), we show here how the theory can be further developed towards practice-relevant concerns. We introduce 18 kinds of well-being that are intertwined and inter-related, and consider how each emphasis can lead to the formulation of resources that have the potential to give rise to well-being as a felt experience. By focusing on a much wider range of well-being possibilities, practitioners may find new directions for care that are not just literal but also at an existential level. PMID:22171222

  14. The interventional effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions and interpersonal interactions

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoli; Shi, Wendian; Han, Xiangxiang; Wang, Nana; Zhang, Ni; Wang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions, intragroup interactions, and complex understanding of others. A total of 50 freshmen not receiving any training in meditation intervention were randomly divided into the meditation group (25 subjects) and the control group (25 subjects). The meditation group was implemented with group meditation intervention for 4 weeks, three times a week, about 30 minutes each time. The results revealed that the effect sizes in interpersonal interaction and complex understanding of others in the meditation group were both above 0.8, indicating strong effects. It was concluded that loving-kindness meditation can effectively improve positive emotions, interpersonal interactions, and complex understanding of others in college students. PMID:26060402

  15. Multicolour photochromism of colloidal solutions of niobate nanosheets intercalated with several kinds of metal ions.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Kai; Tanaka, Yosuke; Tokunaga, Motoko; Ueda, Taro; Hyodo, Takeo; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-25

    Colourless and transparent colloidal solutions of niobate nanosheets intercalated with some kinds of metal ions (M-NNS, M: metal) showed quasi-reversible photochromism. Ultraviolet light irradiation of the solutions induced a change in color while maintaining the transparency, and the color change was dependent on the metal ions. The coloured solutions were bleached by exposure to an oxidizing atmosphere. This cycle could be repeated several times. PMID:26821602

  16. The rational Chebyshev of second kind collocation method for solving a class of astrophysics problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parand, K.; Khaleqi, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Lane-Emden equation has been used to model several phenomena in theoretical physics, mathematical physics and astrophysics such as the theory of stellar structure. This study is an attempt to utilize the collocation method with the rational Chebyshev function of Second kind (RCS) to solve the Lane-Emden equation over the semi-infinite interval [0,+∞[ . According to well-known results and comparing with previous methods, it can be said that this method is efficient and applicable.

  17. Characterization of Greenbeard Genes Involved in Long-Distance Kind Discrimination in a Microbial Eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Heller, Jens; Zhao, Jiuhai; Rosenfield, Gabriel; Kowbel, David J; Gladieux, Pierre; Glass, N Louise

    2016-04-01

    Microorganisms are capable of communication and cooperation to perform social activities. Cooperation can be enforced using kind discrimination mechanisms in which individuals preferentially help or punish others, depending on genetic relatedness only at certain loci. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, genetically identical asexual spores (germlings) communicate and fuse in a highly regulated process, which is associated with fitness benefits during colony establishment. Recognition and chemotropic interactions between isogenic germlings requires oscillation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction protein complex (NRC-1, MEK-2, MAK-2, and the scaffold protein HAM-5) to specialized cell fusion structures termed conidial anastomosis tubes. Using a population of 110 wild N. crassa isolates, we investigated germling fusion between genetically unrelated individuals and discovered that chemotropic interactions are regulated by kind discrimination. Distinct communication groups were identified, in which germlings within one communication group interacted at high frequency, while germlings from different communication groups avoided each other. Bulk segregant analysis followed by whole genome resequencing identified three linked genes (doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3), which were associated with communication group phenotype. Alleles at doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 fell into five haplotypes that showed transspecies polymorphism. Swapping doc-1 and doc-2 alleles from different communication group strains was necessary and sufficient to confer communication group affiliation. During chemotropic interactions, DOC-1 oscillated with MAK-2 to the tips of conidial anastomosis tubes, while DOC-2 was statically localized to the plasma membrane. Our data indicate that doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 function as "greenbeard" genes, involved in mediating long-distance kind recognition that involves actively searching for one's own type, resulting in cooperation between

  18. Use of kind information for object individuation in young domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Fontanari, Laura; Rugani, Rosa; Regolin, Lucia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we studied the ability of newborn chicks to use kind information (sortal objects) provided by social and food attractors to determine the number of distinct objects present in an event (object individuation). Newly hatched chicks were reared with five imprinting objects and were fed mealworms. Chicks' spontaneous tendency to approach the larger group of items was exploited. At test, on day 2 post-hatching, chicks observed two events in which objects, differing in kind, were each hidden behind one of two identical screens. Approaching either screen was considered a preferential choice. In Experiment 1, chicks presented with two social versus two food attractors did not exhibit any preference. In contrast, in Experiment 2, when chicks saw two different attractors (one social and one food) hidden behind a screen and one attractor hidden twice (i.e. moved back and forth two times) behind the other screen, they spontaneously approached the two different attractors rather than the single one seen twice. An explanation based on the preference for the more varied set was ruled out in Experiment 3: chicks did not preferentially choose between two different versus two identical objects when both groups were simultaneously presented. Results suggest for the first time that a non-human species uses kind information for individuating objects in a cross-basic-level contrast (i.e. food and social items) with minimal experience. As social and food stimuli differ in property as well as in kind information, the alternative explanation accounting for use of property information alone is also discussed. PMID:24368707

  19. Characterization of Greenbeard Genes Involved in Long-Distance Kind Discrimination in a Microbial Eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Jens; Zhao, Jiuhai; Rosenfield, Gabriel; Kowbel, David J.; Gladieux, Pierre; Glass, N. Louise

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms are capable of communication and cooperation to perform social activities. Cooperation can be enforced using kind discrimination mechanisms in which individuals preferentially help or punish others, depending on genetic relatedness only at certain loci. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, genetically identical asexual spores (germlings) communicate and fuse in a highly regulated process, which is associated with fitness benefits during colony establishment. Recognition and chemotropic interactions between isogenic germlings requires oscillation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction protein complex (NRC-1, MEK-2, MAK-2, and the scaffold protein HAM-5) to specialized cell fusion structures termed conidial anastomosis tubes. Using a population of 110 wild N. crassa isolates, we investigated germling fusion between genetically unrelated individuals and discovered that chemotropic interactions are regulated by kind discrimination. Distinct communication groups were identified, in which germlings within one communication group interacted at high frequency, while germlings from different communication groups avoided each other. Bulk segregant analysis followed by whole genome resequencing identified three linked genes (doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3), which were associated with communication group phenotype. Alleles at doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 fell into five haplotypes that showed transspecies polymorphism. Swapping doc-1 and doc-2 alleles from different communication group strains was necessary and sufficient to confer communication group affiliation. During chemotropic interactions, DOC-1 oscillated with MAK-2 to the tips of conidial anastomosis tubes, while DOC-2 was statically localized to the plasma membrane. Our data indicate that doc-1, doc-2, and doc-3 function as “greenbeard” genes, involved in mediating long-distance kind recognition that involves actively searching for one’s own type, resulting in cooperation

  20. Parameter estimation for boundary value problems by integral equations of the second kind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, Fumio

    1988-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the parameter estimation for boundary integral equations of the second kind. The parameter estimation technique through use of the spline collocation method is proposed. Based on the compactness assumption imposed on the parameter space, the convergence analysis for the numerical method of parameter estimation is discussed. The results obtained here are applied to a boundary parameter estimation for 2-D elliptic systems.

  1. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo; Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of 137Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account.

