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Sample records for kinesin-dependent microtubule motility

  1. Chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and diisopropylfluorophosphate inhibit kinesin-dependent microtubule motility

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Debra A. . E-mail: dgearhar@mcg.edu; Sickles, Dale W.; Buccafusco, Jerry J.; Prendergast, Mark A.; Terry, Alvin V.

    2007-01-01

    Diisopropylfluorophosphate, originally developed as a chemical warfare agent, is structurally similar to nerve agents, and chlorpyrifos has extensive worldwide use as an agricultural pesticide. While inhibition of cholinesterases underlies the acute toxicity of these organophosphates, we previously reported impaired axonal transport in the sciatic nerves from rats treated chronically with subthreshold doses of chlorpyrifos. Those data indicate that chlorpyrifos (and/or its active metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon) might directly affect the function of kinesin and/or microtubules-the principal proteins that mediate anterograde axonal transport. The current report describes in vitro assays to assess the concentration-dependent effects of chlorpyrifos (0-10 {mu}M), chlorpyrifos-oxon (0-10 {mu}M), and diisopropylfluorophosphate (0-0.59 nM) on kinesin-dependent microtubule motility. Preincubating bovine brain microtubules with the organophosphates did not alter kinesin-mediated microtubule motility. In contrast, preincubation of bovine brain kinesin with diisopropylfluorophosphate, chlorpyrifos, or chlorpyrifos-oxon produced a concentration-dependent increase in the number of locomoting microtubules that detached from the kinesin-coated glass cover slip. Our data suggest that the organophosphates-chlorpyrifos-oxon, chlorpyrifos, and diisopropylfluorophosphate-directly affect kinesin, thereby disrupting kinesin-dependent transport on microtubules. Kinesin-dependent movement of vesicles, organelles, and other cellular components along microtubules is fundamental to the organization of all eukaryotic cells, especially in neurons where organelles and proteins synthesized in the cell body must move down long axons to pre-synaptic sites in nerve terminals. We postulate that disruption of kinesin-dependent intracellular transport could account for some of the long-term effects of organophosphates on the peripheral and central nervous system.

  2. Rapid Movements of Vimentin on Microtubule Tracks: Kinesin-dependent Assembly of Intermediate Filament Networks

    PubMed Central

    Prahlad, Veena; Yoon, Miri; Moir, Robert D.; Vale, Ronald D.; Goldman, Robert D.

    1998-01-01

    The assembly and maintenance of an extended intermediate filament (IF) network in fibroblasts requires microtubule (MT) integrity. Using a green fluorescent protein–vimentin construct, and spreading BHK-21 cells as a model system to study IF–MT interactions, we have discovered a novel mechanism involved in the assembly of the vimentin IF cytoskeleton. This entails the rapid, discontinuous, and MT-dependent movement of IF precursors towards the peripheral regions of the cytoplasm where they appear to assemble into short fibrils. These precursors, or vimentin dots, move at speeds averaging 0.55 ± 0.24 μm/s. The vimentin dots colocalize with MT and their motility is inhibited after treatment with nocodazole. Our studies further implicate a conventional kinesin in the movement of the vimentin dots. The dots colocalize with conventional kinesin as shown by indirect immunofluorescence, and IF preparations from spreading cells are enriched in kinesin. Furthermore, microinjection of kinesin antibodies into spreading cells prevents the assembly of an extended IF network. These studies provide insights into the interactions between the IF and MT systems. They also suggest a role for conventional kinesin in the distribution of non-membranous protein cargo, and the local regulation of IF assembly. PMID:9763428

  3. Rapid movements of vimentin on microtubule tracks: kinesin-dependent assembly of intermediate filament networks.

    PubMed

    Prahlad, V; Yoon, M; Moir, R D; Vale, R D; Goldman, R D

    1998-10-01

    The assembly and maintenance of an extended intermediate filament (IF) network in fibroblasts requires microtubule (MT) integrity. Using a green fluorescent protein-vimentin construct, and spreading BHK-21 cells as a model system to study IF-MT interactions, we have discovered a novel mechanism involved in the assembly of the vimentin IF cytoskeleton. This entails the rapid, discontinuous, and MT-dependent movement of IF precursors towards the peripheral regions of the cytoplasm where they appear to assemble into short fibrils. These precursors, or vimentin dots, move at speeds averaging 0.55 +/- 0.24 micrometer/s. The vimentin dots colocalize with MT and their motility is inhibited after treatment with nocodazole. Our studies further implicate a conventional kinesin in the movement of the vimentin dots. The dots colocalize with conventional kinesin as shown by indirect immunofluorescence, and IF preparations from spreading cells are enriched in kinesin. Furthermore, microinjection of kinesin antibodies into spreading cells prevents the assembly of an extended IF network. These studies provide insights into the interactions between the IF and MT systems. They also suggest a role for conventional kinesin in the distribution of non-membranous protein cargo, and the local regulation of IF assembly. PMID:9763428

  4. Highly sensitive kinesin-microtubule motility assays using SLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Mikhail; Teng, Kai Wen; Selvin, Paul R.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    We provide an experimental demonstration of Spatial Light Interference Microscopy (SLIM) as a tool for measuring the motion of 25 nm tubulin structures without the use of florescence labels. Compared to intensity imaging methods such as phase contrast or DIC, our imaging technique relies on the ratios of images associated with optically introduced phase shifts, thus implicitly removing background illumination. To demonstrate our new found capabilities, we characterize kinesin-based motility continuously over periods of time where fluorescence would typically photobleach. We exploit this new method to compare the motility of microtubules at low ATP concentrations, with and without the tagging proteins formerly required to perform these studies. Our preliminary results show that the tags have a non-negligible effect on the microtubule motility, slowing the process down by more than 10%.

  5. Purified Kinesin Promotes Vesicle Motility and Induces Active Sliding Between Microtubules In vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, Raul; McNiven, Mark A.; Albanesi, Joseph P.; Murphy, Douglas B.; Kachar, Bechara

    1991-08-01

    We examined the ability of kinesin to support the movement of adrenal medullary chromaffin granules on microtubules in a defined in vitro system. We found that kinesin and ATP are all that is required to support efficient (33% vesicle motility) and rapid (0.4-0.6 μ m/s) translocation of secretory granule membranes on microtubules in the presence of a low-salt motility buffer. Kinesin also induced the formation of microtubule asters in this buffer, with the plus ends of microtubules located at the center of each aster. This observation indicates that kinesin is capable of promoting active sliding between microtubules toward their respective plus ends, a movement analogous to that of anaphase b in the mitotic spindle. The fact that vesicle translocation, microtubule sliding, and microtubule-dependent kinesin ATPase activities are all enhanced in low-salt buffer establishes a functional parallel between this translocator and other motility ATPases, myosin, and dynein.

  6. Metallic Glass Wire Based Localization of Kinesin/Microtubule Bio-molecular Motility System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Sikora, A.; Yaginuma, S.; Nakayama, K. S.; Nakazawa, H.; Umetsu, M.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2014-03-01

    We report electrophoretic accumulation of microtubules along metallic glass (Pd42.5Cu30Ni7.5P20) wires free-standing in solution. Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal filaments. Kinesin is a cytoskeletal motor protein. Functions of these bio-molecules are central to various dynamic cellular processes. Functional artificial organization of bio-molecules is a prerequisite for transferring their native functions into device applications. Fluorescence microscopy at the individual-microtubule level reveals microtubules aligning along the wire axis during the electrophoretic migration. Casein-treated electrodes are effective for releasing trapped microtubules upon removal of the external field. Furthermore, we demonstrate gliding motion of microtubules on kinesin-treated metallic glass wires. The reversible manner in the local adsorption of microtubules, the flexibility of wire electrodes, and the compatibility between the wire electrode and the bio-molecules are beneficial for spatio-temporal manipulation of the motility machinery in 3 dimensions.

  7. Functional localization of kinesin/microtubule-based motility system along metallic glass microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Sikora, A.; Nakayama, K. S.; Nakazawa, H.; Umetsu, M.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2014-10-01

    We report an approach using metallic glass microwires for functional organization of kinesin/microtubule-based molecular motility systems along a quasi-one-dimensional track. The molecular motility system assembled along a metallic glass microwire exhibits the typical kinesin-powered gliding motion of microtubules, while the variance of the gliding direction depends on the wire diameter. As a result of the geometrical boundary condition given by the wire tracks, the angle within which the orientations of gliding microtubules fall becomes narrower for smaller wire diameter. Such behavior supports the feasibility of using microwires as a simple and flexible means of spatial regulation of the molecule-based in-vitro motion. Furthermore, the metallic glass wires interact with microtubules, the negatively charged polyelectrolyte, by creating electric fields. We experimentally demonstrate how the electric field-induced forces act as an additional control parameter in the wire-based manipulation of the molecular motility system.

  8. Motion observation and SPR measurements of kinesin motility on microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, A.; Oliveira, D.; Kim, K.; Liao, A. L.; Umetsu, M.; Adschiri, T.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2012-02-01

    Motor proteins convert chemical energy directly into mechanical work with high efficiency (˜50%). One of these proteins, kinesin, is used in the cell to transport organelles. It ``walks'' along biopolymer tracks called microtubules and, depending on the type, can reach speeds of a few micrometers per second. Kinesin can carry intracellular cargo over long distances against several piconewtons of loads and is barely limited by the cargo size. Motion of streptavidin-coated quantum dots carried by kinesin on microtubules will be presented. We have expressed biotinylated Kinesin-1 using Escherichia coli. Attachment to quantum dots was performed using the strong binding affinity between streptavidin and biotin. Microtubules, labeled with rhodamine, allow visualization by fluorescence microscopy. The measured speed of our kinesin fits well with results found in the literature. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) measurements allow the identification and strength evaluation of bonding. Using this technique, we will present results on the binding between our expressed kinesin and microtubule.

  9. Opposing microtubule motors control motility, morphology and cargo segregation during ER-to-Golgi transport.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna K; Hunt, Sylvie D; Stephens, David J

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that dynein and kinesin motors drive multiple aspects of endosomal function in mammalian cells. These functions include driving motility, maintaining morphology (notably through providing longitudinal tension to support vesicle fission), and driving cargo sorting. Microtubule motors drive bidirectional motility during traffic between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi. Here, we have examined the role of microtubule motors in transport carrier motility, morphology, and domain organization during ER-to-Golgi transport. We show that, consistent with our findings for endosomal dynamics, microtubule motor function during ER-to-Golgi transport of secretory cargo is required for motility, morphology, and cargo sorting within vesicular tubular carriers en route to the Golgi. Our data are consistent with previous findings that defined roles for dynein-1, kinesin-1 (KIF5B) and kinesin-2 in this trafficking step. Our high resolution tracking data identify some intriguing aspects. Depletion of kinesin-1 reduces the number of motile structures seen, which is in line with other findings relating to the role of kinesin-1 in ER export. However, those transport carriers that were produced had a much greater run length suggesting that this motor can act as a brake on anterograde motility. Kinesin-2 depletion did not significantly reduce the number of motile transport carriers but did cause a similar increase in run length. These data suggest that kinesins act as negative regulators of ER-to-Golgi transport. Depletion of dynein not only reduced the number of motile carriers formed but also caused tubulation of carriers similar to that seen for sorting nexin-coated early endosomes. Our data indicated that the previously observed anterograde-retrograde polarity of transport carriers in transit to the Golgi from the ER is maintained by microtubule motor function. PMID:24705013

  10. A genome-wide RNAi screen for microtubule bundle formation and lysosome motility regulation in Drosophila S2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Amber L.; Luan, Chi-Hao; Dusel, Brendon E.; Dunne, Sara Fernandez; Winding, Michael; Dixit, Vishrut J.; Robins, Chloe; Saluk, Jennifer L.; Logan, David J.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Sharma, Manu; Dean, Deborah; Cohen, Andrew R.; Gelfand, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Long-distance intracellular transport of organelles, mRNA, and proteins (“cargo”) occurs along the microtubule cytoskeleton by the action of kinesin and dynein motor proteins; the vast network of factors involved in regulating intracellular cargo transport are still unknown. We capitalize on the Drosophila melanogaster S2 model cell system to monitor lysosome transport along microtubule bundles, which require enzymatically active kinesin-1 motor protein for their formation. We use an automated tracking program and a naïve Bayesian classifier for the multivariate motility data to analyze 15,683 gene phenotypes, and find 98 proteins involved in regulating lysosome motility along microtubules and 48 involved in the formation of microtubule filled processes in S2 cells. We identify innate immunity genes, ion channels and signaling proteins having a role in lysosome motility regulation, and find an unexpected relationship between the dynein motor, Rab7a and lysosome motility regulation. PMID:26774481

  11. Role of fungal dynein in hyphal growth, microtubule organization, spindle pole body motility and nuclear migration.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Turgeon, B G; Yoder, O C; Aist, J R

    1998-06-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-associated motor protein with several putative subcellular functions. Sequencing of the gene (DHC1) for cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain of the filamentous ascomycete, Nectria haematococca, revealed a 4,349-codon open reading frame (interrupted by two introns) with four highly conserved P-loop motifs, typical of cytoplasmic dynein heavy chains. The predicted amino acid sequence is 78.0% identical to the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain of Neurospora crassa, 70.2% identical to that of Aspergillus nidulans and 24.8% identical to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The genomic copy of DHC1 in N. haematococca wild-type strain T213 was disrupted by inserting a selectable marker into the central motor domain. Mutants grew at 33% of the wild-type rate, forming dense compact colonies composed of spiral and highly branched hyphae. Major cytological phenotypes included (1) absence of aster-like arrays of cytoplasmic microtubules focused at the spindle pole bodies of post-mitotic and interphase nuclei, (2) limited post-mitotic nuclear migration, (3) lack of spindle pole body motility at interphase, (4) failure of spindle pole bodies to anchor interphase nuclei, (5) nonuniform distribution of interphase nuclei and (6) small or ephemeral Spitzenkörper at the apices of hyphal tip cells. Microtubule distribution in the apical region of tip cells of the mutant was essentially normal. The nonuniform distribution of nuclei in hyphae resulted primarily from a lack of both post-mitotic nuclear migration and anchoring of interphase nuclei by the spindle pole bodies. The results support the hypothesis that DHC1 is required for the motility and functions of spindle pole bodies, normal secretory vesicle transport to the hyphal apex and normal hyphal tip cell morphogenesis. PMID:9580563

  12. Activation of Ran GTPase by a Legionella Effector Promotes Microtubule Polymerization, Pathogen Vacuole Motility and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rothmeier, Eva; Pfaffinger, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Christine; Harrison, Christopher F.; Grabmayr, Heinrich; Repnik, Urska; Hannemann, Mandy; Wölke, Stefan; Bausch, Andreas; Griffiths, Gareth; Müller-Taubenberger, Annette; Itzen, Aymelt; Hilbi, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    The causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila, uses the Icm/Dot type IV secretion system (T4SS) to form in phagocytes a distinct “Legionella-containing vacuole” (LCV), which intercepts endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking. Proteomics revealed the presence of the small GTPase Ran and its effector RanBP1 on purified LCVs. Here we validate that Ran and RanBP1 localize to LCVs and promote intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Moreover, the L. pneumophila protein LegG1, which contains putative RCC1 Ran guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domains, accumulates on LCVs in an Icm/Dot-dependent manner. L. pneumophila wild-type bacteria, but not strains lacking LegG1 or a functional Icm/Dot T4SS, activate Ran on LCVs, while purified LegG1 produces active Ran(GTP) in cell lysates. L. pneumophila lacking legG1 is compromised for intracellular growth in macrophages and amoebae, yet is as cytotoxic as the wild-type strain. A downstream effect of LegG1 is to stabilize microtubules, as revealed by conventional and stimulated emission depletion (STED) fluorescence microscopy, subcellular fractionation and Western blot, or by microbial microinjection through the T3SS of a Yersinia strain lacking endogenous effectors. Real-time fluorescence imaging indicates that LCVs harboring wild-type L. pneumophila rapidly move along microtubules, while LCVs harboring ΔlegG1 mutant bacteria are stalled. Together, our results demonstrate that Ran activation and RanBP1 promote LCV formation, and the Icm/Dot substrate LegG1 functions as a bacterial Ran activator, which localizes to LCVs and promotes microtubule stabilization, LCV motility as well as intracellular replication of L. pneumophila. PMID:24068924

  13. Glucose regulated proteins 78 and 75 bind to the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility in interphase microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, Hiroko . E-mail: pa2020@art.osaka-med.ac.jp; Yoneda, Masahiko; Hayasaki, Hana; Nakamura, Toshiya; Mori, Hiroshi

    2006-01-20

    The receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM), which is a hyaluronan-binding protein, is a centrosomal and microtubal protein. Here, we have identified two RHAMM-binding proteins, glucose regulated protein (GRP) 78 and GRP75, using co-immunoprecipitation analysis. These two proteins directly bound to glutathione-S-transferase-RHAMM fusion proteins. By double immunostaining, GRP78 and GRP75 colocalized with RHAMM in interphase microtubules, but were separated in mitotic spindles. Prevention of microtubule polymerization by TN-16 and vincristine sulfate induced RHAMM overexpression without a significant change in GRP78/75. Taken together, GRP78/75 and RHAMM complexes may stabilize microtubules in the interphase, associated with a downregulation of RHAMM. These results reveal a new biochemical activity of RHAMM.

  14. Simultaneous Visualization of Peroxisomes and Cytoskeletal Elements Reveals Actin and Not Microtubule-Based Peroxisome Motility in Plants1[w

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Jaideep; Mathur, Neeta; Hülskamp, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Peroxisomes were visualized in living plant cells using a yellow fluorescent protein tagged with a peroxisomal targeting signal consisting of the SKL motif. Simultaneous visualization of peroxisomes and microfilaments/microtubules was accomplished in onion (Allium cepa) epidermal cells transiently expressing the yellow fluorescent protein-peroxi construct, a green fluorescent protein-mTalin construct that labels filamentous-actin filaments, and a green fluorescent protein-microtubule-binding domain construct that labels microtubules. The covisualization of peroxisomes and cytoskeletal elements revealed that, contrary to the reports from animal cells, peroxisomes in plants appear to associate with actin filaments and not microtubules. That peroxisome movement is actin based was shown by pharmacological studies. For this analysis we used onion epidermal cells and various cell types of Arabidopsis including trichomes, root hairs, and root cortex cells exhibiting different modes of growth. In transient onion epidermis assay and in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, an interference with the actin cytoskeleton resulted in progressive loss of saltatory movement followed by the aggregation and a complete cessation of peroxisome motility within 30 min of drug application. Microtubule depolymerization or stabilization had no effect. PMID:11891258

  15. Fission yeast mitochondria are distributed by dynamic microtubules in a motor-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianpeng; Zheng, Fan; Cheung, Martin; Wang, Fengsong; Fu, Chuanhai

    2015-01-01

    The cytoskeleton plays a critical role in regulating mitochondria distribution. Similar to axonal mitochondria, the fission yeast mitochondria are distributed by the microtubule cytoskeleton, but this is regulated by a motor-independent mechanism depending on the microtubule associated protein mmb1p as the absence of mmb1p causes mitochondria aggregation. In this study, using a series of chimeric proteins to control the subcellular localization and motility of mitochondria, we show that a chimeric molecule containing a microtubule binding domain and the mitochondria outer membrane protein tom22p can restore the normal interconnected mitochondria network in mmb1-deletion (mmb1∆) cells. In contrast, increasing the motility of mitochondria by using a chimeric molecule containing a kinesin motor domain and tom22p cannot rescue mitochondria aggregation defects in mmb1∆ cells. Intriguingly a chimeric molecule carrying an actin binding domain and tom22p results in mitochondria associated with actin filaments at the actomyosin ring during mitosis, leading to cytokinesis defects. These findings suggest that the passive motor-independent microtubule-based mechanism is the major contributor to mitochondria distribution in wild type fission yeast cells. Hence, we establish that attachment to microtubules, but not kinesin-dependent movement and the actin cytoskeleton, is required and crucial for proper mitochondria distribution in fission yeast. PMID:26046468

  16. High-resolution tracking of microtubule motility driven by a single kinesin motor.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, F; Brillinger, D; Vale, R D

    1994-01-01

    Kinesin is a microtubule-based motor protein that contains two identical force-generating subunits. The kinesin binding sites along the microtubule lie 8 nm apart (the dimension of the tubulin dimer), which implies that kinesin must translocate a minimum distance of 8 nm per hydrolysis cycle. Measurements of kinesin's microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity (approximately 20 ATP per sec) and velocity of transport (approximately 0.6 micron/sec), however, suggest that the net distance moved per ATP (approximately 30 nm) may be greater than one tubulin dimer under zero load conditions. To explore how kinesin translocates during its ATPase cycle, we constructed a microscope capable of tracking movement with 1-nm resolution at a bandwidth of 200 Hz and used this device to examine microtubule movement driven by a single kinesin motor. Regular stepwise movements were not observed in displacement traces of moving microtubules, although Brownian forces acting on elastic elements within the kinesin motor precluded detection of steps that were < 12 nm. Though individual steps of approximately 16 nm were occasionally observed, their infrequent occurrence suggests that kinesin rarely moves abruptly by distances of two or more tubulin subunits during its ATP hydrolysis cycle. Instead it is more likely that kinesin moves forward by the distance of only a single tubulin subunit under zero load conditions. Images PMID:8183952

  17. Beyond Rab GTPases Legionella activates the small GTPase Ran to promote microtubule polymerization, pathogen vacuole motility, and infection

    PubMed Central

    Hilbi, Hubert; Rothmeier, Eva; Hoffmann, Christine; Harrison, Christopher F

    2014-01-01

    Legionella spp. are amoebae-resistant environmental bacteria that replicate in free-living protozoa in a distinct compartment, the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). Upon transmission of Legionella pneumophila to the lung, the pathogens employ an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to grow in LCVs within alveolar macrophages, thus triggering a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires’ disease. LCV formation is a complex and robust process, which requires the bacterial Icm/Dot type IV secretion system and involves the amazing number of 300 different translocated effector proteins. LCVs interact with the host cell's endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking pathway. Accordingly, in a proteomics approach as many as 12 small Rab GTPases implicated in endosomal and secretory vesicle trafficking were identified and validated as LCV components. Moreover, the small GTPase Ran and its effector protein RanBP1 have been found to decorate the pathogen vacuole. Ran regulates nucleo-cytoplasmic transport, spindle assembly, and cytokinesis, as well as the organization of non-centrosomal microtubules. In L. pneumophila-infected amoebae or macrophages, Ran and RanBP1 localize to LCVs, and the small GTPase is activated by the Icm/Dot substrate LegG1. Ran activation by LegG1 leads to microtubule stabilization and promotes intracellular pathogen vacuole motility and bacterial growth, as well as chemotaxis and migration of Legionella-infected cells. PMID:25496424

  18. Myosin Va bound to phagosomes binds to F-actin and delays microtubule-dependent motility.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, A; Shonn, M A; Redlich, B; Blocker, A; Burkhardt, J K; Yu, H; Hammer, J A; Weiss, D G; Steffen, W; Griffiths, G; Kuznetsov, S A

    2001-09-01

    We established a light microscopy-based assay that reconstitutes the binding of phagosomes purified from mouse macrophages to preassembled F-actin in vitro. Both endogenous myosin Va from mouse macrophages and exogenous myosin Va from chicken brain stimulated the phagosome-F-actin interaction. Myosin Va association with phagosomes correlated with their ability to bind F-actin in an ATP-regulated manner and antibodies to myosin Va specifically blocked the ATP-sensitive phagosome binding to F-actin. The uptake and retrograde transport of phagosomes from the periphery to the center of cells in bone marrow macrophages was observed in both normal mice and mice homozygous for the dilute-lethal spontaneous mutation (myosin Va null). However, in dilute-lethal macrophages the accumulation of phagosomes in the perinuclear region occurred twofold faster than in normal macrophages. Motion analysis revealed saltatory phagosome movement with temporarily reversed direction in normal macrophages, whereas almost no reversals in direction were observed in dilute-lethal macrophages. These observations demonstrate that myosin Va mediates phagosome binding to F-actin, resulting in a delay in microtubule-dependent retrograde phagosome movement toward the cell center. We propose an "antagonistic/cooperative mechanism" to explain the saltatory phagosome movement toward the cell center in normal macrophages. PMID:11553713

  19. A flipped ion pair at the dynein–microtubule interface is critical for dynein motility and ATPase activation

    PubMed Central

    Uchimura, Seiichi; Fujii, Takashi; Takazaki, Hiroko; Ayukawa, Rie; Nishikawa, Yosuke; Minoura, Itsushi; Hachikubo, You; Kurisu, Genji; Sutoh, Kazuo; Kon, Takahide; Namba, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    Dynein is a motor protein that moves on microtubules (MTs) using the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis. To understand its motility mechanism, it is crucial to know how the signal of MT binding is transmitted to the ATPase domain to enhance ATP hydrolysis. However, the molecular basis of signal transmission at the dynein–MT interface remains unclear. Scanning mutagenesis of tubulin identified two residues in α-tubulin, R403 and E416, that are critical for ATPase activation and directional movement of dynein. Electron cryomicroscopy and biochemical analyses revealed that these residues form salt bridges with the residues in the dynein MT-binding domain (MTBD) that work in concert to induce registry change in the stalk coiled coil and activate the ATPase. The R403-E3390 salt bridge functions as a switch for this mechanism because of its reversed charge relative to other residues at the interface. This study unveils the structural basis for coupling between MT binding and ATPase activation and implicates the MTBD in the control of directional movement. PMID:25583999

  20. Gene expression profiles in mouse embryo fibroblasts lacking stathmin, a microtubule regulatory protein, reveal changes in the expression of genes contributing to cell motility

    PubMed Central

    Ringhoff, Danielle N; Cassimeris, Lynne

    2009-01-01

    Background Stathmin (STMN1) protein functions to regulate assembly of the microtubule cytoskeleton by destabilizing microtubule polymers. Stathmin over-expression has been correlated with cancer stage progression, while stathmin depletion leads to death of some cancer cell lines in culture. In contrast, stathmin-null mice are viable with minor axonopathies and loss of innate fear response. Several stathmin binding partners, in addition to tubulin, have been shown to affect cell motility in culture. To expand our understanding of stathmin function in normal cells, we compared gene expression profiles, measured by microarray and qRT-PCR, of mouse embryo fibroblasts isolated from STMN1+/+ and STMN1-/- mice to determine the transcriptome level changes present in the genetic knock-out of stathmin. Results Microarray analysis of STMN1 loss at a fold change threshold of ≥ 2.0 revealed expression changes for 437 genes, of which 269 were up-regulated and 168 were down-regulated. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression demonstrated changes in the message levels for STMN4, encoding RB3, a protein related to stathmin, and in alterations to many tubulin isotype mRNAs. KEGG Pathway analysis of the microarray data indicated changes to cell motility-related genes, and qRT-PCR plates specific for focal adhesion and ECM proteins generally confirmed the microarray data. Several microtubule assembly regulators and motors were also differentially regulated in STMN1-/- cells, but these changes should not compensate for loss of stathmin. Conclusion Approximately 50% of genes up or down regulated (at a fold change of ≥ 2) in STMN1-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts function broadly in cell adhesion and motility. These results support models indicating a role for stathmin in regulating cell locomotion, but also suggest that this functional activity may involve changes to the cohort of proteins expressed in the cell, rather than as a direct consequence of stathmin

  1. The Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Protein P6 Forms Motile Inclusions That Traffic along Actin Microfilaments and Stabilize Microtubules1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Phillip A.; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Yu, Weichang; Schoelz, James E.; Nelson, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    The gene VI product (P6) of Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) is a multifunctional protein known to be a major component of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies formed during CaMV infection. Although these inclusions are known to contain virions and are thought to be sites of translation from the CaMV 35S polycistronic RNA intermediate, the precise role of these bodies in the CaMV infection cycle remains unclear. Here, we examine the functionality and intracellular location of a fusion between P6 and GFP (P6-GFP). We initially show that the ability of P6-GFP to transactivate translation is comparable to unmodified P6. Consequently, our work has direct application for the large body of literature in which P6 has been expressed ectopically and its functions characterized. We subsequently found that P6-GFP forms highly motile cytoplasmic inclusion bodies and revealed through fluorescence colocalization studies that these P6-GFP bodies associate with the actin/endoplasmic reticulum network as well as microtubules. We demonstrate that while P6-GFP inclusions traffic along microfilaments, those associated with microtubules appear stationary. Additionally, inhibitor studies reveal that the intracellular movement of P6-GFP inclusions is sensitive to the actin inhibitor, latrunculin B, which also inhibits the formation of local lesions by CaMV in Nicotiana edwardsonii leaves. The motility of P6 along microfilaments represents an entirely new property for this protein, and these results imply a role for P6 in intracellular and cell-to-cell movement of CaMV. PMID:19028879

  2. Microtubule dynamics and organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogterom, Marileen

    2000-03-01

    Microtubules are rigid biopolymers found in all higher order cells. They are a mayor part of the cytoskeleton, the network of protein polymers that gives the cell its shape and rigidity and allows for various forms of (intra)cellular motility. The intracellular spatial organization of the microtubule network is constantly changing as the microtubules adapt to their different functions. In part, this spatial organization depends on the assembly dynamics (including microtubule nucleation) and forces generated by the microtubules themselves. To understand these mechanisms, we study the physical aspects connected with the assembly, force generation and spatial organization of microtubules in simplified model systems, in the absence of other cellular components. We measure the forces generated by individual microtubules by making them grow against a microfabricated barrier. These experiments show that a single microtubule can generate at least several picoNewton of force, comparable to what is known for motor proteins. Theoretical modeling of force-generation by multi-protofilament polymers is used to predict force-velocity relations that can be compared to experimental data. We study the self-organization of microtubules by confining them to microfabricated chambers that mimic the geometry of living cells. The distribution of microtubule nucleation sites in these chambers is controlled to study its effect on the organization of the microtubule network. We find that so-called microtubule asters position themselves in response to forces generated by dynamic microtubules. Experiments aimed at measuring the forces acting on these asters using optical trapping techniques will be described.

