Science.gov

Sample records for kinematically complete study

  1. Kinematically complete study of electron transfer and rearrangement processes in slow Ar16 +-Ne collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Y.; Ginzel, R.; Krauß, A.; Bernitt, S.; Schöffler, M.; Kühnel, K. U.; López-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Moshammer, R.; Cai, X.; Ullrich, J.; Fischer, D.

    2014-11-01

    The complete kinematics of single- and double-electron capture from neon to Ar16 + was measured with a reaction microscope at a projectile energy of 3.2 keV/u (velocity vp=0.36 a.u.). Not only the change of the electronic binding energies (the Q value) and the projectile scattering angles, but also (in the case of auto-ionization) the three-dimensional momentum vectors of the emitted electrons were determined. For single-electron capture, the Q -value spectrum shows strong population of both n =7 and 8 states on the projectile, and weak contributions to n =6 and 9 are also observed. In the case of double-electron capture, auto-ionizing double capture (ADC) dominates and the populations of (n ,n') =(5 ,7 ) ,(6 ,6 ),(6 ,7 ) and (6 ,8 ) are observed, while true double capture (TDC) populates the (5 ,7 ) state and asymmetric states of (5 ,n') with n'>10 . The experimental cross sections for Auger decay with the electron energy Ee plotted as a function of the Q value suggest the occurrence of target excitation accompanying the population of configurations (5 ,7 ) and (6 ,6 ) . No essential difference is found in the differential cross sections for ADC and TDC, and the angular distributions suggest that two-step processes dominate the double capture.

  2. A combined electron-ion spectrometer for studying complete kinematics of molecular dissociation upon shell selective ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, K.; Banerjee, S. B.; Bapat, B.

    2013-07-15

    A combined electron-ion spectrometer has been built to study dissociation kinematics of molecular ions upon various electronic decay processes ensuing from ionization of neutral molecules. The apparatus can be used with various ionization agents. Ion time-of-flight (ToF) spectra arising from various electronic decay processes are acquired by triggering the ToF measurement in coincidence with energy analyzed electrons. The design and the performance of the spectrometer in a photoionization experiment is presented in detail. Electron spectra and ion time of flight spectra resulting from valence and 2p{sub 1/2} ionization of Argon and those from valence ionization of CO are presented to demonstrate the capability of the instrument. The fragment ion spectra show remarkable differences (both kinematic and cross sectional) dependent on the energy of the ejected electron, corresponding to various electron loss and decay mechanisms in dissociative photoionization of molecules.

  3. Exclusive measurements of quasi-free proton scattering reactions in inverse and complete kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, V.; Taylor, J. T.; Paschalis, S.; Wamers, F.; Aksyutina, Y.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Bertulani, C. A.; Boretzky, K.; Caesar, C.; Chartier, M.; Chulkov, L. V.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Enders, J.; Ershova, O.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Heil, M.; Johansson, H. T.; Jonson, B.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Langer, C.; Le Bleis, T.; Lemmon, R.; Nilsson, T.; Petri, M.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Rossi, D.; Scheit, H.; Simon, H.; Weick, H.; Wimmer, C.

    2016-02-01

    Quasi-free scattering reactions of the type (p , 2 p) were measured for the first time exclusively in complete and inverse kinematics, using a 12C beam at an energy of ˜ 400 MeV /u as a benchmark. This new technique has been developed to study the single-particle structure of exotic nuclei in experiments with radioactive-ion beams. The outgoing pair of protons and the fragments were measured simultaneously, enabling an unambiguous identification of the reaction channels and a redundant measurement of the kinematic observables. Both valence and deeply-bound nucleon orbits are probed, including those leading to unbound states of the daughter nucleus. Exclusive (p , 2 p) cross sections of 15.8(18) mb, 1.9(2) mb and 1.5(2) mb to the low-lying 0p-hole states overlapping with the ground state (3 /2-) and with the bound excited states of 11B at 2.125 MeV (1 /2-) and 5.02 MeV (3 /2-), respectively, were determined via γ-ray spectroscopy. Particle-unstable deep-hole states, corresponding to proton removal from the 0s-orbital, were studied via the invariant-mass technique. Cross sections and momentum distributions were extracted and compared to theoretical calculations employing the eikonal formalism. The obtained results are in a good agreement with this theory and with direct-kinematics experiments. The dependence of the proton-proton scattering kinematics on the internal momentum of the struck proton and on its separation energy was investigated for the first time in inverse kinematics employing a large-acceptance measurement.

  4. Understanding patellofemoral pain with maltracking in the presence of joint laxity: complete 3D in vivo patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Frances T; Derasari, Aditya; Brindle, Timothy J; Alter, Katharine E

    2009-05-01

    Patellofemoral pain is widely accepted as one of the most common pathologies involving the knee, yet the etiology of this pain is still an open debate. Generalized joint laxity has been associated with patellofemoral pain, but is not often discussed as a potential source of patellar maltracking. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the complete 6 degree of freedom patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics from a group of patients diagnosed with patellofemoral pain syndrome and maltracking to those from an asymptomatic population. The following null hypotheses were tested: kinematic alterations in patellofemoral maltracking are limited to the axial plane; knee joint kinematics are the same in maltrackers with and without generalized joint laxity (defined by a clinical diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos Syndrome); and no correlations exist between tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics or within patellofemoral kinematics. This study demonstrated that alterations in patellofemoral kinematics, associated with patellofemoral pain, are not limited to the axial plane, minimal correlations exist between patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics, and distinct subgroups likely exist within the general population of maltrackers. Being able to identify subgroups correctly within the omnibus diagnosis of patellar maltracking is a crucial step in correctly defining the pathophysiology and the eventual treatment of these patients. PMID:19009601

  5. A study on estimation of planar gait kinematics using minimal inertial measurement units and inverse kinematics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xinyao; Soh, Gim Song

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study of using four inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to the heel and pelvis to estimate the joint angles of normal subjects during walking. The IMU, consisting of a 3-D accelerometer and gyroscope, is used to estimate the planar displacement of the heel and pelvis and the angular change of heel in one gait cycle. We then model the gait as a planar 3R serial chain and solve its inverse kinematics by using such information. The results are validated by comparing the estimated joint angles of lower limbs (i.e. hip, knee and ankle angles) with an optical motion capture system. This study can benefit the future research on conducting complete lower limbs kinematics analysis with minimal and unobtrusive wearable sensors. PMID:25571585

  6. A Kinematic Study of Finswimming at Surface

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Jimmy; Baly, Laurent; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio; Watier, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Finswimming is a sport of speed practiced on the surface or underwater, in which performance is based on whole-body oscillations. The present study investigated the undulatory motion performed by finswimmers at the surface. This study aiming to analyze the influence of the interaction of gender, practice level, and race distance on selected kinematic parameters. Six elite and six novices finswimmers equipped with joints markers (wrist, elbow, shoulder, hip, knee, and ankle) were recorded in the sagittal plane. The position of these anatomical marks was digitized at 50 Hz. An automated motion analysis software yielded velocity, vertical amplitude, frequency, and angular position. Results showed that stroke frequency decreased whereas the mean amplitude of all joints increased with increasing race distance (p < 0.01). Mean joint amplitude for the upper limbs (wrist, elbow and shoulder) was smaller for experts than for novices. Whereas that of the ankle was larger, so that the oscillation amplitude increased from shoulder to ankle. Elite male finswimmers were pitching more acutely than female. Moreover, elite male finswimmers showed a smaller knee bending than novices and than elite females (p < 0.01). This indicated that elite male finswimmers attempt to reduce drag forces thanks to a weak knee bending and a low upper limbs pitch. To sum up, gender, expertise, and race distance affect the performance and its kinematics in terms frontal drag. Expertise in finswimming requires taking advantage of the mechanical constraints pertaining to hydrodynamic constraints in order to optimize performance. Key Points Finswimmers are at one and the same time a propelling and a propelled body. This study investigates the undulatory motion performed by finswimmers at the surface. Elite male finswimmers were pitching more acutely than female swimmers and showed a smaller knee bending than both novices and elite female swimmers. Finswimmers tended to perform a dolphin-like motion

  7. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.

    1985-06-01

    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Observation of two-α emission from high-lying excited states of Ne18 by complete-kinematics measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. X.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Yang, F.; Jia, F.; Wu, Z. D.; Zhang, S. T.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, H. Q.; Xu, H. S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Wang, J. S.; Hu, Z. G.; Wang, M.; Chen, R. F.; Zhang, X. Y.; Li, C.; Lei, X. G.; Xu, Z. G.; Xiao, G. Q.; Zhan, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    Two-α emission from high-lying excited states of Ne18 was studied by complete-kinematics measurements. The Ne18 beam at the energy of 51.8 MeV/u was bombarding a Au197 target to populate the excited states via Coulomb excitation. Products of two-α emission, C10-α-α, were measured by an array of silicon strip detectors and a CsI + PIN telescope. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations, the experimental results show the characteristics of sequential two-α emission via O14 excited states. Sequential two-α and two-proton emissions from Ne18 via one-particle daughter states are compared and the distinction of the opening angles of these two modes originates from the difference of the mass ratio of emitted particles to daughter nuclei.

  9. Reaching and grasping behavior in Macaca fascicularis: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The prehensile hand is one of the major traits distinguishing primates from other mammal species. All primates, in fact, are able to grasp an object and hold it in part or entirely using a single hand. Although there is a wealth of behavioral data regarding grasping movements in humans and apes, there is relatively little material on macaques, the animal model often used to investigate neuronal mechanisms responsible for grip control in humans. To date, evidence regarding free-ranging macaques is confined to observational data, while quantitative reports describe studies carried out in laboratory settings or in captivity. The purpose of the present study was to provide the first kinematic descriptions of basic grip behavior with regard to precision and power grips in free-ranging macaque monkeys. Video footage of those animals grasping objects was analyzed frame-by-frame using digitalization techniques. The results revealed that the two types of grips considered are each characterized by specific kinematic signatures. It was also found that hand kinematics was scaled depending on the type of grasp needing to be adopted and the intrinsic properties of the object to be grasped. In accordance with data concerning humans, these findings indicate that the intrinsic features of an object affect the planning and control of reach-to-grasp movements even in free-ranging macaques. The data presented here take research in the field of comparative reach-to-grasp kinematics in human and non-human primates another step forward as they are based on precise measurements of spontaneous grasping movements by animals living/acting in their natural environment. PMID:23064847

  10. High School Completion Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    While Alberta enjoys proven high, world-class results in student achievement, raising high school completion rates is one of the top priorities in improving the provincial education system. The 2011-12 targeted high school completion rate is 82% five years after entering Grade 10--a 2.5% increase from the current average rate of 79.5%. The purpose…

  11. Observation of two-{alpha} emission from high-lying excited states of {sup 18}Ne by complete-kinematics measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X. X.; Lin, C. J.; Jia, H. M.; Yang, F.; Jia, F.; Wu, Z. D.; Zhang, S. T.; Liu, Z. H.; Zhang, H. Q.; Xu, H. S.; Sun, Z. Y.; Wang, J. S.; Hu, Z. G.; Wang, M.; Chen, R. F.; Zhang, X. Y.; Li, C.; Lei, X. G.; Xu, Z. G.; Xiao, G. Q.

    2010-12-15

    Two-{alpha} emission from high-lying excited states of {sup 18}Ne was studied by complete-kinematics measurements. The {sup 18}Ne beam at the energy of 51.8 MeV/u was bombarding a {sup 197}Au target to populate the excited states via Coulomb excitation. Products of two-{alpha} emission, {sup 10}C-{alpha}-{alpha}, were measured by an array of silicon strip detectors and a CsI + PIN telescope. With the help of Monte Carlo simulations, the experimental results show the characteristics of sequential two-{alpha} emission via {sup 14}O excited states. Sequential two-{alpha} and two-proton emissions from {sup 18}Ne via one-particle daughter states are compared and the distinction of the opening angles of these two modes originates from the difference of the mass ratio of emitted particles to daughter nuclei.

  12. Photometric and Kinematic Studies of Extragalactic Globular Cluster Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windschitl-Dowell, Jessica L.

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are compact, luminous collections of stars created during the early stages of galaxy formation. As a result, the properties of GC systems provide important clues about the formation, merger history, and structure of their host galaxies. In particular, kinematic studies of GCs can be used to investigate the dark matter distribution in galaxy halos and provide observational evidence that can be used to constrain models of galaxy formation. I will present our study of the GC systems of two spiral galaxies, NGC 891 and NGC 1055, and show how we used wide-field BVR imaging from the WIYN 3.5-m telescope to detect the GC population and measure the global properties of the system. We quantified the radial distribution of the GC system and total number of GCs in these galaxies and compared the results to those of other galaxies.I will also present the results of spectroscopic follow-up for two giant galaxies: the S0 galaxy NGC 4594 (M104), and the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 (M105). Using spectra taken with AAT/AAOmega, WIYN/HYDRA, and MMT/Hectospec, I measured the radial velocities of GCs, and combined them with published results to determine the mass distribution and V-band mass-to-light (M/LV) ratio profile for each galaxy out to large effective radius (7-9 Re). I compared our results to mass estimates from other kinematic tracers and also considered them in the context of galaxy formation models. For both galaxies, I found that the M/LV profiles increase with radius and do not flatten, which suggests that the dark matter halos in these galaxies extend to the edge of our data. I also looked for evidence of rotation within the GC systems, and found that neither system exhibits significant rotation around the host galaxy. Finally, I examined the velocity dispersion of each GC system as a function of radius and found kinematic differences between the red, metal-rich and blue, metal-poor GC subpopulations.

  13. MOJAVE: Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with VLBA Experiments. VI. Kinematics Analysis of a Complete Sample of Blazar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, M. L.; Cohen, M. H.; Homan, D. C.; Kadler, M.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Ros, E.; Savolainen, T.; Zensus, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    We discuss the jet kinematics of a complete flux-density-limited sample of 135 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) resulting from a 13 year program to investigate the structure and evolution of parsec-scale jet phenomena. Our analysis is based on new 2 cm Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) images obtained between 2002 and 2007, but includes our previously published observations made at the same wavelength, and is supplemented by VLBA archive data. In all, we have used 2424 images spanning the years 1994-2007 to study and determine the motions of 526 separate jet features in 127 jets. The data quality and temporal coverage (a median of 15 epochs per source) of this complete AGN jet sample represent a significant advance over previous kinematics surveys. In all but five AGNs, the jets appear one-sided, most likely the result of differential Doppler boosting. In general, the observed motions are directed along the jet ridge line, outward from the optically thick core feature. We directly observe changes in speed and/or direction in one third of the well-sampled jet components in our survey. While there is some spread in the apparent speeds of separate features within an individual jet, the dispersion is about three times smaller than the overall dispersion of speeds among all jets. This supports the idea that there is a characteristic flow that describes each jet, which we have characterized by the fastest observed component speed. The observed maximum speed distribution is peaked at ~10c, with a tail that extends out to ~50c. This requires a distribution of intrinsic Lorentz factors in the parent population that range up to ~50. We also note the presence of some rare low-pattern speeds or even stationary features in otherwise rapidly flowing jets that may be the result of standing re-collimation shocks, and/or a complex geometry and highly favorable Doppler factor.

  14. Study on the effect of parameters on source kinematic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, J.; Chen, X.

    2011-12-01

    Based on observed seismic waveform data, kinematics inversion is the most effective way to research seismic source. Many kinematics inversion methods have been developed. However, the inversion results from different researchers have big difference, even for the same earthquake. To study how various factors impact on the source inversion, we refer 2010 Haiti earthquake to establish a source model and use the numerical experiments to study how these factors affect the inversion results in multi time window inversion method. Our research indicates: (1) The size of each subfault should be more than half wavelength of S wave, meanwhile, in order to guarantee the accuracy of computation, the Green's function of each subfault should get from the superposition of Green's function of uniformly distributed point source, which has a lag, in this subfault. (2) Too much time windows will increase the non-uniqueness of inverse problem and reduce the rank of coefficient matrix. If single time window could do better, we'd better use single time window in seismic source inversion. (3) Moreover, the change of rupture velocity caused by multi time window will be influenced by the epicenter distance of subfault. Only when the distance is moderate, the change is reasonable. Smaller half width of time window will be good for closer subfaults, and farther subfaults need bigger time windows which have bigger half width. (4) In a word, increasing constraints could increases the rank of coefficient matrix and reduce non-uniqueness of inverse problem. The bigger the weight of time smoothing, the bigger the model fitting parameter; when the weight of space smoothing is about 0.5, the model fitting parameter gets the maximal; the model fitting parameter changes with the weight of moment minimization similar to with the weight of time smoothing. Furthermore, the difference of the waveform fitting parameter with different weight is very small, and the trend of the waveform fitting parameter

  15. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, Rueben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method of analyzing the kinematics of joint motion is developed. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers several distinct advantages. Past methods of studying anatomic joint motion have usually centered on four approaches. These methods are x-ray projection, goniometric linkage analysis, sonic digitization, and landmark measurement of photogrammetry. Of these four, only x-ray is applicable for in vivo studies. The remaining three methods utilize other types of projections of inter-joint measurements, which can cause various types of error. MRI offers accuracy in measurement due to its tomographic nature (as opposed to projection) without the problems associated with x-ray dosage. Once the data acquisition of MR images was complete, the images were processed using a 3D volume rendering workstation. The metacarpalphalangeal (MCP) joint of the left index finger was selected and reconstructed into a three-dimensional graphic display. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones were obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the MCP joint. Landmark positions were chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily two dimensional planar motion of this joint was then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three (or more) points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system described the location and orientation of a local target coordinate system. Future research involving volume rendering of MRI data focusing on the internal kinematics of the hand's individual ligaments, cartilage, tendons, etc. will follow. Its findings will show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove (power assisted) design for extravehicular activity (EVA).

  16. A KINEMATIC STUDY OF THE ANDROMEDA DWARF SPHEROIDAL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Chapman, Scott C.; Irwin, Michael J.; Rich, R. Michael; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Bate, Nicholas F.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Penarrubia, Jorge; Casey, Caitlin M.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Koch, Andreas; McConnachie, Alan W.; Tanvir, Nial

    2013-05-10

    We present a homogeneous kinematic analysis of red giant branch stars within 18 of the 28 Andromeda dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, obtained using the Keck I/LRIS and Keck II/DEIMOS spectrographs. Based on their g - i colors (taken with the CFHT/MegaCam imager), physical positions on the sky, and radial velocities, we assign probabilities of dSph membership to each observed star. Using this information, the velocity dispersions, central masses, and central densities of the dark matter halos are calculated for these objects, and compared with the properties of the Milky Way dSph population. We also measure the average metallicity ([Fe/H]) from the co-added spectra of member stars for each M31 dSph and find that they are consistent with the trend of decreasing [Fe/H] with luminosity observed in the Milky Way population. We find that three of our studied M31 dSphs appear as significant outliers in terms of their central velocity dispersion, And XIX, XXI, and XXV, all of which have large half-light radii ({approx}> 700 pc) and low velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub v} < 5 km s{sup -1}). In addition, And XXV has a mass-to-light ratio within its half-light radius of just [M/L]{sub half}=10.3{sup +7.0}{sub -6.7}, making it consistent with a simple stellar system with no appreciable dark matter component within its 1{sigma} uncertainties. We suggest that the structure of the dark matter halos of these outliers have been significantly altered by tides.

  17. Kinematic study of planetary nebulae in NGC 6822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Durán, S. N.; Peña, M.; Hernández-Martínez, L.; García-Rojas, J.; Ruiz, M. T.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The kinematics of planetary nebulae in external galaxies and in our own is a clue for understanding the behavior of the low- and intermediate-mass stars and their relation with other components of the galaxies. Aims: By measuring precise radial velocities of planetary nebulae (which belong to the intermediate-age population), H ii regions and A-type supergiant stars (which are members of the young population) in NGC 6822, we aim to determine whether both types of population share the kinematics of the disk of H i found in this galaxy. Methods: Spectroscopic data for six planetary nebulae were obtained with the high spectral-resolution spectrograph Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) on the Magellan telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Data for another three PNe and one H ii region were obtained from the SPM Catalog of Extragalactic Planetary Nebulae, which employed the Manchester Echelle Spectrometer attached to the 2.1m telescope at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, México. An additional PN and one H ii region were observed with this same telescope-spectrograph in 2013. Thus, in total we have high-quality data for 10 of the 26 PNe detected in this galaxy. In the wavelength calibrated spectra, the heliocentric radial velocities were measured with a precision better than 5-6 km s-1. Data for two additional H ii regions and two A-type supergiant stars were collected from the literature. The heliocentric radial velocities of the different objects were compared to the velocities of the H i disk at the same position. Results: From the analysis of radial velocities we found that H ii regions and A-type supergiants do share the kinematics of the H i disk at the same position, as expected for these young objects. In contrast, most planetary nebula velocities differ significantly (more than 12 km s-1) from that of the H i at the same position. The kinematics of planetary nebulae is different from the young population kinematics and is more similar to

  18. Complete ACL/MCL deficiency induces variable degrees of instability in sheep with specific kinematic abnormalities correlating with degrees of early osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Frank, Cyril B; Beveridge, Jillian E; Huebner, Kyla D; Heard, Bryan J; Tapper, Janet E; O'Brien, Etienne J O; Shrive, Nigel G

    2012-03-01

    People are not equally disabled by combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)/medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries, nor do they all develop osteoarthritis (OA). Although biological/biomechanical causes are not clear, some association presumably exists between joint instability and OA development. We hypothesized that degree of OA development following standardized complete ACL/MCL injuries will vary directly with the degree of biomechanical abnormality between individuals. Three groups of sheep were used to test the hypothesis: 17 normal, 9 ACL/MCL transected, and 7 sham animals. Normal joints were assessed morphologically while sham and experimental animals had gait assessment pre- and at 4 and 20 weeks post-surgery, with cartilage and bone changes being mapped and graded at sacrifice at 20 weeks. Sham joints were morphologically normal and had only one minor kinematic change at 20 weeks. Although variable, ACL/MCL deficient animals showed significant kinematic abnormalities in 4/6 degrees of freedom (DOFs), as well as cartilage/bone damage by 20 weeks (p < 0.05). Linear regression analysis revealed that changes in medial-lateral (ML) translation were related to the current level of joint degradation as represented by total gross OA score (p = 0.0044, R(2)  = 0.71) in the ACL/MCL transected group. Even identical ACL/MCL injuries result in inter-animal variations in instability and OA, however significant kinematic abnormalities in ML translation do relate to early OA in sheep. PMID:21919045

  19. Photometric and kinematic studies of extragalactic globular cluster systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, Jessica

    Globular clusters (GCs) are old, luminous, compact collections of stars found in galaxy halos that formed during the early stages of galaxy formation. Because of this, GCs serve as excellent tracers of the formation, structure, and merger history of their host galaxies. My dissertation will examine both the photometric and kinematic properties of GC systems and their relationship to their host galaxies. In the first section, I will present the analysis of the GC systems of two spiral galaxies, NGC 891 and NGC 1055. I will discuss the photometric methods used to detect GCs using wide-field BVR imaging and to quantify the global properties of the system such as the total number of GCs and their radial distribution. My results for these two GC systems were compared to those of other galaxies. I will also present the results of spectroscopic follow-up for two giant galaxies: the S0 galaxy NGC 4594 (M104), and the elliptical galaxy NGC 3379 (M105). I measured the radial velocities of GCs in these two galaxies, and combined them with published results to determine the mass distribution and mass-to-light (M/L) ratio profile for each galaxy out to large effective radius (7-9 Re). For both galaxies, I found that the M/L profiles increase with radius and do not flatten, which suggests that the dark matter halos in these galaxies extend to the edge of my data. I also looked for evidence of rotation in the GC systems, and found that neither system exhibits significant rotation around the host galaxy. I examined the velocity dispersion profile of each GC system and found kinematic differences between the red and blue GC subpopulations. Finally, I compared my results to mass estimates for these galaxies from other kinematic tracers and considered them in the context of galaxy formation models.

  20. A kinematic and strain gauge study of the reciprocal apparatus in the equine hind limb.

    PubMed

    van Weeren, P R; Jansen, M O; van den Bogert, A J; Barneveld, A

    1992-11-01

    Hind limb kinematics were recorded in five horses at walk and trot using an opto-electronic CODA-3 system. Simultaneously, in vivo strain in the completely tendinous peroneus tertius muscle was registered by implanted mercury-in-silastic strain gauges. The origin-insertion length patterns of the peroneus tertius were calculated from raw kinematic data and from data corrected for the error caused by skin displacement, and compared with the directly measured strain. The strain patterns calculated from externally measured kinematic data appeared to be in accordance with the directly measured strain gauge data. However, a correction for skin displacement is an obligatory prerequisite to obtain reliable results. The amplitudes of strain did not exceed 3% and appeared to be of about the same magnitude at both walk and trot. PMID:1400530

  1. Motor resonance facilitates movement execution: an ERP and kinematic study

    PubMed Central

    Ménoret, Mathilde; Curie, Aurore; des Portes, Vincent; Nazir, Tatjana A.; Paulignan, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Action observation, simulation and execution share neural mechanisms that allow for a common motor representation. It is known that when these overlapping mechanisms are simultaneously activated by action observation and execution, motor performance is influenced by observation and vice versa. To understand the neural dynamics underlying this influence and to measure how variations in brain activity impact the precise kinematics of motor behavior, we coupled kinematics and electrophysiological recordings of participants while they performed and observed congruent or non-congruent actions or during action execution alone. We found that movement velocities and the trajectory deviations of the executed actions increased during the observation of congruent actions compared to the observation of non-congruent actions or action execution alone. This facilitation was also discernible in the motor-related potentials of the participants; the motor-related potentials were transiently more negative in the congruent condition around the onset of the executed movement, which occurred 300 ms after the onset of the observed movement. This facilitation seemed to depend not only on spatial congruency but also on the optimal temporal relationship of the observation and execution events. PMID:24133437

  2. Motor resonance facilitates movement execution: an ERP and kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, Mathilde; Curie, Aurore; des Portes, Vincent; Nazir, Tatjana A; Paulignan, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Action observation, simulation and execution share neural mechanisms that allow for a common motor representation. It is known that when these overlapping mechanisms are simultaneously activated by action observation and execution, motor performance is influenced by observation and vice versa. To understand the neural dynamics underlying this influence and to measure how variations in brain activity impact the precise kinematics of motor behavior, we coupled kinematics and electrophysiological recordings of participants while they performed and observed congruent or non-congruent actions or during action execution alone. We found that movement velocities and the trajectory deviations of the executed actions increased during the observation of congruent actions compared to the observation of non-congruent actions or action execution alone. This facilitation was also discernible in the motor-related potentials of the participants; the motor-related potentials were transiently more negative in the congruent condition around the onset of the executed movement, which occurred 300 ms after the onset of the observed movement. This facilitation seemed to depend not only on spatial congruency but also on the optimal temporal relationship of the observation and execution events. PMID:24133437

  3. A complete analytical solution for the inverse instantaneous kinematics of a spherical-revolute-spherical (7R) redundant manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podhorodeski, R. P.; Fenton, R. G.; Goldenberg, A. A.

    1989-01-01

    Using a method based upon resolving joint velocities using reciprocal screw quantities, compact analytical expressions are generated for the inverse solution of the joint rates of a seven revolute (spherical-revolute-spherical) manipulator. The method uses a sequential decomposition of screw coordinates to identify reciprocal screw quantities used in the resolution of a particular joint rate solution, and also to identify a Jacobian null-space basis used for the direct solution of optimal joint rates. The results of the screw decomposition are used to study special configurations of the manipulator, generating expressions for the inverse velocity solution for all non-singular configurations of the manipulator, and identifying singular configurations and their characteristics. Two functions are therefore served: a new general method for the solution of the inverse velocity problem is presented; and complete analytical expressions are derived for the resolution of the joint rates of a seven degree of freedom manipulator useful for telerobotic and industrial robotic application.

  4. A mechanical supination sprain simulator for studying ankle supination sprain kinematics.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yue-Yan; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Fung, Kwai-Yau; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2008-08-01

    This study presents a free-fall mechanical supination sprain simulator for evaluating the ankle joint kinematics during a simulated ankle supination sprain injury. The device allows the foot to be in an anatomical position before the sudden motion, and also allows different degrees of supination, or a combination of inversion and plantarflexion. Five subjects performed simulated supination sprain trials in five different supination angles. Ankle motion was captured by a motion analysis system, and the ankle kinematics were reported in plantarflexion/dorsiflexion, inversion/eversion and internal/external rotation planes. Results showed that all sprain motions were not pure single-plane motions but were accompanied by motion in other two planes, therefore, different degrees of supination were achieved. The presented sprain simulator allows a more comprehensive study of the kinematics of ankle sprain when compared with some previous laboratory research designs. PMID:18617179

  5. Using kinematic reduction for studying grasping postures. An application to power and precision grasp of cylinders.

    PubMed

    Jarque-Bou, N; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Sancho-Bru, J L; Vergara, M; Pérez-González, A; Andrés, F J

    2016-09-01

    The kinematic analysis of human grasping is challenging because of the high number of degrees of freedom involved. The use of principal component and factorial analyses is proposed in the present study to reduce the hand kinematics dimensionality in the analysis of posture for ergonomic purposes, allowing for a comprehensive study without losing accuracy while also enabling velocity and acceleration analyses to be performed. A laboratory study was designed to analyse the effect of weight and diameter in the grasping posture for cylinders. This study measured the hand posture from six subjects when transporting cylinders of different weights and diameters with precision and power grasps. The hand posture was measured using a Vicon(®) motion-tracking system, and the principal component analysis was applied to reduce the kinematics dimensionality. Different ANOVAs were performed on the reduced kinematic variables to check the effect of weight and diameter of the cylinders, as well as that of the subject. The results show that the original twenty-three degrees of freedom of the hand were reduced to five, which were identified as digit arching, closeness, palmar arching, finger adduction and thumb opposition. Both cylinder diameter and weight significantly affected the precision grasping posture: diameter affects closeness, palmar arching and opposition, while weight affects digit arching, palmar arching and closeness. The power-grasping posture was mainly affected by the cylinder diameter, through digit arching, closeness and opposition. The grasping posture was largely affected by the subject factor and this effect couldn't be attributed only to hand size. In conclusion, this kinematic reduction allowed identifying the effect of the diameter and weight of the cylinders in a comprehensive way, being diameter more important than weight. PMID:27184310

  6. A Three-Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the College-Level Female Softball Swing

    PubMed Central

    Milanovich, Monica; Nesbit, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies and discusses the three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the female softball swing as performed by fourteen female collegiate amateur subjects. The analyses were performed using a three-dimensional computer model. The model was driven kinematically from subject swings data that were recorded with a multi-camera motion analysis system. Each subject used two distinct bats with significantly different inertial properties. Model output included bat trajectories, subject/bat interaction forces and torques, work, and power. These data formed the basis for a detailed analysis and description of fundamental swing kinematic and kinetic quantities. The analyses revealed that the softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. In addition, the potential effects of bat properties on swing mechanics are discussed. The paths of the hands and the centre-of-curvature of the bat relative to the horizontal plane appear to be important trajectory characteristics of the swing. Descriptions of the swing mechanics and practical implications are offered based upon these findings. Key Points The female softball swing is a highly coordinated and individual three-dimensional motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant in all kinematic and kinetic quantities. The paths of the grip point, bat centre-of-curvature, CG, and COP are complex yet reveal consistent patterns among subjects indicating that these patterns are fundamental components of the swing. The most important mechanical quantity relative to generating bat speed is the total work applied to the bat from the batter. Computer modeling of the softball swing is a viable means for study of the fundamental mechanics of the swing motion, the interactions between the batter and the bat, and the energy transfers between the two. PMID:24570623

  7. A Morpho-kinematic and Spectroscopic study of Bipolar Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, Niall

    2015-09-01

    In this thesis, studies of the kinematic properties for a sample of Galactic bipolar planetary nebulae, based on optical and infrared observations, were performed using a morpho-kinematic code, optical and NIR diagnostic diagrams, and techniques using data analyses. The mechanisms that form complex bipolar planetary nebulae remain unclear, and their shapes can be generated either as a planetary or symbiotic nebula. The origin of the material ionised by the white dwarf is very different in these two scenarios, and it complicates the understanding of the morphologies of planetary nebulae. The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar nebulae, MyCn 18, M 2-9, Mz 3, Hen 2-104, and Abell 14, are each investigated in detail with the aim of understanding their nature, shaping mechanisms, and evolutionary history. For MyCn 18, VLT infrared images, VLT ISAAC infrared spectra, and long-slit optical echelle spectra are used to investigate the inner and outer regions of the nebula. The morpho-kinematic modelling tool shape was used to firmly constrain the structure and kinematics of the source. A timescale analysis was used to help determine the kinematical age of the nebula and its main components. A spectroscopic study of MyCn 18's central region reveals the detailed make-up of its nebular composition. Molecular hydrogen, atomic helium, and Brackett gamma emission are detected in the central regions. ISAAC spectra from a slit position along the narrow waist of the nebula demonstrate that the ionised gas resides closer to the centre of the nebula than the molecular emission. A final reconstructed 3-D model of MyCn 18 was generated, providing kinematical information on the expansion velocity of its nebular components by means of position-velocity arrays (or observed long-slit spectra). A kinematical age of the nebula and its components were obtained using the position-velocity arrays and timescale analysis. For M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104, long-slit optical

  8. Kinematic Pattern of the Drag-Flick: a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, María; López de Subijana, Cristina; Antonio, Raquel; Navarro, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The drag-flick is more efficient than hits or pushes when a penalty corner situation is in effect in field hockey. Previous research has studied the biomechanical pattern of the drag-flick, trying to find the cues for an optimal performance. On the other hand, some other studies have examined the most effective visual pick-up of relevant information in shots and goalkeeper anticipation. The aim of this study was to analyse the individual differences in the drag-flick pattern in order to provide relevant information for goalkeepers. One female skilled drag-flicker participated in the study. A VICON optoelectronic system (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) was used to capture the drag-flicks with six cameras. The results showed that the main significant differences between right and left shots (p<0.05) in the stick angles, stick minimum angular velocity and front foot-ball distance were when the front foot heel contacted the floor (T1) and at the minimum velocity of the stick, before the dragging action (T3). The findings showed that the most relevant information might be picked up at the ball-and-stick location before the dragging action. PMID:23487429

  9. Kinematic pattern of the drag-flick: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gómez, María; López de Subijana, Cristina; Antonio, Raquel; Navarro, Enrique

    2012-12-01

    The drag-flick is more efficient than hits or pushes when a penalty corner situation is in effect in field hockey. Previous research has studied the biomechanical pattern of the drag-flick, trying to find the cues for an optimal performance. On the other hand, some other studies have examined the most effective visual pick-up of relevant information in shots and goalkeeper anticipation. The aim of this study was to analyse the individual differences in the drag-flick pattern in order to provide relevant information for goalkeepers. One female skilled drag-flicker participated in the study. A VICON optoelectronic system (Oxford Metrics, Oxford, UK) was used to capture the drag-flicks with six cameras. The results showed that the main significant differences between right and left shots (p<0.05) in the stick angles, stick minimum angular velocity and front foot-ball distance were when the front foot heel contacted the floor (T1) and at the minimum velocity of the stick, before the dragging action (T3). The findings showed that the most relevant information might be picked up at the ball-and-stick location before the dragging action. PMID:23487429

  10. A Gemini/GMOS Study of Intermediate Luminosity Early-type Virgo Cluster Galaxies. I. Globular Cluster and Stellar Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biao; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hong-xin; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Jordán, Andrés; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Puzia, Thomas H.; Takamiya, Marianne; Trancho, Gelys; West, Michael J.

    2015-06-01

    We present a kinematic analysis of the globular cluster (GC) systems and diffuse stellar light of four intermediate luminosity (sub-L*) early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster based on Gemini Multi-Object Spectrographs (GMOS) data. Our galaxy sample is fainter (-23.8\\lt {{M}K}\\lt -22.7) than most previous studies, nearly doubling the number of galaxies in this magnitude range that now have GC kinematics. The data for the diffuse light extends to 4Re, and the data for the GCs reaches 8-12Re. We find that the kinematics in these outer regions are all different despite the fact that these four galaxies have similar photometric properties, and are uniformly classified as “fast rotators” from their stellar kinematics within 1Re. The GC systems exhibit a wide range of kinematic morphology. The rotation axis and amplitude can change between the inner and outer regions, including a case of counter-rotation. This difference shows the importance of wide-field kinematic studies, and shows that stellar and GC kinematics can change significantly as one moves beyond the inner regions of galaxies. Moreover, the kinematics of the GC systems can differ from that of the stars, suggesting that the formation of the two populations are also distinct.

  11. A kinematic study of the Lupus star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. B.; Bertout, C.; Teixeira, R.; Ducourant, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we study the southern star-forming region located in Lupus that constitutes one of the richest associations of T Tauri stars. Based on the convergent point (CP) method combined with a k-NN analysis we identify 109 pre-main sequence stars in this region that define the Lupus association of comoving stars, and derive individual distances for all group members.

  12. Molecular genetic studies of complete hydatidiform moles

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Benjamin M.; Wright, Dale C.

    2015-01-01

    Complete hydatidiform moles (CHM) are abnormal pregnancies with no fetal development resulting from having two paternal genomes with no maternal contribution. It is important to distinguish CHM from partial hydatidiform moles, and non-molar abortuses, due to the increased risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. We evaluated a series of products of conception (POC) (n=643) investigated by genome-wide microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) with the aim of refining our strategy for the identification of complete moles. Among 32 suspected molar pregnancies investigated by STR genotyping to supplement microarray CGH testing, we found 31.3% (10/32) CHM; all identified among 3.6% (10/272) early first trimester POC. We suggest that when using microarray CGH that genotyping using targeted STR analysis should be performed for all POC referrals to aid in the identification of CHM. PMID:26835372

  13. Molecular genetic studies of complete hydatidiform moles.

    PubMed

    Carey, Louise; Nash, Benjamin M; Wright, Dale C

    2015-04-01

    Complete hydatidiform moles (CHM) are abnormal pregnancies with no fetal development resulting from having two paternal genomes with no maternal contribution. It is important to distinguish CHM from partial hydatidiform moles, and non-molar abortuses, due to the increased risk of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. We evaluated a series of products of conception (POC) (n=643) investigated by genome-wide microarray comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) with the aim of refining our strategy for the identification of complete moles. Among 32 suspected molar pregnancies investigated by STR genotyping to supplement microarray CGH testing, we found 31.3% (10/32) CHM; all identified among 3.6% (10/272) early first trimester POC. We suggest that when using microarray CGH that genotyping using targeted STR analysis should be performed for all POC referrals to aid in the identification of CHM. PMID:26835372

  14. Deepwater completion and tieback -- A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiselin, D.

    1996-10-01

    Major operators are engaged in large-scale integrated projects around the world. Does integration favor the big boys, or can a small independent operator benefit from this approach? Independent partners Hardy Oil and Gas USA and Samedan Oil Corp. looked into integrated project management to successfully design and install subsea completions, subsea pipelines, and platform tiebacks and interfaces to two platforms operated by Texaco and Chevron, respectively. The paper describes the project management approach taken and results of the project.

  15. Early walking in the neonatal rat: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Jamon, M; Clarac, F

    1998-10-01

    The development of the early stage of locomotion (between Postnatal Days 3 and 10) was studied in newborn rats. At this age, rats are known to perform limited locomotor activities, consisting of an inefficient nonpostural gait termed crawling. By providing appropriate olfactory stimulation, it was possible to override the pups' reluctance to walk and to discover their actual locomotor abilities. The step period decreased from 1,200 ms to 900 ms from Postnatal Days 4 to 9, showing both a regular decrease in the swing and a discontinuous decrease in the stance phase. The fore- and hindlimb periods stabilized early on an alternate pattern of coupling. The ipsilateral coupling shifted progressively from 220 degrees to 260 degrees in relation with the change in the gait pattern. In parallel with the change in timing, the newborn rats showed gradual changes in the foot position and in the interlimb spatial coordination. These results show that quadruped locomotion develops before postural control is acquired, in a continuous process as the nervous system develops. PMID:9829799

  16. Walking and running on treadmill: the standard criteria for kinematics studies

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Chamari, Karim; Ardigò, Luca Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Summary In humans, walking and running represent the most studied locomotion forms. The motorized treadmill has always been a very useful scientific tool, because it allows administer a variety of speed/slope combinations, which is not always easy-to-find in nature. The purpose of this short communication is to help improve the scientific use of the treadmill and explain some simple kinematics variables together with simple ways to measure/calculate them. PMID:25332929

  17. Studying primate carpal kinematics in three dimensions using a computed-tomography-based markerless registration method.

    PubMed

    Orr, Caley M; Leventhal, Evan L; Chivers, Spencer F; Marzke, Mary W; Wolfe, Scott W; Crisco, Joseph J

    2010-04-01

    The functional morphology of the wrist pertains to a number of important questions in primate evolutionary biology, including that of hominins. Reconstructing locomotor and manipulative capabilities of the wrist in extinct species requires a detailed understanding of wrist biomechanics in extant primates and the relationship between carpal form and function. The kinematics of carpal movement, and the role individual joints play in providing mobility and stability of the wrist, is central to such efforts. However, there have been few detailed biomechanical studies of the nonhuman primate wrist. This is largely because of the complexity of wrist morphology and the considerable technical challenges involved in tracking the movements of the many small bones that compose the carpus. The purpose of this article is to introduce and outline a method adapted from human clinical studies of three-dimensional (3D) carpal kinematics for use in a comparative context. The method employs computed tomography of primate cadaver forelimbs in increments throughout the wrist's range of motion, coupled with markerless registration of 3D polygon models based on inertial properties of each bone. The 3D kinematic principles involved in extracting motion axis parameters that describe bone movement are reviewed. In addition, a set of anatomically based coordinate systems embedded in the radius, capitate, hamate, lunate, and scaphoid is presented for the benefit of other primate functional morphologists interested in studying carpal kinematics. Finally, a brief demonstration of how the application of these methods can elucidate the mechanics of the wrist in primates illustrates the closer-packing of carpals in chimpanzees than in orangutans, which may help to stabilize the midcarpus and produce a more rigid wrist beneficial for efficient hand posturing during knuckle-walking locomotion. PMID:20235325

  18. Improving Homework Completion of Students through Tutored Study Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicken, Kori S.; Foreman, Carol D.; Jensen, Robin L.; Sherwood, Justin A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a guided study hall on homework completion. Two groups of students were analyzed in their homework completion rates. Homework completion rates of the students that participated in Site A were reviewed in their five core subjects, while the homework completion rates of the students at Site B…

  19. A feasibility study of hand kinematics for EVA analysis using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickenson, Reuben D.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.; Main, John A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for analyzing the kinematics of joint motion using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The reconstruction of the metacarpalphalangeal joint of the left index finger into a 3D graphic display is shown. From the reconstructed volumetric images, measurements of the angles of movement of the applicable bones are obtained and processed by analyzing the screw motion of the joint. Landmark positions are chosen at distinctive locations of the joint at fixed image threshold intensity levels to ensure repeatability. The primarily 2D planar motion of this joint is then studied using a method of constructing coordinate systems using three or more points. A transformation matrix based on a world coordinate system describes the location and orientation of the local target coordinate system. The findings show the applicability of MRI to joint kinematics for gaining further knowledge of the hand-glove design for EVA.

  20. Feasibility of using combined EMG and kinematic signals for prosthesis control: A simulation study using a virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    Blana, Dimitra; Kyriacou, Theocharis; Lambrecht, Joris M; Chadwick, Edward K

    2016-08-01

    Transhumeral amputation has a significant effect on a person's independence and quality of life. Myoelectric prostheses have the potential to restore upper limb function, however their use is currently limited due to lack of intuitive and natural control of multiple degrees of freedom. The goal of this study was to evaluate a novel transhumeral prosthesis controller that uses a combination of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from the person's proximal humerus. Specifically, we trained a time-delayed artificial neural network to predict elbow flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination from six proximal EMG signals, and humeral angular velocity and linear acceleration. We evaluated this scheme with ten able-bodied subjects offline, as well as in a target-reaching task presented in an immersive virtual reality environment. The offline training had a target of 4° for flexion/extension and 8° for pronation/supination, which it easily exceeded (2.7° and 5.5° respectively). During online testing, all subjects completed the target-reaching task with path efficiency of 78% and minimal overshoot (1.5%). Thus, combining kinematic and muscle activity signals from the proximal humerus can provide adequate prosthesis control, and testing in a virtual reality environment can provide meaningful data on controller performance. PMID:26190031

  1. Swimming performance studies on the eastern Pacific bonito Sarda chiliensis, a close relative of the tunas (family Scombridae) II. Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Dowis, Hawkins J; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Graham, Jeffrey B; Dickson, Kathryn A

    2003-08-01

    The swimming kinematics of the eastern Pacific bonito Sarda chiliensis at a range of sustained speeds were analyzed to test the hypothesis that the bonito's swimming mode differs from the thunniform locomotor mode of tunas. Eight bonito (fork length FL 47.5+/-2.1 cm, mass 1.25+/-0.15 kg) (mean +/- S.D.) swam at speeds of 50-130 cm s(-1) at 18+/-2 degrees C in the same temperature-controlled water tunnel that was used in previous studies of tunas. Kinematics variables, quantified from 60 Hz video recordings and analyzed using a computerized, two-dimensional motion analysis system, were compared with published data for similar sized tunas at comparable speeds. Bonito tailbeat frequency, tailbeat amplitude and stride length all increased significantly with speed. Neither yaw (6.0+/-0.6%FL) nor propulsive wavelength (120+/-65% fish total length) varied with speed, and there were no mass or body-length effects on the kinematics variables for the size range of bonitos used. Relative to similar sized yellowfin (Thunnus albacares) and skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis) tunas at similar speeds, the bonito has a lower tailbeat frequency, a higher yaw and a greater stride length. The lateral displacement and bending angle of each intervertebral joint during a complete tailbeat cycle were determined for the bonito at a swimming speed of 90 cm s(-1). The pattern of mean maximum lateral displacement (z(max)) and mean maximum bending angle (beta(max)) along the body in the bonito differed from that of both chub mackerel Scomber japonicus and kawakawa tuna Euthynnus affinis; z(max) was highest in the bonito. This study verifies that S. chiliensis is a carangiform swimmer and supports the hypothesis that the thunniform locomotor mode is a derived tuna characteristic associated with changes in this group's myotomal architecture. The finding that yaw and z(max) were greater in the bonito than in both mackerels and tunas suggests that swimming kinematics in the bonito is not intermediate

  2. Inverse kinematics (p, n) reactions studies using the WINDS slow neutron detector and the SAMURAI spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, J.; Sasano, M.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Baba, H.; Chao, W.; Dozono, M.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jhang, G.; Kameda, D.; Kubo, T.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Milman, E.; Motobayashi, T.; Otsu, H.; Panin, V.; Powell, W.; Sakai, H.; Sako, M.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Stuhl, L.; Suzuki, H.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Takeda, H.; Uesaka, T.; Yoneda, K.; Zenihiro, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Sumikama, T.; Tako, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.; Togano, Y.; Shikata, M.; Tsubota, J.; Yako, K.; Shimoura, S.; Ota, S.; Kawase, S.; Kubota, Y.; Takaki, M.; Michimasa, S.; Kisamori, K.; Lee, C. S.; Tokieda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Koyama, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Wakasa, T.; Sakaguchi, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Murakami, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Kaneko, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Mucher, D.; Reichert, S.; Bazin, D.; Lee, J. W.

    2016-06-01

    We have combined the low-energy neutron detector WINDS (Wide-angle Inverse-kinematics Neutron Detectors for SHARAQ) and the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN Nishina Center RI Beam Factory (RIBF) in order to perform (p, n) reactions in inverse kinematics for unstable nuclei in the mass region around A ∼ 100 . In this setup, WINDS is used for detecting recoil neutrons and the SAMURAI spectrometer is used for tagging decay channel of heavy residue. The first experiment by using the setup was performed to study Gamow-Teller transitions from 132Sn in April 2014. The atomic number Z and mass-to-charge ratio A / Q of the beam residues were determined from the measurements of time of flight, magnetic rigidity and energy loss. The obtained A / Q and Z resolutions were σA/Q = 0.14 % and σZ = 0.22 , respectively. Furthermore, owing to the large momentum acceptance (50 %) of SAMURAI, the beam residues associated with the γ , 1n and 2n decay channel were measured in the same magnetic field setting. The kinematic loci of the measured recoil neutron energy and laboratory angle are clearly seen. It shows that the excitation energy up to about 20 MeV can be reconstructed.

  3. A kinematic study of critical and non-critical articulators in emotional speech production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jangwon; Toutios, Asterios; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2015-03-01

    This study explores one aspect of the articulatory mechanism that underlies emotional speech production, namely, the behavior of linguistically critical and non-critical articulators in the encoding of emotional information. The hypothesis is that the possible larger kinematic variability in the behavior of non-critical articulators enables revealing underlying emotional expression goal more explicitly than that of the critical articulators; the critical articulators are strictly controlled in service of achieving linguistic goals and exhibit smaller kinematic variability. This hypothesis is examined by kinematic analysis of the movements of critical and non-critical speech articulators gathered using eletromagnetic articulography during spoken expressions of five categorical emotions. Analysis results at the level of consonant-vowel-consonant segments reveal that critical articulators for the consonants show more (less) peripheral articulations during production of the consonant-vowel-consonant syllables for high (low) arousal emotions, while non-critical articulators show less sensitive emotional variation of articulatory position to the linguistic gestures. Analysis results at the individual phonetic targets show that overall, between- and within-emotion variability in articulatory positions is larger for non-critical cases than for critical cases. Finally, the results of simulation experiments suggest that the postural variation of non-critical articulators depending on emotion is significantly associated with the controls of critical articulators. PMID:25786953

  4. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Abou-Sayed, I.S.; Moschovidis, Z.; Parker, C.

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  5. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  6. Simulated stellar kinematics studies of high-redshift galaxies with the HARMONI Integral Field Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrew, S.; Zieleniewski, S.; Houghton, R. C. W.; Thatte, N.; Devriendt, J.; Tecza, M.; Clarke, F.; O'Brien, K.; Häußler, B.

    2016-05-01

    We present a study into the capabilities of integrated and spatially resolved integral field spectroscopy of galaxies at z = 2-4 with the future HARMONI spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) using the simulation pipeline, HSIM. We focus particularly on the instrument's capabilities in stellar absorption line integral field spectroscopy, which will allow us to study the stellar kinematics and stellar population characteristics. Such measurements for star-forming and passive galaxies around the peak star formation era will provide a critical insight into the star formation, quenching and mass assembly history of high-z, and thus present-day galaxies. First, we perform a signal-to-noise study for passive galaxies at a range of stellar masses for z = 2-4, assuming different light profiles; for this population, we estimate that integrated stellar absorption line spectroscopy with HARMONI will be limited to galaxies with M* ≳ 1010.7 M⊙. Secondly, we use HSIM to perform a mock observation of a typical star-forming 1010 M⊙ galaxy at z = 3 generated from the high-resolution cosmological simulation NUTFB. We demonstrate that the input stellar kinematics of the simulated galaxy can be accurately recovered from the integrated spectrum in a 15-h observation, using common analysis tools. Whilst spatially resolved spectroscopy is likely to remain out of reach for this particular galaxy, we estimate HARMONI's performance limits in this regime from our findings. This study demonstrates how instrument simulators such as HSIM can be used to quantify instrument performance and study observational biases on kinematics retrieval; and shows the potential of making observational predictions from cosmological simulation output data.

  7. A numerical and experimental study of the kinematics of a tennis ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro Sorroche, Juan

    A numerical and experimental study of the kinematics of a tennis ball. An experimental apparatus to collect data of the tennis ball in motion is designed and constructed. Data collected by the experimental apparatus is corrected by the intrinsic and extrinsic camera distortions before numeric calculation predictions of the ball's point of impact with the court are made. The experimental apparatus constructed together with comprehensive numeric computations including atmospheric conditions and spin decay, allowed making predictions of the ball's point of impact with the court with and errors <0.029%

  8. Study of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of a wormgear transmission for helicopter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

    1994-01-01

    The first phase of the study of the performance of a wormgear transmission is reported. In this phase the work included the selection of a double-enveloping wormgear type, and its dimensions, suitable for use in helicopter transmissions; the 3-D graphics representation of the selected wormgear using the I-DEAS software; the analysis of the kinematics of meshing; the analysis of load sharing among the meshing teeth; and the implementation of the analyses in a computer program. The report describes the analyses, their results, and the use of the computer programs.

  9. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tizzi, Raffaella; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other's movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other's movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model) performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e., rostrum) and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D) post hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins' kinematics is sensitive to other's movement features. Movements performed for the "visuomotor priming" condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model). Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific's behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability. PMID:26300764

  10. A kinematic study on (un)intentional imitation in bottlenose dolphins

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Bulgheroni, Maria; Tizzi, Raffaella; Castiello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of observing other’s movements on subsequent performance in bottlenose dolphins. The imitative ability of non-human animals has intrigued a number of researchers. So far, however, studies in dolphins have been confined to intentional imitation concerned with the explicit request to imitate other agents. In the absence of instruction to imitate, do dolphins (un)intentionally replicate other’s movement features? To test this, dolphins were filmed while reaching and touching a stimulus before and after observing another dolphin (i.e., model) performing the same action. All videos were reviewed and segmented in order to extract the relevant movements. A marker was inserted post hoc via software on the videos upon the anatomical landmark of interest (i.e., rostrum) and was tracked throughout the time course of the movement sequence. The movement was analyzed using an in-house software developed to perform two-dimensional (2D) post hoc kinematic analysis. The results indicate that dolphins’ kinematics is sensitive to other’s movement features. Movements performed for the “visuomotor priming” condition were characterized by a kinematic pattern similar to that performed by the observed dolphin (i.e., model). Addressing the issue of spontaneous imitation in bottlenose dolphins might allow ascertaining whether the potential or impulse to produce an imitative action is generated, not just when they intend to imitate, but whenever they watch another conspecific’s behavior. In closing, this will clarify whether motor representational capacity is a by-product of factors specific to humans or whether more general characteristics such as processes of associative learning prompted by high level of encephalization could help to explain the evolution of this ability. PMID:26300764

  11. Kinematic study of locomotor recovery after spinal cord clip compression injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Alluin, Olivier; Karimi-Abdolrezaee, Soheila; Delivet-Mongrain, Hugo; Leblond, Hugues; Fehlings, Michael G; Rossignol, Serge

    2011-09-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), precise assessment of motor recovery is essential to evaluate the outcome of new therapeutic approaches. Very little is known on the recovery of kinematic parameters after clinically-relevant severe compressive/contusive incomplete spinal cord lesions in experimental animal models. In the present study we evaluated the time-course of kinematic parameters during a 6-week period in rats walking on a treadmill after a severe thoracic clip compression SCI. The effect of daily treadmill training was also assessed. During the recovery period, a significant amount of spontaneous locomotor recovery occurred in 80% of the rats with a return of well-defined locomotor hindlimb pattern, regular plantar stepping, toe clearance and homologous hindlimb coupling. However, substantial residual abnormalities persisted up to 6 weeks after SCI including postural deficits, a bias of the hindlimb locomotor cycle toward the back of the animals with overextension at the swing/stance transition, loss of lateral balance and impairment of weight bearing. Although rats never recovered the antero-posterior (i.e. homolateral) coupling, different levels of decoupling between the fore and hindlimbs were measured. We also showed that treadmill training increased the swing duration variability during locomotion suggesting an activity-dependent compensatory mechanism of the motor control system. However, no effect of training was observed on the main locomotor parameters probably due to a ceiling effect of self-training in the cage. These findings constitute a kinematic baseline of locomotor recovery after clinically relevant SCI in rats and should be taken into account when evaluating various therapeutic strategies aimed at improving locomotor function. PMID:21770755

  12. Postural stability and vehicle kinematics during an evasive lane change manoeuvre: a driver training study.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Andrew; Barrett, Rod

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a 2-day driver-training course that emphasised postural stability maintenance during critical driving situations on postural stability and vehicle kinematics during an evasive lane change manoeuvre. Following training, the trainee group experienced enhanced postural stability during specific phases of the task. In terms of vehicle kinematics, the main adaptation to training was that trained drivers reduced the extent to which they experienced vehicle decelerations during rapid turning compared to controls. Such a strategy may confer a safety benefit due to the increased risks associated with simultaneous braking while turning during an evasive manoeuvre. The newly learned strategy was consistent with the strategy used by a group of highly skilled drivers (driving instructors). Taken together, the results of the study suggest postural stability may be a useful variable to consider in relation to the skill-based component of hierarchical driver training programmes. The findings of this study provide some preliminary evidence to suggest that postural stability may be an important consideration when instructing individuals on how to safely negotiate obstacles during driving. PMID:19424921

  13. Neural substrates of graphomotor sequence learning: a combined FMRI and kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Swett, Bruce A; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L; Birn, Rasmus; Braun, Allen

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the dynamics and functional connectivity of brain networks associated with fast (short-term) learning of handwriting using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants (n = 12) performed a graphomotor sequence learning task (naïve subjects learning to draw simple, 3-stroke Chinese word characters), which focused the learning process on the kinematic aspects of sequence learning instead of on the production of the line segments. Learning of the graphomotor sequence was demonstrated by a progressive improvement in movement smoothness as assessed by normalized jerk scores. Examination of the patterns of regional neural activity and functional connectivity during sequence learning demonstrated that cortical regions, which may support visuomotor mapping components of the task, were active prior to subcortical areas that may play a role in encoding and refining the novel sequences. Importantly, differences in the time course of recruitment of basal ganglia and cerebellar networks suggest distinct but integrated roles in the encoding and refining of the handwritten sequences. This implies multiple kinematic representations of graphomotor trajectories may be encoded at various spatiotemporal scales. PMID:20375250

  14. Do ACL-injured copers exhibit differences in knee kinematics?: An MRI study.

    PubMed

    Barrance, Peter J; Williams, Glenn N; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Buchanan, Thomas S

    2007-01-01

    Kinematic changes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may play a role in the long-term development of osteoarthritis (OA). Some ACL-injured patients (copers) successfully return to demanding activities without the reconstructive surgery usually recommended for functionally unstable patients (noncopers). We determined whether copers exhibit less disruption to kinematics than noncopers, perhaps because of lower impairment of muscular control as observed in earlier studies. We used dynamic magnetic resonance imaging and model-based tracking to investigate anteroposterior (AP) and internal-external tibial positioning in copers, presurgical noncopers, and uninjured control subjects during dynamic nonloaded knee extension. Copers and control subjects showed similar levels of side-to-side differences in AP tibial positioning (1.1 +/- 4.9 mm and 1.4 +/- 2.7 mm, respectively), whereas noncopers exhibited anterior tibial positioning in their injured knees (2.6 +/- 3 mm) that differed from control subjects. Copers were the most variable of the three groups, and contrary to our hypothesis, tibial positioning in copers was not different from that of noncopers. Differences in tibial positioning did not correlate with side-to-side differences in AP laxity in any of the groups, and we identified no changes to tibial axial rotation patterns associated with ACL deficiency. PMID:17091013

  15. A Study of Prior Learning Assessment in Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Jean Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of prior learning assessment (PLA) in postsecondary degree completion for adult community college students at Mountwest Community and Technical College (MCTC). The study group consisted of 339 MCTC graduates, who applied PLA credits toward degree completion between the academic year 2006 and 2011.…

  16. A Study of Knee Joint Kinematics and Mechanics using a Human FE Model.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Hasegawa, Junji; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Iwamoto, Masami; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Posterior translation of the tibia with respect to the femur can stretch the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Fifteen millimeters of relative displacement between the femur and tibia is known as the Injury Assessment Reference Value (IARV) for the PCL injury. Since the anterior protuberance of the tibial plateau can be the first site of contact when the knee is flexed, the knee bolster is generally designed with an inclined surface so as not to directly load the projection in frontal crashes. It should be noted, however, that the initial flexion angle of the occupant knee can vary among individuals and the knee flexion angle can change due to the occupant motion. The behavior of the tibial protuberance related to the knee flexion angle has not been described yet. The instantaneous angle of the knee joint at the timing of restraining the knee should be known to manage the geometry and functions of knee restraint devices. The purposes of this study are first to understand the kinematics of the knee joint during flexion, and second to characterize the mechanics of the knee joint under anterior-posterior loading. A finite element model of the knee joint, extracted from the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS), was used to analyze the mechanism. The model was validated against kinematics and mechanical responses of the human knee joint. By tracking the relative positions and angles between the patella and the tibia in a knee flexing simulation, the magnitude of the tibial anterior protuberance was described as a function of the knee joint angle. The model revealed that the mechanics of the knee joint was characterized as a combination of stiffness of the patella-femur structure and the PCL It was also found that the magnitude of the tibial anterior protuberance determined the amount of initial stretch of the PCL in anterior-posterior loading. Based on the knee joint kinematics and mechanics, an interference boundary was proposed for different knee flexion angles, so

  17. Lithospheric Structure, Crustal Kinematics, and Earthquakes in North China: An Integrated Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Yang, Y.; Sandvol, E.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhou, S.; Shen, Z.; Wang, Q.