  2. The Traits One Can Trust: Dissecting Reciprocity and Kindness as Determinants of Trustworthy Behavior.

    PubMed

    Thielmann, Isabel; Hilbig, Benjamin E

    2015-11-01

    Trustworthiness is a vital pillar of various social interactions hinging upon trust. However, the underlying determinants of trustworthiness-especially in terms of (basic) personality traits-are insufficiently understood. Specifically, three mechanisms underlying trustworthiness have been proposed: unconditional kindness, positive reciprocity, and negative reciprocity. The present research aims to disentangle these mechanisms using a trait-based approach, relying on the HEXACO (Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, eXtraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience) model of personality. In three studies, participants acted as the trustee in the trust game. All studies revealed consistent support for the unconditional kindness mechanism, showing an exclusive link between Honesty-Humility and trustworthiness, irrespective of the level of prior trust. In turn, positive and negative reciprocity could not account for the pattern of results. In addition, our results reconcile the inconsistent evidence on the relation between Big Five-Agreeableness and trustworthiness: Unconditional kindness only refers to one component of the broad Big Five-Agreeableness factor (which subsumes various cooperative tendencies). PMID:26330455

  3. Two New Sliding DTFT Algorithms for Phase Difference Measurement Based on a New Kind of Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yaqing; Shen, Ting'ao; Zhang, Haitao; Li, Ming

    2014-12-01

    For the ultra-low frequency signals or adjacent Nyquist frequency signals, which exist in the vibration engineering domain, the traditional DTFT-based algorithm shows serious bias for phase difference measurement. It is indicated that the spectrum leakage and negative frequency contribution are the essential causes of the bias. In order to improve the phase difference measurement accuracy of the DTFT-based algorithm, two new sliding DTFT algorithms for phase difference measurement based on a new kind of windows are proposed, respectively. Firstly, the new kind of windows developed by convolving conventional rectangular windows is introduced, which obtains a stronger inhibition of spectrum leakage. Then, with negative frequency contribution considered, two new formulas for phase difference calculation under the new kind of windows are derived in detail. Finally, the idea of sliding recursive is proposed to decrease the computational load. The proposed algorithms are easy to be realized and have a higher accuracy than the traditional DTFT-based algorithm. Simulations and engineering applications verified the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  4. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Chao

    2015-12-15

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of {sup 137}Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account.

  5. The responses of three kinds of passive dosimeters to secondary cosmic rays in the lower atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Chen, Bo; Zhuo, Weihai; Fan, Dunhuang; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    For accurate measurements of the secondary cosmic rays by using passive dosimeters, the relative responses of the thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, and radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeter (RPLGD) were studied. The cosmic-ray shower generator was used to simulate the secondary cosmic rays at the sea level. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the air kerma and absorbed doses in each kind of dosimeter. The results showed that compared with their responses to gamma rays of (137)Cs, the relative responses of the TLD, OSL, and RPLGD were 0.786, 0.707, and 0.735 to the hard component of cosmic rays, respectively, and the values were 0.904, 0.838, and 0.857 to the soft component of cosmic rays, respectively. To verify the simulations results, an in situ measurement with the three kinds of dosimeters was performed at the same place. The results indicated that the secondary cosmic rays monitored with the three kinds of dosimeters were well consistent with each other provided their relative responses were taken into account. PMID:26724019

  6. Kinds versus continua: a review of psychometric approaches to uncover the structure of psychiatric constructs.

    PubMed

    Borsboom, D; Rhemtulla, M; Cramer, A O J; van der Maas, H L J; Scheffer, M; Dolan, C V

    2016-06-01

    The question of whether psychopathology constructs are discrete kinds or continuous dimensions represents an important issue in clinical psychology and psychiatry. The present paper reviews psychometric modelling approaches that can be used to investigate this question through the application of statistical models. The relation between constructs and indicator variables in models with categorical and continuous latent variables is discussed, as are techniques specifically designed to address the distinction between latent categories as opposed to continua (taxometrics). In addition, we examine latent variable models that allow latent structures to have both continuous and categorical characteristics, such as factor mixture models and grade-of-membership models. Finally, we discuss recent alternative approaches based on network analysis and dynamical systems theory, which entail that the structure of constructs may be continuous for some individuals but categorical for others. Our evaluation of the psychometric literature shows that the kinds-continua distinction is considerably more subtle than is often presupposed in research; in particular, the hypotheses of kinds and continua are not mutually exclusive or exhaustive. We discuss opportunities to go beyond current research on the issue by using dynamical systems models, intra-individual time series and experimental manipulations. PMID:26997244

  7. [Comparison and correlative analysis of trace elements in five kinds of radix curcumae].

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu-mei; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Cun-gui

    2008-09-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine materials (TCM) contained abundant trace elements needed in human body. Mixed acid (HNO3:HClO4) was added into samples treated by microwave digestion, and a systematic study was carried out by selection of the most appropriate working conditions and optimization of the sample mass. Some inorganic elements in 5 kinds of radix curcumae (Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling, Curcuma longa L., Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang, Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. and Curcuma chuanyujin C. K Hsieh et H. Zhang) necessary to lives were determined by flames atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Elements, such as K, Ca, Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn were detected. The results show that there are similar elements in the five kinds of radix curcumae, while differences only exist in a few elements contents. The correlative analysis of trace elements in samples was carried out by cluster analysis of the 4 kinds of radix curcumae (Curcuma wenyujin Y. H. Chen et C. Ling, Curcuma longa L., Curcuma kwangsiensis S. G. Lee et C. F. Liang and Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. ) in codex populations in a cluster, different from the unofficial sample (Curcuma chuanyujin C. K. Hsieh et H. Zhang). The cluster analysis results are consistent with the morphological characteristics of the traditional taxonomy results. The results showed that the analytic method is advisable. This paper provides scientific basis for deeply studing the relation between trace elements and drug effect of radix curcumae. PMID:19093592

  8. Wie verstehen Schülerinnen und Schüler den Begriff der Unendlichkeit?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmöller, Tabea

    Wie Hilbert bereits feststellte, wirkt die Idee der Unendlichkeit, wie keine andere, schon seit Zeiten sehr anregend und fruchtbar auf den Verstand und bewegt das Gemüt der Menschen. Der Begriff der Unendlichkeit bedarf aber auch, wie kein anderer, der Aufklärung, denn mit ihm eröffnet sich ein weites Feld, welches nicht nur aus vielen verschiedenen Definitionen besteht, sondern auch aus völlig unterschiedlichen Disziplinen. Physiker suchen immer dringender nach einer "Theorie für Alles" oder einer "Weltformel", Kosmologen beschäftigen sich unter anderem mit der Ewigkeit des Universums, Theologen interessiert eher die Unendlichkeit Gottes, Philosophen diskutieren unter anderem Grenzfragen zwischen Naturwissenschaft und Philosophie und die Mathematiker versuchen den Paradoxien des Unendlichen einen Sinn zu geben. Und so wird ersichtlich, dass nichts abstrakter ist als das Unendliche: Obwohl die Unendlichkeit für die unterschiedlichsten Wissenschaften von großer Bedeutung ist, "[ist] in der Wirklichkeit das Unendliche nirgends zu finden, [egal] was für Erfahrungen und Beobachtungen und welcherlei Wissenschaft wir auch heranziehen".

  9. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  10. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  11. Zu einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie des Lernens und Lehrens der biologischen Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Anita

    Der Zweck dieser Studie (zwecks Überblick siehe dazu Abb. 9.1) war zu untersuchen, wie die Schüler der Sekundarstufe II ein Verständnis von der Theorie der biologischen Evolution entwickeln. Vom Ausgangspunkt "Vorurteile der Schüler“ ausgehend wurden Unterrichtssequenzen entwickelt und drei verschiedene Lernexperimente in einem zyklischen Prozess durchgeführt. Das Wissen der Schüler wurde vor, während und nach den Unterrichtssequenzen mit Hilfe von schriftlichen Tests, Interviews und Diskussionsrunden in kleinen Gruppen abgefragt. Etwa 80 % der Schüler hatten vor dem Unterricht alternative Vorstellungen von Evolution, und in dem Nachfolgetest erreichten circa 75 % ein wissenschaftliches Niveau. Die Argumentation der Schüler in den verschiedenen Tests wurde sorgfältig unter Rücksichtnahme auf Vorurteile, der konzeptionellen Struktur der Theorie der Evolution und den Zielen des Unterrichts analysiert. Daraus konnten Einsichten in solche Anforderungen an Lehren und Lernen gewonnen werden, die Herausforderungen an Schüler und Lehrer darstellen, wenn sie anfangen, evolutionäre Biologie zu lernen oder zu lehren. Ein wichtiges Ergebnis war, dass das Verständnis existierender Variation in einer Population der Schlüssel zum Verständnis von natürlicher Selektion ist. Die Ergebnisse sind in einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie zusammengefasst, welche aus drei verschiedenen Aspekten besteht: 1) den inhaltsspezifischen Aspekten, die einzigartig für jedes wissenschaftliche Feld sind; 2) den Aspekten, die die Natur der Wissenschaft betreffen; und 3) den allgemeinen Aspekten. Diese Theorie kann in neuen Experimenten getestet und weiter entwickelt werden.