  3. Do prokaryotes contain microtubules?

    PubMed Central

    Bermudes, D; Hinkle, G; Margulis, L

    1994-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules are 24-nm-diameter tubular structures composed of a class of conserved proteins called tubulin. They are involved in numerous cell functions including ciliary motility, nerve cell elongation, pigment migration, centrosome formation, and chromosome movement. Although cytoplasmic tubules and fibers have been observed in bacteria, some with diameters similar to those of eukaryotes, no homologies to eukaryotic microtubules have been established. Certain groups of bacteria including azotobacters, cyanobacteria, enteric bacteria, and spirochetes have been frequently observed to possess microtubule-like structures, and others, including archaebacteria, have been shown to be sensitive to drugs that inhibit the polymerization of microtubules. Although little biochemical or molecular biological information is available, the differences observed among these prokaryotic structures suggest that their composition generally differs among themselves as well as from that of eukaryotes. We review the distribution of cytoplasmic tubules in prokaryotes, even though, in all cases, their functions remain unknown. At least some tend to occur in cells that are large, elongate, and motile, suggesting that they may be involved in cytoskeletal functions, intracellular motility, or transport activities comparable to those performed by eukaryotic microtubules. In Escherichia coli, the FtsZ protein is associated with the formation of a ring in the division zone between the newly forming offspring cells. Like tubulin, FtsZ is a GTPase and shares with tubulin a 7-amino-acid motif, making it a promising candidate in which to seek the origin of tubulins. Images PMID:7968920

  4. Do prokaryotes contain microtubules?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bermudes, D.; Hinkle, G.; Margulis, L.

    1994-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, microtubules are 24-nm-diameter tubular structures composed of a class of conserved proteins called tubulin. They are involved in numerous cell functions including ciliary motility, nerve cell elongation, pigment migration, centrosome formation, and chromosome movement. Although cytoplasmic tubules and fibers have been observed in bacteria, some with diameters similar to those of eukaryotes, no homologies to eukaryotic microtubules have been established. Certain groups of bacteria including azotobacters, cyanobacteria, enteric bacteria, and spirochetes have been frequently observed to possess microtubule-like structures, and others, including archaebacteria, have been shown to be sensitive to drugs that inhibit the polymerization of microtubules. Although little biochemical or molecular biological information is available, the differences observed among these prokaryotic structures suggest that their composition generally differs among themselves as well as from that of eukaryotes. We review the distribution of cytoplasmic tubules in prokaryotes, even though, in all cases, their functions remain unknown. At least some tend to occur in cells that are large, elongate, and motile, suggesting that they may be involved in cytoskeletal functions, intracellular motility, or transport activities comparable to those performed by eukaryotic microtubules. In Escherichia coli, the FtsZ protein is associated with the formation of a ring in the division zone between the newly forming offspring cells. Like tubulin, FtsZ is a GTPase and shares with tubulin a 7-amino-acid motif, making it a promising candidate in which to seek the origin of tubulins.

  5. Nonlinear ionic pulses along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Sekulić, D L; Satarić, B M; Tuszynski, J A; Satarić, M V

    2011-05-01

    Microtubules are cylindrically shaped cytoskeletal biopolymers that are essential for cell motility, cell division and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigate their polyelectrolyte character that plays a very important role in ionic transport throughout the intra-cellular environment. The model we propose demonstrates an essentially nonlinear behavior of ionic currents which are guided by microtubules. These features are primarily due to the dynamics of tubulin C-terminal tails which are extended out of the surface of the microtubule cylinder. We also demonstrate that the origin of nonlinearity stems from the nonlinear capacitance of each tubulin dimer. This brings about conditions required for the creation and propagation of solitonic ionic waves along the microtubule axis. We conclude that a microtubule plays the role of a biological nonlinear transmission line for ionic currents. These currents might be of particular significance in cell division and possibly also in cognitive processes taking place in nerve cells. PMID:21604102

  6. Microtubule Severing Stymied by Free Tubulin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer; Bailey, Megan

    2015-03-01

    Proper organization of the microtubule cytoskeletal network is required to perform many necessary cellular functions including mitosis, cell development, and cell motility. Network organization is achieved through filament remodeling by microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) that control microtubule dynamics. MAPs that stabilize are relatively well understood, while less is known about destabilizing MAPs, such as severing enzymes. Katanin, the first-discovered microtubule-severing enzyme, is a AAA + enzyme that oligomerizes into hexamers and uses ATP hydrolysis to sever microtubules. Using quantitative fluorescence imaging on reconstituted microtubule severing assays in vitro we investigate how katanin can regulate microtubule dynamics. Interestingly, we find microtubule dynamics inhibits katanin severing activity; dynamic microtubules are not severed. Using systematic experiments introducing free tubulin into the assays we find that free tubulin can compete for microtubule filaments for the katanin proteins. Our work indicates that katanin could function best on stabile microtubules or stabile regions of microtubules in cells in regions where free tubulin is sequesters, low, or depleted.

  7. In Vitro Microtubule and Motor Protein Motion on Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, A. L.; Sikora, A.; Oliveira, D.; Kim, K.; Umetsu, M.; Adschiri, T.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2011-10-01

    The intracellular microtubule associated protein kinesin uses adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an energy source for unidirectional and processive motion on a microtubule filament. In a cell, kinesin motor proteins function as transporters for organelles, macromolecules and various particles. To study the related processes in vitro, we have performed rhodamine-labeled microtubule gliding assays and kinesin-coated quantum dot motility assays on glass surfaces. Motility is observed by fluorescence microscopy. Results from these two assays, as well as the effect of ATP concentration on kinesin velocity will be presented. We will discuss how we use these assays for the manipulation of microtubules on a surface, thus enabling specific particle distribution by kinesin.

  8. How Dynein Moves Along Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Bhabha, Gira; Johnson, Graham T; Schroeder, Courtney M; Vale, Ronald D

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein, a member of the AAA (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities) family of proteins, drives the processive movement of numerous intracellular cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. Here, we summarize the structural and motile properties of dynein and highlight features that distinguish this motor from kinesin-1 and myosin V, two well-studied transport motors. Integrating information from recent crystal and cryoelectron microscopy structures, as well as high-resolution single-molecule studies, we also discuss models for how dynein biases its movement in one direction along a microtubule track, and present a movie that illustrates these principles. PMID:26678005

  9. Molecular motor driven transportation on microtubule loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Aurelien; Federici, Filippo; Kim, Kyongwan; Nakazawa, Hikaru; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Hwang, Wonmuk; Teizer, Winfried

    2015-03-01

    Molecular motors such as kinesin are naturally fitted for the transport of cargo. By offering an unlimited path, microtubule loops allow the study of kinesin motility on distances exceeding that offered by a single microtubule. Moreover, the periodicity of the path allows the comparisons of trajectories between laps. Here we study the motility of quantum dot labeled kinesin on microtubule loops. Motility of kinesins over multiple laps is observed and their trajectories are extracted from kymograph using a custom algorithm. Distribution of velocities at given locations do not vary randomly but show a correlation with the presence of obstacles. Possible mechanisms responsible for the long range transport are discussed in the context of available theories.

  10. Cellulose-Microtubule Uncoupling Proteins Prevent Lateral Displacement of Microtubules during Cellulose Synthesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zengyu; Schneider, Rene; Kesten, Christopher; Zhang, Yi; Somssich, Marc; Zhang, Youjun; Fernie, Alisdair R; Persson, Staffan

    2016-08-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth and is the major contributor to plant morphogenesis. Cellulose is synthesized by plasma membrane-localized cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs). Nascent cellulose microfibrils become entangled in the cell wall, and further catalysis therefore drives the CSC forward through the membrane: a process guided by cortical microtubules via the protein CSI1/POM2. Still, it is unclear how the microtubules can withstand the forces generated by the motile CSCs to effectively direct CSC movement. Here, we identified a family of microtubule-associated proteins, the cellulose synthase-microtubule uncouplings (CMUs), that located as static puncta along cortical microtubules. Functional disruption of the CMUs caused lateral microtubule displacement and compromised microtubule-based guidance of CSC movement. CSCs that traversed the microtubules interacted with the microtubules via CSI1/POM2, which prompted the lateral microtubule displacement. Hence, we have revealed how microtubules can withstand the propulsion of the CSCs during cellulose biosynthesis and thus sustain anisotropic plant cell growth. PMID:27477947

  11. Mechanism of microtubule array expansion in the cytokinetic phragmoplast

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Takashi; Sano, Toshio; Sasabe, Michiko; Nonaka, Shigenori; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Machida, Yasunori; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2013-01-01

    In land plants, the cell plate partitions the daughter cells at cytokinesis. The cell plate initially forms between daughter nuclei and expands centrifugally until reaching the plasma membrane. The centrifugal development of the cell plate is driven by the centrifugal expansion of the phragmoplast microtubule array, but the molecular mechanism underlying this expansion is unknown. Here, we show that the phragmoplast array comprises stable microtubule bundles and dynamic microtubules. We find that the dynamic microtubules are nucleated by γ-tubulin on stable bundles. The dynamic microtubules elongate at the plus ends and form new bundles preferentially at the leading edge of the phragmoplast. At the same time, they are moved away from the cell plate, maintaining a restricted distribution of minus ends. We propose that cycles of attachment of γ-tubulin complexes onto the microtubule bundles, microtubule nucleation and bundling, accompanied by minus-end-directed motility, drive the centrifugal development of the phragmoplast. PMID:23770826

  12. Statistical physical models of cellular motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banigan, Edward J.

    Cellular motility is required for a wide range of biological behaviors and functions, and the topic poses a number of interesting physical questions. In this work, we construct and analyze models of various aspects of cellular motility using tools and ideas from statistical physics. We begin with a Brownian dynamics model for actin-polymerization-driven motility, which is responsible for cell crawling and "rocketing" motility of pathogens. Within this model, we explore the robustness of self-diffusiophoresis, which is a general mechanism of motility. Using this mechanism, an object such as a cell catalyzes a reaction that generates a steady-state concentration gradient that propels the object in a particular direction. We then apply these ideas to a model for depolymerization-driven motility during bacterial chromosome segregation. We find that depolymerization and protein-protein binding interactions alone are sufficient to robustly pull a chromosome, even against large loads. Next, we investigate how forces and kinetics interact during eukaryotic mitosis with a many-microtubule model. Microtubules exert forces on chromosomes, but since individual microtubules grow and shrink in a force-dependent way, these forces lead to bistable collective microtubule dynamics, which provides a mechanism for chromosome oscillations and microtubule-based tension sensing. Finally, we explore kinematic aspects of cell motility in the context of the immune system. We develop quantitative methods for analyzing cell migration statistics collected during imaging experiments. We find that during chronic infection in the brain, T cells run and pause stochastically, following the statistics of a generalized Levy walk. These statistics may contribute to immune function by mimicking an evolutionarily conserved efficient search strategy. Additionally, we find that naive T cells migrating in lymph nodes also obey non-Gaussian statistics. Altogether, our work demonstrates how physical

  13. Preparation of Segmented Microtubules to Study Motions Driven by the Disassembling Microtubule Ends

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vladimir A.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L.

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule depolymerization can provide force to transport different protein complexes and protein-coated beads in vitro. The underlying mechanisms are thought to play a vital role in the microtubule-dependent chromosome motions during cell division, but the relevant proteins and their exact roles are ill-defined. Thus, there is a growing need to develop assays with which to study such motility in vitro using purified components and defined biochemical milieu. Microtubules, however, are inherently unstable polymers; their switching between growth and shortening is stochastic and difficult to control. The protocols we describe here take advantage of the segmented microtubules that are made with the photoablatable stabilizing caps. Depolymerization of such segmented microtubules can be triggered with high temporal and spatial resolution, thereby assisting studies of motility at the disassembling microtubule ends. This technique can be used to carry out a quantitative analysis of the number of molecules in the fluorescently-labeled protein complexes, which move processively with dynamic microtubule ends. To optimize a signal-to-noise ratio in this and other quantitative fluorescent assays, coverslips should be treated to reduce nonspecific absorption of soluble fluorescently-labeled proteins. Detailed protocols are provided to take into account the unevenness of fluorescent illumination, and determine the intensity of a single fluorophore using equidistant Gaussian fit. Finally, we describe the use of segmented microtubules to study microtubule-dependent motions of the protein-coated microbeads, providing insights into the ability of different motor and nonmotor proteins to couple microtubule depolymerization to processive cargo motion. PMID:24686554

  14. Micropatterning microtubules.

    PubMed

    Portran, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The following protocol describes a method to control the orientation and polarity of polymerizing microtubules (MTs). Reconstitution of specific geometries of dynamic MT networks is achieved using a ultraviolet (UV) micropatterning technique in combination with stabilized MT microseeds. The process is described in three main parts. First, the surface is passivated to avoid the non-specific absorption of proteins, using different polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based surface treatment. Second, specific adhesive surfaces (the micropatterns) are imprinted through a photomask using deep UVs. Lastly, MT microseeds are adhered to the micropatterns followed by MT polymerization. PMID:24484656

  15. Microtubules, MAPs, and motor patterns.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, Kasimira T; Ross, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Cells have an amazing ability to self-organize and rearrange their interiors. Such morphology changes are essential to cell development, division, and motility. The core of a cell's internal organization lies with the cytoskeleton made of both microtubule and actin filaments with their associated proteins and ATP-utilizing enzymes. Despite years of in vitro reconstitution experiments, we still do not fully understand how the cytoskeleton can self-organize. In an attempt to create a simple system of self-organization, we have used a simple filament-gliding assay to examine how kinesin-1-driven motion of microtubules can generate cell-like organization in the presence of excess filaments and antiparallel cross-linkers. PMID:25997340

  16. A genetic analysis of microtubule assembly and function in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, F.; Guenette, S.; Kirkpatrick, D.; Praitis, V.; Weinstein, B.; Archer, J.

    1993-12-31

    The major goal of our laboratory`s research is to understand how cells organize their cytoskeletons to produce motility: specific patterns of shape change, intracellular motility and locomotion. We focus primarily on microtubules. We appreciate that results from several laboratories including our own, suggest that microtubule function is expressed in part through interactions with other elements of the cytoskeleton and other cellular compartments, such as the plasma membrane. However, focusing on microtubules represents a justifiable reduction, since a wide variety of drug interference and localization experiments support the notion that intact microtubules are essential for each of these motile phenomena. The primary problem facing this field is understanding how microtubule structure and function is regulated in vivo. Although there are a variety of excellent experimental systems which permit detailed analyses of behavior in vitro, the extrapolation of these results to the situation in the cytoplasm is problematic. These efforts have been boosted significantly in the last several years by two advances: first, traditionally excellent genetic organisms, such as the yeasts, have been enlisted in the study of motility; second, molecular biology has enabled {open_quotes}pseudo-genetic{close_quotes} approaches in animal cells which display the most interesting of motile phenomena. Our laboratory is involved in both of these efforts. In the present report, we will summarize our present approaches using yeast.

  17. Bidirectional motility of the fission yeast kinesin-5, Cut7

    SciTech Connect

    Edamatsu, Masaki

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Motile properties of Cut7 (fission yeast kinesin-5) were studied for the first time. • Half-length Cut7 moved toward plus-end direction of microtubule. • Full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end direction of microtubule. • N- and C-terminal microtubule binding sites did not switch the motile direction. - Abstract: Kinesin-5 is a homotetrameric motor with its motor domain at the N-terminus. Kinesin-5 crosslinks microtubules and functions in separating spindle poles during mitosis. In this study, the motile properties of Cut7, fission yeast kinesin-5, were examined for the first time. In in vitro motility assays, full-length Cut7 moved toward minus-end of microtubules, but the N-terminal half of Cut7 moved toward the opposite direction. Furthermore, additional truncated constructs lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal regions, but still contained the motor domain, did not switch the motile direction. These indicated that Cut7 was a bidirectional motor, and microtubule binding regions at the N-terminus and C-terminus were not involved in its directionality.

  18. Host microtubule plus-end binding protein CLASP1 influences sequential steps in the Trypanosoma cruzi infection process

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Kumar, Praveen; Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Caradonna, Kacey L.; Galjart, Niels; Teygong, Crystal; Blader, Ira; Wittmann, Torsten; Burleigh, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian cell invasion by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi involves host cell microtubule dynamics. Microtubules support kinesin-dependent anterograde trafficking of host lysosomes to the cell periphery where targeted lysosome exocytosis elicits remodeling of the plasma membrane and parasite invasion. Here, a novel role for microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) in the coordination of T. cruzi trypomastigote internalization and post-entry events is reported. Acute silencing of CLASP1, a +TIP that participates in microtubule stabilization at the cell periphery, impairs trypomastigote internalization without diminishing the capacity for calcium-regulated lysosome exocytosis. Subsequent fusion of the T. cruzi vacuole with host lysosomes and its juxtanuclear positioning are also delayed in CLASP1-depleted cells. These post-entry phenotypes correlate with a generalized impairment of minus-end directed transport of lysosomes in CLASP1 knockdown cells and mimic the effects of dynactin disruption. Consistent with GSK3β acting as a negative regulator of CLASP function, inhibition of GSK3β activity enhances T. cruzi entry in a CLASP1-dependent manner and expression of constitutively active GSK3β dampens infection. This study provides novel molecular insights into the T. cruzi infection process, emphasizing functional links between parasite-elicited signaling, host microtubule plus-end tracking proteins and dynein-based retrograde transport. Highlighted in this work is a previously unrecognized role for CLASPs in dynamic lysosome positioning, an important aspect of the nutrient sensing response in mammalian cells. PMID:23107073

  19. Host microtubule plus-end binding protein CLASP1 influences sequential steps in the Trypanosoma cruzi infection process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Kumar, Praveen; Shah-Simpson, Sheena; Caradonna, Kacey L; Galjart, Niels; Teygong, Crystal; Blader, Ira; Wittmann, Torsten; Burleigh, Barbara A

    2013-04-01

    Mammalian cell invasion by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi involves host cell microtubule dynamics. Microtubules support kinesin-dependent anterograde trafficking of host lysosomes to the cell periphery where targeted lysosome exocytosis elicits remodelling of the plasma membrane and parasite invasion. Here, a novel role for microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) in the co-ordination of T. cruzi trypomastigote internalization and post-entry events is reported. Acute silencing of CLASP1, a +TIP that participates in microtubule stabilization at the cell periphery, impairs trypomastigote internalization without diminishing the capacity for calcium-regulated lysosome exocytosis. Subsequent fusion of the T. cruzi vacuole with host lysosomes and its juxtanuclear positioning are also delayed in CLASP1-depleted cells. These post-entry phenotypes correlate with a generalized impairment of minus-end directed transport of lysosomes in CLASP1 knock-down cells and mimic the effects of dynactin disruption. Consistent with GSK3β acting as a negative regulator of CLASP function, inhibition of GSK3β activity enhances T. cruzi entry in a CLASP1-dependent manner and expression of constitutively active GSK3β dampens infection. This study provides novel molecular insights into the T. cruzi infection process, emphasizing functional links between parasite-elicited signalling, host microtubule plus-end tracking proteins and dynein-based retrograde transport. Highlighted in this work is a previously unrecognized role for CLASPs in dynamic lysosome positioning, an important aspect of the nutrient sensing response in mammalian cells. PMID:23107073

  20. Organization of microtubules in cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Furness, D N; Hackney, C M; Steyger, P S

    1990-07-01

    The organization of microtubules in hair cells of the guinea-pig cochlea has been investigated using transmission electron microscopy and correlated with the location of tubulin-associated immunofluorescence in surface preparations of the organ of Corti. Results from both techniques reveal consistent distributions of microtubules in inner and outer hair cells. In the inner hair cells, microtubules are most concentrated in the apex. Reconstruction from serial sections shows three main groups: firstly, in channels through the cuticular plate and in a discontinuous belt around its upper perimeter; secondly, forming a ring inside a rim extending down from the lower perimeter of the plate; and thirdly, in a meshwork underlying the main body of the plate. In the cell body, microtubules line the inner face of the subsurface cistern and extend longitudinally through a tubulo-vesicular track between the apex and base. In outer hair cells, the pattern of microtubules associated with the cuticular plate is similar, although there are fewer present than in inner hair cells. In outer hair cells from the apex of the cochlea, microtubules occur around an infracuticular protrusion of cuticular plate material. In the cell body, many more microtubules occur in the region below the nucleus compared with inner hair cells. The possible functions of microtubules in hair cells are discussed by comparison with those found in other systems. These include morphogenesis and maintenance of cell shape; intracellular transport, e.g., of neurotransmitter vesicles; providing a possible substrate for motility; mechanical support of structures associated with sensory transduction. PMID:2197374

  1. Microtubule doublets are double-track railways for intraflagellar transport trains.

    PubMed

    Stepanek, Ludek; Pigino, Gaia

    2016-05-01

    The cilium is a large macromolecular machine that is vital for motility, signaling, and sensing in most eukaryotic cells. Its conserved core structure, the axoneme, contains nine microtubule doublets, each comprising a full A-microtubule and an incomplete B-microtubule. However, thus far, the function of this doublet geometry has not been understood. We developed a time-resolved correlative fluorescence and three-dimensional electron microscopy approach to investigate the dynamics of intraflagellar transport (IFT) trains, which carry ciliary building blocks along microtubules during the assembly and disassembly of the cilium. Using this method, we showed that each microtubule doublet is used as a bidirectional double-track railway: Anterograde IFT trains move along B-microtubules, and retrograde trains move along A-microtubules. Thus, the microtubule doublet geometry provides direction-specific rails to coordinate bidirectional transport of ciliary components. PMID:27151870

  2. Tensile stress stimulates microtubule outgrowth in living cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaverina, Irina; Krylyshkina, Olga; Beningo, Karen; Anderson, Kurt; Wang, Yu-Li; Small, J. Victor

    2002-01-01

    Cell motility is driven by the sum of asymmetric traction forces exerted on the substrate through adhesion foci that interface with the actin cytoskeleton. Establishment of this asymmetry involves microtubules, which exert a destabilising effect on adhesion foci via targeting events. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a mechano-sensing mechanism that signals microtubule polymerisation and guidance of the microtubules towards adhesion sites under increased stress. Stress was applied either by manipulating the body of cells moving on glass with a microneedle or by stretching a flexible substrate that cells were migrating on. We propose a model for this mechano-sensing phenomenon whereby microtubule polymerisation is stimulated and guided through the interaction of a microtubule tip complex with actin filaments under tension.

  3. The Shape of Motile Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Keren, Kinneret

    2010-01-01

    Motile cells — fan-like keratocytes, hand-shaped nerve growth cones, polygonal fibroblasts, to name but a few — come in different shapes and sizes. We discuss the origins of this diversity as well as what shape tells us about the physics and biochemistry underlying cell movement. We start with geometric rules describing cell-edge kinetics that govern cell shape, followed by a discussion of the underlying biophysics; we consider actin treadmilling, actin–myosin contraction, cell-membrane deformations, adhesion, and the complex interactions between these modules, as well as their regulation by microtubules and Rho GTPases. Focusing on several different cell types, including keratocytes and fibroblasts, we discuss how dynamic cell morphology emerges from the interplay between the different motility modules and the environment. PMID:19906578

  4. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time

    PubMed Central

    Carlier-Grynkorn, Frédérique; Ji, Liang; Fraisier, Vincent; Lombard, Berangère; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Paoletti, Anne; Ronot, Xavier; Tran, Phong T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1+, a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ) primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics. PMID:24928430

  5. Fission yeast mtr1p regulates interphase microtubule cortical dwell-time.

    PubMed

    Carlier-Grynkorn, Frédérique; Ji, Liang; Fraisier, Vincent; Lombard, Berangère; Dingli, Florent; Loew, Damarys; Paoletti, Anne; Ronot, Xavier; Tran, Phong T

    2014-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton plays important roles in cell polarity, motility and division. Microtubules inherently undergo dynamic instability, stochastically switching between phases of growth and shrinkage. In cells, some microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and molecular motors can further modulate microtubule dynamics. We present here the fission yeast mtr1(+), a new regulator of microtubule dynamics that appears to be not a MAP or a motor. mtr1-deletion (mtr1Δ) primarily results in longer microtubule dwell-time at the cell tip cortex, suggesting that mtr1p acts directly or indirectly as a destabilizer of microtubules. mtr1p is antagonistic to mal3p, the ortholog of mammalian EB1, which stabilizes microtubules. mal3Δ results in short microtubules, but can be partially rescued by mtr1Δ, as the double mutant mal3Δ mtr1Δ exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant. By sequence homology, mtr1p is predicted to be a component of the ribosomal quality control complex. Intriguingly, deletion of a predicted ribosomal gene, rps1801, also resulted in longer microtubule dwell-time similar to mtr1Δ. The double-mutant mal3Δ rps1801Δ also exhibits longer microtubules than mal3Δ single mutant alone. Our study suggests a possible involvement of mtr1p and the ribosome complex in modulating microtubule dynamics. PMID:24928430

  6. Microtubules, Tubulins and Associated Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raxworthy, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews much of what is known about microtubules, which are biopolymers consisting predominantly of subunits of the globular protein, tubulin. Describes the functions of microtubules, their structure and assembly, microtube associated proteins, and microtubule-disrupting agents. (TW)

  7. Microtubule teardrop patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okeyoshi, Kosuke; Kawamura, Ryuzo; Yoshida, Ryo; Osada, Yoshihito

    2015-03-01

    Several strategies for controlling microtubule patterns are developed because of the rigidity determined from the molecular structure and the geometrical structure. In contrast to the patterns in co-operation with motor proteins or associated proteins, microtubules have a huge potential for patterns via their intrinsic flexural rigidity. We discover that a microtubule teardrop pattern emerges via self-assembly under hydrodynamic flow from the parallel bundles without motor proteins. In the growth process, the bundles ultimately bend according to the critical bending curvature. Such protein pattern formation utilizing the intrinsic flexural rigidity will provide broad understandings of self-assembly of rigid rods, not only in biomolecules, but also in supramolecules.