    2007-12-01

    The North China block (NCB) is geologically part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton. But unusual for a craton, it was thermally rejuvenated since late Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Today, the NCB is characterized by strong internal deformation and seismicity, including the 1976 Tangshan earthquake that killed ~250,000 people. We have started a multidisciplinary study to image the lithospheric and upper mantle structure using seismological methods, to delineate crustal kinematics and deformation via studies of neotectonics and space geodesy, and to investigate the driving forces, the stress states and evolution, and seismicity using geodynamic modeling. Both seismic imaging and GPS results indicate that the Ordos plateau, which is the western part of the NCB and a relic of the Sino-Korean craton, has been encroached around its southern margins by mantle flow and thus is experiencing active cratonic destruction. Some of the mantle flow may be driven by the Indo-Asian collision, although the cause of the broad mantle upwelling responsible for the Mesozoic thinning of the NCB lithosphere remains uncertain. At present, crustal deformation in the NCB is largely driven by gravitational spreading of the expanding Tibetan Plateau. Internal deformation within the NCB is further facilitated by the particular tectonic boundary conditions around the NCB, and the large lateral contrasts of lithospheric strength and rheology. Based on the crustal kinematics and lithospheric structure, we have developed a preliminary geodynamic model for stress states and strain energy in the crust of the NCB. The predicted long-term strain energy distribution is comparable with the spatial pattern of seismic energy release in the past 2000 years. We are exploring the cause of the spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in the NCB, especially the apparent migration of seismicity from the Weihe-Shanxi grabens around the Ordos to

  18. Identifying the Functional Flexion-extension Axis of the Knee: An In-Vivo Kinematics Study

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Chen, Kaining; Guo, Lin; Cheng, Liangjun; Wang, Fuyou; Yang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to calculate the flexion-extension axis (FEA) of the knee through in-vivo knee kinematics data, and then compare it with two major anatomical axes of the femoral condyles: the transepicondylar axis (TEA) defined by connecting the medial sulcus and lateral prominence, and the cylinder axis (CA) defined by connecting the centers of posterior condyles. Methods The knee kinematics data of 20 healthy subjects were acquired under weight-bearing condition using bi-planar x-ray imaging and 3D-2D registration techniques. By tracking the vertical coordinate change of all points on the surface of femur during knee flexion, the FEA was determined as the line connecting the points with the least vertical shift in the medial and lateral condyles respectively. Angular deviation and distance among the TEA, CA and FEA were measured. Results The TEA-FEA angular deviation was significantly larger than that of the CA-FEA in 3D and transverse plane (3.45° vs. 1.98°, p < 0.001; 2.72° vs. 1.19°, p = 0.002), but not in the coronal plane (1.61° vs. 0.83°, p = 0.076). The TEA-FEA distance was significantly greater than that of the CA-FEA in the medial side (6.7 mm vs. 1.9 mm, p < 0.001), but not in the lateral side (3.2 mm vs. 2.0 mm, p = 0.16). Conclusion The CA is closer to the FEA compared with the TEA; it can better serve as an anatomical surrogate for the functional knee axis. PMID:26039711

  19. Nonlinear deconvolution of hyperspectral data with MCMC for studying the kinematics of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Emma; Carfantan, Hervé

    2014-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has been an area of active research in image processing and analysis for more than 10 years, mainly for remote sensing applications. Astronomical ground-based hyperspectral imagers offer new challenges to the community, which differ from the previous ones in the nature of the observed objects, but also in the quality of the data, with a low signal-to-noise ratio and a low resolution, due to the atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we focus on a deconvolution problem specific to hyperspectral astronomical data, to improve the study of the kinematics of galaxies. The aim is to estimate the flux, the relative velocity, and the velocity dispersion, integrated along the line-of-sight, for each spatial pixel of an observed galaxy. Thanks to the Doppler effect, this is equivalent to estimate the amplitude, center, and width of spectral emission lines, in a small spectral range, for every spatial pixel of the hyperspectral data. We consider a parametric model for the spectral lines and propose to compute the posterior mean estimators, in a Bayesian framework, using Monte Carlo Markov chain algorithms. Various estimation schemes are proposed for this nonlinear deconvolution problem, taking advantage of the linearity of the model with respect to the flux parameters. We differentiate between methods taking into account the spatial blurring of the data (deconvolution) or not (estimation). The performances of the methods are compared with classical ones, on two simulated data sets. It is shown that the proposed deconvolution method significantly improves the resolution of the estimated kinematic parameters. PMID:25073172

  20. Tibial rotation kinematics subsequent to knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Duane J.; Khatib, Yasser H.; Parker, David A.; Jenkin, Deanne E.; Molnar, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of computer assisted joint replacement has facilitated precise intraoperative measurement of knee kinematics. The changes in “screw home mechanism” (SHM) resulting from Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA) with different prostheses and constraints has not yet been accurately described. Methods A pilot study was first completed. Intraoperative kinematic data was collected two groups of 15 patients receiving different prostheses. Results On average, patients lost 5.3° of ER (SD = 6.1°). There was no significant difference between the prostheses or different prosthetic constraints. Conclusions There significant loss of SHM after TKA. Further research is required to understand its impact on patient function. PMID:25829754

  1. A single axis study of flight simulator kinematics by difference techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, L. D.

    1976-01-01

    The kinematic parameters of position, velocity, and acceleration of a flight simulator may be calculated by knowing the distance between two or more points on an axis and the time the simulator takes to traverse the space between each set of points. These parameters are calculated through the use of difference techniques. Given the true kinematic response of the simulator to computer generated commands, the entire motion system loop may be calibrated, and system operability verified.

  2. Multi-long-slit Spectroscopy For Kinematic Studies. I. Implementation And Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterbos, Rene A. M.; Choi, J.; Cisneros, S.; Patterson, M.; Wu, C.

    2007-12-01

    Several methods exist for spectroscopy of ionized gas to measure the kinematics of galaxies. These include single long-slit spectroscopy, or integral field spectroscopy where a multi-fiber or lenslet-array feeds a spectrograph, or an imaging Fabry-Perot. We demonstrate here another method for 2-dimensional spectroscopy, using a mask with several parallel long slits in combination with a narrow band filter. This enables observations at H-alpha for up to 16 slits simultaneously with the Apache Point Observatory's ARC-3.5m telescope, using a conventional optical spectrograph (the Double Imaging Spectrograph). Compared to most multi-fiber and lenslet integral field instruments, this setup allows for larger field of view. For our system, the 16 slits are distributed over a 4x5 arcmin sq. area. Compared to a Fabry-Perot, our method can be faster for obtaining 2-D velocity fields for disk galaxies since we do not require scanning an etalon through all velocity channels. Complete 2-D coverage can be obtained with our method too by stepping the telescope in position between exposures. Galaxies at different redshifts or other emission lines can be observed by changing the narrow band filter. The implementation is very inexpensive in terms of hardware cost and involves only production of a set of multi-long-slit masks and suitable filters. The spectral resolution we can obtain is typical of that of a medium resolution spectrograph, about 2-4 Angstrom depending on slit width and grating. We demonstrate the implementation through observations of the Owl nebula and the nearby spiral M33. This research was supported by an award from Research Corporation.

  3. Kinematic models of cometary comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacconi-Garman, Lowell Evan

    As a first step towards understanding the kinematics of cometary comae, an analysis was undertaken of the 18-cm OH lines in comets. This work builds on past OH excitation and kinematic studies to meld them into a complete and self-consistent model for a cometary coma. The kinematics were modeled via the vectorial formalism and the powerful Monte Carlo technique was used in an effort to reproduce the high sensitivity, high spectral resolution 18-cm OH line profiles of Comets Halley, Giacobini-Zinner, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Wilson which were obtained at the 43 meter telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. For the first time a zeroth order A-doublet quenching correction was applied to the 18-cm data and the long standing UV/radio gas production rate disparity was accounted for. Gas expansion velocities and coma anisotropies were derived from observations covering a wide range of heliocentric distances and gas production rates. The inferred ratio of dayside gas emission to nightside gas emission for all comets in this study, except P/Giacobini-Zinner, is approx. two. This value is consistent with that derived from in situ observations of the neutral gas in the coma of Comet Halley and is independent of both gas productivity and heliocentric distance. For P/Giacobini-Zinner, anomalously high gas outflow anisotropies were inferred for which there is no clear explanation.

  4. A Pilot Study on Gait Kinematics of Old Women with Bound Feet

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Feng, Neng; Hu, Nanzhi; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-01-01

    Foot binding has a long and influential history in China. Little is known about biomechanical changes in gait caused by bound foot. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in lower limb kinematics between old women with bound feet and normal feet during walking. Six old women subjects (three with bound feet and three controls with normal feet) volunteered to participate in this study. Video data were recorded with a high speed video camera and analysed in the SIMI motion analysis software. Compared to normal controls, bound feet subjects had faster gait cadence with shorter stride length as well as smaller ankle and knee range of motion (ROM). During preswing phase, ankle remained to be dorsiflexion for bound foot subjects. The data from bound foot group also demonstrated that toe vertical displacement increased continuously during whole swing phase without a minimum toe clearance (MTC). The findings indicate that older women with bound feet exhibit significant differences in gait pattern compared to those with normal feet, which is characterised by disappeared propulsion/push-off and reduced mobility of lower limb segments. PMID:27019587

  5. A study of the structure and kinematics of the narrow-line region in Seyfert galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a high resolution study of the narrow emission line profiles of 16 Seyfert galaxies are presented. It is shown that the line profile parameters published in earlier low resolution studies are sometimes strongly influenced by resolution effects. In spite of these important systematic errors, many of the results derived from low resolution data are confirmed in the high resolution data. The narrow line profiles of Seyfert galaxies have a stronger base relative to core than a Gaussian. Most of the emission lines present a blueward asymmetry in the lower portion of their profile. In some galaxies, the line widths and/or line asymmetries are correlated with the ionization potential and/or critical density of the lines. There is a weak correlation between the line asymmetry and the dust content of the narrow line region (NLR). The large scatter in this relation, the absence of a similar correlation in Seyfert 1 to 1.5 galaxies, and the presence of a blue asymmetry in galaxies with dustfree line-emitting regions suggest that dust obscuration is not the only mechanism responsible for the line asymmetry in active galaxies. An optically-thick disk close to the nucleus is proposed as the other source of line asymmetry. An important result is that the host galaxy is probably playing a role in the kinematics of some of the gas in the NLR. A multicomponent model of the NLR is proposed to explain these results.

  6. The Dawes Review 1: Kinematic Studies of Star-Forming Galaxies Across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazebrook, Karl

    2013-11-01

    The last seven years have seen an explosion in the number of Integral Field galaxy surveys, obtaining resolved 2D spectroscopy, especially at high-redshift. These have taken advantage of the mature capabilities of 8-10 m class telescopes and the development of associated technology such as AO. Surveys have leveraged both high spectroscopic resolution enabling internal velocity measurements and high spatial resolution from AO techniques and sites with excellent natural seeing. For the first time, we have been able to glimpse the kinematic state of matter in young, assembling star-forming galaxies and learn detailed astrophysical information about the physical processes and compare their kinematic scaling relations with those in the local Universe. Observers have measured disc galaxy rotation, merger signatures, and turbulence-enhanced velocity dispersions of gas-rich discs. Theorists have interpreted kinematic signatures of galaxies in a variety of ways (rotation, merging, outflows, and feedback) and attempted to discuss evolution vs. theoretical models and relate it to the evolution in galaxy morphology. A key point that has emerged from this activity is that substantial fractions of high-redshift galaxies have regular kinematic morphologies despite irregular photometric morphologies and this is likely due to the presence of a large number of highly gas-rich discs. There has not yet been a review of this burgeoning topic. In this first Dawes review, I will discuss the extensive kinematic surveys that have been done and the physical models that have arisen for young galaxies at high-redshift.

  7. A Three Dimensional Kinematic and Kinetic Study of the Golf Swing

    PubMed Central

    Nesbit, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics of a golf swing as performed by 84 male and one female amateur subjects of various skill levels. The analysis was performed using a variable full-body computer model of a human coupled with a flexible model of a golf club. Data to drive the model was obtained from subject swings recorded using a multi-camera motion analysis system. Model output included club trajectories, golfer/club interaction forces and torques, work and power, and club deflections. These data formed the basis for a statistical analysis of all subjects, and a detailed analysis and comparison of the swing characteristics of four of the subjects. The analysis generated much new data concerning the mechanics of the golf swing. It revealed that a golf swing is a highly coordinated and individual motion and subject-to-subject variations were significant. The study highlighted the importance of the wrists in generating club head velocity and orienting the club face. The trajectory of the hands and the ability to do work were the factors most closely related to skill level. Key Points Full-body model of the golf swing. Mechanical description of the golf swing. Statistical analysis of golf swing mechanics. Comparisons of subject swing mechanics PMID:24627665

  8. MUST II: Large solid angle light charged particle telescope for inverse kinematics studies with radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Pollacco, E.; Atkin, E.; Auger, F.; Baron, P.; Drouart, A.; Rouger, M.; Boujrad, A.; Olivier, L.; Raine, B.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Saillant, F.; Tripon, M.

    2003-08-26

    Over the past four years we have studied (p,p'), (d,p) ,(d,3He) and other reactions using radioactive beams in inverse kinematics to obtain spectroscopic information for nuclei away from the valley of stability After a general overview of the experimental method we will describe our ongoing MUST II development. This is to build a very compact (1000cm3) three stage telescope with an active area of 100cm2 with position resolution of 0.7x0.7 mm2 and time of flight measurement. The mass identification and energy dynamic range is of 0.4 to 80 MeV.A up to alpha particles. The compactness of the array is assured through the use of an ASIC development to measure the time of flight and energy. The large solid angle coverage of 2.6sr and compactness of this array will allow it to be used in particle-gamma coincidence experiments.

  9. Improving Course Completions in Distance Education: An Institutional Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistoll, Tony; Yates, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article reports two studies undertaken at The Open Polytechnic of New Zealand, a vocational distance education (DE) provider, where course completion rates have risen to match those of face-to-face technical institutions. A simple model of student engagement is presented, which reflects the triality between the student, institution, and…

  10. Tight gas sands study breaks down drilling and completion costs

    SciTech Connect

    Brunsman, B. ); Saunders, B. )

    1994-06-06

    Given the high cost to drill and complete tight gas sand wells, advances in drilling and completion technology that result in even modest cost savings to the producer have the potential to generate tremendous savings for the natural gas industry. The Gas Research Institute sponsored a study to evaluate drilling and completion costs in selected tight gas sands. The objective of the study was to identify major expenditures associated with tight gas sand development and determine their relative significance. A substantial sample of well cost data was collected for the study. Individual well cost data were collected from nearly 300 wells in three major tight gas sand formations: the Cotton Valley sand in East Texas, the Frontier sand in Wyoming, and the Wilcox sand in South Texas. The data were collected and organized by cost category for each formation. After the information was input into a data base, a simple statistical analysis was performed. The statistical analysis identified data discrepancies that were then resolved, and it helped allow conclusions to be drawn regarding drilling and completion costs in these tight sand formations. Results are presented.

  11. Application of a photogrammetric kinematic model for prediction of lung volumes in adolescents: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are several ways to measure the respiratory system, among them inductance plethysmography and three-dimensional kinematic analysis, methods of high cost and difficult transportability. The objective of this study was to correlate respiratory volumes obtained by spirometry standard equipment with a biomechanical model photogrammetric analysis of adolescents. Methods We evaluated 50 subjects of both genders, aged between 14 and 17 years old, excluding those with respiratory obstruction or restriction. Stickers with markers, there was a five-point mapping for anatomical modeling and photogrammetry, with each evaluated in supine position, was sought to test the Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). The test was filmed and repeated three times. Images of the films were extracted for the moment of maximum exhalation and inhalation of proof with better breathing. With the use of a commercial software, defined the respiratory volumes to the thorax and abdomen. Results The photogrammetric analysis has found values strongly correlated with the spirometric measurements of FVC (0.812), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 – 0.708), Peak Expiratory Flow (PEF – 0.762) in addition to post test performed Inspiration (IP- 0.816). There was a higher ventilatory mobility for boys than girls for Lower Chest and Lower and Upper Abdomen. It was possible to reach a regression R2 = 0.866 for proof of FVC and R2 = 0.776 for IP with the use of photogrammetry, presenting a standard error of 0.353 and 0.451, respectively. Conclusions Photogrammetry can be used to study thoracoabdominal movements by applying analytical two-dimensional and three-dimensional images acquired using a video camera being, applicable and reproducible. PMID:24571595

  12. Clinical trial participants’ experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8 years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. Setting The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. Participants The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8) years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. Outcomes We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Results Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Conclusions Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in ‘missing’ or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an

  13. Effects of Global Postural Reeducation on gait kinematics in parkinsonian patients: a pilot randomized three-dimensional motion analysis study.

    PubMed

    Agosti, Valeria; Vitale, Carmine; Avella, Dario; Rucco, Rosaria; Santangelo, Gabriella; Sorrentino, Pierpaolo; Varriale, Pasquale; Sorrentino, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    The Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) method is a physical therapy based on the stretching of antigravity muscle chains with the parallel enhancement of the basal tone of antagonistic muscles addressed to improve static and dynamic stability. Through a three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system, our study aims to investigate whether in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients a GPR program results in a more physiological gait pattern. The kinematic parameters of gait of twenty subjects with clinically diagnosed PD were calculated. The patients were randomly assigned to a study (10 or control (10) group. All subjects underwent neurological and 3DMA assessments at entry time (t 0), at 4 weeks (t 1, end of GPR program), and at 8 and 12 weeks (t 2 and t 3, follow-up evaluation). The study group underwent a four-week GPR program, three times a week, for 40 min individual sessions. Kinematic gait parameters of thigh (T), knee (K) and ankle (A) and UPDRS-III scores were evaluated. At the end of the GPR program, we observed an improvement of the kinematic gait pattern, documented by the increase in KΔc and TΔc values that respectively express the flexion amplitude of knee and thigh. The amelioration was persistent at follow-up assessments, with a parallel enhancement in clinical parameters. GPR intervention shows a long-term efficacy on gait pattern in PD patients. Furthermore, we validated 3DMA as a valuable tool to study the kinematics of gait thus refining the understanding of the effects of specific rehabilitation programs. PMID:26700803

  14. 2D kinematical study in local luminous compact blue galaxies. Starburst origin in UCM2325+2318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Morales, A.; Pérez-Gallego, J.; Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castander, F.; Garland, C.; Gruel, N.; Pisano, D. J.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Ocaña, F.; Zamorano, J.

    2013-05-01

    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are small, but vigorously star forming galaxies. Their presence at different redshifts denotes their cosmological relevance and implies that local starburst galaxies, when properly selected, are unique laboratories for studying the complex ecosystem of the star formation process over time. We have selected a representative sample of 22 LCBGs from the SDSS and UCM databases which, although small, provides an excellent reference for comparison with current and future surveys of similar starbursts at high-z. We are carrying out a 2D optical spectroscopic study of this LCBG sample, including spatially resolved maps of kinematics, extinction, SFR and metallicity. This will help us to answer questions regarding the nature of these objects. In this poster we show our results on the kinematical study (Pérez-Gallego et al. 2011) which allows us to classify these galaxies into three different classes: rotating disk (RD) 48%, perturbed rotation (PR) 28% and complex kinematics (CK) 24%. We find 5% of objects show evidence of a recent major merger, 10% of a minor merger, and 45% of a companion. This argues in favor of ongoing interactions with close companions as a mechanism for the enhanced star formation activity in these galaxies. We find only 5% of objects with clear evidence of AGN activity, and 27% with kinematics consistent with SN-driven galactic winds. Therefore, a different mechanism may be responsible for quenching the star formation in LCBGs. The detailed analysis of the physical properties for each galaxy in the sample is on progress and we show in this poster the results on UCM2325+2318 as a prototype LCBG. Between the possible mechanisms to explain the starburst activity in this galaxy, our 2D spectroscopic data support the scenario of an on-going interaction with the possibility for clump B to be the dwarf satellite galaxy (Castillo-Morales et al. 2011, Pérez-Gallego et al. 2010).

  15. Study on general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukishima, Takahiro; Sasaki, Ken; Takano, Masaharu; Inoue, Kenji

    1992-03-01

    This paper proposes a general theory of kinematics and dynamics of wheeled mobile robots (WMRs). Unlike robotic manipulators which are modeled as 3-dimensional serial link mechanism, WMRs will be modeled as planar linkage mechanism with multiple links branching out from the base and/or another link. Since this model resembles a tree with branches, it will be called 'tree-structured-link'. The end of each link corresponds to the wheel which is in contact with the floor. In dynamics of WMR, equation of motion of a WMR is derived from joint input torques incorporating wheel dynamics. The wheel dynamics determines forces and moments acting on wheels as a function of slip velocity. This slippage of wheels is essential in dynamics of WMR. It will also be shown that the dynamics of WMR reduces to kinematics when slippage of wheels is neglected. Furthermore, the equation of dynamics is rewritten in velocity input form, since most of industrial motors are velocity controlled.

  16. Inverse Kinematic Study of the Alg26(d ,p )27Al Reaction and Implications for Destruction of 26Al in Wolf-Rayet and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margerin, V.; Lotay, G.; Woods, P. J.; Aliotta, M.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Davinson, T.; Doherty, D. T.; Fallis, J.; Howell, D.; Kirsebom, O. S.; Mountford, D. J.; Rojas, A.; Ruiz, C.; Tostevin, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    In Wolf-Rayet and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, the Alg26(p ,γ )27Si reaction is expected to govern the destruction of the cosmic γ -ray emitting nucleus 26Al. The rate of this reaction, however, is highly uncertain due to the unknown properties of key resonances in the temperature regime of hydrogen burning. We present a high-resolution inverse kinematic study of the Alg26(d ,p )27Al reaction as a method for constraining the strengths of key astrophysical resonances in the Alg26(p ,γ )27Si reaction. In particular, the results indicate that the resonance at Er=127 keV in 27Si determines the entire Alg26(p ,γ )27Si reaction rate over almost the complete temperature range of Wolf-Rayet stars and AGB stars.

  17. A case study using kinematic quantities derived from a triangle of VHF Doppler wind profilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Catherine A.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal divergence, relative vorticity, kinematic vertical velocity, and geostrophic and ageostrophic winds are computed from Colorado profiler network data to investigate an upslope snowstorm in northeastern Colorado. Horizontal divergence and relative vorticity are computed using the Gauss and Stokes theorems, respectively. Kinematic vertical velocities are obtained from the surface to 9 km by vertically integrating the continuity equation. The geostrophic and ageostrophic winds are computed by applying a finite differencing technique to evaluate the derivatives in the horizontal equations of motion. Comparison of the synoptic-scale data with the profiler network data reveals that the two datasets are generally consistent. Also, the profiler-derived quantities exhibit coherent vertical and temporal patterns consistent with conceptual and theoretical flow fields of various meteorological phenomena. It is suggested that the profiler-derived quantities are of potential use to weather forecasters in that they enable the dynamic and kinematic interpretation of weather system structure to be made and thus have nowcasting and short-term forecasting value.

  18. A kinematic study of planetary nebulae in the dwarf irregular galaxy IC10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, Denise R.; Teodorescu, Ana M.; Alves-Brito, Alan; Méndez, Roberto H.; Magrini, Laura

    2012-10-01

    We present positions, kinematics and the planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) for 35 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the nearest starburst galaxy IC10 extending out to 3 kpc from the galaxy's centre. We take advantage of the deep imaging and spectroscopic capabilities provided by the Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph on the 8.2 m Subaru Telescope. The PN velocities were measured through the slitless-spectroscopy technique, which allows us to explore the kinematics of IC10 with high precision. Using these velocities, we conclude that there is a kinematic connection between the H I envelope located around IC10 and the galaxy's PN population. By assuming that the PNe in the central regions and in the outskirts have similar ages, our results put strong observational constraints on the past tidal interactions in the Local Group. This is so because by dating the PN central stars, we, therefore, infer the epoch of a major episode of star formation likely linked to the first encounter of the H I extended envelope with the galaxy. Our deep [O III] images also allow us to use the PNLF to estimate a distance modulus of 24.1 ± 0.25, which is in agreement with recent results in the literature based on other techniques. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  19. Knee Kinematics Estimation Using Multi-Body Optimisation Embedding a Knee Joint Stiffness Matrix: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Vincent; Lamberto, Giuliano; Lu, Tung-Wu; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The use of multi-body optimisation (MBO) to estimate joint kinematics from stereophotogrammetric data while compensating for soft tissue artefact is still open to debate. Presently used joint models embedded in MBO, such as mechanical linkages, constitute a considerable simplification of joint function, preventing a detailed understanding of it. The present study proposes a knee joint model where femur and tibia are represented as rigid bodies connected through an elastic element the behaviour of which is described by a single stiffness matrix. The deformation energy, computed from the stiffness matrix and joint angles and displacements, is minimised within the MBO. Implemented as a “soft” constraint using a penalty-based method, this elastic joint description challenges the strictness of “hard” constraints. In this study, estimates of knee kinematics obtained using MBO embedding four different knee joint models (i.e., no constraints, spherical joint, parallel mechanism, and elastic joint) were compared against reference kinematics measured using bi-planar fluoroscopy on two healthy subjects ascending stairs. Bland-Altman analysis and sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of variations in the stiffness matrix terms on the estimated kinematics substantiate the conclusions. The difference between the reference knee joint angles and displacements and the corresponding estimates obtained using MBO embedding the stiffness matrix showed an average bias and standard deviation for kinematics of 0.9±3.2° and 1.6±2.3 mm. These values were lower than when no joint constraints (1.1±3.8°, 2.4±4.1 mm) or a parallel mechanism (7.7±3.6°, 1.6±1.7 mm) were used and were comparable to the values obtained with a spherical joint (1.0±3.2°, 1.3±1.9 mm). The study demonstrated the feasibility of substituting an elastic joint for more classic joint constraints in MBO. PMID:27314586

  20. THE KINEMATICS OF LATE-TYPE STARS IN THE SOLAR CYLINDER STUDIED WITH SDSS DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Burkhard; Dettbarn, Christian; Jahreiss, Hartmut; Rix, Hans-Walter; Klement, Rainer; Beers, Timothy C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

    2009-05-15

    We study the velocity distribution of Milky Way disk stars in a kiloparsec-sized region around the Sun, based on {approx}2 million M-type stars from DR7 of SDSS, which have newly re-calibrated absolute proper motions from combining SDSS positions with the USNO-B catalogue. We estimate photometric distances to all stars, accurate to {approx}20%, and combine them with the proper motions to derive tangential velocities for this kinematically unbiased sample of stars. Based on a statistical deprojection method we then derive the vertical profiles (to heights of Z = 800 pc above the disk plane) for the first and second moments of the three-dimensional stellar velocity distribution. We find that (W) = -7 {+-} 1 km s{sup -1} and (U) = -9 {+-} 1 km s{sup -1}, independent of height above the mid-plane, reflecting the Sun's motion with respect to the local standard of rest. In contrast, (V) changes distinctly from -20 {+-} 2 km s{sup -1} in the mid-plane to (V) = -32 km s{sup -1} at Z = 800 pc, reflecting an asymmetric drift of the stellar mean velocity that increases with height. All three components of the M-star velocity dispersion show a strong linear rise away from the mid-plane, most notably {sigma} {sub ZZ}, which grows from 18 km s{sup -1} (Z = 0) to 40 km s{sup -1} (at Z = 800 pc). We determine the orientation of the velocity ellipsoid, and find a significant vertex deviation of 20{sup 0}-25{sup 0}, which decreases only slightly to heights of Z = 800 pc. Away from the mid-plane, our sample exhibits a remarkably large tilt of the velocity ellipsoid toward the Galactic plane, which reaches 20{sup 0} at Z = 800 pc and which is not easily explained. Finally, we determine the ratio {sigma}{sup 2} {sub {phi}}{sub {phi}}/{sigma}{sup 2} {sub RR} near the mid-plane, which in the epicyclic approximation implies an almost perfectly flat rotation curve at the solar radius.

  1. The Kinematics of Late-Type Stars in the Solar Cylinder Studied with SDSS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Burkhard; Dettbarn, Christian; Rix, Hans-Walter; Beers, Timothy C.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Jahreiß, Hartmut; Klement, Rainer; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey; Snedden, Stephanie

    2009-05-01

    We study the velocity distribution of Milky Way disk stars in a kiloparsec-sized region around the Sun, based on ~2 million M-type stars from DR7 of SDSS, which have newly re-calibrated absolute proper motions from combining SDSS positions with the USNO-B catalogue. We estimate photometric distances to all stars, accurate to ~20%, and combine them with the proper motions to derive tangential velocities for this kinematically unbiased sample of stars. Based on a statistical deprojection method we then derive the vertical profiles (to heights of Z = 800 pc above the disk plane) for the first and second moments of the three-dimensional stellar velocity distribution. We find that langWrang = -7 ± 1 km s-1 and langUrang = -9 ± 1 km s-1, independent of height above the mid-plane, reflecting the Sun's motion with respect to the local standard of rest. In contrast, langVrang changes distinctly from -20 ± 2 km s-1 in the mid-plane to langVrang = -32 km s-1 at Z = 800 pc, reflecting an asymmetric drift of the stellar mean velocity that increases with height. All three components of the M-star velocity dispersion show a strong linear rise away from the mid-plane, most notably σ ZZ , which grows from 18 km s-1 (Z = 0) to 40 km s-1 (at Z = 800 pc). We determine the orientation of the velocity ellipsoid, and find a significant vertex deviation of 20°-25°, which decreases only slightly to heights of Z = 800 pc. Away from the mid-plane, our sample exhibits a remarkably large tilt of the velocity ellipsoid toward the Galactic plane, which reaches 20° at Z = 800 pc and which is not easily explained. Finally, we determine the ratio σ2 phiphi/σ2 RR near the mid-plane, which in the epicyclic approximation implies an almost perfectly flat rotation curve at the solar radius.

  2. Kinematically complete study of low-energy electron-impact ionization of argon: Internormalized cross sections in three-dimensional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xueguang; Amami, Sadek; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Pflüger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Dorn, Alexander; Madison, Don; Bartschat, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    As a further test of advanced theoretical methods to describe electron-impact single-ionization processes in complex atomic targets, we extended our recent work on Ne (2 p ) ionization [X. Ren, S. Amami, O. Zatsarinny, T. Pflüger, M. Weyland, W. Y. Baek, H. Rabus, K. Bartschat, D. Madison, and A. Dorn, Phys. Rev. A 91, 032707 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.032707] to Ar (3 p ) ionization at the relatively low incident energy of E0=66 eV. The experimental data were obtained with a reaction microscope, which can cover nearly the entire 4 π solid angle for the secondary electron emission. We present experimental data for detection angles of 10, 15, and 20∘ for the faster of the two outgoing electrons as a function of the detection angle of the secondary electron with energies of 3, 5, and 10 eV, respectively. Comparison with theoretical predictions from a B -spline R -matrix (BSR) with pseudostates approach and a three-body distorted-wave (3DW) approach, for detection of the secondary electron in three orthogonal planes as well as the entire solid angle, shows overall satisfactory agreement between experiment and the BSR results, whereas the 3DW approach faces difficulties in predicting some of the details of the angular distributions. These findings are different from our earlier work on Ne (2 p ), where both the BSR and 3DW approaches yielded comparable levels of agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Kinematically complete study of low-energy electron-impact ionization of neon: Internormalized cross sections in three-dimensional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xueguang; Amami, Sadek; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Pflüger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Baek, Woon Yong; Rabus, Hans; Bartschat, Klaus; Madison, Don; Dorn, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    Low-energy (E0=65 eV ) electron-impact single ionization of Ne (2 p ) has been investigated to thoroughly test state-of-the-art theoretical approaches. The experimental data were measured using a reaction microscope, which can cover nearly the entire 4 π solid angle for the secondary electron emission energies ranging from 2 to 8 eV, and projectile scattering angles ranging from 8 .5∘ to 20 .0∘ . The experimental triple-differential cross sections are internormalized across all measured scattering angles and ejected energies. The experimental data are compared to predictions from a hybrid second-order distorted-wave Born plus R -matrix approach, the distorted-wave Born approximation with the inclusion of postcollision interaction (PCI), a three-body distorted-wave approach (3DW), and a B -spline R -matrix (BSR) with pseudostates approach. Excellent agreement is found between the experiment and predictions from the 3DW and BSR models, for both the angular dependence and the relative magnitude of the cross sections in the full three-dimensional parameter space. The importance of PCI effects is clearly visible in this low-energy electron-impact ionization process.

  4. Neural signatures of hand kinematics in leaders vs. followers: A dual-MEG study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guangyu; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta

    2016-01-15

    During joint actions, people typically adjust their own actions according to the ongoing actions of the partner, which implies that the interaction modulates the behavior of both participants. However, the neural substrates of such mutual adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we set out to identify the kinematics-related brain activity of leaders and followers performing hand actions. Sixteen participants as 8 pairs performed continuous, repetitive right-hand opening and closing actions with ~3-s cycles in a leader-follower task. Subjects played each role for 5min. Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) brain signals were recorded simultaneously from both partners with a dual-MEG setup, and hand kinematics was monitored with accelerometers. Modulation index, a cross-frequency coupling measure, was computed between the hand acceleration and the MEG signals in the alpha (7-13Hz) and beta (13-25Hz) bands. Regardless of the participants' role, the strongest alpha and beta modulations occurred bilaterally in the sensorimotor cortices. In the occipital region, beta modulation was stronger in followers than leaders; these oscillations originated, according to beamformer source reconstructions, in early visual cortices. Despite differences in the modulation indices, alpha and beta power did not differ between the conditions. Our results indicate that the beta modulation in the early visual cortices depends on the subject's role as a follower or leader in a joint hand-action task. This finding could reflect the different strategies employed by leaders and followers in integrating kinematics-related visual information to control their own actions. PMID:26546864

  5. Compensation of kinematic geometric parameters error and comparative study of accuracy testing for robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Liang; Shi, Guangming; Guan, Weibin; Zhong, Yuansheng; Li, Jin

    2014-12-01

    Geometric error is the main error of the industrial robot, and it plays a more significantly important fact than other error facts for robot. The compensation model of kinematic error is proposed in this article. Many methods can be used to test the robot accuracy, therefore, how to compare which method is better one. In this article, a method is used to compare two methods for robot accuracy testing. It used Laser Tracker System (LTS) and Three Coordinate Measuring instrument (TCM) to test the robot accuracy according to standard. According to the compensation result, it gets the better method which can improve the robot accuracy apparently.

  6. Sagdeev's approach to study the effect of the kinematic viscosity on the dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Maitra, Sarit; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar

    2005-05-15

    Sagdeev's technique is used to study the dust ion-acoustic solitary waves (DIASWs) in a dusty plasma comprising ions, electrons, and charged dust grains taking into account the ion kinematic viscosity. Exact analytical results for the solitary wave solutions were obtained for small amplitude DIASW. The effects of the ion kinematic viscosity and the ion temperature on the feature of DIASW have been investigated.

  7. A study of the kinematic characteristic of a coupling device between the buffer system and the flexible pipe of a deep-seabed mining system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Chang-Ho; Hong, Sup; Bae, Dae-Sung; Cho, Hui-Je; Kim, Hyung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    This paper concerns the kinematic characteristics of a coupling device in a deep-seabed mining system. This coupling device connects the buffer system and the flexible pipe. The motion of the buffer system, flexible pipe and mining robot are affected by the coupling device. So the coupling device should be considered as a major factor when this device is designed. Therefore, we find a stable kinematic device, and apply it to the design coupling device through this study. The kinematic characteristics of the coupling device are analyzed by multi-body dynamics simulation method, and finite element method. The dynamic analysis model was built in the commercial software DAFUL. The Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) method is applied to build the deep-seabed environment. Hydrodynamic force and moment are applied in the dynamic model for the FSI method. The loads and deformation of flexible pipe are estimated for analysis results of the kinematic characteristics

  8. Computer Assisted Mechanical Axis and Kinematic TKA

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Peter; Mahoharan, Varaguna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has traditionally been and largely continues to be aligned mechanically, that being with a neutral coronal plane mechanical tibiofemoral axis and a joint line orientated at 900 to this axis. Femoral component rotation is set by gap balancing or by externally rotating 30 from any of a number femoral reference lines. This produces a rectangular flexion gap and relaxes patellar tracking. Kinematic alignment (KA) is an alternative technique that aims to restore premorbid alignment, joint orientation and ligament tension. The basic premise for this technique is based on evidence that the medial and lateral femoral condyles consistently equate to cylinders of equal or near equal size and that therefore with a fixed radius, cruciate retaining implant, matched distal femoral, posterior femoral and proximal tibial resections, accounting for bone and cartilage already lost will reproduce the premorbid joint line and restore native premorbid kinematics. Femoral rotation is therefore referenced off the prearthritic posterior condylar axis (PCA) that is on average internally rotated to the AP axis. Kinematic alignment therefore has the potential to challenge patellar tracking, increase patellar load and potentially increase patellar complications. Method: Case control study – level of evidence III-2. Between November 2012 and June 2013 the senior author completed 104 consecutive computer assisted (CAS) kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasties (TKA) with a cruciate retaining, fixed bearing, single radius implant. The results of these surgeries were compared with the results of 91 consecutive CAS mechanically aligned TKA done between November 2011 and October 2012 using the same navigation system and implant Implant sizing and positioning as well as gap measurement and ligament balance was done with computer assistance in all cases. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively. Results: The Oxford Knee Score

  9. Kinematics at the Intersection of the Garlock and Death Valley Fault Zones, California: Integration of TM Data and Field Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verosub, Kenneth L.; Brady, Roland H., III; Abrams, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic relationships at the intersection of the southern Death Valley and Garlock fault zones were examined to identify and delineate the eastern structural boundary between the Mojave and the Basin and Range geologic terrains, and to construct a model for the evolution of this boundary through time. In order to accomplish this, satellite imagery was combined with field investigations to study six areas in the vicinity of the intersection, or possible extensions, of the fault zones. The information gathered from these areas allows the test of various hypotheses that were proposed to explain the interaction between the Death Valley and Garlock fault zones.

  10. Experimental study of pancreaticojejunostomy completed using anastomotic chains.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Xu, Rui-Yun; Li, Nan; Fang, He-Ping; Pan, Cu-Zhi; Tang, Zhao-Feng

    2010-07-01

    The most difficult, time-consuming, and complication-prone step in pancreaticoduodenectomy is the pancreaticojejunostomy step. The largest disadvantage of this kind of anastomosis is the high incidence of postoperative anastomotic leakage. Once pancreatic leakage occurs, the patient death rate can be very high. The aim of this study was to design a pancreaticojejunostomy procedure using anastomotic chains, which results in the cut end of the jejunum being attached to the pancreatic stump without suturing, and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this procedure in domestic pigs. The pancreaticojejunal anastomotic chains had the following structures: the chains consisted of two braceletlike chains made of titanium, named chain A and chain B. The function of chain A was to attach the free jejunal end onto the pancreatic stump, whereas the function of chain B was to tighten the contact between the jejunal wall and the surface of the pancreatic stump to eliminate gaps between the two structures and ensure tightness that is sufficient to guarantee that there is no leakage of jejunal fluid or pancreatic juice. The following procedure was used to assess the safety and efficacy of the procedure: pancreaticojejunostomies were performed on ten domestic pigs using anastomotic chains. The time required to complete the pancreaticojejunal anastomoses, the pressure tolerance of the pancreaticojejunal anastomoses, the pig death rate, and the histopathological examinations of the pancreaticojejunostomy tissues were recorded. The average time required to complete the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis procedure was 13+/-2 min. The observed tolerance pressure of the pancreaticojejunal anastomoses was more than 90 mm H(2)O. All ten domestic pigs that underwent operations were still alive four weeks after the operations. Pathological examinations showed that the anastomotic surfaces were completely healed, and the pancreatic cutting surfaces were primarily epithelialized. In conclusion

  11. Experimental study of pancreaticojejunostomy completed using anastomotic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Xu, Rui-Yun; Li, Nan; Fang, He-Ping; Pan, Cu-Zhi; Tang, Zhao-Feng

    2010-07-01

    The most difficult, time-consuming, and complication-prone step in pancreaticoduodenectomy is the pancreaticojejunostomy step. The largest disadvantage of this kind of anastomosis is the high incidence of postoperative anastomotic leakage. Once pancreatic leakage occurs, the patient death rate can be very high. The aim of this study was to design a pancreaticojejunostomy procedure using anastomotic chains, which results in the cut end of the jejunum being attached to the pancreatic stump without suturing, and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this procedure in domestic pigs. The pancreaticojejunal anastomotic chains had the following structures: the chains consisted of two braceletlike chains made of titanium, named chain A and chain B. The function of chain A was to attach the free jejunal end onto the pancreatic stump, whereas the function of chain B was to tighten the contact between the jejunal wall and the surface of the pancreatic stump to eliminate gaps between the two structures and ensure tightness that is sufficient to guarantee that there is no leakage of jejunal fluid or pancreatic juice. The following procedure was used to assess the safety and efficacy of the procedure: pancreaticojejunostomies were performed on ten domestic pigs using anastomotic chains. The time required to complete the pancreaticojejunal anastomoses, the pressure tolerance of the pancreaticojejunal anastomoses, the pig death rate, and the histopathological examinations of the pancreaticojejunostomy tissues were recorded. The average time required to complete the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis procedure was 13±2 min. The observed tolerance pressure of the pancreaticojejunal anastomoses was more than 90 mm H2O. All ten domestic pigs that underwent operations were still alive four weeks after the operations. Pathological examinations showed that the anastomotic surfaces were completely healed, and the pancreatic cutting surfaces were primarily epithelialized. In conclusion, the

  12. Kinematic and Neurophysiological Consequences of an Assisted-Force-Feedback Brain-Machine Interface Training: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Silvoni, Stefano; Cavinato, Marianna; Volpato, Chiara; Cisotto, Giulia; Genna, Clara; Agostini, Michela; Turolla, Andrea; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Piccione, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In a proof-of-principle prototypical demonstration we describe a new type of brain-machine interface (BMI) paradigm for upper limb motor-training. The proposed technique allows a fast contingent and proportionally modulated stimulation of afferent proprioceptive and motor output neural pathways using operant learning. Continuous and immediate assisted-feedback of force proportional to rolandic rhythm oscillations during actual movements was employed and illustrated with a single case experiment. One hemiplegic patient was trained for 2 weeks coupling somatosensory brain oscillations with force-field control during a robot-mediated center-out motor-task whose execution approaches movements of everyday life. The robot facilitated actual movements adding a modulated force directed to the target, thus providing a non-delayed proprioceptive feedback. Neuro-electric, kinematic, and motor-behavioral measures were recorded in pre- and post-assessments without force assistance. Patient’s healthy arm was used as control since neither a placebo control was possible nor other control conditions. We observed a generalized and significant kinematic improvement in the affected arm and a spatial accuracy improvement in both arms, together with an increase and focalization of the somatosensory rhythm changes used to provide assisted-force-feedback. The interpretation of the neurophysiological and kinematic evidences reported here is strictly related to the repetition of the motor-task and the presence of the assisted-force-feedback. Results are described as systematic observations only, without firm conclusions about the effectiveness of the methodology. In this prototypical view, the design of appropriate control conditions is discussed. This study presents a novel operant-learning-based BMI-application for motor-training coupling brain oscillations and force feedback during an actual movement. PMID:24223567

  13. Stumbling reactions during perturbed walking: Neuromuscular reflex activity and 3-D kinematics of the trunk - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Müller, Juliane; Müller, Steffen; Engel, Tilman; Reschke, Antje; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-04-11

    Reflex activity of the lower leg muscles involved when compensating for falls has already been thoroughly investigated. However, the trunk׳s role in this compensation strategy remains unclear. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyze the kinematics and muscle activity of the trunk during perturbed walking. Ten subjects (29±3yr;79±11cm;74±14kg) walked (1m/s) on a split-belt treadmill, while 5 randomly timed, right-sided perturbations (treadmill belt deceleration: 40m/s(2)) were applied. Trunk muscle activity was assessed with a 12-lead-EMG. Trunk kinematics were measured with a 3D-motion analysis system (12 markers framing 3 segments: upper thoracic area (UTA), lower thoracic area (LTA), lumbar area (LA)). The EMG-RMS [%] (0-200ms after perturbation) was analyzed and then normalized to the RMS of normal walking. The total range of motion (ROM;[°]) for the extension/flexion, lateral flexion and rotation of each segment were calculated. Individual kinematic differences between walking and stumbling [%; ROM] were also computed. Data analysis was conducted descriptively, followed by one- and two-way ANOVAs (α=0.05). Stumbling led to an increase in ROM, compared to unperturbed gait, in all segments and planes. These increases ranged between 107±26% (UTA/rotation) and 262±132% (UTS/lateral flexion), significant only in lateral flexion. EMG activity of the trunk was increased during stumbling (abdominal: 665±283%; back: 501±215%), without significant differences between muscles. Provoked stumbling leads to a measurable effect on the trunk, quantifiable by an increase in ROM and EMG activity, compared to normal walking. Greater abdominal muscle activity and ROM of lateral flexion may indicate a specific compensation pattern occurring during stumbling. PMID:26518368

  14. Cruciate Retaining Versus Cruciate Stabilising Total Knee Arthroplasty – A Prospective Randomised Kinematic Study

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, T L; Bayan, A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While there is a large body of research in regards to cruciate retaining(CR) and cruciate sacrificing total condylar knee replacement, the literature is spars in regards to highly conforming polyetheylene such as the triatholon cruciate stabilising tibial insert (CS).The aim was to determine whether there is a difference in the range of motion, kinematics as well as the functional outcome for Triathlon CS and CR TKJR. Methods: A single hospital consecutive series of one surgeon between 2011 and 2013 were enrolled. Kinematic data recorded prospectively at the time of surgery utilizing imageless navigation included preoperative and post-replacement extension, gravity flexion, passive flexion and rotation. Intraoperative femoral and tibial cuts and definitive implants were also recorded. Statistically analysis performed to compare CS and CR TKJR range of motion, deformity correction, and rotation pre and post-operatively. Oxford functional scores were obtained at the final follow up. 124 patients were randomised to 71 CS and 53 CR TKJR. The demographics were comparable between the two groups. Results: No significant difference was found between the groups’ preoperative range of motion. The net gain in extension for the CS group was 5.65 degrees (4.14-7.17) and for CR 5.64 degrees (4.24-7.04, p=0.99) with no significant difference shown. Post-operative gravity flexion significantly increased in CS TKJR with 129.01 degrees (127.37130.66) compared with 126.35 degrees (124.39-128.30, p =0.04) for CR. A weak positive correlation was shown between the size of distal femoral cut and post-operative extension for both CS and CR TKJR. A weak positive correlation was also shown for the difference between the intraoperative cuts (tibial and femoral) and the size of the implants used, in relation to post-operative extension. Post-operative oxford scores at average of 3.4 year follow up comparable between groups. Conclusion: The kinematics of CS and CR TKJR are

  15. Kinematics of fast cervical rotations in persons with chronic neck pain: a cross-sectional and reliability study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Assessment of sensorimotor function is useful for classification and treatment evaluation of neck pain disorders. Several studies have investigated various aspects of cervical motor functions. Most of these have involved slow or self-paced movements, while few have investigated fast cervical movements. Moreover, the reliability of assessment of fast cervical axial rotation has, to our knowledge, not been evaluated before. Methods Cervical kinematics was assessed during fast axial head rotations in 118 women with chronic nonspecific neck pain (NS) and compared to 49 healthy controls (CON). The relationship between cervical kinematics and symptoms, self-rated functioning and fear of movement was evaluated in the NS group. A sub-sample of 16 NS and 16 CON was re-tested after one week to assess the reliability of kinematic variables. Six cervical kinematic variables were calculated: peak speed, range of movement, conjunct movements and three variables related to the shape of the speed profile. Results Together, peak speed and conjunct movements had a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 78% in discriminating between NS and CON, of which the major part could be attributed to peak speed (NS: 226 ± 88 °/s and CON: 348 ± 92 °/s, p < 0.01). Peak speed was slower in NS compared to healthy controls and even slower in NS with comorbidity of low-back pain. Associations were found between reduced peak speed and self-rated difficulties with running, performing head movements, car driving, sleeping and pain. Peak speed showed reasonably high reliability, while the reliability for conjunct movements was poor. Conclusions Peak speed of fast cervical axial rotations is reduced in people with chronic neck pain, and even further reduced in subjects with concomitant low back pain. Fast cervical rotation test seems to be a reliable and valid tool for assessment of neck pain disorders on group level, while a rather large between subject variation and overlap between

  16. Annual Report FY2013-- A Kinematically Complete, Interdisciplinary, and Co-Institutional Measurement of the 19F(α,n) Cross-section for Nuclear Safeguards Science

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, William A; Smith, Michael Scott; Clement, Ryan; Tan, Wanpeng; Stech, Ed; Cizewski, J A; Febbraro, Michael; Madurga Flores, Miguel

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this proposal is to enable neutron detection for precision Non-Destructive Assays (NDAs) of actinide-fluoride samples. Neutrons are continuously generated from a UFx matrix in a container or sample as a result of the interaction of alpha particles from uranium-decay α particles with fluorine nuclei in the matrix. Neutrons from 19F(α,n)22Na were once considered a poorly characterized background for assays of UFx samples via 238U spontaneous fission neutron detection [SMI2010B]. However, the yield of decay-α-driven neutrons is critical for 234,235U LEU and HEU assays, as it can used to determine both the total amount of uranium and the enrichment [BER2010]. This approach can be extremely valuable in a variety of safeguard applications, such as cylinder monitoring in underground uranium storage facilities, nuclear criticality safety studies, nuclear materials accounting, and other nonproliferation applications. The success of neutron-based assays critically depends on an accurate knowledge of the cross section of the (α,n) reaction that generates the neutrons. The 40% uncertainty in the 19F(α,n)22Na cross section currently limits the precision of such assays, and has been identified as a key factor in preventing accurate enrichment determinations [CRO2003]. The need for higher quality cross section data for (α,n) reactions has been a recurring conclusion in reviews of the nuclear data needs to support safeguards. The overarching goal of this project is to enable neutron detection to be used for precision Non- Destructive Assays (NDAs) of actinide-fluoride samples. This will significantly advance safeguards verification at existing declared facilities, nuclear materials accounting, process control, nuclear criticality safety monitoring, and a variety of other nonproliferation applications. To reach this goal, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rutgers University (RU), and the University of Notre

  17. Kinematic resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevlin, Fergal P.

    1995-01-01

    A new geometric formulation is given for the problem of determining position and orientation of a satellite scanner from error-prone ground control point observations in linear pushbroom imagery. The pushbroom satellite resection problem is significantly more complicated than that of the conventional frame camera because of irregular platform motion throughout the image capture period. Enough ephemeris data are typically available to reconstruct satellite trajectory and hence the interior orientation of the pushbroom imagery. The new approach to resection relies on the use of reconstructed scanner interior orientation to determine the relative orientations of a bundle of image rays. The absolute position and orientation which allows this bundle to minimize its distance from a corresponding set of ground control points may then be found. The interior orientation is represented as a kinematic chain of screw motions, implemented as dual-number quaternions. The motor algebra is used in the analysis since it provides a means of line, point, and motion manipulation. Its moment operator provides a metric of distance between the image ray and the ground control point.

  18. Exploring Homework Completion and Non-Completion in Post-Secondary Language Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoigne, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    While homework is something that language professionals often assign, based on the paucity of research on the topic, it is clearly not something to which much attention is given in terms of professional discourse or research. In the following pages, the author reviews the limited available research and describes a case study that seeks to examine…

  19. Study of human body: Kinematics and kinetics of a martial arts (Silat) performers using 3D-motion capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi Awang; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Azraai, Nur Zaidi

    2015-04-01

    The Interest in this studies of human kinematics goes back very far in human history drove by curiosity or need for the understanding the complexity of human body motion. To find new and accurate information about the human movement as the advance computing technology became available for human movement that can perform. Martial arts (silat) were chose and multiple type of movement was studied. This project has done by using cutting-edge technology which is 3D motion capture to characterize and to measure the motion done by the performers of martial arts (silat). The camera will detect the markers (infrared reflection by the marker) around the performer body (total of 24 markers) and will show as dot in the computer software. The markers detected were analyzing using kinematic kinetic approach and time as reference. A graph of velocity, acceleration and position at time,t (seconds) of each marker was plot. Then from the information obtain, more parameters were determined such as work done, momentum, center of mass of a body using mathematical approach. This data can be used for development of the effectiveness movement in martial arts which is contributed to the people in arts. More future works can be implemented from this project such as analysis of a martial arts competition.

  20. Kinematic Study of the Disrupting Globular Cluster Palomar 5 Using VLT Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenkirchen, Michael; Grebel, Eva K.; Dehnen, Walter; Rix, Hans-Walter; Cudworth, Kyle M.

    2002-09-01

    Wide-field photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have recently revealed that the Galactic globular cluster Palomar 5 is in the process of being tidally disrupted. Here we investigate the kinematics of this sparse remote star cluster using high-resolution spectra from the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Twenty candidate cluster giants located within 6' of the cluster center have been observed with the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph on VLT-UT2. The spectra provide radial velocities with a typical accuracy of 0.15 km s-1. We find that the sample contains 17 certain cluster members with very coherent kinematics, two unrelated field dwarfs, and one giant with a deviant velocity, which is most likely a cluster binary showing fast orbital motion. From the confirmed members we determine the heliocentric velocity of the cluster as -58.7+/-0.2 km s-1. The total line-of-sight velocity dispersion of the cluster stars is 1.1+/-0.2 km s-1 (all members) or 0.9+/-0.2 km s-1 (stars on the red giant branch only). This is the lowest velocity dispersion that has so far been measured for a stellar system classified as a globular cluster. The shape of the velocity distribution suggests that there is a significant contribution from orbital motions of binaries and that the dynamical part of the velocity dispersion is therefore still substantially smaller than the total dispersion. Comparing the observations with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of binaries we find that the frequency of binaries in Pal 5 is most likely between 24% and 63% and that the dynamical line-of-sight velocity dispersion of the cluster must be smaller than 0.7 km s-1 (90% confidence upper limit). The most probable values of the dynamical dispersion lie in the range 0.12<=σ/km s-1<=0.41 (68% confidence). Pal 5 thus turns out to be a dynamically very cold system. Our results are compatible with an equilibrium system. We find that the luminosity of the cluster implies a total mass of only 4.5 to 6.0

  1. Exploring MaNGA's kinematic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Different galaxy formation processes leave different imprints on the gas and stellar kinematic patterns for a galaxy. With MaNGA, we now have after one year of observations an unprecedented sample of 1400 nearby galaxies for which we can study gas and stellar kinematics in much detail, based on integral-field spectroscopy. We are measuring kinematic quantities such as LambdaR (angular momentum) and their (possible) correlations with other galaxy properties such as mass, morphology and environment. By quantifying the kinematic (sub)structures in velocity and dispersion maps, we will construct a kinematic galaxy classification that can be linked to their formation processes.

  2. A 3D kinematic study of the northern ejecta `jet' of the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Christine S.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2015-03-01

    We present moderate resolution [O III] λλ4959, 5007 line emission spectra of the Crab nebula's northern ejecta jet. These data along with an [O III] image of the Crab nebula were used to build three-dimensional kinematic maps of the jet and adjacent remnant nebulosity to better understand the jet's properties and thus its likely origin. We find the jet's systemic velocity to be +170 ± 15 km s-1 with radial velocities ranging from -190 to +480 km s-1. Our data indicate that the jet consists of thin filamentary walls (Vexp ≃ 40-75 km s-1), is virtually hollow in [O III] emission, and elliptical and funnel-like in shape rather than a straight cylindrical tube as previously thought. Examination of the Crab's 3D filamentary structure along the jet's base reveals a large and nearly emission-free opening in the remnant's thick outer ejecta shell. The jet's blueshifted and redshifted sides are surprisingly well defined and, like the jet's sharp western limb, appear radially aligned with the remnant's centre of expansion. These alignments, along with the opening in the nebula at the jet's base and proper motions indicating an expansion age in line with the 1054 supernova event, suggest a direct connection between the jet's formation and the Crab's radial expansion. While our analysis supports the scenario that the jet may simply represent the highest velocity material of the remnant's N-S bipolar expansion, the nature of this expansion asymmetry remains unclear.

  3. A kinematic study of the upper-limb motion of wheelchair basketball shooting in tetraplegic adults.

    PubMed

    Nunome, Hiroyuki; Doyo, Wataru; Sakurai, Shinji; Ikegmai, Yasuo; Yabe, Kyonosuke

    2002-01-01

    Kinematic aspects of the reduced shooting ability of tetraplegic (TP) wheelchair basketball players were investigated and compared with those of able-bodied (AB) basketball players. TP showed significantly smaller values for the vertical component of ball release velocity (4.26 (degree/s) versus 5.45 (degree/s)) and maximum wrist flexion angular velocity (878.4 (degree/s) versus 1445.9 degrees) than AB. Moreover, for a specific shoulder horizontal adduction motion, a larger range of shoulder abduction motion and larger displacements of the right shoulder were observed in TP. The reduced ball velocity of TP subjects with lesions at the C7 to C8 levels depended on an insufficient wrist flexion angular velocity, where dysfunction of available musculature may be a causal determinant. Further, the specific motions observed in TP subjects most likely maximize the function of available musculature, thereby partially compensating for the dysfunction of the wrist flexor muscles and contributing to resultant ball release velocity. PMID:11926328

  4. A theoretical study of burrowing in dry soil using razor clam-inspired kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Amos; Isava, Monica

    2015-11-01

    This work investigates whether the digging kinematics of Ensis directus, the Atlantic razor clam, could be utilized in dry soil. In wet soil, E. directus uses contractions of its valves to relieve stress on the surrounding soil, and then draw water towards its body to create a pocket of fluidized substrate. This locally fluidized zone requires much less force to move through than static soil, resulting in burrowing energy that scales linearly with depth, rather than depth squared. In dry soil, if the valves of a clam-like device are contracted fast enough, the horizontal stress in the soil could be brought to a zero-stress state. This would correspondingly reduce the local vertical stresses to zero, which could drastically lower the forces required to burrow compared to moving through static dry soil. Using analytical models of soil failure mechanics, we investigated the critical timescales for inducing a zero-stress state in soil surrounding an E. directus-like device with contracting valves. This device was modeled as a similar size to a real razor clam (15 mm wide). It was found that for most dry soils, the device would have to contract its valves in 0.02 seconds, a speed within the realm of possibility for a mechanical system. These results suggest that the burrowing method used by E. directus could feasibly be adapted for digging in dry soil.

  5. Joint kinematic calculation based on clinical direct kinematic versus inverse kinematic gait models.

    PubMed

    Kainz, H; Modenese, L; Lloyd, D G; Maine, S; Walsh, H P J; Carty, C P

    2016-06-14

    Most clinical gait laboratories use the conventional gait analysis model. This model uses a computational method called Direct Kinematics (DK) to calculate joint kinematics. In contrast, musculoskeletal modelling approaches use Inverse Kinematics (IK) to obtain joint angles. IK allows additional analysis (e.g. muscle-tendon length estimates), which may provide valuable information for clinical decision-making in people with movement disorders. The twofold aims of the current study were: (1) to compare joint kinematics obtained by a clinical DK model (Vicon Plug-in-Gait) with those produced by a widely used IK model (available with the OpenSim distribution), and (2) to evaluate the difference in joint kinematics that can be solely attributed to the different computational methods (DK versus IK), anatomical models and marker sets by using MRI based models. Eight children with cerebral palsy were recruited and presented for gait and MRI data collection sessions. Differences in joint kinematics up to 13° were found between the Plug-in-Gait and the gait 2392 OpenSim model. The majority of these differences (94.4%) were attributed to differences in the anatomical models, which included different anatomical segment frames and joint constraints. Different computational methods (DK versus IK) were responsible for only 2.7% of the differences. We recommend using the same anatomical model for kinematic and musculoskeletal analysis to ensure consistency between the obtained joint angles and musculoskeletal estimates. PMID:27139005

  6. Multi-ionic Kinematical Study of the H II Region Sharpless 2-158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriault, Léo; Joncas, Gilles

    2007-09-01

    The Sh 2-158 gas complex kinematics is analyzed using four lines from three different ions (Hα, [O III] λ5007, and [S II] λλ6727, 6731) and the CO 1-0 line. The O++ and S+ data cubes were obtained using MOS FP at the CFHT, while the H+ data cube was obtained using FaNTOmM at the Observatoire du mont Mégantic. More than 200,000 spectra (S/N>=5) were obtained. Maps of the radial velocity fields, the velocity line width field, and the electronic density field are discussed. All ionic mean radial velocities are blueshifted with respect to the molecular cloud (VLSR=-55.16+/-0.02 km s-1), more so as one goes from [S II] to Hα to [O III]. Two flows originating from the molecular cloud are identified. The encounter of the two flows, and possibly stellar winds, induces turbulence near the stars, causing larger line widths (~10 km s-1) than elsewhere in the field. The mean [S II] line width is smaller than the mean [O III] line width, which is smaller than the mean Hα line width. Those differences between the ions are explained by the smaller [O III] Strömgren sphere compared to the Hα Strömgren sphere and the restriction of [S II] to a shell of gas near the molecular cloud. The most probable density value is 225+/-25 cm-3. The observations are mostly in agreement with the Champagne model. A geometrical model is proposed for Sh 2-158.

  7. Study of 12C excited states decaying into three α particles using the thick target inverse kinematic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbui, M.; Hagel, K.; Gauthier, J.; Wuenschel, S.; de Souza, R. T.; Hudan, S.; Fang, D.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Zheng, H.; Giuliani, G.; Rapisarda, G.; Kim, E.-J.; Liu, X.; Natowitz, J. B.

    2016-05-01

    We will show that the Thick Target Inverse Kinematics (TTIK) technique can be used to investigate the breakup of excited selfconjugate nuclei into many alpha particles. Two test runs were performed at Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University to study the reaction 20Ne+α at maximum beam energies of 10 and 12 AMeV. Due to the limited statistics, only events with alpha multiplicity up to three were analyzed. The analysis of the three α-particle emission data allowed the identification of the Hoyle state and other 12C excited states decaying into three alpha particles. The results will be shown and compared with other data available in the literature.

  8. A numerical study of linear and nonlinear kinematic models in fish swimming with the DSD/SST method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fang-Bao

    2015-03-01

    Flow over two fish (modeled by two flexible plates) in tandem arrangement is investigated by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations numerically with the DSD/SST method to understand the differences between the geometrically linear and nonlinear models. In the simulation, the motions of the plates are reconstructed from a vertically flowing soap film tunnel experiment with linear and nonlinear kinematic models. Based on the simulations, the drag, lift, power consumption, vorticity and pressure fields are discussed in detail. It is found that the linear and nonlinear models are able to reasonably predict the forces and power consumption of a single plate in flow. Moreover, if multiple plates are considered, these two models yield totally different results, which implies that the nonlinear model should be used. The results presented in this work provide a guideline for future studies in fish swimming.

  9. Tensor networks from kinematic space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2016-07-01

    We point out that the MERA network for the ground state of a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory has the same structural features as kinematic space — the geometry of CFT intervals. In holographic theories kinematic space becomes identified with the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. We argue that in these settings MERA is best viewed as a discretization of the space of bulk geodesics rather than of the bulk geometry itself. As a test of this kinematic proposal, we compare the MERA representation of the thermofield-double state with the space of geodesics in the two-sided BTZ geometry, obtaining a detailed agreement which includes the entwinement sector. We discuss how the kinematic proposal can be extended to excited states by generalizing MERA to a broader class of compression networks.