  12. Charakterisierung von Sulfotransferasen im Gastrointestinaltrakt von Mensch und Ratte und Aktivierung von Promutagenen in V79-Zellen, die eine intestinale Form (1B1) des Menschen und der Ratte exprimieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teubner, Wera

    2001-05-01

    Die Ausstattung der gastrointestinalen Mukosa des Menschen und der Ratte mit Sulfotransferasen wurde mit Hilfe von Immunodetektion und Enzymaktivitätsmessungen untersucht. In Proben aus Colon und Rektum von 39 Personen wurden die Formen h1A1, h1A3 und h1B1 identifiziert, wobei in einer weiteren Probe, die als einzige von einem an Colitis Ulcerosa erkrankten Patienten stammte, keine Sulfotransferasen nachgewiesen werden konnten. Bei der Immunblot-Analyse war das Expressionsmuster der einzelnen Formen in allen Proben ähnlich. In wenigen Proben waren die relativen Signalintensitäten der h1A1 und der h1B1 um die Hälfte erniedrigt. Der Gehalt von SULT an zytosolischem Protein zeigte einen bis zu 8 - 10fachen Unterschied, er betrug jedoch bei zwei Dritteln der Proben zwischen 0,15 und 0,3 (h1A1 und h1A3) bzw. 0,6 und 0,8 Promille (h1B1). Die Variation konnte nicht auf Alter, Geschlecht oder Krankheitsbild der Patienten zurückgeführt werden. Auch der für die allelischen Varianten der h1A1 beschriebene Effekt auf die Enzymaktiviät bzw. Stabilität konnte in der Menge an immunreaktivem Protein nicht in diesem Ausma detektiert werden. Die Allelhäufigkeit von h1A1*R und h1A1*H war gegenüber der gesunden Bevölkerung nicht verändert. In den sieben Proben aus dem Dünndarm (Coecum, viermal Ileum, Jejunum) konnten zusätzlich die Formen h1E1 und h2A1 identifiziert werden. Ein möglicherweise der Form h1C1 entsprechendes Protein wurde im Magen detektiert. Im Vergleich zum Menschen war die Expression in der Ratte stärker auf die Leber konzentriert. Während beim Menschen in allen untersuchten Abschnitten Sulfotransferasen in Mengen detektiert wurden, die in zwei Fällen (h1B1 und h1A3) sogar den Gehalt in der Leber überstiegen, beschränkte sich die Expression in der Ratte auf im Vergleich zur Leber geringe Mengen im Magen und Dickdarm. Nachgewiesen wurden die r1B1, r1A1 sowie eine nicht identifizierte Form von 35kD, bei der es sich vermutlich um die r1C2 handelt. Im

  13. Von Donuts und Zucker: Mit Neutronen biologische Makromoleküle erforschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Roland P.

    2003-05-01

    Für die Erforschung von Biomolekülen bieten Neutronen einzigartige Eigenschaften. Vor allem ihre unterschiedliche Wechselwirkung mit dem natürlichen Wasserstoff und seinem schweren Isotop Deuterium ermöglicht tiefe Einblicke in Struktur, Funktion und Dynamik von Proteinen, Nukleinsäuren und Biomembranen. Bei vielen Fragestellungen zur Strukturaufklärung gibt es kaum oder keine Alternative zum Neutron. Das Institut Laue-Langevin trägt Bahnbrechendes zum Erfolg der Neutronen-Methoden in der Biologie bei.

  14. Three kinds of psychological determinants for hand-washing behaviour in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Aunger, Robert; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Ranpura, Ashish; Coombes, Yolande; Maina, Peninnah Mukiri; Matiko, Carol Nkatha; Curtis, Valerie

    2010-02-01

    Washing hands with soap at the right times - primarily after contact with faeces, but also before handling food or feeding an infant - can significantly reduce the incidence of childhood infectious disease. Here, we present empirical results which substantiate a recent claim that washing hands can be the consequence of different kinds of psychological causes. Such causes can be divided into three kinds of control over behaviour: automatic or habitual responses, motivated or goal-driven behaviour to satisfy needs, and cognitive causes which reflect conscious concerns. Empirical results are based on 3-h-long structured observations of hand-washing behaviour in 802 nationally representative Kenyan households with children under five, and structured interviews with the primary female caretaker in these households, collected in March 2007. Factor analysis of questionnaire responses identified three psychological factors which are also significant predictors of observed hand-washing behaviour: having the habit of hand-washing at particular junctures during the day, the motivated need for personal or household cleanliness, and a lack of cognitive concern about the cost of soap use. These factors each represent a different kind of psychological cause. A perceived link between clean hands and sexual attractiveness also appeared in the factor analysis, but was not a determinant of actual behaviour. We also report evidence that those who express concern about the cost of soap use are those with relatively few economic resources. We suggest that those developing hygiene promotion programmes should consider the possible existence of multiple types of strategies for increasing hand-washing behaviour. PMID:19914758

  15. [Analysis of nine kinds of sweeteners in foods by LC/MS].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Masamichi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Uchibori, Nobutake; Wada, Ichirou; Akiyama, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Tamami

    2005-06-01

    A simple and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of nine kinds of sweeteners (acesulfame potassium, AK; sucralose, SUC; saccharin, SA; cyclamate, CYC; aspartame, APM; dulcin, DU; glycyrrhizic acid, GA; stevioside, STV; rebaudioside A, REB) in various foods by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) was developed. The LC separation was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 (2.1 mm x 150 mm) with a mobile phase of 5 mmol/L dibutylammonium acetate (DBAA) and acetonitrile-water (8: 2). Mass spectral acquisition was done in the negative ion mode by applying selected ion monitoring (SIM). The sweeteners were extracted from foods with 0.08 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)- ethanol (1:1), and the extract was cleaned up on a Sep-pak Vac C18 cartridge after the addition of tetrabutylammonium bromide and phosphate buffer (pH 3.0). The recovery of the nine kinds of sweeteners from five kinds of foods fortified at the level 0.01 g/kg, 0.05 g/kg and 0.20 g/kg was 75.7-109.2%, and the between-day SD values were 0.5-10.9%. The quantification limits of AK, SA, CYC, APM and STV were 0.001 g/kg, and those of SUC, DU, GA and REB were 0.005 g/kg. A recovery test from each cleaned-up sample solution was necessary to detect ionization suppression. PMID:16042292

  16. On Calculations of Legendre Functions and Associated Legendre Functions of the First Kind of Complex Degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylwe, Karl-Erik; McCabe, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Formulas for calculating Legendre functions and associated Legendre functions of the first kind of complex degree using an Ermakov-Lewis invariant are presented. These formulas are straight-forward to implement numerically and are motivated by the lack of computational routines in standard university tools like those of MatLab and Maple. Angular waves propagating in opposite directions are also obtained. The results are particularly useful in complex angular momentum theories and nearside/farside analysis of spin-dependent angular scattering from central potentials.

  17. Mixed convection nanofluid flow in a vertical channel with boundary conditions of the third kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhatar, Nur Asiah Mohd; Siddheshwar, P. G.; Saleh, Habibis; Hashim, Ishak

    2015-09-01

    A numerical investigation is carried out into the heat transfer within a fully-developed mixed convection flow of Al2O3 - water, CuO - water and TiO2 - water nanoliquids in a vertical channel with boundary condition of third kind. The effects of Brinkman number, Br and mixed convection parameter, GR on the velocity distribution and temperature distribution are the focus of this study. The built-in routine, dsolve in MAPLE is applied for the numerical computation. It was found that, greater value of GR and lower value of Br greatly affected the heat transfer performance and resulted the occurrence of reversal flow.

  18. UQ for Decision Making: How (at least five) Kinds of Probability Might Come Into Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    In 1959 IJ Good published the discussion "Kinds of Probability" in Science. Good identified (at least) five kinds. The need for (at least) a sixth kind of probability when quantifying uncertainty in the context of climate science is discussed. This discussion brings out the differences in weather-like forecasting tasks and climate-links tasks, with a focus on the effective use both of science and of modelling in support of decision making. Good also introduced the idea of a "Dynamic probability" a probability one expects to change without any additional empirical evidence; the probabilities assigned by a chess playing program when it is only half thorough its analysis being an example. This case is contrasted with the case of "Mature probabilities" where a forecast algorithm (or model) has converged on its asymptotic probabilities and the question hinges in whether or not those probabilities are expected to change significantly before the event in question occurs, even in the absence of new empirical evidence. If so, then how might one report and deploy such immature probabilities in scientific-support of decision-making rationally? Mature Probability is suggested as a useful sixth kind, although Good would doubtlessly argue that we can get by with just one, effective communication with decision makers may be enhanced by speaking as if the others existed. This again highlights the distinction between weather-like contexts and climate-like contexts. In the former context one has access to a relevant climatology (a relevant, arguably informative distribution prior to any model simulations), in the latter context that information is not available although one can fall back on the scientific basis upon which the model itself rests, and estimate the probability that the model output is in fact misinformative. This subjective "probability of a big surprise" is one way to communicate the probability of model-based information holding in practice, the probability that the

  19. On infinite series concerning zeros of Bessel functions of the first kind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Andrea; Mainardi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    A relevant result independently obtained by Rayleigh and Sneddon on an identity on series involving the zeros of Bessel functions of the first kind is derived by an alternative method based on Laplace transforms. Our method leads to a Bernstein function of time, expressed by Dirichlet series, that allows us to recover the Rayleigh-Sneddon sum. We also consider another method arriving at the same result based on a relevant formula by Calogero. Moreover, we also provide an electrical example in which this sum results to be extremely useful in order to recover the analytical expression for the response of the system to a certain external input.