  8. Inhibition of microtubule dynamics impedes repair of kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury and increases fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Jun; Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Jee In; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton is composed of α-tubulin and β-tubulin heterodimers, and it serves to regulate the shape, motility, and division of a cell. Post-translational modifications including acetylation are closely associated with the functional aspects of the microtubule, involving in a number of pathological diseases. However, the role of microtubule acetylation in acute kidney injury (AKI) and progression of AKI to chronic kidney disease have yet to be understood. In this study, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), a major cause of AKI, resulted in deacetylation of the microtubules with a decrease in α-tubulin acetyltransferase 1 (α-TAT1). Paclitaxel (taxol), an agent that stabilizes microtubules by tubulin acetylation, treatment during the recovery phase following I/R injury inhibited tubular cell proliferation, impaired renal functional recovery, and worsened fibrosis. Taxol induced α-tubulin acetylation and post-I/R cell cycle arrest. Taxol aggregated the microtubule in the cytoplasm, resulting in suppression of microtubule dynamics. Our studies have demonstrated for the first time that I/R induced deacetylation of the microtubules, and that inhibition of microtubule dynamics retarded repair of injured tubular epithelial cells leading to an acceleration of fibrosis. This suggests that microtubule dynamics plays an important role in the processes of repair and fibrosis after AKI. PMID:27270990

  9. Stabilizing versus Destabilizing the Microtubules: A Double-Edge Sword for an Effective Cancer Treatment Option?

    PubMed Central

    Fanale, Daniele; Bronte, Giuseppe; Passiglia, Francesco; Calò, Valentina; Castiglia, Marta; Di Piazza, Florinda; Barraco, Nadia; Cangemi, Antonina; Catarella, Maria Teresa; Insalaco, Lavinia; Listì, Angela; Maragliano, Rossella; Massihnia, Daniela; Perez, Alessandro; Toia, Francesca; Cicero, Giuseppe; Bazan, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are dynamic and structural cellular components involved in several cell functions, including cell shape, motility, and intracellular trafficking. In proliferating cells, they are essential components in the division process through the formation of the mitotic spindle. As a result of these functions, tubulin and microtubules are targets for anticancer agents. Microtubule-targeting agents can be divided into two groups: microtubule-stabilizing, and microtubule-destabilizing agents. The former bind to the tubulin polymer and stabilize microtubules, while the latter bind to the tubulin dimers and destabilize microtubules. Alteration of tubulin-microtubule equilibrium determines the disruption of the mitotic spindle, halting the cell cycle at the metaphase-anaphase transition and, eventually, resulting in cell death. Clinical application of earlier microtubule inhibitors, however, unfortunately showed several limits, such as neurological and bone marrow toxicity and the emergence of drug-resistant tumor cells. Here we review several natural and synthetic microtubule-targeting agents, which showed antitumor activity and increased efficacy in comparison to traditional drugs in various preclinical and clinical studies. Cryptophycins, combretastatins, ombrabulin, soblidotin, D-24851, epothilones and discodermolide were used in clinical trials. Some of them showed antiangiogenic and antivascular activity and others showed the ability to overcome multidrug resistance, supporting their possible use in chemotherapy. PMID:26484003

  10. Inhibition of microtubule dynamics impedes repair of kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury and increases fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Jun; Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Jee In; Park, Kwon Moo

    2016-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton is composed of α-tubulin and β-tubulin heterodimers, and it serves to regulate the shape, motility, and division of a cell. Post-translational modifications including acetylation are closely associated with the functional aspects of the microtubule, involving in a number of pathological diseases. However, the role of microtubule acetylation in acute kidney injury (AKI) and progression of AKI to chronic kidney disease have yet to be understood. In this study, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), a major cause of AKI, resulted in deacetylation of the microtubules with a decrease in α-tubulin acetyltransferase 1 (α-TAT1). Paclitaxel (taxol), an agent that stabilizes microtubules by tubulin acetylation, treatment during the recovery phase following I/R injury inhibited tubular cell proliferation, impaired renal functional recovery, and worsened fibrosis. Taxol induced α-tubulin acetylation and post-I/R cell cycle arrest. Taxol aggregated the microtubule in the cytoplasm, resulting in suppression of microtubule dynamics. Our studies have demonstrated for the first time that I/R induced deacetylation of the microtubules, and that inhibition of microtubule dynamics retarded repair of injured tubular epithelial cells leading to an acceleration of fibrosis. This suggests that microtubule dynamics plays an important role in the processes of repair and fibrosis after AKI. PMID:27270990

  11. α-Synuclein Oligomers Impair Neuronal Microtubule-Kinesin Interplay*

    PubMed Central

    Prots, Iryna; Veber, Vanesa; Brey, Stefanie; Campioni, Silvia; Buder, Katrin; Riek, Roland; Böhm, Konrad J.; Winner, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Early α-synuclein (α-Syn)-induced alterations are neurite pathologies resulting in Lewy neurites. α-Syn oligomers are a toxic species in synucleinopathies and are suspected to cause neuritic pathology. To investigate how α-Syn oligomers may be linked to aberrant neurite pathology, we modeled different stages of α-Syn aggregation in vitro and investigated the interplay of α-Syn aggregates with proteins involved in axonal transport. The interaction of wild type α-Syn (WTS) and α-Syn variants (E57K, A30P, and aSyn(30–110)) with kinesin, tubulin, and the microtubule (MT)-associated proteins, MAP2 and Tau, is stronger for multimers than for monomers. WTS seeds but not α-Syn oligomers significantly and dose-dependently reduced Tau-promoted MT assembly in vitro. In contrast, MT gliding velocity across kinesin-coated surfaces was significantly decreased in the presence of α-Syn oligomers but not WTS seeds or fibrils (aSyn(30–110) multimers). In a human dopaminergic neuronal cell line, mild overexpression of the oligomerizing E57K α-Syn variant significantly impaired neurite network morphology without causing profound cell death. In accordance with these findings, MT stability, neuritic kinesin, and neuritic kinesin-dependent cargoes were significantly reduced by the presence of α-Syn oligomers. In summary, different α-Syn species act divergently on the axonal transport machinery. These findings provide new insights into α-Syn oligomer-driven neuritic pathology as one of the earliest events in synucleinopathies. PMID:23744071

  12. Modulation of host microtubule dynamics by pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Girish K.; Splitter, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is a vulnerable target of many microbial pathogens during the course of infection. Rearrangements of host cytoskeleton benefit microbes in various stages of their infection cycle such as invasion, motility, and persistence. Bacterial pathogens deliver a number of effector proteins into host cells for modulating the dynamics of actin and microtubule cytoskeleton. Alteration of the actin cytoskeleton is generally achieved by bacterial effectors that target the small GTPases of the host. Modulation of microtubule dynamics involves direct interaction of effector proteins with the subunits of microtubules or recruiting cellular proteins that affect microtubule dynamics. This review will discuss effector proteins from animal and human bacterial pathogens that either destabilize or stabilize host micro-tubules to advance the infectious process. A compilation of these research findings will provide an overview of known and unknown strategies used by various bacterial effectors to modulate the host microtubule dynamics. The present review will undoubtedly help direct future research to determine the mechanisms of action of many bacterial effector proteins and contribute to understanding the survival strategies of diverse adherent and invasive bacterial pathogens. PMID:23585820

  13. Microtubule acetylation promotes kinesin-1 binding and transport.

    PubMed

    Reed, Nathan A; Cai, Dawen; Blasius, T Lynne; Jih, Gloria T; Meyhofer, Edgar; Gaertig, Jacek; Verhey, Kristen J

    2006-11-01

    Long-distance intracellular delivery is driven by kinesin and dynein motor proteins that ferry cargoes along microtubule tracks . Current models postulate that directional trafficking is governed by known biophysical properties of these motors-kinesins generally move to the plus ends of microtubules in the cell periphery, whereas cytoplasmic dynein moves to the minus ends in the cell center. However, these models are insufficient to explain how polarized protein trafficking to subcellular domains is accomplished. We show that the kinesin-1 cargo protein JNK-interacting protein 1 (JIP1) is localized to only a subset of neurites in cultured neuronal cells. The mechanism of polarized trafficking appears to involve the preferential recognition of microtubules containing specific posttranslational modifications (PTMs) by the kinesin-1 motor domain. Using a genetic approach to eliminate specific PTMs, we show that the loss of a single modification, alpha-tubulin acetylation at Lys-40, influences the binding and motility of kinesin-1 in vitro. In addition, pharmacological treatments that increase microtubule acetylation cause a redirection of kinesin-1 transport of JIP1 to nearly all neurite tips in vivo. These results suggest that microtubule PTMs are important markers of distinct microtubule populations and that they act to control motor-protein trafficking. PMID:17084703

  14. Forces from the rear: deformed microtubules in neuronal growth cones influence retrograde flow and advancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Philipp; Heine, Paul; Goettgens, Barbara; Käs, Josef A.

    2013-01-01

    The directed motility of growth cones at the tip of neuronal processes is a key function in neuronal path-finding and relies on a complex system of interacting cytoskeletal components. Despite intensive research in this field, many aspects of the mechanical roles of actin structures and, in particular, of microtubules throughout this process remain unclear. Mostly, force generation is ascribed to actin-myosin-based structures such as filopodia bundles and the dynamic polymer gel within the lamellipodium. Our analysis of microtubule buckling and deformation in motile growth cones reveals that extending microtubule filaments contribute significantly to the overall protrusion force. In this study, we establish a relationship of the local variations in stored bending energy and deformation characteristics to growth cone morphology and retrograde actin flow. This implies the relevance of microtubule pushing and deformation for general neurite advancement as well as steering processes.

  15. Molecular modeling of oscillating GHz electric field influence on the kinesin affinity to microtubule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R. Saeidi, H.; S. Setayandeh, S.; Lohrasebi, A.

    2015-08-01

    Kinesin is a microtubule-associated motor protein which can respond to the external electric field due to its polarity. Using a molecular dynamics simulation method, the effect of such a field on the affinity of kinesin to the αβ-tubulin is investigated in this study. To consider kinesin affinity, the system is exposed to an electric field of 0.03 V/nm with frequency values of 1, 2, …, 9, and 10 GHz. It is found that the applied electric field can change kinesin affinity to the microtubule. These changes could perturb the normal operation of kinesin, such as the processive motility of kinesin on the microtubule.

  16. Rapid Actin-Dependent Viral Motility in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Joshua C.; Brandenburg, Boerries; Hogle, James M.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2009-01-01

    During the course of an infection, viruses take advantage of a variety of mechanisms to travel in cells, ranging from diffusion within the cytosol to active transport along cytoskeletal filaments. To study viral motility within the intrinsically heterogeneous environment of the cell, we have developed a motility assay that allows for the global and unbiased analysis of tens of thousands of virus trajectories in live cells. Using this assay, we discovered that poliovirus exhibits anomalously rapid intracellular movement that was independent of microtubules, a common track for fast and directed cargo transport. Such rapid motion, with speeds of up to 5 μm/s, allows the virus particles to quickly explore all regions of the cell with the exception of the nucleus. The rapid, microtubule-independent movement of poliovirus was observed in multiple human-derived cell lines, but appeared to be cargo-specific. Other cargo, including a closely related picornavirus, did not exhibit similar motility. Furthermore, the motility is energy-dependent and requires an intact actin cytoskeleton, suggesting an active transport mechanism. The speed of this microtubule-independent but actin-dependent movement is nearly an order of magnitude faster than the fastest speeds reported for actin-dependent transport in animal cells, either by actin polymerization or by myosin motor proteins. PMID:19751669

  17. An ELMO2-RhoG-ILK network modulates microtubule dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Bradley C.; Ivanova, Iordanka A.; Dagnino, Lina

    2015-01-01

    ELMO2 belongs to a family of scaffold proteins involved in phagocytosis and cell motility. ELMO2 can simultaneously bind integrin-linked kinase (ILK) and RhoG, forming tripartite ERI complexes. These complexes are involved in promoting β1 integrin–dependent directional migration in undifferentiated epidermal keratinocytes. ELMO2 and ILK have also separately been implicated in microtubule regulation at integrin-containing focal adhesions. During differentiation, epidermal keratinocytes cease to express integrins, but ERI complexes persist. Here we show an integrin-independent role of ERI complexes in modulation of microtubule dynamics in differentiated keratinocytes. Depletion of ERI complexes by inactivating the Ilk gene in these cells reduces microtubule growth and increases the frequency of catastrophe. Reciprocally, exogenous expression of ELMO2 or RhoG stabilizes microtubules, but only if ILK is also present. Mechanistically, activation of Rac1 downstream from ERI complexes mediates their effects on microtubule stability. In this pathway, Rac1 serves as a hub to modulate microtubule dynamics through two different routes: 1) phosphorylation and inactivation of the microtubule-destabilizing protein stathmin and 2) phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β, which leads to the activation of CRMP2, promoting microtubule growth. At the cellular level, the absence of ERI species impairs Ca2+-mediated formation of adherens junctions, critical to maintaining mechanical integrity in the epidermis. Our findings support a key role for ERI species in integrin-independent stabilization of the microtubule network in differentiated keratinocytes. PMID:25995380

  18. Cytoplasmic streaming in Drosophila oocytes varies with kinesin activity and correlates with the microtubule cytoskeleton architecture

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Sujoy; Williams, Lucy S.; Palacios, Isabel M.; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-01-01

    Cells can localize molecules asymmetrically through the combined action of cytoplasmic streaming, which circulates their fluid contents, and specific anchoring mechanisms. Streaming also contributes to the distribution of nutrients and organelles such as chloroplasts in plants, the asymmetric position of the meiotic spindle in mammalian embryos, and the developmental potential of the zygote, yet little is known quantitatively about the relationship between streaming and the motor activity which drives it. Here we use Particle Image Velocimetry to quantify the statistical properties of Kinesin-dependent streaming during mid-oogenesis in Drosophila. We find that streaming can be used to detect subtle changes in Kinesin activity and that the flows reflect the architecture of the microtubule cytoskeleton. Furthermore, based on characterization of the rheology of the cytoplasm in vivo, we establish estimates of the number of Kinesins required to drive the observed streaming. Using this in vivo data as the basis of a model for transport, we suggest that the disordered character of transport at mid-oogenesis, as revealed by streaming, is an important component of the localization dynamics of the body plan determinant oskar mRNA. PMID:22949706

  19. A Structural Basis for How Motile Cilia Beat

    PubMed Central

    Satir, Peter; Heuser, Thomas; Sale, Winfield S.

    2014-01-01

    The motile cilium is a mechanical wonder, a cellular nanomachine that produces a high-speed beat based on a cycle of bends that move along an axoneme made of 9+2 microtubules. The molecular motors, dyneins, power the ciliary beat. The dyneins are compacted into inner and outer dynein arms, whose activity is highly regulated to produce microtubule sliding and axonemal bending. The switch point hypothesis was developed long ago to account for how sliding in the presence of axonemal radial spoke–central pair interactions causes the ciliary beat. Since then, a new genetic, biochemical, and structural complexity has been discovered, in part, with Chlamydomonas mutants, with high-speed, high-resolution analysis of movement and with cryoelectron tomography. We stand poised on the brink of new discoveries relating to the molecular control of motility that extend and refine our understanding of the basic events underlying the switching of arm activity and of bend formation and propagation. PMID:26955066

  20. Genotoxicity of inorganic lead salts and disturbance of microtubule function.

    PubMed

    Bonacker, Daniela; Stoiber, Thomas; Böhm, Konrad J; Prots, Irina; Wang, Minsheng; Unger, Eberhard; Thier, Ricarda; Bolt, Hermann M; Degen, Gisela H

    2005-05-01

    Lead compounds are known genotoxicants, principally affecting the integrity of chromosomes. Lead chloride and lead acetate induced concentration-dependent increases in micronucleus frequency in V79 cells, starting at 1.1 microM lead chloride and 0.05 microM lead acetate. The difference between the lead salts, which was expected based on their relative abilities to form complex acetato-cations, was confirmed in an independent experiment. CREST analyses of the micronuclei verified that lead chloride and acetate were predominantly aneugenic (CREST-positive response), which was consistent with the morphology of the micronuclei (larger micronuclei, compared with micronuclei induced by a clastogenic mechanism). The effects of high concentrations of lead salts on the microtubule network of V79 cells were also examined using immunofluorescence staining. The dose effects of these responses were consistent with the cytotoxicity of lead(II), as visualized in the neutral-red uptake assay. In a cell-free system, 20-60 microM lead salts inhibited tubulin assembly dose-dependently. The no-observed-effect concentration of lead(II) in this assay was 10 microM. This inhibitory effect was interpreted as a shift of the assembly/disassembly steady-state toward disassembly, e.g., by reducing the concentration of assembly-competent tubulin dimers. The effects of lead salts on microtubule-associated motor-protein functions were studied using a kinesin-gliding assay that mimics intracellular transport processes in vitro by quantifying the movement of paclitaxel-stabilized microtubules across a kinesin-coated glass surface. There was a dose-dependent effect of lead nitrate on microtubule motility. Lead nitrate affected the gliding velocities of microtubules starting at concentrations above 10 microM and reached half-maximal inhibition of motility at about 50 microM. The processes reported here point to relevant interactions of lead with tubulin and kinesin at low dose levels. PMID:15657921

  1. Lis1 restricts the conformational changes in cytoplasmic dynein on microtubules.

    PubMed

    Toba, Shiori; Koyasako, Kotaro; Yasunaga, Takuo; Hirotsune, Shinji

    2015-12-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based motor protein that transports intracellular cargo and performs various functions during cell division. We previously reported that Lis1 suppressed dynein motility on microtubules in an idling state. Recently, a model showed that Lis1 prevents the ATPase domain of dynein from transmitting a detachment signal to its microtubule-binding domain. However, conformational information on dynein is limited. We used electron microscopy to investigate the conformation of dynein and nucleotide-induced conformational changes on microtubules. The conformation of dynein differed depending on the presence or absence of a nucleotide. In the presence of the nucleotide ADP-vanadate, dynein displayed an extended form on microtubules (extended form), whereas in the absence of a nucleotide, dynein lay along microtubules (compact form). This conformational change reflects chemomechanical coupling in dynein walking on microtubules. We also found that Lis1 fixed the conformation of dynein in the compact form regardless of the nucleotide condition. Removal of the Lis1 dimerization motif abolished Lis1-dependent fixation of dynein in the compact form. This suggests that the idling state of dynein on microtubules induced by Lis1 occurs through the Lis1-dependent arrest of dynein chemomechanical coupling. PMID:26371280

  2. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-01-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ∼95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes. PMID:27251117

  3. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-06-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ~95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes.

  4. Active diffusion and microtubule-based transport oppose myosin forces to position organelles in cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Congping; Schuster, Martin; Guimaraes, Sofia Cunha; Ashwin, Peter; Schrader, Michael; Metz, Jeremy; Hacker, Christian; Gurr, Sarah Jane; Steinberg, Gero

    2016-01-01

    Even distribution of peroxisomes (POs) and lipid droplets (LDs) is critical to their role in lipid and reactive oxygen species homeostasis. How even distribution is achieved remains elusive, but diffusive motion and directed motility may play a role. Here we show that in the fungus Ustilago maydis ∼95% of POs and LDs undergo diffusive motions. These movements require ATP and involve bidirectional early endosome motility, indicating that microtubule-associated membrane trafficking enhances diffusion of organelles. When early endosome transport is abolished, POs and LDs drift slowly towards the growing cell end. This pole-ward drift is facilitated by anterograde delivery of secretory cargo to the cell tip by myosin-5. Modelling reveals that microtubule-based directed transport and active diffusion support distribution, mobility and mixing of POs. In mammalian COS-7 cells, microtubules and F-actin also counteract each other to distribute POs. This highlights the importance of opposing cytoskeletal forces in organelle positioning in eukaryotes. PMID:27251117

  5. Actin–microtubule coordination at growing microtubule ends

    PubMed Central

    López, Magdalena Preciado; Huber, Florian; Grigoriev, Ilya; Steinmetz, Michel O.; Akhmanova, Anna; Koenderink, Gijsje H.; Dogterom, Marileen

    2014-01-01

    To power dynamic processes in cells, the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons organize into complex structures. Although it is known that cytoskeletal coordination is vital for cell function, the mechanisms by which cross-linking proteins coordinate actin and microtubule activities remain poorly understood. In particular, it is unknown how the distinct mechanical properties of different actin architectures modulate the outcome of actin–microtubule interactions. To address this question, we engineered the protein TipAct, which links growing microtubule ends via end-binding proteins to actin filaments. We show that growing microtubules can be captured and guided by stiff actin bundles, leading to global actin–microtubule alignment. Conversely, growing microtubule ends can transport, stretch and bundle individual actin filaments, thereby globally defining actin filament organization. Our results provide a physical basis to understand actin–microtubule cross-talk, and reveal that a simple cross-linker can enable a mechanical feedback between actin and microtubule organization that is relevant to diverse biological contexts. PMID:25159196

  6. Stathmin Activity Influences Sarcoma Cell Shape, Motility, and Metastatic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Belletti, Barbara; Nicoloso, Milena S.; Schiappacassi, Monica; Berton, Stefania; Lovat, Francesca; Wolf, Katarina; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; D'Andrea, Sara; Zucchetto, Antonella; Friedl, Peter; Colombatti, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    The balanced activity of microtubule-stabilizing and -destabilizing proteins determines the extent of microtubule dynamics, which is implicated in many cellular processes, including adhesion, migration, and morphology. Among the destabilizing proteins, stathmin is overexpressed in different human malignancies and has been recently linked to the regulation of cell motility. The observation that stathmin was overexpressed in human recurrent and metastatic sarcomas prompted us to investigate stathmin contribution to tumor local invasiveness and distant dissemination. We found that stathmin stimulated cell motility in and through the extracellular matrix (ECM) in vitro and increased the metastatic potential of sarcoma cells in vivo. On contact with the ECM, stathmin was negatively regulated by phosphorylation. Accordingly, a less phosphorylable stathmin point mutant impaired ECM-induced microtubule stabilization and conferred a higher invasive potential, inducing a rounded cell shape coupled with amoeboid-like motility in three-dimensional matrices. Our results indicate that stathmin plays a significant role in tumor metastasis formation, a finding that could lead to exploitation of stathmin as a target of new antimetastatic drugs. PMID:18305103

  7. How to measure microtubule dynamics?

    PubMed

    Straube, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Microtubules are one of the most spectacular features in the cell: long, fairly rigid tubules that provide physical strength while at the same time serving as tracks of the intracellular transport network. In addition, they are the main constituents of the cell division machinery, and guide axonal growth and the direction of cell migration. To be able to fulfil such diverse functions, microtubules have to be arranged into suitable patterns and remodelled according to extra- and intracellular cues. Moreover, the delicate regulation of microtubule dynamics and the dynamic interactions with subcellular structures, such as kinetochores or cell adhesion sites, appear to be of crucial importance to microtubule functions. It is, therefore, important to understand microtubule dynamics and its spatiotemporal regulation at the molecular level. In this chapter, I introduce the concept of microtubule dynamics and discuss the techniques that can be employed to study microtubule dynamics in vitro and in cells, for many of which detailed protocols can be found in this volume. Microtubule dynamics is traditionally assessed by the four parameters of dynamic instability: growth and shrinkage rates, rescue and catastrophe frequencies, sometimes supplemented by pause duration. I discuss emerging issues with and alternatives to this parameter description of microtubule dynamics. PMID:21773917

  8. Physical Modeling of Microtubules Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allain, Pierre; Kervrann, Charles

    2014-10-01

    Microtubules (MT) are highly dynamic tubulin polymers that are involved in many cellular processes such as mitosis, intracellular cell organization and vesicular transport. Nevertheless, the modeling of cytoskeleton and MT dynamics based on physical properties is difficult to achieve. Using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, we propose to model the rigidity of microtubules on a physical basis using forces, mass and acceleration. In addition, we link microtubules growth and shrinkage to the presence of molecules (e.g. GTP-tubulin) in the cytosol. The overall model enables linking cytosol to microtubules dynamics in a constant state space thus allowing usage of data assimilation techniques.

  9. Serotonin and colonic motility.

    PubMed

    Kendig, D M; Grider, J R

    2015-07-01

    The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) in gastrointestinal motility has been studied for over 50 years. Most of the 5-HT in the body resides in the gut wall, where it is located in subsets of mucosal cells (enterochromaffin cells) and neurons (descending interneurons). Many studies suggest that 5-HT is important to normal and dysfunctional gut motility and drugs affecting 5-HT receptors, especially 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, have been used clinically to treat motility disorders; however, cardiovascular side effects have limited the use of these drugs. Recently studies have questioned the importance and necessity of 5-HT in general and mucosal 5-HT in particular for colonic motility. Recent evidence suggests the importance of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors for initiation and generation of one of the key colonic motility patterns, the colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC), in rat. The findings suggest that 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are differentially involved in two different types of rat CMMCs: the long distance contraction (LDC) and the rhythmic propulsive motor complex (RPMC). The understanding of the role of serotonin in colonic motility has been influenced by the specific motility pattern(s) studied, the stimulus used to initiate the motility (spontaneous vs induced), and the route of administration of drugs. All of these considerations contribute to the understanding and the controversy that continues to surround the role of serotonin in the gut. PMID:26095115

  10. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2013-09-01

    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  11. Chromosome position at the spindle equator is regulated by chromokinesin and a bipolar microtubule array.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Jun; Itabashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Kazuya; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    The chromosome alignment is mediated by polar ejection and poleward forces acting on the chromosome arm and kinetochores, respectively. Although components of the motile machinery such as chromokinesin have been characterized, their dynamics within the spindle is poorly understood. Here we show that a quantum dot (Qdot) binding up to four Xenopus chromokinesin (Xkid) molecules behaved like a nanosize chromosome arm in the meiotic spindle, which is self-organized in cytoplasmic egg extracts. Xkid-Qdots travelled long distances along microtubules by changing several tracks, resulting in their accumulation toward and distribution around the metaphase plate. The analysis indicated that the direction of motion and velocity depend on the distribution of microtubule polarity within the spindle. Thus, this mechanism is governed by chromokinesin motors, which is dependent on symmetrical microtubule orientation that may allow chromosomes to maintain their position around the spindle equator until correct microtubule-kinetochore attachment is established. PMID:24077015

  12. Kinesin Swivels to Permit Microtubule Movement in Any Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Alan J.; Howard, Jonathon

    1993-12-01

    Kinesin is a motor protein that uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to transport organelles along microtubules. By analyzing the thermal fluctuation of microtubules tethered to glass surfaces by single molecules of kinesin, we have measured the torsional flexibility of the motor protein. The torsional stiffness of kinesin, (117 ± 19) x 10-24 N\\cdotm\\cdotrad-1 (mean ± SEM), is so low that one kT of energy (≈4.1 x 10-21 J at room temperature) is sufficient to twist a kinesin molecule through more than 360^circ from its resting orientation. Consistent with this flexibility, motility assays show that one or more kinesin molecules can move a microtubule equally well in any direction. These results explain how a motor on the surface of an organelle can rapidly bind to and capture a microtubule irrespective of the organelle's orientation. Furthermore, the flexibility ensures that several motors can efficiently work together even though they are randomly oriented on the surface of an organelle rather than being in precise arrays like the motors of muscle and cilia.

  13. Getting a Grip on Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Schaletzky, Julia; Rape, Michael

    2016-02-25

    Posttranslational modifications control microtubule behavior, yet assigning roles to particular signals was hampered by lack of defined in vitro systems. In this issue of Cell, Valenstein and Roll-Mecak establish a biochemical platform to interrogate consequences of microtubule polyglutamylation, thereby providing important insights into the specificity and quantitative nature of cellular information transfer. PMID:26919420

  14. Anomalous Flexural Behaviors of Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojing; Zhou, Youhe; Gao, Huajian; Wang, Jizeng

    2012-01-01

    Apparent controversies exist on whether the persistence length of microtubules depends on its contour length. This issue is particularly challenging from a theoretical point of view due to the tubular structure and strongly anisotropic material property of microtubules. Here we adopt a higher order continuum orthotropic thin shell model to study the flexural behavior of microtubules. Our model overcomes some key limitations of a recent study based on a simplified anisotropic shell model and results in a closed-form solution for the contour-length-dependent persistence length of microtubules, with predictions in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. By studying the ratio between their contour and persistence lengths, we find that microtubules with length at ∼1.5 μm show the lowest flexural rigidity, whereas those with length at ∼15 μm show the highest flexural rigidity. This finding may provide an important theoretical basis for understanding the mechanical structure of mitotic spindles during cell division. Further analysis on the buckling of microtubules indicates that the critical buckling load becomes insensitive to the tube length for relatively short microtubules, in drastic contrast to the classical Euler buckling. These rich flexural behaviors of microtubules are of profound implication for many biological functions and biomimetic molecular devices. PMID:22768935

  15. Targeting Toxoplasma Tubules: Tubulin, Microtubules, and Associated Proteins in a Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes serious opportunistic infections, birth defects, and blindness in humans. Microtubules are critically important components of diverse structures that are used throughout the Toxoplasma life cycle. As in other eukaryotes, spindle microtubules are required for chromosome segregation during replication. Additionally, a set of membrane-associated microtubules is essential for the elongated shape of invasive “zoites,” and motility follows a spiral trajectory that reflects the path of these microtubules. Toxoplasma zoites also construct an intricate, tubulin-based apical structure, termed the conoid, which is important for host cell invasion and associates with proteins typically found in the flagellar apparatus. Last, microgametes specifically construct a microtubule-containing flagellar axoneme in order to fertilize macrogametes, permitting genetic recombination. The specialized roles of these microtubule populations are mediated by distinct sets of associated proteins. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of tubulin, microtubule populations, and associated proteins in Toxoplasma; these components are used for both novel and broadly conserved processes that are essential for parasite survival. PMID:25380753

  16. Short Stop provides an essential link between F-actin and microtubules during axon extension.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungbok; Kolodziej, Peter A

    2002-03-01

    Coordination of F-actin and microtubule dynamics is important for cellular motility and morphogenesis, but little is known about underlying mechanisms. short stop (shot) encodes an evolutionarily conserved, neuronally expressed family of rod-like proteins required for sensory and motor axon extension in Drosophila melanogaster. We identify Shot isoforms that contain N-terminal F-actin and C-terminal microtubule-binding domains, and that crosslink F-actin and microtubules in cultured cells. The F-actin- and microtubule-binding domains of Shot are required in the same molecule for axon extension, though the length of the connecting rod domain can be dramatically reduced without affecting activity. Shot therefore functions as a cytoskeletal crosslinker in axon extension, rather than mediating independent interactions with F-actin and microtubules. A Ca(2+)-binding motif located adjacent to the microtubule-binding domain is also required for axon extension, suggesting that intracellular Ca(2+) release may regulate Shot activity. These results suggest that Shot coordinates regulated interactions between F-actin and microtubules that are crucial for neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:11874915

  17. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Wesley R; Malarkey, Erik B; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; Pasek, Raymond C; Porath, Jonathan D; Birket, Susan E; Saunier, Sophie; Antignac, Corinne; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Challa, Anil K; Kesterson, Robert A; Rowe, Steven M; Drummond, Iain A; Parant, John M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Porter, Mary E; Yoder, Bradley K; Berbari, Nicolas F

    2016-07-01

    Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400). While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8). GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC) protein 4 (DRC4) where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR) to generate one of these human missense variants in

  18. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Wesley R.; Malarkey, Erik B.; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; Pasek, Raymond C.; Porath, Jonathan D.; Birket, Susan E.; Saunier, Sophie; Antignac, Corinne; Leigh, Margaret W.; Zariwala, Maimoona A.; Drummond, Iain A.; Parant, John M.; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2016-01-01

    Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or ‘primary’ cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400). While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8). GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC) protein 4 (DRC4) where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR) to generate one of these human missense variants

  19. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as

  20. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as

  1. PACRG, a protein linked to ciliary motility, mediates cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Catrina M; Bialas, Nathan J; Dekkers, Martijn P J; Walker, Denise S; Grundy, Laura J; Li, Chunmei; Inglis, P Nick; Kida, Katarzyna; Schafer, William R; Blacque, Oliver E; Jansen, Gert; Leroux, Michel R

    2016-07-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from nearly all mammalian cell types. Motile cilia generate fluid flow, whereas nonmotile (primary) cilia are required for sensory physiology and modulate various signal transduction pathways. Here we investigate the nonmotile ciliary signaling roles of parkin coregulated gene (PACRG), a protein linked to ciliary motility. PACRG is associated with the protofilament ribbon, a structure believed to dictate the regular arrangement of motility-associated ciliary components. Roles for protofilament ribbon-associated proteins in nonmotile cilia and cellular signaling have not been investigated. We show that PACRG localizes to a small subset of nonmotile cilia in Caenorhabditis elegans, suggesting an evolutionary adaptation for mediating specific sensory/signaling functions. We find that it influences a learning behavior known as gustatory plasticity, in which it is functionally coupled to heterotrimeric G-protein signaling. We also demonstrate that PACRG promotes longevity in C. elegans by acting upstream of the lifespan-promoting FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 and likely upstream of insulin/IGF signaling. Our findings establish previously unrecognized sensory/signaling functions for PACRG and point to a role for this protein in promoting longevity. Furthermore, our work suggests additional ciliary motility-signaling connections, since EFHC1 (EF-hand containing 1), a potential PACRG interaction partner similarly associated with the protofilament ribbon and ciliary motility, also positively regulates lifespan. PMID:27193298

  2. Persistence Length of Stable Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Taviare; Mirigian, Matthew; Yasar, M. Selcuk; Ross, Jennifer

    2011-03-01

    Microtubules are a vital component of the cytoskeleton. As the most rigid of the cytoskeleton filaments, they give shape and support to the cell. They are also essential for intracellular traffic by providing the roadways onto which organelles are transported, and they are required to reorganize during cellular division. To perform its function in the cell, the microtubule must be rigid yet dynamic. We are interested in how the mechanical properties of stable microtubules change over time. Some ``stable'' microtubules of the cell are recycled after days, such as in the axons of neurons or the cilia and flagella. We measured the persistence length of freely fluctuating taxol-stabilized microtubules over the span of a week and analyzed them via Fourier decomposition. As measured on a daily basis, the persistence length is independent of the contour length. Although measured over the span of the week, the accuracy of the measurement and the persistence length varies. We also studied how fluorescently-labeling the microtubule affects the persistence length and observed that a higher labeling ratio corresponded to greater flexibility. National Science Foundation Grant No: 0928540 to JLR.