  10. Tensor networks from kinematic space

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Czech, Bartlomiej; Lamprou, Lampros; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2016-07-20

    We point out that the MERA network for the ground state of a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory has the same structural features as kinematic space — the geometry of CFT intervals. In holographic theories kinematic space becomes identified with the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. We argue that in these settings MERA is best viewed as a discretization of the space of bulk geodesics rather than of the bulk geometry itself. As a test of this kinematic proposal, we compare the MERA representation of the thermofield-double state with the space of geodesics in the two-sided BTZ geometry,more » obtaining a detailed agreement which includes the entwinement sector. In conclusion, we discuss how the kinematic proposal can be extended to excited states by generalizing MERA to a broader class of compression networks.« less

  11. A morpho-kinematic and spectroscopic study of the bipolar nebulae: M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, N.; Akras, S.; Steffen, W.; Redman, M. P.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Harvey, E.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Complex bipolar shapes can be generated either as a planetary nebula or a symbiotic system. The origin of the material ionised by the white dwarf is very different in these two scenarios, and it complicates the understanding of the morphologies of planetary nebulae. Aims: The physical properties, structure, and dynamics of the bipolar nebulae, M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104, are investigated in detail with the aim of understanding their nature, shaping mechanisms, and evolutionary history. Both a morpho-kinematic study and a spectroscopic analysis, can be used to more accurately determine the kinematics and nature of each nebula. Methods: Long-slit optical echelle spectra are used to investigate the morpho-kinematics of M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104. The morpho-kinematic modelling software SHAPE is used to constrain both the morphology and kinematics of each nebula by means of detailed 3D models. Near-infrared (NIR) data, as well as optical, spectra are used to separate Galactic symbiotic-type nebulae from genuine planetary nebulae by means of a 2MASS J-H/H-Ks diagram and a λ4363/Hγ vs. λ5007/Hβ diagnostic diagram, respectively. Results: The best-fitted 3D models for M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104 provide invaluable kinematical information on the expansion velocity of its nebular components by means of synthetic spectra. The observed spectra match up very well with the synthetic spectra for each model, thus showing that each model is tightly constrained both morphologically and kinematically. Kinematical ages of the different structures of M 2-9 and Mz 3 have also been determined. Both diagnostic diagrams show M 2-9 and Hen 2-104 to fall well within the category of having a symbiotic source, whereas Mz 3 borders the region of symbiotic and young planetary nebulae in the optical diagram but is located firmly in the symbiotic region of the NIR colour-colour diagram. The optical diagnostic diagram is shown to successfully separate the two types of nebulae, however

  12. A Study of Primary Collision Dynamics in Inverse-Kinematics Reaction of 78Kr on 40Ca at a Bombarding Energy of 10 MeV per Nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Eric M.

    The CHIMERA multi-detector array at LNS Catania has been used to study the inverse-kinematics reaction of 78Kr + 40Ca at a bombarding energy of 10 A MeV. The multi-detector is capable of detecting individual products of the collision essential for the reconstruction of the collision dynamics. This is the first time CHIMERA has been used at low-energy, which offered a unique challenge for the calibration and interpretation of experimental data. Initial interrogation of the calibrated data revealed a class of selected events characterized by two coincident heavy fragments (atomic number Z>3) that together account for the majority of the total mass of the colliding system. These events are consistent with the complete fusion and subsequent binary split (fission) of a composite nucleus. The observed fission fragments are characterized by a broad A, Z distribution and are centered about symmetric fission while exhibiting relative velocities significantly higher than given by Viola systematics. Additional analysis of the kinematic relationship between the fission fragments was performed. Of note, is that the center-of-mass angular distribution (dsigma/dtheta) of the fission fragments exhibits an unexpected anisotropy inconsistent with a compound-nucleus reaction. This anisotropy is indicative of a dynamic fusion/fission-like process. The observed angular distribution features a forward-backward anisotropy most prevalent for mass-asymmetric events. Furthermore, the more massive fragment of mass-asymmetric events appears to emerge preferentially in the forward direction, along the beam axis. Analysis of the angular distribution of alpha particles emitted from these fission fragments suggests the events are associated mostly with central collisions. The observations associated with this subset of events are similar to those reported for dynamic fragmentation of projectile-like fragments, but have not before been observed for a fusion/fission-like process. Comparisons to

  13. In Vivo Kinematics of the Tibiotalar and Subtalar Joints in Asymptomatic Subjects: A High-Speed Dual Fluoroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Roach, Koren E; Wang, Bibo; Kapron, Ashley L; Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Saltzman, Charles L; Bo Foreman, K; Anderson, Andrew E

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of joint kinematics are essential to understand the pathomechanics of ankle disease and the effects of treatment. Traditional motion capture techniques do not provide measurements of independent tibiotalar and subtalar joint motion. In this study, high-speed dual fluoroscopy images of ten asymptomatic adults were acquired during treadmill walking at 0.5 m/s and 1.0 m/s and a single-leg, balanced heel-rise. Three-dimensional (3D) CT models of each bone and dual fluoroscopy images were used to quantify in vivo kinematics for the tibiotalar and subtalar joints. Dynamic tibiotalar and subtalar mean joint angles often exhibited opposing trends during captured stance. During both speeds of walking, the tibiotalar joint had significantly greater dorsi/plantarflexion (D/P) angular ROM than the subtalar joint while the subtalar joint demonstrated greater inversion/eversion (In/Ev) and internal/external rotation (IR/ER) than the tibiotalar joint. During balanced heel-rise, only D/P and In/Ev were significantly different between the tibiotalar and subtalar joints. Translational ROM in the anterior/posterior (AP) direction was significantly greater in the subtalar than the tibiotalar joint during walking at 0.5 m/s. Overall, our results support the long-held belief that the tibiotalar joint is primarily responsible for D/P, while the subtalar joint facilitates In/Ev and IR/ER. However, the subtalar joint provided considerable D/P rotation, and the tibiotalar joint rotated about all three axes, which, along with translational motion, suggests that each joint undergoes complex, 3D motion. PMID:27455417

  14. Gender differences in non-standard mapping tasks: A kinematic study using pantomimed reach-to-grasp actions.

    PubMed

    Copley-Mills, Freya; Connolly, Jason D; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana

    2016-09-01

    Comparison between real and pantomimed actions is used in neuroscience to dissociate stimulus-driven (real) as compared to internally driven (pantomimed) visuomotor transformations, with the goal of testing models of vision (Milner & Goodale, 1995) and diagnosing neuropsychological deficits (apraxia syndrome). Real actions refer to an overt movement directed toward a visible target whereas pantomimed actions refer to an overt movement directed either toward an object that is no longer available. Although similar, real and pantomimed actions differ in their kinematic parameters and in their neural substrates. Pantomimed-reach-to-grasp-actions show reduced reaching velocities, higher wrist movements, and reduced grip apertures. In addition, seminal neuropsychological studies and recent neuroimaging findings confirmed that real and pantomimed actions are underpinned by separate brain networks. Although previous literature suggests differences in the praxis system between males and females, no research to date has investigated whether or not gender differences exist in the context of real versus pantomimed reach-to-grasp actions. We asked ten male and ten female participants to perform real and pantomimed reach-to-grasp actions toward objects of different sizes, either with or without visual feedback. During pantomimed actions participants were required to pick up an imaginary object slightly offset relative to the location of the real one (which was in turn the target of the real reach-to-grasp actions). Results demonstrate a significant difference between the kinematic parameters recorded in male and female participants performing pantomimed, but not real reach-to-grasp tasks, depending on the availability of visual feedback. With no feedback both males and females showed smaller grip aperture, slower movement velocity and lower reach height. Crucially, these same differences were abolished when visual feedback was available in male, but not in female participants

  15. Aero-optimum hovering kinematics.

    PubMed

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J

    2015-08-01

    Hovering flight for flapping wing vehicles requires rapid and relatively complex reciprocating movement of a wing relative to a stationary surrounding fluid. This note develops a compact analytical aero-kinematic model that can be used for optimization of flapping wing kinematics against aerodynamic criteria of effectiveness (maximum lift) and efficiency (minimum power for a given amount of lift). It can also be used to make predictions of required flapping frequency for a given geometry and basic aerodynamic parameters. The kinematic treatment is based on a consolidation of an existing formulation that allows explicit derivation of flapping velocity for complex motions whereas the aerodynamic model is based on existing quasi-steady analysis. The combined aero-kinematic model provides novel explicit analytical expressions for both lift and power of a hovering wing in a compact form that enables exploration of a rich kinematic design space. Good agreement is found between model predictions of flapping frequency and observed results for a number of insects and optimal hovering kinematics identified using the model are consistent with results from studies using higher order computational models. For efficient flight, the flapping angle should vary using a triangular profile in time leading to a constant velocity flapping motion, whereas for maximum effectiveness the shape of variation should be sinusoidal. For both cases the wing pitching motion should be rectangular such that pitch change at stroke reversal is as rapid as possible. PMID:26248884

  16. Real-time kinematic biofeedback improves scapulothoracic control and performance during scapular-focused exercises: A single-blind randomized controlled laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Ana; Carnide, Filomena; Matias, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that scapular-focused therapeutic exercises hold promise for shoulder dynamic stability retraining. While recent findings show that therapeutic exercises can alter scapular neuromuscular function measured with muscle electromyography, no study has yet addressed the effects of kinematic biofeedback for improving scapulothoracic control and performance. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of kinematic biofeedback on motor relearning transfer during shoulder flexion and a daily activity, on the quality of scapular-focused exercise performance, and on execution time. Thirty healthy young adults were randomly distributed into two groups. Skin mounted electromagnetic sensors were used to collect kinematic data of the thorax, scapula and humerus while subjects performed a shoulder flexion and a daily activity, prior to and after scapular-focused exercises. For both groups, the exercise execution error and the execution time determined the scapulothoracic control and performance. Significant statistical differences were found in the exercise execution error results within the experimental group (z=5.313; p=0.037) and between groups (u=37.00; p=0.001; u=64.00; p=0.024). This study's results demonstrate that real-time kinematic biofeedback improves scapulothoracic control and performance during scapular-focused exercise execution. PMID:27107896

  17. Internal kinematic and physical properties in a BCD galaxy: Haro 15 in detail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firpo, V.; Bosch, G.; Hägele, G. F.; Díaz, A. I.; Morrell, N.

    2011-11-01

    We present a detailed study of the kinematic and physical properties of the ionized gas in multiple knots of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Haro 15. Using echelle and long slit spectroscopy data, obtained with different instruments at Las Campanas Observatory, we study the internal kinematic and physical conditions (electron density and temperature), ionic and total chemical abundances of several atoms, reddening and ionization structure. Applying direct and empirical methods for abundance determination, we perform a comparative analysis between these regions and in their different components. On the other hand, our echelle spectra show complex kinematics in several conspicuous knots within the galaxy. To perform an in-depth 2D spectroscopic study we complete this work with high spatial and spectral resolution spectroscopy using the Integral Field Unit mode on the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph instrument at the Gemini South telescope. With these data we are able to resolve the complex kinematical structure within star forming knots in Haro 15 galaxy.

  18. Successful Student Goal Completion: A Community College Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Research studies have shown that one half of all students who begin college fail to realize their goals. This case study of one community college provided a comprehensive examination of best practices developed over several years through strategic enrollment planning. Additionally, this dissertation examined the decision-making processes that…

  19. Shot-put kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, R.

    2005-11-01

    The problem of the optimum throw in the shot-put discipline is analysed by relaxing the assumption that the height H, from which the athlete releases the shot, does not depend on the angle θ which the arm of the putter makes with the horizontal axis. In this context, the kinematics of the shot-put is studied and results are compared with the traditional analysis, which considers the height H, the angle θ and the modulus V0 of the initial velocity of the metal sphere as independent parameters.

  20. A study of cervical spine kinematics and joint capsule strain in rear impacts using a human FE model.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Yuichi; Yasuki, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Junji

    2006-11-01

    Many efforts have been made to understand the mechanism of whiplash injury. Recently, the cervical facet joint capsules have been focused on as a potential site of injury. An experimental approach has been taken to analyze the vertebral motion and to estimate joint capsule stretch that was thought to be a potential cause of pain. The purpose of this study is to analyze the kinematics of the cervical facet joint using a human FE model in order to better understand the injury mechanism. The Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) was used to visually analyze the local and global kinematics of the spine. Soft tissues in the neck were newly modeled and introduced into THUMS for estimating the loading level in rear impacts. The model was first validated against human test data in the literature by comparing vertebrae motion as well as head and neck responses. Joint capsule strain was estimated from a maximum principal strain output from the elements representing the capsule tissues. A rear-end collision was then simulated using THUMS and a prototype seat model, assuming a delta-V of 25 km/h. The trajectory of the vertebrae was analyzed in a local coordinate system defined along the joint surface. Strain growth in the joint capsules was explained, as related to contact events between the occupant and the seat. A new seat concept was proposed to help lessen the loading level to the neck soft tissues. The foam material of the seat back was softened, the initial gap behind the head was reduced and the head restraint was stiffened for firm support. The lower seat back frame was also reinforced to withstand the impact severity at the given delta-V. Another rear impact simulation was conducted using the new seat concept model to examine the effectiveness of the new concept. The joint capsule strain was found to be relatively lower with the new seat concept. The study also discusses the influence of seat parameters to the vertebral motion and the resultant strain in the joint

  1. Complete Report: Kodak Graphic Arts Industry Manpower Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY.

    This report is believed to be the first nationwide attempt in more than three centuries of printing in America to define graphic arts manpower needs. The objectives of this study were to determine the current status of industry manpower and to predict manpower needs for the 1970's. To carry out these objectives two questionnaires were developed, a…

  2. The Public Library Effectiveness Study: The Complete Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van House, Nancy A.; Childers, Thomas A.

    The purpose of the Public Library Effectiveness Study was to define effectiveness for the public library institution. The research was designed not to measure effectiveness or evaluate particular libraries or groups of libraries, but rather to identify the feature or features of a public library that most directly attest to its effectiveness. The…

  3. Predicting Computer Science Ph.D. Completion: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, G. W.; Hughes, W. E., Jr.; Etzkorn, L. H.; Weisskopf, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of indicators that can be used to predict whether a student will succeed in a Computer Science Ph.D. program. The analysis was conducted by studying the records of 75 students who have been in the Computer Science Ph.D. program of the University of Alabama in Huntsville. Seventy-seven variables were…

  4. A novel approach to study human posture control: "Principal movements" obtained from a principal component analysis of kinematic marker data.

    PubMed

    Federolf, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    Human upright posture is maintained by postural movements, which can be quantified by "principal movements" (PMs) obtained through a principal component analysis (PCA) of kinematic marker data. The current study expands the concept of "principal movements" in analogy to Newton's mechanics by defining "principal position" (PP), "principal velocity" (PV), and "principal acceleration" (PA) and demonstrates that a linear combination of PPs and PAs determines the center of pressure (COP) variance in upright standing. Twenty-one subjects equipped with 27-markers distributed over all body segments stood on a force plate while their postural movements were recorded using a standard motion tracking system. A PCA calculated on normalized and weighted posture vectors yielded the PPs and their time derivatives, the PVs and PAs. COP variance explained by the PPs and PAs was obtained through a regression analysis. The first 15 PMs quantified 99.3% of the postural variance and explained 99.60% ± 0.22% (mean ± SD) of the anterior-posterior and 98.82 ± 0.74% of the lateral COP variance in the 21 subjects. Calculation of the PMs thus provides a data-driven definition of variables that simultaneously quantify the state of the postural system (PPs and PVs) and the activity of the neuro-muscular controller (PAs). Since the definition of PPs and PAs is consistent with Newton's mechanics, these variables facilitate studying how mechanical variables, such as the COP motion, are governed by the postural control system. PMID:26768228

  5. Pre-clinical and clinical walking kinematics in female breeding pigs with lameness: A nested case-control cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stavrakakis, S; Guy, J H; Syranidis, I; Johnson, G R; Edwards, S A

    2015-07-01

    Gait profiles were investigated in a cohort of female pigs experiencing a lameness period prevalence of 29% over 17 months. Gait alterations before and during visually diagnosed lameness were evaluated to identify the best quantitative clinical lameness indicators and early predictors for lameness. Pre-breeding gilts (n= 84) were recruited to the study over a period of 6 months, underwent motion capture every 5 weeks and, depending on their age at entry to the study, were followed for up to three successive gestations. Animals were subject to motion capture in each parity at 8 weeks of gestation and on the day of weaning (28 days postpartum). During kinematic motion capture, the pigs walked on the same concrete walkway and an array of infra-red cameras was used to collect three dimensional coordinate data of reflective skin markers attached to the head, trunk and limb anatomical landmarks. Of 24 pigs diagnosed with lameness, 19 had preclinical gait records, whilst 18 had a motion capture while lame. Depending on availability, data from one or two preclinical motion capture 1-11 months prior to lameness and on the day of lameness were analysed. Lameness was best detected and evaluated using relative spatiotemporal gait parameters, especially vertical head displacement and asymmetric stride phase timing. Irregularity in the step-to-stride length ratio was elevated (deviation  ≥ 0.03) in young pigs which presented lameness in later life (odds ratio 7.2-10.8). PMID:25986130

  6. VLBI study of maser kinematics in high-mass star-forming regions. I. G16.59-0.05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, A.; Moscadelli, L.; Cesaroni, R.; Tarchi, A.; Furuya, R. S.; Goddi, C.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: To study the high-mass star-forming process, we started a large project to unveil the gas kinematics close to young stellar objects (YSOs) through the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) of maser associations. By comparing the high spatial resolution maser data that traces the inner kinematics of the (proto)stellar cocoon with interferometric thermal data that traces the large-scale environment of the hot molecular core (HMC) harboring the (proto)stars, we can investigate the nature and identify the sources of large-scale motions. The present paper focuses on the high-mass star-forming region G16.59-0.05. Methods: Using the VLBA and the EVN arrays, we conducted phase-referenced observations of the three most powerful maser species in G16.59-0.05: H2O at 22.2 GHz (4 epochs), CH3OH at 6.7 GHz (3 epochs), and OH at 1.665 GHz (1 epoch). In addition, we performed high-resolution (≥0.1 arcsec), high-sensitivity (< 0.1 mJy) VLA observations of the radio continuum emission from the star-forming region at 1.3 and 3.6 cm. Results: This is the first work to report accurate measurements of the relative proper motions of the 6.7 GHz CH3OH masers. The different spatial and 3-D velocity distributions clearly indicate that the 22 GHz water and 6.7 GHz methanol masers trace different kinematic environments. The bipolar distribution of 6.7 GHz maser line-of-sight velocities and the regular pattern of observed proper motions suggest that these masers are tracing rotation around a central mass of about 35 M⊙. The flattened spatial distribution of the 6.7 GHz masers, oriented NW-SE, suggests that they can originate in a disk/toroid rotating around the massive YSO that drives the 12CO (2-1) outflow, oriented NE-SW, observed on an arcsec scale. The extended, radio continuum source observed close to the 6.7 GHz masers could be excited by a wide-angle wind emitted from the YSO associated with the methanol masers, and such a wind has proven to be energetic enough to drive the

  7. A Gemini/GMOS study of the physical conditions and kinematics of the blue compact dwarf galaxy Mrk 996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telles, Eduardo; Thuan, Trinh X.; Izotov, Yuri I.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present an integral field spectroscopic study with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) of the unusual blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy Mrk 996. Methods: We show through velocity and dispersion maps, emission-line intensity and ratio maps, and by a new technique of electron density limit imaging that the ionization properties of different regions in Mrk 996 are correlated with their kinematic properties. Results: From the maps, we can spatially distinguish a very dense high-ionization zone with broad lines in the nuclear region, and a less dense low-ionization zone with narrow lines in the circumnuclear region. Four kinematically distinct systems of lines are identified in the integrated spectrum of Mrk 996, suggesting stellar wind outflows from a population of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the nuclear region, superposed on an underlying rotation pattern. From the intensities of the blue and red bumps, we derive a population of ~473 late nitrogen (WNL) stars and ~98 early carbon (WCE) stars in the nucleus of Mrk 996, resulting in a high N(WR)/N(O+WR) of 0.19. We derive, for the outer narrow-line region, an oxygen abundance 12 + log (O/H) = 7.94 ± 0.30 (~0.2 Z⊙) by using the direct Te method derived from the detected narrow [O iii]λ4363 line. The nucleus of Mrk 996 is, however, nitrogen-enhanced by a factor of ~20, in agreement with previous CLOUDY modeling. This nitrogen enhancement is probably due to nitrogen-enriched WR ejecta, but also to enhanced nitrogen line emission in a high-density environment. Although we have made use here of two new methods - principal component analysis (PCA) tomography and a method for mapping low- and high-density clouds - to analyze our data, new methodology is needed to further exploit the wealth of information provided by integral field spectroscopy. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative

  8. Does the rectus femoris nerve block improve knee recurvatum in adult stroke patients? A kinematic and electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Delporte, L; Arsenault, L; Revol, P; Lefevre, M; Clevenot, D; Boisson, D; Mertens, P; Rossetti, Y; Luauté, J

    2014-02-01

    Knee recurvatum (KR) during gait is common in hemiplegic patients. Quadriceps spasticity has been postulated as a cause of KR in this population. The aim of this study was to assess the role of rectus femoris spasticity in KR by using selective motor nerve blocks of the rectus femoris nerve in hemiparetic stroke patients. The data from six adult, post-stroke hemiplegic patients who underwent a rectus femoris nerve block for a stiff-knee gait were retrospectively analyzed. An extensive clinical and functional evaluation was performed and gait was assessed by motion analysis (kinematic, kinetic and electromyographic parameters) before and during the block realized using 2% lidocaine injected under a neurostimulation and ultrasonographic targeting procedure. The main outcome measures were the peak knee extension in stance and peak knee extensor moment obtained during gait analysis. No serious adverse effect of the nerve block was observed. The block allowed a reduction of rectus femoris overactivity in all patients. Peak knee extension and extensor moment in stance did not improve in any patient, but peak knee flexion during the swing phase was significantly higher after block (mean: 31.2° post, 26.4 pre, p < 0.05). Our results provide arguments against the hypothesis that the spasticity of the rectus femoris contributes to KR. PMID:24286615

  9. A kinematic analysis of a haptic handheld stylus in a virtual environment: a study in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Broeren, Jurgen; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Rydmark, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Background Virtual Reality provides new options for conducting motor assessment and training within computer-generated 3 dimensional environments. To date very little has been reported about normal performance in virtual environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of a clinical procedure measuring trajectories with a haptic handheld stylus in a virtual environment and to establish normative data in healthy subjects using this haptic device. Methods Fifty-eight normal subjects; aged from 20 to 69, performed 3 dimensional hand movements in a virtual environment using a haptic device on three occasions within one week. Test-retest stability and standardized normative data were obtained for all subjects. Results No difference was found between test and retest. The limits of agreement revealed that changes in an individual's performance could not be detected. There was a training effect between the first test occasion and the third test occasion. Normative data are presented. Conclusion A new test was developed for recording the kinematics of the handheld haptic stylus in a virtual environment. The normative data will be used for purposes of comparison in future assessments, such as before and after training of persons with neurological deficits. PMID:17490470

  10. Rattlesnake strike behavior: kinematics

    PubMed

    Kardong; v

    1998-03-01

    The predatory behavior of rattlesnakes includes many distinctive preparatory phases leading to an extremely rapid strike, during which venom is injected. The rodent prey is then rapidly released, removing the snake's head from retaliation by the prey. The quick action of the venom makes possible the recovery of the dispatched prey during the ensuing poststrike period. The strike is usually completed in less than 0.5 s, placing a premium on an accurate strike that produces no significant errors in fang placement that could result in poor envenomation and subsequent loss of the prey. To clarify the basis for effective strike performance, we examined the basic kinematics of the rapid strike using high-speed film analysis. We scored numerous strike variables. Four major results were obtained. (1) Neurosensory control of the strike is based primarily upon sensory inputs via the eyes and facial pits to launch the strike, and upon tactile stimuli after contact. Correction for errors in targeting occurs not by a change in strike trajectory, but by fang repositioning after the jaws have made contact with the prey. (2) The rattlesnake strike is based upon great versatility and variation in recruitment of body segments and body postures. (3) Forces generated during acceleration of the head are transferred to posterior body sections to decelerate the head before contact with the prey, thereby reducing impact forces upon the snake's jaws. (4) Body acceleration is based on two patterns of body displacement, one in which acute sections of the body open like a gate, the other in which body segments flow around postural curves similar to movements seen during locomotion. There is one major implication of these results: recruitment of body segments, launch postures and kinematic features of the strike may be quite varied from strike to strike, but the overall predatory success of each strike by a rattlesnake is very consistent.

    PMID:9464964

  11. Study of the kinematic and load sharing properties of wormgearing with non-symmetric tooth profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, D. C.; Yuan, Qin

    1995-01-01

    The geometry of non-symmetric tooth profiles, i.e. tooth profiles with different pressure angles on the two sides of the tooth, is studied. A feasible non-symmetric tooth profile for application in helicopter transmissions is laid out as the best compromise among several conflicting factors. The non-symmetric tooth profile is then compared with the symmetric tooth profile studied previously. Based on the detailed comparisons it is concluded that the use of the non-symmetric tooth profile would severely limit the face width of the worm, consequently reduce the number of meshing teeth and cause much higher normal load on the individual gear teeth.

  12. Contributions to the study of students' ideas about the kinematics concepts velocity and acceleration: Implications in the didactic of the kinematic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbegoso-Sevillano, Victor Alfonso

    The concepts velocity and acceleration are within first whereupon all course of introductory physics begins and, later, they are continually applied in the development of the course when discussing dynamics, energy, electricity and waves, among other subjects. Therefore, this pair of concepts deserves special attention in the process of teaching and learning of physics. In this study, the ideas of the university students related to the velocity and acceleration concepts were identified and analyzed, and was determined the degree or level of understanding of such concepts. The study is of descriptive nature, and the results from this study it is tried to improve an aspect of the teaching and learning process in the course of physics. The guide questions were What are the previous conceptions on velocity and acceleration that university students have from courses of General Physics I (FISI 3001) and University Physics I (FISI 3011)? What is the genesis of those conceptions? How defer the previous ideas between students from different sex? What are the conceptual categories that stand out in the previous ideas of the students on velocity and acceleration? What difficulties find the students in the process of learning the concepts of velocity and acceleration? What degree of understanding have the students about the concepts of velocity and acceleration at the end of the semester compared to the beginning? The previous ideas that had the participants of low, average, and high academic performance about the concepts velocity and acceleration were identified by means of the analysis of the data obtained through questionnaires and interviews. This information allowed to suggest changes in the content, and the methodology, so that it was more relevant and can be more effective in accomplish objectives. The degree of understanding of the concepts velocity and acceleration was determined by means of the criterion of the ability that the student has to apply correctly such

  13. MUSE sneaks a peek at extreme ram-pressure stripping events - I. A kinematic study of the archetypal galaxy ESO137-001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Michele; Fossati, Matteo; Hau, George K. T.; Gavazzi, Giuseppe; Bower, Richard; Sun, Ming; Boselli, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    We present Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) observations of ESO137-001, a spiral galaxy infalling towards the centre of the massive Norma cluster at z ˜ 0.0162. During the high-velocity encounter of ESO137-001 with the intracluster medium, a dramatic ram-pressure stripping event gives rise to an extended gaseous tail, traced by our MUSE observations to >30 kpc from the galaxy centre. By studying the Hα surface brightness and kinematics in tandem with the stellar velocity field, we conclude that ram pressure has completely removed the interstellar medium from the outer disc, while the primary tail is still fed by gas from the inner regions. Gravitational interactions do not appear to be a primary mechanism for gas removal. The stripped gas retains the imprint of the disc rotational velocity to ˜20 kpc downstream, without a significant gradient along the tail, which suggests that ESO137-001 is fast moving along a radial orbit in the plane of the sky. Conversely, beyond ˜20 kpc, a greater degree of turbulence is seen, with velocity dispersion up to ≳100 km s-1. For a model-dependent infall velocity of vinf ˜ 3000 km s-1, we conclude that the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in the tail occurs on time-scales ≥6.5 Myr. Our work demonstrates the terrific potential of MUSE for detailed studies of how ram-pressure stripping operates on small scales, providing a deep understanding of how galaxies interact with the dense plasma of the cluster environment.

  14. Inverse Kinematics Studies of Intermediate-Energy Reactions Relevant for SEE and Medical Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Aichelin, J.; Bargholtz, Ch.; Geren, L.; Tegner, P.-E.; Zartova, I.; Blomgren, J.; Olsson, N.; Budzanowski, A.; Czech, B.; Skwirczynska, I.; Chubarov, M.; Lozhkin, O.; Murin, Yu.; Pljuschev, V.; Zubkov, M.; Ekstroem, C.; Kolozhvari, A.; Persson, H.; Westerberg, L.; Jakobsson, B.

    2005-05-24

    The lack of systematic experimental checks on the intermediate-energy nuclear model simulations of heavily ionizing recoils from nucleon-nucleus collisions -- critical inputs for the Single Event Effect analysis of microelectronics and dosimetry calculations including high-LET components in the cancer tumor radiation therapy -- has been a primary motivation for a new experiment planned at the CELSIUS nuclear storage ring of The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden. Details of the experiment and the first results from a feasibility study are presented here.

  15. Walking in a rotating space station, an electromyographic and kinematic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Biomechanics were studied of locomotion in a rotating environment like that of a space station at various gravity levels. Comparisons were made of the walking gait patterns and the amplitudes of various leg muscle electrical outputs at different gravity levels. The results of these tests are applicable to planning future space missions by providing a part of the information that will be needed to determine the type of vehicle and the gravity level to be provided for the astronauts if it is decided that artificial gravity is to be utilized.

  16. A joint coordinate system proposal for the study of the trapeziometacarpal joint kinematics.

    PubMed

    Cheze, L; Dumas, R; Comtet, J J; Rumelhart, C; Fayet, M

    2009-06-01

    The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) has recommended a standardisation for the motion reporting of almost all human joints. This study proposes an adaptation for the trapeziometacarpal joint. The definition of the segment coordinate system of both trapezium and first metacarpal is based on functional anatomy. The definition of the joint coordinate system (JCS) is guided by the two degrees of freedom of the joint, i.e. flexion-extension about a trapezium axis and abduction-adduction about a first metacarpal axis. The rotations obtained using three methods are compared on the same data: the fixed axes sequence proposed by Cooney et al., the mobile axes sequence proposed by the ISB and our alternative mobile axes sequence. The rotation amplitudes show a difference of 9 degrees in flexion-extension, 2 degrees in abduction-adduction and 13 degrees in internal-external rotation. This study emphasizes the importance of adapting the JCS to the functional anatomy of each particular joint. PMID:18853290

  17. Kinematic MRI study of upper-airway biomechanics using electrical muscle stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennick, Michael J.; Margulies, Susan S.; Ford, John C.; Gefter, Warren B.; Pack, Allan I.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a new and powerful method to study the movement and function of upper airway muscles. Our method is to use direct electrical stimulation of individual upper airway muscles, while performing state of the art high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have adapted a paralyzed isolated UA cat model so that positive or negative static pressure in the UA can be controlled at specific levels while electrical muscle stimulation is applied during MRI. With these techniques we can assess the effect of muscle stimulation on airway cross-sectional area compliance and soft tissue motion. We are reporting the preliminary results and MRI techniques which have enabled us to examine changes in airway dimensions which result form electrical stimulation of specific upper airway dilator muscles. The results of this study will be relevant to the development of new clinical treatments for obstructive sleep apnea by providing new information as to exactly how upper airway muscles function to dilate the upper airway and the strength of stimulation required to prevent the airway obstruction when overall muscle tone may not be sufficient to maintain regular breathing.

  18. U.S. Virtual School Trial Period and Course Completion Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Abigail; Barbour, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in policies virtual schools use to calculate course completion and retention rates impacts the comparability of these quality metrics. This study surveyed 159 U.S. virtual schools examining the variability in trial period and course completion policies--two policies that affect course completion rates. Of the 86 respondents, almost 70%…

  19. Radial velocities of three poorly studied clusters and the kinematics of open clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Christian R.; Friel, Eileen D. E-mail: efriel@indiana.edu

    2014-04-01

    We present radial velocities for stars in the field of the open star clusters Berkeley 44, Berkeley 81, and NGC 6802 from spectra obtained using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5 m telescope. These clusters are of intermediate age (1-3 Gyr), located within the solar Galactocentric radius, and have no previous radial velocity measurements. We find mean radial velocities of –9.6 ± 3.0 km s{sup –1}, 48.1 ± 2.0 km s{sup –1}, and 12.4 ± 2.8 km s{sup –1} for Be 44, Be 81, and NGC 6802, respectively. We present an analysis of radial velocities of 134 open clusters of a wide range of ages using data obtained in this study and the literature. Assuming the system of clusters rotates about the Galactic center with a constant velocity, we find older clusters exhibit a slower rotation and larger line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersion than younger clusters. The gradual decrease in rotational velocity of the cluster system with age is accompanied by a smooth increase in LOS velocity dispersion, which we interpret as the effect of heating on the open cluster system over time.

  20. Measuring Kinematic Variables in Front Crawl Swimming Using Accelerometers: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Callaway, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective data on swimming performance is needed to meet the demands of the swimming coach and athlete. The purpose of this study is to use a multiple inertial measurement units to calculate Lap Time, Velocity, Stroke Count, Stroke Duration, Stroke Rate and Phases of the Stroke (Entry, Pull, Push, Recovery) in front crawl swimming. Using multiple units on the body, an algorithm was developed to calculate the phases of the stroke based on the relative position of the body roll. Twelve swimmers, equipped with these devices on the body, performed fatiguing trials. The calculated factors were compared to the same data derived to video data showing strong positive results for all factors. Four swimmers required individual adaptation to the stroke phase calculation method. The developed algorithm was developed using a search window relative to the body roll (peak/trough). This customization requirement demonstrates that single based devices will not be able to determine these phases of the stroke with sufficient accuracy. PMID:26007718

  1. A Kinematic Study of the Nuclear Stellar Populations in Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rissmann, Aurea; Cid Fernandes, Roberto; Asari, N. V.; Vega, Luis Rodolfo; Schmitt, Henrique; González Delgado, Rosa

    2005-05-01

    Recent studies in the optical and UV have detected circumnuclear starbursts in 40% of nearby Seyfert-2 galaxies; about half of the remaining 60% present a UV excess whose nature is not well known, mainly because of the limitations of the current stellar population analysis techniques in the optical and UV domains. A possible way to circumvent these difficulties is to use a determination of the mass-to-light (M/L) ratio, obtained with a combination of velocity dispersion measurements and photometric information. Dynamical information in AGN (particularly in type 2) is better determined from NIR spectroscopic data, where the stellar absorption features are less affected by the nuclear continuum dilution. In this work, we present preliminary results of a spectroscopic survey of more than 60 Seyfert nuclei (mainly Seyfert 2s), conducted at ESO/La Silla and at KPNO. For many of these objects we have complementary data, such as HST images, optical and (in some cases) UV spectroscopy. The long-slit spectroscopy for the purpose of this project was performed around the NIR Ca II triplet lines at 8498, 8542 and 8662Å. Here we describe the analysis steps taken so far, and present the first results concerning velocity dispersion measurements in nuclear regions. With these data we aim to investigate the ambiguous Seyfert 2 nuclei nature, thus contributing to a better understanding of the AGN-starburst connection.

  2. Glenohumeral kinematics after soft tissue interposition graft and glenoid reaming: A cadaveric study

    PubMed Central

    Garbis, Nickolas G; Weber, Alexander E; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N

    2016-01-01

    Background: The management of young patients with glenohumeral arthritis is controversial. Resurfacing of the glenoid with biologic interposition and reaming of the glenoid have been suggested as potential treatment options. The goal of this study was to determine the change in glenohumeral contact pressures in interposition arthroplasty, as well as glenoid reaming in an arthritis model. We hypothesized that interposition with meniscal allograft will lead to the best normalization of contact pressure throughout the glenohumeral range of motion. Materials and Methods: Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders were tested in static positions of humeral abduction with a compressive load. Glenohumeral contact area, contact pressure, and peak force were determined sequentially for (1) intact glenoid (2) glenoid with cartilage removed (arthritis model) (3) placement of lateral meniscus allograft (4) placement of Achilles allograft (5) arthritis model with reamed glenoid. Results: The arthritis model demonstrated statistically higher peak pressures than intact glenoid and glenoid with interpositional allograft. Meniscal and Achilles allograft lowered mean contact pressure and increased contact area to a level equal to or more favorable than the control state. In contrast, the reamed glenoid did not show any statistical difference from the arthritis model for any of the recorded measures. Conclusion: Glenohumeral contact pressure is significantly improved with interposition of allograft at time zero compared to an arthritic state. Our findings suggest that concentric reaming did not differ from the arthritic model when compared to normal. These findings favor the use of allograft for interposition as a potential treatment option in patients with glenoid wear. PMID:27293292

  3. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study.

    PubMed

    Esteves, P O; Oliveira, L A S; Nogueira-Campos, A A; Saunier, G; Pozzo, T; Oliveira, J M; Rodrigues, E C; Volchan, E; Vargas, C D

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the "reach-to-grasp" and "bring-to-the-body" movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  4. Motor planning of goal-directed action is tuned by the emotional valence of the stimulus: a kinematic study

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, P. O.; Oliveira, L. A. S.; Nogueira-Campos, A. A.; Saunier, G.; Pozzo, T.; Oliveira, J. M.; Rodrigues, E. C.; Volchan, E.; Vargas, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    The basic underpinnings of homeostatic behavior include interacting with positive items and avoiding negative ones. As the planning aspects of goal-directed actions can be inferred from their movement features, we investigated the kinematics of interacting with emotion-laden stimuli. Participants were instructed to grasp emotion-laden stimuli and bring them toward their bodies while the kinematics of their wrist movement was measured. The results showed that the time to peak velocity increased for bringing pleasant stimuli towards the body compared to unpleasant and neutral ones, suggesting higher easiness in undertaking the task with pleasant stimuli. Furthermore, bringing unpleasant stimuli towards the body increased movement time in comparison with both pleasant and neutral ones while the time to peak velocity for unpleasant stimuli was the same as for that of neutral stimuli. There was no change in the trajectory length among emotional categories. We conclude that during the “reach-to-grasp” and “bring-to-the-body” movements, the valence of the stimuli affects the temporal but not the spatial kinematic features of motion. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that the kinematic features of a goal-directed action are tuned by the emotional valence of the stimuli. PMID:27364868

  5. Do Planning and Visual Integration Difficulties Underpin Motor Dysfunction in Autism? A Kinematic Study of Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Ariane M.; McGinley, Jennifer L.; Taffe, John R.; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the upper-limb movement kinematics of young children (3-7 years) with high-functioning autism using a point-to-point movement paradigm. Consistent with prior findings in older children, a difference in movement preparation was found in the autism group (n = 11) relative to typically developing children. In contrast to typically…

  6. A Study of Kinematics Modeling and the Computational Optimization of the Human Underwater Undulatory Kick by Comparison of Swimmers and Body Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoran; Liu, Geng; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2014-11-01

    Underwater Undulatory Swimming (UUS), better known as the underwater dolphin kick, is the most important technique in competitive swimming. Faster than three of the four strokes in swimming, UUS is permitted in the 15 m after dives and turns. In this study, we compared the UUS of a college-level swimmer and a younger swimmer. 3D human models were built and reconstructed using stereo-videos for identifying key components of undulatory kick kinematics with respect to strongly flexing joints. A gradient-based optimizer and an immersed boundary method based CFD solver was then used to study the hydrodynamic performance of each swimmer. Optimal settings of current kinematic models will help us to understand the efficiency of the observed undulatory kick mechanisms and further improvements of the human UUS strategy. This work is supported by NSF CEBT-1313217 and UVa HooS-STER program.

  7. Recent Inversion, Seismic Potential, and Neogene Kinematics of the Algerian Margin (Western Mediterranean) from Offshore Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deverchere, J.; Yelles, K.; Bracene, R.; Mercier de Lepinay, B. F.; Cattaneo, A.; Medaouri, M.; Gaullier, V.; Babonneau, N.; Ratzov, G.; Boudiaf, A.; Graindorge, D.; Kherroubi, A.; Strzerzynski, P. H.; Authemayou, C.; Djellit, H.; Heddar, A.; Maradja'03; Maradja-Samra'05 Scientific Teams

    2011-12-01

    The reasons to study the Algerian margin (Western Mediterranean) are at least threefold: (1) the seismic hazard offshore is obviously present but unconstrained, (2) the way the opening of the Algerian basin occurred is highly debated, and (3) this margin represents one of the rare examples on Earth of an ongoing subduction inception. We present an overview of recent findings on the tectonic evolution of this margin, where most of the plate convergence between Africa and Europe is taken up today, mostly from cruises MARADJA and MARADJA2/SAMRA led by joint Algerian and French teams. Large, overlapping active thrust faults and folds apparently dominate the seismotectonic pattern from the Atlas domain on land to the foot of the margin offshore, with a clear segmentation. Strain is distributed across the whole area, with a significant part of the relative plate convergence taken up offshore. Fault activity offshore is tenuous and most often indirect (Plio-Quaternary growth strata, folds, uplifted basins, scars and slope breaks). Along the eastern margin, faults form stepwise, en-échelon systems on the slope and in the deep basin. Some thrusts identified turn to fault-propagation folds at the sub-surface. Thrusts interact with the sediment flux, Messinian salt and seafloor currents, forming complex structures at deep-sea fans and scarps or scars on the main slope breaks. The 2003 Mw 6.9 Boumerdes rupture is correlated segmented cumulative scarps on the slope and at the foot of the margin. Using various VHR seismic reflection and coring analyses, we show that the record of turbidite deposition since ca. 10.000 yrs can be identified and correlated over long distances within or across large segments of the margin affected by the 1954, 1980 and 2003 events. The consequences in term of earthquake size and recovery of their recurrences (identification of paleo-events) are explored and discussed. Although we cannot associate the triggering of large turbidity currents to a

  8. A study of bicyclist kinematics and injuries based on reconstruction of passenger car-bicycle accident in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jin; Yang, Jikuang

    2014-10-01

    Like pedestrians, bicyclists are vulnerable road users, representing a population with a high risk of fatal and severe injuries in traffic accidents as they are unprotected during vehicle collisions. The objective of this study is to investigate the kinematics response of bicyclists and the correlation of the injury severity with vehicle impact speed. Twenty-four car-bicyclist cases with detailed information were selected for accident reconstruction using mathematical models, which was implemented in the MADYMO program. The dynamic response of bicyclists in the typical impact configuration and the correlation of head impact conditions were analyzed and discussed with respect to the head impact speed, time of head impact and impact angle of bicyclists to vehicle impact speed. Furthermore, the injury distribution of bicyclists and the risk of head injuries and fractures of lower limbs were investigated in terms of vehicle impact speed. The results indicate that wrap-around distance (WAD), head impact speed, time of head impact, head impact angle, and throw-out distance (TOD) of the bicyclists have a strong relationship with vehicle impact speed. The vehicle impact speed corresponding to a 50% probability of head AIS 2+ injuries, head AIS 3+ injuries, and lower limb fracture risk for bicyclists is 53.8km/h, 58.9km/h, and 41.2km/h, respectively. A higher vehicle impact speed produces a higher injury risk to bicyclist. The results could provide background knowledge for the establishment or modification of pedestrian regulations considering bicyclist protection as well as being helpful for developing safety measures and protection devices for bicyclists. PMID:24880929

  9. Occupant kinematics and shoulder belt retention in far-side lateral and oblique collisions: a parametric study.

    PubMed

    Forman, Jason L; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco; Lessley, David J; Riley, Patrick; Sochor, Mark; Heltzel, Sara; Ash, Joseph; Perz, Rafal; Kent, Richard W; Seacrist, Thomas; Arbogast, Kristy B; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2013-11-01

    In far-side impacts, head contact with interior components is a key injury mechanism. Restraint characteristics have a pronounced influence on head motion and injury risk. This study performed a parametric examination of restraint, positioning, and collision factors affecting shoulder belt retention and occupant kinematics in far-side lateral and oblique sled tests with post mortem human subjects (PMHS). Seven PMHS were subjected to repeated tests varying the D-ring position, arm position, pelvis restraint, pre-tensioning, and impact severity. Each PMHS was subjected to four low-severity tests (6.6 g sled acceleration pulse) in which the restraint or position parameters were varied and then a single higher-severity test (14 g) with a chosen restraint configuration (total of 36 tests). Three PMHS were tested in a purely lateral (90° from frontal) impact direction; 4 were tested in an oblique impact (60° from frontal). All subjects were restrained by a 3-point seatbelt. Occupant motion was tracked with a 3D optoelectric high speed motion capture system. For all restraint configurations, the 60° oblique impact angle was associated with greater lateral head excursion than the 90° impact angle. This unexpected result reflects the increased axial rotation of the torso in the oblique impacts, which allowed the shoulder to displace more relative to the shoulder belt and thus the head to displace more relative to the sled buck. Restraint engagement of the torso and shoulder was actually greater in the purely lateral impacts than in the oblique impacts. Pretensioning significantly reduced lateral head excursion (175 mm average in the low-severity tests across all restraint configurations). PMID:24435738

  10. Top quark mass and kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Barberis, Emanuela; /Northeastern U.

    2006-05-01

    A summary of the results on the measurement of the Top Quark mass and the study of the kinematics of the t{bar t} system at the Tevatron collider is presented here. Results from both the CDF and D0 collaborations are reported.

  11. Study of Gamow-Teller transitions from 132Sn via the (p,n) reaction at 220 MeV/u in inverse kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasano, M.; Yasuda, J.; Zegers, R. G. T.; Baba, H.; Chao, W.; Dozono, M.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Isobe, T.; Jhang, G.; Kamaeda, D.; Kubo, T.; Kurata-Nishimura, M.; Milman, E.; Motobayashi, T.; Otsu, H.; Panin, V.; Powell, W.; Sakai, H.; Sako, M.; Sato, H.; Shimizu, Y.; Stuhl, L.; Suzuki, H.; Tangwancharoen, S.; Takeda, H.; Uesaka, T.; Yoneda, K.; Zenihiro, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Sumikama, T.; Tako, T.; Nakamura, T.; Kondo, Y.; Togano, Y.; Shikata, M.; Tsubota, J.; Yako, K.; Shimoura, K.; Ota, S.; Kawase, S.; Kubota, Y.; Takaki, M.; Michimasa, S.; Kisamori, K.; Lee, C. S.; Tokieda, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Koyama, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Wakasa, T.; Sakaguchi, S.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Murakami, T.; Nakatsuka, N.; Kaneko, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Mucher, D.; Reichert, S.; Bazin, D.; Lee, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    The charge-exchange (p,n) reaction at 220 MeV has been measured to extract the strength distribution of Gamow-Teller transitions from the doubly magic unstable nucleus 132Sn. A recently developed experimental technique of measuring the (p,n) reaction in inverse kinematics has been applied to the study of unstable nuclei in the mass region around A˜100 for the first time. We have combined the low-energy neutron detector WINDS and the SAMURAI spectrometer at the RIKEN radioactive isotope beam factory (RIBF). The particle identification plot for the reaction residues obtained by the spectrometer provides the clear separation of the CE reaction channel from other background events, enabling us to identify kinematic curves corresponding the (p, n) reaction. Further analysis to reconstruct the excitation energy spectrum is ongoing.

  12. New kinematic constraints on the Cantabrian orocline: A paleomagnetic study from the Peñalba and Truchas synclines, NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lozano, Javier; Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Franco, Piedad

    2016-06-01

    The Cantabrian orocline is a large structure that bends the Variscan orogen of Western Europe in NW Iberia. The extensively studied kinematics of its core, the foreland of the orogen, indicates that the structure is secondary, i.e. acquired after the formation of the orogenic edifice. However, the extent of the Cantabrian orocline away from its core is under debate. In this paper we study the kinematics of the Cantabrian orocline beyond the foreland. We collected and analyzed samples from the northern and central parts of the Truchas syncline, which provides new data within the hinterland of the orogen in NW Iberia. The analysis of 320 samples shows a late Carboniferous remagnetization with an E to NE declination and shallow downward inclinations. These results suggest a counter-clockwise rotation of ~ 60° and peri-equatorial but still southern hemisphere latitude for Iberia during the uppermost Carboniferous-Early Permian. This rotation fits with the expected kinematic evolution of the Truchas syncline if it indeed was part of the Cantabrian orocline.

  13. AN OSIRIS STUDY OF THE GAS KINEMATICS IN A SAMPLE OF UV-SELECTED GALAXIES: EVIDENCE OF 'HOT AND BOTHERED' STARBURSTS IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Schiminovich, David; O'Dowd, Matt; Goncalves, Thiago S.; Martin, Chris; Wyder, Ted; Overzier, Roderik; Law, David R.; Heckman, Tim E-mail: ds@astro.columbia.edu E-mail: tsg@astro.caltech.edu E-mail: wyder@srl.caltech.edu E-mail: heckman@pha.jhu.edu

    2009-07-10

    We present data from Integral Field Spectroscopy for three supercompact UV-Luminous Galaxies (ScUVLGs). As nearby (z {approx} 0.2) compact (R {sub 50} {approx} 1-2 kpc) bright Paschen-{alpha} sources, with unusually high star formation rates (SFR = 3-100 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1}), ScUVLGs are an ideal population for studying detailed kinematics and dynamics in actively star-forming galaxies. In addition, ScUVLGs appear to be excellent analogs to high-redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), and our results may offer additional insight into the dynamics of LBGs. Previous work by our team has shown that the morphologies of these galaxies exhibit tidal features and companions, and in this study we find that the dynamics of ScUVLGs are dominated by disturbed kinematics of the emission line gas-suggesting that these galaxies have undergone recent feedback, interactions, or mergers. While two of the three galaxies do display rotation, v/{sigma}<1-suggesting dispersion-dominated kinematics rather than smooth rotation. We also simulate how these observations would appear at z {approx} 2. Lower resolution and loss of low surface brightness features cause some apparent discrepancies between the low-z (observed) and high-z (simulated) interpretations and quantitatively gives different values for v/{sigma}, yet simulations of these low-z analogs manage to detect the brightest regions well and resemble actual high-z observations of LBGs.

  14. Kinematically Detected Halo Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Martin C.

    Clues to the origins and evolution of our Galaxy can be found in the kinematics of stars around us. Remnants of accreted satellite galaxies produce over-densities in velocity-space, which can remain coherent for much longer than spatial over-densities. This chapter reviews a number of studies that have hunted for these accretion relics, both in the nearby solar-neighborhood and the more-distant stellar halo. Many observational surveys have driven this field forwards, from early work with the Hipparcos mission, to contemporary surveys like RAVE and SDSS. This active field continues to flourish, providing many new discoveries, and will be revolutionized as the Gaia mission delivers precise proper motions for a billion stars in our Galaxy.

  15. Efficient kinematics for jet-propelled swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas; Miller, Laura; Peng, Jifeng

    2013-11-01

    We use vortex sheet and viscous simulations and an analytical model to search for efficient jet-propelled swimming kinematics at large Reynolds numbers (1000 and above). We prescribe different power-law kinematics for the bell contraction and expansion. In the simulations, two types of efficient kinematics are found: a bell radius velocity which is a nearly linear function of time, and a ``burst-and-coast'' kinematics. The analytical model studies the contraction phase only, and finds that the efficiency-optimizing kinematics transition from a nearly linear bell radius velocity (similar to the numerics) for small-to-moderate output power to an exponentially-decaying bell radius velocity for large output power.

  16. On the kinematic analysis of robotic mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, J.; Roth, B.

    1999-12-01

    The kinematic analyses, of manipulators and other robotic devices composed of mechanical links, usually depend on the solution of sets of nonlinear equations. There are a variety of both numerical and algebraic techniques available to solve such systems of equations and to give bounds on the number of solutions. These solution methods have also led to an understanding of how special choices of the various structural parameters of a mechanism influence the number of solutions inherent to the kinematic geometry of a given structure. In this paper, results from studying the kinematic geometry of such systems are reviewed, and the three most useful solution techniques are summarized. The solution techniques are polynomial continuation, Groebner bases, and elimination. The authors then discuss the results that have been obtained with these techniques in the solution of two basic problems, namely, the inverse kinematics for serial-chain manipulators, and the direct kinematics of in-parallel platform devices.

  17. A Study of Predictors of College Completion among SEEK Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazon, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the strength of the relationship between eight situational and demographic variables and college completion among immigrant students in SEEK, an educational opportunity program. The eight variables studied as possible predictors of college completion included household composition, length of residency, English as a primary…

  18. Influence of Motivational Design on Completion Rates in Online Self-Study Pharmacy-Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittenger, Amy; Doering, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Student retention rates are a constant concern in higher education, but this concern has become especially challenging as online courses become more common and there are widespread reports of low completion rates for online, self-study courses. We evaluated four self-study online pharmacy courses with a history of very high completion rates for…

  19. Completion Time Dynamics of Doctoral Studies at Makerere University: A Hazard Model Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Oonyu, Joseph; Ocaya, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Issues related to attrition and completion time of graduate studies are certainly an internationally challenging and important area of higher education literature. In this paper, completion time dynamics of doctoral studies at Makerere University were investigated based on data extracted for all 295 candidates in the commencement cohorts from 2000…

  20. Perceptions of Student-Teacher Relationships and GED Completion: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Melissa Tynetta

    2013-01-01

    This study took an in depth look at student-teacher relationships as one institutional barrier affecting GED completion among adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of student-instructor relationships, specifically Instructor Connectedness and Instructor Anxiety, and its effects on adults seeking GED completion. Data from…

  1. Inverse Kinematic Study of the (26g)Al(d,p)(27)Al Reaction and Implications for Destruction of (26)Al in Wolf-Rayet and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars.

    PubMed

    Margerin, V; Lotay, G; Woods, P J; Aliotta, M; Christian, G; Davids, B; Davinson, T; Doherty, D T; Fallis, J; Howell, D; Kirsebom, O S; Mountford, D J; Rojas, A; Ruiz, C; Tostevin, J A

    2015-08-01

    In Wolf-Rayet and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, the (26g)Al(p,γ)(27)Si reaction is expected to govern the destruction of the cosmic γ-ray emitting nucleus (26)Al. The rate of this reaction, however, is highly uncertain due to the unknown properties of key resonances in the temperature regime of hydrogen burning. We present a high-resolution inverse kinematic study of the (26g)Al(d,p)(27)Al reaction as a method for constraining the strengths of key astrophysical resonances in the (26g)Al(p,γ)(27)Si reaction. In particular, the results indicate that the resonance at E(r)=127  keV in (27)Si determines the entire (26g)Al(p,γ)(27)Si reaction rate over almost the complete temperature range of Wolf-Rayet stars and AGB stars. PMID:26296114

  2. Kinematic and Thermodynamic Study of a Shallow Hailstorm Sampled by the McGill Bistatic Multiple-Doppler Radar Network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protat, Alain; Zawadzki, Isztar; Caya, Alain

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the kinematic and thermodynamic characteristics of a shallow hailstorm sampled by the McGill bistatic multiple-Doppler radar network on 26 May 1997. This storm consists of two main shallow convective cells (depth less than 5 km) aligned along a SW-NE convective line propagating to the southeast. The authors also analyze the interactions between the two cells during the life cycle of the convective line. In particular it is shown that dynamic interactions play a major role in the intensification of the second cell. This storm is found to evolve in a manner that shares some characteristics with both multicell and supercell storms. A rotating updraft associated with a mesocyclone develops in the mature stage of the storm, which is characteristic of a supercell. However, the lack of a `vault' structure on the precipitation field, the relatively fast evolution of the cells, and other characteristics detailed henceforth seem to indicate that this storm only shares a few of the typical characteristics of supercells. Some morphological and thermodynamic similarities are found between this storm and recent numerical simulations of shallow supercell storms. While the first cell starts dissipating, a cold downward rear inflow is developing, which resembles the `rear-flank' downdraft documented in several numerical and observational studies of tornadic storms. This downdraft acts to intensify the updraft associated with the second cell and produces a precipitation overhang within which hail eventually forms. When this pocket of hail falls to the ground a bit later, it accelerates the low-level rear inflow that progressively cuts off the inflow ahead of the storm, leading to the progressive dissipation of the second cell.The physical processes involved in the evolution of rotation at low levels to midlevels within this storm are evaluated using the vorticity equation. It is shown that the time tendency of the positive and negative vertical

  3. Upper Limb Assessment in Tetraplegia: Clinical, Functional and Kinematic Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; de Oliveira, Roberta; Ortolan, Rodrigo L.; Varoto, Renato; Cliquet, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and functional evaluations with kinematic variables of upper limp reach-to-grasp movement in patients with tetraplegia. Twenty chronic patients were selected to perform reach-to-grasp kinematic assessment using a target placed at a distance equal to the arm's length. Kinematic variables (hand peak…

  4. Occupant Kinematics in Laboratory Rollover Tests: PMHS Response.

    PubMed

    Lessley, David J; Riley, Patrick; Zhang, Qi; Foltz, Patrick; Overby, Brian; Heltzel, Sara; Sochor, Mark; Crandall, Jeff; Kerrigan, Jason R

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the current study was to characterize the whole-body kinematic response of restrained PMHS in controlled laboratory rollover tests. A dynamic rollover test system (DRoTS) and a parametric vehicle buck were used to conduct 36 rollover tests on four adult male PMHS with varied test conditions to study occupant kinematics during the rollover event. The DRoTS was used to drop/catch and rotate the test buck, which replicated the occupant compartment of a typical mid-sized SUV, around its center of gravity without roof-to-ground contact. The studied test conditions included a quasi-static inversion (4 tests), an inverted drop and catch that produced a 3 g vertical deceleration (4 tests), a pure dynamic roll at 360 degrees/second (11 tests), and a roll with a superimposed drop and catch produced vertical deceleration (17 tests). Each PMHS was restrained with a three-point belt and was tested in both leading-side and trailing-side front-row seating positions. Whole-body kinematics were measured using a 3D motion capture system that quantified occupant displacement relative to the vehicle buck for the X-axis (longitudinal), Y-axis (lateral), and Z-axis (vertical) directions. Additionally the spine was divided into five segments to describe intrasegmental kinematics of the spine, including segment rotations as well as spinal extension and compression. The reported data represent the most complete set of kinematic response targets for a restrained occupant in a variety of dynamic rollover conditions, and are immediately useful for efforts to evaluate and improve existing ATDs and computational models for use in the rollover crash environment. PMID:26192958

  5. An Exploration of the Relationship between Optimistic Explanatory Style and Doctoral Study Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Constance V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have explored the positive characteristics that motivate doctoral students to pursue and complete their degree; research has historically focused on doctoral student attrition. To fully understand doctoral student success, research must focus on factors that contribute to completion. Based on Seligman's theory of explanatory…

  6. 40 CFR 26.1607 - Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research. 26.1607 Section 26.1607 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1607...

  7. 40 CFR 26.1607 - Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Human Studies Review Board review of completed human research. 26.1607 Section 26.1607 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Review of Proposed and Completed Human Research § 26.1607...

  8. Single bundle anterior cruciate reconstruction does not restore normal knee kinematics at six months: an upright MRI study.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, J A; Sutherland, A G; Smith, F W

    2011-10-01

    Abnormal knee kinematics following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament may exist despite an apparent resolution of tibial laxity and functional benefit. We performed upright, weight-bearing MR scans of both knees in the sagittal plane at different angles of flexion to determine the kinematics of the knee following unilateral reconstruction (n = 12). The uninjured knee acted as a control. Scans were performed pre-operatively and at three and six months post-operatively. Anteroposterior tibial laxity was determined using an arthrometer and patient function by validated questionnaires before and after reconstruction. In all the knees with deficient anterior cruciate ligaments, the tibial plateau was displaced anteriorly and internally rotated relative to the femur when compared with the control contralateral knee, particularly in extension and early flexion (mean lateral compartment displacement: extension 7.9 mm (sd 4.8), p = 0.002 and 30° flexion 5.1 mm (sd 3.6), p = 0.004). In all ten patients underwent post-operative scans. Reconstruction reduced the subluxation of the lateral tibial plateau at three months, with resolution of anterior displacement in early flexion, but not in extension (p = 0.015). At six months, the reconstructed knee again showed anterior subluxation in both the lateral (mean: extension 4.2 mm (sd 4.2), p = 0.021 and 30° flexion 3.2 mm (sd 3.3), p = 0.024) and medial compartments (extension, p = 0.049). Our results show that despite improvement in laxity and functional benefit, abnormal knee kinematics remain at six months and actually deteriorate from three to six months following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. PMID:21969431

  9. Kinematics of planetary nebulae. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purgathofer, A.; Perinotto, M.

    1981-08-01

    In a program of study of radial velocities of planetary nebulae, 84 spectra of eight planetary nebulae in the direction of the galactic anticenter have been obtained at the L. Figl Observatory near Vienna with an image tube spectrograph giving a reciprocal dispersion of 26 A/mm. With this material, the kinematical behavior of the objects was studied, and it is shown that most of them deviate significantly from circular motion in the Galaxy.

  10. A measuring model study of a new coordinate-measuring machine based on the parallel kinematic mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dejun; Huang, Qingcheng; Che, Rensheng; Ai, Qinghui

    1999-11-01

    This paper introduces a new coordinate measuring machine (CMM) comprising a parallel kinematic mechanism with three spatial degrees of freedom and describes its structure, measuring theory and characteristics. Compared with the conventional CMM, this kind of CMM has a simple structure, a flexible probe posture, low moving errors, high stiffness and minimal deformations etc. In this paper, the measuring model of the new parallel CMM is established according to the theory of the spatial mechanics and verified by computer simulation. This research offers a theoretical basis for developing new CMMs.

  11. Kinematic significance of mingling-rolling structures in lava flows: a case study from Porri Volcano (Salina, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, Guido

    A basaltic andesite lava flow from Porri Volcano (Salina, Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) is composed of two different magmas. Magma A (51vol.% of crystals) has a dacitic glass composition, and magma B (18vol.% of crystals), a basaltic glass composition. Magma B is hosted in A and consists of sub-spherical enclaves and boudin-like, banding and rolling structures (RS). Four types of RS have been recognized: σ-typeδ-type complex σ-δ-types and transitional structures between sub-spherical enclaves and rolling structures. An analysis of the RS has been performed in order to reconstruct the flow kinematics and the mechanism of flow emplacement. Rolling structures have been selected in three sites located at different distances from the vent. In all sites most RS show the same sense of shear. Kinematic analysis of RS allows the degree of flow non-coaxiality to be determined. The non-coaxiality is expressed by the kinematic vorticity number Wk, a measure of the ratio Sr between pure shear strain rate and simple shear strain rate. The values of Wk calculated from the measured shapes of microscopic RS increase with increasing distance from the vent, from approximately 0.5 to 0.9. Results of the structural analysis reveal that the RS formed during the early-intermediate stage of flow emplacement. They represent originally sub-spherical enclaves deformed at low shear strain. At higher strain, RS deformed to give boudin-like and stretched banding structures. Results of the kinematic analysis suggest that high viscosity lava flows are heterogeneous non-ideal shear flows in which the degree of non-coaxiality increases with the distance from the vent. In the vent area, deformation is intermediate between simple shear and pure shear. Farther from the vent, deformation approaches ideal simple shear. Lateral extension processes occur only in the near-vent zone, where they develop in response to the lateral push of magma extruded from the vent. Lateral shortening processes develop in

  12. A kinematic study of the neutral and ionized gas in the irregular dwarf galaxies IC4662 and NGC5408

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eymeren, Janine; Koribalski, Bärbel S.; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen; Bomans, Dominik J.