  20. A new kind of splines and their use for fast ray-tracing in reflective cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantelic, Dejan V.; Janevski, Zoran D.

    1989-08-01

    In this paper we are presenting a new kind of splines that are very effective in ray-tracing applications. They are designed in such a way to enable the fast and efficient computation of line-spline intersections (line representing the light ray, and spline representing the reflective cavity). These splines are piecewise parabolic polynomials, but with additional degrees of freedom. Polynomial sections of the spline can be rotated to a certain angle (each section has its own angle of rotation), enabling thus the continuity of the first derivative.

  1. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  2. Remote monitoring of environmental particulate pollution - A problem in inversion of first-kind integral equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1975-01-01

    The determination of the microstructure, chemical nature, and dynamical evolution of scattering particulates in the atmosphere is considered. A description is given of indirect sampling techniques which can circumvent most of the difficulties associated with direct sampling techniques, taking into account methods based on scattering, extinction, and diffraction of an incident light beam. Approaches for reconstructing the particulate size distribution from the direct and the scattered radiation are discussed. A new method is proposed for determining the chemical composition of the particulates and attention is given to the relevance of methods of solution involving first kind Fredholm integral equations.

  3. Development and Implementation of Kumamoto Technopolis Regional Database T-KIND

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Noriaki

    T-KIND (Techno-Kumamoto Information Network for Data-Base) is a system for effectively searching information of technology, human resources and industries which are necessary to realize Kumamoto Technopolis. It is composed of coded database, image database and LAN inside technoresearch park which is the center of R & D in the Technopolis. It constructs on-line system by networking general-purposed computers, minicomputers, optical disk file systems and so on, and provides the service through public telephone line. Two databases are now available on enterprise information and human resource information. The former covers about 4,000 enterprises, and the latter does about 2,000 persons.

  4. A theorem regarding roots of the zero-order Bessel function of the first kind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, X.-A.; Agrawal, O. P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigates a problem on the steady-state, conduction-convection heat transfer process in cylindrical porous heat exchangers. The governing partial differential equations for the system are obtained using the energy conservation law. Solution of these equations and the concept of enthalpy lead to a new approach to prove a theorem that the sum of inverse squares of all the positive roots of the zero order Bessel function of the first kind equals to one-forth. As a corollary, it is shown that the sum of one over pth power (p greater than or equal to 2) of the roots converges to some constant.

  5. 7 CFR 1c.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 1c.110 Section 1c.110 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds...

  6. 43 CFR 3195.31 - What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Crude Helium Sales Contract? 3195.31 Section 3195.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.31 What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? A BLM helium In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract requires you to:...

  7. 43 CFR 3195.31 - What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Crude Helium Sales Contract? 3195.31 Section 3195.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.31 What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? A BLM helium In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract requires you to:...

  8. 43 CFR 3195.31 - What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Crude Helium Sales Contract? 3195.31 Section 3195.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.31 What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? A BLM helium In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract requires you to:...

  9. 43 CFR 3195.31 - What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Crude Helium Sales Contract? 3195.31 Section 3195.31 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to...) HELIUM CONTRACTS Federal Helium Supplier Requirements § 3195.31 What are the general terms of an In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract? A BLM helium In-Kind Crude Helium Sales Contract requires you to:...

  10. 20 CFR 703.207 - Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Secretary of the Treasury. (See 31 CFR part 225.) The approval, valuation, acceptance, and custody of such... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Kinds of negotiable securities that may be... Kinds of negotiable securities that may be deposited; conditions of deposit; acceptance of deposits....

  11. 20 CFR 408.412 - What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.412 What kinds of evidence of age...

  12. 20 CFR 408.412 - What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.412 What kinds of evidence of age...

  13. 20 CFR 408.412 - What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.412 What kinds of evidence of age...

  14. 20 CFR 408.412 - What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements Age § 408.412 What kinds of evidence of age...

  15. 10 CFR 745.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 745.110 Section 745.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no...

  16. 10 CFR 745.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 745.110 Section 745.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no...

  17. 10 CFR 745.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 745.110 Section 745.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no...

  18. 10 CFR 745.110 - Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no more than minimal risk, and for minor changes in approved research. 745.110 Section 745.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.110 Expedited review procedures for certain kinds of research involving no...

  19. 7 CFR 201.62 - Tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. 201.62 Section 201.62 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype. Tolerances for tests for determination of percentages of kind, variety, type, hybrid, or offtype shall be those set forth in...

  20. 20 CFR 408.412 - What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of evidence of age do you need to give us? 408.412 Section 408.412 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS... you need to give us? For a description of the kinds of evidence of age you may need to give us,...

  1. 20 CFR 408.432 - What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us? 408.432 Section 408.432 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... What kind of evidence of your other benefit income do you need to give us? As evidence of your...

  2. 41 CFR 102-2.115 - What kinds of non-regulatory material does GSA publish outside of the FMR?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What kinds of non-regulatory material does GSA publish outside of the FMR? 102-2.115 Section 102-2.115 Public Contracts and....115 What kinds of non-regulatory material does GSA publish outside of the FMR? As GSA converts...

  3. Suchmaschinen und Informationsqualität: Status quo, Problemfelder, Entwicklungstendenzen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maaß, Christian; Gräfe, Gernot

    Das Thema Informationsqualität wird in den vorangegangenen Beiträgen umfangreich betrachtet. Die dabei geführte Diskussion zielt vordergründig auf organisatorische Dimensionen der Datenqualität, die strukturierte Datenanalyse oder Datenmanagementprozesse im Unternehmen ab. Dabei liegt ein Großteil der zur Unterstützung von Entscheidungsprozessen herangezogenen Informationen in Datenbanksystemen bzw. in einem Data Warehouse vor. Auf Basis verschiedener Analysetools (z. B. Online-Analytical-Processing) lassen sich diese Informationen dann systematisch auswerten. Allerdings können Entscheidungen nicht allein aufgrund der unternehmensintern vorliegenden Informationen getroffen werden. Vielmehr gilt es auch die aus der Unternehmensumwelt relevanten Informationen zu verarbeiten, die zum Teil über das Internet zugänglich sind. Im Gegensatz zu unternehmensinternen Datenbanksystemen handelt es sich beim Internet um ein schwach strukturiertes und offenes Netzwerk, weshalb die im Unternehmenskontext eingesetzten Analysetools kaum weiterhelfen, um Informationen mit hoher Qualität herauszufiltern. In dieser Situation spielen Suchmaschinen eine wichtige Rolle, um Informationen zu identifizieren und anhand verschiedener Kriterien in Form einer Suchergebnisseite zu sortieren.

  4. Organization of the und R chromosome region in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Kermicle, J.

    1989-07-01

    Maize is highly polymorphic in pattern of anthocyanin pigmentation. That portion of the total variation which is attributable to one gene is revealed when alleles from various sources are incorporated into a standard line by backcrossing before comparison under uniform environments. The variation associated with such collections of {und R} alleles is discontinuous, suggesting the presence of discrete units of function. Alleles comprising more than one such element constitute an allelic complex or gene family. An objective of the early years of investigation under this grant was to work out the arrangement of genic elements in such allelic complexes. Elements in a complex are identified by independent mutation and separability by recombination, the latter serving also to order them in the chromosome. Alleles having from one to three elements each were represented among five accessions of the colored-seed, colored-plant class ({und R-r}). Nine different genic elements were identified. This line of inquiry has been de-emphasized in recent years in deference to investigating the organization of individual genic elements. We have focused on a set of readily distinguished elements that were identified or produced in the analysis of allelic complexes. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  5. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P K; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P S; Leung, Freedom Y K

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations. PMID:26579061

  6. Capacitive mixing with electrodes of the same kind for energy production from salinity differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, M.; Kozynchenko, O.; Tennison, S.; Brogioli, D.