  3. Dynamic model of the force driving kinesin to move along microtubule-Simulation with a model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Y. C.; Hsiao, Yi-Feng; To, Kiwing

    2015-09-01

    A dynamic model for the motility of kinesin, including stochastic-force generation and step formation is proposed. The force driving the motion of kinesin motor is generated by the impulse from the collision between the randomly moving long-chain stalk and the ratchet-shaped outer surface of microtubule. Most of the dynamical and statistical features of the motility of kinesin are reproduced in a simulation system, with (a) ratchet structures similar to the outer surface of microtubule, (b) a bead chain connected to two heads, similarly to the stalk of the real kinesin motor, and (c) the interaction between the heads of the simulated kinesin and microtubule. We also propose an experiment to discriminate between the conventional hand-over-hand model and the dynamic model.

  4. Mechanisms of force generation by end-on kinetochore-microtubule attachments

    PubMed Central

    Joglekar, Ajit P.; Bloom, Kerry S.; Salmon, E. D.

    2010-01-01

    Generation of motile force is one of the main functions of the eukaryotic kinetochore during cell division. In recent years, the KMN network of proteins (Ndc80 complex, Mis12 complex and KNL-1 complex) has emerged as a highly conserved core microtubule-binding complex at the kinetochore. It plays a major role in coupling force generation to microtubule plus-end polymerization and depolymerization. In this review, we discuss current theoretical mechanisms of force generation, and then focus on emerging information about mechanistic contributions from the Ndc80 complex in eukaryotes, and the microtubule-binding Dam1/DASH complex from fungi. New information has also become available from super-resolution light microscopy on the protein architecture of the kinetochore-microtubule attachment site in both budding yeast and humans, which provides further insight into the mechanism of force generation. We briefly discuss potential contributions of motors, other microtubule-associated proteins, and microtubule depolymerases. Using the above evidence, we present speculative models of force generation at the kinetochore. PMID:20061128

  5. Intracellular hyaluronan in arterial smooth muscle cells: association with microtubules, RHAMM, and the mitotic spindle.

    PubMed

    Evanko, Stephen P; Parks, W Tony; Wight, Thomas N

    2004-12-01

    Although considered a pericellular matrix component, hyaluronan was recently localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus of proliferating cells, supporting earlier reports that hyaluronan was present in locations such as the nucleus, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and caveolae. This suggests that it can play roles both inside and outside the cell. Hyaluronan metabolism is coupled to mitosis and cell motility, but it is not clear if intracellular hyaluronan associates with cytoskeletal elements or plays a structural role. Here we report the distribution of intracellular hyaluronan, microtubules, and RHAMM in arterial smooth muscle cells in vitro. The general distribution of intracellular hyaluronan more closely resembled microtubule staining rather than actin filaments. Hyaluronan was abundant in the perinuclear microtubule-rich areas and was present in lysosomes, other vesicular structures, and the nucleolus. Partially fragmented fluorescein-hyaluronan was preferentially translocated to the perinuclear area compared with high-molecular-weight hyaluronan. In the mitotic spindle, hyaluronan colocalized with tubulin and with the hyaladherin RHAMM, a cell surface receptor and microtubule-associated protein that interacts with dynein and maintains spindle pole stability. Internalized fluorescein-hyaluronan was also seen at the spindle. Following telophase, an abundance of hyaluronan near the midbody microtubules at the cleavage furrow was also noted. In permeabilized cells, fluorescein-hyaluronan bound to RHAMM-associated microtubules. These findings suggest novel functions for hyaluronan in cellular physiology. PMID:15557208

  6. Regulation of microtubule motors by tubulin isotypes and posttranslational modifications

    PubMed Central

    Sirajuddin, Minhajuddin; Rice, Luke M.; Vale, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘tubulin-code’ hypothesis proposes that different tubulin genes or posttranslational modifications (PTMs), which mainly confer variation in the carboxy-terminal tail (CTT), result in unique interactions with microtubule-associated proteins for specific cellular functions. However, the inability to isolate distinct and homogenous tubulin species has hindered biochemical testing of this hypothesis. Here, we have engineered 25 α/β tubulin heterodimers with distinct CTTs and PTMs and tested their interactions with four different molecular motors using single molecule assays. Our results show that tubulin isotypes and PTMs can govern motor velocity, processivity and microtubule depolymerization rates, with substantial changes conferred by even single amino acid variation. Revealing the importance and specificity of PTMs, we show that kinesin-1 motility on neuronal β-tubulin (TUBB3) is increased by polyglutamylation and that robust kinesin-2 motility requires detyrosination of α-tubulin. Our results also show that different molecular motors recognize distinctive tubulin “signatures”, which supports the premise of tubulin-code hypothesis. PMID:24633327

  7. Cell motility on nanotopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Masahiro; Tsai, Irene; Green, Angelo; Jacobson, Bruce; Russell, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    Cell motility is strongly influenced by the structure of the substratum. Understanding cells motility on a surface has significant applications both in vivo and in vitro applications, such as biological sensors and hip replacement. A gradient surface is used to study the effect of the lateral nanotopography on cell motility. A gradient surface is generated by block copolymer and homopolymer blends, where the concentration of the components varies uniformly across the surface. The two homopolymers phase separate on the micron scale and this length scale gradually decrease to the nanoscopic, i.e. microphase separation of the diblock, as the copolymer concentration increases. Quantitative analysis of the speed of cell migration is correlated to the lateral length scale of the surface.

  8. [Obesity and gastrointestinal motility].

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon Seong

    2006-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) motility has a crucial role in the food consumption, digestion and absorption, and also controls the appetite and satiety. In obese patients, various alterations of GI motility have been investigated. The prevalence of GERD and esophageal motor disorders in obese patients are higher than those of general population. Gastric emptying of solid food is generally accelerated and fasting gastric volume especially in distal stomach is larger in obese patients without change in accommodation. Contractile activity of small intestine in fasting period is more prominent, but orocecal transit is delayed. Autonomic dysfunction is frequently demonstrated in obese patients. These findings correspond with increased appetite and delayed satiety in obese patients, but causes or results have not been confirmed. Therapeutic interventions of these altered GI motility have been developed using botulinum toxin, gastric electrical stimulation in obese patients. Novel agents targeted for GI hormone modulation (such as ghrelin and leptin) need to be developed in the near future. PMID:16929152

  9. Costal2 Functions as a Microtubule-Dependent Motor in the Hedgehog Signal Transduction Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Ascano, Manuel; Ogden, Stacey K.; Sanial, Matthieu; Brigui, Amira; Plessis, Anne; Robbins, David J.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway initiates an evolutionarily conserved developmental program required for the proper patterning of many tissues. Costal2 (Cos2) is a requisite component of the Hh pathway, whose mechanistic role is not well understood. Cos2 was initially predicted, based on its primary sequence, to function as a microtubule-associated (MT) molecular motor. However, despite being identified over a decade ago, evidence showing that Cos2 function might require kinesin-like properties has for the most part been lacking. Thus the prevailing dogma in the field is that Cos2 functions solely as a scaffolding protein during Hh signal transduction. Here, we provide the first evidence that Cos2 motility is required for its biological function, and that this motility may be Hh regulated. We show that Cos2 motility requires an active motor domain, ATP and microtubules. Additionally, Cos2 recruits and transports other components of the Hh signaling pathway, including the transcription factor Cubitus interruptus (Ci), throughout the cell. Drosophila expressing cos2 mutations that encode proteins that lack motility are attenuated in their ability to regulate Ci activity and exhibit phenotypes consistent with attenuated Cos2 function. Combined, these results demonstrate that Cos2 motility plays an important role in its function, regulating the amounts and activity of Ci that ultimately interpret the level of Hh to which cells are exposed. PMID:18691888

  10. Anti-Microtubule Drugs.

    PubMed

    Florian, Stefan; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule drugs that target microtubules (MTs), many of them natural products, have long been important tools in the MT field. Indeed, tubulin (Tb) was discovered, in part, as the protein binding partner of colchicine. Several anti-MT drug classes also have important medical uses, notably colchicine, which is used to treat gout, familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), and pericarditis, and the vinca alkaloids and taxanes, which are used to treat cancer. Anti-MT drugs have in common that they bind specifically to Tb in the dimer, MT or some other form. However, their effects on polymerization dynamics and on the human body differ markedly. Here we briefly review the most-studied molecules, and comment on their uses in basic research and medicine. Our focus is on practical applications of different anti-MT drugs in the laboratory, and key points that users should be aware of when designing experiments. We also touch on interesting unsolved problems, particularly in the area of medical applications. In our opinion, the mechanism by which any MT drug cures or treats any disease is still unsolved, despite decades of research. Solving this problem for particular drug-disease combinations might open new uses for old drugs, or provide insights into novel routes for treatment. PMID:27193863

  11. Microtubules in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are highly conserved polar polymers that are key elements of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton and are essential for various cell functions. αβ-tubulin, a heterodimer containing one structural GTP and one hydrolysable and exchangeable GTP, is the building block of MTs and is formed by the sequential action of several molecular chaperones. GTP hydrolysis in the MT lattice is mechanistically coupled with MT growth, thus giving MTs a metastable and dynamic nature. MTs adopt several distinct higher-order organizations that function in cell division and cell morphogenesis. Small molecular weight compounds that bind tubulin are used as herbicides and as research tools to investigate MT functions in plant cells. The de novo formation of MTs in cells requires conserved γ-tubulin-containing complexes and targeting/activating regulatory proteins that contribute to the geometry of MT arrays. Various MT regulators and tubulin modifications control the dynamics and organization of MTs throughout the cell cycle and in response to developmental and environmental cues. Signaling pathways that converge on the regulation of versatile MT functions are being characterized. PMID:26019693

  12. Anomalous motor mediated cargo transport in microtubule networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandal, Steven; Macveigh-Fierro, Daniel; Shen, Zhiyuan; Lemoi, Kyle; Vidali, Luis; Ross, Jennifer; Tuzel, Erkan

    Cargo transport is an important biological mechanism by which cells locomote, self-organize, and actively transport organelles. This transport is mediated by the cytoskeletal network and molecular motors; however, it is not known how network self-organization and dynamics affect these transport processes. In order to develop a mechanistic understanding of cargo transport, we use a coarse-grained Brownian dynamics model that incorporates the dynamics of these networks, as well as experimentally determined motor properties. We will test these models with two experimental systems: (1) in vitro microtubule networks with kinesin-1 motors, and quantum dot cargos on recreated microtubule networks, and (2) an excellent model organism, the moss Physcomitrella patens, in which chloroplasts are transported via the microtubule network by means of kinesin-like proteins. Phenomenological network characterizations are made, both in vivo and in vitro, and cargo motility is characterized using Mean Squared Displacement (MSD) measurements. Our simulations shed light on the role of network density and motor properties on the observed transport behavior, and improve our understanding of cargo transport in cells.

  13. Elevated polar ejection forces stabilize kinetochore–microtubule attachments

    PubMed Central

    Cane, Stuart; Ye, Anna A.; Luks-Morgan, Sasha J.

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome biorientation promotes congression and generates tension that stabilizes kinetochore–microtubule (kt-MT) interactions. Forces produced by molecular motors also contribute to chromosome alignment, but their impact on kt-MT attachment stability is unclear. A critical force that acts on chromosomes is the kinesin-10–dependent polar ejection force (PEF). PEFs are proposed to facilitate congression by pushing chromosomes away from spindle poles, although knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underpinning PEF generation is incomplete. Here, we describe a live-cell PEF assay in which tension was applied to chromosomes by manipulating levels of the chromokinesin NOD (no distributive disjunction; Drosophila melanogaster kinesin-10). NOD stabilized syntelic kt-MT attachments in a dose- and motor-dependent manner by overwhelming the ability of Aurora B to mediate error correction. NOD-coated chromatin stretched away from the pole via lateral and end-on interactions with microtubules, and NOD chimeras with either plus end–directed motility or tip-tracking activity produced PEFs. Thus, kt-MT attachment stability is modulated by PEFs, which can be generated by distinct force-producing interactions between chromosomes and dynamic spindle microtubules. PMID:23337118

  14. Molecular requirements for bi-directional movement of phagosomes along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Blocker, A; Severin, F F; Burkhardt, J K; Bingham, J B; Yu, H; Olivo, J C; Schroer, T A; Hyman, A A; Griffiths, G

    1997-04-01

    Microtubules facilitate the maturation of phagosomes by favoring their interactions with endocytic compartments. Here, we show that phagosomes move within cells along tracks of several microns centrifugally and centripetally in a pH- and microtubule-dependent manner. Phagosome movement was reconstituted in vitro and required energy, cytosol and membrane proteins of this organelle. The activity or presence of these phagosome proteins was regulated as the organelle matured, with "late" phagosomes moving threefold more frequently than "early" ones. The majority of moving phagosomes were minus-end directed; the remainder moved towards microtubule plus-ends and a small subset moved bi-directionally. Minus-end movement showed pharmacological characteristics expected for dyneins, was inhibited by immunodepletion of cytoplasmic dynein and could be restored by addition of cytoplasmic dynein. Plus-end movement displayed pharmacological properties of kinesin, was inhibited partially by immunodepletion of kinesin and fully by addition of an anti-kinesin IgG. Immunodepletion of dynactin, a dynein-activating complex, inhibited only minus-end directed motility. Evidence is provided for a dynactin-associated kinase required for dynein-mediated vesicle transport. Movement in both directions was inhibited by peptide fragments from kinectin (a putative kinesin membrane receptor), derived from the region to which a motility-blocking antibody binds. Polypeptide subunits from these microtubule-based motility factors were detected on phagosomes by immunoblotting or immunoelectron microscopy. This is the first study using a single in vitro system that describes the roles played by kinesin, kinectin, cytoplasmic dynein, and dynactin in the microtubule-mediated movement of a purified membrane organelle. PMID:9105041

  15. Sperm Motility in Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guasto, Jeffrey; Juarez, Gabriel; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    A wide variety of plants and animals reproduce sexually by releasing motile sperm that seek out a conspecific egg, for example in the reproductive tract for mammals or in the water column for externally fertilizing organisms. Sperm are aided in their quest by chemical cues, but must also contend with hydrodynamic forces, resulting from laminar flows in reproductive tracts or turbulence in aquatic habitats. To understand how velocity gradients affect motility, we subjected swimming sperm to a range of highly-controlled straining flows using a cross-flow microfluidic device. The motion of the cell body and flagellum were captured through high-speed video microscopy. The effects of flow on swimming are twofold. For moderate velocity gradients, flow simply advects and reorients cells, quenching their ability to cross streamlines. For high velocity gradients, fluid stresses hinder the internal bending of the flagellum, directly inhibiting motility. The transition between the two regimes is governed by the Sperm number, which compares the external viscous stresses with the internal elastic stresses. Ultimately, unraveling the role of flow in sperm motility will lead to a better understanding of population dynamics among aquatic organisms and infertility problems in humans.

  16. Role of the RNA-binding protein IMP-2 in muscle cell motility.

    PubMed

    Boudoukha, Selim; Cuvellier, Sylvain; Polesskaya, Anna

    2010-12-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) mRNA-binding proteins (IMPs) are a family of posttranscriptional regulatory factors with well-understood roles in embryonic development and cancer but with poorly characterized functions in normal adult cells and tissues. We now show that IMP-2, the most ubiquitously expressed member of the family, is abundant in human and mouse adult skeletal myoblasts, where it is indispensable for cell motility and for stabilization of microtubules. To explore the functions of IMP-2, we analyzed the transcripts that were differentially regulated in IMP-2-depleted myoblasts and bound to IMP-2 in normal myoblasts. Among them were the mRNAs of PINCH-2, an important mediator of cell adhesion and motility, and MURF-3, a microtubule-stabilizing protein. By gain- and loss-of-function assays and gel shift experiments, we show that IMP-2 regulates the expression of PINCH-2 and MURF-3 proteins via direct binding to their mRNAs. Upregulation of PINCH-2 in IMP-2-depleted myoblasts is the key event responsible for their decreased motility. Our data reveal how the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by IMP-2 contributes to the control of adhesion structures and stable microtubules and demonstrate an important function for IMP-2 in cellular motility. PMID:20956565

  17. Single molecule FRET observation of kinesin-1’s head-tail interaction on microtubule

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Takahiro; Tomishige, Michio; Ariga, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin-1 (conventional kinesin) is a molecular motor that transports various cargo such as endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in cells. Its two head domains walk along microtubule by hydrolyzing ATP, while the tail domains at the end of the long stalk bind to the cargo. When a kinesin is not carrying cargo, its motility and ATPase activity is inhibited by direct interactions between the tail and head. However, the mechanism of this tail regulation is not well understood. Here, we apply single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) to observe this interaction in stalk-truncated kinesin. We found that kinesin with two tails forms a folding conformation and dissociates from microtubules, whereas kinesin with one tail remains bound to the micro-tubule and is immobile even in the presence of ATP. We further investigated the head-tail interaction as well as head-head coordination on the microtubule at various nucleotide conditions. From these results, we propose a two-step inhibition model for kinesin motility.

  18. Endocytosis and early endosome motility in filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Hyphal growth of filamentous fungi requires microtubule-based long-distance motility of early endosomes. Since the discovery of this process in Ustilago maydis, our understanding of its molecular basis and biological function has greatly advanced. Studies in U. maydis and Aspergillus nidulans reveal a complex interplay of the motor proteins kinesin-3 and dynein, which co-operate to support bi-directional motion of early endosomes. Genetic screening has shed light on the molecular mechanisms underpinning motor regulation, revealing Hook protein as general motor adapters on early endosomes. Recently, fascinating insight into unexpected roles for endosome motility has emerged. This includes septin filament formation and cellular distribution of the machinery for protein translation. PMID:24835422

  19. The dynein cortical anchor Num1 activates dynein motility by relieving Pac1/LIS1-mediated inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Lindsay G; Markus, Steven M

    2015-10-26

    Cortically anchored dynein orients the spindle through interactions with astral microtubules. In budding yeast, dynein is offloaded to Num1 receptors from microtubule plus ends. Rather than walking toward minus ends, dynein remains associated with plus ends due in part to its association with Pac1/LIS1, an inhibitor of dynein motility. The mechanism by which dynein is switched from "off" at the plus ends to "on" at the cell cortex remains unknown. Here, we show that overexpression of the coiled-coil domain of Num1 specifically depletes dynein-dynactin-Pac1/LIS1 complexes from microtubule plus ends and reduces dynein-Pac1/LIS1 colocalization. Depletion of dynein from plus ends requires its microtubule-binding domain, suggesting that motility is required. An enhanced Pac1/LIS1 affinity mutant of dynein or overexpression of Pac1/LIS1 rescues dynein plus end depletion. Live-cell imaging reveals minus end-directed dynein-dynactin motility along microtubules upon overexpression of the coiled-coil domain of Num1, an event that is not observed in wild-type cells. Our findings indicate that dynein activity is directly switched "on" by Num1, which induces Pac1/LIS1 removal. PMID:26483554

  20. The dynein cortical anchor Num1 activates dynein motility by relieving Pac1/LIS1-mediated inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Lammers, Lindsay G.

    2015-01-01

    Cortically anchored dynein orients the spindle through interactions with astral microtubules. In budding yeast, dynein is offloaded to Num1 receptors from microtubule plus ends. Rather than walking toward minus ends, dynein remains associated with plus ends due in part to its association with Pac1/LIS1, an inhibitor of dynein motility. The mechanism by which dynein is switched from “off” at the plus ends to “on” at the cell cortex remains unknown. Here, we show that overexpression of the coiled-coil domain of Num1 specifically depletes dynein–dynactin–Pac1/LIS1 complexes from microtubule plus ends and reduces dynein-Pac1/LIS1 colocalization. Depletion of dynein from plus ends requires its microtubule-binding domain, suggesting that motility is required. An enhanced Pac1/LIS1 affinity mutant of dynein or overexpression of Pac1/LIS1 rescues dynein plus end depletion. Live-cell imaging reveals minus end–directed dynein–dynactin motility along microtubules upon overexpression of the coiled-coil domain of Num1, an event that is not observed in wild-type cells. Our findings indicate that dynein activity is directly switched “on” by Num1, which induces Pac1/LIS1 removal. PMID:26483554

  1. Disruption of cytoplasmic microtubules by ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, G.B.; Perrino, B.A.; Chou, I.N. )

    1991-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of cultured human skin fibroblasts causes the disassembly of their microtubules. Using indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, we have now investigated whether damage to the microtubule precursor pool may contribute to the disruption of microtubules. Exposure to polychromatic UV radiation inhibits the reassembly of microtubules during cellular recovery from cold treatment. In addition, the ability of taxol to promote microtubule polymerization and bundling is inhibited in UV-irradiated cells. However, UV irradiation of taxol-pretreated cells or in situ detergent-extracted microtubules fails to disrupt the microtubule network. These data suggest that damage to dimeric tubulin, or another soluble factor(s) required for polymerization, contributes to the disassembly of microtubules in UV-irradiated human skin fibroblasts.

  2. The p150Glued component of the dynactin complex binds to both microtubules and the actin-related protein centractin (Arp-1).

    PubMed Central

    Waterman-Storer, C M; Karki, S; Holzbaur, E L

    1995-01-01

    p150Glued was first identified as a polypeptide that copurifies with cytoplasmic dynein, the minus-end-directed microtubule-based motor protein, and has more recently been shown to be present as a member of the oligomeric dynactin complex, which includes the actin-related protein centractin (Arp-1). Dynactin is thought to mediate dynein-driven vesicle motility, as well as nuclear transport, in lower eukaryotes. The mechanism by which dynactin may function in these cellular processes is unknown. To examine the role of the dynactin complex in vivo, we overexpressed the rat cDNA encoding p150Glued in Rat-2 fibroblasts. Overexpression of full-length, as well as C-terminal deletion, constructs resulted in the decoration of microtubules with the p150Glued polypeptides. This cellular evidence for microtubule association was corroborated by in vitro microtubule-binding assays. Amino acids 39-150 of p150Glued were determined to be sufficient for microtubule association. We also tested for a direct interaction between p150Glued and centractin. In vitro translated centractin was specifically retained by a p150Glued affinity column, and this interaction was blocked by a synthetic peptide which corresponds to a highly conserved motif from the C terminus of p150Glued. These results demonstrate that p150Glued, a protein implicated in cytoplasmic dynein-based microtubule motility, is capable of direct binding to both microtubules and centractin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7878030

  3. Motility of Mollicutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolgemuth, Charles; Igoshin, Oleg; Oster, George

    2003-03-01

    Recent experiments show that the conformation of filament proteins play a role in the motility and morphology of many different types of bacteria. Conformational changes in the protein subunits may produce forces to drive propulsion and cell division. Here we present a molecular mechanism by which these forces can drive cell motion. Coupling of a biochemical cycle, such as ATP hydrolysis, to the dynamics of elastic filaments enable elastic filaments to propagate deformations that generate propulsive forces. We demonstrate this possibility for two classes of wall-less bacteria called mollicutes: the swimming of helical shaped Spiroplasma, and the gliding motility of Mycoplasma. Similar mechanisms may explain the locomotion of other prokaryotes, including the swimming of Synechococcus and the gliding of some myxobacteria.

  4. Modeling collective cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappel, Wouter-Jan

    Eukaryotic cells often move in groups, a critical aspect of many biological and medical processes including wound healing, morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Modeling can provide useful insights into the fundamental mechanisms of collective cell motility. Constructing models that incorporate the physical properties of the cells, however, is challenging. Here, I discuss our efforts to build a comprehensive cell motility model that includes cell membrane properties, cell-substrate interactions, cell polarity, and cell-cell interaction. The model will be applied to a variety of systems, including motion on micropatterned substrates and the migration of border cells in Drosophila. This work was supported by NIH Grant No. P01 GM078586 and NSF Grant No. 1068869.

  5. An ocular motility conundrum.

    PubMed

    McElnea, Elizabeth Margaret; Stephenson, Kirk; Lanigan, Bernie; Flitcroft, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Two siblings, an 11-year-old boy and a 7-year-old girl presented with bilateral symmetrical ptosis and limited eye movements. Having already been reviewed on a number of occasions by a variety of specialists in multiple hospital settings a diagnosis of their ocular motility disorder had remained elusive. We describe their cases, outline the differential diagnosis and review the investigations performed which were influential in finally making a diagnosis. PMID:25349186

  6. Motility of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Radestock, U; Bredt, W

    1977-01-01

    Cell of Mycoplasma pneumoniae FH gliding on a glass surface in liquid medium were examined by microscopic observation and quantitatively by microcinematography (30 frames per min). Comparisons were made only within the individual experiments. The cells moved in an irregular pattern with numerous narrow bends and circles. They never changed their leading end. The average speed (without pauses) was relatively constant between o.2 and 0.5 mum/s. The maximum speed was about 1.5 to 2.0 mum/s. The movements were interrupted by resting periods of different lengths and frequency. Temperature, viscosity, pH, and the presence of yeast extract in the medium influenced the motility significantly; changes in glucose, calcium ions, and serum content were less effective. The movements were affected by iodoacetate, p-mercuribenzoate, and mitomycin C at inhibitory or subinhibitory concentrations. Sodium fluoride, sodium cyanide, dinitrophenol, chloramphenicol, puromycin, cholchicin, and cytochalasin B at minimal inhibitory concentrations did not affect motility. The movements were effectively inhibited by anti-M. pneumoniae antiserum. Studies with absorbed antiserum suggested that the surface components involved in motility are heat labile. The gliding of M. pneumoniae cells required an intact energy metabolism and the proteins involved seemed to have a low turnover. Images PMID:14925

  7. Fluctuation in the microtubule sliding movement driven by kinesin in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Imafuku, Y; Toyoshima, Y Y; Tawada, K

    1996-01-01

    We studied the fluctuation in the translational sliding movement of microtubules driven by kinesin in a motility assay in vitro. By calculating the mean-square displacement deviation from the average as a function of time, we obtained motional diffusion coefficients for microtubules and analyzed the dependence of the coefficients on microtubule length. Our analyses suggest that 1) the motional diffusion coefficient consists of the sum of two terms, one that is proportional to the inverse of the microtubule length (as the longitudinal diffusion coefficient of a filament in Brownian movement is) and another that is independent of the length, and 2) the length-dependent term decreases with increasing kinesin concentration. This latter term almost vanishes within the length range we studied at high kinesin concentrations. From the length-dependence relationship, we evaluated the friction coefficient for sliding microtubules. This value is much larger than the solvent friction and thus consistent with protein friction. The length independence of the motional diffusion coefficient observed at sufficiently high kinesin concentrations indicates the presence of correlation in the sliding movement fluctuation. This places significant constraint on the possible mechanisms of the sliding movement generation by kinesin motors in vitro. PMID:8789105

  8. The Spontaneous Alignment of Microtubules in Vitro.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Anne Louise

    Microtubules assembled at 37^circ C in vitro from tubulin, with or without microtubule associated proteins (MAPs), spontaneously form macroscopic domains of intense birefringence. Because the intrinsic birefringence of microtubules is small, the observed effect must be due to form birefringence, caused by a mutually parallel disposition of microtubules. The observed birefringence cannot be accounted for by multiple light scattering. Birefringence and microtubule polymerization are observed to be temporally coupled. The development of multiple macroscopic birefringent domains is mirrored by the formation of large domains which scatter light strongly. Because these solutions are not homogeneous, Beer's law may not apply. These turbid domains may account for the turbidity overshoot observed by several laboratories. Electron micrographs of sections of gluteraldehyde -fixed microtubule solutions which exhibited birefringence before and after fixation displayed a directionality. This confirms that microtubules in solution are aligned with respect to each other. Centrifugation of birefringent microtubule solutions yields an isotropic supernatant and an intensely birefringent pellet, suggesting that the birefringent domains are dense and sediment intact. If MAPs are present, the birefringent domains can be observed in dilute solution after more than 20 hours at 37^circ C. Polymerization conditions which result in oscillations in microtubule assembly due to dynamic instability also result in oscillations in microtubule alignment. These observations, taken together, indicate that microtubule solutions become nematic liquid crystals exhibiting a polydomain schlieren texture upon polymerization in vitro. These domains appear to be stable, dense constructs of microtubules, which are liquid-crystalline in character. Assembly of microtubules initially results in the formation of many small microtubules; with time, however, fewer but longer microtubules are observed. Recently, two

  9. Cep192 Controls the Balance of Centrosome and Non-Centrosomal Microtubules during Interphase

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Brian P.; Gomez-Ferreria, Maria Ana; Berk, Robin H.; Hackl, Alexandra M. U.; Nicholas, Matthew P.; O’Rourke, Sean C.; Pelletier, Laurence; Sharp, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Cep192 is a centrosomal protein that contributes to the formation and function of the mitotic spindle in mammalian cells. Cep192’s mitotic activities stem largely from its role in the recruitment to the centrosome of numerous additional proteins such as gamma-tubulin and Pericentrin. Here, we examine Cep192’s function in interphase cells. Our data indicate that, as in mitosis, Cep192 stimulates the nucleation of centrosomal microtubules thereby regulating the morphology of interphase microtubule arrays. Interestingly, however, cells lacking Cep192 remain capable of generating normal levels of MTs as the loss of centrosomal microtubules is augmented by MT nucleation from other sites, most notably the Golgi apparatus. The depletion of Cep192 results in a significant decrease in the level of centrosome-associated gamma-tubulin, likely explaining its impact on centrosome microtubule nucleation. However, in stark contrast to mitosis, Cep192 appears to maintain an antagonistic relationship with Pericentrin at interphase centrosomes. Interphase cells depleted of Cep192 display significantly higher levels of centrosome-associated Pericentrin while overexpression of Cep192 reduces the levels of centrosomal Pericentrin. Conversely, depletion of Pericentrin results in elevated levels of centrosomal Cep192 and enhances microtubule nucleation at centrosomes, at least during interphase. Finally, we show that depletion of Cep192 negatively impacts cell motility and alters normal cell polarization. Our current working hypothesis is that the microtubule nucleating capacity of the interphase centrosome is determined by an antagonistic balance of Cep192, which promotes nucleation, and Pericentrin, which inhibits nucleation. This in turn determines the relative abundance of centrosomal and non-centrosomal microtubules that tune cell movement and shape. PMID:24971877