    2010-09-01

    The feedback between massive stars and the interstellar medium is one of the most important processes in the evolution of dwarf galaxies. This interaction results in numerous neutral and ionized gas structures that have been found both in the disc and in the halo of these galaxies. However, their origin and fate are still poorly understood. We here present new HI and optical data of two Magellanic irregular dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume: IC4662 and NGC5408. The HI line data were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and are part of the `Local Volume HI Survey'. They are complemented by optical images and spectroscopic data obtained with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) New Technology Telescope and the ESO 3.6-m telescope. Our main aim is to study the kinematics of the neutral and ionized gas components in order to search for outflowing gas structures and to make predictions about their fate. Therefore, we perform a Gaussian decomposition of the HI and Hα line profiles. We find the HI gas envelopes of IC4662 and NGC5408 to extend well beyond the optical discs, with HI to optical diameter ratios of above 4. The optical disc is embedded into the central HI maximum in both galaxies. However, higher resolution HI maps show that the HI intensity peaks are typically offset from the prominent HII regions. While NGC5408 shows a fairly regular HI velocity field, which allows us to derive a rotation curve, IC4662 reveals a rather twisted HI velocity field, possibly caused by a recent merger event. We detect outflows with velocities between 20 and 60 kms-1 in our Hα spectra of both galaxies, sometimes with HI counterparts of similar velocity. We suggest the existence of expanding superbubbles, especially in NGC5408. This is also supported by the detection of full width at half-maxima as high as 70 kms-1 in Hα, which cannot be explained by thermal broadening alone. In the case of NGC5408, we compare our results with the escape velocity of the galaxy

  13. Kinematics at the intersection of the Garlock and Death Valley fault zones, California: Integration of TM data and field studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael; Verosub, Ken; Finnerty, Tony; Brady, Roland

    1987-01-01

    The Garlock and Death Valley fault zones in SE California are two active strike-slip faults coming together on the east side of the Avawatz Mtns. The kinematics of this intersection, and the possible continuation of either fault zone, are being investigated using a combination of field mapping, and processing and interpretation of remotely sensed image data. Regional and local relationships are derivable from Thematic Mapper data (30 m resolution), including discrimination and relative age dating of alluvial fans, bedrock mapping, and fault mapping. Aircraft data provide higher spatial resolution over more limited areas. Hypotheses being considered are: (1) the Garlock fault extends east of the intersection; (2) the Garlock fault terminates at the intersection and the Death Valley fault continues southeastward; and (3) the Garlock fault has been offset right laterally by the Death Valley fault which continues to the southeast. Preliminary work indicates that the first hypothesis is invalid. From kinematic considerations, image analysis, and field work the third hypothesis is favored. The projected continuation of the Death Valley zone defines the boundary between the Mojave crustal block and the Basin and Range block.

  14. Integrating concepts and skills: Slope and kinematics graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonelli, Edward P., Jr.

    The concept of force is a foundational idea in physics. To predict the results of applying forces to objects, a student must be able to interpret data representing changes in distance, time, speed, and acceleration. Comprehension of kinematics concepts requires students to interpret motion graphs, where rates of change are represented as slopes of line segments. Studies have shown that majorities of students who show proficiency with mathematical concepts fail accurately to interpret motion graphs. The primary aim of this study was to examine how students apply their knowledge of slope when interpreting kinematics graphs. To answer the research questions a mixed methods research design, which included a survey and interviews, was adopted. Ninety eight (N=98) high school students completed surveys which were quantitatively analyzed along with qualitative information collected from interviews of students (N=15) and teachers ( N=2). The study showed that students who recalled methods for calculating slopes and speeds calculated slopes accurately, but calculated speeds inaccurately. When comparing the slopes and speeds, most students resorted to calculating instead of visual inspection. Most students recalled and applied memorized rules. Students who calculated slopes and speeds inaccurately failed to recall methods of calculating slopes and speeds, but when comparing speeds, these students connected the concepts of distance and time to the line segments and the rates of change they represented. This study's findings will likely help mathematics and science educators to better assist their students to apply their knowledge of the definition of slope and skills in kinematics concepts.

  15. Calibration of parallel kinematic devices using sequential determination of kinematic parameters

    SciTech Connect

    JOKIEL JR.,BERNHARD; BIEG,LOTHAR F.; ZIEGERT,JOHN C.

    2000-04-06

    In PKM Machines, the Cartesian position and orientation of the tool point carried on the platform is obtained from a kinematic model of the particular machine. Accurate positioning of these machines relies on the accurate knowledge of the parameters of the kinematic model unique to the particular machine. The parameters in the kinematic model include the spatial locations of the joint centers on the machine base and moving platform, the initial strut lengths, and the strut displacements. The strut displacements are readily obtained from sensors on the machine. However, the remaining kinematic parameters (joint center locations, and initial strut lengths) are difficult to determine when these machines are in their fully assembled state. The size and complexity of these machines generally makes it difficult and somewhat undesirable to determine the remaining kinematic parameters by direct inspection such as in a coordinate measuring machine. In order for PKMs to be useful for precision positioning applications, techniques must be developed to quickly calibrate the machine by determining the kinematic parameters without disassembly of the machine. A number of authors have reported techniques for calibration of PKMs (Soons, Masory, Zhuang et. al., Ropponen). In two other papers, the authors have reported on work recently completed by the University of Florida and Sandia National Laboratories on calibration of PKMs, which describes a new technique to sequentially determine the kinematic parameters of an assembled parallel kinematic device. The technique described is intended to be used with a spatial coordinate measuring device such as a portable articulated CMM measuring arm (Romer, Faro, etc.), a Laser Ball Bar (LBB), or a laser tracker (SMX< API, etc.). The material to be presented is as follows: (1) methods to identify the kinematic parameters of 6--6 variant Stewart platform manipulators including joint center locations relative to the workable and spindle nose

  16. Association between abnormal kinematics and degenerative change in knees of people with chronic anterior cruciate ligament deficiency: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Scarvell, Jennifer M; Smith, Paul N; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Galloway, Howard R; Woods, Kevin R

    2005-01-01

    Progressive degeneration of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knee may be partly due to chondral trauma at the time of ACL rupture and repeat episodes of subluxation, but also due to aberrant kinematics altering the wear pattern at the tibiofemoral interface. The hypothesis that altered kinematics, represented by the tibiofemoral contact pattern, would be associated with articular cartilage degeneration in ACL-deficient knees was tested in a cross-sectional study of 23 subjects with a history of > 10 years ACL deficiency without knee reconstruction. Subjects were aged 31 to 67 years. Eleven were male, 12 were female. Sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans enabled tibiofemoral contact mapping as subjects performed a closed-chain leg-press. Images were acquired at 15 degree intervals from 0 degrees to 90 degrees knee flexion. Articular cartilage degeneration was assessed by diagnostic MRI and where possible, arthroscopy. The ACL-deficient knees had a posterior tibiofemoral contact pattern on the tibial plateau compared to the healthy knees (F((1,171)) = 9.2, p = 0.003). The difference appeared to be seen in the medial compartment (F((1,171)) = 3.2, p = 0.07), though this failed to reach significance. Articular cartilage degeneration in the medial compartment was related to the variation of the tibiofemoral contact pattern (r = -0.53, p = 0.01). Articular cartilage degeneration was not related to time since injury (r = -0.16, p = 0.65). The association between aberrant kinematics and degenerative change may stimulate thinking on the role of dynamic stability and neuromuscular co-ordination in joint protection. PMID:16321130

  17. Kinematic Measures for Evaluating Surgical Skills in Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES).

    PubMed

    Roche, Christopher A; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Dargar, Saurabh; Matthes, Kai; De, Suvranu

    2014-01-01

    Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery is an emerging procedure that requires training and adoption to be successful. Currently no objective performance metrics exist for evaluating skills for NOTES. In this work, we have improved upon our previous study on objective performance metrics using kinematic measures by introducing two new measures, the flex and the roll and recruiting more subjects to increase the statistical power. The measures were evaluated in a transgastric NOTES appendectomy procedure performed with ex-vivo organs using the EASIE-RTM trainer box. Four motion tracking sensors attached to an endoscope were used to measure the scope position and orientation to compute the kinematic measures. Results from our study showed that completion time, economy of motion, jerk and roll of the scope are valid kinematic measures to differentiate between expert and novice NOTES surgeons. PMID:24732533

  18. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Mattione

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  19. Complete Study of Hadroproduction of a ϒ Meson Associated with a Prompt J /ψ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Yu-Jie

    2016-08-01

    We present the first complete study of ϒ and prompt J /ψ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete O (αS6) color-singlet contribution, the O (αS2α2) electroweak contribution, and the complete nonrelativistic S -wave and P -wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study was motivated by the recent evidence reported by the D0 Collaboration of prompt J /ψ and ϒ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double-parton scattering contribution made by the D0 Collaboration. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is σeff≤8.2 mb at 68% confidence level from the D0 measurement.

  20. Complete Study of Hadroproduction of a ϒ Meson Associated with a Prompt J/ψ.

    PubMed

    Shao, Hua-Sheng; Zhang, Yu-Jie

    2016-08-01

    We present the first complete study of ϒ and prompt J/ψ production from single-parton scattering, including the complete O(α_{S}^{6}) color-singlet contribution, the O(α_{S}^{2}α^{2}) electroweak contribution, and the complete nonrelativistic S-wave and P-wave color-octet contribution as well as the feeddown contribution. Our study was motivated by the recent evidence reported by the D0 Collaboration of prompt J/ψ and ϒ simultaneous production at the Tevatron. With our complete evaluation, we are able to refine the determination of the double-parton scattering contribution made by the D0 Collaboration. We find that the effective cross section characterizing the importance of double-parton scatterings is σ_{eff}≤8.2  mb at 68% confidence level from the D0 measurement. PMID:27541462

  1. CME Kinematics and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-H.; Gallagher, P. T.

    The goal of this study is to investigate the driving mechanisms of CMEs and to infer the magnetic field properties at the onset of the instability. We use EIT 195 Å images and LASCO white-light coronagraph data of a CME event that occurred on 17 December 2006. It was a long-duration event, and was associated with an occulted C2.1 class flare. To determine the driving mechanism, we quantitatively and qualitatively compared the observationally obtained kinematic evolution with that predicted by three CME models: the breakout model (BO, see Antiochos et al. 1999; Lynch et al. 2008; DeVore and Antiochos 2008), the catastrophe model (CM, see Priest and Forbes 2000), and the toroidal instability model (TI, see Chen 1989; Kliem and Török 2006). Our results indicate that this CME is best represented by the CM model. We infer that, at the onset of the instability, the Alfvén speed is approximately 120 km s-1 and the height of the flux rope is roughly 100-200Mm. These parameter values are related to the magnetic environment and the loop geometry and can be used to infer the magnetic condition at the onset of the eruption.We intend to submit the full analysis to A&A.

  2. 75 FR 52364 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies, University of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Department of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies... in possession of the Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las... made by the Department of Anthropology & Ethnic Studies, University of Nevada Las Vegas,...

  3. Effect of Device Rigidity and Physiological Loading on Spinal Kinematics after Dynamic Stabilization : An In-Vitro Biomechanical Study

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Kwonsoo; Yang, Inchul; Kim, Namhoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of posterior implant rigidity on spinal kinematics at adjacent levels by utilizing a cadaveric spine model with simulated physiological loading. Methods Five human lumbar spinal specimens (L3 to S1) were obtained and checked for abnormalities. The fresh specimens were stripped of muscle tissue, with care taken to preserve the spinal ligaments and facet joints. Pedicle screws were implanted in the L4 and L5 vertebrae of each specimen. Specimens were tested under 0 N and 400 N axial loading. Five different posterior rods of various elastic moduli (intact, rubber, low-density polyethylene, aluminum, and titanium) were tested. Segmental range of motion (ROM), center of rotation (COR) and intervertebral disc pressure were investigated. Results As the rigidity of the posterior rods increased, both the segmental ROM and disc pressure at L4-5 decreased, while those values increased at adjacent levels. Implant stiffness saturation was evident, as the ROM and disc pressure were only marginally increased beyond an implant stiffness of aluminum. Since the disc pressures of adjacent levels were increased by the axial loading, it was shown that the rigidity of the implants influenced the load sharing between the implant and the spinal column. The segmental CORs at the adjacent disc levels translated anteriorly and inferiorly as rigidity of the device increased. Conclusion These biomechanical findings indicate that the rigidity of the dynamic stabilization implant and physiological loading play significant roles on spinal kinematics at adjacent disc levels, and will aid in further device development. PMID:26713140

  4. Three tooth kinematic coupling

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    2000-01-01

    A three tooth kinematic coupling based on having three theoretical line contacts formed by mating teeth rather than six theoretical point contacts. The geometry requires one coupling half to have curved teeth and the other coupling half to have flat teeth. Each coupling half has a relieved center portion which does not effect the kinematics, but in the limit as the face width approaches zero, three line contacts become six point contacts. As a result of having line contact, a three tooth coupling has greater load capacity and stiffness. The kinematic coupling has application for use in precision fixturing for tools or workpieces, and as a registration device for a work or tool changer or for optics in various products.

  5. Three tooth kinematic coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.C.

    2000-05-23

    A three tooth kinematic coupling is disclosed based on having three theoretical line contacts formed by mating teeth rather than six theoretical point contacts. The geometry requires one coupling half to have curved teeth and the other coupling half to have flat teeth. Each coupling half has a relieved center portion which does not effect the kinematics, but in the limit as the face width approaches zero, three line contacts become six point contacts. As a result of having line contact, a three tooth coupling has greater load capacity and stiffness. The kinematic coupling has application for use in precision fixturing for tools or workpieces, and as a registration device for a work or tool changer or for optics in various products.

  6. A kinematic study of 0509-67.5, the second youngest supernova remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and its astrophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovey, Luke

    Supernova remnants are the lasting interactions of shock waves that develop in the wake of supernovae. These remnants, especially those in our galaxy and our companion galaxies, allow us to study supernovae for thousands of years after the initial stellar explosions. Remnants that are formed from Ia supernovae, which are the explosions and complete annihilation of white dwarf stars, are of particular interest due to the explosions' value as standard candles in cosmological studies. The shock waves in these young supernova remnants offer an unparalleled look into the physical processes that take place there, especially since these shocks are often simpler to study than shocks with strong radiative components that are present in remnants that are formed from the core-collapse supernovae of massive stars. I will detail the work of my kinematic study of the second youngest remnant in the Large Magellanic Cloud, 0509--67.5, which has been confirmed to be the result of a Ia supernova. Chapter 2 details the proper motion measurements made on the forward shock of this remnant, which has led to many key results. I was able to use the results of ii the global shock speed in the remnant to measure the density of neutral hydrogen in the ambient medium into which these shocks expand. In addition, I use the measurements of the shock speed for select portions of the forward shock to search for signatures of efficient cosmic-ray acceleration. Hydrodynamic simulations are then employed to constrain the age and ambient medium density of 0509--67.5, as well as to place limits on the compression factor at the immediate location of the blast wave. Chapter 3 uses the proper motion results from chapter 2 to determine possible asymmetries in the expansion of the remnant for the eastern and western limbs. These measurements are then used as constraints in hydrodynamic simulations to assess the possible dynamical offset of the explosion site compared to the geometric center of 0509

  7. Kinematic top analyses at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Cobal-Grassman, M.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-01-01

    We present an update of the top quark analysis using kinematic techniques in {rho}{ovr string {rho}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We reported before on a study which used 19.3 pb{sup -1} of data from the 1992-93 collider run, but now we use a larger data sample of 67 pb{sup -1}. First, we analyze the total transverse energy of the hard collision in W+{ge}3 jet events, showing the likely presence of a t{ovr string t} component in the event sample. Next, we compare in more detail the kinematic structure of W+{ge}3 jet events with expectations for top pair production and with background processes, predominantly direct W+ jet production. We again find W+{ge}3 jet events which cannot be explained in terms of background, but show kinematic features as expected from top. These events also show evidence for beauty quarks. The findings confirm the observation of top events made earlier in the data of the 1992-93 collider run.

  8. A Keck Adaptive Optics Survey of a Representative Sample of Gravitationally Lensed Star-forming Galaxies: High Spatial Resolution Studies of Kinematics and Metallicity Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leethochawalit, Nicha; Jones, Tucker A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Stark, Daniel P.; Richard, Johan; Zitrin, Adi; Auger, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We discuss spatially resolved emission line spectroscopy secured for a total sample of 15 gravitationally lensed star-forming galaxies at a mean redshift of z≃ 2 based on Keck laser-assisted adaptive optics observations undertaken with the recently improved OSIRIS integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph. By exploiting gravitationally lensed sources drawn primarily from the CASSOWARY survey, we sample these sub-L{}* galaxies with source-plane resolutions of a few hundred parsecs ensuring well-sampled 2D velocity data and resolved variations in the gas-phase metallicity. Such high spatial resolution data offer a critical check on the structural properties of larger samples derived with coarser sampling using multiple-IFU instruments. We demonstrate how kinematic complexities essential to understanding the maturity of an early star-forming galaxy can often only be revealed with better sampled data. Although we include four sources from our earlier work, the present study provides a more representative sample unbiased with respect to emission line strength. Contrary to earlier suggestions, our data indicate a more diverse range of kinematic and metal gradient behavior inconsistent with a simple picture of well-ordered rotation developing concurrently with established steep metal gradients in all but merging systems. Comparing our observations with the predictions of hydrodynamical simulations suggests that gas and metals have been mixed by outflows or other strong feedback processes, flattening the metal gradients in early star-forming galaxies.

  9. Predicting High School Completion Using Student Performance in High School Algebra: A Mixed Methods Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiado, Wendy S.

    2012-01-01

    Too many of our nation's youth have failed to complete high school. Determining why so many of our nation's students fail to graduate is a complex, multi-faceted problem and beyond the scope of any one study. The study presented herein utilized a thirteen-step mixed methods model developed by Leech and Onwuegbuzie (2007) to demonstrate…

  10. Completion Time Dynamics for Master's and Doctoral Studies at Makerere University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamala, Robert; Oonyu, Joseph C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamics of completion time of master's studies and how such dynamics relate to those of doctoral studies at Makerere University, Uganda. The assessment is based on administrative data of 605 master's degree students at the University in the 2004 and 2005 enrollment cohorts. The total elapsed time from first enrollment to…

  11. Teaching about Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Written by Jim and Jane Nelson, Teaching About Kinematics is the latest AAPT/PTRA resource book. Based on physics education research, the book provides teachers with the resources needed to introduce students to some of the fundamental building blocks of physics. It is a carefully thought-out, step-by-step laboratory-based introduction to the…

  12. Kinematically redundant robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baillieul, J.; Hollerbach, J.; Brockett, R.; Martin, D.; Percy, R.; Thomas, R.

    1987-01-01

    Research on control, design and programming of kinematically redundant robot manipulators (KRRM) is discussed. These are devices in which there are more joint space degrees of freedom than are required to achieve every position and orientation of the end-effector necessary for a given task in a given workspace. The technological developments described here deal with: kinematic programming techniques for automatically generating joint-space trajectories to execute prescribed tasks; control of redundant manipulators to optimize dynamic criteria (e.g., applications of forces and moments at the end-effector that optimally distribute the loading of actuators); and design of KRRMs to optimize functionality in congested work environments or to achieve other goals unattainable with non-redundant manipulators. Kinematic programming techniques are discussed, which show that some pseudo-inverse techniques that have been proposed for redundant manipulator control fail to achieve the goals of avoiding kinematic singularities and also generating closed joint-space paths corresponding to close paths of the end effector in the workspace. The extended Jacobian is proposed as an alternative to pseudo-inverse techniques.

  13. Kinematics of Tape Recording.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes mathematics of the nonliner relationships between a constant-speed, capstan-driven magnetic tape transport mechanism and a constant-angular-velocity take-up reel. The relationship, derived from the sum of a partial, serves in recognition of a finite tape. Thickness can serve as an example of rotational kinematics. (Author/SK)

  14. Studies of the local interstellar medium. VIII - Morphology and kinematics of the diffuse interstellar clouds toward Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, P. C.; Sembach, K.; York, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Interstellar clouds in the direction of the Orion association show only positive velocities for target stars within 190 pc of the sun, and both positive and negative velocities for more distant target stars, confirming an earlier prediction by Cowie, Songaila, and York (1979). The nearby positive velocity cloud, designated here as Orion-Lepus 70 (OL 70), is a standard diffuse interstellar cloud: it is subject to the ambient galactic radiation field, with properties consistent with T about equal to 100 K and n about equal to 3/cu cm. Combined with a column density log N(H) = 19.8-20.0/sq cm, these values imply a cloud thickness of about 7 pc. The kinematics of OL 70 are consistent with either an origin as part of the expanding Loop I superbubble shell, or as part of Lindbald's expanding ring, or a synthesis of the two models. The negative velocity interstellar components seen in stars at d not less than 200 pc are caused by interstellar matter accelerated by the expanding Ori-Eri superbubble. Relatively dense interstellar gas at positive LSR velocities is also found within the Orion association, so that it is difficult to pick out OL 70 components in the spectra of the distant stars.

  15. A new approach to kinematic feature extraction from the human right ventricle for classification of hypertension: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jia; Wang, Yingqian; Simon, Marc A.; Brigham, John C.

    2012-12-01

    This work presents a novel approach to analyze the function of the human right ventricle (RV) by deriving kinematic features of the relative change in shape throughout the cardiac cycle. The approach is anatomically consistent, allows direct comparison across populations of individuals, and potentially provides new metrics to improve the diagnosis and understanding of cardiovascular diseases such as pulmonary hypertension (PH). The details of the approach are presented, which includes a variation of harmonic topological mapping and proper orthogonal decomposition techniques, with particular focus on their applicability with respect to untagged cardiac imaging data. Results are shown for the decomposition of a collection of clinically obtained human RV endocardial surfaces segmented from cardiac computed tomography imaging into the fundamental shape change features for individuals both with and without PH. The features are shown to be consistent and converging towards intrinsically physiological components for the heart, and may potentially represent a new set of features for classifying the progressive change in RV function caused by PH, particularly in comparison to traditional clinical metrics.

  16. A study of the structure and kinematics of the narrow-line region in Seyfert galaxies. III. Individual objects

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S. )

    1991-03-01

    An individual analysis is presented of the narrow-line profiles of 16 Seyfert galaxies. Substructure is observed in all but one of the sample objects. A direct relationship between the radio structure and these emission-line components is proposed in about half of the objects. The emission-line components generally have flux ratios which are quite similar to the rest of the narrow-line gas. These results suggest that the radio-emitting plasma strongly affects the kinematics of the thermal gas of the narrow-line region (NLR), but not its ionization state. Evidence for ionization/density stratification of the gas in the NLR is found in 4(ionization)/5(density) of the 11 objects for which a multispecies analysis is possible. The stronger cases of stratification are found in the objects whose emission lines present a minimum of profile substructure. A multicomponent model of the NLR is proposed to explain the results of this paper and previous ones. 192 refs.

  17. A VLT/FLAMES STUDY OF THE PECULIAR INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 1846. I. KINEMATICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, A. D.; Da Costa, G. S.; Yong, D.; Ferguson, A. M. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present high-resolution VLT/FLAMES observations of red giant stars in the massive intermediate-age Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1846, which, on the basis of its extended main-sequence turnoff (EMSTO), possesses an internal age spread of Almost-Equal-To 300 Myr. We describe in detail our target selection and data reduction procedures, and construct a sample of 21 stars possessing radial velocities indicating their membership of NGC 1846 at high confidence. We consider high-resolution spectra of the planetary nebula Mo-17, and conclude that this object is also a member of the cluster. Our measured radial velocities allow us to conduct a detailed investigation of the internal kinematics of NGC 1846, the first time this has been done for an EMSTO system. The key result of this work is that the cluster exhibits a significant degree of systemic rotation, of a magnitude comparable to the mean velocity dispersion. Using an extensive suite of Monte Carlo models we demonstrate that, despite our relatively small sample size and the substantial fraction of unresolved binary stars in the cluster, the rotation signal we detect is very likely to be genuine. Our observations are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of simulations modeling the formation of multiple populations of stars in globular clusters, where a dynamically cold, rapidly rotating second generation is a common feature. NGC 1846 is less than one relaxation time old, so any dynamical signatures encoded during its formation ought to remain present.

  18. Factors influencing attempted and completed suicide in postnatal women: A population-based study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Wang, Shun-Mu; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aims of study were to investigate risk factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. This nested case-control study was conducted using the medical and death data of nearly all pregnant women for the period 2002-2012 in Taiwan. A total of 139 cases of attempted suicide and 95 cases of completed suicide were identified; for each case, 10 controls were randomly selected and matched to the cases according to age and year of delivery. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The mean attempted and completed suicide rates were 9.91 and 6.86 per 100,000 women with live births, respectively. Never having married and postpartum depression also increased the risk of attempted suicide (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09-3.88 and OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.10-5.75, respectively) and completed suicide (OR = 20.27; 95% CI = 8.99-45.73 and OR = 21.72; 95% CI = 8.08-58.37, respectively). Other factors for attempted suicide included being widowed or divorced, and having a caesarean delivery or suicide history. Other factors for completed suicide included lower education level, low infant birth weight, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorder. These results suggest that people should appropriately assess potential risk factors and provide assistance for postnatal women to reduce the occurrence of suicide events. PMID:27173845

  19. Different strategies in solving series completion inductive reasoning problems: an fMRI and computational study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peipeng; Jia, Xiuqin; Taatgen, Niels A; Zhong, Ning; Li, Kuncheng

    2014-08-01

    Neural correlate of human inductive reasoning process is still unclear. Number series and letter series completion are two typical inductive reasoning tasks, and with a common core component of rule induction. Previous studies have demonstrated that different strategies are adopted in number series and letter series completion tasks; even the underlying rules are identical. In the present study, we examined cortical activation as a function of two different reasoning strategies for solving series completion tasks. The retrieval strategy, used in number series completion tasks, involves direct retrieving of arithmetic knowledge to get the relations between items. The procedural strategy, used in letter series completion tasks, requires counting a certain number of times to detect the relations linking two items. The two strategies require essentially the equivalent cognitive processes, but have different working memory demands (the procedural strategy incurs greater demands). The procedural strategy produced significant greater activity in areas involved in memory retrieval (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC) and mental representation/maintenance (posterior parietal cortex, PPC). An ACT-R model of the tasks successfully predicted behavioral performance and BOLD responses. The present findings support a general-purpose dual-process theory of inductive reasoning regarding the cognitive architecture. PMID:24841995

  20. The Benefits and Challenges Hospitality Management Students Experience by Working in Conjunction with Completing Their Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoffstall, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous researchers have suggested that in order to be successful in the hospitality industry, students need to obtain work experience in addition to completing their degrees. Although the benefit of gaining such experience from the industry viewpoint has been well documented, few studies have assessed the benefits and challenges faced by…

  1. 75 FR 67999 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Anthropological Studies Center, Archaeological Collections Facility, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given...

  2. Emerging Adulthood and Gender Differences in Adult Bachelor Degree Completion: A Multi-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Riley, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Adult undergraduate students constitute 40% of the total undergraduates studying in the United States. However, male undergraduates and male undergraduates over the age of 25 are less likely to enroll in and complete a bachelor's degree than their female counterparts. Given the detrimental employment impacts of not earning a bachelor's…

  3. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  4. Facilitating Independence amongst Chinese International Students Completing a Bachelor of Applied Business Studies Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warring, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on facilitating independent learning amongst Chinese international students completing a Bachelor's Degree. A rationale for cultivating independence is provided and a model of independent learning developed, based on Grow's Staged Self-Directed Learning model and the 1996 Situational Leadership model of Hersey and Blanchard.…

  5. Undergraduate Degree Completion: A Study of Time and Efficiency to Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyan, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine time and efficiency to undergraduate degree completion. Four dependent variables were examined including semesters enrolled, semesters elapsed, graduation efficiency index (GEI), and alternative GEI. Many independent variables were assessed to determine if they had a correlation to time or…

  6. 21 CFR 99.303 - Extension of time for completing planned studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Extension of time for completing planned studies. 99.303 Section 99.303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON UNAPPROVED/NEW USES FOR MARKETED DRUGS, BIOLOGICS, AND DEVICES FDA Action on Submissions, Requests,...

  7. 21 CFR 99.303 - Extension of time for completing planned studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extension of time for completing planned studies. 99.303 Section 99.303 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON UNAPPROVED/NEW USES FOR MARKETED DRUGS, BIOLOGICS, AND DEVICES FDA Action on Submissions, Requests,...

  8. Online Notes: Differential Effects of Studying Complete or Partial Graphically Organized Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Andrew D.; Crooks, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    The authors investigated in this study the effects of two electronic notes conditions (complete vs. partial) and two testing conditions (immediate vs. delayed) on three types of tests (fact, structure, and application). A 2 x 2 factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) yielded no significant main effects for notes conditions on the fact…

  9. Vocational Technical and Adult Education Student Follow-Up Study of 1974-1975 Completions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Jim

    The survey population for the study consisted of 1,025 Vocational Preparatory completions in Sarasota County, Florida, from whom a 63% response rate was obtained. Information was sought concerning their availability for employment, employment experience, relevance of education to employment, place of work, wages, method used in securing work,…

  10. Nursing Students’ Self-Graded Motivation to Complete their Programme of Study

    PubMed Central

    Stomberg, Margareta Warrén; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore variation in nursing students’ motivation to complete their programme of study, as well as factors relating to low versus high motivation and students’ opinions of what would increase their motivation to complete their programme of study. A study was carried out between April 2006 and December 2007. A total of 872 students registered in a 3-year nursing programme randomly participated in self-rating their motivation score once each semester. Descriptive statistics, statistical calculations and content analysis regarding open-ended questions were performed. Most of the students, 73%, rated their motivation as ≥6 on a 0-10 Likert scale; and 16% gave a rating of ≤4. The desire to become a registered nurse (RN) and having a positive attitude towards the studies were the main factors influencing high motivation to complete the programme of study. Having a negative attitude towards the studies was an explanation of decreased motivation. There was a significant decrease (p=0.001) in the motivation score with respect to number of semesters, and motivation increased with the student’s age (p=0.0119). Suggestions for increasing motivation given by those who rated their motivation as ≤4 mainly focused on improvements in didactics and study organisation. PMID:21347211

  11. Interaction Between Leg Muscle Performance and Sprint Acceleration Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Lockie, Robert G.; Jalilvand, Farzad; Callaghan, Samuel J.; Jeffriess, Matthew D.; Murphy, Aron J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between 10 m sprint acceleration, step kinematics (step length and frequency, contact and flight time), and leg muscle performance (power, stiffness, strength). Twenty-eight field sport athletes completed 10 m sprints that were timed and filmed. Velocity and step kinematics were measured for the 0–5, 5–10, and 0–10 m intervals to assess acceleration. Leg power was measured via countermovement jumps (CMJ), a five-bound test (5BT), and the reactive strength index (RSI) defined by 40 cm drop jumps. Leg stiffness was measured by bilateral and unilateral hopping. A three-repetition maximum squat determined strength. Pearson’s correlations and stepwise regression (p ≤ 0.05) determined velocity, step kinematics, and leg muscle performance relationships. CMJ height correlated with and predicted velocity in all intervals (r = 0.40–0.54). The 5BT (5–10 and 0–10 m intervals) and RSI (5–10 m interval) also related to velocity (r = 0.37–0.47). Leg stiffness did not correlate with acceleration kinematics. Greater leg strength related to and predicted lower 0–5 m flight times (r = −0.46 to −0.51), and a longer 0–10 m step length (r = 0.38). Although results supported research emphasizing the value of leg power and strength for acceleration, the correlations and predictive relationships (r2 = 0.14–0.29) tended to be low, which highlights the complex interaction between sprint technique and leg muscle performance. Nonetheless, given the established relationships between speed, leg power and strength, strength and conditioning coaches should ensure these qualities are expressed during acceleration in field sport athletes. PMID:26839607

  12. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  13. A Clinical Study to Examine the Effect of Complete Denture on Head Posture/Craniovertical Angle

    PubMed Central

    Nandeeshwar, D.B.; Sangur, Rajashekar; Makkar, Sumit; Khare, Pooja; Chitumalla, Rajkiran; Prasad, Renuka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Edentulous patients show some significant changes in ridge relationship caused by resorption of alveolar ridge. The changes are characterized by an upward rotation of mandible, increase in mandibular prognathism that ultimately results in change of natural head posture. Aim This clinical study was planned to know the effect of complete denture on head posture in different age groups of Indian completely edentulous population, after placement of complete denture at various time intervals. Materials and Methods The sample consisted of completely edentulous patients without previous experience of the dentures. They were divided into 2 age groups: Group A (45-60) and Group B (61-75). During placement of complete denture craniovertical angle was measured with the help of custom made ruler protector device. Readings were taken before denture placement, immediately after denture placement, 30 minutes, 24 hours and 30 days after dentures placement. Results The results of this study indicated that in most of the patients (90%) despite their age, change in head posture (extension) occurred immediately after the denture placement. Thereafter reading remains same for measurement at 30 minutes and 24 hours of denture placement. However after 30 days, observation revealed that all the patients showed reduced craniovertical angle (flexion). Even though the values of craniovertical angle remain higher than its baseline in both groups, significant changes were noticed only in Group A. Conclusion Findings revealed that head posture was significantly altered by the placement of dentures in completely edentulous patients. Within the time interval of 30 minutes and 24 hours extension of head posture remained constant with slight variation. Although after 30 days, changes remained significant for group ‘A’, but no significant changes were observed in the subjects of group ‘B’. PMID:27190938

  14. Systematic study of the experimental measurements on J /ψ cross sections and kinematic distributions in p +p collisions at different energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Wangmei; Huang, Bingchu; Ma, Rongrong; Ruan, Lijuan; Tang, Zebo; Xu, Zhangbu; Yang, Chi; Yang, Qian; Yang, Shuai

    2016-02-01

    The world experimental data on cross section and kinematic distribution in p +p and p +A collisions at √{s }=6.8 - 7000 GeV are systematically examined. The √{s } dependence of the inclusive cross section, rapidity, and transverse momentum distributions are studied phenomenologically. We explore empirical formulas to obtain the total cross section, rapidity, and transverse momentum (pT) distribution. This is crucial for the interpretation of A +A J /ψ results at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider when the p +p reference data are not available. In addition, the cross section at midrapidity and transverse momentum distributions in p +p collisions at √{s }=39 and 62.4 GeV are evaluated.

  15. Kinematic Analysis of the Upper Limb Motor Strategies in Stroke Patients as a Tool towards Advanced Neurorehabilitation Strategies: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Simbolotti, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Advanced rehabilitation strategies of the upper limb in stroke patients focus on the recovery of the most important daily activities. In this study we analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively the motor strategies employed by stroke patients when reaching and drinking from a glass. We enrolled 6 hemiparetic poststroke patients and 6 healthy subjects. Motion analysis of the task proposed (reaching for the glass, bringing it to the mouth, and putting it back on the table) with the affected limb was performed. Clinical assessment using the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity was also included. During the reaching for the glass the patients showed a reduced arm elongation and trunk axial rotation due to motor deficit. For this reason, as observed, they carried out compensatory strategies which included trunk forward displacement and head movements. These preliminary data should be considered to address rehabilitation treatment. Moreover, the kinematic analysis protocol developed might represent an outcome measure of upper limb rehabilitation processes. PMID:24868536

  16. Collecting Kinematic Data on a Ski Track with Optoelectronic Stereophotogrammetry: A Methodological Study Assessing the Feasibility of Bringing the Biomechanics Lab to the Field

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    In the laboratory, optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry is one of the most commonly used motion capture systems; particularly, when position- or orientation-related analyses of human movements are intended. However, for many applied research questions, field experiments are indispensable, and it is not a priori clear whether optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric systems can be expected to perform similarly to in-lab experiments. This study aimed to assess the instrumental errors of kinematic data collected on a ski track using optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry, and to investigate the magnitudes of additional skiing-specific errors and soft tissue/suit artifacts. During a field experiment, the kinematic data of different static and dynamic tasks were captured by the use of 24 infrared-cameras. The distances between three passive markers attached to a rigid bar were stereophotogrammetrically reconstructed and, subsequently, were compared to the manufacturer-specified exact values. While at rest or skiing at low speed, the optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system’s accuracy and precision for determining inter-marker distances were found to be comparable to those known for in-lab experiments (< 1 mm). However, when measuring a skier’s kinematics under “typical” skiing conditions (i.e., high speeds, inclined/angulated postures and moderate snow spraying), additional errors were found to occur for distances between equipment-fixed markers (total measurement errors: 2.3 ± 2.2 mm). Moreover, for distances between skin-fixed markers, such as the anterior hip markers, additional artifacts were observed (total measurement errors: 8.3 ± 7.1 mm). In summary, these values can be considered sufficient for the detection of meaningful position- or orientation-related differences in alpine skiing. However, it must be emphasized that the use of optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry on a ski track is seriously constrained by limited practical usability, small-sized capture

  17. Collecting Kinematic Data on a Ski Track with Optoelectronic Stereophotogrammetry: A Methodological Study Assessing the Feasibility of Bringing the Biomechanics Lab to the Field.

    PubMed

    Spörri, Jörg; Schiefermüller, Christian; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    In the laboratory, optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry is one of the most commonly used motion capture systems; particularly, when position- or orientation-related analyses of human movements are intended. However, for many applied research questions, field experiments are indispensable, and it is not a priori clear whether optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric systems can be expected to perform similarly to in-lab experiments. This study aimed to assess the instrumental errors of kinematic data collected on a ski track using optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry, and to investigate the magnitudes of additional skiing-specific errors and soft tissue/suit artifacts. During a field experiment, the kinematic data of different static and dynamic tasks were captured by the use of 24 infrared-cameras. The distances between three passive markers attached to a rigid bar were stereophotogrammetrically reconstructed and, subsequently, were compared to the manufacturer-specified exact values. While at rest or skiing at low speed, the optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system's accuracy and precision for determining inter-marker distances were found to be comparable to those known for in-lab experiments (< 1 mm). However, when measuring a skier's kinematics under "typical" skiing conditions (i.e., high speeds, inclined/angulated postures and moderate snow spraying), additional errors were found to occur for distances between equipment-fixed markers (total measurement errors: 2.3 ± 2.2 mm). Moreover, for distances between skin-fixed markers, such as the anterior hip markers, additional artifacts were observed (total measurement errors: 8.3 ± 7.1 mm). In summary, these values can be considered sufficient for the detection of meaningful position- or orientation-related differences in alpine skiing. However, it must be emphasized that the use of optoelectronic stereophotogrammetry on a ski track is seriously constrained by limited practical usability, small-sized capture volumes

  18. Changes in knee kinematics following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Akbari Shandiz, Mohsen; Boulos, Paul; Saevarsson, Stefan Karl; Yoo, Sam; Miller, Stephen; Anglin, Carolyn

    2016-04-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) changes the knee joint in both intentional and unintentional, known and unknown, ways. Patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics play an important role in postoperative pain, function, satisfaction and revision, yet are largely unknown. Preoperative kinematics, postoperative kinematics or changes in kinematics may help identify causes of poor clinical outcome. Patellofemoral kinematics are challenging to record since the patella is obscured by the metal femoral component in X-ray and moves under the skin. The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic degrees of freedom having significant changes and to evaluate the variability in individual changes to allow future study of patients with poor clinical outcomes. We prospectively studied the 6 degrees of freedom patellofemoral and tibiofemoral weightbearing kinematics, tibiofemoral contact points and helical axes of rotation of nine subjects before and at least 1 year after total knee arthroplasty using clinically available computed tomography and radiographic imaging systems. Normal kinematics for healthy individuals were identified from the literature. Significant differences existed between pre-TKA and post-TKA kinematics, with the post-TKA kinematics being closer to normal. While on average the pre-total knee arthroplasty knees in this group displayed no pivoting (only translation), individually only five knees displayed this behaviour (of these, two showed lateral pivoting, one showed medial pivoting and one showed central pivoting). There was considerable variability postoperatively as well (five central, two lateral and two medial pivoting). Both preop and postop, flexion behaviour was more hinge-like medially and more rolling laterally. Helical axes were more consistent postop for this group. An inclusive understanding of the pre-TKA and post-TKA kinematics and changes in kinematics due to total knee arthroplasty could improve implant design, patient diagnosis and

  19. Factors influencing attempted and completed suicide in postnatal women: A population-based study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Jung-Chen; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Wang, Shun-Mu; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The aims of study were to investigate risk factors associated with attempted and completed suicide. This nested case–control study was conducted using the medical and death data of nearly all pregnant women for the period 2002–2012 in Taiwan. A total of 139 cases of attempted suicide and 95 cases of completed suicide were identified; for each case, 10 controls were randomly selected and matched to the cases according to age and year of delivery. A conditional logistic regression model was used. The mean attempted and completed suicide rates were 9.91 and 6.86 per 100,000 women with live births, respectively. Never having married and postpartum depression also increased the risk of attempted suicide (OR = 2.06; 95% CI = 1.09–3.88 and OR = 2.51; 95% CI = 1.10–5.75, respectively) and completed suicide (OR = 20.27; 95% CI = 8.99–45.73 and OR = 21.72; 95% CI = 8.08–58.37, respectively). Other factors for attempted suicide included being widowed or divorced, and having a caesarean delivery or suicide history. Other factors for completed suicide included lower education level, low infant birth weight, and diagnosis of anxiety or mood disorder. These results suggest that people should appropriately assess potential risk factors and provide assistance for postnatal women to reduce the occurrence of suicide events. PMID:27173845

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Acentrogobius sp. (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae) and phylogenetic studies of Gobiidae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiu-Hua; Lin, Qi; He, Li-Bin; Huang, Rui-Fang; Lin, Ke-Bing; Ge, Hui; Wu, Jian-Shao; Zhou, Chen

    2016-07-01

    At present, few morphological descriptions are available for Acentrogobius species and there exist some confused issues on the species classification and phylogeny. In this study, we first determined and described the complete mitochondrial genome of Acentrogobius sp. The complete mitogenome sequence is 17 083 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a putative control region (CR), and a light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition is 28.9% A, 26.2% T, 28.5% C, and 16.4% G, with a slight AT bias (55.1%). To furthermore validate the new determined sequences, phylogenetic trees involving all the Gobiidae species available in GenBank database were constructed. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for species identification and further phylogenetic studies of Gobiiformes. PMID:26152347

  1. Natural and Man-Made Chemicals in North American Soils--Continental-Scale Pilot Study Completed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada recently completed a continental-scale pilot study for a proposed geochemical survey of North American soils. This survey will provide baseline soil chemistry data against which future changes in soil composition can be measured and that can be used by Federal, State/Provincial, and local agencies when making risk-assessment and land-use decisions.

  2. Complete data acquisition and analysis system for low-energy electron-molecule collision studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Pamir; Nandi, Dhananjay

    2015-09-01

    A complete data acquisition system has been developed that can work with any personal computer irrespective of the operating system installed on it. The software can be used in low and intermediate electron-energy collision studies with ground-state molecules in gas phase using a combination of RS-232, GPIB, and USB-interfaced devices. Various tabletop instruments and nuclear instrumentation module (NIM) -based electronics have been interfaced and have communicated with the software, which is based on LabVIEW. This is tested with dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and polar dissociation studies to oxygen molecule and successfully used in a DEA study of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.

  3. Kinematic design NC optical generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, William P.

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to design a low cost, versatile, 3-axis numerical control aspheric generator using all rotary motions. In addition, the generator was to have the capability of grinding glass, metals and ceramics and the ability to generate off axis or non-rotationally symmetric aspherics. The research carried out during this study was a review of various methods of implementing 3 axis motion using all rotary bearings. Traditional orthogonal axis methods of achieving this motion were found lacking in accuracy and very costly. The study then turned to a generator based on kinematic design with a minimum number of constraints to the rotary motions. The results of this research showed that the kinematic design met or exceeded all the proposed goals for this study. The design has a minimum number of components and depends for its accuracy only on the lengths of the two actuators controlling the grinding wheel position. The rotary motion joints are all spherical ball joints except for one that is a flexure pivot. The proposed generator uses commercially available components and has few custom parts to keep the cost down. Special software allows the easy fabrication of non-rotationally symmetric optics and a large grinding wheel radius minimizes mid spatial frequency surface errors and roughness.

  4. Kinematic Thermal Model for Tonga Descending Slab: A Case Study on the Influence of Velocity Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Wei, D.

    2009-12-01

    Within the core of a colder slab (e.g., the Tonga slab), the existence of metastable olivine (MO), extending deeper than the 410 km, has several important implications for understanding both the mechanism of deep earthquakes (>300 km) and the slab dynamics. The effect of subduction kinematics on the slab thermal structure has been widely investigated by prescribing Constant Velocity field for the subducting Slab (CVS-model), which may result in artificial computational interferences along the slab interfaces by accelerating the heating of subducting slabs. For the purpose of moderating the CVS effect and investigating the influence of metastable phase transformations on deep seismicity, we construct a 2-dimensional finite element thermal model for a 120 Ma-old 50° dipping oceanic lithosphere descending at 10 cm/yr with Velocity Boundary Layers (VBL-model), within which the velocities decrease from v to zero with the distance to the interface. The density anomalies for the VBL-model show significant variations (~100 kg/m3) at depths of both ~230 and ~410 km, whereas CVS-model shows anomalies above ~410 km. Thus, the VBL-model result is in better agreement with our knowledge of the subducting evolution that the density anomalies are primarily controlled by the conductive cooling and the phase transitions for the shallow depths of the slab and the transition zone, respectively. The VBL-model pressure anomalies also indicate that the negative buoyancy force causes the downdip tensional (DDT) earthquakes occurring above depth of ~230 km. At depths >410 km, the zonal distributed pressures of the VBL-model show negative and positive anomalies within the core and the outermost portion of slab, respectively, whereas the CVS-model produces negative pressure anomalies. The seismicity shows that down-dip compressional (DDC) and DDT deep earthquakes occur along the lower and upper interfaces of Tonga slab, whereas the P- and T-axes for the earthquakes in-between portion are

  5. Controlling chaotic robots with kinematical redundancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Dengcai; Zhang, H

    2006-03-01

    Robots with kinematical redundancy under the pseudoinverse control exhibit undesirable chaotic joint motion, which leads to erratic behaviors. In this study, we used the delayed feedback method to control chaotic motions of a planar 3R rigid and a planar 3R flexible redundant robot under the pseudoinverse control when the end-effector traces a closed-path repeatedly in the work space. It was demonstrated that chaotic motions of robots with kinematical redundancy can be turned into regular motion when the delayed feedback method was applied with some appropriate parameters. This study provides a new insight helpful to solve the repeatability problem of redundant manipulators. PMID:16599763

  6. Kinematic Study of Pisagua Earthquake 2014 - Northern Chile: Analysis of the Frequency Content and its Impact on the Understanding of the Seismogenic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jara, J.; Pina-Valdes, J.; Socquet, A.; Cotton, F.; Walpersdorf, A.; Cotte, N.

    2014-12-01

    Recent megathrust earthquakes that occurred in Chile (2010) and Japan (2011) revealed a segmentation with depth of the megathrust interface: short period radiations were emitted from the deeper portion of the seismogenic zone (35-55km depth), while large coseismic slip, associated with little short period radiation and responsible for the tsunami generation, occurred on the shallower part of the subduction interface.On April 1, 2014, a Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred close to the city of Pisagua in the central part of the seismic gap of southern Peru - northern Chile. This earthquake occurred in a densely instrumented area in a joint effort between Chilean, French, German and USA institutions. It is therefore an excellent case study to better understand the seismic rupture process on the subduction seismogenic interface. The availability of collocated cGPS and strong motion data (IPOC network: Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile) offers a unique opportunity to study the seismic source, compare the results derived from both type of data and study the variability of the seismic source with the frequency. We perform a detailed comparison of the co-seismic movements registered by cGPS and three-component accelerograms. Then, we carry out a series of inversions to study the kinematic rupture associated with this earthquake. For this purpose, we use the accelerometer (9 stations) and high-frequency GPS (1 Hz, 13 stations) independently and jointly. We use a two-step inversion method proposed by Hernandez et al. (1999), where we use the contribution of GPS in obtaining the static displacement and then carry out the kinematic inversion using the method in frequency domain (Cotton & Campillo, 1995). Finally we study the dependency of the Mw8.2 Pisagua seismic source with the signal frequency. Data are filtered in different frequency bands and then frequency dependent inversions are conducted to explore the segmentation of the seismogenic zone in the area affected by the

  7. Failure tolerant operation of kinematically redundant manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Christopher L.; Maciejewski, Anthony A.

    1994-01-01

    Redundant manipulators may compensate for failed joints with their additional degrees of freedom. In this paper such a manipulator is considered fault tolerant if it can guarantee completion of a task after any one of its joints has failed. This fault tolerance of kinematically redundant manipulators is insured here. Methods to analyze the manipulator's work space find regions inherently suitable for critical tasks because of their high level of failure tolerance. Constraints are then placed on the manipulator's range of motion to guarantee completion of a task.

  8. Hexapod kinematics for secondary mirror aberration control .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.

    This work deals with active correction of the aberrations in a telescope by moving the secondary mirror. A special attention is dedicated to the case of a secondary mirror whose motions are controlled by a 6-6 Stewart Platform (generally called by astronomers simply "hexapod", even if this term is more general). The kinematics of the device is studied. The non trivial forward kinematics problem is solved by an iterative algorithm fitting the necessities of an active optics system and fast enough to be used in a closed loop feedback control.

  9. Essential Study Skills: The Complete Guide to Success at University. Second Edition. Sage Study Skills Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Tom; Sinfield, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The eagerly-awaited new edition of the successful "Essential Study Skills" continues to provide a truly practical guide to achieving success at university. Whether you are going to university straight from school, a mature student, or an overseas student studying in the UK for the first time, this is the book that will help you to better…

  10. Vacation Study Abroad 1999/2000. The Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 2,223 summer and short-term study-abroad opportunities that range in length from one-week to several months. Introductory information provides information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the guide, abbreviations, planning for study abroad, additional resources for…

  11. Vacation Study Abroad 1997/98: The Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 1,862 summer and short-term academic and language study-abroad programs that range from one-week language study courses to full-summer or semester-length university programs. An introductory section provides information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the guide,…

  12. Vacation Study Abroad, 1998/99. The Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 2,008 summer and short-term academic and language study-abroad programs that range in length from one-week to several months. Introductory sections provide information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the guide, planning study abroad, and 78 publications and 34…

  13. Kinematics of Strong Discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, K.; Nguyen, G.; Sulsky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides a detailed view of the Arctic ice cover. When processed with the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS), it provides estimates of sea ice motion and deformation over large regions of the Arctic for extended periods of time. The deformation is dominated by the appearance of linear kinematic features that have been associated with the presence of leads. The RGPS deformation products are based on the assumption that the displacement and velocity are smooth functions of the spatial coordinates. However, if the dominant deformation of multiyear ice results from the opening, closing and shearing of leads, then the displacement and velocity can be discontinuous. This presentation discusses the kinematics associated with strong discontinuities that describe possible jumps in displacement or velocity. Ice motion from SAR data are analyzed using this framework. It is assumed that RGPS cells deform due to the presence of a lead. The lead orientation is calculated to optimally account for the observed deformation. It is shown that almost all observed deformation can be represented by lead opening and shearing. The procedure used to reprocess motion data to account for leads will be described and applied to regions of the Beaufort Sea. The procedure not only provides a new view of ice deformation, it can be used to obtain information about the presence of leads for initialization and/or validation of numerical simulations.

  14. Complete synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems via a single proportional adaptive controller: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Israr Saaban, Azizan Bin Ibrahim, Adyda Binti; Shahzad, Mohammad

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses a comparative computational study on the synchronization quality, cost and converging speed for two pairs of identical chaotic and hyperchaotic systems with unknown time-varying parameters. It is assumed that the unknown time-varying parameters are bounded. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and using the adaptive control method, a single proportional controller is proposed to achieve the goal of complete synchronizations. Accordingly, appropriate adaptive laws are designed to identify the unknown time-varying parameters. The designed control strategy is easy to implement in practice. Numerical simulations results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  15. Complete synchronization of uncertain chaotic systems via a single proportional adaptive controller: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Israr; Saaban, Azizan Bin; Ibrahim, Adyda Binti; Shahzad, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper addresses a comparative computational study on the synchronization quality, cost and converging speed for two pairs of identical chaotic and hyperchaotic systems with unknown time-varying parameters. It is assumed that the unknown time-varying parameters are bounded. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory and using the adaptive control method, a single proportional controller is proposed to achieve the goal of complete synchronizations. Accordingly, appropriate adaptive laws are designed to identify the unknown time-varying parameters. The designed control strategy is easy to implement in practice. Numerical simulations results are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization scheme.

  16. Does Hollowing of Complete Denture Enhance Retention? – A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ashish; Iyer, Satish R; Mittal, Manish; Kalra, Shilpa; Yadav, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prosthetic rehabilitation is an extremely challenging task in extreme resorption cases of the maxillary denture-bearing area. Reducing the weight of a maxillary obturator has been seen as beneficial. But whether reducing the weight of conventional complete denture also increases retention or not, is still very dubious. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effect of maxillary denture weight on denture retention and stability. Materials and Methods For this study, a total of 10 patients were considered for the pilot study (06 female and 04 male) with an average age of 70 y. Each patient was provided with two sets of maxillary complete dentures, one hollow labeled as A and one conventional maxillary denture labeled as B. Results It was shown that mean values for retention using MKIS for retention for hollow dentures (A) was 7.8 and for conventional dentures (B) it was 8.2 and the stability for maxillary dentures was more with conventional dentures (B) than hollow maxillary dentures (A) and it was significant as p-value was 0.015 (p<.1). Conclusion The denture retention and stability, chewing and comfort values of conventional dentures and hollow dentures were slightly better for conventional dentures. PMID:26155561

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sika deer Cervus nippon hortulorum (Artiodactyla: Cervidae) and phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Hua; Liu, Xin-Xin; Zhang, Ming-Hai

    2016-07-01

    Sika deer (Cervus nippon Temminck 1836) are classified in the order Artiodactyla, family Cervidae, subfamily Cervinae. At present, the phylogenetic studies of C. nippon are problematic. In this study, we first determined and described the complete mitochondrial sequence of the wild C. nippon hortulorum. The complete mitogenome sequence is 16 566 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a putative control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition was 33.4% A, 28.6% T, 24.5% C, 13.5% G, with a 62.0% AT bias. The 13 protein-coding genes encode 3782 amino acids in total. To further validate the new determined sequences and phylogeny of Sika deer, phylogenetic trees involving 15 most closely related species available in GenBank database were constructed. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for deer species identification and further phylogenetic studies of Artiodactyla. PMID:26258510

  18. Studies on nitrile rubber degradation in zinc bromide completion fluid and its prevention by surface fluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega-Cantu, Yadira Itzel

    Poly(acrylonitrile-co-butadiene) or nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) is frequently used as an O-ring material in the oil extraction industry due to its excellent chemical properties and resistance to oil. However, degradation of NBR gaskets is known to occur during the well completion and oil extraction process where packers are exposed to completion fluids such as ZnBr2 brine. Under these conditions NBR exhibits accelerated chemical degradation resulting in embrittlement and cracking. Samples of NBR, poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) and poly(butadiene) (PB) have been exposed to ZnBr2 based completion fluid, and analyzed by ATR and diffuse reflectance IR. Analysis shows the ZnBr2 based completion fluid promotes hydrolysis of the nitrile group to form amides and carboxylic groups. Analysis also shows that carbon-carbon double bonds in NBR are unaffected after short exposure to zinc bromide based completion fluid, but are quickly hydrolyzed in acidic bromide mixtures. Although fluoropolymers have excellent chemical resistance, their strength is less than nitrile rubber and replacing the usual gasket materials with fluoroelastomers is expensive. However, a fluoropolymer surface on a nitrile elastomer can provide the needed chemical resistance while retaining their strength. In this study, we have shown that this can be achieved by direct fluorination, a rather easy and inexpensive process. Samples of NBR O-rings have been fluorinated by exposure to F2 and F2/HF mixtures at various temperatures. Fluorination with F 2 produces the desired fluoropolymer layer; however, fluorination by F2/HF mixtures gave a smoother fluorinated layer at lower temperatures and shorter times. Fluorinated samples were exposed to ZnBr2 drilling fluid and solvents. Elemental analysis shows that the fluorinated layer eliminates ZnBr2 diffusion into the NBR polymeric matrix. It was also found that surface fluorination significantly retards the loss of mechanical properties such as elasticity, tensile

  19. Numerical analysis of kinematic soil-pile interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele; Mylonakis, George

    2008-07-08

    In the present study, the response of singles pile to kinematic seismic loading is investigated using the computer program SAP2000. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a numerical model that can realistically simulate kinematic soil-structure interaction for piles accounting for discontinuity conditions at the pile-soil interface, energy dissipation and wave propagation; (2) to use the model for evaluating kinematic interaction effects on pile response as function of input ground motion; and (3) to present a case study in which theoretical predictions are compared with results obtained from other formulations. To evaluate the effects of kinematic loading, the responses of both the free-field soil (with no piles) and the pile were compared. Time history and static pushover analyses were conducted to estimate the displacement and kinematic pile bending under seismic loadings.

  20. Numerical analysis of kinematic soil—pile interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Francesco; Maugeri, Michele; Mylonakis, George

    2008-07-01

    In the present study, the response of singles pile to kinematic seismic loading is investigated using the computer program SAP2000@. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a numerical model that can realistically simulate kinematic soil-structure interaction for piles accounting for discontinuity conditions at the pile-soil interface, energy dissipation and wave propagation; (2) to use the model for evaluating kinematic interaction effects on pile response as function of input ground motion; and (3) to present a case study in which theoretical predictions are compared with results obtained from other formulations. To evaluate the effects of kinematic loading, the responses of both the free-field soil (with no piles) and the pile were compared. Time history and static pushover analyses were conducted to estimate the displacement and kinematic pile bending under seismic loadings.