    2016-03-01

    The capacitive mixing technique is aimed at producing renewable energy from salinity differences, for example between sea and river water. The technique makes use of two electrodes that modify their potential in opposite directions when the concentration of the solution in which they are immersed is changed, as a consequence of the dynamics of the electric double layer which forms in the ionic solution. Unfortunately, it is difficult to find two electrodes presenting both optimal performances and opposite potential variations. In order to overcome this problem, we present here a cell scheme with electrodes of the same kind (and thus identical dependence of potential on concentration) which can be operated with a CapMix cycle; it is based on a concentration cell with identical electrodes dipped into two compartments separated by a non-perm-selective porous diaphragm. Thanks to the cyclic operation, the actual cell voltage rise and the power production are close to the values obtained with the traditional scheme, or even higher, depending on the features of the ion transport in the liquid junction region. We present an experimental demonstration of the working principles and we study the power production and energy efficiency in the light of the theory of ion transport in fluids. We show that our technique is competitive with respect to the other CapMix techniques, with the relevant advantage that we make use of only one kind of electrode.

  7. Physical activity among adolescents: The role of various kinds of parental support.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M; Holstein, B E

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data came from the Aarhus School Survey that included 2100 schoolchildren at 11, 13, and 15 years of age. Parental social support for PA was measured by items about encouragement to do PA, doing joint PA, parents watching PA, and talking about PA. PA was measured as at least 4 h of vigorous PA per week during leisure time. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations for girls and boys separately, adjusted by age group, parents' occupational social class, family structure, and migration status. There were significant and graded associations between adolescents' PA and all four dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not. PMID:26346509

  8. The impacts of different kinds of dust events on PM 10 pollution in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shigong; Yuan, Wei; Shang, Kezheng

    In this study the frequencies of PM 10 (as key urban pollutant) in 14 key environmental protection cities in northern China were analyzed. It follows that the PM 10 concentration in the high-frequency period is higher with an extent 0.009-0.066 mg m -3 than in the low-frequency period of 2001-2002. Further the impacts of three kinds of dust events on the PM 10 concentration in four cities (Beijing, Hohhot, Xi'an and Lanzhou) were explored. The results showed that different kinds of dust events have different influences on variation of PM 10 concentration in these four cities. In Lanzhou and Hohhot, which are near the source areas of dust events, the contribution degree of these three dust events to the PM 10 is: floating dust>dust storm>blowing dust. Whereas, in Beijing and Xi'an situated in dust event passing areas, the mean value of PM 10 concentration is higher in blowing dust than in floating dust (no dust storm). In addition, the influences of dust events on PM 10 concentration are different in the cities on different dust event paths. In Beijing and Hohhot (on the northern path), the high PM 10 concentration is usually caused by blowing dust. But in both Lanzhou and Xi'an (on the western/northwestern path) the high PM 10 pollution concentration is usually caused by floating dust.

  9. Loving-Kindness Meditation to Target Affect in Mood Disorders: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Petrocchi, Nicola; Steinberg, James; Lin, Muyu; Arimitsu, Kohki; Kind, Shelley; Mendes, Adriana; Stangier, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Conventional treatments for mood disorders primarily focus on reducing negative affect, but little on enhancing positive affect. Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is a traditional meditation practice directly oriented toward enhancing unconditional and positive emotional states of kindness towards oneself and others. We report here two independent and uncontrolled studies carried out at different centers, one in Boston, USA (n = 10), and one in Frankfurt, Germany (n = 8), to examine the potential therapeutic utility of a brief LKM group intervention for symptoms of dysthymia and depression. Results at both centers suggest that LKM was associated with large-sized effects on self-reported symptoms of depression (d = 3.33 and 1.90), negative affect (d = 1.98 and 0.92), and positive affect (d = 1.63 and 0.94). Large effects were also found for clinician-reported changes in depression, rumination and specific positive emotions, and moderate effects for changes in adaptive emotion regulation strategies. The qualitative data analyses provide additional support for the potential clinical utility of the intervention. This proof-of-concept evaluation of LKM as a clinical strategy warrants further investigation. PMID:26136807

  10. The fibrillar structure of the cemento-dentinal junction in different kinds of human teeth.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Domon, T; Takahashi, S; Islam, M N; Suzuki, R

    2001-10-01

    The cemento-dentinal junction was examined in human maxillary incisors, canines and premolars by scanning electron microscopy combined with NaOH maceration. The NaOH maceration was used to remove interfibrillar substances and to observe details of the fibrillar architecture. The teeth were half-sectioned longitudinally, demineralized and macerated for 3-4 days or for 10-14 days. In the 3-4 day-macerated specimens, longitudinal sections of the cemento-dentinal junction were examined. In the 10-14 day-macerated specimens, the cementum was detached and the inner cementum surface facing the cemento-dentinal junction was examined. Observations suggested that cemental fibrils intermingle with dentinal fibrils only in places at the cemento-dentinal junction in both acellular and cellular cementum. These structural features were consistent in all kinds of teeth investigated here. Using human molars, we have previously proposed that the adhesion of proteoglycans is a main factor for the cemento-dentinal attachment and that the fibril intermingling between dentin and cementum is an accessory or secondary factor. The present study suggests that this applies to other kinds of human teeth. PMID:11585119

  11. Loving-Kindness Meditation practice associated with longer telomeres in women.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Chen, Maxine M; Orr, Esther; Metcalf, Christina A; Fischer, Laura E; Pollack, Mark H; De Vivo, Immaculata; Simon, Naomi M

    2013-08-01

    Relatively short telomere length may serve as a marker of accelerated aging, and shorter telomeres have been linked to chronic stress. Specific lifestyle behaviors that can mitigate the effects of stress might be associated with longer telomere lengths. Previous research suggests a link between behaviors that focus on the well-being of others, such as volunteering and caregiving, and overall health and longevity. We examined relative telomere length in a group of individuals experienced in Loving-Kindness Meditation (LKM), a practice derived from the Buddhist tradition which utilizes a focus on unselfish kindness and warmth towards all people, and control participants who had done no meditation. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure relative telomere length (RTL) (Cawthon, 2002) in fifteen LKM practitioners and 22 control participants. There were no significant differences in age, gender, race, education, or exposure to trauma, but the control group had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of past depression. The LKM practitioners had longer RTL than controls at the trend level (p=.083); among women, the LKM practitioners had significantly longer RTL than controls, (p=.007), which remained significant even after controlling for BMI and past depression. Although limited by small sample size, these results offer the intriguing possibility that LKM practice, especially in women, might alter RTL, a biomarker associated with longevity. PMID:23602876

  12. Capacitive mixing with electrodes of the same kind for energy production from salinity differences.

    PubMed

    Marino, M; Kozynchenko, O; Tennison, S; Brogioli, D

    2016-03-23

    The capacitive mixing technique is aimed at producing renewable energy from salinity differences, for example between sea and river water. The technique makes use of two electrodes that modify their potential in opposite directions when the concentration of the solution in which they are immersed is changed, as a consequence of the dynamics of the electric double layer which forms in the ionic solution. Unfortunately, it is difficult to find two electrodes presenting both optimal performances and opposite potential variations. In order to overcome this problem, we present here a cell scheme with electrodes of the same kind (and thus identical dependence of potential on concentration) which can be operated with a CapMix cycle; it is based on a concentration cell with identical electrodes dipped into two compartments separated by a non-perm-selective porous diaphragm. Thanks to the cyclic operation, the actual cell voltage rise and the power production are close to the values obtained with the traditional scheme, or even higher, depending on the features of the ion transport in the liquid junction region. We present an experimental demonstration of the working principles and we study the power production and energy efficiency in the light of the theory of ion transport in fluids. We show that our technique is competitive with respect to the other CapMix techniques, with the relevant advantage that we make use of only one kind of electrode. PMID:26902918

  13. Open Hearts Build Lives: Positive Emotions, Induced Through Loving-Kindness Meditation, Build Consequential Personal Resources

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Cohn, Michael A.; Coffey, Kimberly A.; Pek, Jolynn; Finkel, Sandra M.