  10. A marginal band-associated protein has properties of both microtubule- and microfilament-associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The marginal band of nucleated erythrocytes is a microtubule organelle under rigorous quantitative and spatial control, with properties quite different from those of the microtubule organelles of cultured cells. Previous results suggest that proteins other than tubulin may participate in organizing the marginal band, and may interact with elements of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton in addition to microtubules. To identify such species, we raised mAbs against the proteins that assemble from chicken brain homogenates with tubulin. One such antibody binds to a single protein in chicken erythrocytes, and produces an immunofluorescence pattern colocalizing with marginal band microtubules. Several properties of this protein are identical to those of ezrin, a protein isolated from brush border and localized to motile elements of cultured cells. A significant proportion of the antigen is not soluble in erythrocytes, as determined by extraction with nonionic detergent. This cytoskeleton-associated fraction is unaffected by treatments that solubilize the marginal band microtubules. The protein has properties of both microtubule- and microfilament-associated proteins. In the accompanying manuscript (Goslin, K., E. Birgbauer, G. Banker, and F. Solomon. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 109:1621-1631), we show that the same antibody recognizes a component of growth cones with a similar dual nature. In early embryonic red blood cells, the antigen is dispersed throughout the cell and does not colocalize with assembled tubulin. Its confinement to the marginal band during development follows rather than precedes that of microtubules. These results, along with previous work, suggest models for the formation of the marginal band. PMID:2677023

  11. Dynein drives nuclear rotation during forward progression of motile fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jennifer R.; Holzbaur, Erika L.F.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY During directed cell migration the movement of the nucleus is coupled to the forward progression of the cell. The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein is required for both cell polarization and cell motility. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which dynein contributes to directed migration. Knockdown of dynein slows protrusion of the leading edge and causes defects in nuclear movements. The velocity of nuclear migration was decreased in dynein knockdown cells, and nuclei were mislocalized to the rear of motile cells. In control cells, we observed that wounding the monolayer stimulated a dramatic induction of nuclear rotations at the wound edge, reaching velocities up to 8.5 degrees/min. These nuclear rotations were significantly inhibited in dynein knockdown cells. Surprisingly, centrosomes do not rotate in concert with the nucleus; instead the centrosome remains stably positioned between the nucleus and the leading edge. Together, these results suggest that dynein contributes to migration in two ways: (1) maintaining centrosome centrality by tethering microtubule plus ends at the cortex, and (2) maintaining nuclear centrality by asserting force directly on the nucleus. PMID:18782860

  12. Signaling-dependent Phosphorylation of Mitotic Centromere-associated Kinesin Regulates Microtubule Depolymerization and Its Centrosomal Localization*

    PubMed Central

    Pakala, Suresh B.; Nair, Vasudha S.; Reddy, Sirigiri DivijendraNatha; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Although p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) and microtubule (MT) dynamics regulate numerous fundamental processes including cytoskeleton remodeling, directional motility, and mitotic functions, the significance of PAK1 signaling in regulating the functions of MT-destabilizing protein mitotic centromere-associated kinesin (MCAK) remains unknown. Here we found that MCAK is a cognate substrate of PAK1 wherein PAK1 phosphorylates MCAK on serines 192 and 111 both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, we found that PAK1 phosphorylation of MCAK on serines 192 and 111 preferentially regulates its microtubule depolymerization activity and localization to centrosomes, respectively, in the mammalian cells. PMID:23055517

  13. Cellular mechanics and motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hénon, Sylvie; Sykes, Cécile

    2015-10-01

    The term motility defines the movement of a living organism. One widely known example is the motility of sperm cells, or the one of flagellar bacteria. The propulsive element of such organisms is a cilium(or flagellum) that beats. Although cells in our tissues do not have a flagellum in general, they are still able to move, as we will discover in this chapter. In fact, in both cases of movement, with or without a flagellum, cell motility is due to a dynamic re-arrangement of polymers inside the cell. Let us first have a closer look at the propulsion mechanism in the case of a flagellum or a cilium, which is the best known, but also the simplest, and which will help us to define the hydrodynamic general conditions of cell movement. A flagellum is sustained by cellular polymers arranged in semi-flexible bundles and flagellar beating generates cell displacement. These polymers or filaments are part of the cellular skeleton, or "cytoskeleton", which is, in this case, external to the cellular main body of the organism. In fact, bacteria move in a hydrodynamic regime in which viscosity dominates over inertia. The system is thus in a hydrodynamic regime of low Reynolds number (Box 5.1), which is nearly exclusively the case in all cell movements. Bacteria and their propulsion mode by flagella beating are our unicellular ancestors 3.5 billion years ago. Since then, we have evolved to form pluricellular organisms. However, to keep the ability of displacement, to heal our wounds for example, our cells lost their flagellum, since it was not optimal in a dense cell environment: cells are too close to each other to leave enough space for the flagella to accomplish propulsion. The cytoskeleton thus developed inside the cell body to ensure cell shape changes and movement, and also mechanical strength within a tissue. The cytoskeleton of our cells, like the polymers or filaments that sustain the flagellum, is also composed of semi-flexible filaments arranged in bundles, and also in

  14. Dynactin functions as both a dynamic tether and brake during dynein-driven motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayloo, Swathi; Lazarus, Jacob E.; Dodda, Aditya; Tokito, Mariko; Ostap, E. Michael; Holzbaur, Erika L. F.

    2014-09-01

    Dynactin is an essential cofactor for most cellular functions of the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, but the mechanism by which dynactin activates dynein remains unclear. Here we use single molecule approaches to investigate dynein regulation by the dynactin subunit p150Glued. We investigate the formation and motility of a dynein-p150Glued co-complex using dual-colour total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. p150Glued recruits and tethers dynein to the microtubule in a concentration-dependent manner. Single molecule imaging of motility in cell extracts demonstrates that the CAP-Gly domain of p150Glued decreases the detachment rate of the dynein-dynactin complex from the microtubule and also acts as a brake to slow the dynein motor. Consistent with this important role, two neurodegenerative disease-causing mutations in the CAP-Gly domain abrogate these functions in our assays. Together, these observations support a model in which dynactin enhances the initial recruitment of dynein onto microtubules and promotes the sustained engagement of dynein with its cytoskeletal track.

  15. Dynactin functions as both a dynamic tether and brake during dynein-driven motility

    PubMed Central

    Ayloo, Swathi; Lazarus, Jacob E.; Dodda, Aditya; Tokito, Mariko; Ostap, E. Michael; Holzbaur, Erika L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Dynactin is an essential co-factor for most cellular functions of the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein, but the mechanism by which dynactin activates dynein remains unclear. Here, we use single molecule approaches to investigate dynein activation by the dynactin subunit p150Glued. We investigate the formation and motility of a dynein-p150Glued co-complex using dual-color TIRF microscopy. p150Glued recruits and tethers dynein to the microtubule in a concentration-dependent manner. Single molecule imaging of motility in cell extracts demonstrates that the CAP-Gly domain of p150Glued decreases the detachment rate of the dynein-dynactin complex from the microtubule and also acts as a brake to slow the dynein motor. Consistent with this important role, two neurodegenerative disease-causing mutations in the CAP-Gly domain abrogate these functions in our assays. Together, these observations support a model in which dynactin enhances the initial recruitment of dynein onto microtubules and promotes the sustained engagement of dynein with its cytoskeletal track. PMID:25185702

  16. A nonlinear model of ionic wave propagation along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Satarić, M V; Ilić, D I; Ralević, N; Tuszynski, Jack Adam

    2009-06-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are important cytoskeletal polymers engaged in a number of specific cellular activities including the traffic of organelles using motor proteins, cellular architecture and motility, cell division and a possible participation in information processing within neuronal functioning. How MTs operate and process electrical information is still largely unknown. In this paper we investigate the conditions enabling MTs to act as electrical transmission lines for ion flows along their lengths. We introduce a model in which each tubulin dimer is viewed as an electric element with a capacitive, inductive and resistive characteristics arising due to polyelectrolyte nature of MTs. Based on Kirchhoff's laws taken in the continuum limit, a nonlinear partial differential equation is derived and analyzed. We demonstrate that it can be used to describe the electrostatic potential coupled to the propagating localized ionic waves. PMID:19259657

  17. GAR22β regulates cell migration, sperm motility, and axoneme structure

    PubMed Central

    Gamper, Ivonne; Fleck, David; Barlin, Meltem; Spehr, Marc; Sayad, Sara El; Kleine, Henning; Maxeiner, Sebastian; Schalla, Carmen; Aydin, Gülcan; Hoss, Mareike; Litchfield, David W.; Lüscher, Bernhard; Zenke, Martin; Sechi, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal cytoskeleton remodeling is pivotal for cell adhesion and migration. Here we investigated the function of Gas2-related protein on chromosome 22 (GAR22β), a poorly characterized protein that interacts with actin and microtubules. Primary and immortalized GAR22β−/− Sertoli cells moved faster than wild-type cells. In addition, GAR22β−/− cells showed a more prominent focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β overexpression or its reexpression in GAR22β−/− cells reduced cell motility and focal adhesion turnover. GAR22β–actin interaction was stronger than GAR22β–microtubule interaction, resulting in GAR22β localization and dynamics that mirrored those of the actin cytoskeleton. Mechanistically, GAR22β interacted with the regulator of microtubule dynamics end-binding protein 1 (EB1) via a novel noncanonical amino acid sequence, and this GAR22β–EB1 interaction was required for the ability of GAR22β to modulate cell motility. We found that GAR22β is highly expressed in mouse testes, and its absence resulted in reduced spermatozoa generation, lower actin levels in testes, and impaired motility and ultrastructural disorganization of spermatozoa. Collectively our findings identify GAR22β as a novel regulator of cell adhesion and migration and provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis of diverse cytoskeleton-dependent processes. PMID:26564797

  18. DDA3 associates with microtubule plus ends and orchestrates microtubule dynamics and directional cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liangyu; Shao, Hengyi; Zhu, Tongge; Xia, Peng; Wang, Zhikai; Liu, Lifang; Yan, Maomao; Hill, Donald L.; Fang, Guowei; Chen, Zhengjun; Wang, Dongmei; Yao, Xuebiao

    2013-01-01

    Cell motility and adhesion involve orchestrated interaction of microtubules (MTs) with their plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs). However, the mechanisms underlying regulations of MT dynamics and directional cell migration are still elusive. Here, we show that DDA3-EB1 interaction orchestrates MT plus-end dynamics and facilitates directional cell migration. Biochemical characterizations reveal that DDA3 interacts with EB1 via its SxIP motif within the C-terminal Pro/Ser-rich region. Time-lapse and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopic assays demonstrate that DDA3 exhibits EB1-dependent, MT plus-end loading and tracking. The EB1-based loading of DDA3 is responsible for MT plus-ends stabilization at the cell cortex, which in turn orchestrates directional cell migration. Interestingly, the DDA3-EB1 interaction is potentially regulated by EB1 acetylation, which may account for physiological regulation underlying EGF-elicited cell migration. Thus, the EB1-based function of DDA3 links MT dynamics to directional cell migration. PMID:23652583

  19. Spirochete motility and morpholgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charon, Nyles

    2004-03-01

    Spirochetes have a unique structure, and as a result their motility is different from that of other bacteria. These organisms can swim in a highly viscous, gel-like medium, such as that found in connective tissue, that inhibits the motility of most other bacteria. In spirochetes, the organelles for motility, the periplasmic flagella, reside inside the cell within the periplasmic space. A given periplasmic flagellum is attached only at one end of the cell, and depending on the species, may or may not overlap in the center of the cell. The number of periplasmic flagella varies from species to species. These structures have been shown to be directly involved in motility and function by rotating within the periplasmic space (1). The present talk focuses on the spirochete that causes Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. In many bacterial species, cell shape is usually dictated by the peptidoyglycan layer of the cell wall. In the first part of the talk, results will be presented that the morphology of B. burgdorferi is the result of a complex interaction between the cell cylinder and the internal periplasmic flagella resulting in a cell with a flat-wave morphology. Backward moving, propagating waves enable these bacteria to swim and translate in a given direction. Using targeted mutagenesis, we inactivated the gene encoding the major periplasmic flagellar filament protein FlaB. The resulting flaB mutants not only were non-motile, but were rod-shaped (2). Western blot analysis indicated that flaB was no longer synthesized, and electron microscopy revealed that the mutants were completely deficient in periplasmic flagella. Our results indicate that the periplasmic flagella of B. burgdorferi have a skeletal function. These organelles dynamically interact with the rod-shaped cell cylinder to enable the cell to swim, and to confer in part its flat-wave morphology The latter part of the talk concerns the basis for asymmetrical rotation of the periplasmic flagella of B

  20. Active contraction of microtubule networks.

    PubMed

    Foster, Peter J; Fürthauer, Sebastian; Shelley, Michael J; Needleman, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by cytoskeletal assemblies. It remains unclear how cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins organize into cellular scale structures and how molecular properties of cytoskeletal components affect the large-scale behaviors of these systems. Here, we investigate the self-organization of stabilized microtubules in Xenopus oocyte extracts and find that they can form macroscopic networks that spontaneously contract. We propose that these contractions are driven by the clustering of microtubule minus ends by dynein. Based on this idea, we construct an active fluid theory of network contractions, which predicts a dependence of the timescale of contraction on initial network geometry, a development of density inhomogeneities during contraction, a constant final network density, and a strong influence of dynein inhibition on the rate of contraction, all in quantitative agreement with experiments. These results demonstrate that the motor-driven clustering of filament ends is a generic mechanism leading to contraction. PMID:26701905

  1. Active Contraction of Microtubule Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Peter; Fürthauer, Sebastian; Shelley, Michael; Needleman, Daniel

    Many cellular processes are driven by cytoskeletal assemblies. It remains unclear how cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins organize into cellular scale structures and how molecular properties of cytoskeletal components affect the large scale behaviors of these systems. Here we investigate the self-organization of stabilized microtubules in Xenopus oocyte extracts and find that they can form macroscopic networks that spontaneously contract. We propose that these contractions are driven by the clustering of microtubule minus ends by dynein. Based on this idea, we construct an active fluid theory of network contractions which predicts a dependence of the timescale of contraction on initial network geometry, a development of density inhomogeneities during contraction, a constant final network density, and a strong influence of dynein inhibition on the rate of contraction, all in quantitative agreement with experiments. These results demonstrate that the motor-driven clustering of filament ends is a generic mechanism leading to contraction.

  2. Mechanics of motility initiation and motility arrest in crawling cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recho, Pierre; Putelat, Thibaut; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2015-11-01

    Motility initiation in crawling cells requires transformation of a symmetric state into a polarized state. In contrast, motility arrest is associated with re-symmetrization of the internal configuration of a cell. Experiments on keratocytes suggest that polarization is triggered by the increased contractility of motor proteins but the conditions of re-symmetrization remain unknown. In this paper we show that if adhesion with the extra-cellular substrate is sufficiently low, the progressive intensification of motor-induced contraction may be responsible for both transitions: from static (symmetric) to motile (polarized) at a lower contractility threshold and from motile (polarized) back to static (symmetric) at a higher contractility threshold. Our model of lamellipodial cell motility is based on a 1D projection of the complex intra-cellular dynamics on the direction of locomotion. In the interest of analytical transparency we also neglect active protrusion and view adhesion as passive. Despite the unavoidable oversimplifications associated with these assumptions, the model reproduces quantitatively the motility initiation pattern in fish keratocytes and reveals a crucial role played in cell motility by the nonlocal feedback between the mechanics and the transport of active agents. A prediction of the model that a crawling cell can stop and re-symmetrize when contractility increases sufficiently far beyond the motility initiation threshold still awaits experimental verification.

  3. Statistical analysis of the motility of nano-objects propelled by molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conceição, Raquel C.; Bakewell, David; Nicolau, Dan

    2008-02-01

    Motility assays are the tools of choice for the studies regarding the motility of protein molecular motors in vitro. Despite their wide usage, some simple, but fundamental issues still need to be specifically addressed in order to achieve the best and the most meaningful motility analyses. Several tracking methods used for the study of motility have been compared. By running different statistical analyses, the impact of space versus time resolution was also studied. It has been found that for a space resolution of 80 nm and 145 nm per pixel for kinesin-microtubule and actomyosin assays, respectively, the best time resolution was ~0.9 and ~10 frame per second, respectively. A rough relationship - Ratio A and Ratio M - between space and time resolutions and velocity for actin filaments and microtubules, respectively, was found. The motility parameters such as velocity, acceleration and deflection angle were statistically analysed in frequency distribution and time domain graphs for both motors assays. One of the aims of these analyses was to study if one or two populations were present in either assay. Particularly for actomyosin assays, electric fields varying from 0 to ~10000 Vm -1 were applied and the previous parameters and the angle between filaments motion and the electric field vector were also statistically analysed. It was observed that this angle was reduced by ~55º with ~5900 Vm -1. The overall behaviour of the motors was discussed bearing in mind both present and previous results and some physio-biological characteristics. Kinesin-microtubule and actomyosin (simple and electric fields) assays were compared. Some new experiments are suggested in order to accomplish a better understanding of these motors and optimise their role in the applications that depend on them.

  4. The Interaction of Neurofilaments with the Microtubule Motor Cytoplasmic Dynein

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Oliver I.; Ascaño, Jennifer; Tokito, Mariko; Leterrier, Jean-Francois; Janmey, Paul A.; Holzbaur, Erika L. F.

    2004-01-01

    Neurofilaments are synthesized in the cell body of neurons and transported outward along the axon via slow axonal transport. Direct observation of neurofilaments trafficking in live cells suggests that the slow outward rate of transport is due to the net effects of anterograde and retrograde microtubule motors pulling in opposition. Previous studies have suggested that cytoplasmic dynein is required for efficient neurofilament transport. In this study, we examine the interaction of neurofilaments with cytoplasmic dynein. We used fluid tapping mode atomic force microscopy to visualize single neurofilaments, microtubules, dynein/dynactin, and physical interactions between these neuronal components. AFM images suggest that neurofilaments act as cargo for dynein, associating with the base of the motor complex. Yeast two-hybrid and affinity chromatography assays confirm this hypothesis, indicating that neurofilament subunit M binds directly to dynein IC. This interaction is blocked by monoclonal antibodies directed either to NF-M or to dynein. Together these data suggest that a specific interaction between neurofilament subunit M and cytoplasmic dynein is involved in the saltatory bidirectional motility of neurofilaments undergoing axonal transport in the neuron. PMID:15342782

  5. Katanin Localization Requires Triplet Microtubules in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, Jessica M.; O’Toole, Eileen; Li, Linya; Giddings, Thomas H.; Kozak, Benjamin; Albee, Alison J.; Dutcher, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Centrioles and basal bodies are essential for a variety of cellular processes that include the recruitment of proteins to these structures for both centrosomal and ciliary function. This recruitment is compromised when centriole/basal body assembly is defective. Mutations that cause basal body assembly defects confer supersensitivity to Taxol. These include bld2, bld10, bld12, uni3, vfl1, vfl2, and vfl3. Flagellar motility mutants do not confer sensitivity with the exception of mutations in the p60 (pf19) and p80 (pf15) subunits of the microtubule severing protein katanin. We have identified additional pf15 and bld2 (ε-tubulin) alleles in screens for Taxol sensitivity. Null pf15 and bld2 alleles are viable and are not essential genes in Chlamydomonas. Analysis of double mutant strains with the pf15-3 and bld2-6 null alleles suggests that basal bodies in Chlamydomonas may recruit additional proteins beyond katanin that affect spindle microtubule stability. The bld2-5 allele is a hypomorphic allele and its phenotype is modulated by nutritional cues. Basal bodies in bld2-5 cells are missing proximal ends. The basal body mutants show aberrant localization of an epitope-tagged p80 subunit of katanin. Unlike IFT proteins, katanin p80 does not localize to the transition fibers of the basal bodies based on an analysis of the uni1 mutant as well as the lack of colocalization of katanin p80 with IFT74. We suggest that the triplet microtubules are likely to play a key role in katanin p80 recruitment to the basal body of Chlamydomonas rather than the transition fibers that are needed for IFT localization. PMID:23320108

  6. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Barisic, Marin; Silva e Sousa, Ricardo; Tripathy, Suvranta K.; Magiera, Maria M.; Zaytsev, Anatoly V.; Pereira, Ana L.; Janke, Carsten; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L.; Maiato, Helder

    2015-01-01

    Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. CENP-E/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle point to the cell cortex, it remains unknown how CENP-E guides pole-proximal chromosomes specifically towards the equator. Here we found that congression of pole-proximal chromosomes depended on specific post-translational detyrosination of spindle microtubules that point to the equator. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that CENP-E-dependent transport was strongly enhanced on detyrosinated microtubules. Blocking tubulin tyrosination in cells caused ubiquitous detyrosination of spindle microtubules and CENP-E transported chromosomes away from spindle poles in random directions. Thus, CENP-E-driven chromosome congression is guided by microtubule detyrosination. PMID:25908662

  7. Mitosis. Microtubule detyrosination guides chromosomes during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Barisic, Marin; Silva e Sousa, Ricardo; Tripathy, Suvranta K; Magiera, Maria M; Zaytsev, Anatoly V; Pereira, Ana L; Janke, Carsten; Grishchuk, Ekaterina L; Maiato, Helder

    2015-05-15

    Before chromosomes segregate into daughter cells, they align at the mitotic spindle equator, a process known as chromosome congression. Centromere-associated protein E (CENP-E)/Kinesin-7 is a microtubule plus-end-directed kinetochore motor required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes. Because the plus-ends of many astral microtubules in the spindle point to the cell cortex, it remains unknown how CENP-E guides pole-proximal chromosomes specifically toward the equator. We found that congression of pole-proximal chromosomes depended on specific posttranslational detyrosination of spindle microtubules that point to the equator. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that CENP-E-dependent transport was strongly enhanced on detyrosinated microtubules. Blocking tubulin tyrosination in cells caused ubiquitous detyrosination of spindle microtubules, and CENP-E transported chromosomes away from spindle poles in random directions. Thus, CENP-E-driven chromosome congression is guided by microtubule detyrosination. PMID:25908662

  8. Ectopic A-lattice seams destabilize microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Katsuki, Miho; Drummond, Douglas R.; Cross, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Natural microtubules typically include one A-lattice seam within an otherwise helically symmetric B-lattice tube. It is currently unclear how A-lattice seams influence microtubule dynamic instability. Here we find that including extra A-lattice seams in GMPCPP microtubules, structural analogues of the GTP caps of dynamic microtubules, destabilizes them, enhancing their median shrinkage rate by >20-fold. Dynamic microtubules nucleated by seeds containing extra A-lattice seams have growth rates similar to microtubules nucleated by B-lattice seeds, yet have increased catastrophe frequencies at both ends. Furthermore, binding B-lattice GDP microtubules to a rigor kinesin surface stabilizes them against shrinkage, whereas microtubules with extra A-lattice seams are stabilized only slightly. Our data suggest that introducing extra A-lattice seams into dynamic microtubules destabilizes them by destabilizing their GTP caps. On this basis, we propose that the single A-lattice seam of natural B-lattice MTs may act as a trigger point, and potentially a regulation point, for catastrophe. PMID:24463734

  9. Microtubule-targeting-dependent reorganization of filopodia.

    PubMed

    Schober, Joseph M; Komarova, Yulia A; Chaga, Oleg Y; Akhmanova, Anna; Borisy, Gary G

    2007-04-01

    Interaction between the microtubule system and actin cytoskeleton has emerged as a fundamental process required for spatial regulation of cell protrusion and retraction activities. In our current studies, analysis of digital fluorescence images revealed targeting of microtubules to filopodia in B16F1 melanoma cells and fibroblasts. We investigated the functional consequence of targeting on filopodia reorganization and examined mechanisms by which microtubules may be guided to, or interact with, filopodia. Live cell imaging studies show that targeting events in lamellipodia wings temporally correlated with filopodia turning toward the lamellipodium midline and with filopodia merging. Rapid uncoupling of targeting with nocodazole decreased filopodia merging events and increased filopodia density. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy identified microtubules near the ventral surface and upward movement of targeted filopodia. The role of adhesion sites and microtubule plus-end proteins in targeting was investigated. Correlation of adhesion sites with microtubule targeting to filopodia was not observed and depletion of microtubule plus-end proteins did not significantly alter targeting frequency. We propose that microtubules target filopodia, independent of focal adhesions and plus-end proteins, causing filopodia movement and microtubules regulate filopodia density in lamellipodia wings through filopodia merging events. PMID:17356063

  10. Expression of Nucleolin Affects Microtubule Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Gaume, Xavier; Place, Christophe; Delage, Helene; Mongelard, Fabien; Monier, Karine; Bouvet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolin is present in diverse cellular compartments and is involved in a variety of cellular processes from nucleolar structure and function to intracellular trafficking, cell adhesion and migration. Recently, nucleolin has been localized at the mature centriole where it is involved in microtubule nucleation and anchoring. Although this new function of nucleolin linked to microtubule regulation has been identified, the global effects of nucleolin on microtubule dynamics have not been addressed yet. In the present study, we analyzed the roles of nucleolin protein levels on global microtubule dynamics by tracking the EB3 microtubule plus end binding protein in live cells. We have found that during microtubule growth phases, nucleolin affects both the speed and life time of polymerization and by analyzing catastrophe events, we showed that nucleolin reduces catastrophe frequency. This new property of nucleolin was then confirmed in a cold induced microtubule depolymerization experiment in which we have found that cold resistant microtubules were totally destabilized in nucleolin depleted cells. Altogether, our data demonstrate a new function of nucleolin on microtubule stabilization, thus bringing novel insights into understanding the multifunctional properties of nucleolin in healthy and cancer cells. PMID:27309529

  11. Association of Microtubule Dynamics with Chronic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Hu, Yida; Xiong, Yan; Li, Zhonggui; Wang, Wei; Du, Chao; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Yanke; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    Approximately 30 % of epilepsy cases are refractory to current pharmacological treatments through unknown mechanisms. Much work has been done on the role of synaptic components in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, but relatively little attention has been given to the potential role of the microtubules. We investigated the level of microtubule dynamic in 30 human epileptic tissues and two different chronic epilepsy rat models. The administration of microtubule-modulating agent attenuated the progression of chronic epilepsy. By contrast, microtubule-depolymerizing agent aggravated the progression of chronic epilepsy. The electrophysiological index by whole-cell clamp was used to investigate the neuronal excitation and inhibitory synaptic transmission in brain slices after administration of microtubule-modulating agent and microtubule-depolymerizing agent. Interestingly, we found that microtubule-modulating agent significantly increased the frequency of action potential firing in interneurons, and significantly promoted the amplitudes and frequencies of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Microtubule-depolymerizing agent had an opposite effect. These findings suggest that modulating hyperdynamic microtubules may take an anti-epileptic effect via postsynaptic mechanisms in interneurons. It could represent a potential pharmacologic target in epilepsy treatment. PMID:26377107

  12. Microtubule nucleation and organization in dendrites.

    PubMed

    Delandre, Caroline; Amikura, Reiko; Moore, Adrian W

    2016-07-01

    Dendrite branching is an essential process for building complex nervous systems. It determines the number, distribution and integration of inputs into a neuron, and is regulated to create the diverse dendrite arbor branching patterns characteristic of different neuron types. The microtubule cytoskeleton is critical to provide structure and exert force during dendrite branching. It also supports the functional requirements of dendrites, reflected by differential microtubule architectural organization between neuron types, illustrated here for sensory neurons. Both anterograde and retrograde microtubule polymerization occur within growing dendrites, and recent studies indicate that branching is enhanced by anterograde microtubule polymerization events in nascent branches. The polarities of microtubule polymerization events are regulated by the position and orientation of microtubule nucleation events in the dendrite arbor. Golgi outposts are a primary microtubule nucleation center in dendrites and share common nucleation machinery with the centrosome. In addition, pre-existing dendrite microtubules may act as nucleation sites. We discuss how balancing the activities of distinct nucleation machineries within the growing dendrite can alter microtubule polymerization polarity and dendrite branching, and how regulating this balance can generate neuron type-specific morphologies. PMID:27097122

  13. Expression of Nucleolin Affects Microtubule Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gaume, Xavier; Place, Christophe; Delage, Helene; Mongelard, Fabien; Monier, Karine; Bouvet, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolin is present in diverse cellular compartments and is involved in a variety of cellular processes from nucleolar structure and function to intracellular trafficking, cell adhesion and migration. Recently, nucleolin has been localized at the mature centriole where it is involved in microtubule nucleation and anchoring. Although this new function of nucleolin linked to microtubule regulation has been identified, the global effects of nucleolin on microtubule dynamics have not been addressed yet. In the present study, we analyzed the roles of nucleolin protein levels on global microtubule dynamics by tracking the EB3 microtubule plus end binding protein in live cells. We have found that during microtubule growth phases, nucleolin affects both the speed and life time of polymerization and by analyzing catastrophe events, we showed that nucleolin reduces catastrophe frequency. This new property of nucleolin was then confirmed in a cold induced microtubule depolymerization experiment in which we have found that cold resistant microtubules were totally destabilized in nucleolin depleted cells. Altogether, our data demonstrate a new function of nucleolin on microtubule stabilization, thus bringing novel insights into understanding the multifunctional properties of nucleolin in healthy and cancer cells. PMID:27309529

  14. c21orf59/kurly Controls Both Cilia Motility and Polarization.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Kimberly M; Grimes, Daniel T; Schottenfeld-Roames, Jodi; Werner, Michael E; Ku, Tse-Shuen J; Kim, Sun K; Pelliccia, Jose L; Morante, Nicholas F C; Mitchell, Brian J; Burdine, Rebecca D