  1. Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Juan-Pablo; Orcau, Angels; Rius, Cristina; Casals, Marti; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Moreno, Antonio; Nelson, Jeanne L.; Caylà, Joan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients. Methods A population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility testing between 1995–1997 were retrospectively followed-up until December 31, 2005 by the Barcelona TB Control Program. Socio-demographic, clinical, microbiological and treatment variables were examined. Mortality, TB Program and AIDS registries were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier and a Cox regression methods with time-dependent covariates were used for the survival analysis, calculating the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Among the 762 included patients, the median age was 36 years, 520 (68.2%) were male, 178 (23.4%) HIV-infected, and 208 (27.3%) were alcohol abusers. Of the 134 (17.6%) injecting drug users (IDU), 123 (91.8%) were HIV-infected. A total of 30 (3.9%) recurrences and 173 deaths (22.7%) occurred (mortality rate: 3.4/100 person-years of follow-up). The predictors of death were: age between 41–60 years old (HR: 3.5; CI:2.1–5.7), age greater than 60 years (HR: 14.6; CI:8.9–24), alcohol abuse (HR: 1.7; CI:1.2–2.4) and HIV-infected IDU (HR: 7.9; CI:4.7–13.3). Conclusions The mortality rate among TB patients who completed treatment is associated with vulnerable populations such as the elderly, alcohol abusers, and HIV-infected IDU. We therefore need to fight against poverty, and promote and develop interventions and social policies directed towards these populations to improve their survival. PMID:21980423

  2. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article "Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets" [1]. PMID:27054190

  3. Complete dataset for 2-treatment, 2-sequence, 2-period efavirenz bioequivalence study conducted with nightly dosing

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Manuel; Magallanes, Laura; Lorier, Marianela; Vázquez, Marta; Fagiolino, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The efavirenz pharmacokinetic raw data presented in this article was obtained in an average bioequivalence study between a local brand and Stocrin (Merck Sharp & Dohme, purchased from Australia, batch H009175, expiration date November 2013). Dose was administered at night (9:00 p.m.) two hours after food intake. Fourteen healthy subjects, 8 women and 6 men, completed the study. For each subject, 15 data points until 96 h post-administration are included. Subject demographic characteristics and sequences of administration are provided along with individual pharmacokinetic profiles of efavirenz obtained for both formulations after a single oral dose of 600 mg. This data provides information in support of the research article “Sex-by-formulation interaction assessed through a bioequivalence study of efavirenz tablets” [1]. PMID:27054190

  4. Kinematics and Control of Robot Manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paden, Bradley Evan

    This dissertation focuses on the kinematics and control of robot manipulators. The contribution to kinematics is a fundamental theorem on the design of manipulators with six revolute joints. The theorem states, roughly speaking, that manipulators which have six revolute joints and are modeled after the human arm are optimal and essentially unique. In developing the mathematical framework to prove this theorem, we define precisely the notions of length of a manipulator, well-connected-workspace, and work-volume. We contribute to control a set of analysis techniques for the design of variable structure (sliding mode) controllers for manipulators. The organization of the dissertation is the following. After introductory remarks in chapter one, the group of proper rigid motions, G, is introduced in chapter two. The tangent bundle of G is introduced and it is shown that the velocity of a rigid body can be represented by an element in the Lie algebra of G (commonly called a twist). Further, rigid motions which are exponentials of twists are used to describe four commonly occurring subproblems in robot kinematics. In chapter three, the exponentials of twists are used to write the forward kinematic map of robot manipulators and the subproblems of chapter two are used to solve the Stanford manipulator and an elbow manipulator. Chapter four focuses on manipulator singularities. Twist coordinates are used to find critical points of the forward kinematic map. The contribution to kinematics is contained in chapter five where a mathematical framework for studying the relationship between the design of 6R manipulators and their performance is developed. Chapter seven contains the contribution to control. The work of A. F. Filippov on differential equations with discontinuous right-hand-side and the work of F. H. Clarke on generalized gradients are combined to obtain a calculus for analyzing nonsmooth gradient systems. The techniques developed are applied to design a simple

  5. Short-Term Study Abroad, 2001: IIE's Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Marie, Ed.

    This guide, formerly called "Vacation Study Abroad," lists short-term educational programs of varying lengths from 1 week to several months. Offerings are for the winter and spring breaks, the summer, and other short-term intervals. Some 60% of these programs are sponsored by U.S. accredited colleges and universities. The guide also offers…

  6. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Snoek, Govert J; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Nene, Anand V; Jannink, Michiel J A

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation); however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval) with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shoulder joints and muscle activation were measured and compared. Seven subjects reduced elbow extension (range 1.8°-4.5°) during the maximal reaching task with gravity compensation. In the reach and retrieval task with gravity compensation, all subjects decreased elbow extension (range 0.1°-11.0°). Eight subjects executed movement closer to the body. Regarding muscle activation, gravity compensation did not influence timing; however, the amplitude of activation decreased, especially in antigravity muscles, namely mean change +/- standard deviation of descending part of trapezius (18.2% +/- 37.5%), anterior part of deltoid (37.7% +/- 16.7%), posterior part of deltoid (32.0% +/- 13.9%), and long head biceps (49.6% +/- 20.0%). Clinical implications for the use of gravity compensation in rehabilitation (during activities of daily living or exercise therapy) should be further investigated with a larger population. PMID:21110258

  7. An Integrated Study of the Kinematics and Evolution of Fault Systems in the Hellenic Margin, Crete, Greece: Insight into Forearc Development above a Retreating Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, S. F.; Wegmann, K. W.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Accommodating ~ 36 mm/yr of convergence between the African and Eurasian tectonic plates the Hellenic Subduction zone is the largest, fastest and most seismically active subduction zone in the Mediterranean. Long-lived Cenozoic subduction of the African slab has resulted in the construction of a large south-facing subduction wedge. Rollback of the African slab likely initiated sometime in the Eocene and continues today. This geodynamic setting has given rise to a forearc characterized by a series of dramatic 2-4 km high topographic escarpments south of the Island of Crete; one of the few subaerial forearc highs along the Hellenic margin. It is generally agreed that these escarpments represent the surface expression of large intra-crust faults, yet the kinematics of faulting remains contentious in contemporary scientific literature. Different geologic and geophysical datasets have been used to argue that these structures accommodate either shortening due to continued plate convergence or extension driven by processes related to slab rollback. Resolving the debate over the kinematics of the large-scale structures embedded in the Hellenic forearc is paramount to our understanding of seismic hazards, the development of forearc basins, and the geodynamic processes operating in this region. We present results from a study of the tectonic geomorphology and structural geology of the south-central coastline of Crete that constrain the kinematics and evolution of one of the aforementioned fault systems that is related to the construction of a large forearc basin known as the Ptolemy trough. Field surveys and geochronology of marine terraces reveal the pattern of late Quaternary uplift along the south-central coastline. Two large south-dipping extensional faults, which extend offshore into the Ptolemy trough, are found to offset Pleistocene marine terraces and are inferred to be active with average slip rates of ca. 0.5 mm/yr. The hanging walls and footwalls of these faults

  8. A Pilot Clinical Study of Olfactory Mucosa Autograft for Chronic Complete Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    IWATSUKI, Koichi; TAJIMA, Fumihiro; OHNISHI, Yu-ichiro; NAKAMURA, Takeshi; ISHIHARA, Masahiro; HOSOMI, Koichi; NINOMIYA, Koshi; MORIWAKI, Takashi; YOSHIMINE, Toshiki

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of spinal cord axon regeneration have reported good long-term results using various types of tissue scaffolds. Olfactory tissue allows autologous transplantation and can easily be obtained by a simple biopsy that is performed through the external nares. We performed a clinical pilot study of olfactory mucosa autograft (OMA) for chronic complete spinal cord injury in eight patients according to the procedure outlined by Lima et al. Our results showed no serious adverse events and improvement in both the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) grade and ASIA motor score in five patients. The preoperative post-rehabilitation ASIA motor score improved from 50 in all cases to 52 in case 2, 60 in case 4, 52 in case 6, 55 in case 7, and 58 in case 8 at 96 weeks after OMA. The AIS improved from A to C in four cases and from B to C in one case. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were also seen in one patient, reflecting conductivity in the central nervous system, including the corticospinal tract. The MEPs induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation allow objective assessment of the integrity of the motor circuitry comprising both the corticospinal tract and the peripheral motor nerves.We show the feasibility of OMA for chronic complete spinal cord injury. PMID:27053327

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Plotosus japonicus (Siluriformes: Plotosidae) and phylogenetic studies of Siluriformes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Ming-Hai

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we first determined and described the complete mitogenome sequence of Plotosus japonicus, which is a kind of marine fish widely distributed in Northwest Pacific. The complete mitogenome sequence is 16 472 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a putative control region (CR) and a light-strand replication origin (OL). The overall base composition is 31.9% A, 24.7% T, 27.7% C, 15.7% G, with a slight AT bias (56.6%), similar to other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. All the protein-coding genes use the initiation codon ATG except COI uses GTG. Most of them have TAA or TAG as the stop codon, while COII and ND4 use AGA, COIII and Cytb use an incomplete stop codon TA or T. Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree and Bayesian analyses based on concatenated nucleotide sequences of 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes were constructed and both yielded identical topologies. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for species identification and further phylogenetic studies of Siluriformes. PMID:26122342

  10. A Pilot Clinical Study of Olfactory Mucosa Autograft for Chronic Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Tajima, Fumihiro; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Ishihara, Masahiro; Hosomi, Koichi; Ninomiya, Koshi; Moriwaki, Takashi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2016-06-15

    Recent studies of spinal cord axon regeneration have reported good long-term results using various types of tissue scaffolds. Olfactory tissue allows autologous transplantation and can easily be obtained by a simple biopsy that is performed through the external nares. We performed a clinical pilot study of olfactory mucosa autograft (OMA) for chronic complete spinal cord injury in eight patients according to the procedure outlined by Lima et al. Our results showed no serious adverse events and improvement in both the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale (AIS) grade and ASIA motor score in five patients. The preoperative post-rehabilitation ASIA motor score improved from 50 in all cases to 52 in case 2, 60 in case 4, 52 in case 6, 55 in case 7, and 58 in case 8 at 96 weeks after OMA. The AIS improved from A to C in four cases and from B to C in one case. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were also seen in one patient, reflecting conductivity in the central nervous system, including the corticospinal tract. The MEPs induced with transcranial magnetic stimulation allow objective assessment of the integrity of the motor circuitry comprising both the corticospinal tract and the peripheral motor nerves.We show the feasibility of OMA for chronic complete spinal cord injury. PMID:27053327

  11. A comparative study on complete and implant retained denture treatments: a biomechanics perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Suenaga, Hanako; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-02-01

    Although implant-retained overdenture allows edentulous patients to take higher occlusal forces than the conventional complete dentures, the biomechanical influences have not been explored yet. Clinically, there is limited knowledge and means for predicting localized bone remodelling after denture treatment with and without implant support. By using finite element (FE) analysis, this article provides an in-silico approach to exploring the treatment effects on the oral mucosa and potential resorption of residual ridge under three different denture configurations in a patient-specific manner. Based on cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) scans, a 3D heterogeneous FE model was created; and the supportive tissue, mucosa, was characterized as a hyperelastic material. A measured occlusal load (63N) was applied onto three virtual models, namely complete denture, two and four implant-retained overdentures. Clinically, the bone resorption was measured after one year in the two implant-retained overdenture treatment. Despite the improved stability and enhanced masticatory function, the implant-retained overdentures demonstrated higher hydrostatic stress in mucosa (43.6kPa and 39.9kPa for two and four implants) at the posterior ends of the mandible due to the cantilever effect, than the complete denture (33.4kPa). Hydrostatic pressure in the mucosa signifies a critical indicator and can be correlated with clinically measured bone resorption, pointing to severer mandibular ridge resorption posteriorly with implant-retained overdentures. This study provides a biomechanical basis for denture treatment planning to improve long-term outcomes with minimal residual ridge resorption. PMID:25560272

  12. A complete database of international chess players and chess performance ratings for varied longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Howard, Robert W

    2006-11-01

    Chess is an oft-used study domain in psychology and artificial intelligence because it is well defined, its performance rating systems allow ea sy identification o f experts and their development, andchess playing is a complex intellectual task However, usable computerized chess data have been very limited. The present article has two aims. The first is to highlight the methodological value of chess data and how researchers can use them to address questions in quite different areas. The second is to present a computerized database of all international chess players and official performance ratings beginning from the inaugural 1970 international rating list. The database has millions of records and gives complete longitudinal official performance data for over 60,000 players from 1970 to the present. Like a time series of population censuses, these data can be used for many different research and teaching purposes. Three quite different studies, conducted by the author using the database, are described. PMID:17393842

  13. Speech-Associated Labiomandibular Movement in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy: A Kinematic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Yang, Fan-pei Gloria; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wong, Alice May-kuen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the speech-associated labiomandibular movement during articulation production in Mandarin-speaking children with spastic quadriplegic (SQ) cerebral palsy (CP). Twelve children with SQ CP (aged 7-11 years) and 12 age-matched healthy children as controls were enrolled for the study. All children underwent…

  14. Density functional study of complete, first-order and critical wedge filling transitions.

    PubMed

    Malijevský, Alexandr; Parry, Andrew O

    2013-07-31

    We present numerical studies of complete, first-order and critical wedge filling transitions, at a right angle corner, using a microscopic fundamental measure density functional theory. We consider systems with short-ranged, cut-off Lennard-Jones, fluid-fluid forces and two types of wall-fluid potential: a purely repulsive hard wall and also a long-ranged potential with three different strengths. For each of these systems we first determine the wetting properties occurring at a planar wall, including any wetting transition and the dependence of the contact angle on temperature. The hard wall corner is completely filled by vapour on approaching bulk coexistence and the numerical results for the growth of the meniscus thickness are in excellent agreement with effective Hamiltonian predictions for the critical exponents and amplitudes, at leading and next-to-leading order. In the presence of the attractive wall-fluid interaction, the corresponding planar wall-fluid interface exhibits a first-order wetting transition for each of the interaction strengths considered. In the right angle wedge geometry the two strongest interactions produce first-order filling transitions while for the weakest interaction strength, for which wetting and filling occur closest to the bulk critical point, the filling transition is second-order. For this continuous transition the critical exponent describing the divergence of the meniscus thickness is found to be in good agreement with effective Hamiltonian predictions. PMID:23836779

  15. Completeness of Follow-Up Determines Validity of Study Findings: Results of a Prospective Repeated Measures Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tevaearai, Hendrik T.; Kuemmerli, Christoph; Tinner, Christian; Carrel, Thierry P.; Schmidli, Juerg; Dick, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background Current reporting guidelines do not call for standardised declaration of follow-up completeness, although study validity depends on the representativeness of measured outcomes. The Follow-Up Index (FUI) describes follow-up completeness at a given study end date as ratio between the investigated and the potential follow-up period. The association between FUI and the accuracy of survival-estimates was investigated. Methods FUI and Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated twice for 1207 consecutive patients undergoing aortic repair during an 11-year period: in a scenario A the population’s clinical routine follow-up data (available from a prospective registry) was analysed conventionally. For the control scenario B, an independent survey was completed at the predefined study end. To determine the relation between FUI and the accuracy of study findings, discrepancies between scenarios regarding FUI, follow-up duration and cumulative survival-estimates were evaluated using multivariate analyses. Results Scenario A noted 89 deaths (7.4%) during a mean considered follow-up of 30±28months. Scenario B, although analysing the same study period, detected 304 deaths (25.2%, P<0.001) as it scrutinized the complete follow-up period (49±32months). FUI (0.57±0.35 versus 1.00±0, P<0.001) and cumulative survival estimates (78.7% versus 50.7%, P<0.001) differed significantly between scenarios, suggesting that incomplete follow-up information led to underestimation of mortality. Degree of follow-up completeness (i.e. FUI-quartiles and FUI-intervals) correlated directly with accuracy of study findings: underestimation of long-term mortality increased almost linearly by 30% with every 0.1 drop in FUI (adjusted HR 1.30; 95%-CI 1.24;1.36, P<0.001). Conclusion Follow-up completeness is a pre-requisite for reliable outcome assessment and should be declared systematically. FUI represents a simple measure suited as reporting standard. Evidence lacking such information must be

  16. Engineered nanomaterial risk. Lessons learnt from completed nanotoxicology studies: potential solutions to current and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Helinor; Pojana, Giulio; Zuin, Stefano; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Semmler-Behnke, Manuela; McGuiness, Catherine; Balharry, Dominique; Marcomini, Antonio; Wallin, Håkan; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Donaldson, Ken; Tran, Lang; Stone, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    PARTICLE_RISK was one of the first multidisciplinary projects funded by the European Commission's Framework Programme that was responsible for evaluating the implications of nanomaterial (NM) exposure on human health. This project was the basis for this review which identifies the challenges that exist within the assessment of NM risk. We have retrospectively reflected on the findings of completed nanotoxicology studies to consider what progress and advances have been made within the risk assessment of NMs, as well as discussing the direction that nanotoxicology research is taking and identifying the limitations and failings of existing research. We have reflected on what commonly encountered challenges exist and explored how these issues may be resolved. In particular, the following is discussed (i) NM selection (ii) NM physico-chemical characterisation; (iii) NM dispersion; (iv) selection of relevant doses and concentrations; (v) identification of relevant models, target sites and endpoints; (vi) development of alternatives to animal testing; and (vii) NM risk assessment. These knowledge gaps are relatively well recognised by the scientific community and recommendations as to how they may be overcome in the future are provided. It is hoped that this will help develop better defined hypothesis driven research in the future that will enable comprehensive risk assessments to be conducted for NMs. Importantly, the nanotoxicology community has responded and adapted to advances in knowledge over recent years to improve the approaches used to assess NM hazard, exposure and risk. It is vital to learn from existing information provided by ongoing or completed studies to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort, and to offer guidance on aspects of the experimental design that should be carefully considered prior to the start of a new study. PMID:23126553

  17. KINEMATICS OF STELLAR POPULATIONS IN POSTSTARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hiner, Kyle D.; Canalizo, Gabriela E-mail: khiner@astro-udec.cl

    2015-01-20

    Poststarburst galaxies host a population of early-type stars (A or F) but simultaneously lack indicators of ongoing star formation such as [O II] emission. Two distinct stellar populations have been identified in these systems: a young poststarburst population superimposed on an older host population. We present a study of nine poststarburst galaxies with the following objectives: (1) to investigate whether and how kinematical differences between the young and old populations of stars can be measured, and (2) to gain insight into the formation mechanism of the young population in these systems. We fit high signal-to-noise spectra with two independent populations in distinct spectral regions: the Balmer region, the Mg IB region, and the Ca triplet when available. We show that the kinematics of the two populations largely track one another if measured in the Balmer region with high signal-to-noise data. Results from examining the Faber-Jackson relation and the fundamental plane indicate that these objects are not kinematically disturbed relative to more evolved spheroids. A case study of the internal kinematics of one object in our sample shows it to be pressure supported and not rotationally dominated. Overall our results are consistent with merger-induced starburst scenarios where the young population is observed during the later stages of the merger.

  18. Internal kinematics of H II galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. S.; Plana, H.

    2014-10-01

    H II galaxies are dwarf galaxies characterized by high stellar formation rate with spectrum dominated by strong emission lines, superimposed on a weak stellar continuum. The study of internal kinematics of these objects may be realized using the observed emission lines. Based on these lines we obtained monochromatic intensity, velocity dispersion and radial velocity maps. We have studied the internal kinematics of two H II galaxies: UM 461 and CTS 1020, observed with the Gemini South telescope using the GMOS instrument equipped with an IFU. We aim to investigate the origin of the line-broadening observed on emission lines from the use of kinematics diagnostic diagrams: I vs σ, I vs V, eV vs σ. The analysis of these diagrams was based on the Cometary Stirring Model that allows us to identify, for example, the presence of expanding shells and stellar winds. We found that radial velocity and velocity dispersion maps, for each galaxy, show a different kinematical pattern, although both are H II galaxies. CTS 1020 shows a velocity gradient consistent with a rotating disc with a velocity amplitude of ˜ 40 km s^{-1}. On the other hand UM 461 does not exhibit a typical pattern of a rotating system, despite of the observed velocity gradient in both emission nuclei.

  19. Forward and inverse kinematics of double universal joint robot wrists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Robert L., II

    1991-01-01

    A robot wrist consisting of two universal joints can eliminate the wrist singularity problem found on many individual robots. Forward and inverse position and velocity kinematics are presented for such a wrist having three degrees of freedom. Denavit-Hartenberg parameters are derived to find the transforms required for the kinematic equations. The Omni-Wrist, a commercial double universal joint robot wrist, is studied in detail. There are four levels of kinematic parameters identified for this wrist; three forward and three inverse maps are presented for both position and velocity. These equations relate the hand coordinate frame to the wrist base frame. They are sufficient for control of the wrist standing alone. When the wrist is attached to a manipulator arm; the offset between the two universal joints complicates the solution of the overall kinematics problem. All wrist coordinate frame origins are not coincident, which prevents decoupling of position and orientation for manipulator inverse kinematics.

  20. In silico phylogenomics using complete genomes: a case study on the evolution of hominoids.

    PubMed

    Costa, Igor Rodrigues; Prosdocimi, Francisco; Jennings, W Bryan

    2016-09-01

    The increasing availability of complete genome data is facilitating the acquisition of phylogenomic data sets, but the process of obtaining orthologous sequences from other genomes and assembling multiple sequence alignments remains piecemeal and arduous. We designed software that performs these tasks and outputs anonymous loci (AL) or anchored enrichment/ultraconserved element loci (AE/UCE) data sets in ready-to-analyze formats. We demonstrate our program by applying it to the hominoids. Starting with human, chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan genomes, our software generated an exhaustive data set of 292 ALs (∼1 kb each) in ∼3 h. Not only did analyses of our AL data set validate the program by yielding a portrait of hominoid evolution in agreement with previous studies, but the accuracy and precision of our estimated ancestral effective population sizes and speciation times represent improvements. We also used our program with a published set of 512 vertebrate-wide AE "probe" sequences to generate data sets consisting of 171 and 242 independent loci (∼1 kb each) in 11 and 13 min, respectively. The former data set consisted of flanking sequences 500 bp from adjacent AEs, while the latter contained sequences bordering AEs. Although our AE data sets produced the expected hominoid species tree, coalescent-based estimates of ancestral population sizes and speciation times based on these data were considerably lower than estimates from our AL data set and previous studies. Accordingly, we suggest that loci subjected to direct or indirect selection may not be appropriate for coalescent-based methods. Complete in silico approaches, combined with the burgeoning genome databases, will accelerate the pace of phylogenomics. PMID:27435933

  1. Analytical and semi-analytical inverse kinematics of SSRMS-type manipulators with single joint locked failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenfu; She, Yu; Xu, Yangsheng

    2014-12-01

    Redundant space manipulators, including Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) and European Robotic Arm (ERA), have been playing important roles in the construction and maintenance of International Space Station (ISS). They all have 7 revolute joints arranged in similar configurations, and are referred to as SSRMS-type manipulators. When a joint is locked in an arbitrary position due to some failures, a 7R manipulator degrades to a 6R manipulator. Without a spherical wrist or three consecutive parallel joints, the inverse kinematics of the 6R manipulator is very complex. In this paper, we propose effective methods to resolve the inverse kinematics for different cases of any joint locked in an arbitrary position. Firstly, configuration characteristics of the SSRMS-type redundant manipulators are analyzed. Then, an existing of closed-form inverse kinematics is discussed for locking different joints. Secondly, D-H frames and corresponding D-H parameters of the new 6-DOF manipulator formed by locking a joint in an arbitrary position are re-constructed. A unified table is then created to describe the kinematics for all possible cases of single joint locking failure. Thirdly, completely analytical and semi-analytical methods are presented to solve the inverse kinematics equations, and the former is used for locking joint 1, 2, 6 or 7 while the latter for locking joint 3, 4 or 5. Finally, typical cases for single joint locking are studied. The results verify the proposed methods.

  2. Kinematics and evolution of poor clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koranyi, Daniel Mark

    2000-11-01

    The AWM and MKW poor clusters form a complete nearby sample of poor clusters that span a range of velocity dispersions and populations; they were selected on the basis of a cD-like galaxy at their centers. I describe a photometric and kinematic study of AWM 7, the richest cluster in the sample, and extend the galaxy sample to perform a detailed analysis of the mass profile of this cluster. I assess the performance of the virial mass estimator under a variety of assumptions about the orbital anisotropy profile. I then describe an extensive kinematic analysis of 17 AWM and MKW clusters, investigating velocity distributions, spectral segregation, velocity dispersion profiles, and X-ray properties. This section establishes a robust observational baseline for comparison to simulations. The AWM and MKW clusters are as varied in their properties as their richer counterparts, and are globally no different from poor clusters without cD galaxies. This similarity suggests that the formation of the cD in such clusters is governed by local physics, independent of the global cluster properties. Finally, I describe and analyze high-resolution N-body simulations of poor clusters that are a good match to the AWM and MKW clusters in mass, galaxy population, and velocity dispersion. The simulations consist of ~10 million particles, of which typically 2 million constitute the final virialized region. The simulations track galaxies and dark matter separately, permitting an analysis of the morphological evolution of the galaxy population. I summarize the kinematic properties of the simulated clusters and their evolution with redshift, I compare them to the observed sample of AWM and MKW clusters, and test the accuracy with which the standard virial mass estimator recovers the true underlying mass profile. The virial estimator recovers the total mass accurately on average, but systematically overestimates the mass profile interior to the virial radius.

  3. Systematic study of suppression of complete fusion in reactions involving weakly bound nuclei at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Zhao, Wei-Juan; Diaz-Torres, Alexis; Zhao, En-Guang; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Complete fusion excitation functions of reactions involving breakup are studied by using the empirical coupled-channel (ECC) model with breakup effects considered. An exponential function with two parameters is adopted to describe the prompt-breakup probability in the ECC model. These two parameters are fixed by fitting the measured prompt-breakup probability or the complete fusion cross sections. The suppression of complete fusion at energies above the Coulomb barrier is studied by comparing the data with the predictions from the ECC model without the breakup channel considered. The results show that the suppression of complete fusion is roughly independent of the target for the reactions involving the same projectile.

  4. A Comparative Study on the Kinematic Biomechanical Effects of Tibia Vara in the Healthy and Diseased Individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmohammadi, Mehrdad; Karami, Hossein; Bani, Milad Salimi; Zadeh, Hossein Bahreini; Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2016-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Malalignment about the knee leads to a pathological-mechanical load that may cause early osteoarthritis of the knee joint and high degree of deformity which may need surgical treatment. Analysis of the leg movements in the experimental cases and comparing acquired results to the normal ones during the gait is used as a practical method to evaluate the effects of the disease. METHOD: In this study, gait differences between the patients with tibia vara and normal people were studied according to the data obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) motion analyzer. Various parameters, including positions, linear and angular velocities, linear and angular accelerations, total velocity, total acceleration, and path length at different angels were extracted and processed via a 3D motion analyzer. Then the results of the patient and control groups were compared to identify the differences. RESULTS: The maximum and average values as well as sample entropy were also calculated for all the mentioned parameters. Among all, only nine remarkable differences between these two groups were observed. The results revealed that the great difference between the patients with tibia vara compared to the normal ones in gait cycle lies on the abnormal movement of fibula bone and less irregularities along the z-axis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may have implications not only for understanding the differences between the tibia vara in the healthy and diseased individuals, but also for providing a practical understanding for the medical and orthopedic experts to propose a better treatment method.

  5. Scaling and kinematics of a floating wind turbine under ocean waves and variable thrust: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Chris; Ruehl, Kelley; Guala, Michele

    2013-11-01

    Scale model wave channel experiments were performed to study the motion of an offshore floating wind turbine in operational sea states. The model tests were conducted on a 1:100 Froude scaled Sandia National Labs 13.2 MW prototype offshore wind turbine with a barge style floating platform. The platform is modeled after the MIT/NREL Shallow Drafted Barge designed for the 5MW Offshore Baseline wind turbine. The wave environment used in the model tests is representative of the deep-water sea states off the coast of Maine as well as the Pacific Northwest. The purpose of the tests is to validate a computational model of the turbine-wave interaction where the effects of airflow are not considered. To simplify the tests and validation, the platform motion is restricted to two degrees of freedom, pitch and heave, by attaching two roller support types at the center of gravity along the pitch axis. The major aerodynamic force acting on the turbine, i.e. the rotor thrust, is provided by spinning a scaled rotor at a controlled rotational speed. A subset of experiments were performed to study the effect of a mean or fluctuating rotor thrust on the platform dynamics, exploring strategies to control the thrust as a function of platform pitch angle and minimize platform oscillations.

  6. Action Experience Changes Attention to Kinematic Cues

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, Courtney A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used remote corneal reflection eye-tracking to examine the relationship between motor experience and action anticipation in 13-months-old infants. To measure online anticipation of actions infants watched videos where the actor’s hand provided kinematic information (in its orientation) about the type of object that the actor was going to reach for. The actor’s hand orientation either matched the orientation of a rod (congruent cue) or did not match the orientation of the rod (incongruent cue). To examine relations between motor experience and action anticipation, we used a 2 (reach first vs. observe first) × 2 (congruent kinematic cue vs. incongruent kinematic cue) between-subjects design. We show that 13-months-old infants in the observe first condition spontaneously generate rapid online visual predictions to congruent hand orientation cues and do not visually anticipate when presented incongruent cues. We further demonstrate that the speed that these infants generate predictions to congruent motor cues is correlated with their own ability to pre-shape their hands. Finally, we demonstrate that following reaching experience, infants generate rapid predictions to both congruent and incongruent hand shape cues—suggesting that short-term experience changes attention to kinematics. PMID:26913012

  7. KINEMATIC DISTANCE ASSIGNMENTS WITH H I ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Courtney; Dickey, John M.

    2012-07-01

    Using H I absorption spectra from the International Galactic Plane Survey, a new method is implemented to resolve the kinematic distance ambiguity for 75 H II regions with known systemic velocities from radio recombination lines. A further 40 kinematic distance determinations are made for H II region candidates without known systemic velocities through an investigation of the presence of H I absorption around the terminal velocity. New kinematic distance determinations can be used to further constrain spiral arm parameters and the location and extent of other structures in the Milky Way disk. H I absorption toward continuum sources beyond the solar circle is also investigated. Follow-up studies of H I at higher resolution than the 1' to 2' of existing Galactic Plane Surveys will provide kinematic distances to many more H II regions on the far side of the Galactic center. On the basis of the velocity channel summation technique developed in this paper, a much larger sample of H II regions will be analyzed in a future paper to remove the near-far distance ambiguity.

  8. The kinematic algebras from the scattering equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Ricardo; O'Connell, Donal

    2014-03-01

    We study kinematic algebras associated to the recently proposed scattering equations, which arise in the description of the scattering of massless particles. In particular, we describe the role that these algebras play in the BCJ duality between colour and kinematics in gauge theory, and its relation to gravity. We find that the scattering equations are a consistency condition for a self-dual-type vertex which is associated to each solution of those equations. We also identify an extension of the anti-self-dual vertex, such that the two vertices are not conjugate in general. Both vertices correspond to the structure constants of Lie algebras. We give a prescription for the use of the generators of these Lie algebras in trivalent graphs that leads to a natural set of BCJ numerators. In particular, we write BCJ numerators for each contribution to the amplitude associated to a solution of the scattering equations. This leads to a decomposition of the determinant of a certain kinematic matrix, which appears naturally in the amplitudes, in terms of trivalent graphs. We also present the kinematic analogues of colour traces, according to these algebras, and the associated decomposition of that determinant.

  9. Kinematic study at the junction of the East Anatolian fault and the Dead Sea fault from GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Yasser; Masson, Frederic; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Cakir, Ziyadin; Alchalbi, Abdulmutaleb; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Yönlü, Onder; Daoud, Mohamed; Ergintav, Semih; Inan, Sedat

    2013-07-01

    The Hatay Triple Junction (HTJ) is a tectonically complex area located at the intersection between the left-lateral East Anatolian fault (EAF), the Cyprus subduction arc and the left-lateral Dead Sea fault (DSF) which is a transform boundary between the Arabian and Sinai plates as they converge toward Eurasia. Previous GPS studies indicate a left-lateral strike-slip rate across the DSF varying from 5 mm/yr (along the southern part) to 2 mm/yr (along the northern part) (Alchalbi et al., 2010; Gomez et al., 2007; Le Béon et al., 2008; Mahmoud et al., 2005; Al-Tarazi et al., 2011). In contrast, the EAF has a roughly constant velocity along strike estimated at 9.7 + 0.9 mm/yr (Reilinger et al., 2006). The HTJ contains several well-identified active fault segments (DSF, EAF, Osmaniye fault, Karasu fault, Latakia fault, Jisr-al-shuggur fault, Idleb fault and Afrin fault) (Meghraoui et al., 2011), the fault-slip rates for which are poorly constrained. In order to constrain better the slip rate on faults, we established a network of 57 GPS sites in NW Syria and in SE Turkey. The first campaign was carried out in September 2009; a second took place in September and November 2010 and a third (only in Turkey) in September 2011. Although the velocity field vectors computed from the 2009, 2010 and 2011 measurements appear consistent with other local studies, the results are hampered by large uncertainties due to the short observation period. However, preliminary interpretations are consistent with decreasing velocity along the DSF from south to north reported previously.

  10. ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF A METHOD TO STUDY KINEMATICS OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT: COMBINATION OF MOTION DATA AND CT IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Baltali, Evre; Zhao, Kristin D.; Koff, Matthew F.; Keller, Eugene E.; An, Kai-Nan

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the precision and accuracy of a method used to track selected landmarks during motion of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A precision phantom device was constructed and relative motions between two rigid bodies on the phantom device were measured using optoelectronic (OE) and electromagnetic (EM) motion tracking devices. The motion recordings were also combined with a 3D CT image for each type of motion tracking system (EM+CT and OE+CT) to mimic methods used in previous studies. In the OE and EM data collections, specific landmarks on the rigid bodies were determined using digitization. In the EM+CT and OE+CT data sets, the landmark locations were obtained from the CT images. 3D linear distances and 3D curvilinear path distances were calculated for the points. The accuracy and precision for all 4 methods were evaluated (EM, OE, EM+CT and OE+CT). In addition, results were compared with and without the CT imaging (EM vs. EM+CT, OE vs. OE+CT). All systems overestimated the actual 3D curvilinear path lengths. All systems also underestimated the actual rotation values. The accuracy of all methods was within 0.5 mm for 3D curvilinear path calculations, 0.05 mm for 3D linear distance calculations, and 0.2° for rotation calculations. In addition, Bland-Altman plots for each configuration of the systems suggest that measurements obtained from either system are repeatable and comparable. PMID:18617178

  11. The Maiden Voyage of a Kinematics Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwolfe, Matthew L.

    2015-04-01

    In a Montessori preschool classroom, students work independently on tasks that absorb their attention in part because the apparatus are carefully designed to make mistakes directly observable and limit exploration to one aspect or dimension. Control of error inheres in the apparatus itself, so that teacher intervention can be minimal.1 Inspired by this example, I created a robotic kinematics apparatus that also shapes the inquiry experience. Students program the robot by drawing kinematic graphs on a computer and then observe its motion. Exploration is at once limited to constant velocity and constant acceleration motion, yet open to complex multi-segment examples difficult to achieve in the lab in other ways. The robot precisely and reliably produces the motion described by the students' graphs, so that the apparatus itself provides immediate visual feedback about whether their understanding is correct as they are free to explore within the hard-coded limits. In particular, the kinematic robot enables hands-on study of multi-segment constant velocity situations, which lays a far stronger foundation for the study of accelerated motion. When correction is anonymous—just between one group of lab partners and their robot—students using the kinematic robot tend to flow right back to work because they view the correction as an integral part of the inquiry learning process. By contrast, when correction occurs by the teacher and/or in public (e.g., returning a graded assignment or pointing out student misconceptions during class), students all too often treat the event as the endpoint to inquiry. Furthermore, quantitative evidence shows a large gain from pre-test to post-test scores using the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K).

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Trichopodus leerii (Perciformes: Osphronemidae) and phylogenetic studies of Osphronemidae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Peng; Liu, Wen-Jie; Si, Gui-Cai; Hu, Guo-Wen

    2016-07-01

    Trichopodus leerii has been given many popular names in the ornament market, such as pearl gourami, lace gourami and mosaic gourami, which causes confusion in species identification. This species belongs in the family Osphronemidae of Perciformes. This species and its congeners are characterized by a brownish-silver body, covered in a pearl-like pattern. In this study, we first determined and described the complete mitogenome sequence of T. leerii, which is 16,472 bp in length. The overall base composition is 29.2%, 27.3%, 28.0% and 15.5% for A, C, T and G, respectively, with a slight bias in the AT content (57.2%). All protein-coding genes share the start codon ATG and most of them have TAA or TAG as the stop codon, except ND4 and ND6 use an incomplete stop codon T. Maximum likelihood tree and Bayesian analyses based on partitioned nucleotide sequences of 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes were constructed, and both yielded identical topologies. These results are expected to provide useful molecular data for species identification and further phylogenetic studies of Osphronemidae and Perciformes. PMID:26024133

  13. Why Teach Kinematics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykstra, Dewey

    2002-05-01

    The development of two new units for the Powerful Ideas in Physical Science (PIPS) Project of the American Association of Physics Teachers, funded by the National Science Foundation has motivated another look at the learning and teaching of kinematics and force. These and some of the other units of the PIPS Project are unique in that they advocate and model a particular student understanding driven approach to instruction as opposed to the more common content driven approach. Several novel ways to view the results of using these new motion and force materials are introduced and made possible by a diagnostic capable of indicating the degree of presence of multiple views (the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation by Thornton and Sokoloff). The performance of individuals on pre and post diagnostic measures ranges widely from almost no change to more than 6 standard deviations. Factors are identified which appear to differentiate the student performances. The identification of these factors motivated additional rounds of modifications to the materials, departing even further from a content driven orientation toward an even more student understanding driven approach. The resulting instruction appears to induce routinely even under adverse teaching and learning conditions 2.5 standard deviations change in the class average on the pre to the post instruction diagnostic scores.

  14. Kinematic and Spatial Substructure in NGC 2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, John J.; Hartmann, Lee; Fűrész, Gabor; Hsu, Wen-Hsin; Mateo, Mario

    2015-04-01

    We present an expanded kinematic study of the young cluster NGC 2264 based upon optical radial velocities measured using multi-fiber echelle spectroscopy at the 6.5 m MMT and Magellan telescopes. We report radial velocities for 695 stars, of which approximately 407 stars are confirmed or very likely members. Our results more than double the number of members with radial velocities from Fűrész et al., resulting in a much better defined kinematic relationship between the stellar population and the associated molecular gas. In particular, we find that there is a significant subset of stars that are systematically blueshifted with respect to the molecular (13CO) gas. The detection of Lithium absorption and/or infrared excesses in this blueshifted population suggests that at least some of these stars are cluster members; we suggest some speculative scenarios to explain their kinematics. Our results also more clearly define the redshifted population of stars in the northern end of the cluster; we suggest that the stellar and gas kinematics of this region are the result of a bubble driven by the wind from O7 star S Mon. Our results emphasize the complexity of the spatial and kinematic structure of NGC 2264, important for eventually building up a comprehensive picture of cluster formation. Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  15. Multidisciplinary approach to constrain kinematics of fault zones at shallow depths: a case study from the Cameros-Demanda thrust (North Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas-Sainz, A. M.; Román-Berdiel, T.; Oliva-Urcia, B.; García-Lasanta, C.; Villalaín, J. J.; Aldega, L.; Corrado, S.; Caricchi, C.; Invernizzi, C.; Osácar, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Thrusting at shallow depths often precludes analysis by means of structural indicators effective in other geological contexts (e.g., mylonites, sheath folds, shear bands). In this paper, a combination of techniques (including structural analysis, magnetic methods, as anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and paleomagnetism, and paleothermometry) is used to define thrusting conditions, deformation, and transport directions in the Cameros-Demanda thrust (North Spain). Three outcrops were analyzed along this intraplate, large-scale major structure having 150 km of outcropping length, 30 km of maximum horizontal displacement, and 5 km of vertical throw. Results obtained by means of the different techniques are compared with data derived from cross sections and stratigraphic analysis. Mixed-layer illite-smectite and vitrinite reflectance indicating deep diagenetic conditions and mature stage of hydrocarbon generation suggests shallow depths during deformation, thus confirming that the protolith for most of the fault rocks is the footwall of the main thrust. Kinematic indicators (foliation, S/C structures, and slickenside striations) indicate altogether a dominant NNW movement of the hanging wall in the western zone and NE in the eastern zone of the thrust, thus implying strain partitioning between different branches of the main thrust. The study of AMS in fault rocks (nearly 400 samples of fault gouge, breccia, and microbreccia) indicates that the strike of magnetic foliation is oblique to the transport direction and that the magnetic lineation parallelizes the projection of the transport direction onto the k max/k int plane in sites with strong shear deformation. Paleomagnetism applied to fault rocks indicates the existence of remagnetizations linked to thrusting, in spite of the shallow depth for deformation, and a strong deformation or scattering of the magnetic remanence vectors in the fault zone. The application of the described techniques and consistency of

  16. A Quantitative Study of a Software Tool that Supports a Part-Complete Solution Method on Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from a quantitative research study into the use of a software tool that was built to support a part-complete solution method (PCSM) for the learning of computer programming. The use of part-complete solutions to programming problems is one of the methods that can be used to reduce the cognitive load that students…

  17. GNSS Precise Kinematic Positioning for Multiple Kinematic Stations Based on A Priori Distance Constraints

    PubMed Central

    He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component. PMID:27043580

  18. Influence of kinematic redundancy on the singularity-free workspace of parallel kinematic machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarski, Jens; Heimann, Bodo; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the effect of kinematic redundancy in order to reduce the singularity loci of the direct kinematics and to increase the operational, i.e., singularityfree, workspace is demonstrated. The proposed approach consists of additional prismatic actuators allowing one or more base joints to move linearly. As a result, a selective reconfiguration can be performed in order to avoid singular configurations. Exemplarily, kinematically redundant schemes of four structures, the 3 RRR, the 3R PR, the 6U PS, and the 6 RUS, are considered. The relationship between the redundancy and the operational workspace is studied and several analysis examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed concept. Furthermore, the additional benefit of an increasing number of redundant actuators is discussed.

  19. GNSS Precise Kinematic Positioning for Multiple Kinematic Stations Based on A Priori Distance Constraints.

    PubMed

    He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component. PMID:27043580

  20. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory.

  1. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory. Previously announced in STAR as N82-32733

  2. Kinematic orbits and the structure of the internal space for systems of five or more bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Kevin A.; Littlejohn, Robert G.

    1999-10-01

    The internal space for a molecule, atom, or other n-body system can be conveniently parameterized by 3n - 9 kinematic angles and three hematic invariants. For a fixed set of kinematic invariants, the kinematic angles parameterize a subspace, called a kinematic orbit, of the n-body internal space. Building on an earlier analysis of the three- and four-body problems, we derive the form of these kinematic orbits (that is, their topology) for the general n-body problem. The case n = 5 is studied in detail, along with the previously studied cases n = 3,4.

  3. Complete prewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Parry, A. O.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2016-07-01

    We study continuous interfacial transitions, analagous to two-dimensional complete wetting, associated with the first-order prewetting line, which can occur on steps, patterned walls, grooves and wedges, and which are sensitive to both the range of the intermolecular forces and interfacial fluctuation effects. These transitions compete with wetting, filling and condensation producing very rich phase diagrams even for relatively simple prototypical geometries. Using microscopic classical density functional theory to model systems with realistic Lennard-Jones fluid–fluid and fluid–substrate intermolecular potentials, we compute mean-field fluid density profiles, adsorption isotherms and phase diagrams for a variety of confining geometries.

  4. Completed suicides among the Inuit of northern Quebec, 1982–1996: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Boothroyd, Lucy J.; Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Spreng, Sheila; Malus, Michael; Hodgins, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Background The rate of completed suicide among Inuit in Canada has been alarmingly high in recent years, and the suicide rate among Inuit in northern Quebec has increased since 1982. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of Inuit people who died by suicide in Nunavik between 1982 and 1996, and to identify the antecedents and correlates of completed suicide. Methods We carried out a case–control study of 71 people who died by suicide between 1982 and 1996 and 71 population-based living control subjects matched for sex, community of residence and age within 1 year. Comprehensive medical charts were reviewed for data on sociodemographic characteristics, medical and psychiatric history, childhood separations and family history, and use of health care services. Results Most of the case subjects were single males aged 15 to 24 years. The two principal means of suicide were hanging (in 39 cases [54.9%]) and gunshot (in 21 cases [29.6%]). About 33% had been in contact with medical personnel in the month before their death. The case subjects were significantly more likely than the control subjects to have received a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis (one or more of depression, personality disorder or conduct disorder) (odds ratio [OR] 4.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–15.2]) and to have had a history of psychiatric symptoms, disorder (including solvent sniffing) or treatment (OR 3.5 [95% CI 1.4–8.7]). The case subjects had experienced more severe types of nonpsychiatric illnesses and injuries than the control subjects (p = 0.04). The case subjects had more lifetime contacts with health care services than the control subjects (p = 0.01) and were more likely than the control subjects to have had contact with health care services in the year before death of the case subject (p = 0.03), even when psychiatric diagnoses were controlled for in conditional regression analysis (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.01–1.04] and 5.0 [95% CI 1.07–23.7] respectively

  5. IDENTIFYING THE YOUNG LOW-MASS STARS WITHIN 25 pc. II. DISTANCES, KINEMATICS, AND GROUP MEMBERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-10

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of {approx}<300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of {approx}<25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young ({approx}<3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and {beta} Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages {approx}<150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event.

  6. A statistical kinematic source inversion approach based on the QUESO library for uncertainty quantification and prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielke, Olaf; McDougall, Damon; Mai, Martin; Babuska, Ivo

    2014-05-01

    Seismic, often augmented with geodetic data, are frequently used to invert for the spatio-temporal evolution of slip along a rupture plane. The resulting images of the slip evolution for a single event, inferred by different research teams, often vary distinctly, depending on the adopted inversion approach and rupture model parameterization. This observation raises the question, which of the provided kinematic source inversion solutions is most reliable and most robust, and — more generally — how accurate are fault parameterization and solution predictions? These issues are not included in "standard" source inversion approaches. Here, we present a statistical inversion approach to constrain kinematic rupture parameters from teleseismic body waves. The approach is based a) on a forward-modeling scheme that computes synthetic (body-)waves for a given kinematic rupture model, and b) on the QUESO (Quantification of Uncertainty for Estimation, Simulation, and Optimization) library that uses MCMC algorithms and Bayes theorem for sample selection. We present Bayesian inversions for rupture parameters in synthetic earthquakes (i.e. for which the exact rupture history is known) in an attempt to identify the cross-over at which further model discretization (spatial and temporal resolution of the parameter space) is no longer attributed to a decreasing misfit. Identification of this cross-over is of importance as it reveals the resolution power of the studied data set (i.e. teleseismic body waves), enabling one to constrain kinematic earthquake rupture histories of real earthquakes at a resolution that is supported by data. In addition, the Bayesian approach allows for mapping complete posterior probability density functions of the desired kinematic source parameters, thus enabling us to rigorously assess the uncertainties in earthquake source inversions.

  7. Ovarian complete hydatidiform mole: case study with molecular analysis and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sehn, Jennifer K; Kuroki, Lindsay M; Hopeman, Margaret M; Longman, Ryan E; McNicholas, Colleen P; Huettner, Phyllis C

    2013-12-01

    Ectopic complete molar pregnancy in the ovary is an exceptionally rare event. Here we present a case of ovarian complete hydatidiform mole in a 20-year-old gravida 2 para 1 woman. At presentation, the patient underwent excision of a hemorrhagic left ovarian cyst, with routine sections demonstrating a hemorrhagic corpus luteum with a single microscopic focus of detached atypical trophoblast, without chorionic villi. Subsequent left salpingo-oophorectomy for persistently elevated human chorionic gonadotropin led to a final diagnosis of complete hydatidiform mole arising in the ovary. The fallopian tube was unremarkable. Zygosity was determined using short tandem repeat analysis, confirming the diagnosis of monospermic complete mole. In the clinical setting of a markedly elevated human chorionic gonadotropin level and an ovarian mass, histopathologic examination is critical in distinguishing ectopic pregnancy from choriocarcinoma. Short tandem repeat analysis can be a useful adjunct to histologic diagnosis in challenging cases. PMID:24134929

  8. The Austin Chalk--Drilling and completion techniques-Marcelina Creek Field study

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    Exxon Company, U.S.A. has spent considerable time and effort learning how to minimize formation damage in the lost returns prone and clay sensitive Austin Chalk formation. To date, Exxon has successfully drilled 24 Austin Chalk wells in the Marcelina Creek Field in Wilson County, Texas, utilizing a variety of drilling and completion techniques in an effort to determine the optimum method of drilling and completing Austin Chalk wells. This paper describes these different techniques and reviews actual results. Although Exxon has not concluded which drilling and completion technique yields optimum Austin Chalk wells in this field, this paper attempts to develop a correlation between well productivity and the type of drilling and completion technique used.

  9. Complete Effect-Profile Assessment in Association Studies with Multiple Genetic and Multiple Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Maity, Arnab; Luo, Yiwen; Neely, Megan L.; Tzeng, Jung-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Studying complex diseases in the post GWAS era has led to developing methods that consider factor-sets rather than individual genetic/environmental factors (i.e., Multi-G-Multi-E studies), and mining for potential gene-environment (GxE) interactions has proven to be an invaluable aid in both discovery and deciphering underlying biological mechanisms. Current approaches for examining effect profiles in Multi-G-Multi-E analyses are either underpowered due to large degrees of freedom, ill-suited for detecting GxE interactions due to imprecise modeling of the G and E effects, or lack of capacity for modeling interactions between two factor sets (e.g., existing methods focus primarily on a single E factor). In this work, we illustrate the issues encountered in constructing kernels for investigating interactions between two factor-sets, and propose a simple yet intuitive solution to construct the GxE kernel that retains the ease-of-interpretation of classic regression. We also construct a series of KM score tests to evaluate the complete effect profile (i.e., the G, E, and GxE effects individually or in combination). We show, via simulations and a data application, that the proposed KM methods outperform the classic and PC regressions across a range of scenarios, including varying effect size, effect structure, and interaction complexity. The largest power gain was observed when the underlying effect structure involved complex GxE interactions; however, the proposed methods have consistent, powerful performance when the effect profile is simple or complex, suggesting that the proposed method could be a useful tool for exploratory or confirmatory GxE analysis. PMID:25538034

  10. Fan-Shaped Complete Block on Helical Tomotherapy for Esophageal Cancer: A Phantom Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chiu-Han; Mok, Greta S. P.; Shiau, An-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Ta; Wu, Tung-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a common complication for radiotherapy of esophageal cancer and is associated with the low dose irradiated lung volume. This study aims to reduce the mean lung dose (MLD) and the relative lung volume at 20 Gy (V20) and at low dose region using various designs of the fan-shaped complete block (FSCB) in helical tomotherapy. Hypothetical esophageal tumor was delineated on an anthropomorphic phantom. The FSCB was defined as the fan-shaped radiation restricted area located in both lungs. Seven treatment plans were performed with nonblock design and FSCB with different fan angles, that is, from 90° to 140°, with increment of 10°. The homogeneous index, conformation number, MLD, and the relative lung volume receiving more than 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy (V5, V10, V15, and V20) were determined for each treatment scheme. There was a substantial reduction in the MLD, V5, V10, V15, and V20 when using different types of FSCB as compared to the nonblock design. The reduction of V20, V15, V10, and V5 was 6.3%–8.6%, 16%–23%, 42%–57%, and 42%–66% for FSCB 90°–140°, respectively. The use of FSCB in helical tomotherapy is a promising method to reduce the MLD, V20, and relative lung volume in low dose region, especially in V5 and V10 for esophageal cancer. PMID:25767810

  11. Uncertainties of Completeness Measures in Openstreetmap - a Case Study for Buildings in a Medium-Sized German City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, T.; Dorn, H.; Hahmann, S.; Zipf, A.

    2015-08-01

    The completeness of buildings in OpenStreetMap (OSM) is estimated for a medium-sized German city and its surroundings by comparing the OSM data with data from an official building cadastre. As completeness measures we apply two unit-based methods that are frequently applied in similar studies. It is found that the estimation of OSM building completeness strongly differ between the methods. A count ratio (number of OSM buildings / number of reference buildings) tends to underestimate the actual building completeness and an area ratio (total OSM building area / total reference building area) instead tends to overestimate the completeness within the study area. It is argued that a simple pre-processing of the building footprint polygons leads to a more accurate completeness estimation when applying the count ratio. It is also suggested to more carefully examine the areas that have been mapped in OSM but not in the reference data set (false positives). In the present study region, these values are mainly due to simplified OSM polygons and they contribute to an overestimation of the OSM building completeness when applying the area ratio.

  12. Comparative electromyographic study of elevator muscles in patients with complete dentures and natural dentition.

    PubMed

    Miralles, R; Berger, B; Ide, W; Manns, A; Bull, R; Carvajal, A

    1989-05-01

    An analysis of integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity of masseter and anterior temporal muscles was undertaken in fifteen patients with complete dentures and eight adult subjects with natural dentition. Bipolar surface electrodes were used for IEMG recordings during maximal voluntary clenching and saliva swallowing in the inter-cuspal position. The IEMG activity of both muscles during maximal voluntary clenching was significantly lower in patients with complete dentures than in subjects with natural dentition. During saliva swallowing the activity in both muscles was similar in both groups. This may have a great clinical significance in the maintenance of the functional state of the different structures of the stomatognathic system in complete denture wearers, since the process of swallowing is a 24-h function repeated about 600-2400 times each day. PMID:2746412

  13. Constraining Basin Geometry and Fault Kinematics on the Santo Tomas Segment of the Agua Blanca Fault Through a Combined Geophysical and Structural Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, A.; Wetmore, P.; Fletcher, J.; Connor, C. B.; Callihan, S.; Beeson, J.; Wilson, J.

    2008-12-01

    The Santo Tomas basin, located in northern Baja California, formed at a right step in the dextral Agua Blanca fault (ABF). The ABF extends for more than 120km east from Punta Banda, with an east-west strike, and represents the southernmost fault in the San Andreas system of faulting. The basin is located roughly 40km south of Ensenada where the Agua Blanca fault intersects the Maximos fault. A detailed geophysical analysis defines the basin geometry, and helps to constrain the distribution and offset of mapped and concealed faults. Geophysical and structural data sets are combined to constrain the kinematic evolution of the Santo Tomas basin, including determining the relative amount of dip-slip and strike-slip motion on basin-bounding faults. Gravity data was collected over seven transects across and along the axis of the basin at 500 meter intervals, with 200 meter intervals at locations of known or inferred faults. Magnetic data were taken over the same lines, and are used in conjunction with gravity data to constrain the locations, geometries and displacements of intrabasinal faults. The combined gravity and magnetic data are modeled using Geosoft Oasis montaj software to create 2 3/4D models along profiles across the study area. Modeling of the geophysical data combined with structural mapping indicates that the Santo Tomas basin is bound by two major strike-slip faults, the ABF on the northeastern side and the Maximos fault on south, Based on offset markers, most of the strike-slip motion appears to be concentrated on the ABF on the north side of the basin. The ABF fault is characterized by multiple subparallel fault strands that appear to coalesce into single strands to the northwest and southeast of the basin. The Maximos is characterized by a single strand throughout the basin and it exhibits a minor dip-slip component. Basin sediments thicken slightly against the Maximos fault to as much as 1km. A third fault, cutting across the basin southeast of the

  14. Timely Doctoral Completion Rates in Five Fields: A Two-Part Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Angela Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Roughly half of all doctoral students who begin a program do not continue through graduation, and many of them face significant financial losses and emotional burdens as a result. Although this completion rate has stayed fairly constant for the past few decades, it has recently gained attention on a national level. In 2011, the National Research…

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens DSM 40697, a Paradigm for Genome Plasticity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Thibessard, Annabelle

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens DSM 40697 was completely determined. The genome consists of an 8.1-Mbp linear chromosome with terminal inverted repeats of 210 kb. Genomic islands were identified, one of which corresponds to a new putative integrative and conjugative element (ICE) called pSAM3. PMID:27257195

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens DSM 40697, a Paradigm for Genome Plasticity Studies.

    PubMed

    Thibessard, Annabelle; Leblond, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The sequence of Streptomyces ambofaciens DSM 40697 was completely determined. The genome consists of an 8.1-Mbp linear chromosome with terminal inverted repeats of 210 kb. Genomic islands were identified, one of which corresponds to a new putative integrative and conjugative element (ICE) called pSAM3. PMID:27257195

  17. A Long-Term Follow-Up Study of 1994-95 Career Program Completers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Karen A.

    This report presents the 1999 major findings about long-term career program completers who left Kansas' Johnson County Community College in 1994-95. The report summarizes data on utilization of community college preparation, experiences with their full-time related job, hourly wage and satisfaction with their full-time related job, community…

  18. Enhancing Doctoral Completion in Women: Evidence from a Qualitative Study of a Unique Federally Funded Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sandra P.; Drake-Clark, Donna; Grasso, Maureen; Banta, Trudy

    2014-01-01

    In an era where campus environments were often unwelcoming to women, and there were few women role models, an innovative program funded by the National Institute of Education produced 100% completion by female and minority doctoral students. At a 25-year reunion, the graduates reflected on their program experiences and careers. Reflections were…

  19. Kinematic modeling and its implication in longitudinal chemotherapy study of tumor physiology: ovarian xenograft mouse model and contrast-enhanced dynamic CT (Honorable Mention Poster Award)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Hutchins, Gary D.

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that dynamic CT provides the necessary sensitivity to quantify tumor physiology and differences in chemotherapeutic response. A compartmental mouse model utilizing measured contrast-enhanced dynamic CT scans is used to simulate systematic and statistical errors associated with tumor physiology: perfusion, permeability (PS), fractional plasma volume (fp), and fractional interstitial volume. The solute utilized is a small molecular weight radio-opaque contrast agent (isovue). For such an intravascular-interstitial medium, the kinematics simplifies to a two compartmental diffusive dominated set of coupled differential equations. Each combination of physiological parameters is repeatedly simulated fifteen times from which statistical errors calculated. The fractional change relative to the true value (systematic error) and standard deviation (statistical error) are plotted as a function of PS, fp, scanner temporal resolution and noise, and contrast media injection rates. By extrapolating from experimental data found in literature, a relative change in PS and fp of approximately 40% is required. Thus, the longitudinal response of two chemotherapeutic drugs under investigation - proteasome and IMPDH inhibitors - are hypothesized to induce different physiological responses. The first set of simulations varies PS from 0.05 to 0.40 mL/min/mL and fp from 0.01 to 0.07 mL/mL while holding all other physiological parameters constant. Errors in PS remain below 3% while statistical errors for fp increase significantly as the volume decreases toward 1-2%: errors remain less than 6% for fp>0.03 while increasing to above 15% for fp<0.02. The second set of simulations are performed quantifying the relationship between scanner temporal resolution and contrast media injection rate for various tumor permeabilities. For the majority of cases, the errors remain below 5%. As PS approaches perfusion, a total error less than 6% can be maintained

  20. A complete radio study of SNR G15.4+0.1 from new GMRT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supan, L.; Castelletti, G.; Joshi, B. C.; Surnis, M. P.; Supanitsky, D.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: The supernova remnant (SNR) G15.4+0.1 is considered to be the possible counterpart of the γ-ray source HESS J1818-154. With the goal of getting a complete view of this remnant and understanding the nature of the γ-ray flux, we conducted a detailed radio study that includes the search for pulsations and a model of the broadband emission for the SNR G15.4+0.1/HESS J1818-154 system. Methods: Low-frequency imaging at 624 MHz and pulsar observations at 624 and 1404 MHz towards G15.4+0.1 were carried out with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We correlated the new radio data with observations of the source at X-ray and infrared wavelengths from XMM-Newton and Herschel observatories, respectively. To characterize the neutral hydrogen (HI) medium towards G15.4+0.1, we used data from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey. We modelled the spectral energy distribution (SED) using both hadronic and leptonic scenarios. Results: From the combination of the new GMRT observations with existing data, we derived a continuum spectral index α = -0.62 ± 0.03 for the whole remnant. The local synchrotron spectra of G15.4+0.1, calculated from the combination of the GMRT data with 330 MHz observations from the Very Large Array, tends to be flatter in the central part of the remnant, accompanying the region where the blast wave is impinging molecular gas. No spectral index trace was found indicating the radio counterpart to the pulsar wind nebula proposed from X-ray observations. In addition, the search for radio pulsations yielded negative results. Emission at far-infrared wavelengths is observed in the region where the SNR shock is interacting with dense molecular clumps. We also identified HI features forming a shell that wraps most of the outer border of G15.4+0.1. Characteristic parameters were estimated for the shocked HI gas. We found that either a purely hadronic or leptonic model is compatible with the broadband emission known so far.

  1. Stereoscopic Study of the Kinematic Evolution of a Coronal Mass Ejection and Its Driven Shock from the Sun to the Earth and the Prediction of Their Arrival Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R ⊙ and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R ⊙ combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  2. Stereoscopic study of the kinematic evolution of a coronal mass ejection and its driven shock from the sun to the earth and the prediction of their arrival times

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Phillip; Zhang, Jie

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed study of the complete evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME). We have tracked the evolution of both the ejecta and its shock, and further fit the evolution of the fronts to a simple but physics-based analytical model. This study focuses on the CME initiated on the Sun on 2012 July 12 and arriving at the Earth on 2012 July 14. Shock and ejecta fronts were observed by white light images, as well as in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite. We find that the propagation of the two fronts is not completely dependent upon one another, but can each be modeled in the heliosphere with a drag model that assumes the dominant force of affecting CME evolution to be the aerodynamic drag force of the ambient solar wind. Results indicate that the CME ejecta front undergoes a more rapid deceleration than the shock front within 50 R {sub ☉} and therefore the propagation of the two fronts is not completely coupled in the heliosphere. Using the graduated cylindrical shell model, as well as data from time-elongation stack plots and in situ signatures, we show that the drag model can accurately describe the behavior of each front, but is more effective with the ejecta. We also show that without the in situ data, based on measurements out to 80 R {sub ☉} combined with the general values for drag model parameters, the arrival of both the shock and ejecta can be predicted within four hours of arrival.

  3. Ionized gas kinematics of galaxies in the CALIFA survey. I. Velocity fields, kinematic parameters of the dominant component, and presence of kinematically distinct gaseous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lorenzo, B.; Márquez, I.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Masegosa, J.; Husemann, B.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, J.; Mast, D.; García-Benito, R.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; van de Ven, G.; Spekkens, K.; Holmes, L.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; del Olmo, A.; Ziegler, B.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Papaderos, P.; Gomes, J. M.; Marino, R. A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; López-Sánchez, A. R.; Bekeraitė, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Bomans, D.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Ionized gas kinematics provide important clues to the dynamical structure of galaxies and hold constraints to the processes driving their evolution. Aims: The motivation of this work is to provide an overall characterization of the kinematic behavior of the ionized gas of the galaxies included in the Calar Alto Legacy Integral field Area (CALIFA), offering kinematic clues to potential users of the CALIFA survey for including kinematical criteria in their selection of targets for specific studies. From the first 200 galaxies observed by CALIFA survey in its two configurations, we present the two-dimensional kinematic view of the 177 galaxies satisfaying a gas content/detection threshold. Methods: After removing the stellar contribution, we used the cross-correlation technique to obtain the radial velocity of the dominant gaseous component for each spectrum in the CALIFA data cubes for different emission lines (namely, [O ii] λλ3726,3729, [O iii] λλ4959,5007, Hα+[N ii] λλ6548,6584, and [SII]λλ6716,6730). The main kinematic parameters measured on the plane of the sky were directly derived from the radial velocities with no assumptions on the internal prevailing motions. Evidence of the presence of several gaseous components with different kinematics were detected by using [O iii] λλ4959,5007 emission line profiles. Results: At the velocity resolution of CALIFA, most objects in the sample show regular velocity fields, although the ionized-gas kinematics are rarely consistent with simple coplanar circular motions. Thirty-five percent of the objects present evidence of a displacement between the photometric and kinematic centers larger than the original spaxel radii. Only 17% of the objects in the sample exhibit kinematic lopsidedness when comparing receding and approaching sides of the velocity fields, but most of them are interacting galaxies exhibiting nuclear activity (AGN or LINER). Early-type (E+S0) galaxies in the sample present clear

  4. Determinants of Timely Completion: The Impact of Bachelor's Degree Programme Characteristics and Student Motivation on Study Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhre, Cor J. M.; Jansen, Ellen P. W. A.; Torenbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Timely completion of university degree programmes is a topic of growing concern to higher education institutions and their students. This paper reports on a study about the impact of degree programme characteristics and student motivation on study progress. The setting for the study is a Dutch law school. Data on degree programme characteristics,…

  5. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of a feasibility study? 404.33 Section 404.33 Public Lands: Interior... of a feasibility study? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 50 percent of the cost of a feasibility study conducted under § 404.11(a) or (b). You will be responsible to pay for the remaining...

  6. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of a feasibility study? 404.33 Section 404.33 Public Lands: Interior... of a feasibility study? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 50 percent of the cost of a feasibility study conducted under § 404.11(a) or (b). You will be responsible to pay for the remaining...

  7. 43 CFR 404.29 - Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be scaled to be proportional to the size and cost of... § 404.29 Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be... effort for an appraisal investigation or feasibility study should be scaled to take into...

  8. 43 CFR 404.29 - Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be scaled to be proportional to the size and cost of... § 404.29 Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be... effort for an appraisal investigation or feasibility study should be scaled to take into...

  9. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provide for the completion of a feasibility study? 404.33 Section 404.33 Public Lands: Interior... of a feasibility study? In general, Reclamation will be responsible for 50 percent of the cost of a feasibility study conducted under § 404.11(a) or (b). You will be responsible to pay for the remaining...

  10. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-01-01

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly. PMID:26839605

  11. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen; Weimar, Wendi

    2015-12-22

    Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly. PMID:26839605

  12. Kinematic adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Goldner, B; Fuchs, A; Nolte, I; Schilling, N

    2015-05-01

    Limb amputation often represents the only treatment option for canine patients with certain diseases or injuries of the appendicular system. Previous studies have investigated adaptations to tripedal locomotion in dogs but there is a lack of understanding of biomechanical compensatory mechanisms. This study evaluated the kinematic differences between quadrupedal and tripedal locomotion in nine healthy dogs running on a treadmill. The loss of the right pelvic limb was simulated using an Ehmer sling. Kinematic gait analysis included spatio-temporal comparisons of limb, joint and segment angles of the remaining pelvic and both thoracic limbs. The following key parameters were compared between quadrupedal and tripedal conditions: angles at touch-down and lift-off, minimum and maximum joint angles, plus range of motion. Significant differences in angular excursion were identified in several joints of each limb during both stance and swing phases. The most pronounced differences concerned the remaining pelvic limb, followed by the contralateral thoracic limb and, to a lesser degree, the ipsilateral thoracic limb. The thoracic limbs were, in general, more retracted, consistent with pelvic limb unloading and previous observations of bodyweight re-distribution in amputees. Proximal limb segments showed more distinct changes than distal ones. Particularly, the persistently greater anteversion of the pelvis probably affects the axial system. Overall, tripedal locomotion requires concerted kinematic adjustments of both the appendicular and axial systems, and consequently preventive, therapeutic and rehabilitative care of canine amputees should involve the whole musculoskeletal apparatus. PMID:25862392

  13. New Kinematical Constraints on Cosmic Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Rapetti, David; Allen, Steve W.; Amin, Mustafa A.; Blandford, Roger; /-KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-05-25

    We present and employ a new kinematical approach to ''dark energy'' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all {Lambda}CDM models have j(t)=1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the {Lambda}CDM paradigm. Applying our model to redshift-independent distance measurements, from type Ia supernovae and X-ray cluster gas mass fraction measurements, we obtain clear statistical evidence for a late time transition from a decelerating to an accelerating phase. For a flat model with constant jerk, j(t)=j, we measure q{sub 0}=-0.81 {+-} 0.14 and j=2.16 +0.81 -0.75, results that are consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} confidence level. In comparison to dynamical analyses, the kinematical approach uses a different model set and employs a minimum of prior information, being independent of any particular gravity theory. The results obtained with this new approach therefore provide important additional information and we argue that both kinematical and dynamical techniques should be employed in future dark energy studies, where possible.