    2011-01-01

    B. L. Fredrickson’s (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions asserts that people’s daily experiences of positive emotions compound over time to build a variety of consequential personal resources. The authors tested this build hypothesis in a field experiment with working adults (n = 139), half of whom were randomly-assigned to begin a practice of loving-kindness meditation. Results showed that this meditation practice produced increases over time in daily experiences of positive emotions, which, in turn, produced increases in a wide range of personal resources (e.g., increased mindfulness, purpose in life, social support, decreased illness symptoms). In turn, these increments in personal resources predicted increased life satisfaction and reduced depressive symptoms. Discussion centers on how positive emotions are the mechanism of change for the type of mind-training practice studied here and how loving-kindness meditation is an intervention strategy that produces positive emotions in a way that outpaces the hedonic treadmill effect. PMID:18954193

  14. Influence of heterogeneity on second-kind self-similar solutions for viscous gravity currents

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zheng, Zhong; Christov, Ivan  C.; Stone, Howard  A.

    2014-04-16

    We report experimental, theoretical and numerical results on the effects of horizontal heterogeneities on the propagation of viscous gravity currents. We use two geometries to highlight these effects: (a) a horizontal channel (or crack) whose gap thickness varies as a power-law function of the streamwise coordinate; (b) a heterogeneous porous medium whose permeability and porosity have power-law variations. We demonstrate that two types of self-similar behaviours emerge as a result of horizontal heterogeneity: (a) a first-kind self-similar solution is found using dimensional analysis (scaling) for viscous gravity currents that propagate away from the origin (a point of zero permeability); (b)more » a second-kind self-similar solution is found using a phase-plane analysis for viscous gravity currents that propagate toward the origin. These theoretical predictions, obtained using the ideas of self-similar intermediate asymptotics, are compared with experimental results and numerical solutions of the governing partial differential equation developed under the lubrication approximation. All three results are found to be in good agreement.« less

  15. Influence of heterogeneity on second-kind self-similar solutions for viscous gravity currents

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhong; Christov, Ivan  C.; Stone, Howard  A.

    2014-04-16

    We report experimental, theoretical and numerical results on the effects of horizontal heterogeneities on the propagation of viscous gravity currents. We use two geometries to highlight these effects: (a) a horizontal channel (or crack) whose gap thickness varies as a power-law function of the streamwise coordinate; (b) a heterogeneous porous medium whose permeability and porosity have power-law variations. We demonstrate that two types of self-similar behaviours emerge as a result of horizontal heterogeneity: (a) a first-kind self-similar solution is found using dimensional analysis (scaling) for viscous gravity currents that propagate away from the origin (a point of zero permeability); (b) a second-kind self-similar solution is found using a phase-plane analysis for viscous gravity currents that propagate toward the origin. These theoretical predictions, obtained using the ideas of self-similar intermediate asymptotics, are compared with experimental results and numerical solutions of the governing partial differential equation developed under the lubrication approximation. All three results are found to be in good agreement.

  16. ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2010-06-01

    The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

  17. Reproductive capacity and longevity of stable flies maintained on different kinds of blood.

    PubMed

    DuToit, G D

    1975-12-01

    An investigation was made into some lesser known aspects of the biology of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, in order to find a basis for possible means of natural control of the pest on dairy farms. The reaction of adults to different kinds of blood was tested. Diets investigated were bovine blood alternated with ovine blood, bovine blood alternated with pig's blood, bovine blood alternated with manure filtrate, bovine blood alone, ovine blood alone, pig's blood alone and manure filtrate alone. Adults could not servive on manure filtrate alone. Flies in the other treatments exhibited no marked differences as regards duration of pre-mating-, pre-oviposition- and oviposition periods. There were, however, differences in the number of eggs laid. Females maintained on bovine blood alone produced most eggs i.e. 2,3 times as many as those laid by females fed on pig's blood alone. The latter were the poorest producers. Viability and incubation period of eggs did not appear to be affected by the kind of blood fed to the adults. Flies, however, lived longer when supplied with bovine blood and died sooner when maintained on pig's blood. PMID:1223286

  18. Exploring new kinds of relationships using generative music-making software.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Steve; Jones, Anita

    2009-08-01

    This project focuses upon the use of jam2jam, a generative computer system, to increase access to improvization experiences for children and to facilitate new kinds of relationships with artists. The network jamming system uses visual and audio cultural materials to enable communities to be expressive with artistic materials that they value as a community. As the system is part of a network, performances can be shared between communities at great distances and recordings of performances can be uploaded to a digital social network (http://www.jam2jam.com/) and shared both locally and with the wider community. This paper examines a preliminary project where artwork made by Indigenous mental health clients in Far North Queensland was digitized and given to a group of 8-12-year-old urban Indigenous children to 'improvize' with and make music/video clips using the jam2jam instrument. It seeks to generate a discussion and identify applications within creative arts-led community health settings to facilitate new kinds of relationships with self, peers, local community, culture and artists through collaborative improvization. PMID:19579134

  19. [Evaluation of zinc deficiency tolerance in different kinds of apple rootstocks].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao-dan; Liu, Fei; Wang, Yan-an; Fu, Chun-xia; Yan, Yu-jing; Sha, Guang-li; Shu, Huai-rui

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to screen and evaluate the zinc deficiency tolerance among eight apple rootstocks, i.e., Malus baccata, M. rockii, M. xiaojinensis, M. sikkimensis, M. sieversii, M. robusta, M. hupehensis and Malus 'Flame'. The experiment took these 8 kinds of root-stocks as the research materials to observe and analyze the index of the rootstock's height, dry biomass, root architecture and zinc concentration, and with help of the fuzzy membership function to work out a comprehensive evaluation on their zinc deficiency tolerance. The result showed that several obvious zinc deficiency symptoms were observed in three kinds of rootstocks (M. rockii, M. sikkimensis and M. sieversii), such as dwarfed plant and newborn small leaves, while such symptoms were not obvious in M. xiaojinensis and M. 'Flame'. The plant biomass, height and zinc accumulation of aerial part greatly decreased under zinc deficiency stress, while smaller reduction was observed in M. xiaojinensis than in other rootstocks. M. xiaojinensis and M. baccata had higher zinc concentrations in leaves than others. According to the fuzzy membership function and cluster analysis, the resistance of the eight apple rootstocks to zinc deficiency was ranked: M. xiaojinensis was the highest one; M. 'Flame' was the second; M. baccata, M. sikkimensis, M. robusta and M. hupehensis were rather weaker; M. rockii and M. sieversii demonstrated the highest sensitivity to zinc deficiency. PMID:26995912

  20. New kind of type 3 chondrite with a graphite-magnetite matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Rubin, A. E.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1981-01-01

    Four clasts in three ordinary-chondrite regolith breccias are discovered which are a new kind of type 3 chondrite. As with ordinary and carbonaceous type 3 chondrites, they have distinct chondrules, some of which contain glass, highly heterogeneous olivines and pyroxenes, and predominantly monoclinic low-Ca pyroxenes. Instead of the usual, fine-grained, Fe-rich silicate matrix, however, the clasts have a matrix composed largely of aggregates of micron- and submicron-sized graphite and magnetite. The bulk compositions of the clasts, as well as the types of chondrules (largely porphyritic), are characteristic of type 3 ordinary chondrites, although chondrules in the clasts are somewhat smaller (0.1-0.5 mm). A close relationship with ordinary chondrites is also suggested by the presence of similar graphite-magnetite aggregates in seven type 3 ordinary chondrites. It is thought that this new kind of chondrite is probably the source of the abundant graphite-magnetite inclusions in ordinary-chondrite regolith breccias and that it may be more common than indicated by the absence of whole meteorites made of chondrules and graphite-magnetite.

  1. "A Shrinking Kind of Life": Gay Men's Experience of Aging With HIV.