    2016-03-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based projections that function in the movement of extracellular fluid. This requires cilia to be: (1) motile and driven by dynein complexes and (2) correctly polarized on the surface of cells, which requires planar cell polarity (PCP). Few factors that regulate both processes have been discovered. We reveal that C21orf59/Kurly (Kur), a cytoplasmic protein with some enrichment at the base of cilia, is needed for motility; zebrafish mutants exhibit characteristic developmental abnormalities and dynein arm defects. kur was also required for proper cilia polarization in the zebrafish kidney and the larval skin of Xenopus laevis. CRISPR/Cas9 coupled with homologous recombination to disrupt the endogenous kur locus in Xenopus resulted in the asymmetric localization of the PCP protein Prickle2 being lost in mutant multiciliated cells. Kur also makes interactions with other PCP components, including Disheveled. This supports a model wherein Kur plays a dual role in cilia motility and polarization. PMID:26904945

  15. Insights into the Structure and Function of Ciliary and Flagellar Doublet Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Linck, Richard; Fu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianfeng; Ouch, Christna; Schefter, Alexandra; Steffen, Walter; Warren, Peter; Nicastro, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are conserved, motile, and sensory cell organelles involved in signal transduction and human disease. Their scaffold consists of a 9-fold array of remarkably stable doublet microtubules (DMTs), along which motor proteins transmit force for ciliary motility and intraflagellar transport. DMTs possess Ribbons of three to four hyper-stable protofilaments whose location, organization, and specialized functions have been elusive. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the distribution and structural arrangements of Ribbon proteins from sea urchin sperm flagella, using quantitative immunobiochemistry, proteomics, immuno-cryo-electron microscopy, and tomography. Isolated Ribbons contain acetylated α-tubulin, β-tubulin, conserved protein Rib45, >95% of the axonemal tektins, and >95% of the calcium-binding proteins, Rib74 and Rib85.5, whose human homologues are related to the cause of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. DMTs contain only one type of Ribbon, corresponding to protofilaments A11-12-13-1 of the A-tubule. Rib74 and Rib85.5 are associated with the Ribbon in the lumen of the A-tubule. Ribbons contain a single ∼5-nm wide filament, composed of equimolar tektins A, B, and C, which interact with the nexin-dynein regulatory complex. A summary of findings is presented, and the functions of Ribbon proteins are discussed in terms of the assembly and stability of DMTs, ciliary motility, and other microtubule systems. PMID:24794867

  16. Peroxisomes, lipid droplets, and endoplasmic reticulum "hitchhike" on motile early endosomes.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Sofia C; Schuster, Martin; Bielska, Ewa; Dagdas, Gulay; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Meadows, Ben R A; Schrader, Michael; Steinberg, Gero

    2015-12-01

    Intracellular transport is mediated by molecular motors that bind cargo to be transported along the cytoskeleton. Here, we report, for the first time, that peroxisomes (POs), lipid droplets (LDs), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) rely on early endosomes (EEs) for intracellular movement in a fungal model system. We show that POs undergo kinesin-3- and dynein-dependent transport along microtubules. Surprisingly, kinesin-3 does not colocalize with POs. Instead, the motor moves EEs that drag the POs through the cell. PO motility is abolished when EE motility is blocked in various mutants. Most LD and ER motility also depends on EE motility, whereas mitochondria move independently of EEs. Covisualization studies show that EE-mediated ER motility is not required for PO or LD movement, suggesting that the organelles interact with EEs independently. In the absence of EE motility, POs and LDs cluster at the growing tip, whereas ER is partially retracted to subapical regions. Collectively, our results show that moving EEs interact transiently with other organelles, thereby mediating their directed transport and distribution in the cell. PMID:26620910

  17. Peroxisomes, lipid droplets, and endoplasmic reticulum “hitchhike” on motile early endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes, Sofia C.; Schuster, Martin; Bielska, Ewa; Dagdas, Gulay; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Meadows, Ben R.A.; Schrader, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular transport is mediated by molecular motors that bind cargo to be transported along the cytoskeleton. Here, we report, for the first time, that peroxisomes (POs), lipid droplets (LDs), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) rely on early endosomes (EEs) for intracellular movement in a fungal model system. We show that POs undergo kinesin-3– and dynein-dependent transport along microtubules. Surprisingly, kinesin-3 does not colocalize with POs. Instead, the motor moves EEs that drag the POs through the cell. PO motility is abolished when EE motility is blocked in various mutants. Most LD and ER motility also depends on EE motility, whereas mitochondria move independently of EEs. Covisualization studies show that EE-mediated ER motility is not required for PO or LD movement, suggesting that the organelles interact with EEs independently. In the absence of EE motility, POs and LDs cluster at the growing tip, whereas ER is partially retracted to subapical regions. Collectively, our results show that moving EEs interact transiently with other organelles, thereby mediating their directed transport and distribution in the cell. PMID:26620910

  18. HEATR2 Plays a Conserved Role in Assembly of the Ciliary Motile Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    zur Lage, Petra; Ait-Lounis, Aouatef; Schmidts, Miriam; Shoemark, Amelia; Garcia Munoz, Amaya; Halachev, Mihail R.; Gautier, Philippe; Yeyati, Patricia L.; Bonthron, David T.; Carr, Ian M.; Hayward, Bruce; Markham, Alexander F.; Hope, Jilly E.; von Kriegsheim, Alex; Mitchison, Hannah M.; Jackson, Ian J.; Durand, Bénédicte; Reith, Walter; Sheridan, Eamonn; Jarman, Andrew P.; Mill, Pleasantine

    2014-01-01

    Cilia are highly conserved microtubule-based structures that perform a variety of sensory and motility functions during development and adult homeostasis. In humans, defects specifically affecting motile cilia lead to chronic airway infections, infertility and laterality defects in the genetically heterogeneous disorder Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD). Using the comparatively simple Drosophila system, in which mechanosensory neurons possess modified motile cilia, we employed a recently elucidated cilia transcriptional RFX-FOX code to identify novel PCD candidate genes. Here, we report characterization of CG31320/HEATR2, which plays a conserved critical role in forming the axonemal dynein arms required for ciliary motility in both flies and humans. Inner and outer arm dyneins are absent from axonemes of CG31320 mutant flies and from PCD individuals with a novel splice-acceptor HEATR2 mutation. Functional conservation of closely arranged RFX-FOX binding sites upstream of HEATR2 orthologues may drive higher cytoplasmic expression of HEATR2 during early motile ciliogenesis. Immunoprecipitation reveals HEATR2 interacts with DNAI2, but not HSP70 or HSP90, distinguishing it from the client/chaperone functions described for other cytoplasmic proteins required for dynein arm assembly such as DNAAF1-4. These data implicate CG31320/HEATR2 in a growing intracellular pre-assembly and transport network that is necessary to deliver functional dynein machinery to the ciliary compartment for integration into the motile axoneme. PMID:25232951

  19. Glass micro-wire tracks for guiding kinesin-powered gliding motion of microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Liao, A. L.; Sikora, A.; Oliveira, D.; Umetsu, M.; Kumagai, I.; Adschiri, T.; Hwang, W.; Teizer, W.

    2013-03-01

    Kinesin, an enzyme molecule found in eukaryotic cells, walks on specific paths, namely microtubules. These microtubules, self-assembled in-vitro, cooperate with kinesin molecules by playing the role of either a track for the molecular motors or a lengthy cargo lorry driven by the motor molecules. One of major challenges in utilization of the latter case, which is particularly advantageous for practical applications because of the longer cruising range and the higher carrying capacity of the bio-transporter, is herding the gliding microtubules. A general approach to achieve this goal is aligning motor molecules along a track. In previous attempts such tracks were physically and/or chemically patterned on a glass surface. We use a kinesin-coated glass wire to demonstrate kinesin-powered gliding movement of microtubules confined by the wire-like structure. This new approach distinguishes itself in that the glass wire track is an independent entity, being separable from a two-dimensional surface in principle. We will also discuss quantitative analysis of the guided motility and potential applications.

  20. MDM1 is a microtubule-binding protein that negatively regulates centriole duplication

    PubMed Central

    Van de Mark, Daniel; Kong, Dong; Loncarek, Jadranka; Stearns, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Mouse double-minute 1 (Mdm1) was originally identified as a gene amplified in transformed mouse cells and more recently as being highly up-regulated during differentiation of multiciliated epithelial cells, a specialized cell type having hundreds of centrioles and motile cilia. Here we show that the MDM1 protein localizes to centrioles of dividing cells and differentiating multiciliated cells. 3D-SIM microscopy showed that MDM1 is closely associated with the centriole barrel, likely residing in the centriole lumen. Overexpression of MDM1 suppressed centriole duplication, whereas depletion of MDM1 resulted in an increase in granular material that likely represents early intermediates in centriole formation. We show that MDM1 binds microtubules in vivo and in vitro. We identified a repeat motif in MDM1 that is required for efficient microtubule binding and found that these repeats are also present in CCSAP, another microtubule-binding protein. We propose that MDM1 is a negative regulator of centriole duplication and that its function is mediated through microtubule binding. PMID:26337392

  1. Novel mitochondrial extensions provide evidence for a link between microtubule-directed movement and mitochondrial fission

    SciTech Connect

    Bowes, Timothy; Gupta, Radhey S.

    2008-11-07

    Mitochondrial dynamics play an important role in a large number of cellular processes. Previously, we reported that treatment of mammalian cells with the cysteine-alkylators, N-ethylmaleimide and ethacrynic acid, induced rapid mitochondrial fusion forming a large reticulum approximately 30 min after treatment. Here, we further investigated this phenomenon using a number of techniques including live-cell confocal microscopy. In live cells, drug-induced fusion coincided with a cessation of fast mitochondrial movement which was dependent on microtubules. During this loss of movement, thin mitochondrial tubules extending from mitochondria were also observed, which we refer to as 'mitochondrial extensions'. The formation of these mitochondrial extensions, which were not observed in untreated cells, depended on microtubules and was abolished by pretreatment with nocodazole. In this study, we provide evidence that these extensions result from of a block in mitochondrial fission combined with continued application of motile force by microtubule-dependent motor complexes. Our observations strongly suggest the existence of a link between microtubule-based mitochondrial trafficking and mitochondrial fission.

  2. Wolbachia Utilizes Host Microtubules and Dynein for Anterior Localization in the Drosophila Oocyte

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jennifer M; Cao, Jian; Wieschaus, Eric; Sullivan, William

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the role of the host cytoskeleton in the maternal transmission of the endoparasitic bacteria Wolbachia, we have characterized their distribution in the female germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. In the germarium, Wolbachia are distributed to all germ cells of the cyst, establishing an early infection in the cell destined to become the oocyte. During mid-oogenesis, Wolbachia exhibit a distinct concentration between the anterior cortex and the nucleus in the oocyte, where many bacteria appear to contact the nuclear envelope. Following programmed rearrangement of the microtubule network, Wolbachia dissociate from this anterior position and become dispersed throughout the oocyte. This localization pattern is distinct from mitochondria and all known axis determinants. Manipulation of microtubules and cytoplasmic Dynein and Dynactin, but not Kinesin-1, disrupts anterior bacterial localization in the oocyte. In live egg chambers, Wolbachia exhibit movement in nurse cells but not in the oocyte, suggesting that the bacteria are anchored by host factors. In addition, we identify mid-oogenesis as a period in the life cycle of Wolbachia in which bacterial replication occurs. Total bacterial counts show that Wolbachia increase at a significantly higher rate in the oocyte than in the average nurse cell, and that normal Wolbachia levels in the oocyte depend on microtubules. These findings demonstrate that Wolbachia utilize the host microtubule network and associated proteins for their subcellular localization in the Drosophila oocyte. These interactions may also play a role in bacterial motility and replication, ultimately leading to the bacteria's efficient maternal transmission. PMID:16228015

  3. Cyclic GMP and Cilia Motility

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Motile cilia of the lungs respond to environmental challenges by increasing their ciliary beat frequency in order to enhance mucociliary clearance as a fundamental tenant of innate defense. One important second messenger in transducing the regulable nature of motile cilia is cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP). In this review, the history of cGMP action is presented and a survey of the existing data addressing cGMP action in ciliary motility is presented. Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated regulation of cGMP in ciliated cells is presented in the context of alcohol-induced cilia function and dysfunction. PMID:26264028

  4. Microtubule segment stabilization by RASSF1A is required for proper microtubule dynamics and Golgi integrity

    PubMed Central

    Arnette, Christopher; Efimova, Nadia; Zhu, Xiaodong; Clark, Geoffrey J.; Kaverina, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor and microtubule-associated protein Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A) has a major effect on many cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression and apoptosis. RASSF1A expression is frequently silenced in cancer and is associated with increased metastasis. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that RASSF1A regulates microtubule organization and dynamics in interphase cells, as well as its effect on Golgi integrity and cell polarity. Our results show that RASSF1A uses a unique microtubule-binding pattern to promote site-specific microtubule rescues, and loss of RASSF1A leads to decreased microtubule stability. Furthermore, RASSF1A-associated stable microtubule segments are necessary to prevent Golgi fragmentation and dispersal in cancer cells and maintain a polarized cell front. These results indicate that RASSF1A is a key regulator in the fine tuning of microtubule dynamics in interphase cells and proper Golgi organization and cell polarity. PMID:24478455

  5. Movement of chromosomes with severed kinetochore microtubules.

    PubMed

    Forer, Arthur; Johansen, Kristen M; Johansen, Jørgen

    2015-05-01

    Experiments dating from 1966 and thereafter showed that anaphase chromosomes continued to move poleward after their kinetochore microtubules were severed by ultraviolet microbeam irradiation. These observations were initially met with scepticism as they contradicted the prevailing view that kinetochore fibre microtubules pulled chromosomes to the pole. However, recent experiments using visible light laser microbeam irradiations have corroborated these earlier experiments as anaphase chromosomes again were shown to move poleward after their kinetochore microtubules were severed. Thus, multiple independent studies using different techniques have shown that chromosomes can indeed move poleward without direct microtubule connections to the pole, with only a kinetochore 'stub' of microtubules. An issue not yet settled is: what propels the disconnected chromosome? There are two not necessarily mutually exclusive proposals in the literature: (1) chromosome movement is propelled by the kinetochore stub interacting with non-kinetochore microtubules and (2) chromosome movement is propelled by a spindle matrix acting on the stub. In this review, we summarise the data indicating that chromosomes can move with severed kinetochore microtubules and we discuss proposed mechanisms for chromosome movement with severed kinetochore microtubules. PMID:25576435

  6. Dynamics of Actively Driven Crosslinked Microtubule Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vikrant; Stanhope, Kasimira; Evans, Arthur A.; Ross, Jennifer L.

    We have designed a model experiment to explore dynamics of crosslinked active microtubule clusters crosslinked with MAP65. Microtubule clusters are allowed to settle on a slide coated with kinesin-1 molecular motors, which move microtubules. We systematically tune either concentration of cross linkers bound to microtubule (ρc) or the global concentration of microtubules (ρMT) . We quantified the shape of the cluster by measuring the standard deviation (σ) of the cluster outline. At low ρMTor ρc the network is in an expanding state. At higher ρMTor ρc expansion slows down, reaches zero at a critical density, and become negative indicating contraction. Further increase of ρMTor ρc halts any kind of dynamics. The ρMT-ρc phase space shows distinct regions of extensile, contractile and static regimes. We model these results using active hydrodynamic theory. Microtubules are modeled as active rods whereas effect of crosslinkers is modeled using a collision term that prefers anti-parallel alignment of microtubules. A linearized analysis of hydrodynamic equation predicts existence of density driven expanding, contracting, and static phases for microtubule clusters.

  7. Profilin connects actin assembly with microtubule dynamics.

    PubMed

    Nejedla, Michaela; Sadi, Sara; Sulimenko, Vadym; de Almeida, Francisca Nunes; Blom, Hans; Draber, Pavel; Aspenström, Pontus; Karlsson, Roger

    2016-08-01

    Profilin controls actin nucleation and assembly processes in eukaryotic cells. Actin nucleation and elongation promoting factors (NEPFs) such as Ena/VASP, formins, and WASP-family proteins recruit profilin:actin for filament formation. Some of these are found to be microtubule associated, making actin polymerization from microtubule-associated platforms possible. Microtubules are implicated in focal adhesion turnover, cell polarity establishment, and migration, illustrating the coupling between actin and microtubule systems. Here we demonstrate that profilin is functionally linked to microtubules with formins and point to formins as major mediators of this association. To reach this conclusion, we combined different fluorescence microscopy techniques, including superresolution microscopy, with siRNA modulation of profilin expression and drug treatments to interfere with actin dynamics. Our studies show that profilin dynamically associates with microtubules and this fraction of profilin contributes to balance actin assembly during homeostatic cell growth and affects micro-tubule dynamics. Hence profilin functions as a regulator of microtubule (+)-end turnover in addition to being an actin control element. PMID:27307590

  8. Kinesin-5 is a microtubule polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yalei; Hancock, William O

    2015-01-01

    Kinesin-5 slides antiparallel microtubules during spindle assembly, and regulates the branching of growing axons. Besides the mechanical activities enabled by its tetrameric configuration, the specific motor properties of kinesin-5 that underlie its cellular function remain unclear. Here by engineering a stable kinesin-5 dimer and reconstituting microtubule dynamics in vitro, we demonstrate that kinesin-5 promotes microtubule polymerization by increasing the growth rate and decreasing the catastrophe frequency. Strikingly, microtubules growing in the presence of kinesin-5 have curved plus ends, suggesting that the motor stabilizes growing protofilaments. Single-molecule fluorescence experiments reveal that kinesin-5 remains bound to the plus ends of static microtubules for 7 s, and tracks growing microtubule plus ends in a manner dependent on its processivity. We propose that kinesin-5 pauses at microtubule plus ends and enhances polymerization by stabilizing longitudinal tubulin–tubulin interactions, and that these activities underlie the ability kinesin-5 to slide and stabilize microtubule bundles in cells. PMID:26437877

  9. Kinesin-12 motors cooperate to suppress microtubule catastrophes and drive the formation of parallel microtubule bundles.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Hauke; McAinsh, Andrew D

    2016-03-22

    Human Kinesin-12 (hKif15) plays a crucial role in assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. These functions of hKif15 are partially redundant with Kinesin-5 (Eg5), which can cross-link and drive the extensile sliding of antiparallel microtubules. Although both motors are known to be tetramers, the functional properties of hKif15 are less well understood. Here we reveal how single or multiple Kif15 motors can cross-link, transport, and focus the plus-ends of intersecting microtubules. During transport, Kif15 motors step simultaneously along both microtubules with relative microtubule transport driven by a velocity differential between motor domain pairs. Remarkably, this differential is affected by the underlying intersection geometry: the differential is low on parallel and extreme on antiparallel microtubules where one motor domain pair becomes immobile. As a result, when intersecting microtubules are antiparallel, canonical transport of one microtubule along the other is allowed because one motor is firmly attached to one microtubule while it is stepping on the other. When intersecting microtubules are parallel, however, Kif15 motors can drive (biased) parallel sliding because the motor simultaneously steps on both microtubules that it cross-links. These microtubule rearrangements will focus microtubule plus-ends and finally lead to the formation of parallel bundles. At the same time, Kif15 motors cooperate to suppress catastrophe events at polymerizing microtubule plus-ends, raising the possibility that Kif15 motors may synchronize the dynamics of bundles that they have assembled. Thus, Kif15 is adapted to operate on parallel microtubule substrates, a property that clearly distinguishes it from the other tetrameric spindle motor, Eg5. PMID:26969727

  10. Kinesin-12 motors cooperate to suppress microtubule catastrophes and drive the formation of parallel microtubule bundles

    PubMed Central

    Drechsler, Hauke; McAinsh, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Human Kinesin-12 (hKif15) plays a crucial role in assembly and maintenance of the mitotic spindle. These functions of hKif15 are partially redundant with Kinesin-5 (Eg5), which can cross-link and drive the extensile sliding of antiparallel microtubules. Although both motors are known to be tetramers, the functional properties of hKif15 are less well understood. Here we reveal how single or multiple Kif15 motors can cross-link, transport, and focus the plus-ends of intersecting microtubules. During transport, Kif15 motors step simultaneously along both microtubules with relative microtubule transport driven by a velocity differential between motor domain pairs. Remarkably, this differential is affected by the underlying intersection geometry: the differential is low on parallel and extreme on antiparallel microtubules where one motor domain pair becomes immobile. As a result, when intersecting microtubules are antiparallel, canonical transport of one microtubule along the other is allowed because one motor is firmly attached to one microtubule while it is stepping on the other. When intersecting microtubules are parallel, however, Kif15 motors can drive (biased) parallel sliding because the motor simultaneously steps on both microtubules that it cross-links. These microtubule rearrangements will focus microtubule plus-ends and finally lead to the formation of parallel bundles. At the same time, Kif15 motors cooperate to suppress catastrophe events at polymerizing microtubule plus-ends, raising the possibility that Kif15 motors may synchronize the dynamics of bundles that they have assembled. Thus, Kif15 is adapted to operate on parallel microtubule substrates, a property that clearly distinguishes it from the other tetrameric spindle motor, Eg5. PMID:26969727

  11. On complex, curved trajectories in microtubule gliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Mohrbach, Hervé; Kulić, Igor M.; Ziebert, Falko

    2016-04-01

    We study the dynamics of microtubules in gliding assays. These biofilaments are typically considered as purely semiflexible, hence their trajectories under the action of motors covering the substrate have been regarded so far as straight, modulo fluctuations. However, this is not always the case experimentally, where microtubules are known to move on large scale circles or spirals, or even display quite regular wavy trajectories and more complex dynamics. Incorporating recent experimental evidence for a (small) preferred curvature as well as the microtubules' well established lattice twist into a dynamic model for microtubule gliding, we could reproduce both types of trajectories. Interestingly, as a function of the microtubules' length we found length intervals of stable rings alternating with regions where wavy and more complex dynamics prevails. Finally, both types of dynamics (rings and waves) can be rationalized by considering simple limits of the full model.

  12. Active contraction of microtubule networks

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Peter J; Fürthauer, Sebastian; Shelley, Michael J; Needleman, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by cytoskeletal assemblies. It remains unclear how cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins organize into cellular scale structures and how molecular properties of cytoskeletal components affect the large-scale behaviors of these systems. Here, we investigate the self-organization of stabilized microtubules in Xenopus oocyte extracts and find that they can form macroscopic networks that spontaneously contract. We propose that these contractions are driven by the clustering of microtubule minus ends by dynein. Based on this idea, we construct an active fluid theory of network contractions, which predicts a dependence of the timescale of contraction on initial network geometry, a development of density inhomogeneities during contraction, a constant final network density, and a strong influence of dynein inhibition on the rate of contraction, all in quantitative agreement with experiments. These results demonstrate that the motor-driven clustering of filament ends is a generic mechanism leading to contraction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10837.001 PMID:26701905

  13. Microtubule networks for plant cell division.

    PubMed

    de Keijzer, Jeroen; Mulder, Bela M; Janson, Marcel E

    2014-09-01

    During cytokinesis the cytoplasm of a cell is divided to form two daughter cells. In animal cells, the existing plasma membrane is first constricted and then abscised to generate two individual plasma membranes. Plant cells on the other hand divide by forming an interior dividing wall, the so-called cell plate, which is constructed by localized deposition of membrane and cell wall material. Construction starts in the centre of the cell at the locus of the mitotic spindle and continues radially towards the existing plasma membrane. Finally the membrane of the cell plate and plasma membrane fuse to form two individual plasma membranes. Two microtubule-based cytoskeletal networks, the phragmoplast and the pre-prophase band (PPB), jointly control cytokinesis in plants. The bipolar microtubule array of the phragmoplast regulates cell plate deposition towards a cortical position that is templated by the ring-shaped microtubule array of the PPB. In contrast to most animal cells, plants do not use centrosomes as foci of microtubule growth initiation. Instead, plant microtubule networks are striking examples of self-organizing systems that emerge from physically constrained interactions of dispersed microtubules. Here we will discuss how microtubule-based activities including growth, shrinkage, severing, sliding, nucleation and bundling interrelate to jointly generate the required ordered structures. Evidence mounts that adapter proteins sense the local geometry of microtubules to locally modulate the activity of proteins involved in microtubule growth regulation and severing. Many of the proteins and mechanisms involved have roles in other microtubule assemblies as well, bestowing broader relevance to insights gained from plants. PMID:25136380

  14. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

  15. Proteomic Analysis of the Mammalian Katanin Family of Microtubule-severing Enzymes Defines Katanin p80 subunit B-like 1 (KATNBL1) as a Regulator of Mammalian Katanin Microtubule-severing.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Keith; Senese, Silvia; Kuang, Jiaen; Bui, Ngoc; Ongpipattanakul, Chayanid; Gholkar, Ankur; Cohn, Whitaker; Capri, Joseph; Whitelegge, Julian P; Torres, Jorge Z

    2016-05-01

    The Katanin family of microtubule-severing enzymes is critical for remodeling microtubule-based structures that influence cell division, motility, morphogenesis and signaling. Katanin is composed of a catalytic p60 subunit (A subunit, KATNA1) and a regulatory p80 subunit (B subunit, KATNB1). The mammalian genome also encodes two additional A-like subunits (KATNAL1 and KATNAL2) and one additional B-like subunit (KATNBL1) that have remained poorly characterized. To better understand the factors and mechanisms controlling mammalian microtubule-severing, we have taken a mass proteomic approach to define the protein interaction module for each mammalian Katanin subunit and to generate the mammalian Katanin family interaction network (Katan-ome). Further, we have analyzed the function of the KATNBL1 subunit and determined that it associates with KATNA1 and KATNAL1, it localizes to the spindle poles only during mitosis and it regulates Katanin A subunit microtubule-severing activity in vitro Interestingly, during interphase, KATNBL1 is sequestered in the nucleus through an N-terminal nuclear localization signal. Finally KATNB1 was able to compete the interaction of KATNBL1 with KATNA1 and KATNAL1. These data indicate that KATNBL1 functions as a regulator of Katanin A subunit microtubule-severing activity during mitosis and that it likely coordinates with KATNB1 to perform this function. PMID:26929214

  16. Motility mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    We describe six motility mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum in this report. They were identified among a group of temperature-sensitive growth (Tsg) mutants that had been previously isolated using an enrichment for phagocytosis-defective cells. The Tsg mutants were screened for their ability to produce tracks on gold-coated cover slips, and several strains were found that were temperature-sensitive for migration in this assay. Analysis of spontaneous Tsg+ revertants of 10 migration-defective strains identified six strains that co-reverted the Tsg and track formation phenotypes. Characterization of these six strains indicated that they were defective at restrictive temperature in track formation, phagocytosis of bacteria, and pseudopodial and filopodial activity, while retaining normal rates of oxygen consumption and viability. Because they had lost this group of motile capabilities, these strains were designated motility mutants. The Tsg+ revertants of these mutants, which coordinately recovered all of the motile activities, were found at frequencies consistent with single genetic events. Analysis of the motility mutants and their revertants suggests a relationship between the motility mutations in some of these strains and genes affecting axenic growth. PMID:7118999

  17. Actin-based phagosome motility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangliang; Southwick, Frederick S; Purich, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Despite abundant evidence of actin's involvement at the particle internalization stage of phagocytosis, little is known about whether phagosomes undergo the same type of actin-based motility as observed with endocytic vesicles or such intracellular pathogens as Listeria and Shigella. By employing video microscopy to follow the fate of latex bead-containing phagosomes within the cytoplasm of bone marrow macrophages, we have made the novel observation of actin-based phagosome motility. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that phagosomes containing IgG-opsonized, bovine serum albumin (or BSA) -coated or uncoated latex beads all formed actin-rich rocket tails that persisted only during a brief, 1-2 min period of actin-based motility. Average speeds of actin-based phagosome motility were 0.13 +/- 0.06 microm/s for IgG-coated beads, 0.14 +/- 0.04 microm/s for BSA-coated beads, and 0.11+/- 0.03 microm/s for uncoated beads. Moreover, the speeds and motile-phase duration of each type of phagosome were comparable to the behavior of pinosomes [Merrifield et al., 1999: Nat. Cell Biol. 1:72-74.]. Determination of optimal conditions for observing and analyzing actin-based phagosome motility should facilitate future investigations of phagocytosis and phagosome maturation. PMID:12211106

  18. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

  19. TCTP regulates spindle microtubule dynamics by stabilizing polar microtubules during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyuk-Joon; You, Seung Yeop; Park, Yong Seok; Chang, Jong Wook; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Jeong Su

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic changes in spindle structure and function are essential for maintaining genomic integrity during the cell cycle. Spindle dynamics are highly dependent on several microtubule-associated proteins that coordinate the dynamic behavior of microtubules, including microtubule assembly, stability and organization. Here, we show that translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a novel microtubule-associated protein that regulates spindle dynamics during meiotic maturation. TCTP was expressed and widely distributed in the cytoplasm with strong enrichment at the spindle microtubules during meiosis. TCTP was found to be phosphorylated during meiotic maturation, and was exclusively localized to the spindle poles. Knockdown of TCTP impaired spindle organization without affecting chromosome alignment. These spindle defects were mostly due to the destabilization of the polar microtubules. However, the stability of kinetochore microtubules attached to chromosomes was not affected by TCTP knockdown. Overexpression of a nonphosphorylable mutant of TCTP disturbed meiotic maturation, stabilizing the spindle microtubules. In addition, Plk1 was decreased by TCTP knockdown. Taken together, our results demonstrate that TCTP is a microtubule-associating protein required to regulate spindle microtubule dynamics during meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes. PMID:26802898

  20. Microtubule bundling plays a role in ethylene-mediated cortical microtubule reorientation in etiolated Arabidopsis hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qianqian; Sun, Jingbo; Mao, Tonglin

    2016-05-15

    The gaseous hormone ethylene is known to regulate plant growth under etiolated conditions (the 'triple response'). Although organization of cortical microtubules is essential for cell elongation, the underlying mechanisms that regulate microtubule organization by hormone signaling, including ethylene, are ambiguous. In the present study, we demonstrate that ethylene signaling participates in regulation of cortical microtubule reorientation. In particular, regulation of microtubule bundling is important for this process in etiolated hypocotyls. Time-lapse analysis indicated that selective stabilization of microtubule-bundling structures formed in various arrays is related to ethylene-mediated microtubule orientation. Bundling events and bundle growth lifetimes were significantly increased in oblique and longitudinal arrays, but decreased in transverse arrays in wild-type cells in response to ethylene. However, the effects of ethylene on microtubule bundling were partially suppressed in a microtubule-bundling protein WDL5 knockout mutant (wdl5-1). This study suggests that modulation of microtubule bundles that have formed in certain orientations plays a role in reorienting microtubule arrays in response to ethylene-mediated etiolated hypocotyl cell elongation. PMID:27044753