  14. Stewart platform kinematics and secondary mirror aberration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.; Marty, L.

    2006-06-01

    This work deals with active correction of the aberrations in a telescope by moving the secondary mirror. A special attention is here dedicated to the case of a secondary mirror whose motions are controlled by a 6-6 Stewart Platform (generally called by astronomers simply "hexapod", even if this term is more general). The kinematics of the device is studied; an iterative algorithm to solve the non trivial forward kinematics problem is described.

  15. Inverse kinematics problem in robotics using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Charles

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, Multilayer Feedforward Networks are applied to the robot inverse kinematic problem. The networks are trained with endeffector position and joint angles. After training, performance is measured by having the network generate joint angles for arbitrary endeffector trajectories. A 3-degree-of-freedom (DOF) spatial manipulator is used for the study. It is found that neural networks provide a simple and effective way to both model the manipulator inverse kinematics and circumvent the problems associated with algorithmic solution methods.

  16. Do reef fish, Variola louti and Scarus niger, perform amodal completion? Evidence from a field study.

    PubMed

    Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dickel, Ludovic; Rahmani, Nathaele; Shashar, Nadav

    2011-08-01

    In terms of visual perception, coral reefs are structurally complex habitats. Therefore, visual stimuli that invoke territorial behavior in fish, causing them to respond to potential intruders and competitors, may be fragmented. Amodal completion was recently shown in a fish species. Here, we presented a mirror covered by occluders, with different squared openings arranged in a vertical or a horizontal broken line or a checkerboard formation, within their natural territories in the reef. Single small openings in the occluders did not trigger an attack on the reflected image, while specific configurations of them did so, suggesting that fish recognized an intruder in the fragmented image. The results suggest the use of amodal completion by fish although other possibilities cannot be rejected. PMID:21842982

  17. Clifford Fibrations and Possible Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, Alan S.

    2009-07-01

    Following Herranz and Santander [Herranz F.J., Santander M., Mem. Real Acad. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Natur. Madrid 32 (1998), 59-84, physics/9702030] we will construct homogeneous spaces based on possible kinematical algebras and groups [Bacry H., Levy-Leblond J.-M., J. Math. Phys. 9 (1967), 1605-1614] and their contractions for 2-dimensional spacetimes. Our construction is different in that it is based on a generalized Clifford fibration: Following Penrose [Penrose R., Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, 2005] we will call our fibration a Clifford fibration and not a Hopf fibration, as our fibration is a geometrical construction. The simple algebraic properties of the fibration describe the geometrical properties of the kinematical algebras and groups as well as the spacetimes that are derived from them. We develop an algebraic framework that handles all possible kinematic algebras save one, the static algebra.

  18. Functional kinematics of the wrist.

    PubMed

    Rainbow, M J; Wolff, A L; Crisco, J J; Wolfe, S W

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review past and present concepts concerning functional kinematics of the healthy and injured wrist. To provide a context for students of the wrist, we describe the progression of techniques for measuring carpal kinematics over the past century and discuss how this has influenced today's understanding of functional kinematics. Next, we provide an overview of recent developments and highlight the clinical relevance of these findings. We use these findings and recent evidence that supports the importance of coupled motion in early rehabilitation of radiocarpal injuries to develop the argument that coupled motion during functional activities is a clinically relevant outcome; therefore, clinicians should develop a framework for its dynamic assessment. This should enable a tailored and individualized approach to the treatment of carpal injuries. PMID:26568538

  19. Enhancement of Kinematic Accelerations by Wavenumber Correlation Filtering.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Ki; Kwon, Jay Hyoun

    2016-01-01

    To obtain kinematic accelerations with high accuracy and reliability, multiple Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers with a single antenna can be used for airborne gravimetry. The data collected from each receiver can be processed for kinematic accelerations that may be combined using simple averaging. Here, however, uncorrelated errors from instrument errors in each receiver also will be included that degrade the final solutions. Therefore, in this study, the wavenumber correlation filter (WCF) is applied to extract only the higher positively correlated wavenumber components of the kinematic accelerations for the enhancement of the final solution. The in situ airborne GPS data from two receivers were wavenumber-correlation-filtered to show about 0.07835 Gal improvement in accuracy relative to the solution from the raw kinematic accelerations. PMID:27608026

  20. Reproducibility of 3D kinematics and surface electromyography measurements of mastication.

    PubMed

    Remijn, Lianne; Groen, Brenda E; Speyer, Renée; van Limbeek, Jacques; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the measurement reproducibility for a procedure evaluating the mastication process and to estimate the smallest detectable differences of 3D kinematic and surface electromyography (sEMG) variables. Kinematics of mandible movements and sEMG activity of the masticatory muscles were obtained over two sessions with four conditions: two food textures (biscuit and bread) of two sizes (small and large). Twelve healthy adults (mean age 29.1 years) completed the study. The second to the fifth chewing cycle of 5 bites were used for analyses. The reproducibility per outcome variable was calculated with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a Bland-Altman analysis was applied to determine the standard error of measurement relative error of measurement and smallest detectable differences of all variables. ICCs ranged from 0.71 to 0.98 for all outcome variables. The outcome variables consisted of four bite and fourteen chewing cycle variables. The relative standard error of measurement of the bite variables was up to 17.3% for 'time-to-swallow', 'time-to-transport' and 'number of chewing cycles', but ranged from 31.5% to 57.0% for 'change of chewing side'. The relative standard error of measurement ranged from 4.1% to 24.7% for chewing cycle variables and was smaller for kinematic variables than sEMG variables. In general, measurements obtained with 3D kinematics and sEMG are reproducible techniques to assess the mastication process. The duration of the chewing cycle and frequency of chewing were the best reproducible measurements. Change of chewing side could not be reproduced. The published measurement error and smallest detectable differences will aid the interpretation of the results of future clinical studies using the same study variables. PMID:26617403

  1. Kinematics of KPG 390

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, P.; Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R.; Fuentes-Carrera, I.

    2010-06-01

    In this work we present scanning Fabry-Perot Hα observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5278/9 obtained with the PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer. We derived velocity fields, various kinematic parameters and rotation curves for both galaxies. Our kinematical results together with the fact that dust lanes have been detected in both galaxies, as well as the analysis of surface brightness profiles along the minor axis, allowed us to determine that both components of the interacting pair are trailing spirals.

  2. Kinematic sensitivity of robot manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, Marko I.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematic sensitivity vectors and matrices for open-loop, n degrees-of-freedom manipulators are derived. First-order sensitivity vectors are defined as partial derivatives of the manipulator's position and orientation with respect to its geometrical parameters. The four-parameter kinematic model is considered, as well as the five-parameter model in case of nominally parallel joint axes. Sensitivity vectors are expressed in terms of coordinate axes of manipulator frames. Second-order sensitivity vectors, the partial derivatives of first-order sensitivity vectors, are also considered. It is shown that second-order sensitivity vectors can be expressed as vector products of the first-order sensitivity vectors.

  3. A complete active space self-consistent field study of the photochemistry of nitrosamine

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaez, Daniel; Arenas, Juan F.; Otero, Juan C.; Soto, Juan

    2006-10-28

    Photodissociation mechanisms of nitrosamine (NH{sub 2}NO) have been studied at the complete active space self-consistent field level of theory in conjunction with atomic-natural-orbital-type basis sets. In addition, the energies of all the critical points and the potential energy curves connecting them have been recomputed with the multiconfigurational second-order perturbation method. Ground state minimum of nitrosamine has a C{sub 1} nonplanar structure with the hydrogen atoms of the amino moiety out of the plane defined by the N-N-O bonds. Electronic transitions to the three lowest states are allowed by selection rules: (i) S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 3} (7.41 eV) has an oscillator strength of f=0.0006 and it is assigned as an (np{sub O}){sup 0}{yields}({pi}{sub NO}*){sup 2} transition, (ii) S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 2} (5.86 eV) has an oscillator strength of f=0.14 and it is assigned as an np{sub N}{yields}{pi}{sub NO}* transition, and (iii) S{sub 0}{yields}S{sub 1} (2.98 eV) has an oscillator strength of f=0.002 and it is assigned as an np{sub O}{yields}{pi}{sub NO}* transition. It is found that N-N bond cleavage is the most likely process in all the photochemical relevant states, namely, S{sub 1} (1 {sup 1}A{sup ''}), S{sub 2} (2 {sup 1}A{sup '}), and T{sub 1} (1 {sup 3}A{sup ''}). While S{sub 1} and T{sub 1} yield exclusively homolytic dissociation: NH{sub 2}NO{yields}NH{sub 2} (1 {sup 2}B{sub 1})+NO(X {sup 2}{pi}), on S{sub 2} the latter process constitutes the major path, but two additional minor channels are also available: adiabatic homolytic dissociation: NH{sub 2}NO{yields}NH{sub 2} (1 {sup 2}A{sub 1})+NO(X {sup 2}{pi}), and adiabatic oxygen extrusion: NH{sub 2}NO{yields}NH{sub 2}N (1 {sup 3}A{sub 1})+O({sup 3}P). The excited species NH{sub 2} (1 {sup 2}A{sub 1}) experiences a subsequent ultrafast decay to the ground state, the final products in all cases the fragments being in their lowest electronic state. We have not found a unimolecular mechanism connecting

  4. Factors That Contribute to the Completion of Programs of Study at Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education for African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Barrett Wade McCoy

    2015-01-01

    The study examined factors that predicted the completion of programs of study at Arkansas institutions of higher education for African American males. Astin's (1993a) Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) Model was used as the theoretical foundation. Descriptive analyses and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were performed on the data. The…

  5. Are Dropout and Degree Completion in Doctoral Study Significantly Dependent on Type of Financial Support and Field of Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Haert, Margaux; Arias Ortiz, Elena; Emplit, Philippe; Halloin, Véronique; Dehon, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the determinants of "time to dropout" from doctoral studies and "time to PhD completion" are studied using a discrete-time competing risks survival analysis for a sample of 3092 doctoral candidates from the Université libre de Bruxelles. Not surprisingly, results show that students supported with research…

  6. Review: Assessment of completeness of reporting in intervention studies using livestock: an example from pain mitigation interventions in neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results, and interpretation are essential components of the scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. Several reporting guidelines are now publicly available for animal researchers including the...

  7. Relationship between Student Progress in College and Successful Completion of English and LERN Classes. Focus Study. AB 1725 Accountability Model Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronvig, Jill; And Others

    In 1990, a study was conducted at Mt. San Antonio College to examine the relationship between students' successful completion of English and Learning Resources Network (LERN) courses and the completion of other college courses during the same semester. The study population included all students who were enrolled in either English 1A, 68, 67, or…

  8. Friction Stir Welding at MSFC: Kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    In 1991 The Welding Institute of the United Kingdom patented the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process. In FSW a rotating pin-tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the faying surfaces together as it moves up the seam. By April 2000 the American Welding Society International Welding and Fabricating Exposition featured several exhibits of commercial FSW processes and the 81st Annual Convention devoted a technical session to the process. The FSW process is of interest to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as a means of avoiding hot-cracking problems presented by the 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy, which is the primary constituent of the Lightweight Space Shuttle External Tank. The process has been under development at MSFC for External Tank applications since the early 1990's. Early development of the FSW process proceeded by cut-and-try empirical methods. A substantial and complex body of data resulted. A theoretical model was wanted to deal with the complexity and reduce the data to concepts serviceable for process diagnostics, optimization, parameter selection, etc. A first step in understanding the FSW process is to determine the kinematics, i.e., the flow field in the metal in the vicinity of the pin-tool. Given the kinematics, the dynamics, i.e., the forces, can be targeted. Given a completed model of the FSW process, attempts at rational design of tools and selection of process parameters can be made.

  9. Testing Iberia Kinematics at Jurassic-Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, Marta; Miranda, J. Miguel; Font, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Paleogeographic reconstructions of Iberia at Mesozoic are still a matter of debate. A major problem resides in the incompatibility existing between kinematic models and paleomagnetic data older than 120 Ma. Here, we investigate the origin of this misfit by finding and testing euler poles that fit Iberian mean paleomagnetic poles (123, 130 and 151 Ma) with global APWP. At 123 Ma 130 Ma, no geologically plausible solutions were found, questioning the validity of corresponding paleomagnetic data. Contrarily, for 151 Ma mean pole, coherent solutions were simulated, suggesting respective paleomagnetic data as potentially reliable. Based on these results, we propose a new magnetic reconstruction for Iberia and surrounding plates at ~150 Ma, to which corresponds the IB-NAM euler pole -18.08 / 67.54 / -57.72 (long / lat / angle). This is the first pre-drift reconstruction for Iberia to be compatible with paleomagnetic data. A complete and coherent model for the Jurassic-Cretaceous kinematic evolution of Iberia is still dependent on more and better paleomagnetic poles and on a reevaluation of magnetic anomalies, for which several problems remain unsolved.

  10. Kinematic analysis of platform-type robotic manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiaolun

    New methods are developed for the kinematic analysis of serial and platform-type parallel robotic manipulators, including forward and inverse kinematic solutions, singularity identifications and workspace evaluation. Differences between serial and platform-type parallel manipulators, which can provide substantially improved end-point rigidity compared with the conventional serial robotic arms, are addressed. The problem of determining the screw parameters of rigid body motion from initial and final position data is discussed, as a basis to search for a general and efficient procedure to solve the complex forward kinematics problem of platform-type manipulators. Several Screw-Theory based approaches for solving the inverse instantaneous problem of 6 DOF serial manipulators are studied and compared in terms of their computational efficiency, accuracy, sensitivity to data error and capability of dealing with singularities. A modified Vector Decomposition method is then proposed for solving the IIK problem and for singularity analysis of serial kinematic chains, the method is especially effective when applied to the wrist partitioned serial manipulators, which are essential components to any platform-type parallel manipulators. By using the data of three point positions, velocities, and accelerations of the end effector a general method is developed for solving the forward kinematics problem, including position, velocity and acceleration kinematics, of platform-type manipulators. The solution procedure can be applied to a wide variety of platform-type manipulators such as the 6 DOF Steward Platform manipulator and other models. It is found that while the solution for the forward position kinematics of a platform-type manipulator can be obtained by solving a non-linear system of equations, the closed-form solutions for forward rate and acceleration kinematics can be found by solving a system of linear equations. Based on the proposed kinematic formulations, an algorithm

  11. Over-constrained rigid multibody systems: differential kinematics and fault tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yong; McInroy, John E.; Chen, Yixin

    2002-07-01

    Over-constrained parallel manipulators can be used for fault tolerance. This paper derives the differential kinematics and static force model for a general over-constrained rigid multibody system. The result shows that the redundant constraints result in constrained active joints and redundant internal force. By incorporating these constraints, general methods for overcoming stuck legs or even the complete loss of legs are derived. The Stewart platform special case is studied as an example, and the relationship between its forward Jacobian and its inverse Jacobian is also found.

  12. Kinematic support using elastic elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geirsson, Arni; Debra, Daniel B.

    1988-01-01

    The design of kinematic supports using elastic elements is reviewed. The two standard methods (cone, Vee and flat and three Vees) are presented and a design example involving a machine tool metrology bench is given. Design goals included thousandfold strain attenuation in the bench relative to the base when the base strains due to temperature variations and shifting loads. Space applications are also considered.

  13. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  14. Complete biodegradable nature of calcium hydroxylapatite after injection for malar enhancement: an MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Pavicic, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiesse® (Calcium hydroxylapatite [CaHA]) is a biocompatible, injectable gel for facial soft tissue augmentation. It is a completely biodegradable filler and this is well documented, but objective imaging methods to confirm this property are scarce. Methods We present a case report in which CaHA was injected into the midface of a 50-year-old woman for volume restoration and shaping of the cheek region. On the right side of the face, 1.6 mL CaHA was injected as several (5−7) small depots (0.1−0.2 mL) using a 28G 3/4 inch needle and the vertical supraperiosteal depot technique. On the contralateral side of the face, the subject received 1.6 mL CaHA over three entry points using a 27G 1 1/2 inch blunt cannula and the fanning technique. CaHA location and degradation were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results CaHA appears as low-to-intermediate signal intensity on MRI images taken immediately after injection for malar enhancement with a symmetrical distribution. On MRI images taken 2.5 years after injection, no CaHA was visible but tissue volume remained increased, indicating a collagen-stimulating effect. The treatment was well tolerated. Conclusion In addition to producing long-lasting aesthetic and collagen-stimulating effects, MRI images confirm that CaHA is completely biodegradable with no product remaining 2.5 years after injection. PMID:25709485

  15. Design, implementation, and completion of a horizontal tight gas wellbore - case study: Green River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, R.L.; Evans, L.W.; Anderson, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    In September, 1993 Amoco Production Company began drilling the Champlin 254B No. 2H, a horizontal well test located near the Wamsutter Arch, southwestem Wyoming. The Champlin 254B No. 2H was designed to confirm a fractured reservoir concept and to test the economic viability of a horizontal wellbore in the Almond fm.. The wellbore was designed to determine real-time, the fracture direction and the optimum horizontal leg direction within the confines of the drilling permit. A deviated pilot hole was drilled to optimize our ability to cross vertical natural fractures. MWD gamma-ray, oriented core, a vertical seismic profile, Formation Microimager, and a robust suite of electric logs were obtained to gain information on the presence and orientation of fractures before kickoff for the horizontal leg. Electromagnetic goniometry was used onsite to orient fractures in core. Log and core data were consistent and a wellbore trajectory of due South was chosen. A two thousand foot horizontal wellbore was drilled, 1700 feet of which is in the upper Almond formation productive zone. MWD gamma-ray, three 30` cores, Formation Microscanner logs, and a density-neutron log were obtained in the horizontal hole. This wellbore was completed open-hole with a stabilized gas rate of 1 mmcfd. In May, 1994 a portion of the original wellbore collapsed and a replacement horizontal leg was drilled. Oil-based mud and rotary BOP`s were utilized to minimize damage and invasion to the reservoir. Reservoir pressures encountered in the redrill indicate that depletion along the original wellbore had begun. The redrill was completed open-hole with a pre-perforated (every third joint) 5 1/2 inches liner and also stabilized at a rate of 1 mmcfd.

  16. Kinematics of Haro 11: The miniature Antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östlin, G.; Marquart, T.; Cumming, R. J.; Fathi, K.; Bergvall, N.; Adamo, A.; Amram, P.; Hayes, M.

    2015-11-01

    Luminous blue compact galaxies are among the most active galaxies in the local Universe in terms of their star formation rate per unit mass. They are rare at the current cosmic epoch, but were more abundant in the past and may be seen as the local analogues of higher red shift Lyman break galaxies. Studies of their kinematics is key to understanding what triggers their unusually active star formation. In this work, we investigate the kinematics of stars and ionised gas in Haro 11, one of the most luminous blue compact galaxies in the local Universe. Previous works have indicated that many of these galaxies may be triggered by galaxy mergers. We have employed Fabry-Perot interferometry, long-slit spectroscopy, and integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy to explore the kinematics of Haro 11. We target the near-infrared calcium triplet, and use cross-correlation and penalised pixel fitting techniques to derive the stellar velocity field and velocity dispersion. We analyse ionised gas through emission lines from hydrogen, [O iii], and [S iii]. When spectral resolution and signal to noise allows, we investigate the line profile in detail and identify multiple velocity components when present. The spectra reveal a complex velocity field whose components, both stellar and gaseous, we attempt to disentangle. We find that to first order, the velocity field and velocity dispersions derived from stars and ionised gas agree. Hence the complexities reveal real dynamical disturbances providing further evidence for a merger in Haro 11. Through decomposition of emission lines, we find evidence for kinematically distinct components, for instance, a tidal arm. The ionised gas velocity field can be traced to large galactocentric radii, and shows significant velocity dispersion even far out in the halo. If interpreted as virial motions, this indicates that Haro 11 may have a mass of ~1011 M⊙. Haro 11 shows many resemblances with the famous Antennae galaxies both morphologically and

  17. THE PHOTOMETRIC AND KINEMATIC STRUCTURE OF FACE-ON DISK GALAXIES. III. KINEMATIC INCLINATIONS FROM H{alpha} VELOCITY FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, David R.; Bershady, Matthew A. E-mail: mab@astro.wisc.edu

    2013-05-01

    Using the integral field unit DensePak on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope we have obtained H{alpha} velocity fields of 39 nearly face-on disks at echelle resolutions. High-quality, uniform kinematic data and a new modeling technique enabled us to derive accurate and precise kinematic inclinations with mean i{sub kin} = 23 Degree-Sign for 90% of these galaxies. Modeling the kinematic data as single, inclined disks in circular rotation improves upon the traditional tilted-ring method. We measure kinematic inclinations with a precision in sin i of 25% at 20 Degree-Sign and 6% at 30 Degree-Sign . Kinematic inclinations are consistent with photometric and inverse Tully-Fisher inclinations when the sample is culled of galaxies with kinematic asymmetries, for which we give two specific prescriptions. Kinematic inclinations can therefore be used in statistical ''face-on'' Tully-Fisher studies. A weighted combination of multiple, independent inclination measurements yield the most precise and accurate inclination. Combining inverse Tully-Fisher inclinations with kinematic inclinations yields joint probability inclinations with a precision in sin i of 10% at 15 Degree-Sign and 5% at 30 Degree-Sign . This level of precision makes accurate mass decompositions of galaxies possible even at low inclination. We find scaling relations between rotation speed and disk-scale length identical to results from more inclined samples. We also observe the trend of more steeply rising rotation curves with increased rotation speed and light concentration. This trend appears to be uncorrelated with disk surface brightness.

  18. Crafting Appealing Text Messages to Encourage Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Completion: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Shellie D; Denizard-Thompson, Nancy; Kronner, Donna; Miller, David P

    2015-01-01

    Background mHealth interventions that incorporate text messages have great potential to increase receipt of preventive health services such as colorectal cancer screening. However, little is known about older adult perspectives regarding the receipt of text messages from their health care providers. Objective To assess whether older adults would value and access text messages from their physician’s practice regarding colorectal cancer screening. Methods We conducted four focus groups with 26 adults, aged 50 to 75 years, who had either recently completed or were overdue for colorectal cancer screening. A trained moderator followed a semistructured interview guide covering participant knowledge and attitudes regarding colorectal cancer screening, potential barriers to colorectal cancer screening, attitudes about receiving electronic communications from a doctor’s office, and reactions to sample text messages. Results Participant responses to three primary research questions were examined: (1) facilitators and barriers to colorectal cancer screening, (2) attitudes toward receiving text messages from providers, and (3) characteristics of appealing text messages. Two themes related to facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were perceived benefits/need and family experiences and encouragement. Themes related to barriers included unpleasantness, discomfort, knowledge gaps, fear of complications, and system factors. Four themes emerged regarding receipt of text messages from health care providers: (1) comfort and familiarity with technology, (2) privacy concerns/potential for errors, (3) impact on patient-provider relationship, and (4) perceived helpfulness. Many participants expressed initial reluctance to receiving text messages but responded favorably when shown sample messages. Participants preferred messages that contained content that was important to them and were positive and reassuring, personalized, and friendly to novice texters (eg, avoided the use of

  19. Kinematic analysis of the ARID manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Keith L

    1992-01-01

    The kinematic structure of the ARID manipulator lends itself to simple forward and inverse kinematics analysis. The purpose of this paper is to fully document and verify an existing analysis. The symbolic software package MATHEMATICA was used to produce and verify the equations presented here. In the analysis to follow, the standard Devenit-Hartenberg kinematic parameters of the ARID were employed.

  20. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study? 404.33 Section 404.33 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.33...

  1. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.28 Is...

  2. 43 CFR 404.29 - Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can the level of effort needed to complete an appraisal investigation or feasibility study be scaled to be proportional to the size and cost of the proposed project? 404.29 Section 404.29 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. Demographic and Predeparture Factors Associated with Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences for College Students Completing Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Aresi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Study abroad students are at risk for increased and problematic drinking behavior. As few efforts have been made to examine this at-risk population, the authors predicted drinking and alcohol-related consequences abroad from predeparture and site-specific factors. Participants: The sample consisted of 339 students completing study…

  4. 43 CFR 404.28 - Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Is it possible to expedite the completion of an appraisal investigation or feasibility study? 404.28 Section 404.28 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.28 Is...

  5. 43 CFR 404.33 - How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How much Federal funding can Reclamation provide for the completion of a feasibility study? 404.33 Section 404.33 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Cost-Sharing § 404.33...

  6. Examination Phase of the Master's Thesis: A Plausible Cause of Delayed Completion of Graduate Studies at Makerere University, Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oonyu, Joseph C.; Wamala, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the examination stage of student theses on the completion time of graduate studies at Makerere University, Uganda. The assessment is based on the administrative data of 504 Master's degree students in the 2000 to 2008 enrollment cohorts at the School of Education, Makerere University. The total elapsed time…

  7. SPACEBAR: Kinematic design by computer graphics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricci, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The interactive graphics computer program SPACEBAR, conceived to reduce the time and complexity associated with the development of kinematic mechanisms on the design board, was described. This program allows the direct design and analysis of mechanisms right at the terminal screen. All input variables, including linkage geometry, stiffness, and applied loading conditions, can be fed into or changed at the terminal and may be displayed in three dimensions. All mechanism configurations can be cycled through their range of travel and viewed in their various geometric positions. Output data includes geometric positioning in orthogonal coordinates of each node point in the mechanism, velocity and acceleration of the node points, and internal loads and displacements of the node points and linkages. All analysis calculations take at most a few seconds to complete. Output data can be viewed at the scope and also printed at the discretion of the user.

  8. Characteristics of suicide completers with a psychiatric diagnosis before death: a postmortem study of 98 cases.

    PubMed

    Bakst, Shelly; Braun, Tali; Hirshberg, Rachel; Zucker, Inbar; Shohat, Tamar

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this research was to classify the deaths of 98 victims of suicide in Tel Aviv, Israel between the years 2007 and 2010. This was done by examining background features and clinical characteristics among suicide completers with histories of a prior psychiatric hospitalization using logistic regression modeling. 34% of the sample (33/98) was given at least one psychiatric diagnosis upon discharge from a prior psychiatric hospitalization. Throughout their lifetime, those with psychiatric diagnoses were significantly more likely to have histories of mental health treatment (psychotherapy and psychotropic medication), psychopathology and suicidality among family members, prior suicide attempts and familial or emotional crisis as compared with those without a psychiatric diagnosis. During their last life phase, those with prior psychiatric diagnoses were also significantly more likely to have received psychotherapeutic treatment, expressed a lack of desire to live and presented with affective symptoms (e.g. depression, anxiety, adaptation difficulty and nervousness) as compared with those without such histories. Thus, focusing on high risk populations, such as those with psychiatric illnesses and deciphering the role of mental health treatment, familial predisposition, prior suicide attempt and sub-clinical symptoms in relation to suicide can inform future prevention practices. PMID:25091231

  9. Completely-in-the-canal magnet-drive hearing device: a temporal bone study.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Hossein; Malley, Melinda J D; Paulick, Peyton; Merlo, Mark W; Bachman, Mark; Djalilian, Hamid R

    2013-03-01

    The magnet-drive hearing device (MHD) is a small completely-in-the-canal hearing aid prototype that drives the tympanic membrane (TM) through a magnetic interface. A cadaveric temporal bone was prepared. The MHD was coupled to a nickel-epoxy pellet glued to the umbo. Frequency sweeps between 0.3 and 10 kHz were performed, and the MHD was driven with various levels of current. Displacements of the posterior crus of the stapes were measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer and compared with sound-induced displacements. The MHD had a linear frequency response and low total harmonic distortion. The pellet placement altered the stapes movements; however, the changes were statistically insignificant. Inputs of 100 and 300 mV produced displacements equivalent to those of the natural sound at 70- and 80-dB sound pressure level, respectively. The coupling of this novel device using a magnetic interface to the umbo had a frequency output wider than air conduction devices, and its actuator was effective in driving the TM. PMID:23264118

  10. University Study in Australia: Persistence, Completion and beyond. LSAY Briefing Number 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This Briefing charts the progress of young people through university: (1) What difficulties do they encounter in the transition from school to university study?; (2) How many persist in their studies and graduate?; and (3) What are the benefits of university study? It also examines the issue of demand for university places: How many young people…

  11. Obtaining High Retention and Completion Rates in a New Zealand ODL Environment: A Case Study of Strategies Employed by Information and Library Studies Faculty at the Open Polytechnic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maathuis-Smith, Sandra; Wellington, Shannon; Cossham, Amanda; Fields, Alison; Irvine, Jan; Welland, Sarah; Innes, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Open and distance learning (ODL) provides unique challenges for student retention and course completion. In an increasingly competitive educational environment, measures such as retention and completion form the basis for the evaluation of institutional and student performance. Information and Library Studies (ILS) faculty at the Open Polytechnic…

  12. Comparison of wear in a total knee replacement under different kinematic conditions.

    PubMed

    Barnett, P I; Fisher, J; Auger, D D; Stone, M H; Ingham, E

    2001-01-01

    A six station ProSim (Manchester, UK) knee simulator was used to assess the wear of six PFC (DePuy) fixed bearing total knee replacements under two different kinematic conditions defined as low and high kinematic inputs. The high kinematics displacement and rotation inputs were based on the kinematics of the natural knee with ISO standards used for the axial load and flexion. Low kinematics were defined as approximately half the magnitude. The six specimens were run for three million cycles under low kinematics and three million cycles under high kinematics. The mean wear rate found during the low kinematics phase was 7.7 +/- 2 mm3 per million cycles. This then increased significantly to an average wear rate of 41 +/- 14 mm3 during the high kinematics input phase. The wear areas were characterized by a predominant damage mode of burnishing with some abrasive wear occurring during the high kinematics phase. This study supports the findings that introduction of cross-shearing of the polyethylene by introducing both rotational and anterior/posterior displacement increases the wear rate. This has implications for younger patients with higher levels of activity that need knee replacements. PMID:15348361

  13. Kinematical evidence for secular evolution in Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) spirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H.; Font, Joan; Beckman, John E.

    2015-03-01

    We present a study of the kinematics of a sample of isolated spiral galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G). We use Hα Fabry-Perot data from the GHαFaS instrument at the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in La Palma, complemented with images at 3.6 microns, in the R band and in the Hα filter. The resulting data cubes and velocity field maps allow a complete study of the kinematics of a galaxy, including in-depth investigations of the rotation curve, velocity moment maps, velocity residual maps, gradient maps and position-velocity (PV) diagrams. We find clear evidence of the secular evolution processes going on in these galaxies, such as asymmetries in the velocity field in the bar zone, and non-circular motions, probably in response to the potential of the structural components of the galaxies, or to past or present interactions.

  14. A SLUGGS and Gemini/GMOS combined study of the elliptical galaxy M60: wide-field photometry and kinematics of the globular cluster system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pota, Vincenzo; Brodie, Jean P.; Bridges, Terry; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Villaume, Alexa; Jennings, Zach; Faifer, Favio R.; Pastorello, Nicola; Forbes, Duncan A.; Campbell, Ainsley; Usher, Christopher; Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R.; Caldwell, Nelson; Forte, Juan C.; Norris, Mark A.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Beasley, Michael A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hanes, David A.; Sharples, Ray M.; Arnold, Jacob A.

    2015-06-01

    We present new wide-field photometry and spectroscopy of the globular clusters (GCs) around NGC 4649 (M60), the third brightest galaxy in the Virgo cluster. Imaging of NGC 4649 was assembled from a recently obtained Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys mosaic, and new Subaru/Suprime-Cam and archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaCam data. About 1200 sources were followed up spectroscopically using combined observations from three multi-object spectrographs: Keck/Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph, Gemini/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph and Multiple Mirror Telescope/Hectospec. We confirm 431 unique GCs belonging to NGC 4649, a factor of 3.5 larger than previous data sets and with a factor of 3 improvement in velocity precision. We confirm significant GC colour bimodality and find that the red GCs are more centrally concentrated, while the blue GCs are more spatially extended. We infer negative GC colour gradients in the innermost 20 kpc and flat gradients out to large radii. Rotation is detected along the galaxy major axis for all tracers: blue GCs, red GCs, galaxy stars and planetary nebulae. We compare the observed properties of NGC 4649 with galaxy formation models. We find that formation via a major merger between two gas-poor galaxies, followed by satellite accretion, can consistently reproduce the observations of NGC 4649 at different radii. We find no strong evidence to support an interaction between NGC 4649 and the neighbouring spiral galaxy NGC 4647. We identify interesting GC kinematic features in our data, such as counter-rotating subgroups and bumpy kinematic profiles, which encode more clues about the formation history of NGC 4649.

  15. Real-time measurement of pelvis and trunk kinematics during treadmill locomotion using a low-cost depth-sensing camera: A concurrent validity study.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Tom W; Taylor, Jonathan; McBain, Thomas; Weston, Matthew; Spears, Iain R

    2016-02-01

    There is currently no suitable kinematic system for a large-scale prospective trial assessing risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders. A practical kinematic system is described which involves the use of a single low-cost depth-sensing camera for the real-time measurement of 3-dimensional linear and angular pelvic and trunk range-of-movement (ROM). The method is based on the creation and processing of dynamic point clouds taken from the posterior surface of the pelvis and trunk. Nine healthy participants performed 3 trials of treadmill locomotion when walking at self-selected speed (3.6-5.6 km/h), running at 70% (10.9-14.0 km/h) and 90% of maximal speed (14.0-18.0 km/h). Stride-by-stride linear and angular ROM data were captured concurrently using the single depth-sensing camera running at 30 Hz (Kinect(TM) for Windows, Microsoft, USA) and a six-camera motion capture system at 100 Hz (Vicon MX13, Vicon Motion Systems, United Kingdom). Within subject correlation coefficients between the practical and criterion method ranged from very large to nearly perfect (r=0.87-1.00) for the linear ROM. Correlation coefficients for the angular ROM ranged from moderate to very large (r=0.41-0.80). The limits of agreement between the two systems for linear movements were ≤ 9.9 mm at all velocities of gait and ≤ 4.6° at all velocities of gait. The single camera system using depth-sensing technology is capable of capturing linear pelvic and trunk ROM during treadmill locomotion with reasonable precision when compared to the criterion method. Further improvements to the measurement of angles and validation across a wider population are recommended. PMID:26718063

  16. Effect of Off-Axis Fluoroscopy Imaging on Two-Dimensional Kinematics in the Lumbar Spine: A Dynamic In Vitro Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kristin D; Ben-Abraham, Ephraim I; Magnuson, Dixon J; Camp, Jon J; Berglund, Lawrence J; An, Kai-Nan; Bronfort, Gert; Gay, Ralph E

    2016-05-01

    Spine intersegmental motion parameters and the resultant regional patterns may be useful for biomechanical classification of low back pain (LBP) as well as assessing the appropriate intervention strategy. Because of its availability and reasonable cost, two-dimensional (2D) fluoroscopy has great potential as a diagnostic and evaluative tool. However, the technique of quantifying intervertebral motion in the lumbar spine must be validated, and the sensitivity assessed. The purpose of this investigation was to (1) compare synchronous fluoroscopic and optoelectronic measures of intervertebral rotations during dynamic flexion-extension movements in vitro and (2) assess the effect of C-arm rotation to simulate off-axis patient alignment on intervertebral kinematics measures. Six cadaveric lumbar-sacrum specimens were dissected, and active marker optoelectronic sensors were rigidly attached to the bodies of L2-S1. Fluoroscopic sequences and optoelectronic kinematic data (0.15-mm linear, 0.17-0.20 deg rotational, accuracy) were obtained simultaneously. After images were obtained in a true sagittal plane, the image receptor was rotated in 5 deg increments (posterior oblique angulations) from 5 deg to 15 deg. Quantitative motion analysis (qma) software was used to determine the intersegmental rotations from the fluoroscopic images. The mean absolute rotation differences between optoelectronic values and dynamic fluoroscopic values were less than 0.5 deg for all the motion segments at each off-axis fluoroscopic rotation and were not significantly different (P > 0.05) for any of the off-axis rotations of the fluoroscope. Small misalignments of the lumbar spine relative to the fluoroscope did not introduce measurement variation in relative segmental rotations greater than that observed when the spine and fluoroscope were perpendicular to each other, suggesting that fluoroscopic measures of relative segmental rotation during flexion-extension are likely robust

  17. Differences between kinematic synergies and muscle synergies during two-digit grasping

    PubMed Central

    Tagliabue, Michele; Ciancio, Anna Lisa; Brochier, Thomas; Eskiizmirliler, Selim; Maier, Marc A.

    2015-01-01

    The large number of mechanical degrees of freedom of the hand is not fully exploited during actual movements such as grasping. Usually, angular movements in various joints tend to be coupled, and EMG activities in different hand muscles tend to be correlated. The occurrence of covariation in the former was termed kinematic synergies, in the latter muscle synergies. This study addresses two questions: (i) Whether kinematic and muscle synergies can simultaneously accommodate for kinematic and kinetic constraints. (ii) If so, whether there is an interrelation between kinematic and muscle synergies. We used a reach-grasp-and-pull paradigm and recorded the hand kinematics as well as eight surface EMGs. Subjects had to either perform a precision grip or side grip and had to modify their grip force in order to displace an object against a low or high load. The analysis was subdivided into three epochs: reach, grasp-and-pull, and static hold. Principal component analysis (PCA, temporal or static) was performed separately for all three epochs, in the kinematic and in the EMG domain. PCA revealed that (i) Kinematic- and muscle-synergies can simultaneously accommodate kinematic (grip type) and kinetic task constraints (load condition). (ii) Upcoming grip and load conditions of the grasp are represented in kinematic- and muscle-synergies already during reach. Phase plane plots of the principal muscle-synergy against the principal kinematic synergy revealed (iii) that the muscle-synergy is linked (correlated, and in phase advance) to the kinematic synergy during reach and during grasp-and-pull. Furthermore (iv), pair-wise correlations of EMGs during hold suggest that muscle-synergies are (in part) implemented by coactivation of muscles through common input. Together, these results suggest that kinematic synergies have (at least in part) their origin not just in muscular activation, but in synergistic muscle activation. In short: kinematic synergies may result from muscle

  18. Degree Completion for Aboriginal People in British Columbia: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Ruth; Burtch, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a First Nations educational initiative in British Columbia. Simon Fraser University's (SFU) Integrated Studies Program created two unique adult education programs in response to a request from the Aboriginal-operated Nicola Valley Institute of Technology (NVIT); this request involved the two institutions…

  19. Academic Year Abroad 2000/2001: The Most Complete Guide to Planning Academic Year Study Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 2,617 study-abroad opportunities that take place during the academic year and are at least one academic quarter in length. Introductory information provides information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, how to use the guide, abbreviations, planning for study abroad, additional…

  20. Academic Year Abroad 1999/2000. The Most Complete Guide to Planning Academic Year Study Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 2,694 study-abroad opportunities that take place during the academic year and are at least one academic quarter in length. Introductory information provides information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the guide, abbreviations, planning for study abroad, additional…

  1. The Value of People, Place and Possibilities: A Multiple Case Study of Rural High School Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell; Angelis, Janet I.; Baker, Linda; Lawson, Hal A.

    2014-01-01

    What are the qualities of classroom, school, and district processes and practices in rural high schools with higher-than average graduation rates? How do these processes and practices compare with rural schools with histories of average graduation rates? In this study, six schools were sampled for a multiple case study of rural high school…

  2. The Impact of "Virtualization" on Independent Study Course Completion Rates: The British Columbia Open University Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giguere, Louis

    2009-01-01

    In 1997 the British Columbia Open University (BCOU) adopted a virtualization strategy based primarily on twinning off-line independent study distance education courses (textbook-based with study guide and telephone and e-mail tutor support) with alternate online versions (textbook-based with integrated conferencing and communications provided…

  3. Kinematic Analysis of a Posterior-stabilized Knee Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Xin; Wen, Liang; Qu, Tie-Bing; Hou, Li-Li; Xiang, Dong; Bin, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The goal of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is to restore knee kinematics. Knee prosthesis design plays a very important role in successful restoration. Here, kinematics models of normal and prosthetic knees were created and validated using previously published data. Methods: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy, anticorrosive female cadaver were used to establish a model of the entire lower limbs, including the femur, tibia, patella, fibula, distal femur cartilage, and medial and lateral menisci, as well as the anterior cruciate, posterior cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments. The data from the three-dimensional models of the normal knee joint and a posterior-stabilized (PS) knee prosthesis were imported into finite element analysis software to create the final kinematic model of the TKA prosthesis, which was then validated by comparison with a previous study. The displacement of the medial/lateral femur and the internal rotation angle of the tibia were analyzed during 0–135° flexion. Results: Both the output data trends and the measured values derived from the normal knee's kinematics model were very close to the results reported in a previous in vivo study, suggesting that this model can be used for further analyses. The PS knee prosthesis underwent an abnormal forward displacement compared with the normal knee and has insufficient, or insufficiently aggressive, “rollback” compared with the lateral femur of the normal knee. In addition, a certain degree of reverse rotation occurs during flexion of the PS knee prosthesis. Conclusions: There were still several differences between the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis and a normal knee, suggesting room for improving the design of the PS knee prosthesis. The abnormal kinematics during early flexion shows that the design of the articular surface played a vital role in improving the kinematics of the PS knee prosthesis. PMID:25591565

  4. Complete diphallia.

    PubMed

    Acimi, Smail

    2008-01-01

    A case of complete diphallia in a 4-month-old boy is reported. This is the second case to be published from this institution. The embryogenesis and associated anomalies of diphallia are discussed, together with a proposal for a classification based on anatomical, functional and therapeutic aspects of the malformation. PMID:19230173

  5. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-12-08

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  6. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Ebrahimi, Hamid; Vaziri, Ashkan

    2014-12-01

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate.

  7. Measurement of reed valve kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenkl, Michael; Dvořák, Václav; Vít, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of key kinematic parameters of a reed valve movement is necessary for the further development of the reed valve system. These parameters are dependent on the geometry and material properties of the valve. As they directly affect the quantity of air flowing around the valve, a simple and easy to implement measurement of various valve configuration based on the air flow has been devised and is described in this paper, along with its technical parameters and drawbacks when evaluating reed valves used in reciprocating air compressors. Results are presented for a specimen of a compressor under examination. All kinematic parameters, and timing of the opening and closing of the valve, obtained from the measurement are presented and discussed.

  8. Quantum simulation of noncausal kinematic transformations.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, U; Casanova, J; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2013-08-30

    We propose the implementation of Galileo group symmetry operations or, in general, linear coordinate transformations in a quantum simulator. With an appropriate encoding, unitary gates applied to our quantum system give rise to Galilean boosts or spatial and time parity operations in the simulated dynamics. This framework provides us with a flexible toolbox that enhances the versatility of quantum simulation theory, allowing the direct access to dynamical quantities that would otherwise require full tomography. Furthermore, this method enables the study of noncausal kinematics and phenomena beyond special relativity in a quantum controllable system. PMID:24033011

  9. Individual Responses to Completion of Short-Term and Chronic Interval Training: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Astorino, Todd A.; Schubert, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate (HR), and fat oxidation occur in response to chronic endurance training. However, many studies report frequent incidence of “non-responders” who do not adapt to continuous moderate exercise. Whether this is the case in response to high intensity interval training (HIT), which elicits similar adaptations as endurance training, is unknown. The aim of this retrospective study was to examine individual responses to two paradigms of interval training. In the first study (study 1), twenty active men and women (age and baseline VO2max = 24.0±4.6 yr and 42.8±4.8 mL/kg/min) performed 6 d of sprint interval training (SIT) consisting of 4–6 Wingate tests per day, while in a separate study (study 2), 20 sedentary women (age and baseline VO2max = 23.7±6.2 yr and 30.0±4.9 mL/kg/min) performed 12 wk of high-volume HIT at workloads ranging from 60–90% maximal workload. Individual changes in VO2max, HR, and fat oxidation were examined in each study, and multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of training adaptations to SIT and HIT. Data showed high frequency of increased VO2max (95%) and attenuated exercise HR (85%) in response to HIT, and low frequency of response for VO2max (65%) and exercise HR (55%) via SIT. Frequency of improved fat oxidation was similar (60–65%) across regimens. Only one participant across both interventions showed non-response for all variables. Baseline values of VO2max, exercise HR, respiratory exchange ratio, and body fat were significant predictors of adaptations to interval training. Frequency of positive responses to interval training seems to be greater in response to prolonged, higher volume interval training compared to similar durations of endurance training. PMID:24847797

  10. A Charge Separation Study to Enable the Design of a Complete Muon Cooling Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, C.; Ankenbrandt, Charles M.; Johnson, Rolland P.; Derbenev, Yaroslav; Morozov, Vasiliy; Neuffer, David; Yonehara, K.

    2013-12-01

    The most promising designs for 6D muon cooling channels operate on a specific sign of electric charge. In particular, the Helical Cooling Channel (HCC) and Rectilinear RFOFO designs are the leading candidates to become the baseline 6D cooling channel in the Muon Accelerator Program (MAP). Time constraints prevented the design of a realistic charge separator, so a simplified study was performed to emulate the effects of charge separation on muons exiting the front end of a muon collider. The output of the study provides particle distributions that the competing designs will use as input into their cooling channels. We report here on the study of the charge separator that created the simulated particles.

  11. Complete study of the pyrolysis and gasification of scrap tires in a pilot plant reactor.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Juan A; Martín-Gullón, I; Font, R; Jauhiainen, J

    2004-06-01

    The pyrolysis and gasification of tires was studied in a pilot plant reactor provided with a system for condensation of semivolatile matter. The study comprises experiments at 450, 750, and 1000 degrees C both in nitrogen and 10% oxygen atmospheres. Analysis of all the products obtained (gases, liquids, char, and soot) are presented. In the gas phase only methane and benzene yields increase with temperature until 1000 degrees C. In the liquids the main components are styrene, limonene, and isoprene. The solid fraction (including soot) increases with temperature. Zinc content of the char decreases with increasing temperature. PMID:15224754

  12. Of cilium and flagellum kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Promode R.; Hansen, Joshua C.

    2009-11-01

    The kinematics of propulsion of small animals such as paramecium and spermatozoa is considered. Larger scale models of the cilium and flagellum have been built and a four-motor apparatus has been constructed to reproduce their known periodic motions. The cilium model has transverse deformational ability in one plane only, while the flagellum model has such ability in two planes. When the flagellum model is given a push-pull in one diametral plane, instead of transverse deflection in one plane, it forms a coil. Berg & Anderson's postulation (Nature 245 1973) that a flagellum rotates, is recalled. The kinematics of cilia of paramecium, of the whipping motion of the spermatozoa flagella, and of the flapping motion (rolling and pitching) of the pectoral fins of much larger animals such penguins, have been reproduced in the same basic paramecium apparatus. The results suggest that each of the tiny individual paramecium propulsors have the intrinsic dormant kinematic and structural building blocks to optimize into higher Reynolds number propulsors. A synthetic hypothesis on how small might have become large is animated.

  13. Review: Assessment of completeness of reporting in intervention studies using livestock: an example from pain mitigation interventions in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A; Anthony, R; Bergamasco, L; Coetzee, J F; Dzikamunhenga, R S; Johnson, A K; Karriker, L A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Martineau, G P; Millman, S T; Pajor, E A; Rutherford, K; Sprague, M; Sutherland, M A; von Borell, E; Webb, S R

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and complete reporting of study methods, results and interpretation are essential components for any scientific process, allowing end-users to evaluate the internal and external validity of a study. When animals are used in research, excellence in reporting is expected as a matter of continued ethical acceptability of animal use in the sciences. Our primary objective was to assess completeness of reporting for a series of studies relevant to mitigation of pain in neonatal piglets undergoing routine management procedures. Our second objective was to illustrate how authors can report the items in the Reporting guidElines For randomized controLled trials for livEstoCk and food safety (REFLECT) statement using examples from the animal welfare science literature. A total of 52 studies from 40 articles were evaluated using a modified REFLECT statement. No single study reported all REFLECT checklist items. Seven studies reported specific objectives with testable hypotheses. Six studies identified primary or secondary outcomes. Randomization and blinding were considered to be partially reported in 21 and 18 studies, respectively. No studies reported the rationale for sample sizes. Several studies failed to report key design features such as units for measurement, means, standard deviations, standard errors for continuous outcomes or comparative characteristics for categorical outcomes expressed as either rates or proportions. In the discipline of animal welfare science, authors, reviewers and editors are encouraged to use available reporting guidelines to ensure that scientific methods and results are adequately described and free of misrepresentations and inaccuracies. Complete and accurate reporting increases the ability to apply the results of studies to the decision-making process and prevent wastage of financial and animal resources. PMID:26556522

  14. SMACK - SMOOTHING FOR AIRCRAFT KINEMATICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, R.

    1994-01-01

    The computer program SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics) is designed to provide flightpath reconstruction of aircraft forces and motions from measurements that are noisy or incomplete. Additionally, SMACK provides a check on instrument accuracy and data consistency. The program can be used to analyze data from flight-test experiments prior to their use in performance, stability and control, or aerodynamic modeling calculations. It can also be used in the analysis of aircraft accidents, where the actual forces and motions may have to be determined from a very limited data set. Application of a state-estimation method for flightpath reconstruction is possible because aircraft forces and motions are related by well-known equations of motion. The task of postflight state estimation is known as a nonlinear, fixed-interval smoothing problem. SMACK utilizes a backward-filter, forward-smoother algorithm to solve the problem. The equations of motion are used to produce estimates that are compared with their corresponding measurement time histories. The procedure is iterative, providing improved state estimates until a minimum squared-error measure is achieved. In the SMACK program, the state and measurement models together represent a finite-difference approximation for the six-degree-of-freedom dynamics of a rigid body. The models are used to generate time histories which are likely to be found in a flight-test measurement set. These include onboard variables such as Euler angles, angular rates, and linear accelerations as well as tracking variables such as slant range, bearing, and elevation. Any bias or scale-factor errors associated with the state or measurement models are appended to the state vector and treated as constant but unknown parameters. The SMACK documentation covers the derivation of the solution algorithm, describes the state and measurement models, and presents several application examples that should help the analyst recognize the potential

  15. Texas Student Information System Graduate/Completer 1977 Sub-System. A Follow-Up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVault, Mike; Lee, Marilyn

    A follow-up study was conducted of students who received a degree, diploma, or certificate from Austin Community College (ACC) in May 1977 to determine their level of satisfaction; 63% (N=189) of the surveyed group responded. Results were tabulated for the group as a whole and for the following subgroups: those receiving Associate of Arts,…

  16. Academic Year Abroad 1997/98: The Most Complete Guide to Planning Academic Year Study Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 2,438 study-abroad programs that take place during the academic year (usually September through June), and that are at least one academic quarter in length (usually 8 to 10 weeks). An introductory section provides information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the…

  17. Academic Year Abroad, 1998/99. The Most Complete Guide to Planning Academic Year Study Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 2,491 study-abroad programs that take place during the academic year (usually September through June), and that are at least one academic quarter in length (usually 8 to 10 weeks). Introductory sections provide information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the guide,…

  18. Completing PhDs: The Perils and Enduring Promise of Deep Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jon

    2009-01-01

    What is a PhD? People answer this question too often by succumbing to the bureaucratic lure. They describe formal processes, "outcomes", time to degree, funding, training in teaching--indeed, almost everything except central intellectual attraction and personal focus of the PhD enterprise: deep study. Certainly in United States PhD programs, the…

  19. Career Program Completers, 1993-94: A Long-Term Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Karen A.

    This long-term follow-up study, conducted in the summer of 1998 by Johnson County Community College (JCCC, Kansas) focused on graduates, certificate recipients, and students identified by career program administrators as leaving with marketable skills in 1993-94. Since first administering this type of survey in 1989, JCCC has gained a broader…

  20. Servant-Leader Development in an Adult Accelerated Degree Completion Program: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Angela R.

    2009-01-01

    Although many private Christian liberal arts programs exist today that seek to foster servant-leader (SL) development within their students, there is a void of both literature and data that details how servant-leadership development occurs and what contexts may be appropriate or necessary for this development. The purpose of this study was to…

  1. Delorme's Procedure for Complete Rectal Prolapse: A Study of Recurrence Patterns in the Long Term

    PubMed Central

    Placer, Carlos; Enriquez-Navascués, Jose M.; Timoteo, Ander; Elorza, Garazi; Borda, Nerea; Gallego, Lander; Saralegui, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The objective of this study was to determine the recurrence rate and associated risk factors of full-thickness rectal prolapse in the long term after Delorme's procedure. Patients and Methods. The study involved adult patients with rectal prolapse treated with Delorme's surgery between 2000 and 2012 and followed up prospectively in an outpatient unit. We assessed epidemiological data, Wexner constipation and incontinence score, recurrence patterns, and risk factors. Data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate studies and follow-up was performed according to Kaplan-Meier technique. The primary outcome was recurrence. Results. A total of 42 patients, where 71.4% (n = 30) were women, with a median age of 76 years (IQR 66 to 86), underwent Delorme's surgery. The median follow-up was 85 months (IQR 28 to 132). There was no mortality, and morbidity was 9.5%. Recurrence occurred in five patients (12%) within 14 months after surgery. Actuarial recurrence at five years was 9.9%. According to the univariate analysis, constipation and concomitant pelvic floor repair were the only factors found to be associated with recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed no statistically significant differences among variables studied. Kaplan-Meier estimate revealed that constipation was associated with a higher risk of recurrence (log-rank test, p = 0.006). Conclusions. Delorme's procedure is a safe technique with an actuarial recurrence at five years of 9.9%. The outcomes obtained in this study support the performance of concomitant postanal repair and levatorplasty to reduce recurrences. Also, severe constipation is associated with a higher recurrence rate. PMID:26783557

  2. Color-kinematics duality in multi-Regge kinematics and dimensional reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Henrik; Vera, Agustín Sabio; Campillo, Eduardo Serna; Vázquez-Mozo, Miguel Á.

    2013-10-01

    In this note we study the applicability of the color-kinematics duality to the scattering of two distinguishable scalar matter particles with gluon emission in QCD, or graviton emission in Einstein gravity. Previous analysis suggested that direct use of the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson double-copy prescription to matter amplitudes does not reproduce the gravitational amplitude in multi-Regge kinematics. This situation, however, can be avoided by extensions to the gauge theory, while maintaning the same Regge limit. Here we present two examples of these extensions: the introduction of a scalar contact interaction and the relaxation of the distinguishability of the scalars. In both cases new diagrams allow for a full reconstruction of the correct Regge limit on the gravitational side. Both modifications correspond to theories obtained by dimensional reduction from higher-dimensional gauge theories.

  3. Shoe midsole hardness, sex and age effects on lower extremity kinematics during running.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Benno M; Baltich, Jennifer; Maurer, Christian; Federolf, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of shoe midsole hardness on running kinematics have often used male subjects from within a narrow age range. It is unknown whether shoe midsole hardness has the same kinematic effect on male and female runners as well as runners from different age categories. As sex and age have an effect on running kinematics, it is important to understand if shoe midsole hardness affects the kinematics of these groups in a similar fashion. However, current literature on the effects of sex and age on running kinematics are also limited to a narrow age range distribution in their study population. Therefore, this study tested the influence of three different midsole hardness conditions, sex and age on the lower extremity kinematics during heel-toe running. A comprehensive analysis approach was used to analyze the lower-extremity kinematic gait variables for 93 runners (male and female) aged 16-75 years. Participants ran at 3.33±0.15 m/s on a 30 m-long runway with soft, medium and hard midsoles. A principal component analysis combined with a support vector machine showed that running kinematics based on shoe midsole hardness, sex, and age were separable and classifiable. Shoe midsole hardness demonstrated a subject-independent effect on the kinematics of running. Additionally, it was found that age differences affected the more dominant movement components of running compared to differences due to the sex of a runner. PMID:22507350

  4. Introducing medical educators to qualitative study design: Twelve tips from inception to completion.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Subha; Mann, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Many research questions posed by medical educators could be answered more effectively by the application of carefully selected qualitative research design than traditional quantitative research methods. Indeed, in many cases using mixed methods research would expand the scope of a study and yield meaningful qualitative data in addition to quantitative data. Qualitative research seeks to understand people's experiences, the meanings they assign to those experiences, the psychosocial aspects of and language used in interpersonal interactions, and the factors that influence perspectives and interactions. This understanding is vital in exploring learning and teaching styles, learners' experiences and perceptions, implementing and studying the impact of educational interventions and faculty development. This article aims to advance medical educators' understanding and application of qualitative research principles in educational scholarship by summarising and consolidating the fundamental principles of research in medical education described in recent AMEE guides. The 12 tips below offer a systematic, yet practical approach to designing a qualitative research study, particularly targeting educators new to this arena. PMID:25897710

  5. Multifrequency EPR Studies of Manganese Catalases Provide a Complete Description of Proteinaceous Nitrogen Coordination

    PubMed Central

    Stich, Troy A.; Whittaker, James W.; Britt, R. David

    2012-01-01

    Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is employed at two very different excitation frequencies, 9.77 and 30.67 GHz, in the study of the nitrogen coordination environment of the Mn(III)Mn(IV) state of the dimanganese-containing catalases from Lactobacillus plantarum and Thermus thermophilus. Consistent with previous studies, the lower-frequency results reveal one unique histidine nitrogen-Mn cluster interaction. For the first time, a second, more strongly hyperfine-coupled 14N atom is unambiguously observed through the use of higher frequency/higher field EPR spectroscopy. The low excitation frequency spectral features are rationalized as arising from the interaction of a histidine nitrogen that is bound to the Mn(IV) ion, while the higher excitation frequency features are attributed to the histidine nitrogen bound to the Mn(III) ion. These results allow for the computation of intrinsic hyperfine coupling constants, which range from 2.2 to 2.9 MHz, for sp2-hybridized nitrogens coordinating equatorially to high-valent Mn ions. The relevance of these findings is discussed in the context of recent results from analogous higher frequency EPR studies of the Mn cluster in photosystem II and other exchange-coupled transition metal-containing systems. PMID:20055466

  6. Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Aubrey A.; Kerr, Brendan; Neville, Tanya; Ngan, Sybil; Assem, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    Behavior, in its broadest definition, can be defined as the motor manifestation of physiologic processes. As such, all behaviors manifest through the motor system. In the fields of neuroscience and orthopedics, locomotion is a commonly evaluated behavior for a variety of disease models. For example, locomotor recovery after traumatic injury to the nervous system is one of the most commonly evaluated behaviors 1-3. Though locomotion can be evaluated using a variety of endpoint measurements (e.g. time taken to complete a locomotor task, etc), semiquantitative kinematic measures (e.g. ordinal rating scales (e.g. Basso Beattie and Bresnahan locomotor (BBB) rating scale, etc)) and surrogate measures of behaviour (e.g. muscle force, nerve conduction velocity, etc), only kinetics (force measurements) and kinematics (measurements of body segments in space) provide a detailed description of the strategy by which an animal is able to locomote 1. Though not new, kinematic and kinetic measurements of locomoting rodents is now more readily accessible due to the availability of commercially available equipment designed for this purpose. Importantly, however, experimenters need to be very familiar with theory of biomechanical analyses and understand the benefits and limitations of these forms of analyses prior to embarking on what will become a relatively labor-intensive study. The present paper aims to describe a method for collecting kinematic and ground reaction force data using commercially available equipment. Details of equipment and apparatus set-up, pre-training of animals, inclusion and exclusion criteria of acceptable runs, and methods for collecting the data are described. We illustrate the utility of this behavioral analysis technique by describing the kinematics and kinetics of strain-matched young adult, middle-aged, and geriatric rats. PMID:21403621

  7. Methodology issues concerning the accuracy of kinematic data collection and analysis using the ariel performance analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilmington, R. P.; Klute, Glenn K. (Editor); Carroll, Amy E. (Editor); Stuart, Mark A. (Editor); Poliner, Jeff (Editor); Rajulu, Sudhakar (Editor); Stanush, Julie (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Kinematics, the study of motion exclusive of the influences of mass and force, is one of the primary methods used for the analysis of human biomechanical systems as well as other types of mechanical systems. The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory (ABL) in the Crew Interface Analysis section of the Man-Systems Division performs both human body kinematics as well as mechanical system kinematics using the Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS). The APAS supports both analysis of analog signals (e.g. force plate data collection) as well as digitization and analysis of video data. The current evaluations address several methodology issues concerning the accuracy of the kinematic data collection and analysis used in the ABL. This document describes a series of evaluations performed to gain quantitative data pertaining to position and constant angular velocity movements under several operating conditions. Two-dimensional as well as three-dimensional data collection and analyses were completed in a controlled laboratory environment using typical hardware setups. In addition, an evaluation was performed to evaluate the accuracy impact due to a single axis camera offset. Segment length and positional data exhibited errors within 3 percent when using three-dimensional analysis and yielded errors within 8 percent through two-dimensional analysis (Direct Linear Software). Peak angular velocities displayed errors within 6 percent through three-dimensional analyses and exhibited errors of 12 percent when using two-dimensional analysis (Direct Linear Software). The specific results from this series of evaluations and their impacts on the methodology issues of kinematic data collection and analyses are presented in detail. The accuracy levels observed in these evaluations are also presented.