    PubMed

    Masten, James

    2015-01-01

    More people are living with HIV into midlife and older age. Although increased longevity brings new hope, it also raises unanticipated challenges--especially for gay men who never thought they would live into middle and older age. Middle-aged and older people are more likely to face multiple comorbidities, yet many lack the necessary supports to help them adapt to the challenges of aging with HIV. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study developed to explore gay men's experience of aging with HIV. Multiple in-depth exploratory interviews were conducted with 15 gay-identified men living with HIV/AIDS over an 18-month period. A systematic strategy data analysis consistent with grounded theory revealed a pattern of subtle adjustments to living with HIV that resulted in diminishing circles of social support and social involvement. This dynamic is referred to as "a shrinking kind of life," an in-vivo code built from the participant's own words. Four themes from the research (physical challenges, a magnitude of loss, internal changes, & stigma) are discussed. Conclusions include recommendations for future research and implications for practice in the field. Practitioners knowledgeable of the factors that impact their social involvement can empower gay men through individual and group interventions to confront a shrinking kind of life and define for themselves what it means to optimally age with HIV. PMID:25590461

  2. The effect of loving-kindness meditation on positive emotions: a meta-analytic review

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xianglong; Chiu, Cleo P. K.; Wang, Rong; Oei, Tian P. S.; Leung, Freedom Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    While it has been suggested that loving-kindness meditation (LKM) is an effective practice for promoting positive emotions, the empirical evidence in the literature remains unclear. Here, we provide a systematic review of 24 empirical studies (N = 1759) on LKM with self-reported positive emotions. The effect of LKM on positive emotions was estimated with meta-analysis, and the influence of variations across LKM interventions was further explored with subgroup analysis and meta-regression. The meta-analysis showed that (1) medium effect sizes for LKM interventions on daily positive emotions in both wait-list controlled RCTs and non-RCT studies; and (2) small to large effect sizes for the on-going practice of LKM on immediate positive emotions across different comparisons. Further analysis showed that (1) interventions focused on loving-kindness had medium effect size, but interventions focused on compassion showed small effect sizes; (2) the length of interventions and the time spent on meditation did not influence the effect sizes, but the studies without didactic components in interventions had small effect sizes. A few individual studies reported that the nature of positive emotions and individual differences also influenced the results. In sum, LKM practice and interventions are effective in enhancing positive emotions, but more studies are needed to identify the active components of the interventions, to compare different psychological operations, and to explore the applicability in clinical populations. PMID:26579061

  3. Artifactual kinds and functional design features: what a primate understands without language.

    PubMed

    Hauser, M D

    1997-09-01

    Of several domains of knowledge, humans appear to be born with an innately structured representational system for making sense of objects, what properties individuate them, how they move in space, and what causes them to move from one location to another. They also appear to make simple conceptual cuts between artifactual kinds and living kinds. The basis for this distinction seems to be a combination of crucial functional properties, together with a teleological (i.e., historical/intentional) stance, one that asks 'What was this object designed for?'. Although non-human primates also appear to have considerable understanding of objects, and often use objects as tools, it is not clear whether they draw a distinction between artifactual and living kinds, and if so, what factors guide this distinction. As a step in addressing this problem, I present experiments on a small New World monkey, the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus), designed to reveal their understanding of the functional properties of tools using a procedure associated with minimal training. Specifically, the experiments explored whether tamarins distinguish between relevant and irrelevant properties of a tool, and further, understand that some features can be transformed with little cost to functionality. The first experiment was a means-end task and involved using a cane-like object (a tool) to access a piece of food. In this experiment, there were always two choices: either the food was immediately accessible because it was located on the inside of the cane's hook or less readily accessible because it was located on the outside of the hook. Most of the tamarins reached criterion on this task within a few sessions, consistently picking the cane with the most accessible food. Subsequent experiments (2-4) involved property changes (i.e., its color, texture, size and shape) that had either significant or relatively insignificant effects on the tool's function. In general, the tamarins appeared

  4. Elektrische Phänomene des Körpers und ihre Detektion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolz, Armin; Kikillus, Nicole; Moor, Claudius

    Im menschlichen Körper verfügen sowohl Nerven- als auch Muskelzellen über die Eigenschaft, intra- und extrazelluläre Ionenkonzentrationen zu verschieben und damit die Potenzialverteilung in ihrer Umgebung zu beeinflussen. Über unterschiedliche Synchronisationsverfahren sind makroskopische Zellverbände zusätzlich in der Lage, koordiniert ihre Felder zu verändern und somit auch signifikante, an der Körperoberfläche messbare elektrische Signale zu erzeugen. Das vorliegende Kapitel beschreibt zunächst die elektrophysiologischen Grundlagen elektrischer Signale des menschlichen Körpers, die Synchronisationsmechanismen und die daraus entstehenden Felder, insbesondere das Elektrokardiogramm (EKG), das Elektroenzephalogramm (EEG) sowie das Elektromyogramm (EMG). Im Anschluss daran werden die wesentlichen Grundlagen der Messtechnik zur Erfassung bioelektrischer Phänomene erläutert. Einige Beispielapplikationen runden diesen Beitrag ab.

  5. Zwischen Commonsense und Wissenschaft Mathematik in der Erziehungsphilosophie A. N. Whiteheads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sölch, Dennis

    Obwohl Whitehead heute wie selbstverständlich als Philosoph rezipiert wird, so hat er seine wissenschaftliche Laufbahn doch als Mathematiker begonnen. Lange Zeit war er gemeinsam mit Bertrand Russell als Autor der Principia Mathematica unter Mathematikern und mathematischen Logikern deutlich besser bekannt als unter Philosophen. Doch selbst von denjenigen, die sich mit Whiteheads Überlegungen zur Metaphysik, zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte und zur Theologie befassen, werden seine Schriften zur Philosophie von Erziehung und Bildung häufig kaum beachtet. So entgeht es leicht, dass Whitehead nicht nur ein auf theoretischem Gebiet brillanter Mathematiker war, sondern sein theoretisches Fachwissen im Hinblick auf pädagogische und didaktische Relevanz fortwährend reflektiert hat.

  6. Jahre Entwicklung der Instandhaltung - von der ausfallorientierten Instandhaltung zum gemeinsamen TPM und RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iske, Friedhelm

    Zur Einleitung meines Beitrages möchte ich von einem Gespräch mit einem Mitarbeiter berichten, das ich als junger Vorgesetzter einer Instandhaltungsgruppe 1988 führte. Der engagierte Mitarbeiter feierte damals sein vierzigjähriges Dienstjubiläum und war stolz auf das von ihm Geleistete sowie auf den besonderen Einsatz seiner Altersgruppe, die nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg das Werk wieder aufgebaut hatte. Auf meine Frage, was denn damals die erste Aufgabe in der Firma war, bekam ich kurz und knapp und mit einer Selbstverständlichkeit die selbstbewusste Antwort: "Unser Pferd füttern und mit dem Pferd die innerbetrieblichen Transporte erledigen“. Als junger, technisch orientierter Vorgesetzter war ich über diese Antwort sehr überrascht. Gedanklich weit entfernt war die Vorstellung, dass in der Vergangenheit Transporte mit einem Pferd erledigt wurden.

  7. Modulare LDAP-Server-, -Protokoll und - Funktionserweiterungen am Beispiel von OpenLDAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pluta, Daniel

    In diesem Artikel wird ein Standardisierungsvorschlag für eine LDAP-Protokollerweiterung und deren Referenzimplementierung in Form einer modularen Erweiterung für die LDAP-Software-Suite des OpenLDAPProjektes vorgestellt. Nach einer Einführung in und einem Überblick über die wichtigsten OpenLDAP-Komponenten stellen wir unseren Lösungsansatz vor und gehen auf seine technischen Details ein. Ziel dieses Overlays ist die Implementierung einer neuen Funktionalität, die vom LDAP-Protokoll bisher nicht vorgesehen ist: Der Umfang der Suchergebnismenge soll serverseitig, dezentral und in der Granularität ganzer Objekte in Abhängigkeit von der aktuellen Serverzeit (konfigurierbar) eingeschränkt werden.

  8. Kosteneffiziente Honbearbeitung durch intelligente und flexible Verknüpfung von autarken Honzentren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Günther

    Die Planungsabteilungen in der Automobilindustrie werden vor immer größere Herausforderungen gestsellt. Der zur Verfügung stehende Zeitraum zu einer seriensicheren Umsetzung der entwicklungs- und produktionstechnischen Forderungen wird von Projekt zu Projekt kürzer. Aufgrund des hohen Wettbewerbsdrucks und daraus resultierenden erforderlichen Kostenoptimierungen, die schnelleren Timeto-market-und Innovationszyklen und die vermeintlich zur Kundenbindung erforderlichen, kaum mehr überschaubaren Diversifizierungen in den Modellpaletten lassen den Planungshorizont immer kürzer werden. Die zu beschaffenden Fertigungsanlagen sollen aber in den nächsten 8-12 Jahren all die Varianten produzieren können, die heute nur teilweise oder noch gar nicht bekannt sind.