  1. Xyloglucan Deficiency Disrupts Microtubule Stability and Cellulose Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, Altering Cell Growth and Morphogenesis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Chaowen; Zhang, Tian; Zheng, Yunzhen

    2016-01-01

    Xyloglucan constitutes most of the hemicellulose in eudicot primary cell walls and functions in cell wall structure and mechanics. Although Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) xxt1 xxt2 mutants lacking detectable xyloglucan are viable, they display growth defects that are suggestive of alterations in wall integrity. To probe the mechanisms underlying these defects, we analyzed cellulose arrangement, microtubule patterning and dynamics, microtubule- and wall-integrity-related gene expression, and cellulose biosynthesis in xxt1 xxt2 plants. We found that cellulose is highly aligned in xxt1 xxt2 cell walls, that its three-dimensional distribution is altered, and that microtubule patterning and stability are aberrant in etiolated xxt1 xxt2 hypocotyls. We also found that the expression levels of microtubule-associated genes, such as MAP70-5 and CLASP, and receptor genes, such as HERK1 and WAK1, were changed in xxt1 xxt2 plants and that cellulose synthase motility is reduced in xxt1 xxt2 cells, corresponding with a reduction in cellulose content. Our results indicate that loss of xyloglucan affects both the stability of the microtubule cytoskeleton and the production and patterning of cellulose in primary cell walls. These findings establish, to our knowledge, new links between wall integrity, cytoskeletal dynamics, and wall synthesis in the regulation of plant morphogenesis. PMID:26527657

  2. Obstacles on the Microtubule Reduce the Processivity of Kinesin-1 in a Minimal In Vitro System and in Cell Extract

    PubMed Central

    Telley, Ivo A.; Bieling, Peter; Surrey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Inside cells, a multitude of molecular motors and other microtubule-associated proteins are expected to compete for binding to a limited number of binding sites available on microtubules. Little is known about how competition for binding sites affects the processivity of molecular motors and, therefore, cargo transport, organelle positioning, and microtubule organization, processes that all depend on the activity of more or less processive motors. Very few studies have been performed in the past to address this question directly. Most studies reported only minor effects of crowding on the velocity of motors. However, a controversy appears to exist regarding the effect of crowding on motor processivity. Here, we use single-molecule imaging of mGFP-labeled minimal dimeric kinesin-1 constructs in vitro to study the effects of competition on kinesin's processivity. For competitors, we use kinesin rigor mutants as static roadblocks, minimal wild-type kinesins as motile obstacles, and a cell extract as a complex mixture of microtubule-associated proteins. We find that mGFP-labeled kinesin-1 detaches prematurely from microtubules when it encounters obstacles, leading to a strong reduction of its processivity, a behavior that is largely independent of the type of obstacle used here. Kinesin has a low probability to wait briefly when encountering roadblocks. Our data suggest, furthermore, that kinesin can occasionally pass obstacles on the protofilament track. PMID:19383477

  3. APC is an RNA-Binding Protein and its Interactome Provides a Link to Neural Development and Microtubule Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Preitner, Nicolas; Quan, Jie; Nowakowski, Dan W.; Hancock, Melissa L.; Shi, Jianhua; Tcherkezian, Joseph; Young-Pearse, Tracy L.; Flanagan, John G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) is a microtubule plus-end scaffolding protein important in biology and disease. APC is implicated in RNA localization, although the mechanisms and functional significance remain unclear. We show that APC is an RNA-binding protein, and identify an RNA interactome by HITS-CLIP. Targets were highly enriched for APC-related functions, including microtubule organization, cell motility, cancer and neurologic disease. Among the targets is β2B-tubulin, known to be required in human neuron and axon migration. We show β2B-tubulin is synthesized in axons and localizes preferentially to dynamic microtubules in the growth cone periphery. APC binds the β2B-tubulin 3'UTR; treatments interfering with this interaction reduced β2B-tubulin mRNA axonal localization and expression, depleted dynamic microtubules and the growth cone periphery, and impaired neuron migration. These results identify APC as a platform binding functionally-related protein and RNA networks, and suggest a self-organizing model for the microtubule to localize synthesis of its own subunits. PMID:25036633

  4. Special type of morphological reorganization induced by phorbol ester: reversible partition of cell into motile and stable domains

    SciTech Connect

    Dugina, V.B.; Svitkina, T.M.; Vasiliev, J.M.; Gelfand, I.M.

    1987-06-01

    The phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induced reversible alteration of the shape of fibroblastic cells of certain transformed lines-namely, partition of the cells into two types of domains: motile body actively extending large lamellas and stable narrow cytoplasmic processes. Dynamic observations have shown that stable processes are formed from partially retracted lamellas and from contracted tail parts of cell bodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy of platinum replicas of cytoskeleton have shown that PMA-induced narrow processes are rich in microtubules and intermediate filaments but relatively poor in actin microfilaments; in contrast, lamellas and cell bodies contained numerous microfilaments. Colcemid-induced depolymerization of microtubules led to contraction of PMA-induced processes; cytochalasin B prevented this contraction. It is suggested that PMA-induced separation of cell into motile and stable parts is due to directional movement of actin structures along the microtubular framework. Similar movements may play an important role in various normal morphogenetic processes.

  5. Structural Basis of Backwards Motion in Kinesin-1-Kinesin-14 Chimera: Implication for Kinesin-14 Motility.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Masahiko; Shigematsu, Hideki; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Kikkawa, Masahide; Sugawa, Mitsuhiro; Aoki, Mari; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yajima, Junichiro; Nitta, Ryo

    2016-08-01

    Kinesin-14 is a unique minus-end-directed microtubule-based motor. A swinging motion of a class-specific N-terminal neck helix has been proposed to produce minus-end directionality. However, it is unclear how swinging of the neck helix is driven by ATP hydrolysis utilizing the highly conserved catalytic core among all kinesins. Here, using a motility assay, we show that in addition to the neck helix, the conserved five residues at the C-terminal region in kinesin-14, namely the neck mimic, are necessary to give kinesin-1 an ability to reverse its directionality toward the minus end of microtubules. Our structural analyses further demonstrate that the C-terminal neck mimic, in cooperation with conformational changes in the catalytic core during ATP binding, forms a kinesin-14 bundle with the N-terminal neck helix to swing toward the minus end of microtubules. Thus, the neck mimic plays a crucial role in coupling the chemical ATPase reaction with the mechanical cycle to produce the minus-end-directed motility of kinesin-14. PMID:27452403

  6. Microtubules in the spermatids of stick insects.

    PubMed

    Afzelius, B A

    1988-01-01

    Spermatids from two phasmid species were seen to possess an unusually large amount of microtubules along the nucleus and tail. Some of the microtubules have a loosely fitting sleeve for half a micron or more. During late stages in spermiogenesis the microtubules aggregate and form one or several "microtubular crystals" consisting of electron-lucid tubular elements with a diameter of about 360 A. The tail flagellum contains five kinds of microtubular structures, which all have a substructure of longitudinal protofilaments that is clearly visible after fixation in the presence of tannic acid. The so-called accessory tubules have 17 protofilaments that have the same appearance as that in ordinary, 13-unit microtubules, but are somewhat thicker than those. It is evident that the protofilaments in both the 17-unit and the 13-unit microtubules run parallel or nearly parallel to the long axis of the microtubules. It is of interest that both types of microtubules possess a prime number of protofilaments which may give the fagellum certain functional advantages. PMID:3351358

  7. Microtubule dynamics in neuronal morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Akira; Ando, Ryota; Sapir, Tamar; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2013-07-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are essential for neuronal morphogenesis in the developing brain. The MT cytoskeleton provides physical support to shape the fine structure of neuronal processes. MT-based motors play important roles in nucleokinesis, process formation and retraction. Regulation of MT stability downstream of extracellular cues is proposed to be critical for axonogenesis. Axons and dendrites exhibit different patterns of MT organization, underlying the divergent functions of these processes. Centrosomal positioning has drawn the attention of researchers because it is a major clue to understanding neuronal MT organization. In this review, we focus on how recent advances in live imaging have revealed the dynamics of MT organization and centrosome positioning during neural development. PMID:23864552

  8. Microtubule dynamics in neuronal morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Akira; Ando, Ryota; Sapir, Tamar; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Microtubules (MTs) are essential for neuronal morphogenesis in the developing brain. The MT cytoskeleton provides physical support to shape the fine structure of neuronal processes. MT-based motors play important roles in nucleokinesis, process formation and retraction. Regulation of MT stability downstream of extracellular cues is proposed to be critical for axonogenesis. Axons and dendrites exhibit different patterns of MT organization, underlying the divergent functions of these processes. Centrosomal positioning has drawn the attention of researchers because it is a major clue to understanding neuronal MT organization. In this review, we focus on how recent advances in live imaging have revealed the dynamics of MT organization and centrosome positioning during neural development. PMID:23864552

  9. Involvement of myosin in intracellular motility and cytomorphogenesis in Micrasterias.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Anke; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2003-01-01

    Myosin was detected on Western blots of Micrasterias denticulata extracts by use of antibodies from different sources. Inhibitors with different targets of the actomyosin system, such as the myosin ATPase-blockers N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), or the myosin light chain kinase inhibitor 1-(5-iodonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl)-1H-hexhydro-1,4-diazapine (ML7), had similar effects on intracellular motility during cell development in the green alga Micrasterias, thus pointing towards a participation of myosin in these processes. The drugs markedly altered the mode of postmitotic nuclear migration, slowed down cytoplasmic streaming, changed cell pattern development and prevented normal chloroplast distribution and spreading into the growing semicell. In addition, an increase and dilatations in ER cisternae and marked morphological changes of the Golgi system were observed by transmission electron microscopy after exposure of growing cells to BDM. Neither BDM nor ML7 exhibited any effect on the distribution or arrangement of the cortical F-actin network nor on the F-actin basket around the nucleus, characteristic of untreated growing Micrasterias cells (J Cell Sci 107 (1994) 1929). This is particularly interesting since BDM caused disintegration of the microtubule system co-localized to the F-actin cage during normal nuclear migration. Together with the fact that other microtubules not connected to the F-actin system remained uninfluenced by BDM, this observation is evidence of an integrative function of myosin between the cytoskeleton elements. PMID:14642529

  10. Insights into Antiparallel Microtubule Crosslinking by PRC1, a Conserved Nonmotor Microtubule Binding Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Radhika; Wilson-Kubalek, Elizabeth M.; Arthur, Christopher P.; Bick, Matthew J.; Campbell, Elizabeth A.; Darst, Seth A.; Milligan, Ronald A.; Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2010-09-03

    Formation of microtubule architectures, required for cell shape maintenance in yeast, directional cell expansion in plants and cytokinesis in eukaryotes, depends on antiparallel microtubule crosslinking by the conserved MAP65 protein family. Here, we combine structural and single molecule fluorescence methods to examine how PRC1, the human MAP65, crosslinks antiparallel microtubules. We find that PRC1's microtubule binding is mediated by a structured domain with a spectrin-fold and an unstructured Lys/Arg-rich domain. These two domains, at each end of a homodimer, are connected by a linkage that is flexible on single microtubules, but forms well-defined crossbridges between antiparallel filaments. Further, we show that PRC1 crosslinks are compliant and do not substantially resist filament sliding by motor proteins in vitro. Together, our data show how MAP65s, by combining structural flexibility and rigidity, tune microtubule associations to establish crosslinks that selectively mark antiparallel overlap in dynamic cytoskeletal networks.

  11. The microtubule catastrophe promoter Sentin delays stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment in oocytes.

    PubMed

    Głuszek, A Agata; Cullen, C Fiona; Li, Wenjing; Battaglia, Rachel A; Radford, Sarah J; Costa, Mariana F; McKim, Kim S; Goshima, Gohta; Ohkura, Hiroyuki

    2015-12-21

    The critical step in meiosis is to attach homologous chromosomes to the opposite poles. In mouse oocytes, stable microtubule end-on attachments to kinetochores are not established until hours after spindle assembly, and phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins by Aurora B/C is responsible for the delay. Here we demonstrated that microtubule ends are actively prevented from stable attachment to kinetochores until well after spindle formation in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. We identified the microtubule catastrophe-promoting complex Sentin-EB1 as a major factor responsible for this delay. Without this activity, microtubule ends precociously form robust attachments to kinetochores in oocytes, leading to a high proportion of homologous kinetochores stably attached to the same pole. Therefore, regulation of microtubule ends provides an alternative novel mechanism to delay stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment in oocytes. PMID:26668329

  12. The microtubule catastrophe promoter Sentin delays stable kinetochore–microtubule attachment in oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Głuszek, A. Agata; Cullen, C. Fiona; Li, Wenjing; Battaglia, Rachel A.; Radford, Sarah J.; Costa, Mariana F.; McKim, Kim S.; Goshima, Gohta

    2015-01-01

    The critical step in meiosis is to attach homologous chromosomes to the opposite poles. In mouse oocytes, stable microtubule end-on attachments to kinetochores are not established until hours after spindle assembly, and phosphorylation of kinetochore proteins by Aurora B/C is responsible for the delay. Here we demonstrated that microtubule ends are actively prevented from stable attachment to kinetochores until well after spindle formation in Drosophila melanogaster oocytes. We identified the microtubule catastrophe-promoting complex Sentin-EB1 as a major factor responsible for this delay. Without this activity, microtubule ends precociously form robust attachments to kinetochores in oocytes, leading to a high proportion of homologous kinetochores stably attached to the same pole. Therefore, regulation of microtubule ends provides an alternative novel mechanism to delay stable kinetochore–microtubule attachment in oocytes. PMID:26668329

  13. Tau co-organizes dynamic microtubule and actin networks

    PubMed Central

    Elie, Auréliane; Prezel, Elea; Guérin, Christophe; Denarier, Eric; Ramirez-Rios, Sacnicte; Serre, Laurence; Andrieux, Annie; Fourest-Lieuvin, Anne; Blanchoin, Laurent; Arnal, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The crosstalk between microtubules and actin is essential for cellular functions. However, mechanisms underlying the microtubule-actin organization by cross-linkers remain largely unexplored. Here, we report that tau, a neuronal microtubule-associated protein, binds to microtubules and actin simultaneously, promoting in vitro co-organization and coupled growth of both networks. By developing an original assay to visualize concomitant microtubule and actin assembly, we show that tau can induce guided polymerization of actin filaments along microtubule tracks and growth of single microtubules along actin filament bundles. Importantly, tau mediates microtubule-actin co-alignment without changing polymer growth properties. Mutagenesis studies further reveal that at least two of the four tau repeated motifs, primarily identified as tubulin-binding sites, are required to connect microtubules and actin. Tau thus represents a molecular linker between microtubule and actin networks, enabling a coordination of the two cytoskeletons that might be essential in various neuronal contexts. PMID:25944224

  14. Centriolar CPAP/SAS-4 Imparts Slow Processive Microtubule Growth.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashwani; Aher, Amol; Dynes, Nicola J; Frey, Daniel; Katrukha, Eugene A; Jaussi, Rolf; Grigoriev, Ilya; Croisier, Marie; Kammerer, Richard A; Akhmanova, Anna; Gönczy, Pierre; Steinmetz, Michel O

    2016-05-23

    Centrioles are fundamental and evolutionarily conserved microtubule-based organelles whose assembly is characterized by microtubule growth rates that are orders of magnitude slower than those of cytoplasmic microtubules. Several centriolar proteins can interact with tubulin or microtubules, but how they ensure the exceptionally slow growth of centriolar microtubules has remained mysterious. Here, we bring together crystallographic, biophysical, and reconstitution assays to demonstrate that the human centriolar protein CPAP (SAS-4 in worms and flies) binds and "caps" microtubule plus ends by associating with a site of β-tubulin engaged in longitudinal tubulin-tubulin interactions. Strikingly, we uncover that CPAP activity dampens microtubule growth and stabilizes microtubules by inhibiting catastrophes and promoting rescues. We further establish that the capping function of CPAP is important to limit growth of centriolar microtubules in cells. Our results suggest that CPAP acts as a molecular lid that ensures slow assembly of centriolar microtubules and, thereby, contributes to organelle length control. PMID:27219064

  15. Solid-State and Solution NMR Studies of the CAP-Gly Domain of Mammalian Dynactin and Its Interaction with Microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Shangjin; Siglin, Amanda; Williams, John C.; Polenova, Tatyana E.

    2009-07-29

    Microtubules (MTs) and microtubule binding proteins (MTBPs) play fundamental physiological roles including vesicle and organelle transport, cell motility, and cell division. Despite the importance of the MT/MTBP assemblies, there remains virtually no structural or dynamic information about their interaction at the atomic level due to the inherent insolubility and lack of long-range order of MTs. In this study, we present a combined magic angle spinning solid-state and solution NMR study of the MTBP CAP-Gly domain of mammalian dynactin and its interaction with paclitaxel-stabilized microtubules. We report resonance assignments and secondary structure analysis of the free CAP-Gly in solution and in the solid state by a combination of two- and three-dimensional homo- and heteronuclear correlation spectra. In solution, binding of CAP-Gly to microtubules is accompanied by the broadening of the majority of the peaks in HSQC spectra except for the residues at the termini, precluding further structural analysis of the CAP-Gly/microtubule complexes. In the solid state, DARR spectra of free CAP-Gly and its complex with microtubules display well-resolved lines, permitting residue-specific resonance assignments. Interestingly, a number of chemical shifts in the solid-state DARR spectra of the CAP-Gly/microtubule complex are perturbed compared to those of the free CAP-Gly, suggesting that conformational changes occur in the protein upon binding to the microtubules. These results indicate that CAP-Gly/microtubule assemblies are amenable to detailed structural characterization by magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy and that solid-state NMR is a viable technique to study MT/protein interactions in general.

  16. Automated detection of whole-cell mitochondrial motility and its dependence on cytoarchitectural integrity.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Judith; Chou, Philip; Eckmann, David M

    2015-07-01

    Current methodologies used for mitochondrial motility analysis tend to either overlook individual mitochondrial tracks or analyze only peripheral mitochondria instead of mitochondria in all regions of the cell. Furthermore, motility analysis of an individual mitochondrion is usually quantified by establishing an arbitrary threshold for "directed" motion. In this work, we created a custom, publicly available computational algorithm based on a previously published approach (Giedt et al., 2012. Ann Biomed Eng 40:1903-1916) in order to characterize the distribution of mitochondrial movements at the whole-cell level, while still preserving information about single mitochondria. Our technique is easy to use, robust, and computationally inexpensive. Images are first pre-processed for increased resolution, and then individual mitochondria are tracked based on object connectivity in space and time. When our method is applied to microscopy fields encompassing entire cells, we reveal that the mitochondrial net distances in fibroblasts follow a lognormal distribution within a given cell or group of cells. The ability to model whole-cell mitochondrial motility as a lognormal distribution provides a new quantitative paradigm for comparing mitochondrial motility in naïve and treated cells. We further demonstrate that microtubule and microfilament depolymerization shift the lognormal distribution in directions which indicate decreased and increased mitochondrial movement, respectively. These findings advance earlier work on neuronal axons (Morris and Hollenbeck, 1993. J Cell Sci 104:917-927) by relating them to a different cell type, applying them on a global scale, and automating measurement of mitochondrial motility in general. PMID:25678368

  17. Sperm-Associated Antigen–17 Gene Is Essential for Motile Cilia Function and Neonatal Survival

    PubMed Central

    Teves, Maria Eugenia; Zhang, Zhibing; Costanzo, Richard M.; Henderson, Scott C.; Corwin, Frank D.; Zweit, Jamal; Sundaresan, Gobalakrishnan; Subler, Mark; Salloum, Fadi N.; Rubin, Bruce K.

    2013-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), resulting from defects in cilia assembly or motility, is caused by mutations in a number of genes encoding axonemal proteins. PCD phenotypes are variable, and include recurrent respiratory tract infections, bronchiectasis, hydrocephaly, situs inversus, and male infertility. We generated knockout mice for the sperm-associated antigen–17 (Spag17) gene, which encodes a central pair (CP) protein present in the axonemes of cells with “9 + 2” motile cilia or flagella. The targeting of Spag17 resulted in a severe phenotype characterized by immotile nasal and tracheal cilia, reduced clearance of nasal mucus, profound respiratory distress associated with lung fluid accumulation and disruption of the alveolar epithelium, cerebral ventricular expansion consistent with emerging hydrocephalus, failure to suckle, and neonatal demise within 12 hours of birth. Ultrastructural analysis revealed the loss of one CP microtubule in approximately one quarter of tracheal cilia axonemes, an absence of a C1 microtubule projection, and other less frequent CP structural abnormalities. SPAG6 and SPAG16 (CP proteins that interact with SPAG17) were increased in tracheal tissue from SPAG17-deficient mice. We conclude that Spag17 plays a critical role in the function and structure of motile cilia, and that neonatal lethality is likely explained by impaired airway mucociliary clearance. PMID:23418344

  18. HDAC6 Modulates Cell Motility by Altering the Acetylation Level of Cortactin

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Yuan, Zhigang; Zhang, Yingtao; Yong, Sarah; Salas-Burgos, Alexis; Koomen, John; Olashaw, Nancy; Parsons, J. Thomas; Yang, Xiang-Jiao; Dent, Sharon R.; Yao, Tso-Pang; Lane, William S.; Seto, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Summary Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is a tubulin-specific deacetylase that regulates microtubule-dependent cell movement. In this study, we identify the F-actin-binding protein, cortactin, as a HDAC6 substrate. We demonstrate that HDAC6 binds cortactin and that overexpression of HDAC6 leads to hypoacetylation of cortactin, while inhibition of HDAC6 activity leads to cortactin hyperacetylation. HDAC6 alters the ability of cortactin to bind F-actin by modulating a “charge patch” in its repeat region. Introduction of charge-preserving or charge-neutralizing mutations in this cortactin repeat region correlates with the gain or loss of F-actin binding ability, respectively. Cells expressing a charge-neutralizing cortactin mutant were less motile than control cells or cells expressing a charge-preserving mutant. These findings suggest that, in addition to its role in microtubule-dependent cell motility, HDAC6 influences actin-dependent cell motility by altering the acetylation status of cortactin, which, in turn, changes the F-actin binding activity of cortactin. PMID:17643370

  19. Integrators of the cytoskeleton that stabilize microtubules.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Bauer, C; Strasser, G; Wollman, R; Julien, J P; Fuchs, E

    1999-07-23

    Sensory neurodegeneration occurs in mice defective in BPAG1, a gene encoding cytoskeletal linker proteins capable of anchoring neuronal intermediate filaments to actin cytoskeleton. While BPAG1 null mice fail to anchor neurofilaments (NFs), BPAG1/NF null mice still degenerate in the absence of NFs. We report a novel neural splice form that lacks the actin-binding domain and instead binds and stabilizes microtubules. This interaction is functionally important; in mice and in vitro, neurons lacking BPAG1 display short, disorganized, and unstable microtubules defective in axonal transport. Ironically, BPAG1 neural isoforms represent microtubule-associated proteins that when absent lead to devastating consequences. Moreover, BPAG1 can functionally account for the extraordinary stability of axonal microtubules necessary for transport over long distances. Its isoforms interconnect all three cytoskeletal networks, a feature apparently central to neuronal survival. PMID:10428034

  20. Cold exposure reveals two populations of microtubules in pulmonary endothelia.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Cristhiaan D; Stevens, Troy; Balczon, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Microtubules are composed of α-tubulin and β-tubulin dimers. Microtubules yield tubulin dimers when exposed to cold, which reassemble spontaneously to form microtubule fibers at 37°C. However, mammalian neurons, glial cells, and fibroblasts have cold-stable microtubules. While studying the microtubule toxicity mechanisms of the exotoxin Y from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, we observed that some endothelial microtubules were very difficult to disassemble in the cold. As a consequence, we designed studies to test the hypothesis that microvascular endothelium has a population of cold-stable microtubules. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and HeLa cells (control) were grown under regular cell culture conditions, followed by exposure to an ice-cold water bath and a microtubule extraction protocol. Polymerized microtubules were detected by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and Western blot analyses. After cold exposure, immunofluorescence revealed that the majority of HeLa cell microtubules disassembled, whereas a smaller population of endothelial cell microtubules disassembled. Immunoblot analyses showed that microvascular endothelial cells express the microtubule cold-stabilizing protein N-STOP (neuronal stable tubule-only polypeptides), and that N-STOP binds to endothelial microtubules after cold exposure, but not if microtubules are disassembled with nocodazole before cold exposure. Hence, pulmonary endothelia have a population of cold-stable microtubules. PMID:20971804

  1. [Mechanism of bacterial gliding motility].

    PubMed

    Nakane, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria have various way to move over solid surfaces, such as glass, agar, and host cell. These movements involve surface appendages including flagella, type IV pili and other "mysterious" nano-machineries. Gliding motility was a term used various surface movements by several mechanisms that have not been well understood in past few decades. However, development of visualization techniques allowed us to make much progress on their dynamics of machineries. It also provided us better understanding how bacteria move over surfaces and why bacteria move in natural environments. In this review, I will introduce recent studies on the gliding motility of Flavobacteium and Mycoplasma based on the detail observation of single cell and its motility machinery with micro-nano scales. PMID:26632217

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylates kinesin light chains and negatively regulates kinesin-based motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfini, Gerardo; Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Elluru, Ravindhra; Ratner, Nancy; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane-bounded organelles (MBOs) are delivered to different domains in neurons by fast axonal transport. The importance of kinesin for fast antero grade transport is well established, but mechanisms for regulating kinesin-based motility are largely unknown. In this report, we provide biochemical and in vivo evidence that kinesin light chains (KLCs) interact with and are in vivo substrates for glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Active GSK3 inhibited anterograde, but not retrograde, transport in squid axoplasm and reduced the amount of kinesin bound to MBOs. Kinesin microtubule binding and microtubule-stimulated ATPase activities were unaffected by GSK3 phosphorylation of KLCs. Active GSK3 was also localized preferentially to regions known to be sites of membrane delivery. These data suggest that GSK3 can regulate fast anterograde axonal transport and targeting of cargos to specific subcellular domains in neurons.

  3. Long Range Order of Motile Defects in Active Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-03-01

    Active 2D nematic liquid crystals exist in a dynamical steady state in which +1/2 and -1/2 defects are spontaneously generated and annihilated at a constant rate. Active stresses in the material are thought to destroy nematic order through the generation of these defects. We present an active nematic mesophase in which motile defects of charge +1/2 spontaneously acquire long range order. The system is composed of microtubule filaments and kinesin motor protein clusters which are confined to a flat, 2D oil-water interface. The addition of ATP results in microtubule bundles which exhibit kinesin-driven extensile motion. By tuning the density of the nematic material at the 2D interface, we can tune the order parameter of the +1/2 defect ordered mesophase. Additionally, the defect alignment persists over samples at the centimeter scale.

  4. Colchicine activates actin polymerization by microtubule depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Jung, H I; Shin, I; Park, Y M; Kang, K W; Ha, K S

    1997-06-30

    Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were treated with the microtubule-disrupting agent colchicine to study any interaction between microtubule dynamics and actin polymerization. Colchicine increased the amount of filamentous actin (F-actin), in a dose- and time-dependent manner with a significant increase at 1 h by about 130% over control level. Confocal microscopic observation showed that colchicine increased F-actin contents by stress fiber formation without inducing membrane ruffling. Colchicine did not activate phospholipase C and phospholipase D, whereas lysophosphatidic acid did, indicating that colchicine may have a different mechanism of actin polymerization regulation from LPA. A variety of microtubule-disrupting agents stimulated actin polymerization in Swiss 3T3 and Rat-2 fibroblasts as did colchicine, but the microtubule-stabilizing agent taxol inhibited actin polymerization induced by the above microtubule-disrupting agents. In addition, colchicine-induced actin polymerization was blocked by two protein phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid and calyculin A. These results suggest that microtubule depolymerization activates stress fiber formation by serine/threonine dephosphorylation in fibroblasts. PMID:9264034

  5. Harnessing microtubule dynamic instability for nanostructure assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2004-06-01

    Intracellular molecular machines synthesize molecules, tear apart others, transport materials, transform energy into different forms, and carry out a host of other coordinated processes. Many molecular processes have been shown to work outside of cells, and the idea of harnessing these molecular machines to build nanostructures is attractive. Two examples are microtubules and motor proteins, which aid cell movement, help determine cell shape and internal structure, and transport vesicles and organelles within the cell. These molecular machines work in a stochastic, noisy fashion: microtubules switch randomly between growing and shrinking in a process known as dynamic instability; motor protein movement along microtubules is randomly interrupted by the motor proteins falling off. A common strategy in attempting to gain control over these highly dynamic, stochastic processes is to eliminate some processes (e.g., work with stabilized microtubules) in order to focus on others (interaction of microtubules with motor proteins). In this paper, we illustrate a different strategy for building nanostructures, which, rather than attempting to control or eliminate some dynamic processes, uses them to advantage in building nanostructures. Specifically, using stochastic agent-based simulations, we show how the natural dynamic instability of microtubules can be harnessed in building nanostructures, and discuss strategies for ensuring that 'unreliable' stochastic processes yield a robust outcome.

  6. Dynamic microtubules: Experimental observation and computer simulation of polar microtubule behaviour with lateral cap model mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, P. M.; Martin, S. R.; Sharma, K. K.