  8. Completeness of Reporting of Patient-Relevant Clinical Trial Outcomes: Comparison of Unpublished Clinical Study Reports with Publicly Available Data

    PubMed Central

    Wieseler, Beate; Wolfram, Natalia; McGauran, Natalie; Kerekes, Michaela F.; Vervölgyi, Volker; Kohlepp, Petra; Kamphuis, Marloes; Grouven, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Background Access to unpublished clinical study reports (CSRs) is currently being discussed as a means to allow unbiased evaluation of clinical research. The Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) routinely requests CSRs from manufacturers for its drug assessments. Our objective was to determine the information gain from CSRs compared to publicly available sources (journal publications and registry reports) for patient-relevant outcomes included in IQWiG health technology assessments (HTAs) of drugs. Methods and Findings We used a sample of 101 trials with full CSRs received for 16 HTAs of drugs completed by IQWiG between 15 January 2006 and 14 February 2011, and analyzed the CSRs and the publicly available sources of these trials. For each document type we assessed the completeness of information on all patient-relevant outcomes included in the HTAs (benefit outcomes, e.g., mortality, symptoms, and health-related quality of life; harm outcomes, e.g., adverse events). We dichotomized the outcomes as “completely reported” or “incompletely reported.” For each document type, we calculated the proportion of outcomes with complete information per outcome category and overall. We analyzed 101 trials with CSRs; 86 had at least one publicly available source, 65 at least one journal publication, and 50 a registry report. The trials included 1,080 patient-relevant outcomes. The CSRs provided complete information on a considerably higher proportion of outcomes (86%) than the combined publicly available sources (39%). With the exception of health-related quality of life (57%), CSRs provided complete information on 78% to 100% of the various benefit outcomes (combined publicly available sources: 20% to 53%). CSRs also provided considerably more information on harms. The differences in completeness of information for patient-relevant outcomes between CSRs and journal publications or registry reports (or a combination of both) were statistically

  9. Adverse Outcome Pathways for Regulatory Applications: Examination of Four Case Studies With Different Degrees of Completeness and Scientific Confidence.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Edward J; Antczak, Philipp; Burgoon, Lyle; Falciani, Francesco; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Gutsell, Steve; Hodges, Geoff; Kienzler, Aude; Knapen, Dries; McBride, Mary; Willett, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) offer a pathway-based toxicological framework to support hazard assessment and regulatory decision-making. However, little has been discussed about the scientific confidence needed, or how complete a pathway should be, before use in a specific regulatory application. Here we review four case studies to explore the degree of scientific confidence and extent of completeness (in terms of causal events) that is required for an AOP to be useful for a specific purpose in a regulatory application: (i) Membrane disruption (Narcosis) leading to respiratory failure (low confidence), (ii) Hepatocellular proliferation leading to cancer (partial pathway, moderate confidence), (iii) Covalent binding to proteins leading to skin sensitization (high confidence), and (iv) Aromatase inhibition leading to reproductive dysfunction in fish (high confidence). Partially complete AOPs with unknown molecular initiating events, such as 'Hepatocellular proliferation leading to cancer', were found to be valuable. We demonstrate that scientific confidence in these pathways can be increased though the use of unconventional information (eg, computational identification of potential initiators). AOPs at all levels of confidence can contribute to specific uses. A significant statistical or quantitative relationship between events and/or the adverse outcome relationships is a common characteristic of AOPs, both incomplete and complete, that have specific regulatory uses. For AOPs to be useful in a regulatory context they must be at least as useful as the tools that regulators currently possess, or the techniques currently employed by regulators. PMID:26500288

  10. In vivo determination of total knee arthroplasty kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Komistek, Richard D; Mahfouz, Mohamed R; Bertin, Kim; Rosenberg, Aaron; Kennedy, William

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if consistent posterior femoral rollback of an asymmetrical posterior cruciate retaining (PCR) total knee arthroplasty was mostly influenced by the implant design, surgical technique, or presence of a well-functioning posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Three-dimensional femorotibial kinematics was determined for 80 subjects implanted by 3 surgeons, and each subject was evaluated under fluoroscopic surveillance during a deep knee bend. All subjects in this present study having an intact PCL had a well-functioning PCR knee and experienced normal kinematic patterns, although less in magnitude than the normal knee. In addition, a surprising finding was that, on average, subjects without a PCL still achieved posterior femoral rollback from full extension to maximum knee flexion. The findings in this study revealed that implant design did contribute to the normal kinematics demonstrated by subjects having this asymmetrical PCR total knee arthroplasty.

  11. The Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) Study: Initial description of the completed database

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, David E.; Angelantonio, Emanuele Di; Di Tullio, Marco R.; Donovan, Jennifer S.; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Griffith, John; Homma, Shunichi; Jaigobin, Cheryl; Mas, Jean-Louis; Mattle, Heinrich P.; Michel, Patrik; Mono, Marie-Luise; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Papetti, Federica; Ruthazer, Robin; Serena, Joaquín; Weimar, Christian; Kent, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Detecting a benefit from closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) is hampered by low rates of stroke recurrence and uncertainty about the causal role of PFO in the index event. A method to predict PFO-attributable recurrence risk is needed. However, individual databases generally have too few stroke recurrences to support risk modeling. Prior studies of this population have been limited by low statistical power for examining factors related to recurrence. Aims To develop a database to support modeling of PFO-attributable recurrence risk by combining extant data sets. Methods We identified investigators with extant databases including subjects with CS investigated for PFO; determined the availability and characteristics of data in each database; collaboratively specified the variables to be included in the Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) database; harmonized the variables across databases, and collected new primary data when necessary and feasible. Results The RoPE database has individual clinical, radiologic, and echocardiographic data from 12 component databases including subjects with CS both with (n=1925) and without (n=1749) PFO. In the PFO subjects, a total of 381 outcomes (stroke, TIA, death) occurred (median follow-up = 2.2yrs). While there were substantial variations in data collection between studies, there was sufficient overlap to define a common set of variables suitable for risk modeling. Conclusion While individual studies are inadequate for modeling PFO-attributable recurrence risk, collaboration between investigators has yielded a database with sufficient power to identify those patients at highest risk for a PFO-related stroke recurrence who may have the greatest potential benefit from PFO closure. PMID:22883936

  12. Kinematics of vertical climbing in lorises and Cheirogaleus medius.

    PubMed

    Hanna, J B

    2006-04-01

    The type of climbing exhibited by apes and atelines is argued to have been important in the evolution of specialized locomotion, such as suspensory locomotion and bipedalism. However, little is known about the mechanics of climbing in primates. Previous work shows that Asian apes and atelines use larger joint excursions and longer strides than African apes and the Japanese macaque, respectively. This study expands knowledge of climbing mechanics by providing the first quantitative kinematic data for vertical climbing in four prosimian species: three lorisid species (Loris tardigradus, Nycticebus coucang, and Nycticebus pygmaeus) that share with apes and atelines morphological traits arguably related to climbing, and a more generalized quadruped, Cheirogaleus medius. Subjects were videotaped as they climbed up a wooden pole. Kinematic values, such as step length and limb excursions, were calculated and compared between species. The results of this study show that lorises, like Asian apes and spider monkeys, use relatively larger joint excursions and longer steps than does C. medius during climbing. These data lend further support to the idea that some primate species (e.g., lorises, atelines, and apes) are more specialized kinematically and morphologically for climbing than others. Pilot data suggest that such kinematic differences in climbing style across broad phylogenetic groups may relate to the energetics of climbing. Such data may be important for understanding the morphological and kinematic adaptations to climbing exhibited by some primates. PMID:16445966

  13. Power spectrum density analysis for the influence of complete denture on the brain function of edentulous patients - pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Praveen; Anitha, Kuttae Viswanathan; Reddy, Jetti Ramesh; Muthukumar, Balasubramanium

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This pilot study was to find the influence of complete denture on the brain activity and cognitive function of edentulous patients measured through Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study recruited 20 patients aged from 50 to 60 years requiring complete dentures with inclusion and exclusion criteria. The brain function and cognitive function were analyzed with a mental state questionnaire and a 15-minute analysis of power spectral density of EEG alpha waves. The analysis included edentulous phase and post denture insertion adaptive phase, each done before and after chewing. The results obtained were statistically evaluated. RESULTS Power Spectral Density (PSD) values increased from edentulous phase to post denture insertion adaption phase. The data were grouped as edentulous phase before chewing (EEG p1-0.0064), edentulous phase after chewing (EEG p2-0.0073), post denture insertion adaptive phase before chewing (EEG p3-0.0077), and post denture insertion adaptive phase after chewing (EEG p4-0.0096). The acquired values were statistically analyzed using paired t-test, which showed statistically significant results (P<.05). CONCLUSION This pilot study showed functional improvement in brain function of edentulous patients with complete dentures rehabilitation. PMID:27350852

  14. Towards Complete and Realistic Studies for Rare-Gas Ionic Clusters, the Ar^+_3 Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadea, Florent Xavier; Amarouche, Mohand

    1995-12-01

    The approach we have developped for the ab initio simulation of rare-gas ionic clusters is reviewed and applied to Ar^+_3. It is based on a DIM (Diatomic In Molecules) modelling for the electronic Hamiltonian and transition dipole moments, on approximate estimations for the absorption spectrum and a HWD (Hemiquantal dynamics with the Whole DIM basis) treatment of the fragmentation dynamics. The theoretical study is devoted to three basic aspects: the structure of the ions, their absorption spectrum and their fragmentation dynamics. These aspects correspond respectively to equilibrium, short time and long time dynamics. The results for Ar^+_3 are reviewed (structure, visible spectrum, photofragmentation dynamics, kinetic energy distribution of photofragments) and in addition new ones for the UV absorption spectrum are presented and discussed.

  15. [Comparative studies of sera from cattle with complete leukemia virus and glycoprotein antigens].

    PubMed

    Mateva, V; Vasileva, L

    1980-01-01

    One hundred cattle serums were investigated by the AGTD-test with two antigens: an antigen produced by the whole virus and an antigen containing glycoproteins. Of all serums studied 44 showed a specific precipitation in case the glycoprotein antigen was used. In case the antigen from the whole virus was used 41 serums showed a specific precipitation line, while in 3 of the serums two precipitation lines were observed. Fifty six serums proved negative, containing no antibodies against bovine leucosis virus, after antigens were used. In 2 of the serums non specific precipitation lines were obtained when the antigen from whole virus was used. the precipitation lines produced by both antigenes did not differ in intensity and time of manifestation. PMID:6251597

  16. Kinematics of signature writing in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, Michael P; Kim, Chi; Landy, Kelly M

    2014-07-01

    Forensic document examiners (FDE) called upon to distinguish a genuine from a forged signature of an elderly person are often required to consider the question of age-related deterioration and whether the available exemplars reliably capture the natural effects of aging of the original writer. An understanding of the statistical relationship between advanced age and handwriting movements can reduce the uncertainty that may exist in an examiner's approach to questioned signatures formed by elderly writers. The primary purpose of this study was to systematically examine age-related changes in signature kinematics in healthy writers. Forty-two healthy subjects between the ages of 60-91 years participated in this study. Signatures were recorded using a digitizing tablet, and commercial software was used to examine the temporal and spatial stroke kinematics and pen pressure. Results indicated that vertical stroke duration and dysfluency increased with age, whereas vertical stroke amplitude and velocity decreased with age. Pen pressure decreased with age. We found that a linear model characterized the best-fit relationship between advanced age and handwriting movement parameters for signature formation. Male writers exhibited stronger age effects than female writers, especially for pen pressure and stroke dysfluency. The present study contributes to an understanding of how advanced age alters signature formation in otherwise healthy adults. PMID:24673648

  17. Tilted Implants for Full-Arch Rehabilitations in Completely Edentulous Maxilla: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalli, Nicolò; Barbaro, Bruno; Spasari, Davide; Azzola, Francesco; Ciatti, Alberto; Francetti, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aims of this study were to assess the treatment outcome of immediately loaded full-arch fixed bridges anchored to both tilted and axially placed implants in the edentulous maxilla and to evaluate the incidence of biological and prosthetic complications. Materials and Methods. Thirty-four patients (18 women and 16 men) were included in the study. Each patient received a maxillary full-arch fixed bridge supported by two axial implants and two distal tilted implants. A total of 136 implants were inserted. Loading was applied within 48 hours of surgery and definitive restorations were placed 4 to 6 months later. Patients were scheduled for followup at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months and annually up to 5 years. At each followup plaque level and bleeding scores were assessed and every complication was recorded. Results. The overall follow-up range was 12 to 73 months (mean 38.8 months). No implant failures were recorded to date, leading to a cumulative implant survival rate of 100%. Biological complications were recorded such as alveolar mucositis (11.8% patients), peri-implantitis (5.9% patients), and temporomandibular joint pain (5.9% patients). The most common prosthetic complications were the fracture or detachment of one or multiple acrylic teeth in both the temporary (20.6% patients) and definitive (17.7% patients) prosthesis and the minor acrylic fractures in the temporary (14.7% patients) and definitive (2.9% patients) prosthesis. Hygienic complications occurred in 38.2% patients. No patients' dissatisfactions were recorded. Conclusions. The high cumulative implant survival rate indicates that this technique could be considered a viable treatment option. An effective recall program is important to early intercept and correct prosthetic and biologic complications in order to avoid implant and prosthetic failures. PMID:23133453

  18. Unemployment as a risk factor for completed suicide: a psychological autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Di Vittorio, Cristina; Baratta, Stefano; Masotti, Vittoria; Badaracco, Annalisa; Wong, Paul; Lester, David; Yip, Paul; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-01-01

    This study adopts a psychological autopsy method to compare (1) unemployed suicides, (2) other suicides who were either employed or not in the labor force, and (3) psychiatric outpatients without any prior suicidal behavior. A total of 245 consecutive suicides from Province of Parma (Italy) with recorded employment status were included in the analysis. The control group included 41 psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 64 years, who had not engaged in any previous suicidal act, and who were unemployed. The unemployed suicides had a risk 17 times higher to have had financial problems in the last 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0/149.5; p < 0.01) than other suicides. Unemployed suicides (compared to living unemployed controls) were 10 times more likely to have had poor social support (95% CI: 1.7/56.1; p < 0.01), 16 times more likely to have had any stressful life events in the past 12 months (95% CI: 2.5/103.9; p < 0.01), and 22 times more likely to have a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (95% CI: 2.4/203.2; p < 0.01). New suicide prevention strategies for those who are facing job loss need to focus on social support and personality disorders, as well as hopelessness and despair. PMID:24689509

  19. Complete diagnostics and clinical approach for a female patient with unusual glioblastoma: A case study

    PubMed Central

    SAMAL, FILIP; STANEK, LIBOR; FILIP, MICHAL; HANINEC, PAVEL; VÍCHA, ALES; MUSIL, ZDENEK; TESAROVA, PETRA; PETRUZELKA, LUBOS; SPRINGER, DRAHOMIRA; KRALICKOVA, MILENA; KOHOUTOVA, MILADA; ZIMA, TOMAS

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a case of a 44-year-old female patient with a large frontal lobe tumor who underwent surgery using a modern navigation system SonoWand that combines the advantages of a non-frame navigation system with intraoperative real-time ultrasound imaging. The right frontal lobe tumor consisted of two morphologically different sections. A diffuse astrocytoma grade II and a glioblastoma grade IV were identified. These tumors were relatively substantially separated. A 17 p deletion, including TP53, was detected in a diffuse astrocytoma but not in a glioblastoma. EGFR and MDM2 amplifications were detected only in a glioblastoma. Detection of these amplifications is typical for primary glioblastomas. These findings support our assumption of two independent tumors. The KRAS, BRAF and EGFR gene mutations were also detected in a glioblastoma. Such an accumulation of molecular mutations is rare in one tumor. Following oncological treatment the patient was cared for in the oncological center and survived for 15 months after the surgery without any signs of a disease. This is an unusual case, and to the best of our knowledge, is not frequently published in literature. PMID:27330791

  20. The first step in vision occurs in femtoseconds: complete blue and red spectral studies.

    PubMed Central

    Peteanu, L A; Schoenlein, R W; Wang, Q; Mathies, R A; Shank, C V

    1993-01-01

    Femtosecond transient absorption measurements of the cis-trans isomerization of the visual pigment rhodopsin clarify the interpretation of the dynamics of the first step in vision. We present femtosecond time-resolved spectra as well as kinetic measurements at specific wavelengths between 490 and 670 nm using 10-fs probe pulses centered at 500 and 620 nm following a 35-fs pump pulse at 500 nm. The expanded spectral window beyond that available (500-570 nm) in our previous study [Schoenlein, R. W., Peteanu, L. A., Mathies, R. A. & Shank, C. V. (1991) Science 254, 412-415] provides the full differential absorption spectrum of the photoproduct as a function of delay time after photolysis. The high time-resolution data presented here contradict an alternative interpretation of the rhodopsin photochemistry offered by Callender and co-workers [Yan, M., Manor, D., Weng, G., Chao, H., Rothberg, L., Jedju, T. M., Alfano, R. R. & Callender, R. H. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 9809-9812]. Our results confirm that the red-shifted (lambda max approximately 570 nm) photo-product of the isomerization reaction is fully formed within 200 fs. Subsequent changes in the differential spectra between 200 fs and 6 ps are attributed to a combination of dynamic ground-state processes such as intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution, vibrational cooling, and conformational relaxation. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8265623

  1. A theoretical study on the complete dehydrogenation of methanol on Pd (100) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao; Wang, Bin; Fang, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) method was employed to investigate the adsorption and decomposition mechanisms of CH3OH on Pd (100) surface. Different kinds of possible adsorption modes of relevant intermediates on the surface were identified. It was found that CH3OH and CH2OH prefers to adsorb on the top site, CH3O, CHOH and CO occupy preferentially on the bridge site, while CH2O, CHO, COH and H species adsorb on the hollow site. The adsorption energies of all species exhibit the following trend: CH3OH < CH2O < CH3O < CO < CH2OH < H < CHO < CHOH < COH. Subsequently, four possible dissociation pathways of CH3OH via initial Osbnd H and Csbnd H bond scissions were proposed and studied systematically. The transition states, energy barriers and reaction energies were calculated to explore the dehydrogenation mechanisms of CH3OH on Pd (100) surface. It was indicated that the scission of Csbnd H bond is more favorable for CH3OH and CH2OH and the Hsbnd O bond cleavage is easier for CHOH. The path 2 (CH3OHsbnd CH2OHsbnd CHOHsbnd CHOsbnd CO) is the most possible dehydrogenation pathway, where the highest energy barrier of CH3OH dissociation makes it to be the rate-determining step of the whole dehydrogenation reaction.

  2. Deployable antenna kinematics using tensegrity structure design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Byron Franklin

    With vast changes in spacecraft development over the last decade, a new, cheaper approach was needed for deployable kinematic systems such as parabolic antenna reflectors. Historically, these mesh-surface reflectors have resembled folded umbrellas, with incremental redesigns utilized to save packaging size. These systems are typically over-constrained designs, the assumption being that high reliability necessary for space operations requires this level of conservatism. But with the rapid commercialization of space, smaller launch platforms and satellite buses have demanded much higher efficiency from all space equipment than can be achieved through this incremental approach. This work applies an approach called tensegrity to deployable antenna development. Kenneth Snelson, a student of R. Buckminster Fuller, invented Tensegrity structures in 1948. Such structures use a minimum number of compression members (struts); stability is maintain using tension members (ties). The novelty introduced in this work is that the ties are elastic, allowing the struts to extend or contract, and in this way changing the surface of the antenna. Previously, the University of Florida developed an approach to quantify the stability and motion of parallel manipulators. This approach was applied to deployable, tensegrity, antenna structures. Based on the kinematic analyses for the 3-3 (octahedron) and 4-4 (square anti-prism) structures, the 6-6 (hexagonal anti-prism) analysis was completed which establishes usable structural parameters. The primary objective for this work was to prove the stability of this class of deployable structures, and their potential application to space structures. The secondary objective is to define special motions for tensegrity antennas, to meet the subsystem design requirements, such as addressing multiple antenna-feed locations. This work combines the historical experiences of the artist (Snelson), the mathematician (Ball), and the space systems engineer

  3. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  4. A KINEMATIC DISTANCE STUDY OF THE PLANETARY NEBULAE-SUPERNOVA REMNANT-H II REGION COMPLEX AT G35.6–0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Tian, W. W.; Su, H. Q.; Torres, D. F.; Pedaletti, G. E-mail: tww@bao.ac.cn

    2013-10-01

    Two possible planetary nebulae (PN G035.5–00.4 and IRAS 18551+0159), one newly re-identified supernova remnant (SNR G35.6–0.4), and one H II region (G35.6–0.5) form a line-of-sight-overlapping complex known as G35.6–0.5. We analyze 21 cm H I absorption spectra toward the complex to constrain the kinematic distances of these objects. PN G035.5–00.4 has a distance from 3.8 ± 0.4 kpc to 5.4 ± 0.7 kpc. IRAS 18551+0159 is at 4.3 ± 0.5 kpc. We discuss the distance for SNR 35.6–0.4, for which the previous estimate was 10.5 kpc, and find a plausible distance of 3.6 ± 0.4 kpc. The new distance of SNR G35.6–0.4 and the derived mass for the ∼55 km s{sup –1} CO molecular cloud can accommodate an association with HESS J1858+020. We also conclude that SNR G35.6–0.4 is unlikely to be associated with PSR J1857+0210 or PSR J1857+0212, which are projected onto the SNR area.

  5. Flapping flight: effect of asymmetric kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Nakul; Krithivasan, Siddharth; K. R., Sreenivas

    2014-11-01

    Flapping flight has received considerable attention in the past with its relevance in the design of micro-air vehicles. In this regard, asymmetric flapping of wings offers simple kinematics. Nevertheless, it leads to symmetry-breaking in the flow field and generation of sustained lift. It has been observed previously with flow visualization experiments and Discrete Vortex Method (DVM) simulations that if the down-stroke time period is lesser than the up-stroke time, there is a net downward momentum imparted to the fluid. This is seen as a switching the flow field from a four-jet (symmetric) to a two-jet (asymmetric) configuration when the stroke-time ratio is progressively varied. This symmetry breaking has been studied experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) across a range of Reynolds Numbers and asymmetry ratios. Results are also corroborated with results from 3-D numerical simulations. Study helps in shedding light on the effectiveness of asymmetric kinematics as a lift generation mechanism.

  6. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last approximately 8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking as the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (sigma(sub g)) and increase in ordered rotation (V(sub rot)) with time. The slopes of the relations between both sigma(sub g) and V(sub rot) with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling.

  7. Kinematic evolution of simulated star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-08-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ∼8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of 'disk settling'. For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art 'zoom in' hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking because the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (σ{sub g}) and increase in ordered rotation (V{sub rot}) with time. The slopes of the relations between both σ{sub g} and V{sub rot} with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling'.

  8. Kinematic Evolution of Simulated Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassin, Susan A.; Brooks, Alyson; Governato, Fabio; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2014-08-01

    Recent observations have shown that star-forming galaxies like our own Milky Way evolve kinematically into ordered thin disks over the last ~8 billion years since z = 1.2, undergoing a process of "disk settling." For the first time, we study the kinematic evolution of a suite of four state of the art "zoom in" hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation and evolution in a fully cosmological context and compare with these observations. Until now, robust measurements of the internal kinematics of simulated galaxies were lacking because the simulations suffered from low resolution, overproduction of stars, and overly massive bulges. The current generation of simulations has made great progress in overcoming these difficulties and is ready for a kinematic analysis. We show that simulated galaxies follow the same kinematic trends as real galaxies: they progressively decrease in disordered motions (σ g ) and increase in ordered rotation (V rot) with time. The slopes of the relations between both σ g and V rot with redshift are consistent between the simulations and the observations. In addition, the morphologies of the simulated galaxies become less disturbed with time, also consistent with observations. This match between the simulated and observed trends is a significant success for the current generation of simulations, and a first step in determining the physical processes behind disk settling.

  9. Mechanical and kinematic alignment in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bonzanini, Giancarlo; Chirillo, Danilo; de Tullio, Vito

    2016-01-01

    In the last 10 years many studies have questioned if the strive to mechanical align any knee may pose some problems related to ligament misbalancing that could explain the high rate of disappointed patients, almost 20% in some reports. Proper indication and difference between patient’s and surgeon’s expectations are among the most important one’s but it must be underlined that, there is indeed a sharp difference between normal knee kinematics, prosthetic knee kinematics and arthritic knee kinematics being the last one extremely variable. A so called kinematic alignment has recently been developed in order to improve patient’s knee function and pain control minimizing any surgical gesture focused on ligaments balance. The amount of bone resections may not affect limb alignment but has an important consequence in ligament tension and balance, clinical result and function therefore a measured bone resection technique is essential in order to perform a proper kinematic alignment. Purpose of this paper is to briefly review the different alignment procedures used for TKA and to discuss their definitions, concepts and evidence on outcome. PMID:27162780

  10. Comparisons of Kinematics and Dynamics Simulation Software Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, Yeu-Sheng Paul

    2002-01-01

    Kinematic and dynamic analyses for moving bodies are essential to system engineers and designers in the process of design and validations. 3D visualization and motion simulation plus finite element analysis (FEA) give engineers a better way to present ideas and results. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) system engineering researchers are currently using IGRIP from DELMIA Inc. as a kinematic simulation tool for discrete bodies motion simulations. Although IGRIP is an excellent tool for kinematic simulation with some dynamic analysis capabilities in robotic control, explorations of other alternatives with more powerful dynamic analysis and FEA capabilities are necessary. Kinematics analysis will only examine the displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the mechanism without considering effects from masses of components. With dynamic analysis and FEA, effects such as the forces or torques at the joint due to mass and inertia of components can be identified. With keen market competition, ALGOR Mechanical Event Simulation (MES), MSC visualNastran 4D, Unigraphics Motion+, and Pro/MECHANICA were chosen for explorations. In this study, comparisons between software tools were presented in terms of following categories: graphical user interface (GUI), import capability, tutorial availability, ease of use, kinematic simulation capability, dynamic simulation capability, FEA capability, graphical output, technical support, and cost. Propulsion Test Article (PTA) with Fastrac engine model exported from IGRIP and an office chair mechanism were used as examples for simulations.

  11. Performance study of the application of Artificial Neural Networks to the completion and prediction of data retrieved by underwater sensors.

    PubMed

    Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Calavia, Lorena; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio; Hernández, Luis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal for an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based architecture for completion and prediction of data retrieved by underwater sensors. Due to the specific conditions under which these sensors operate, it is not uncommon for them to fail, and maintenance operations are difficult and costly. Therefore, completion and prediction of the missing data can greatly improve the quality of the underwater datasets. A performance study using real data is presented to validate the approach, concluding that the proposed architecture is able to provide very low errors. The numbers show as well that the solution is especially suitable for cases where large portions of data are missing, while in situations where the missing values are isolated the improvement over other simple interpolation methods is limited. PMID:22438720

  12. Phylogenetic studies of two Anas platyrhynchos (Anatini: Anatinae) in Hunan province of China based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    He, Xi; Lin, Qian; Cao, Rong; Yuan, Ya-Ting; Pan, Di-Zi; Yun, Long; Zhang, Shi-Rui; Hou, De-Xing

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNAs of Chinese duck, Anas platyrhynchos, population from two different areas of Hunan province in China. The Anas platyrhynchos breed Linwu duck (LW) sample was taken from the Linwu county of Chenzhou city, and the Anas platyrhynchos breed Youxian duck (YX) sample was taken from the Youxian county of Zhuzhou city. The lengths of their complete mitochondrial genome were 16,604 bp (LW) and 16,606 bp (YX), respectively. The organization of the two Anas platyrhynchos breed mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other duck mitochondrial genomes. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the analyzed species are divided into four major clades: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. Also, the Linwu duck and Youxian duck have highly similar phylogenetic relationship. PMID:26057008

  13. Kinematic correction for roller skewing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is developed for high-speed cylindrical roller bearings. This stabilization requires race and roller crowning to product changes in the rolling geometry as the roller shifts axially. These changes put a reverse skew in the rolling elements by changing the rolling taper. Twelve basic possible bearing modifications are identified in this paper. Four have single transverse convex curvature in the rollers while eight have rollers with compound transverse curvature composed of a central cylindrical band of constant radius surrounded by symmetric bands with both slope and transverse curvature.

  14. Attentional focus, perceived target size, and movement kinematics under performance pressure.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the relationship between attentional focus, perceived hole size, and radial putting error in a golf task. Twenty-five experienced golfers were asked to produce size estimates immediately after completing a putt. To assess their attentional focus, one of two secondary tasks (chosen randomly) was performed next. In the Hole task, participants were asked to indicate whether a sound played during their putting stroke was presented to the left or right of the hole. In the Club task, they were asked to indicate whether the sound occurred closer to the beginning or end of their backswing. Participants completed three phases: a no pressure pretest, a pressure phase, and a no pressure posttest. There were substantial individual differences in the effects of pressure on putting kinematics: 11 golfers (designated the Choke group) showed significant changes in kinematic variables and heart rate, and 14 golfers (designated the Clutch group) showed no significant change in these variables. For the Choke group, putting error and the accuracy on the Club task significantly increased during the pressure phase while size estimates and accuracy on the Hole task significantly decreased. There were no significant changes in any of these variables for the Clutch group. These findings provide further evidence for the attentional accentuation hypothesis of action-specific effects. PMID:25933628

  15. Clinical impact of gait training enhanced with visual kinematic biofeedback: Patients with Parkinson's disease and patients stable post stroke.

    PubMed

    Byl, Nancy; Zhang, Wenlong; Coo, Sophia; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2015-12-01

    As the world's population ages, falls, physical inactivity, decreased attention and impairments in balance and gait arise as a consequence of decreased sensation, weakness, trauma and degenerative disease. Progressive balance and gait training can facilitate postural righting, safe ambulation and community participation. This small randomized clinical trial evaluated if visual and kinematic feedback provided during supervised gait training would interfere or enhance mobility, endurance, balance, strength and flexibility in older individuals greater than one year post stroke (Gobbi et al., 2009) or Parkinson's disease (PD) (Gobbi et al., 2009). Twenty-four individuals consented to participate. The participants were stratified by diagnosis and randomly assigned to a control (usual gait training (Gobbi et al., 2009)) or an experimental group (usual gait training plus kinematic feedback (Gobbi et al., 2009)). At baseline and 6 weeks post training (18 h), subjects completed standardized tests (mobility, balance, strength, range of motion). Gains were described across all subjects, by treatment group and by diagnosis. Then they were compared for significance using nonparametric statistics. Twenty-three subjects completed the study with no adverse events. Across all subjects, by diagnosis (stroke and PD) and by training group (control and experimental), there were significant gains in mobility (gait speed, step length, endurance, and quality), balance (Berg Balance), range of motion and strength. There were no significant differences in the gain scores between the control and experimental groups. Subjects chronic post stroke made greater strength gains on the affected side than subjects with PD but otherwise there were no significant differences. In summary, during supervised gait training, dynamic visual kinematic feedback from wireless pressure and motion sensors had similar, positive effects as verbal, therapist feedback. A wireless kinematic feedback system could be

  16. THE KINEMATICS OF PRIMATE MIDFOOT FLEXIBILITY

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Thomas M.; Ball, Kevin A.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a unique assessment of primate intrinsic foot joint kinematics based upon bone pin rigid cluster tracking. It challenges the assumption that human evolution resulted in a reduction of midfoot flexibility, which has been identified in other primates as the “midtarsal break.” Rigid cluster pins were inserted into the foot bones of human, chimpanzee, baboon and macaque cadavers. The positions of these bone pins were monitored during a plantarflexion-dorsiflexion movement cycle. Analysis resolved flexion-extension movement patterns and the associated orientation of rotational axes for the talonavicular, calcaneocuboid and lateral cubometatarsal joints. Results show that midfoot flexibility occurs primarily at the talonavicular and cubometatarsal joints. The rotational magnitudes are roughly similar between humans and chimps. There is also a similarity among evaluated primates in the observed rotations of the lateral cubometatarsal joint, but there was much greater rotation observed for the talonavicular joint, which may serve to differentiate monkeys from the hominines. It appears that the capability for a midtarsal break is present within the human foot. A consideration of the joint axes shows that the medial and lateral joints have opposing orientations, which has been associated with a rigid locking mechanism in the human foot. However, the potential for this same mechanism also appears in the chimpanzee foot. These findings demonstrate a functional similarity within the midfoot of the hominines. Therefore, the kinematic capabilities and restrictions for the skeletal linkages of the human foot may not be as unique as has been previously suggested. PMID:25234343

  17. The Kinematics of Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Stephen Kern

    1991-01-01

    The long history of research into the internal structure of turbulent boundary layers has not provided a unified picture of the physics responsible for turbulence production and dissipation. The goals of the present research are to: (1) define the current state of boundary layer structure knowledge; and (2) utilize direct numerical simulation results to help close the unresolved issues identified in part A and to unify the fragmented knowledge of various coherent motions into a consistent kinematic model of boundary layer structure. The results of the current study show that all classes of coherent motion in the low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer may be related to vortical structures, but that no single form of vortex is representative of the wide variety of vortical structures observed. In particular, ejection and sweep motions, as well as entrainment from the free-streem are shown to have strong spatial and temporal relationships with vortical structures. Disturbances of vortex size, location, and intensity show that quasi-streamwise vortices dominate the buffer region, while transverse vortices and vortical arches dominate the wake region. Both types of vortical structure are common in the log region. The interrelationships between the various structures and the population distributions of vortices are combined into a conceptual kinematic model for the boundary layer. Aspects of vortical structure dynamics are also postulated, based on time-sequence animations of the numerically simulated flow.

  18. Comparative effects of unilateral and bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on gait kinematics in Parkinson's disease: a randomized, blinded study.

    PubMed

    Lizarraga, Karlo J; Jagid, Jonathan R; Luca, Corneliu C

    2016-08-01

    Gait dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) does not always respond to bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). Since right hemisphere motor networks may be dominant for gait control, identical stimulation of asymmetric circuits could account for gait dysfunction. We compared the effects of bilateral and unilateral STN-DBS on gait kinematics in PD patients who developed gait impairment after STN-DBS. Twenty-two PD patients with >50 % improvement in motor scores, but dopamine-resistant gait dysfunction 6-12 months after bilateral STN-DBS were blindly tested off dopaminergic effects in four randomly assigned DBS conditions: bilateral, right-sided, left-sided and off stimulation. Motor scores (MDS-UPDRS III), gait scores (MDS-UPRDS 2.11-2.13 + 3.9-3.13), turning time (seconds), stride length (meters) and velocity (meters/second) were measured 1 h after DBS changes. Motor and gait scores significantly improved with bilateral versus unilateral STN-DBS. Stride length and velocity (0.95 ± 0.06, 0.84 ± 0.07) significantly improved with bilateral (1.09 ± 0.04, 0.95 ± 0.05), right-sided (1.06 ± 0.04, 0.92 ± 0.05) and left-sided stimulation (1.01 ± 0.05, 0.90 ± 0.05) (p < 0.05). Stride length significantly improved with right-sided versus left-sided (0.05 ± 0.02) and bilateral versus left-sided stimulation (0.07 ± 0.02) (p < 0.05). Turning time (4.89 ± 0.6) tended to improve with bilateral (4.13 ± 0.5) (p = 0.15) and right-sided (4.27 ± 0.6) (p = 0.2) more than with left STN-DBS (4.69 ± 0.5) (p = 0.5). Bilateral STN-DBS yields greater improvement in motor and gait scores in PD patients. Yet, unilateral stimulation has similar effects on gait kinematics. Particularly, right-sided stimulation might produce slightly greater improvements. Although the clinical relevance of differential programming of right versus left-sided STN-DBS is unclear, this approach could be considered in the management of

  19. Dragonfly (Sympetrum flaveolum) flight: Kinematic measurement and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. H.; Skote, M.; Zhao, Y.; Huang, W. M.

    2013-07-01

    The kinematics of the flapping hindwing of the dragonfly Sympetrum flaveolum is investigated. Several tracking points along the leading edge and trailing edge of the hindwing are recorded and studied using high-speed videography. By applying more tracking points along the leading edge around the nodus, it is shown that the leading edge is not one rigid piece, but two pieces hinged at the nodus with physical constraint of forty degrees. Such arrangement also eases the difficulties in rotating the wing during pronation by bending the leading edge forward and flattening the wing. From the kinematic experiments, two flapping patterns of the dragonfly wing are revealed as a simple figure-eight and a double figure-eight flapping pattern. Kinematic modelling of the two flapping patterns is then established by transforming the flapping motions into angular rotations about the pivoting wing root in a local body-fixed spherical coordinate system.

  20. Quantifying Dragonfly Kinematics During Unsteady Free-Flight Maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melfi, James; Lin, Huai-Ti; Mischiati, Matteo; Leonardo, Anthony; Wang, Z. Jane

    2012-11-01

    What make dragonflies such interesting fliers are the unsteady high-speed aerial maneuvers they perform. Until recently, the study of dragonflies in mid-flight has been limited to steady-state motions such as hovering and forward flight. In this talk, we report our kinematic analyses of the dragonfly flight recorded in a custom dragonfly arena at HHMI, Janelia Farm. Dragonfly's turning motions often involve all three degrees of freedom about its body axes: yaw, roll, and pitch. We examine the wing kinematics changes associated with different turning maneuvers, and seek the key variables in the wing kinematics that are responsible for each specific maneuver. This work is supported by a grant to ZJW and AL through the visitor program at Janelia Farm, HHMI.

  1. Turbulent 2-Particle Dispersion Laws in Kinematic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Damien; Eyink, Gregory

    2012-11-01

    Kinematic Simulations (KS) are often used as a shortcut for studying Lagrangian properties of turbulence (e.g. Elliott & Majda, 1996) but have been criticized by Thomson & Devenish (2005), who pointed out that KS sweeping effects are very different from true turbulence. We study numerically by a Monte Carlo method a Richardson-like diffusion equation recently derived analytically by us for KS models, which exhibits such sweeping effects. With moderate inertial-ranges like those achieved in current KS, our model is found to reproduce the t 9 / 2 power-law for pair dispersion predicted by Thomson & Devenish and observed in those KS. However, for much longer ranges, our model exhibits three distinct pair-dispersion laws in the inertial-range: a Batchelor t2-regime, followed by a Kraichnan-model-like t1 diffusive regime, and then a t6 regime. Finally, outside the inertial-range, there is another t1 regime with particles undergoing independent Taylor diffusion. These scalings are exactly the same as those predicted by Thomson & Devenish for KS with large mean velocities, which we argue hold also for KS with zero mean velocity. Our results support the basic conclusion of Thomson & Devenish (2005) that sweeping effects make Lagrangian properties of KS completely different from true turbulence for very extended inertial-ranges.

  2. The morphology and kinematics of neutral hydrogen in the vicinity of z=0 galaxies with Milky Way masses - a study with the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauffmann, Guinevere; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Nelson, Dylan

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the properties of the circumgalactic gas (CGM) around 120 galaxies with stellar and dark matter halo masses similar to that of the Milky Way. We focus on the morphology and kinematics of the neutral hydrogen and how this depends on fg, the ratio of gas-to-stellar mass within the optical radius. In gas-rich galaxies with fg > 0.1, gas temperatures rise slowly from center of the halo out to the virial radius and average neutral gas column densities remain above 1019 atoms cm-2 out to radii of 50-70 kpc. In gas-poor galaxies with fg < 0.1, gas temperatures rise quickly outside the edge of the disk to ˜106 K, and then remain fixed out to radii of 100 kpc. The column density of neutral gas quickly drops below 1019 atoms cm-2 at radii of 10 kpc. Neutral gas distributions are also more asymmetric in gas-poor galaxies. Most of the differences between gas-poor and gas-rich galaxies in the Illustris simulation can be attributed to the effects of "radio-mode" AGN feedback. In the Illustris simulation, the circumgalactic gas is found to rotate coherently about the center of the galaxy with a maximum rotational velocity of around 200 km/s. In gas-rich galaxies, the average coherence length of the rotating gas is 40 kpc, compared to 10 kpc in gas-poor galaxies. In the very most gas-rich systems, the CGM can rotate coherently over scales of 70-100 kpc. We discuss our results in the context of recent observations of the CGM in low mass galaxies via UV absorption-line spectroscopy and deep 21cm observations of edge-on spiral galaxies,

  3. Surgical gesture classification from video and kinematic data.

    PubMed

    Zappella, Luca; Béjar, Benjamín; Hager, Gregory; Vidal, René

    2013-10-01

    Much of the existing work on automatic classification of gestures and skill in robotic surgery is based on dynamic cues (e.g., time to completion, speed, forces, torque) or kinematic data (e.g., robot trajectories and velocities). While videos could be equally or more discriminative (e.g., videos contain semantic information not present in kinematic data), they are typically not used because of the difficulties associated with automatic video interpretation. In this paper, we propose several methods for automatic surgical gesture classification from video data. We assume that the video of a surgical task (e.g., suturing) has been segmented into video clips corresponding to a single gesture (e.g., grabbing the needle, passing the needle) and propose three methods to classify the gesture of each video clip. In the first one, we model each video clip as the output of a linear dynamical system (LDS) and use metrics in the space of LDSs to classify new video clips. In the second one, we use spatio-temporal features extracted from each video clip to learn a dictionary of spatio-temporal words, and use a bag-of-features (BoF) approach to classify new video clips. In the third one, we use multiple kernel learning (MKL) to combine the LDS and BoF approaches. Since the LDS approach is also applicable to kinematic data, we also use MKL to combine both types of data in order to exploit their complementarity. Our experiments on a typical surgical training setup show that methods based on video data perform equally well, if not better, than state-of-the-art approaches based on kinematic data. In turn, the combination of both kinematic and video data outperforms any other algorithm based on one type of data alone. PMID:23706754

  4. A Comparison of Masticatory Performance and Efficiency of Complete Dentures Made with High Impact and Flexible Resins: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhoyar, Anjali; Mishra, Sunil Kumar; Yadav, Naveen S.; Mahajan, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Background In patients with extensive tooth loss, restoration of masticatory function and aesthetics is main concern for a prosthodontist. Aim of Study This study aimed to evaluate and compare differences in masticatory efficiency of patients treated with complete dentures made with either high impact or flexible resins. Setting and Design The sample size consisted of 10 study subjects. Two sets of dentures first conventional followed by flexible dentures were fabricated for each subject and both the sets of dentures were accessed for masticatory performance and efficiency. Materials and Methods This study compared the masticatory performance and efficiency of dentures by means of standardized mesh sieves. Masticatory efficiency was calculated by recording the total number of chewing cycles and time required to completely swallow a standardized food item. A patient satisfaction questionnaire was given and evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used The statistical analyses were performed using Z-test of Proportion and Paired t-test. Results The masticatory performance ratio was found to be more for hard food in conventional dentures. The values of masticatory performance ratios for soft food, time and number of masticatory strokes were indicating better masticatory efficiency of conventional dentures. Conclusion Though masticatory efficiency and performance were found to be better for patient’s dentures made with Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), a statistically significant number of patients reported that the flexible dentures were more satisfying than the conventional dentures. PMID:26266213

  5. Identifying the Young Low-mass Stars within 25 pc. II. Distances, Kinematics, and Group Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Anglada-Escudé, Guillem; Liu, Michael C.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Boss, Alan P.; Reid, I. Neill; Tamura, Motohide

    2012-10-01

    We have conducted a kinematic study of 165 young M dwarfs with ages of lsim300 Myr. Our sample is composed of stars and brown dwarfs with spectral types ranging from K7 to L0, detected by ROSAT and with photometric distances of lsim25 pc assuming that the stars are single and on the main sequence. In order to find stars kinematically linked to known young moving groups (YMGs), we measured radial velocities for the complete sample with Keck and CFHT optical spectroscopy and trigonometric parallaxes for 75 of the M dwarfs with the CAPSCam instrument on the du Pont 2.5 m Telescope. Due to their youthful overluminosity and unresolved binarity, the original photometric distances for our sample underestimated the distances by 70% on average, excluding two extremely young (lsim3 Myr) objects found to have distances beyond a few hundred parsecs. We searched for kinematic matches to 14 reported YMGs and identified 10 new members of the AB Dor YMG and 2 of the Ursa Majoris group. Additional possible candidates include six Castor, four Ursa Majoris, two AB Dor members, and one member each of the Her-Lyr and β Pic groups. Our sample also contains 27 young low-mass stars and 4 brown dwarfs with ages lsim150 Myr that are not associated with any known YMG. We identified an additional 15 stars that are kinematic matches to one of the YMGs, but the ages from spectroscopic diagnostics and/or the positions on the sky do not match. These warn against grouping stars together based only on kinematics and that a confluence of evidence is required to claim that a group of stars originated from the same star-forming event. Based on observations collected at the W. M. Keck Observatory, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, the du Pont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, and the Subaru Telescope. The Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial

  6. Kinematics from a 163 Million-Year-Old Dinosaur Trackway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott

    2011-10-01

    Dinosaurs always grab the interest of students. Information about dinosaur locomotion is accessible from the trackways they left. In a unique connection to kinematics, evidence of the acceleration of a meat-eating dinosaur (theropod) is evident in Trackway 13 in Ardley Quarry in Oxfordshire, UK. This particular trackway is described by J.J. Day, D.B. Norman, P. Upchuch and H.P. Powell in Vol. 415 of Nature on pages 494 and 495, published in 2002. This particular theropod underwent an acceleration of about g/3. This example provides a fun and engaging exercise for students studying kinematics.

  7. On the Motion of a Free Particle in Kinematic Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Ioan Antoniu

    From the viewpoint that Milne's Kinematic Relativity is a fundamental theory of matter in all domain, from elementary particle physics tocosmology, we study the problem of a free particle in the presence of the Universe at large, in the classical and quantum pictures. We formulate the Hamilton-Jacobi, Dirac, and Kelin-Gordon equations for a free particle in the presence of the Universe at large. The form of these equations suggests that Kinematic Relativity is more suitable to serve as a basis for a description of the Early Universe than the ordinary relativistic and quantum theories of contemporary physics.

  8. Finite rotation and nonlinear beam kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.

    1987-01-01

    Standard means of representing finite rotation in rigid-body kinematics, including orientation angles, Euler parameters, and Rodrigues parameters, are reviewed and compared. General kinematical relations for a beam theory that treats arbitrarily large rotation are then presented. The standard methods of representing finite rotations are applied to these kinematical expressions, and comparison is made among the standard methods and additional methods found in the literature, such as quasi-coordinates and linear combinations of projection angles. The method of Rodrigues parameters is shown to stand out for both its simplicity and generality when applied to beam kinematics, a result that is really missing from the literature.

  9. Basic concepts of kinematic-wave models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The kinematic-wave model is one of a number of approximations of the dynamic-wave model. The dynamic-wave model describes one-dimensional shallow-water waves (unsteady, gradually varied, open-channel flow). The report provides a basic reference on the theory and application of kinematic-wave models and describes the limitations of the model in relation to the other approximations of the dynamic-wave model. In the kinematic-wave approximation, a number of the terms in the equation of motion are assumed to be insignificant. The equation of motion is replaced by an equation describing uniform flow. Thus, the kinematic-wave model is described by the continuity equation and a uniform flow equation such as the well-known Chezy or Manning formulas. Kinematic-wave models are applicable to overland flow where lateral inflow is continuously added and is a large part of the total flow. For channel-routing applications, the kinematic-wave model always predicts a steeper wave with less dispersion and attenuation than actually occurs. The effect of the accumulation of errors in the kinematic-wave model shows that the approximations made in the development of the kinematic-wave equations are not generally justified for most channel-routing applications. Modified flow-routing models can be used which help to stop the accumulation of error that occurs when the kinematic-wave model is applied. (USGS)

  10. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  11. Kinematic features of wheelchair propulsion.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, D J; Sommer, H J

    1985-01-01

    Three male paraplegics volunteered to push their wheelchairs on a motor driven treadmill, for a total of 80 min each, at a work rate of 60-65% of their VO2 maximum, determined on an earlier test session. At 20 min intervals 16 mm high-speed film of the subjects was taken for three consecutive push cycles. The digitized film was used to compute the angular kinematics of the shoulder and elbow joints, the variations in the position of the trunk (as measured by a marker on the neck) and hand relative to the axle of the rear wheel. There were no intrasubject variations over the 80 min testing period for any of the recorded variables. This was interpreted as implying that at that work rate, fatigue was not exhibited as variations in the kinematics of movement. There were considerable differences between the style of one subject when compared to the other two over all the trials of each subject. This variation in style was most obvious in subject number PT who had a pumping style of push and recovery whereas subjects CA and GW employed a more continuous circular motion. The differences in the amount of forward lean of each subject were related to residual muscle strength. The discussion centered on the influence of the different styles on performance. PMID:4030799

  12. Kinematic Constraints Associated with the Acquisition of Overarm Throwing Part I: Step and Trunk Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine differences within specific kinematic variables and ball velocity associated with developmental component levels of step and trunk action (Roberton & Halverson, 1984), and (b) if the differences in kinematic variables were significantly associated with the differences in component levels, determine…

  13. Kinematic Constraints Associated with the Acquisition of Overarm Throwing Part II: Upper Extremity Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stodden, David F.; Langendorfer, Stephen J.; Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2006-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the differences within 11 specific kinematic variables and an outcome measure (ball velocity) associated with component developmental levels of humerus and forearm action (Roberton & Halverson, 1984), and (b) if the differences in kinematic variables were significantly associated with the differences…

  14. Kinematics and dynamics of a six-degree-of-freedom robot manipulator with closed kinematic chain mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Pooran, Farhad J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper deals with a class of robot manipulators built based on the kinematic chain mechanism (CKCM). This class of CKCM manipulators consists of a fixed and a moving platform coupled together via a number of in-parallel actuators. A closed-form solution is derived for the inverse kinematic problem of a six-degre-of-freedom CKCM manipulator designed to study robotic applications in space. Iterative Newton-Raphson method is employed to solve the forward kinematic problem. Dynamics of the above manipulator is derived using the Lagrangian approach. Computer simulation of the dynamical equations shows that the actuating forces are strongly dependent on the mass and centroid of the robot links.

  15. Single dental implant retained mandibular complete dentures – influence of the loading protocol: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over the years, there has been a strong consensus in dentistry that at least two implants are required to retain a complete mandibular denture. It has been shown in several clinical trials that one single median implant can retain a mandibular overdenture sufficiently well for up to 5 years without implant failures, when delayed loading was used. However, other trials have reported conflicting results with in part considerable failure rates when immediate loading was applied. Therefore it is the purpose of the current randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that immediate loading of a single mandibular midline implant with an overdenture will result in a comparable clinical outcome as using the standard protocol of delayed loading. Methods/design This prospective nine-center randomized controlled clinical trial is still ongoing. The final patient will complete the trial in 2016. In total, 180 edentulous patients between 60 and 89 years with sufficient complete dentures will receive one median implant in the edentulous mandible, which will retain the existing complete denture using a ball attachment. Loading of the median implant is either immediately after implant placement (experimental group) or delayed by 3 months of submerged healing at second-stage surgery (control group). Follow-up of patients will be performed for 24 months after implant loading. The primary outcome measure is non-inferiority of implant success rate of the experimental group compared to the control group. The secondary outcome measures encompass clinical, technical and subjective variables. The study was funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German research foundation, KE 477/8-1). Discussion This multi-center clinical trial will give information on the ability of a single median implant to retain a complete mandibular denture when immediately loaded. If viable, this treatment option will strongly improve everyday dental practice. Trial registration The trial

  16. Epidemiology of Spinal Cord Injuries and Risk Factors for Complete Injuries in Guangdong, China: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Huang, Lin; Tang, Yong; Wang, Wenhao; Chen, Keng; Ye, Jichao; Lu, Ciyong; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal cord injuries are highly disabling and deadly injuries. Currently, few studies focus on non-traumatic spinal cord injuries, and there is little information regarding the risk factors for complete injuries. This study aims to describe the demographics and the injury characteristics for both traumatic and non-traumatic spinal cord injuries and to explore the risk factors for complete spinal cord injuries. Methods A retrospective study was performed by reviewing the medical records of 3,832 patients with spinal cord injuries who were first admitted to the sampled hospitals in Guangdong, China. The demographics and injury characteristics of the patients were described and compared between the different groups using the chi-square test. Logistic regression was conducted to analyze the risk factors for complete spinal cord injuries. Results The proportion of patients increased from 7.0% to 14.0% from 2003 to 2011. The male-to-female ratio was 3.0∶1. The major cause of spinal cord injuries was traffic accidents (21.7%). Many of the injured were workers (36.2%), peasants (22.8%), and unemployed people (13.9%); these occupations accounted for 72.9% of the total sample. A multivariate logistic regression model revealed that the OR (95% CI) for male gender compared to female gender was 1.25 (1.07–1.89), the OR (95%CI) for having a spinal fracture was 1.56 (1.35–2.60), the OR (95%CI) for having a thoracic injury was 1.23 (1.10–2.00), and the OR (95%CI) for having complications was 2.47 (1.96–3.13). Conclusion The proportion of males was higher than the proportion of females. Workers, peasants and the unemployed comprised the high-risk occupational categories. Male gender, having a spinal fracture, having a thoracic injury, and having complications were the major risk factors for a complete injury. We recommend that preventive measures should focus on high-risk populations, such as young males. PMID:24489652

  17. Prion domain of yeast Ure2 protein adopts a completely disordered structure: a solid-support EPR study.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Sam; Chiang, Vicky; Ho, Elaine; Le, Linh; Guo, Zhefeng

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid fibril formation is associated with a range of neurodegenerative diseases in humans, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prion diseases. In yeast, amyloid underlies several non-Mendelian phenotypes referred to as yeast prions. Mechanism of amyloid formation is critical for a complete understanding of the yeast prion phenomenon and human amyloid-related diseases. Ure2 protein is the basis of yeast prion [URE3]. The Ure2p prion domain is largely disordered. Residual structures, if any, in the disordered region may play an important role in the aggregation process. Studies of Ure2p prion domain are complicated by its high aggregation propensity, which results in a mixture of monomer and aggregates in solution. Previously we have developed a solid-support electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) approach to address this problem and have identified a structured state for the Alzheimer's amyloid-β monomer. Here we use solid-support EPR to study the structure of Ure2p prion domain. EPR spectra of Ure2p prion domain with spin labels at every fifth residue from position 10 to position 75 show similar residue mobility profile for denaturing and native buffers after accounting for the effect of solution viscosity. These results suggest that Ure2p prion domain adopts a completely disordered structure in the native buffer. A completely disordered Ure2p prion domain implies that the amyloid formation of Ure2p, and likely other Q/N-rich yeast prion proteins, is primarily driven by inter-molecular interactions. PMID:23077577

  18. Freeform correction polishing for optics with semi-kinematic mounting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Peng, Wei-Jei; Yu, Zong-Ru; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2015-10-01

    Several mounting configurations could be applied to opto-mechanical design for achieving high precise optical system. The retaining ring mounting is simple and cost effective. However, it would deform the optics due to its unpredictable over-constraint forces. The retaining ring can be modified to three small contact areas becoming a semi-kinematic mounting. The semi-kinematic mounting can give a fully constrained in lens assembly and avoid the unpredictable surface deformation. However, there would be still a deformation due to self-weight in large optics especially in vertical setup applications. The self-weight deformation with a semi-kinematic mounting is a stable, repeatable and predictable combination of power and trefoil aberrations. This predictable deformation can be pre-compensated onto the design surface and be corrected by using CNC polisher. Thus it is a freeform surface before mounting to the lens cell. In this study, the freeform correction polishing is demonstrated in a Φ150 lens with semi-kinematic mounting. The clear aperture of the lens is Φ143 mm. We utilize ANSYS simulation software to analyze the lens deformation due to selfweight deformation with semi-kinematic mounting. The simulation results of the self-weight deformation are compared with the measurement results of the assembled lens cell using QED aspheric stitching interferometer (ASI). Then, a freeform surface of a lens with semi-kinematic mounting due to self-weight deformation is verified. This deformation would be corrected by using QED Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF® ) Q-flex 300 polishing machine. The final surface form error of the assembled lens cell after MRF figuring is 0.042 λ in peak to valley (PV).

  19. Kinematic analysis of males with transtibial amputation carrying military loads.

    PubMed

    Schnall, Barri L; Hendershot, Brad D; Bell, Johanna C; Wolf, Erik J

    2014-01-01

    The biomechanical responses to load carriage, a common task for dismounted troops, have been well studied in nondisabled individuals. However, with recent shifts in the rehabilitation and retention process of injured servicemembers, there remains a substantial need for understanding these responses in persons with lower-limb amputations. Temporal-spatial and kinematic gait parameters were analyzed among 10 male servicemembers with unilateral transtibial amputation (TTA) and 10 uninjured male controls. Participants completed six treadmill walking trials in all combinations of two speeds (1.34 and 1.52 m/s) and three loads (none, 21.8, and 32.7 kg). Persons with TTA exhibited biomechanical compensations to carried loads that are comparable to those observed in uninjured individuals. However, several distinct gait changes appear to be unique to those with TTA, notably, increased dorsiflexion (deformation) of the prosthetic foot/ankle, less stance knee flexion on the prosthetic limb, and altered trunk forward lean/excursion. Such evidence supports the need for future work to assess the risk for overuse injuries with carried loads in this population in addition to guiding the development of adaptive prosthetic feet/components to meet the needs of redeployed servicemembers or veterans/civilians in physically demanding occupations. PMID:25815769

  20. Completed Suicide with Violent and Non-Violent Methods in Rural Shandong, China: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shi-Hua; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to describe the specific characteristics of completed suicides by violent methods and non-violent methods in rural Chinese population, and to explore the related factors for corresponding methods. Methods Data of this study came from investigation of 199 completed suicide cases and their paired controls of rural areas in three different counties in Shandong, China, by interviewing one informant of each subject using the method of Psychological Autopsy (PA). Results There were 78 (39.2%) suicides with violent methods and 121 (60.8%) suicides with non-violent methods. Ingesting pesticides, as a non-violent method, appeared to be the most common suicide method (103, 51.8%). Hanging (73 cases, 36.7%) and drowning (5 cases, 2.5%) were the only violent methods observed. Storage of pesticides at home and higher suicide intent score were significantly associated with choice of violent methods while committing suicide. Risk factors related to suicide death included negative life events and hopelessness. Conclusions Suicide with violent methods has different factors from suicide with non-violent methods. Suicide methods should be considered in suicide prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:25111835

  1. Calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder: arthroscopic needling versus complete calcium removal and rotator cuff repair. A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    CASTAGNA, ALESSANDRO; DE GIORGI, SILVANA; GAROFALO, RAFFAELE; CONTI, MARCO; TAFURI, SILVIO; MORETTI, BIAGIO

    2015-01-01

    Purpose the aim of the present study was to verify the differences in the clinical outcomes of two arthroscopic techniques used to treat calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder: needling versus complete removal of the calcium deposit and tendon repair. Methods from September 2010 to September 2012, 40 patients with calcifying tendinitis of the rotator cuff were arthroscopically treated by the same surgeon using one of the two following techniques: needling (Group 1) and complete removal of the calcium deposit and tendon repair with suture anchors (Group 2). Both groups followed the same rehabilitation program. The two groups were compared at 6 and 12 months of follow-up for the presence of residual calcifications and for the following clinical outcomes: Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Evaluation Form (ASES) shoulder score, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale, Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results all the clinical scores (Constant, ASES, UCLA, SST and VAS scores) improved significantly between baseline and postoperative follow-up, both at 6 and at 12 months. No differences at final follow-up were found between the two groups. Conclusions both the techniques were effective in solving the symptoms of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder. Clinical scores improved in both groups. Residual calcifications were found in only a few cases and were always less than 10 mm. Level of evidence Level II, prospective comparative study. PMID:26904521

  2. Kinematical superalgebras and Lie algebras of order 3

    SciTech Connect

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    2008-06-15

    We study and classify kinematical algebras which appear in the framework of Lie superalgebras or Lie algebras of order 3. All these algebras are related through generalized Inonue-Wigner contractions from either the orthosymplectic superalgebra or the de Sitter Lie algebra of order 3.

  3. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  4. Vacation Study Abroad 1996-97: The Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study. Forty-sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.

    This guide provides descriptions of 1,810 summer and short-term academic and language study-abroad programs that range from one-week language study courses to full-summer or semester-length university programs. An introductory section provides information on the Institute of International Education (IIE), IIE publications, the use of the guide,…

  5. Complete Makeover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released July 23, 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    We finish our look at Mars's dynamic atmosphere with an image of the surface that has been completely modified by the wind. Even the small ridges that remain have been ground down to a cliff-face with a 'tail' of eroded material. The crosshatching shows that the wind regime has remained mainly E/W to ENE/WSW.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 8.9, Longitude 221 East (139 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  6. Two-dimensional Hα kinematics of bulgeless disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumayer, Nadine; Walcher, Carl Jakob; Andersen, David; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Böker, Torsten; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2011-05-01

    We present two-dimensional Hα velocity fields for 20 late-type, disc-dominated spiral galaxies, the largest sample to date with high-resolution Hα velocity fields for bulgeless discs. From these data, we derive rotation curves and the location of the kinematic centres. The galaxy sample was selected to contain nucleated and non-nucleated galaxies (as determined from prior Hubble Space Telescope imaging), which allows us to investigate what impact the gas kinematics in the host disc have on the presence (or absence) of a nuclear star cluster. In general, we find that the velocity fields span a broad range of morphologies. While some galaxies show regular rotation, most have some degree of irregular gas motions, which in nearly all cases either can be attributed to the presence of a bar or is connected to a rather patchy distribution of the Hα emission and the stellar light. There appears to be no systematic difference in the kinematics of nucleated and non-nucleated discs. Due to the large fields of view of the integral field units we use, we are able to observe the flattening of the rotation curve in almost all of our sample galaxies. This makes modelling of the velocity fields relatively straightforward. Due to the complexities of the velocity fields, we obtain reliable determinations of the kinematic centre for only six of our 20 sample galaxies. For all of these, the locations of the nuclear star cluster/photometric centre and the kinematic centre agree within the uncertainties. These locations also agree for seven more objects, despite considerably larger uncertainties as to the accuracy of the kinematic centre. If we disregard all kinematically irregular galaxies, our study concludes that nuclear star clusters truly occupy the nuclei, or dynamical centres, of their hosts. Our results are thus consistent with in situ formation of nuclear star clusters. Yet, many well-motivated formation scenarios for nuclear clusters invoke off-centre cluster formation and

  7. Chromosomal Study is Must for Prepubertal Girl with Inguinal Hernia: Opportunity to Diagnose Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Debdeep; Patra, Dipak Kumar; De, Angshuman; Mallick, Barindranath

    2015-01-01

    The sufferers of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) are phenotypic females despite of having functional testes and normal male karyotype. They usually present late with primary amenorrhea but delayed diagnosis increases chance of gonadal malignancy. Alertness for this entity is crucial as with early diagnosis such disorder can be managed more appropriately for a better future. We hereby describe a case of CAIS in an 8-year-old girl presented with bilateral inguinal swellings. Endocrinological analysis, radiological investigations and cytogenetic studies were done. Investigations revealed absence of female internal genitalia. Karyotyping and molecular study confirmed the presence of Y chromosome. Parents were counseled regarding timely gonadectomy, fertility and other long term social issues. PMID:26023570

  8. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to the cerebellum improves handwriting and cyclic drawing kinematics in focal hand dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Bradnam, Lynley V.; Graetz, Lynton J.; McDonnell, Michelle N.; Ridding, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the cerebellum has a role in the pathophysiology of primary focal hand dystonia and might provide an intervention target for non-invasive brain stimulation to improve function of the affected hand. The primary objective of this study was to determine if cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) improves handwriting and cyclic drawing kinematics in people with hand dystonia, by reducing cerebellar-brain inhibition (CBI) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Eight people with dystonia (5 writer’s dystonia, 3 musician’s dystonia) and eight age-matched controls completed the study and underwent cerebellar anodal, cathodal and sham tDCS in separate sessions. Dystonia severity was assessed using the Writer’s Cramp Rating Scale (WRCS) and the Arm Dystonia Disability Scale (ADDS). The kinematic measures that differentiated the groups were; mean stroke frequency during handwriting and fast cyclic drawing and average pen pressure during light cyclic drawing. TMS measures of cortical excitability were no different between people with FHD and controls. There was a moderate, negative relationship between TMS-evoked CBI at baseline and the WRCS in dystonia. Anodal cerebellar tDCS reduced handwriting mean stroke frequency and average pen pressure, and increased speed and reduced pen pressure during fast cyclic drawing. Kinematic measures were not associated with a decrease in CBI within an individual. In conclusion, cerebellar anodal tDCS appeared to improve kinematics of handwriting and circle drawing tasks; but the underlying neurophysiological mechanism remains uncertain. A study in a larger homogeneous population is needed to further investigate the possible therapeutic benefit of cerebellar tDCS in dystonia. PMID:26042019

  9. Kinematic Event Patterns in Speech: Special Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, John R.; Severson, Elizabeth J.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

    2000-01-01

    Results from a new analysis of synchronous acoustic and fleshpoint-kinematic data, recorded from 53 normal young-adult speakers of American English, are reported. The kinematic data represent speech-related actions of the tongue blade and dorsum, both lips, and the mandible, during the test words, "special" and "problem," and were drawn from an…

  10. Kinematics of the free throw in basketball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, A.; Miller, G.

    1981-06-01

    The kinematics of the two basic styles of free throw in basketball are discussed. It is shown that from a purely kinematic and trajectory point of view, the overhand push shot is preferable to the underhand loop shot. The advantages of the underhand shot lie in the actual execution of the shot.