  9. Schönheit und andere Provokationen - Eine neue evolutionsbiologische Theorie der Kunst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Thomas

    Die Evolution hat viele spektakuläre Phänomene hervorgebracht - von der Eleganz des Vogelflugs über die gigantischen Körper der Dinosaurier und die farbenprächtige Vielfalt der Korallenriffe bis hin zu ihrem jüngsten Geniestreich - der menschlichen Kunst. Die schönen Künste - Malerei, Bildhauerei und Architektur, Theater, Tanz, Oper und Filmkunst, Musik und Literatur - Produkte der Evolution? Diese Vorstellung mutet vielen Menschen fremd an, aber wie könnte es anders sein? Denn wenn Charles Darwin recht hat, dann sind nicht nur die körperlichen Merkmale der Menschen als Antworten auf die Erfordernisse des Lebens entstanden, sondern auch ihre geistigen Fähigkeiten und Verhaltensweisen. Im Jahr 1859 hatte er auf den letzten Seiten seines berühmten Buches über die Entstehung der Arten eine kühne Prophezeiung gemacht: Durch die Evolutionstheorie werde es "zu einer bemerkenswerten Revolution in der Naturwissenschaft kommen […]. Die Psychologie wird auf die neue Grundlage gestellt, dass jede geistige Kraft und Fähigkeit notwendigerweise durch graduelle Übergänge erworben wird“ (Darwin 1859, S. 484, 488; Junker 2008).

  10. [Effect of five kinds of vegetable seed oil on serum lipid and lipid peroxidation in rats].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Cai, X; Zhao, X; Shi, R

    2001-01-01

    The effects of vegetable seed oil on hyperlipidemia induced by high lipid diet in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed on the test diet containing 94% high lipid diet and 6% lard pinon seed oil, perilla seed oil, blackcurrent seed oil, borage seed oil and evening primrose seed oil respectively for 3 weeks. The results showed that the vale of trilyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C(high density lipoprotein cholesterol) ratio increased and the vale of HDL-C/TC ratio and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) activity decreased in the groups with vegetable seed oil were less than that of the control group. The results suggested that all the five kinds of vegetable seed oil had the effect of regulating lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats to some extent. Pinon seed oil and borage seed oil may be well suited for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:11255765

  11. A Padé approximant approach to two kinds of transcendental equations with applications in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qiang; Wang, Zhidan; Han, Jiurong

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we obtain the analytical solutions of two kinds of transcendental equations with numerous applications in college physics by means of the Lagrange inversion theorem. Afterwards we rewrite them in the form of a ratio of rational polynomials by a second-order Padé approximant from a practical and instructional perspective. Our method is illustrated in a pedagogical manner for the benefit of students at the undergraduate level. The approximate formulas introduced in the paper can be applied to abundant examples in physics textbooks, such as Fraunhofer single-slit diffraction, Wien’s displacement law, and the Schrödinger equation with single- or double-δ potential. These formulas, consequently, can reach considerable accuracies according to the numerical results; therefore, they promise to act as valuable ingredients in the standard teaching curriculum.

  12. Validation Study for Analytical Method of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisons in 9 Kinds of Shellfish.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Okihashi, Masahiro; Kajimura, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 in shellfish using ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Shellfish poisons in spiked samples were extracted with methanol and 90% methanol, and were hydrolyzed with 2.5 mol/L sodium hydroxide solution. Purification was done on an HLB solid-phase extraction column. This method was validated in accordance with the notification of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. As a result of the validation study in nine kinds of shellfish, the trueness, repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility were 79-101%, less than 12 and 16%, respectively. The trueness and precision met the target values of notification. PMID:26936305

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Renyuan; Zhu, Zhencai; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect. PMID:25679522

  14. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Rope-Guided Conveyances in Two Typical Kinds of Shaft Layouts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Renyuan; Zhu, Zhencai; Cao, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn’t been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect. PMID:25679522

  15. Flexural properties of three kinds of experimental fiber-reinforced composite posts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Joo; Jung, Won-Chang; Oh, Seunghan; Hattori, Masayuki; Yoshinari, Masao; Kawada, Eiji; Oda, Yutaka; Bae, Ji-Myung

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the flexural properties of three kinds of experimental fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and to evaluate their potential use as posts. Experimental FRC posts were fabricated with glass, aramid, and UHMWP fibers. Commercial FRC posts were used for comparison. A three-point bending test was performed at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Experimental glass fiber posts showed significantly higher flexural strengths and moduli than aramid and UHMWP posts. Experimental UHMWP posts demonstrated superior toughness to the commercial posts. The glass fiber posts displayed stiff, strong and brittle features, while the UHMWP posts were flexible, weak and ductile. The flexural properties of the aramid posts fell between those of the glass and UHMWP posts. In conclusion, the glass fiber posts proved excellent in flexural strengths and moduli. However, the superior toughness of UHMWP fibers suggests the possibility of their use as posts in combination with glass fibers. PMID:21282890

  16. A New Kind of Shift Operators for Infinite Circular and Spherical Wells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sun, Guo-Hua; Launey, K. D.; Dytrych, T.; Dong, Shi-Hai; Draayer, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    A new kind of smore » hift operators for infinite circular and spherical wells is identified. These shift operators depend on all spatial variables of quantum systems and connect some eigenstates of confined systems of different radii R sharing energy levels with a common eigenvalue. In circular well, the momentum operators P ± = P x ± i P y play the role of shift operators. The P x and P y operators, the third projection of the orbital angular momentum operator L z , and the Hamiltonian H form a complete set of commuting operators with the SO(2) symmetry. In spherical well, the shift operators establish a novel relation between ψ l m ( r ) and ψ ( l ± 1 ) ( m ± 1 ) ( r ) .« less

  17. A kind of wavefront curvature sensor with diffraction grating and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hongbin; Li, Gang; Huang, Fuyu; Liu, Jie; Wang, Yuanbo

    2009-11-01

    The basic principle of wavefront curvature sensor (WFS) is described, and the strongpoints and shortcomings of traditional schemes are analyzed. As a novel WFS, the wavefront curvature sensor comprising a diffraction grating (DGWFS), which consist a defocus grating and lens, and can measure the light intensity distribution at the two defocused spots simultaneity, has the advantage of realization easily, adjustment expediently, low cost, and so on. The DGWFS has a wide application in astronomy, measurement, laser, optical component testing etc. Its principle is analyzed. Two kinds of phase retrieval arithmetics of wavefront curvature sensor are analyzed by comparison. Besides, the latest applications of wavefront curvature sensor are generally presented. Finally a novel method for measurement on solid-state laser thermal lens utilizing DGWFS is presented.

  18. A new kind of topological quantum order: A dimensional hierarchy of quasiparticles built from stationary excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan; Fu, Liang

    2015-12-01

    We introduce exactly solvable models of interacting (Majorana) fermions in d ≥3 spatial dimensions that realize a new kind of fermion topological quantum order, building on a model presented by S. Vijay, T. H. Hsieh, and L. Fu [Phys. Rev. X 5, 041038 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.041038]. These models have extensive topological ground-state degeneracy and a hierarchy of pointlike, topological excitations that are only free to move within submanifolds of the lattice. In particular, one of our models has fundamental excitations that are completely stationary. To demonstrate these results, we introduce a powerful polynomial representation of commuting Majorana Hamiltonians. Remarkably, the physical properties of the topologically ordered state are encoded in an algebraic variety, defined by the common zeros of a set of polynomials over a finite field. This provides a "geometric" framework for the emergence of topological order.

  19. Observation of the mechanisms causing two kinds of undercut during laser hybrid arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlsson, Jan; Norman, Peter; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.; Rubin, Per; Lamas, Javier; Yañez, Armando

    2011-06-01

    Two different kinds of undercut were identified when laser hybrid welding hot rolled HSLA-steel in either the as-rolled condition or with the top surface mill scale removed. The presence of mill scale on the steel surface was found to give a sharp angled undercut combined with a sharp oxide inclusion at the edge of the weld which would have the same mechanical effect as a crack in this position. Removal of the surface oxides before welding resulted in the elimination of the oxide inclusions and a more rounded undercut geometry indicative of superior mechanical properties, particularly fatigue life. The mechanisms of the formation of both types of undercut have been analysed by high speed photography and SEM.

  20. [Theoretical study on fluorescence spectra of four kinds of p-substituted curcumin analogues].

    PubMed

    Jia, Fei-Yun; Su, Yu; Ran, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Four kinds of p-substituted curcumin analogues were optimized at B3LYP/6-31G (d, p) level. On this basis, the excited states geometry structure was optimized by the CIS method, and finally the fluorescence emission spectra were calculated through the TD-DFT method. The results showed that: the four compounds, a large conjugated system, is preferably coplanar structure. Because of introducing hydroxyl and halogen atom on the benzene ring, the molecular pi-electron conjugation is relatively larger, emission wavelength is relatively longer, and fluorescence spectra show different degrees of red shift. As the electron donating group is hydroxy, the fluorescence phenomenon is more obviously red shifted. PMID:25007617