  11. Characteristics and phylogenetic studies of complete mitochondrial DNA based on the ricefield eel (Monopterus albus) from four different areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dunxue; Chu, Wuying; He, Yan; Liang, Xu-Fang; Mai, Kangsen

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNA of ricefield eel populations from four different areas (Guizhou province, Guangxi province, Hunan province, and Guangdong province) in China. The mitochondrial genome was 16,622 bp in length and deposited in the GenBank with accession numbers KP779622-KP779625. The organizations of the complete mitogenomes of the four ricefield eel were similar to those of other teleost species which contained 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes, as well as a putative control region (CR). Most of these genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and eight tRNA genes, all other genes were encoded on the H-strand. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the ricefield eel was clustered with Mastacembelus armatus (KJ184553) and they belong to Synbranchiformes. The four ricefield eel populations could be divided into two groups: Guangxi province and the other population cluster together. PMID:26258513

  12. Demographic and Predeparture Factors Associated With Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences for College Students Completing Study Abroad Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Aresi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Study abroad students are at-risk for increased and problematic drinking behavior. As few efforts have been made to examine this at-risk population, we predicted drinking and alcohol-related consequences abroad from predeparture and site-specific factors. Participants: The sample consisted of 339 students completing study abroad programs. Method: Participants filled out online measures at predeparture, abroad, and at post-return. Results: We found drinking and consequences abroad were predicted by a number of factors including demographics (e.g., younger age, male sex, Greek affiliation, White ethnicity), student factors (e.g. low GPA, major area of study), study abroad site factors (e.g., apartment living abroad, study in Europe), predeparture levels of drinking and consequences, sensation seeking, and goals related to social gathering. Conclusions: Findings can be used to inform campus policies for admission to study abroad programs as well as assist in the development of interventions targeted toward preventing risk for students during abroad experiences. PMID:24499190

  13. Value of postmarketing surveillance studies in achieving a complete picture of antimigraine agents: using almotriptan as an example.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Massiou, Hélène

    2006-02-01

    Randomised controlled trials cannot collect all the data relevant for use in everyday clinical practice because drug exposure is limited, endpoints are restricted and some patient populations are excluded. Postmarketing surveillance (PS) studies can add important information for real-world clinical practice. Acute migraine therapy with almotriptan 12.5 mg was evaluated in 4 PS studies, 2 conducted in Spain, 1 in Germany and 1 in France. Almotriptan was associated with a high rate of treatment response and was well tolerated in all 4 studies. In the Spanish and German studies, 2-hour pain-relief, 2-hour pain-free, and sustained painfree rates were enhanced when patients treated mild pain. Patient satisfaction with almotriptan, assessed in the German and French studies, was high and the majority of patients preferred almotriptan to their previous acute migraine therapy. In conclusion, PS studies augment our knowledge of antimigraine therapy, giving a more complete picture of how such agents work in the general population. PMID:16440139

  14. Bayesian kinematic earthquake source models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minson, S. E.; Simons, M.; Beck, J. L.; Genrich, J. F.; Galetzka, J. E.; Chowdhury, F.; Owen, S. E.; Webb, F.; Comte, D.; Glass, B.; Leiva, C.; Ortega, F. H.

    2009-12-01

    Most coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic slip models are based on highly regularized optimizations which yield one solution which satisfies the data given a particular set of regularizing constraints. This regularization hampers our ability to answer basic questions such as whether seismic and aseismic slip overlap or instead rupture separate portions of the fault zone. We present a Bayesian methodology for generating kinematic earthquake source models with a focus on large subduction zone earthquakes. Unlike classical optimization approaches, Bayesian techniques sample the ensemble of all acceptable models presented as an a posteriori probability density function (PDF), and thus we can explore the entire solution space to determine, for example, which model parameters are well determined and which are not, or what is the likelihood that two slip distributions overlap in space. Bayesian sampling also has the advantage that all a priori knowledge of the source process can be used to mold the a posteriori ensemble of models. Although very powerful, Bayesian methods have up to now been of limited use in geophysical modeling because they are only computationally feasible for problems with a small number of free parameters due to what is called the "curse of dimensionality." However, our methodology can successfully sample solution spaces of many hundreds of parameters, which is sufficient to produce finite fault kinematic earthquake models. Our algorithm is a modification of the tempered Markov chain Monte Carlo (tempered MCMC or TMCMC) method. In our algorithm, we sample a "tempered" a posteriori PDF using many MCMC simulations running in parallel and evolutionary computation in which models which fit the data poorly are preferentially eliminated in favor of models which better predict the data. We present results for both synthetic test problems as well as for the 2007 Mw 7.8 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake, the latter of which is constrained by InSAR, local high

  15. The Appropriateness of the Helical Axis Technique and Six Available Cardan Sequences for the Representation of 3-D Lead Leg Kinematics During the Fencing Lunge

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Jonathan; Taylor, Paul J; Bottoms, Lindsay

    Cardan/Euler angles represent the most common technique for the quantification of segmental rotations. Cardan angles are influenced by their ordered sequence, and sensitive to planar-cross talk from the dominant rotation plane, which may affect the angular parameters. The International Society of Biomechanics (ISB) currently recommends a sagittal, coronal, and then transverse (XYZ) ordered sequence, although it has been proposed that when quantifying non-sagittal rotations this may not be the most appropriate technique. This study examined the influence of the helical and six available Cardan sequences on lower extremity three-dimensional (3-D) kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge. Kinematic data were obtained using a 3-D motion capture system as participants completed simulated lunges. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare discrete kinematic parameters, and intraclass correlations were also utilized to determine evidence of planar crosstalk. The results indicate that in all three planes of rotation, peak angle and range of motion angles using the YXZ and ZXY sequences were significantly greater than the other sequences. It was also noted that the utilization of the YXZ and ZXY sequences was associated with the strongest correlations from the sagittal plane, and the XYZ sequence was found habitually to be associated with the lowest correlations. It appears that for accurate representation of 3-D kinematics of the lead leg during the fencing lunge, the XYZ sequence is the most appropriate and as such its continued utilization is encouraged. PMID:24146700

  16. Impact of a computerized system for evidence-based diabetes care on completeness of records: a before–after study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physicians practicing in ambulatory care are adopting electronic health record (EHR) systems. Governments promote this adoption with financial incentives, some hinged on improvements in care. These systems can improve care but most demonstrations of successful systems come from a few highly computerized academic environments. Those findings may not be generalizable to typical ambulatory settings, where evidence of success is largely anecdotal, with little or no use of rigorous methods. The purpose of our pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a diabetes specific chronic disease management system (CDMS) on recording of information pertinent to guideline-concordant diabetes care and to plan for larger, more conclusive studies. Methods Using a before–after study design we analyzed the medical record of approximately 10 patients from each of 3 diabetes specialists (total = 31) who were seen both before and after the implementation of a CDMS. We used a checklist of key clinical data to compare the completeness of information recorded in the CDMS record to both the clinical note sent to the primary care physician based on that same encounter and the clinical note sent to the primary care physician based on the visit that occurred prior to the implementation of the CDMS, accounting for provider effects with Generalized Estimating Equations. Results The CDMS record outperformed by a substantial margin dictated notes created for the same encounter. Only 10.1% (95% CI, 7.7% to 12.3%) of the clinically important data were missing from the CDMS chart compared to 25.8% (95% CI, 20.5% to 31.1%) from the clinical note prepared at the time (p < 0.001) and 26.3% (95% CI, 19.5% to 33.0%) from the clinical note prepared before the CDMS was implemented (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between dictated notes created for the CDMS-assisted encounter and those created for usual care encounters (absolute mean difference, 0.8%; 95% CI, −8.5% to

  17. The experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment: A phenomenological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Susan M.

    Women engineers remain underrepresented in employment in engineering fields in the United States. Feminist theory views this gender disparity beyond equity in numbers for women engineers and looks at structural issues of women's access, opportunities, and quality of experience in the workplace. Research on women's success and persistence in engineering education is diverse; however, there are few studies that focus on the early years of women's careers in engineering and less using a phenomenological research design. Experiences of women engineers who have completed one to five years of professional engineering employment are presented using a phenomenological research design. Research questions explored the individual and composite experiences for the co-researchers of the study as well as challenges and advantages of the phenomenon of having completed one to five years of professional engineering employment. Themes that emanated from the data were a feeling that engineering is a positive profession, liking math and science from an early age, having experiences of attending math and science camps or learning and practicing engineering interests with their fathers for some co-researchers. Other themes included a feeling of being different as a woman in the engineering workplace, taking advantage of opportunities for training, education, and advancement to further their careers, and the role of informal and formal mentoring in developing workplace networks and engineering expertise. Co-researchers negotiated issues of management quality and support, experiences of gender discrimination in the workplace, and having to make decisions balancing their careers and family responsibilities. Finally, the women engineers for this research study expressed intentions to persist in their careers while pursuing expertise and experience in their individual engineering fields.

  18. Beating kinematics of magnetically actuated cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downton, M. T.; Stark, H.

    2009-02-01

    We study the beating kinematics and pumping performance of a magnetically actuated artificial cilium attached to a surface using a bead spring model. Several different beating patterns for the external field are considered along with the possiblity of defects in the filament at isolated points. Hydrodynamic interactions between the beads are included by a modified Rotne-Prage tensor such that the no-slip boundary condition at the surface is satisfied. We find that the correct positioning of defects along the filament length can lead to significant increases in the pumping performance of a planar beating pattern. Even more efficient for pumping fluid are three-dimensional beating strokes which bring the filament close to the surface during the return part of the stroke.

  19. Kinematics of chiropteran shoulder girdle in flight.

    PubMed

    Panyutina, A A; Kuznetsov, A N; Korzun, L P

    2013-03-01

    New data on the mechanisms of movements of the shoulder girdle and humerus of bats are described; potential mobility is compared to the movements actually used in flight. The study was performed on the basis of morphological and functional analysis of anatomical specimens of 15 species, high speed and high definition filming of two species and X-ray survey of Rousettus aegyptiacus flight. Our observations indicate that any excursions of the shoulder girdle in bats have relatively small input in the wing amplitude. Shoulder girdle movements resemble kinematics of a crank mechanism: clavicle plays the role of crank, and scapula-the role of connecting rod. Previously described osseous "locking mechanisms" in shoulder joint of advanced bats do not affect the movements, actually used in flight. The wing beats in bats are performed predominantly by movements of humerus relative to shoulder girdle, although these movements occupy the caudal-most sector of available shoulder mobility. PMID:23381941

  20. Elbow joint instability: A kinematic model.

    PubMed

    Olsen, B S; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, J O; Helmig, P; Sneppen, O

    1994-05-01

    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus stress and in forced external and internal rotation. The mean maximum laxity in valgus stress and forced external rotation were 5.7° and 13.2°. The forearms of the elbow joint specimens were transfixed in maximum pronation. During valgus and varus stress the corresponding spontaneous ulnar rotation of the specimens was recorded. The reproducibility of the instability pattern suggests that this model is suitable for evaluating stabilizing procedures aimed at correction of elbow joint instability before these procedures are introduced into patient care. PMID:22959690

  1. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations.

  2. Does kinematics add meaningful information to clinical assessment in post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation? A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bigoni, Matteo; Baudo, Silvia; Cimolin, Veronica; Cau, Nicola; Galli, Manuela; Pianta, Lucia; Tacchini, Elena; Capodaglio, Paolo; Mauro, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this case study were to: (a) quantify the impairment and activity restriction of the upper limb in a hemiparetic patient; (b) quantitatively evaluate rehabilitation program effectiveness; and (c) discuss whether more clinically meaningful information can be gained with the use of kinematic analysis in addition to clinical assessment. The rehabilitation program consisted of the combined use of different traditional physiotherapy techniques, occupational therapy sessions, and the so-called task-oriented approach. [Subject and Methods] Subject was a one hemiplegic patient. The patient was assessed at the beginning and after 1 month of daily rehabilitation using the Medical Research Council scale, Nine Hole Peg Test, Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients, and Hand Grip Dynamometer test as well as a kinematic analysis using an optoelectronic system. [Results] After treatment, significant improvements were evident in terms of total movement duration, movement completion velocity, and some smoothness parameters. [Conclusion] Our case report showed that the integration of clinical assessment with kinematic evaluation appears to be useful for quantitatively assessing performance changes.

  3. Kinematic analysis of reaching in the cat.

    PubMed

    Martin, J H; Cooper, S E; Ghez, C

    1995-01-01

    The present study examines the kinematic features of forelimb movements made by cats reaching for food in horizontal target wells located at different heights and distances. Wrist paths consisted of two relatively straight segments joined at a "via-point" in front of the aperture of the food well. In the initial lift phase, the paw was raised to the via-point in front of the target. In the second, or thrust phase, the paw was directed forward into the food well. During the lift, the paw was moved toward the target primarily by elbow flexion, accompanied by a sequence of biphasic shoulder and wrist movements. Thrust was accomplished primarily by shoulder flexion while the wrist and the paw were maintained at near-constant angles. The animals varied the height of the reach primarily by varying elbow flexion with proportional changes in elbow angular velocity and angular acceleration and with corresponding variations in wrist speed. Thus, cats reached for targets at different heights by scaling a common kinematic profile. Over a relatively large range of target heights, animals maintained movement duration constant, according to a simple "pulse-height" control strategy (isochronous scaling). For reaches to a given target height, animals compensated for variability in peak acceleration by variations in movement time. We examined the coordination between the shoulder and the wrist with the elbow. Early during the lift, peak shoulder extensor and peak elbow flexor accelerations were synchronized. Late during the lift phase, wrist extensor acceleration was found to occur during the period of elbow flexor deceleration. We hypothesize that these linkages could, in part, be due to passive mechanical interactions. To determine how the angular trajectories of the different joints were organized in relation to target location, we plotted joint kinematic changes directly on the wrist and MCP joint paths. These plots revealed that for all target heights and movement speeds, wrist

  4. Scapular kinematic is altered after electromyography biofeedback training.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Jun G; Gunderson, Samantha R; Kane-Ronning, Kai; Suprak, David N

    2016-06-14

    Electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training affords patients a better sense of the different muscle activation patterns involved in the movement of the shoulder girdle. It is important to address scapular kinematics with labourers who have daily routines involving large amounts of lifting at shoulder level or higher. This population is at a heightened risk of developing subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of scapular stabilization exercises with EMG biofeedback training on scapular kinematics. Twenty-three healthy subjects volunteered for the study. Electrodes were placed on the upper and lower trapezius, serratus anterior, and lumbar paraspinals to measure EMG activity. Subjects underwent scapular kinematic testing, which consisted of humeral elevation in the scapular plane, before and after biofeedback training. The latter consisted of 10 repetitions of the I, W, T, and Y scapular stabilization exercises. Subjects were told to actively reduce the muscle activation shown on the screen for the upper trapezius during the exercises. The scapular external rotation had a statistically significant difference at all humeral elevation angles (p<0.004) after biofeedback was administered. After the exercises, the scapula was in a more externally rotated orientation with a mean difference of 6.5°. There were no significant differences found with scapular upward rotation, or posterior tilt at all humeral elevation angles following biofeedback. Scapular kinematics are altered by EMG biofeedback training utilizing scapular stabilization exercises. However, only scapular external rotation was affected by the exercises. PMID:27161990

  5. Kinematic analysis of lobate scarps cross-cutting Mercurian craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galluzzi, V.; Di Achille, G.; Ferranti, L.; Popa, C.; Palumbo, P.

    2013-09-01

    Craters work as a good marker on planetary surfaces, both for kinematics and strain analysis. Some authors measured their elongation and elongation direction to estimate the strain of intensely faulted areas of Mars and Ganymede [2], [5], [9]. In other cases the craters' deformation was used to infer the nature of the crosscutting faults [8], [10], [12]. However, the latter studies did not make any assumption on the slip's geometry (i. e. the fault's true dip and the slip's vector), which is fundamental to estimate kinematic parameters, based on the analysis of craters cross-cut by faults. By using faulted craters of Mercury, we propose a new method to obtain quantitative kinematic parameters for the crosscutting faults. This method can be used as a univocal criterion for all types of faults, independently from their nature and hosting rocks' rheology, leading to assess their true slip direction, horizontal and vertical components of their displacement and thus the slip's plunge, fault's true dip and displacement along the fault's plane. Moreover, the latter parameters can be used to estimate fault's rake and then to study the overall kinematics of the analyzed faults with a quantitative and comprehensive approach. We analyzed 14 craters of Mercury found throughout the 30% of the Mercury's surface covered by the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from [6].

  6. Phylogenetic studies of four Anser cygnoides (Anserini: Anserinae) in Hunan province of China based on complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qiu-Zhong; Lin, Qian; Jiang, Gui-Tao

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we cloned and sequenced the complete mitochondrial DNAs of Chinese goose, Anser cygnoides populations from three different areas of Hunan province in China. The Anser cygnoides breed Wugangtong white goose (WGTW) sample and Wugangtong grey goose sample (WGTG) were taken from the Wugang county of Shaoyang city, the Anser cygnoides breed Xupu goose (XP) sample was taken from the Xupu county of Huaihua city, and the Anser cygnoides breed Yanling white goose (YLW) sample was taken from the Yanling county of Zhuzhou city. The organization of the four Anser cygnoides breeds mitochondrial genomes was similar. Phylogenetic analyses using N-J computational algorithms showed that the analyzed species are divided into four major clades: Anatinae, Anserinae, Dendrocygninae and Anseranatidae. It was noted that Wugangtong white goose, Yanling white goose and Xupu goose have highly similar phylogenetic relationship. PMID:26057006

  7. Complete mitochondrial genomes of Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and Tachypleus tridentatus (Xiphosura, Arthropoda) and implications for chelicerate phylogenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Baek, Su Youn; Choi, Eun Hwa; Jang, Kuem Hee; Ryu, Shi Hyun; Park, Sang Myeon; Suk, Ho Young; Chang, Cheon Young; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2014-01-01

    Horseshoe crabs (order Xiphosura) are often referred to as an ancient order of marine chelicerates and have been considered as keystone taxa for the understanding of chelicerate evolution. However, the mitochondrial genome of this order is only available from a single species, Limulus polyphemus. In the present study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes from two Asian horseshoe crabs, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and Tachypleus tridentatus to offer novel data for the evolutionary relationship within Xiphosura and their position in the chelicerate phylogeny. The mitochondrial genomes of C. rotundicauda (15,033 bp) and T. tridentatus (15,006 bp) encode 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Overall sequences and genome structure of two Asian species were highly similar to that of Limulus polyphemus, though clear differences among three were found in the stem-loop structure of the putative control region. In the phylogenetic analysis with complete mitochondrial genomes of 43 chelicerate species, C. rotundicauda and T. tridentatus were recovered as a monophyly, while L. polyphemus solely formed an independent clade. Xiphosuran species were placed at the basal root of the tree, and major other chelicerate taxa were clustered in a single monophyly, clearly confirming that horseshoe crabs composed an ancestral taxon among chelicerates. By contrast, the phylogenetic tree without the information of Asian horseshoe crabs did not support monophyletic clustering of other chelicerates. In conclusion, our analyses may provide more robust and reliable perspective on the study of evolutionary history for chelicerates than earlier analyses with a single Atlantic species. PMID:24795529

  8. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and Tachypleus tridentatus (Xiphosura, Arthropoda) and Implications for Chelicerate Phylogenetic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Su Youn; Choi, Eun Hwa; Jang, Kuem Hee; Ryu, Shi Hyun; Park, Sang Myeon; Suk, Ho Young; Chang, Cheon Young; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2014-01-01

    Horseshoe crabs (order Xiphosura) are often referred to as an ancient order of marine chelicerates and have been considered as keystone taxa for the understanding of chelicerate evolution. However, the mitochondrial genome of this order is only available from a single species, Limulus polyphemus. In the present study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes from two Asian horseshoe crabs, Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and Tachypleus tridentatus to offer novel data for the evolutionary relationship within Xiphosura and their position in the chelicerate phylogeny. The mitochondrial genomes of C. rotundicauda (15,033 bp) and T. tridentatus (15,006 bp) encode 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Overall sequences and genome structure of two Asian species were highly similar to that of Limulus polyphemus, though clear differences among three were found in the stem-loop structure of the putative control region. In the phylogenetic analysis with complete mitochondrial genomes of 43 chelicerate species, C. rotundicauda and T. tridentatus were recovered as a monophyly, while L. polyphemus solely formed an independent clade. Xiphosuran species were placed at the basal root of the tree, and major other chelicerate taxa were clustered in a single monophyly, clearly confirming that horseshoe crabs composed an ancestral taxon among chelicerates. By contrast, the phylogenetic tree without the information of Asian horseshoe crabs did not support monophyletic clustering of other chelicerates. In conclusion, our analyses may provide more robust and reliable perspective on the study of evolutionary history for chelicerates than earlier analyses with a single Atlantic species. PMID:24795529

  9. Bladder response to acute sacral neuromodulation while treating rats in different phases of complete spinal cord injury: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Fang, Youfang; Yu, Hongliu

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Compared to conventional therapies, sacral neuromodulation (SNM) may offer an alternative, non-destructive treatment for SCI patients with bladder dysfunction. Understanding bladder response to SNM treatment for SCI in different phases may yield new insights for innovative use of this promising technique. Materials and Methods: Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study to examine the effects of acute SNM on bladder reflex in complete SCI rats. All rats were anesthetized and set up for continuous saline infusion. Acute SNM treatment was implemented for about 6 hours for each rat. Cystometric parameters, including time between contractions, contraction duration, bladder peak pressure, and number of uninhibited contractions, were analyzed and compared within rats before and after SNM treatment. Results: For the spinally transected rats during early phase (less than two weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration both increased after SNM treatments, yet the increased amplitude was about or less than 20%. For the spinally transected rats with a longer days survival (about two to four weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration substantially increased after SNM treatment and the changes for their average values were more than 90%. For the spinally transected rats with a much longer days survival (more than five weeks post spinalization), the time between contractions and contraction duration increased after SNM treatments, yet the magnitude of changes were less than 30%. Conclusion: The present study suggested that the significant effectiveness of SNM for complete SCI played its role after the spinal shock phase and prior to the development of detrusor overactivity. It indicated that the time point of SNM treatment is necessary to be paid attention. PMID:26742980

  10. Galaxy simulations: Kinematics and mock observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Christopher E.

    2013-08-01

    spiral galaxies. We recreate minor and major binary mergers, binary merger trees with multiple progenitors, and multiple sequential mergers. Within each of these categories of formation history, we correlate progenitor gas fraction, mass ratio, orbital pericenter, orbital ellipticity, spin, and kinematically decoupled cores with remnant kinematic properties. We find that binary mergers nearly always form fast rotators, but slow rotators can be formed from zero initial angular momentum configurations and gas-poor mergers. Remnants of binary merger trees are triaxial slow rotators. Sequential mergers form round slow rotators that most resemble the ATLAS3D rotators. We investigate the failure of ART and Sunrise simulation to reproduce the observed distribution of galaxies in the UVJ color-color diagram. No simulated galaxies achieve a color with V-J >1.0 while still being in the blue sequence. I systematically study the underlying sub grid models present in Sunrise to diagnose the source of the discrepancy. The experiments were largely unsuccessful in directly isolating the root of the J-band excess attenuation; however, they are instructive and can guide the intuition in terms of understanding the interplay of stellar emission and dust. These experiments were aimed at understanding the role of the underlying sub grid dust and radiation models, varying the dust geometry, and performing numerical studies of the radiation transfer calculation. Finally, I detail the data pipeline responsible for the creation of galaxy mock observations. The pipeline can be broken into the ART simulation raw data, the dark matter merger tree backbone, the format translation using yt, simulation the radiation transfer in Sunrise, and post-processed image treatments resulting. At every step, I detail the execution of the algorithms, the format of the data, and useful scripts for straightforward analysis.

  11. Kinematical and Chemical Vertical Structure of the Galactic Thick Disk. I. Thick Disk Kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moni Bidin, C.; Carraro, G.; Méndez, R. A.

    2012-03-01

    The variation of the kinematical properties of the Galactic thick disk with Galactic height Z is studied by means of 412 red giants observed in the direction of the south Galactic pole up to 4.5 kpc from the plane. We confirm the non-null mean radial motion toward the Galactic anticenter found by other authors, but we find that it changes sign at |Z| = 3 kpc, and the proposed inward motion of the local standard of rest alone cannot explain these observations. The rotational velocity decreases with |Z| by -30 km s-1 kpc-1, but the data are better represented by a power law with index 1.25, similar to that proposed from the analysis of Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. All the velocity dispersions increase with |Z|, but the vertical gradients are small. The dispersions grow proportionally, with no significant variation of the anisotropy. The ratio σU/σW = 2 suggests that the thick disk could have formed from a low-latitude merging event. The vertex deviation increases with Galactic height, reaching ~20° at |Z| = 3.5 kpc. The tilt angle also increases, and the orientation of the ellipsoid in the radial-vertical plane is constantly intermediate between the alignment with the cylindrical and the spherical coordinate systems. The tilt angle at |Z| = 2 kpc coincides with the expectations of MOdified Newtonian Dynamics, but an extension of the calculations to higher |Z| is required to perform a conclusive test. Finally, between 2.5 and 3.5 kpc we detect deviations from the linear trend of many kinematical quantities, suggesting that some kinematical substructure could be present. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal IDs 075.B-0459(A), 077.B-0348(A)). This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan and the duPont Telescopes, located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  12. Kinematics of Baryons Cycling Through Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Nikole M.

    2015-01-01

    In a modern view of galaxy evolution, the baryon cycle is key to understanding the observed global properties of galaxies. Red galaxies passively evolve due to quenching of their star formation, whereas blue galaxies actively evolve, presumably due to a replenishing gas supply. Signatures of the baryon cycle such as IGM accretion, minor mergers, and stellar-driven outflows and fountains are best probed in gaseous halos, i.e., the circumgalactic medium (CGM). We study the spatial and kinematic distribution of the low-ionization metal-enriched CGM with QSO absorption lines for a population of 182 galaxies in the MgII Absorber-Galaxy Catalog (MAGIICAT). We present our findings detailing how the extent and patchiness of the CGM depends on MgII absorption strength, and galaxy luminosity and color. For the first time, we placed the kinematics of 39 MgII absorbers with high-resolution spectra in the context of their host galaxy color, redshift, and orientation. By examining the velocity dispersions of absorbers, we find possible effects of quenching on red galaxies where the velocity dispersions decrease over 2 Gyrs time and are smaller at larger radii. The velocity dispersions for blue galaxies remain constant over time and radius and possibly indicate a sustained flow of baryons feeding star formation. Blue, face-on galaxies probed along the minor axis show the largest velocity dispersions to very high significance. This result provides the strongest direct evidence to date for galactic-scale outflows which, for this orientation, are pointing nearly towards the observer. We discuss how our results place observational constraints on simulations which are just now beginning to accurately model the baryon cycle and its role in galaxy evolution.

  13. Stellar kinematic groups. I - The Ursa Major group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Mayor, Michel

    1993-01-01

    The Ursa Major Group (UMaG) is studied as a test case for the authenticity of Stellar Kinematic Groups, using Coravel radial velocities, recent compilations of astrometric data, and new spectroscopic observations. Spectroscopic age indicators, particularly indices of the strength of chromospheric emission, are applied to solar-type candidate members of UMaG, and it is shown that stars that meet the spectroscopic criteria also have kinematics that agree better with the space motions of the nucleus of UMaG than does the starting sample as a whole. The primary limitation on the precision of kinematics is now parallaxes instead of radial velocities. These more restrictive kinematic criteria are then applied to other UMaG candidates and a list summarizing membership is presented. UMaG is also examined as a cluster, confirming its traditional age of 0.3 Gyr, and a mean Fe/H of -0.08 +/- 0.09 for those stars most likely to be bona fide members.

  14. Kinematic analysis of a flexible six-DOF parallel mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jing, Feng-Shui; Tan, Min; Hou, Zeng-Guang; Liang, Zi-Ze; Wang, Yun-Kuan; Gupta, Madan M; Nikiforuk, Peter N

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, a new type of six-degrees of freedom (DOF) flexible parallel mechanism (FPM) is presented. This type of parallel mechanism possesses several favorable properties: (1) its number of DOFs is independent of the number of serial chains which make up the mechanism; (2) it has no kinematical singularities; (3) it is designed to move on rails, and therefore its workspace is much larger than that of a conventional parallel manipulator; and (4) without changing the number of DOFs and the kinematics of the mechanisms, the number of the serial chains can be reconfigured according to the needs of the tasks. These properties make the mechanism very preferable in practice, especially for such tasks as joining huge ship blocks, in which the manipulated objects vary dramatically both in weights and dimensions. Furthermore, the mechanism can be used as either a fully actuated system or an underactuated system. In the fully actuated case, the mechanism has six DOF motion capabilities and manipulation capabilities. However, in the underactuated case, the mechanism still has six DOF motion capabilities, but it has only five DOF manipulation capabilities. In this paper, both the inverse and forward kinematics are studied and expressed in a closed form. The workspace and singularity analysis of the mechanism are also presented. An example is presented to illustrate how to calculate the kinematics of the mechanism in both fully-actuated and underactuated cases. Finally, an application of such a mechanism to manufacturing industry is introduced. PMID:16602597

  15. Primate Anatomy, Kinematics, and Principles for Humanoid Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.; Ambrose, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    The primate order of animals is investigated for clues in the design of Humanoid Robots. The pursuit is directed with a theory that kinematics, musculature, perception, and cognition can be optimized for specific tasks by varying the proportions of limbs, and in particular, the points of branching in kinematic trees such as the primate skeleton. Called the Bifurcated Chain Hypothesis, the theory is that the branching proportions found in humans may be superior to other animals and primates for the tasks of dexterous manipulation and other human specialties. The primate taxa are defined, contemporary primate evolution hypotheses are critiqued, and variations within the order are noted. The kinematic branching points of the torso, limbs and fingers are studied for differences in proportions across the order, and associated with family and genus capabilities and behaviors. The human configuration of a long waist, long neck, and short arms is graded using a kinematic workspace analysis and a set of design axioms for mobile manipulation robots. It scores well. The re emergence of the human waist, seen in early Prosimians and Monkeys for arboreal balance, but lost in the terrestrial Pongidae, is postulated as benefiting human dexterity. The human combination of an articulated waist and neck will be shown to enable the use of smaller arms, achieving greater regions of workspace dexterity than the larger limbs of Gorillas and other Hominoidea.

  16. Completely autotrophic nitrogen-removal over nitrite in lab-scale constructed wetlands: evidence from a mass balance study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangzhi; Austin, David

    2007-06-01

    A mass-balance study was carried out to investigate the transformation of nitrogenous pollutants in vertical flow wetlands. Landfill leachate containing low BOD, but a high concentration of ammonia, was treated in four wetland columns under predominately aerobic conditions. Influent total nitrogen in the leachate consisted mainly of ammonia with less than 1% nitrate and nitrite, and negligible organic nitrogen. There was a substantial loss of total nitrogen (52%) in one column, whereas other columns exhibited zero to minor losses (<12%). Net nitrogen loss under study conditions was unexpected. Correlations between pH, nitrite and nitrate concentrations indicated the removal of nitrogen under study conditions did not follow the conventional, simplistic, chemistry of autotrophic nitrification. Through mass-balance analysis, it was found that CANON (Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen-removal Over Nitrite) was responsible for the transformation of nitrogen into gaseous form, thereby causing the loss of nitrogen mass. The results show that CANON can be native to aerobic engineered wetland systems treating wastewater that contains high ammonia and low BOD. PMID:17349669

  17. In situ studies of surface of NiFe2O4 catalyst during complete oxidation of methane

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhang, Shiran; Shan, Junjun; Nie, Longhui; Nguyen, Luan; Wu, Zili; Tao, Franklin

    2015-12-21

    Here, NiFe2O4 with an inverse spinel structure exhibits high activity for a complete oxidation of methane at 400 °C–425 °C and a higher temperature. The surface of the catalyst and its adsorbates were well characterized with ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and in situ infrared spectroscopy (IR). In situ studies of the surface of NiFe2O4 using AP-XPS suggest the formation of methoxy-like and formate-like intermediates at a temperature lower than 200 °C, supported by the observed vibrational signatures in in situ IR studies. Evolutions of C1s photoemission features and the nominal atomic ratios of C/(Ni + Fe) of themore » catalyst surface suggest that the formate-like intermediate is transformed to product molecules CO2 and H2O in the temperature range of 250–300 °C. In situ studies suggest the formation of a spectator, – Olattice – CH2 – Olattice –. It strongly bonds to surface through C–O bonds and cannot be activated even at 400 °C.« less

  18. In situ studies of surface of NiFe2O4 catalyst during complete oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shiran; Shan, Junjun; Nie, Longhui; Nguyen, Luan; Wu, Zili; Tao, Franklin (Feng)

    2016-06-01

    NiFe2O4 with an inverse spinel structure exhibits high activity for a complete oxidation of methane at 400 °C-425 °C and a higher temperature. The surface of the catalyst and its adsorbates were well characterized with ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and in situ infrared spectroscopy (IR). In situ studies of the surface of NiFe2O4 using AP-XPS suggest the formation of methoxy-like and formate-like intermediates at a temperature lower than 200 °C, supported by the observed vibrational signatures in in situ IR studies. Evolutions of C1s photoemission features and the nominal atomic ratios of C/(Ni + Fe) of the catalyst surface suggest that the formate-like intermediate is transformed to product molecules CO2 and H2O in the temperature range of 250-300 °C. In situ studies suggest the formation of a spectator, - Olatticesbnd CH2sbnd Olattice -. It strongly bonds to surface through Csbnd O bonds and cannot be activated even at 400 °C.

  19. Reliability and Minimum Detectable Change of Temporal-Spatial, Kinematic, and Dynamic Stability Measures during Perturbed Gait

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures collected during perturbation-based assessment paradigms are often used to identify dysfunction associated with gait instability. However, it remains unclear which measures are most reliable for detecting and tracking responses to perturbations. This study systematically determined the between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values of temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures during three types of perturbed gait. Twenty young healthy adults completed two identical testing sessions two weeks apart, comprised of an unperturbed and three perturbed (cognitive, physical, and visual) walking conditions in a virtual reality environment. Within each session, perturbation responses were compared to unperturbed walking using paired t-tests. Between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values were also calculated for each measure and condition. All temporal-spatial, kinematic variability and dynamic stability measures demonstrated fair to excellent between-session reliability. Minimal detectable change values, normalized to mean values ranged from 1–50%. Step width mean and variability measures demonstrated the greatest response to perturbations with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. Orbital stability measures demonstrated specificity to perturbation direction and sensitivity with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. We observed substantially greater between-session reliability and lower minimum detectable change values for local stability measures than previously described which may be the result of averaging across trials within a session and using velocity versus acceleration data for reconstruction of state spaces. Across all perturbation types, temporal-spatial, orbital and local measures were the most reliable measures with the lowest minimum

  20. How wing kinematics affect power requirements and aerodynamic force production in a robotic bat wing.

    PubMed

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2014-06-01

    Bats display a wide variety of behaviors that require different amounts of aerodynamic force. To control and modulate aerodynamic force, bats change wing kinematics, which, in turn, may change the power required for wing motion. There are many kinematic mechanisms that bats, and other flapping animals, can use to increase aerodynamic force, e.g. increasing wingbeat frequency or amplitude. However, we do not know if there is a difference in energetic cost between these different kinematic mechanisms. To assess the relationship between mechanical power input and aerodynamic force output across different isolated kinematic parameters, we programmed a robotic bat wing to flap over a range of kinematic parameters and measured aerodynamic force and mechanical power. We systematically varied five kinematic parameters: wingbeat frequency, wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle, downstroke ratio, and wing folding. Kinematic values were based on observed values from free flying Cynopterus brachyotis, the species on which the robot was based. We describe how lift, thrust, and power change with increases in each kinematic variable. We compare the power costs associated with generating additional force through the four kinematic mechanisms controlled at the shoulder, and show that all four mechanisms require approximately the same power to generate a given force. This result suggests that no single parameter offers an energetic advantage over the others. Finally, we show that retracting the wing during upstroke reduces power requirements for flapping and increases net lift production, but decreases net thrust production. These results compare well with studies performed on C. brachyotis, offering insight into natural flight kinematics. PMID:24851830

  1. Kinematical analysis of the ejecta created after a catastrophic collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Oro, A.; Cellino, A.; Paolicchi, P.; Tanga, P.

    2014-07-01

    The creation of an asteroid dynamical family as the outcome of a high-energy collision is essentially a two-step process: (1) the hydrodynamical phase, when the colliding system (projectile+target) is partially or completely shattered and the fragments are ejected (with several side effects, such as the creation of a plasma cloud, usually not relevant for the final observable properties); (2) the ballistic phase, when the ejecta collide or are reaccumulated due to the mutual gravity. At the end of this phase, the asteroid family is established, and its observable properties, also after a long time interval of dynamical evolution (including Yarkovsky-driven acceleration of the small members), have significant footprints of this original structure. In turn, this structure depends on the overall properties (mass and velocity distributions) in the beginning of the ballistic phase (D'Abramo et al. 1999, Michel et al. 2004). According to the results of hydrodynamical simulations, most of the ejecta entering the ballistic phase are small (their size is essentially limited by the resolution of the code). A kinematical analysis of their properties may be helpful to clarify several points: 1) How can these small fragments reaccumulate into larger bodies, to create an observable family? If one starts from an expanding field and a set of small fragments, it is not easy to obtain a significant reaccumulation into many bodies; simple kinematical models, such as spherical expansion, but also the less symmetrical geometries defined from the semiempirical models of the 90's, allow essentially a more or less massive reaccumulation into very few bodies (sometimes only the largest remnant). What are the general properties of an ejection field causing a process of reaccumulation able to produce the observational evidence? 2) May some significant results be resolution-dependent? 3) Is it possible to define a general qualitative pattern of the ejecta field, allowing, in principle, to

  2. Alpha-particle capture reactions in inverse kinematics relevant to p-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujić, P.; Lagoyannis, A.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Harissopulos, S.; Demetriou, P.; Perrot, L.; Stodel, Ch.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Kamalou, O.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Spyrou, A.; Amthor, M. A.; Grevy, S.; Caceres, L.; Koivisto, H.; Laitinen, M.; Uusitalo, J.; Julin, R.

    2011-10-01

    The first feasibility study of an α-particle capture reaction in inverse kinematics at energies relevant to the p process was performed at the Wien Filter of the LISE spectrometer at GANIL. Hereby, the 4He(78Kr,γ)82Sr reaction was investigated using as target an 4He-implanted thin Al foil. The analysis of the data has shown that the determination of (α,γ) reaction cross sections at rather low energies around 2 MeV/u in inverse kinematics is indeed feasible regarding the high rejection rate of the primary beam, which in the present work was better than a factor of 109. However, the expected position of the recoils of interest was completely masked by particles of currently unknown origin that could hardly be attributed to scattering of the primary beam. The most probable explanation for the origin of these "pollutants" could be microscopic dust particles of 10 μm diameter and less, that are extremely difficult to avoid in standard experimental conditions. Hence, the use of a gas-jet target instead of a solid one is compulsory.

  3. Milky Way halo gas kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danly, L.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of high resolution, short wavelength absorption data taken by IUE toward high latitude O and B stars are presented in a discussion of the large scale kinematic properties of Milky Way Halo gas. An analysis of these data demonstrates that: (1) the obsrved absorption widths (FWHM) of Si II are very large, ranging up to 150 Km/s for the most distant halo star; this is much larger than is generally appreciated from optical data; (2) the absorption is observed to be systematically negative in radial velocity, indicating that cool material is, on the whole, flowing toward the disk of the galaxy; (3) there is some evidence for asymmetry between the northern and southern galactic hemispheres, in accordance with the HI 21 cm data toward the galactic poles; (4) low column density gas with highly negative radial LSR velocity (V less than -70 km/s) can be found toward stars beyond 1-3 kpc in the northern galactic hemisphere in all four quadrants of galactic longitude; and (5) only the profiles toward stars in the direction of known high velocity HI features show a clear two component structure.

  4. Kinematic modeling of scanner trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevlin, Fergal P.

    1994-12-01

    Satellites are free-moving rigid bodies subject to various external forces which make them deviate from their predetermined positional and rotational trajectories. Since many remote sensing imaging devices use the linear pushbroom scanning model, trajectory deviation during the image scanning period causes geometric distortion in the imagery. Unless actual satellite trajectory during imaging is modeled, accurate rectification of imagery is impossible. A means of recovering the trajectory from known satellite motion is presented here. Rotational motion is usually sensed by gyroscopes which measure angular velocity. Translational motion can be determined in several ways including telemetry analysis and linear accelerometers. In more recent satellites GPS receivers may be used to determine motion data. We show how to interpolate and subsequently integrate angular velocity to yield a rotational trajectory. The screw, implemented as a dual-number quaternion, is shown to be a suitable parameterization of motion to model the trajectory as a kinematic chain. This representation is useful for image geometry analysis and hence for correction of image distortion. Applications of this parameterization to scanned image resampling and rectification are mentioned.

  5. Edge-driven microplate kinematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.; Gallo, David G.

    1993-01-01

    It is known from plate tectonic reconstructions that oceanic microplates undergo rapid rotation about a vertical axis and that the instantaneous rotation axes describing the microplate's motion relative to the bounding major plates are frequently located close to its margins with those plates, close to the tips of propagating rifts. We propose a class of edge-driven block models to illustrate how slip across the microplate margins, block rotation, and propagation of rifting may be related to the relative motion of the plates on either side. An important feature of these edge-driven models is that the instantaneous rotation axes are always located on the margins between block and two bounding plates. According to those models the pseudofaults or traces of disrupted seafloor resulting from the propagation of rifting between microplate and major plates may be used independently to approximately trace the continuous kinematic evolution of the microplate back in time. Pseudofault geometries and matching rotations of the Easter microplate show that for most of its 5 m.y. history, block rotation could be driven by the drag of the Nazca and Pacific plates on the microplate's edges rather than by a shear flow of mantle underneath.

  6. Gefitinib Versus Placebo in Completely Resected Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Results of the NCIC CTG BR19 Study

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Glenwood D.; O'Callaghan, Chris; Lorimer, Ian; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Masters, Gregory A.; Jett, James; Edelman, Martin J.; Lilenbaum, Rogerio; Choy, Hak; Khuri, Fadlo; Pisters, Katherine; Gandara, David; Kernstine, Kemp; Butts, Charles; Noble, Jonathan; Hensing, Thomas A.; Rowland, Kendrith; Schiller, Joan; Ding, Keyue; Shepherd, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Survival of patients with completely resected non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is unsatisfactory, and in 2002, the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy was not established. This phase III study assessed the impact of postoperative adjuvant gefitinib on overall survival (OS). Patients and Methods Patients with completely resected (stage IB, II, or IIIA) NSCLC stratified by stage, histology, sex, postoperative radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive gefitinib 250 mg per day or placebo for 2 years. Study end points were OS, disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity. Results As a result of early closure, 503 of 1,242 planned patients were randomly assigned (251 to gefitinib and 252 to placebo). Baseline factors were balanced between the arms. With a median of 4.7 years of follow-up (range, 0.1 to 6.3 years), there was no difference in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.64; P = .14) or DFS (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.61; P = .15) between the arms. Exploratory analyses demonstrated no DFS (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.76; P = .14) or OS benefit (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.90 to 1.71; P = .18) from gefitinib for 344 patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type tumors. Similarly, there was no DFS (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 0.44 to 7.73; P = .395) or OS benefit (HR, 3.16; 95% CI, 0.61 to 16.45; P = .15) from gefitinib for the 15 patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumors. Adverse events were those expected with an EGFR inhibitor. Serious adverse events occurred in ≤ 5% of patients, except infection, fatigue, and pain. One patient in each arm had fatal pneumonitis. Conclusion Although the trial closed prematurely and definitive statements regarding the efficacy of adjuvant gefitinib cannot be made, these results indicate that it is unlikely to be of benefit. PMID:23980091

  7. An explicit kinematic scenario for the Iapetus and Rheic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domeier, Mat; Torsvik, Trond

    2015-04-01

    The opening of the Rheic Ocean by the rifting of Avalonia, and the subsequent closure of the Iapetus Ocean by means of the three-way continental collision between Laurentia, Baltica and Avalonia, together constitute the most dramatic, defining and well-studied tectonic events of the early Paleozoic. Despite this, modern kinematic models of those interrelated events are still schematic and/or spatiotemporally disjointed. This is in large part due to the fact that: 1.) many of the available models were originally built to explain a specific region (i.e. Northern Appalachians, Northern Ireland and Scotland, Norwegian Caledonides, etc.) and have only been expanded to neighboring regions as a speculative note, and 2.) the models were not constructed upon a rigorous plate tectonic framework, wherein plate boundaries are specified and the kinematics of the entire lithosphere within the domain are explicitly defined through time. Although the lithosphere of the Iapetus and Rheic Oceans was long ago destroyed, the kinematics of those basins can still be surmised through the careful consideration of paleomagnetic data from the continents and terranes formerly flanking those oceans, and from geological observables along their margins. It is thus possible to explore the tectonic evolution of those basins with kinematic models that strictly conform to plate tectonic rules, both in space and time. Such an approach can plainly identify existing kinematic concepts that are tectonically untenable and those that work only in isolation. Here we briefly elaborate on this approach and present the results of a developing full-plate model of the Iapetus and Rheic Oceans for Late Cambrian to end-Silurian time, with a particular focus on the development of the Caledonide margins.

  8. Robotic hand-held surgical device: evaluation of end-effector's kinematics and development of proof-of-concept prototypes.

    PubMed

    Zahraee, Ali Hassan; Szewczyk, Jérome; Paik, Jamie Kyujin; Morel, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    We are working towards the development of a robotic hand-held surgical device for laparoscopic interventions that enhances the surgeons' dexterity. In this paper, the kinematics of the end effector is studied. Different choices of kinematics are compared during an evaluation campaign using a virtual reality simulator to find the optimal one: the Yaw-Roll (YR) kinematics. A proof of concept prototype is made based on the results. PMID:20879429

  9. [Advances on biomechanics and kinematics of sprain of ankle joint].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Gang

    2015-04-01

    Ankle sprains are orthopedic clinical common disease, accounting for joint ligament sprain of the first place. If treatment is not timely or appropriate, the joint pain and instability maybe develop, and even bone arthritis maybe develop. The mechanism of injury of ankle joint, anatomical basis has been fully study at present, and the diagnostic problem is very clear. Along with the development of science and technology, biological modeling and three-dimensional finite element, three-dimensional motion capture system,digital technology study, electromyographic signal study were used for the basic research of sprain of ankle. Biomechanical and kinematic study of ankle sprain has received adequate attention, combined with the mechanism research of ankle sprain,and to explore the the biomechanics and kinematics research progress of the sprain of ankle joint. PMID:26072625

  10. Laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy for complete rectal prolapse: A retrospective study evaluating outcomes in North Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Abhijit; Kumar, Saket; Maurya, Ajeet Pratap; Gupta, Vishal; Gupta, Vivek; Rahul

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the outcomes of laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy in the management of complete rectal prolapse (CRP) in North Indian patients with inherent bulky and redundant colon. METHODS: The study was conducted at a tertiary health care center of North India. Between January 2010 and October 2014, 15 patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral mesh repair for CRP, were evaluated in the present study. Perioperative outcomes, improvement in bowel dysfunction or appearance of new complications were documented from the hospital records maintained prospectively. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (9 female) with a median age of 50 years (range, 15-68) were included in the study. The median operative time was 200 min (range, 180-350 min) and the median post-operative stay was 4 d (range, 3-21 d). No operative mortality occurred. One patient with inadvertent small bowel injury required laparotomy on post-operative day 2. At a median follow-up of 22 mo (range, 4-54 mo), no prolapse recurrence was reported. No mesh-related complication was encountered. Wexner constipation score improved significantly from the preoperative value of 17 (range, 5-24) to 6 (range, 0-23) (P < 0.001) and the fecal incontinence severity index score from 24 (range, 0-53) to 2 (range, 0-53) (P = 0.007). No de novo constipation or fecal incontinence was recorded during the follow-up. On personal conversation, all patients expressed satisfaction with the outcome of their treatment. CONCLUSION: Our experience indicates that laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy is an effective surgical option for CRP in North Indian patients having a bulky redundant colon. PMID:27152139

  11. Alterations in Cortical Sensorimotor Connectivity following Complete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective Resting-State fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Oni-Orisan, Akinwunmi; Kaushal, Mayank; Li, Wenjun; Leschke, Jack; Ward, B Douglas; Vedantam, Aditya; Kalinosky, Benjamin; Budde, Matthew D; Schmit, Brian D; Li, Shi-Jiang; Muqeet, Vaishnavi; Kurpad, Shekar N

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated alterations during task-induced brain activation in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The interruption to structural integrity of the spinal cord and the resultant disrupted flow of bidirectional communication between the brain and the spinal cord might contribute to the observed dynamic reorganization (neural plasticity). However, the effect of SCI on brain resting-state connectivity patterns remains unclear. We undertook a prospective resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) study to explore changes to cortical activation patterns following SCI. With institutional review board approval, rs-fMRI data was obtained in eleven patients with complete cervical SCI (>2 years post injury) and nine age-matched controls. The data was processed using the Analysis of Functional Neuroimages software. Region of interest (ROI) based analysis was performed to study changes in the sensorimotor network using pre- and post-central gyri as seed regions. Two-sampled t-test was carried out to check for significant differences between the two groups. SCI patients showed decreased functional connectivity in motor and sensory cortical regions when compared to controls. The decrease was noted in ipsilateral, contralateral, and interhemispheric regions for left and right precentral ROIs. Additionally, the left postcentral ROI demonstrated increased connectivity with the thalamus bilaterally in SCI patients. Our results suggest that cortical activation patterns in the sensorimotor network undergo dynamic reorganization following SCI. The presence of these changes in chronic spinal cord injury patients is suggestive of the inherent neural plasticity within the central nervous system. PMID:26954693

  12. Alterations in Cortical Sensorimotor Connectivity following Complete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjun; Leschke, Jack; Ward, B. Douglas; Vedantam, Aditya; Kalinosky, Benjamin; Budde, Matthew D.; Schmit, Brian D.; Li, Shi-Jiang; Muqeet, Vaishnavi; Kurpad, Shekar N.

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated alterations during task-induced brain activation in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. The interruption to structural integrity of the spinal cord and the resultant disrupted flow of bidirectional communication between the brain and the spinal cord might contribute to the observed dynamic reorganization (neural plasticity). However, the effect of SCI on brain resting-state connectivity patterns remains unclear. We undertook a prospective resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) study to explore changes to cortical activation patterns following SCI. With institutional review board approval, rs-fMRI data was obtained in eleven patients with complete cervical SCI (>2 years post injury) and nine age-matched controls. The data was processed using the Analysis of Functional Neuroimages software. Region of interest (ROI) based analysis was performed to study changes in the sensorimotor network using pre- and post-central gyri as seed regions. Two-sampled t-test was carried out to check for significant differences between the two groups. SCI patients showed decreased functional connectivity in motor and sensory cortical regions when compared to controls. The decrease was noted in ipsilateral, contralateral, and interhemispheric regions for left and right precentral ROIs. Additionally, the left postcentral ROI demonstrated increased connectivity with the thalamus bilaterally in SCI patients. Our results suggest that cortical activation patterns in the sensorimotor network undergo dynamic reorganization following SCI. The presence of these changes in chronic spinal cord injury patients is suggestive of the inherent neural plasticity within the central nervous system. PMID:26954693

  13. Saybolt universal viscosity converted to kinematic

    SciTech Connect

    Anaya, C.; Bermudez, O.

    1987-09-21

    This article describes a program for personal and handheld computers, written in Basic, which has been developed for the conversion of Saybolt universal viscosity in Saybolt Universal Seconds (SSU or SUS) to kinematic viscosity in centistokes (cSt), at any selected temperature. It was developed using the mathematical relationship presented in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard D2161-82. In the standard, an equation is presented to convert kinematic viscosity to Saybolt universal viscosity, but nothing is presented to convert from Saybolt to kinematic because it is necessary to find the roots of a nonexplicit function. There are several numerical methods that can be used to determine the roots of the nonexplicit function, and therefore, convert Saybolt universal viscosity to kinematic viscosity. In the program, the first iteration of the second-order Newton-Raphson method is followed by the Wegstein method as a convergence accelerator.

  14. An advanced navigational surgery system for dental implants completed in a single visit: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Goo; Lee, Woo-Jin; Lee, Sam-Sun; Heo, Min-Suk; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Choi, Soon-Chul; Kim, Tae-Il; Yi, Won-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have developed an advanced navigational implant surgery system to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional method and have evaluated the accuracy of the system under in vitro environment. The patient splint for registration and tracking was improvised using a bite splint without laboratory work and the offset of an exchanged drill was calibrated directly without pivoting during surgery. The mean target registration errors (TRE) were 0.35 ± 0.11 mm using the registration body, 0.34 ± 0.18 mm for the registration method with prerecorded fiducials, and 0.35 ± 0.16 mm for the direct calibration of a drill offset. The mean positional deviations between the planned and placed implants in 110 implant surgeries were 0.41 ± 0.12 mm at the center point of the platform and 0.56 ± 0.14 mm at the center point of the apex. The mean angular deviation was 2.64°± 1.31 for the long axis of the implant. In conclusion, the developed system exhibited high accuracy, and the improved tools and simplified procedures increased the convenience and availability. With this advanced approach, it will be possible to complete dental implant surgery during a single visit at local clinics using a navigational guidance involving cone-beam computed tomographic images. PMID:25434287

  15. Achieving complete nitrogen removal by coupling nitritation-anammox and methane-dependent denitrification: A model-based study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueming; Guo, Jianhua; Xie, Guo-Jun; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-05-01

    The discovery of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) processes enables the complete nitrogen removal from wastewater by utilizing the methane produced on site from anaerobic digesters. This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient nitrogen removal by coupling nitritation-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) and methane-dependent denitrification in membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs). A mathematical model was applied to describe the microbial interactions among Anammox bacteria, DAMO archaea, and DAMO bacteria. The model sufficiently described the batch experimental data from an MBfR containing an Anammox-DAMO biofilm with different feeding nitrogen compositions, which confirmed the validity of the model. The effects of process parameters on the system performance and microbial community structure could therefore be reliably evaluated. The impacts of nitritation produced NO2 (-) /NH4 (+) ratio, methane supply, biofilm thickness and total nitrogen (TN) surface loading were comprehensively investigated with the model. Results showed that the optimum NO2 (-) /NH4 (+) ratio produced from nitritation for the Anammox-DAMO biofilm system was around 1.0 in order to achieve the maximum TN removal (over 99.0%), independent on TN surface loading. The corresponding optimal methane supply increased while the associated methane utilization efficiency decreased with the increase of TN surface loading. The cooperation between DAMO organisms and Anammox bacteria played the key role in the TN removal. Based on these results, the proof-of-concept feasibility of a single-stage MBfR coupling nitritation-Anammox-DAMO for complete nitrogen removal was also tested through integrating the model with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) processes whilst controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the simulated system. The maximum TN removal was found to be achieved at the bulk DO concentration

  16. Mapping the gas kinematics and ionization structure of four ultraluminous IRAS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilman, R. J.; Crawford, C. S.; Abraham, R. G.

    1999-10-01

    We present a study of the morphology, kinematics and ionization structure of the extended emission-line regions in four intermediate-redshift (0.118kinematics in the hyperluminous system IRAS F20460+1925 lack coherent structure, with a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) >1000kms-1 within 1arcsec of the nucleus, suggesting that any merger is well-advanced. Emission-line intensity ratios point to active galactic nucleus (AGN) photoionization for the excitation of this gas at the systemic velocity. An isolated blob ~8kpc from the nucleus with a much smaller velocity dispersion may lie in a structure similar to the photoionization cones seen in lower-luminosity objects. A second, spatially unresolved, narrow-line component is also present on nucleus, blueshifted by ~=990kms-1 from the systemic and plausibly powered by photoionizing shocks. IRAS F23060+0505 has more ordered kinematics, with a region of increased FWHM coincident with the blue half of a dipolar velocity field. The systemic velocity rotation curve is asymmetric in appearance, as a result either of the on-going merger or of nuclear dust obscuration. From a higher-resolution ISIS spectrum, we attribute the blue asymmetry in the narrow-line profiles to a spatially resolved nuclear outflow. Emission-line intensity ratios suggest shock+precursor ionization for the systemic component, consistent with the X-ray view of a heavily obscured AGN. The lower-luminosity objects IRAS F01217+0122 and F01003-2238 complete the sample. The former has a featureless velocity field with a high FWHM, a high-ionization AGN spectrum and a ~1Gyr old starburst continuum. IRAS F01003-2238 has a dipolar velocity field and an Hii region emission-line spectrum with a strong blue continuum. After correction for intrinsic extinction, the latter can be reproduced with ~107 O5 stars, sufficient to power the bolometric luminosity of the

  17. Effect of Leg Dominance on The Center-of-Mass Kinematics During an Inside-of-the-Foot Kick in Amateur Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Zago, Matteo; Motta, Andrea Francesco; Mapelli, Andrea; Annoni, Isabella; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2014-09-29

    Soccer kicking kinematics has received wide interest in literature. However, while the instep-kick has been broadly studied, only few researchers investigated the inside-of-the-foot kick, which is one of the most frequently performed techniques during games. In particular, little knowledge is available about differences in kinematics when kicking with the preferred and non-preferred leg. A motion analysis system recorded the three-dimensional coordinates of reflective markers placed upon the body of nine amateur soccer players (23.0 ± 2.1 years, BMI 22.2 ± 2.6 kg/m2), who performed 30 pass-kicks each, 15 with the preferred and 15 with the non-preferred leg. We investigated skill kinematics while maintaining a perspective on the complete picture of movement, looking for laterality related differences. The main focus was laid on: anatomical angles, contribution of upper limbs in kick biomechanics, kinematics of the body Center of Mass (CoM), which describes the whole body movement and is related to balance and stability. When kicking with the preferred leg, CoM displacement during the ground-support phase was 13% higher (p<0.001), normalized CoM height was 1.3% lower (p<0.001) and CoM velocity 10% higher (p<0.01); foot and shank velocities were about 5% higher (p<0.01); arms were more abducted (p<0.01); shoulders were rotated more towards the target (p<0.01, 6° mean orientation difference). We concluded that differences in motor control between preferred and non-preferred leg kicks exist, particularly in the movement velocity and upper body kinematics. Coaches can use these results to provide effective instructions to players in the learning process, moving their focus on kicking speed and upper body behavior. PMID:25414739

  18. Cellular Phones Helping to Get a Clearer Picture of Kinematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcao, A. E. G., Jr.; Gomes, R. A.; Pereira, J. M.; Coelho, L. F. S.; Santos, A. C. F.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to add to the list of examples of how cell phones may be used as teaching tools in the classroom. One very interesting example of this comes from the study of projectile motion, the classical "cannon ball" problem. This problem is central to the study of kinematics, the very first topic a student meets in physics.…

  19. Modal kinematics for multisection continuum arms.

    PubMed

    Godage, Isuru S; Medrano-Cerda, Gustavo A; Branson, David T; Guglielmino, Emanuele; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a novel spatial kinematic model for multisection continuum arms based on mode shape functions (MSF). Modal methods have been used in many disciplines from finite element methods to structural analysis to approximate complex and nonlinear parametric variations with simple mathematical functions. Given certain constraints and required accuracy, this helps to simplify complex phenomena with numerically efficient implementations leading to fast computations. A successful application of the modal approximation techniques to develop a new modal kinematic model for general variable length multisection continuum arms is discussed. The proposed method solves the limitations associated with previous models and introduces a new approach for readily deriving exact, singularity-free and unique MSF's that simplifies the approach and avoids mode switching. The model is able to simulate spatial bending as well as straight arm motions (i.e., pure elongation/contraction), and introduces inverse position and orientation kinematics for multisection continuum arms. A kinematic decoupling feature, splitting position and orientation inverse kinematics is introduced. This type of decoupling has not been presented for these types of robotic arms before. The model also carefully accounts for physical constraints in the joint space to provide enhanced insight into practical mechanics and impose actuator mechanical limitations onto the kinematics thus generating fully realizable results. The proposed method is easily applicable to a broad spectrum of continuum arm designs. PMID:25969947

  20. Iterative inverse kinematics with manipulator configuration control

    SciTech Connect

    Grudic, G.Z.; Lawrence, P.D.

    1993-08-01

    A new method, termed the offset modification method (OM method), for solving the manipulator inverse kinematics problem is presented. The OM method works by modifying the link offset values of a manipulator until it is possible to derive closed-form inverse kinematics equations for the resulting manipulator (termed the model manipulator). This procedure allows one to derive a set of three nonlinear equations in three unknowns that, when numerically solved, give an inverse kinematics solution for the original manipulator. The OM method can be applied to manipulators with any number of degrees of freedom, as long as the manipulator satisfies a given set of conditions (Theorem 1). The OM method is tested on a 6-degree-of-freedom manipulator that has no known closed-form inverse kinematics equations. It is shown that the OM method is applicable to real-time manipulator control, can be used to guarantee convergence to a desired endpoint position and orientation (if it exists), and allows one to directly choose which inverse kinematics solution the algorithm will converge to (as specified in the model manipulator closed-form inverse kinematics equations). Applications of the method to other 6-DOF manipulator geometries and to redundant manipulators (i.e. greater than 6 DOF geometries) are discussed.