    1991-05-01

    Microtubule dynamic instability involves the existence, within a population of microtubules, of sub-populations of growing and shrinking microtubules which interconvert apparently at random. We consider the scope and limitation of experimental observations of individual microtubules by video enhanced dark-field microscopy. This unique experimental phenomenon has been rationalized by the presence of a ``cap'' of tubulin-GTP which can stabilize the growing state. We have modelled this process quantitatively by numerical simulation and illustrate the basic principles by computer graphics. The inherent α-β asymmetry of the microtubule lattice determines that the relationship between the addition reaction of tubulin-GTP and the related hydrolysis of a polymer tubulin-GTP is different at the two ends of the microtubule. In the single layer, Lateral Cap model for microtubule dynamic instability, a plausible mechanism has been proposed for the dynamic properties at the ``active'' (presumed β-out) end in which the tubulin-GTP which is hydrolyzed is related longitudinally to the binding site by the 13-start protofilament helix. [1,2]. We now show a similar but distinct mechanism could hold for the ``inactive'' (presumed α-out) end of the microtubule. Lateral hydrolysis rules (related to 5- or 8- start helical contacts) predict that the α-end could in fact be less dynamic and cooperative in terms of reduced amplitudes of growth and shrinking. This would make a distinctive contribution to the J(c) plot of microtubule growth versus [tubulin-GTP]. These predictions are thus amenable to experimental verification. This approach illustrates how the helical lattice symmetry of the microtubule polymer can confer unique dynamic characteristics, which derive from the heterodimeric structure and guanine nucleotide binding properties of the component protein tubulin. It also provides a basis for the interpretation of the interactions of microtubules with anti-mitotic drugs used in

  7. Growth and Shortening of Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunxin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a two-state mechanochemical model is presented to describe the dynamic instability of microtubules (MTs) in cells. The MT switches between two states, the assembly and disassembly states. In assembly state, the growth of MTs includes two processes: free GTP-tubulin binding to the tip of protofilament (PF) and conformation change of PF, during which the first tubulin unit that curls outwards is rearranged onto the MT surface, using the energy released from the hydrolysis of GTP in the penultimate tubulin unit. In the disassembly state, the shortening of MTs also includes two processes, the release of GDP-tubulin from the tip of PF and the curling of one new tubulin unit out of the MT surface. Switches between these two states, which are usually called rescue and catastrophe, happen stochastically with external force-dependent rates. Using this two-state model with parameters obtained by fitting the recent experimental data, detailed properties of MT growth are obtained. I find that MT is mainly in the assembly state, its mean growth velocity increases with both the external force and the GTP-tubulin concentration, and an MT will shorten on average without an external force. To know more about the external force and GTP-tubulin concentration-dependent properties of MT growth, and for future experimental verification of this two-state model, 11 critical forces are defined and discussed numerically. PMID:21903577

  8. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress.

    PubMed

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  9. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    PubMed Central

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules - which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport - can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of larger damages, which further decrease microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses. PMID:26343914

  10. Microtubules self-repair in response to mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaedel, Laura; John, Karin; Gaillard, Jérémie; Nachury, Maxence V.; Blanchoin, Laurent; Théry, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Microtubules--which define the shape of axons, cilia and flagella, and provide tracks for intracellular transport--can be highly bent by intracellular forces, and microtubule structure and stiffness are thought to be affected by physical constraints. Yet how microtubules tolerate the vast forces exerted on them remains unknown. Here, by using a microfluidic device, we show that microtubule stiffness decreases incrementally with each cycle of bending and release. Similar to other cases of material fatigue, the concentration of mechanical stresses on pre-existing defects in the microtubule lattice is responsible for the generation of more extensive damage, which further decreases microtubule stiffness. Strikingly, damaged microtubules were able to incorporate new tubulin dimers into their lattice and recover their initial stiffness. Our findings demonstrate that microtubules are ductile materials with self-healing properties, that their dynamics does not exclusively occur at their ends, and that their lattice plasticity enables the microtubules' adaptation to mechanical stresses.

  11. Microtubules Negatively Regulate Insulin Secretion in Pancreatic β Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaodong; Hu, Ruiying; Brissova, Marcela; Stein, Roland W; Powers, Alvin C; Gu, Guoqiang; Kaverina, Irina

    2015-09-28

    For glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), insulin granules have to be localized close to the plasma membrane. The role of microtubule-dependent transport in granule positioning and GSIS has been debated. Here, we report that microtubules, counterintuitively, restrict granule availability for secretion. In β cells, microtubules originate at the Golgi and form a dense non-radial meshwork. Non-directional transport along these microtubules limits granule dwelling at the cell periphery, restricting granule availability for secretion. High glucose destabilizes microtubules, decreasing their density; such local microtubule depolymerization is necessary for GSIS, likely because granule withdrawal from the cell periphery becomes inefficient. Consistently, microtubule depolymerization by nocodazole blocks granule withdrawal, increases their concentration at exocytic sites, and dramatically enhances GSIS in vitro and in mice. Furthermore, glucose-driven MT destabilization is balanced by new microtubule formation, which likely prevents over-secretion. Importantly, microtubule density is greater in dysfunctional β cells of diabetic mice. PMID:26418295

  12. Evidence for two distinct binding sites for tau on microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Makrides, Victoria; Massie, Michelle R.; Feinstein, Stuart C.; Lew, John

    2004-01-01

    The microtubule-associated protein tau regulates diverse and essential microtubule functions, from the nucleation and promotion of microtubule polymerization to the regulation of microtubule polarity and dynamics, as well as the spacing and bundling of axonal microtubules. Thermodynamic studies show that tau interacts with microtubules in the low- to mid-nanomolar range, implying moderate binding affinity. At the same time, it is well established that microtubule-bound tau does not undergo exchange with the bulk medium readily, suggesting that the tau-microtubule interaction is essentially irreversible. Given this dilemma, we investigated the mechanism of interaction between tau and microtubules in kinetic detail. Stopped-flow kinetic analysis reveals moderate binding affinity between tau and preassembled microtubules and rapid dissociation/association kinetics. In contrast, when microtubules are generated by copolymerization of tubulin and tau, a distinct population of microtubule-bound tau is observed, the binding of which seems irreversible. We propose that reversible binding occurs between tau and the surface of preassembled microtubules, whereas irreversible binding results when tau is coassembled with tubulin into a tau-microtubule copolymer. Because the latter is expected to be physiologically relevant, its characterization is of central importance. PMID:15096589

  13. Identification of a microtubule-based cytoplasmic motor in the nematode C. elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Lye, R.J.; Porter, M.E.; Scholey, J.M.; McIntosh, J.R.

    1987-10-23

    C. elegans contains a microtubule binding protein that resembles both dynein and kinesin. This protein has a MgATPase activity and copurifies on both sucrose gradients and DEAE Sephadex columns with a polypeptide of Mr approximately 400 kd. The ATPase activity is 50% inhibited by 10 microM vanadate, 1 mM N-ethyl maleimide, or 5 mM AMP-PNP; it is enhanced 50% by 0.2% Triton. The 400 kd polypeptide is cleaved at a single site by ultraviolet light in the presence of ATP and vanadate. In these ways, the protein resembles dynein. The protein also promotes ATP-dependent translocation of microtubules or axonemes, plus ends trailing. This property is kinesin-like; however, the motility is blocked by 5 microM vanadate, 1 mM N-ethyl maleimide, 0.5 mM ATP-gamma-S, or by ATP-vanadate-UV cleavage of the 400 kd polypeptide, characteristics that differ from kinesin. We propose that this protein is a novel microtubule translocator.

  14. TIPsy tour guides: how microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) facilitate axon guidance.

    PubMed

    Bearce, Elizabeth A; Erdogan, Burcu; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2015-01-01

    The growth cone is a dynamic cytoskeletal vehicle, which drives the end of a developing axon. It serves to interpret and navigate through the complex landscape and guidance cues of the early nervous system. The growth cone's distinctive cytoskeletal organization offers a fascinating platform to study how extracellular cues can be translated into mechanical outgrowth and turning behaviors. While many studies of cell motility highlight the importance of actin networks in signaling, adhesion, and propulsion, both seminal and emerging works in the field have highlighted a unique and necessary role for microtubules (MTs) in growth cone navigation. Here, we focus on the role of singular pioneer MTs, which extend into the growth cone periphery and are regulated by a diverse family of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs). These +TIPs accumulate at the dynamic ends of MTs, where they are well-positioned to encounter and respond to key signaling events downstream of guidance receptors, catalyzing immediate changes in microtubule stability and actin cross-talk, that facilitate both axonal outgrowth and turning events. PMID:26175669

  15. TIPsy tour guides: how microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) facilitate axon guidance

    PubMed Central

    Bearce, Elizabeth A.; Erdogan, Burcu; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2015-01-01

    The growth cone is a dynamic cytoskeletal vehicle, which drives the end of a developing axon. It serves to interpret and navigate through the complex landscape and guidance cues of the early nervous system. The growth cone’s distinctive cytoskeletal organization offers a fascinating platform to study how extracellular cues can be translated into mechanical outgrowth and turning behaviors. While many studies of cell motility highlight the importance of actin networks in signaling, adhesion, and propulsion, both seminal and emerging works in the field have highlighted a unique and necessary role for microtubules (MTs) in growth cone navigation. Here, we focus on the role of singular pioneer MTs, which extend into the growth cone periphery and are regulated by a diverse family of microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs). These +TIPs accumulate at the dynamic ends of MTs, where they are well-positioned to encounter and respond to key signaling events downstream of guidance receptors, catalyzing immediate changes in microtubule stability and actin cross-talk, that facilitate both axonal outgrowth and turning events. PMID:26175669

  16. Cryo-EM Studies of Microtubule Structural Intermediates and Kinetochore–Microtubule Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nogales, Eva; Ramey, Vincent H.; Wang, Hong-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The existence of structural intermediates in the processes of microtubule assembly and disassembly, and their relationship with the nucleotide state of tubulin, have been the subject of significant study and recent controversy. The first part of this chapter describes experiments and methods designed to characterize, using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image analysis, the structure of stabilized tubulin assemblies that we propose mimic the growth and shortening states at microtubule ends. We further put forward the idea that these intermediates have important biological functions, especially during cellular processes where the dynamic character of microtubules is essential. One such process is the attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochores in eukaryotic cell division. The second part of this chapter is consequently dedicated to studies of the yeast Dam1 kinetochore complex and its interaction with microtubules. This complex is essential for accurate chromosome segregation and is an important target of the Aurora B spindle check-point kinase. The Dam1 complex self-assembles in a microtubule-dependent manner into rings and spirals. The rings are able to track microtubule-depolymerizing ends against a load and in a highly processive manner, an essential property for their function in vivo. We describe the experimental in vitro protocols to produce biologically relevant self-assembled structures of Dam1 around microtubules and their structural characterization by cryo-EM. PMID:20466133

  17. Electric field generated by longitudinal axial microtubule vibration modes with high spatial resolution microtubule model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, M.; Havelka, D.; Deriu, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Microtubules are electrically polar structures fulfilling prerequisites for generation of oscillatory electric field in the kHz to GHz region. Energy supply for excitation of elasto-electrical vibrations in microtubules may be provided from GTP-hydrolysis; motor protein-microtubule interactions; and energy efflux from mitochondria. It recently was determined from anisotropic elastic network modeling of entire microtubules that the frequencies of microtubule longitudinal axial eigenmodes lie in the region of tens of GHz for the physiologically common microtubule lengths. We calculated electric field generated by axial longitudinal vibration modes of microtubule, which model is based on subnanometer precision of charge distribution. Due to elastoelectric nature of the vibrations, the vibration wavelength is million-fold shorter than that of the electromagnetic field in free space and the electric field around the microtubule manifests rich spatial structure with multiple minima. The dielectrophoretic force exerted by electric field on the surrounding molecules will influence the kinetics of reactions via change in the probability of the transport of charge and mass particles. The electric field generated by vibrations of electrically polar cellular structures is expected to play a role in biological self-organization.

  18. Colonic motility in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Elisabetta; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Baldoni, Monia; Dore, Maria Pina

    2014-01-01

    Background Inflammatory conditions affecting the gut may cause motility disturbances, and ulcerative colitis – one of the main disorders among the inflammatory bowel diseases – may display abnormal colonic motility. Aim To review the abnormalities of the large bowel in ulcerative colitis, by considering the motility, laboratory (in vitro) and pathological studies dealing with this topic. Methods A comprehensive online search of Medline and the Science Citation Index was carried out. Results Patients with ulcerative colitis frequently display colonic motor abnormalities, including lack of contractility, an increase of propulsive contractile waves, an excessive production of nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide nerves, interleukin 1 beta, neurotensin, tachykinins levels and the weaker action of substance P, likely related to a neuromuscular dysfunction due to the inflammatory process. Conclusions A better understanding of the pathophysiological grounds of altered colonic motility in ulcerative colitis may lead to a more in-depth knowledge of the accompanying symptoms and to better and more targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:25452840

  19. The Fragile Fiber1 Kinesin Contributes to Cortical Microtubule-Mediated Trafficking of Cell Wall Components1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuanmei; Ganguly, Anindya; Baskin, Tobias I.; McClosky, Daniel D.; Anderson, Charles T.; Foster, Cliff; Meunier, Kristoffer A.; Okamoto, Ruth; Berg, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall consists of cellulose microfibrils embedded within a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Cellulose microfibrils are synthesized at the plasma membrane, whereas matrix polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus and secreted. The trafficking of vesicles containing cell wall components is thought to depend on actin-myosin. Here, we implicate microtubules in this process through studies of the kinesin-4 family member, Fragile Fiber1 (FRA1). In an fra1-5 knockout mutant, the expansion rate of the inflorescence stem is halved compared with the wild type along with the thickness of both primary and secondary cell walls. Nevertheless, cell walls in fra1-5 have an essentially unaltered composition and ultrastructure. A functional triple green fluorescent protein-tagged FRA1 fusion protein moves processively along cortical microtubules, and its abundance and motile density correlate with growth rate. Motility of FRA1 and cellulose synthase complexes is independent, indicating that FRA1 is not directly involved in cellulose biosynthesis; however, the secretion rate of fucose-alkyne-labeled pectin is greatly decreased in fra1-5, and the mutant has Golgi bodies with fewer cisternae and enlarged vesicles. Based on our results, we propose that FRA1 contributes to cell wall production by transporting Golgi-derived vesicles along cortical microtubules for secretion. PMID:25646318

  20. Tubulin tyrosine ligase-like genes ttll3 and ttll6 maintain zebrafish cilia structure and motility.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Narendra; Austin, Christina A; Drummond, Iain A

    2011-04-01

    Tubulin post-translational modifications generate microtubule heterogeneity and modulate microtubule function, and are catalyzed by tubulin tyrosine ligase-like (TTLL) proteins. Using antibodies specific to monoglycylated, polyglycylated, and glutamylated tubulin in whole mount immunostaining of zebrafish embryos, we observed distinct, tissue-specific patterns of tubulin modifications. Tubulin modification patterns in cilia correlated with the expression of ttll3 and ttll6 in ciliated cells. Expression screening of all zebrafish tubulin tyrosine ligase-like genes revealed additional tissue-specific expression of ttll1 in brain neurons, ttll4 in muscle, and ttll7 in otic placodes. Knockdown of ttll3 eliminated cilia tubulin glycylation but had surprisingly mild effects on cilia structure and motility. Similarly, knockdown of ttll6 strongly reduced cilia tubulin glutamylation but only partially affected cilia structure and motility. Combined loss of function of ttll3 and ttll6 caused near complete loss of cilia motility and induced a variety of axonemal ultrastructural defects similar to defects previously observed in zebrafish fleer mutants, which were shown to lack tubulin glutamylation. Consistently, we find that fleer mutants also lack tubulin glycylation. These results indicate that tubulin glycylation and glutamylation have overlapping functions in maintaining cilia structure and motility and that the fleer/dyf-1 TPR protein is required for both types of tubulin post-translational modification. PMID:21262966

  1. YB-1 promotes microtubule assembly in vitro through interaction with tubulin and microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Chernov, Konstantin G; Mechulam, Alain; Popova, Nadezhda V; Pastre, David; Nadezhdina, Elena S; Skabkina, Olga V; Shanina, Nina A; Vasiliev, Victor D; Tarrade, Anne; Melki, Judith; Joshi, Vandana; Baconnais, Sonia; Toma, Flavio; Ovchinnikov, Lev P; Curmi, Patrick A

    2008-01-01

    Background YB-1 is a major regulator of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. In addition to its role in transcription, YB-1 plays a key role in translation and stabilization of mRNAs. Results We show here that YB-1 interacts with tubulin and microtubules and stimulates microtubule assembly in vitro. High resolution imaging via electron and atomic force microscopy revealed that microtubules assembled in the presence of YB-1 exhibited a normal single wall ultrastructure and indicated that YB-1 most probably coats the outer microtubule wall. Furthermore, we found that YB-1 also promotes the assembly of MAPs-tubulin and subtilisin-treated tubulin. Finally, we demonstrated that tubulin interferes with RNA:YB-1 complexes. Conclusion These results suggest that YB-1 may regulate microtubule assembly in vivo and that its interaction with tubulin may contribute to the control of mRNA translation. PMID:18793384

  2. Non-centrosomal nucleation mediated by augmin organizes microtubules in post-mitotic neurons and controls axonal microtubule polarity.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Huertas, Carlos; Freixo, Francisco; Viais, Ricardo; Lacasa, Cristina; Soriano, Eduardo; Lüders, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Neurons display a highly polarized microtubule network that mediates trafficking throughout the extensive cytoplasm and is crucial for neuronal differentiation and function. In newborn migrating neurons, the microtubule network is organized by the centrosome. During neuron maturation, however, the centrosome gradually loses this activity, and how microtubules are organized in more mature neurons remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that microtubule organization in post-mitotic neurons strongly depends on non-centrosomal nucleation mediated by augmin and by the nucleator γTuRC. Disruption of either complex not only reduces microtubule density but also microtubule bundling. These microtubule defects impair neurite formation, interfere with axon specification and growth, and disrupt axonal trafficking. In axons augmin does not merely mediate nucleation of microtubules but ensures their uniform plus end-out orientation. Thus, the augmin-γTuRC module, initially identified in mitotic cells, may be commonly used to generate and maintain microtubule configurations with specific polarity. PMID:27405868

  3. Non-centrosomal nucleation mediated by augmin organizes microtubules in post-mitotic neurons and controls axonal microtubule polarity

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Huertas, Carlos; Freixo, Francisco; Viais, Ricardo; Lacasa, Cristina; Soriano, Eduardo; Lüders, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Neurons display a highly polarized microtubule network that mediates trafficking throughout the extensive cytoplasm and is crucial for neuronal differentiation and function. In newborn migrating neurons, the microtubule network is organized by the centrosome. During neuron maturation, however, the centrosome gradually loses this activity, and how microtubules are organized in more mature neurons remains poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that microtubule organization in post-mitotic neurons strongly depends on non-centrosomal nucleation mediated by augmin and by the nucleator γTuRC. Disruption of either complex not only reduces microtubule density but also microtubule bundling. These microtubule defects impair neurite formation, interfere with axon specification and growth, and disrupt axonal trafficking. In axons augmin does not merely mediate nucleation of microtubules but ensures their uniform plus end-out orientation. Thus, the augmin-γTuRC module, initially identified in mitotic cells, may be commonly used to generate and maintain microtubule configurations with specific polarity. PMID:27405868

  4. Generation of differentially modified microtubules using in vitro enzymatic approaches.

    PubMed

    Vemu, Annapurna; Garnham, Christopher P; Lee, Duck-Yeon; Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2014-01-01

    Tubulin, the building block of microtubules, is subject to chemically diverse and evolutionarily conserved post-translational modifications that mark microtubules for specific functions in the cell. Here we describe in vitro methods for generating homogenous acetylated, glutamylated, or tyrosinated tubulin and microtubules using recombinantly expressed and purified modification enzymes. The generation of differentially modified microtubules now enables a mechanistic dissection of the effects of tubulin post-translational modifications on the dynamics and mechanical properties of microtubules as well as the behavior of motors and microtubule-associated proteins. PMID:24630106

  5. CFAP54 is required for proper ciliary motility and assembly of the central pair apparatus in mice

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Casey W.; Craige, Branch; Kroeger, Tiffany V.; Finn, Rozzy; Wyatt, Todd A.; Sisson, Joseph H.; Pavlik, Jacqueline A.; Strittmatter, Lara; Hendricks, Gregory M.; Witman, George B.; Lee, Lance

    2015-01-01

    Motile cilia and flagella play critical roles in fluid clearance and cell motility, and dysfunction commonly results in the pediatric syndrome primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). CFAP221, also known as PCDP1, is required for ciliary and flagellar function in mice and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, where it localizes to the C1d projection of the central microtubule apparatus and functions in a complex that regulates flagellar motility in a calcium-dependent manner. We demonstrate that the genes encoding the mouse homologues of the other C. reinhardtii C1d complex members are primarily expressed in motile ciliated tissues, suggesting a conserved function in mammalian motile cilia. The requirement for one of these C1d complex members, CFAP54, was identified in a mouse line with a gene-trapped allele. Homozygous mice have PCD characterized by hydrocephalus, male infertility, and mucus accumulation. The infertility results from defects in spermatogenesis. Motile cilia have a structural defect in the C1d projection, indicating that the C1d assembly mechanism requires CFAP54. This structural defect results in decreased ciliary beat frequency and perturbed cilia-driven flow. This study identifies a critical role for CFAP54 in proper assembly and function of mammalian cilia and flagella and establishes the gene-trapped allele as a new model of PCD. PMID:26224312

  6. Ferritin associates with marginal band microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Infante, Anthony A.; Infante, Dzintra; Chan, M.-C.; How, P.-C.; Kutschera, Waltraud; Linhartova, Irena; Muellner, Ernst W.; Wiche, Gerhard; Propst, Friedrich . E-mail: friedrich.propst@univie.ac.at

    2007-05-01

    We characterized chicken erythrocyte and human platelet ferritin by biochemical studies and immunofluorescence. Erythrocyte ferritin was found to be a homopolymer of H-ferritin subunits, resistant to proteinase K digestion, heat stable, and contained iron. In mature chicken erythrocytes and human platelets, ferritin was localized at the marginal band, a ring-shaped peripheral microtubule bundle, and displayed properties of bona fide microtubule-associated proteins such as tau. Red blood cell ferritin association with the marginal band was confirmed by temperature-induced disassembly-reassembly of microtubules. During erythrocyte differentiation, ferritin co-localized with coalescing microtubules during marginal band formation. In addition, ferritin was found in the nuclei of mature erythrocytes, but was not detectable in those of bone marrow erythrocyte precursors. These results suggest that ferritin has a function in marginal band formation and possibly in protection of the marginal band from damaging effects of reactive oxygen species by sequestering iron in the mature erythrocyte. Moreover, our data suggest that ferritin and syncolin, a previously identified erythrocyte microtubule-associated protein, are identical. Nuclear ferritin might contribute to transcriptional silencing or, alternatively, constitute a ferritin reservoir.

  7. Microtubule-associated protein-like binding of the kinesin-1 tail to microtubules.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Mark A; Rice, Sarah E

    2010-03-12

    The kinesin-1 molecular motor contains an ATP-dependent microtubule-binding site in its N-terminal head domain and an ATP-independent microtubule-binding site in its C-terminal tail domain. Here we demonstrate that a kinesin-1 tail fragment associates with microtubules with submicromolar affinity. Binding is largely electrostatic in nature, and is facilitated by a region of basic amino acids in the tail and the acidic E-hook at the C terminus of tubulin. The tail binds to a site on tubulin that is independent of the head domain-binding site but overlaps with the binding site of the microtubule-associated protein Tau. Surprisingly, the kinesin tail domain stimulates microtubule assembly and stability in a manner similar to Tau. The biological function of this strong kinesin tail-microtubule interaction remains to be seen, but it is likely to play an important role in kinesin regulation due to the close proximity of the microtubule-binding region to the conserved regulatory and cargo-binding domains of the tail. PMID:20071331

  8. Microtubule-associated Protein-like Binding of the Kinesin-1 Tail to Microtubules*

    PubMed Central

    Seeger, Mark A.; Rice, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    The kinesin-1 molecular motor contains an ATP-dependent microtubule-binding site in its N-terminal head domain and an ATP-independent microtubule-binding site in its C-terminal tail domain. Here we demonstrate that a kinesin-1 tail fragment associates with microtubules with submicromolar affinity. Binding is largely electrostatic in nature, and is facilitated by a region of basic amino acids in the tail and the acidic E-hook at the C terminus of tubulin. The tail binds to a site on tubulin that is independent of the head domain-binding site but overlaps with the binding site of the microtubule-associated protein Tau. Surprisingly, the kinesin tail domain stimulates microtubule assembly and stability in a manner similar to Tau. The biological function of this strong kinesin tail-microtubule interaction remains to be seen, but it is likely to play an important role in kinesin regulation due to the close proximity of the microtubule-binding region to the conserved regulatory and cargo-binding domains of the tail. PMID:20071331

  9. Microtubules viewed as molecular ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Tabony, James

    2006-10-01

    Populations of ants and other social insects self-organize and develop 'emergent' properties through stigmergy in which individual ants communicate with one another via chemical trails of pheromones that attract or repulse other ants. In this way, sophisticated properties and functions develop. Under appropriate conditions, in vitro microtubule preparations, initially comprised of only tubulin and GTP, behave in a similar manner. They self-organize and develop other higher-level emergent phenomena by a process where individual microtubules are coupled together by the chemical trails they produce by their own reactive growing and shrinking. This behaviour is described and compared with the behaviour of ant colonies. Viewing microtubules as populations of molecular ants may provide new insights as to how the cytoskeleton may spontaneously develop high-level functions. It is plausible that such processes occur during the early stages of embryogenesis and in cells. PMID:16968217

  10. Mechanical model of kinesin moving on microtubule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, Kiwing; Chou, Ya-Chang; Hsiao, Yi-Feng; Chen, Kuan-Hua

    Kinesins are biomolecules that serve as intercellular motors for carrying cellular cargos along microtubules. Although the mechanism of converting the chemical energy of ATP to mechanical work is not fully understood, the motion of a kinesin on a microtubule has been measured and two different mechanisms, namely the ``hand-over-hand'' and ``inchworm'', has been proposed. The particular shape of kinesin and microtubules suggest a possible mechanism for force generation similar to Brownian ratchet. Using a bead chain connected to two heads that are attracted to a vibrated ratchet plate as a scaled up analog of the kinesinmicrotubule system, we manage to simulate both ``handoverhand'' and ``inchworm'' motion [Chou, et. al., Physica A443, 66 (2015)]. In addition, we find that chain, which play the role of the stalk in a kinesin molecule, can also generate force by interacting with the ratchet plate [Chen, et. al. Phys. Rev. E87, 012711 (2013)].

  11. Models, Regulations, and Functions of Microtubule Severing by Katanin

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debasish Kumar; Dasgupta, Debdeep; Guha, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of microtubule dynamics depends on stochastic balance between polymerization and severing process which lead to differential spatiotemporal abundance and distribution of microtubules during cell development, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Microtubule severing by a conserved AAA family protein Katanin has emerged as an important microtubule architecture modulating process in cellular functions like division, migration, shaping and so on. Regulated by several factors, Katanin manifests connective crosstalks in network motifs in regulation of anisotropic severing pattern of microtubule protofilaments in cell type and stage dependent way. Mechanisms of structural disintegration of microtubules by Katanin involve heterogeneous mechanochemical processes and sensitivity of microtubules to Katanin plays significant roles in mitosis/meiosis, neurogenesis, cilia/flagella formation, cell wall development and so on. Deregulated and uncoordinated expression of Katanin has been shown to have implications in pathophysiological conditions. In this paper, we highlight mechanistic models and regulations of microtubule severing by Katanin in context of structure and various functions of Katanin in different organisms.

  12. Bundling of bovine and brine shrimp (Artemia) microtubules in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacRae, T H

    1984-06-01

    Cell-free extracts from embryos of the brine shrimp (Artemia) induced bundling of bovine microtubules assembled in the presence of glycerol and Mg++. Sedimentation of microtubules through sucrose cushions and subsequent electrophoresis revealed that bundling occurred independently of accessory proteins tightly bound to the microtubules. Bovine microtubules containing microtubule-associated proteins (MAPS) or assembled with taxol did not bundle. The unusual polymerization properties of homogeneous Artemia tubulin, bundling in the absence of added factors and the small number of microtubules assembled in crude embryo extracts upon addition of taxol precluded a complete comparative study of Artemia and bovine microtubule bundling. Interesting properties of the in vitro assembly of Artemia microtubules were, however, elaborated and putative Artemia MAPs were observed as a consequence of the work with brine shrimp embryos. PMID:6744423

  13. Micropattern-Guided Assembly of Overlapping Pairs of Dynamic Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Fourniol, Franck J.; Li, Tai-De; Bieling, Peter; Mullins, R. Dyche; Fletcher, Daniel A.; Surrey, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between antiparallel microtubules are essential for the organization of spindles in dividing cells. The ability to form immobilized antiparallel microtubule pairs in vitro, combined with the ability to image them via TIRF microscopy, permits detailed biochemical characterization of microtubule cross-linking proteins and their effects on microtubule dynamics. Here, we describe methods for chemical micropatterning of microtubule seeds on glass surfaces in configurations that specifically promote the formation of antiparallel microtubule overlaps in vitro. We demonstrate that this assay is especially well suited for reconstitution of minimal midzone overlaps stabilized by the antiparallel microtubule cross-linking protein PRC1 and its binding partners. The micropatterning method is suitable for use with a broad range of proteins, and the assay is generally applicable to any microtubule cross-linking protein. PMID:24630116

  14. Swinging a sword: how microtubules search for their targets.

    PubMed

    Pavin, Nenad; Tolić-Nørrelykke, Iva M

    2014-09-01

    The cell interior is in constant movement, which is to a large extent determined by microtubules, thin and long filaments that permeate the cytoplasm. To move large objects, microtubules need to connect them to the site of their destination. For example, during cell division, microtubules connect chromosomes with the spindle poles via kinetochores, protein complexes on the chromosomes. A general question is how microtubules, while being bound to one structure, find the target that needs to be connected to this structure. Here we review the mechanisms of how microtubules search for kinetochores, with emphasis on the recently discovered microtubule feature to explore space by pivoting around the spindle pole. In addition to accelerating the search for kinetochores, pivoting helps the microtubules to search for cortical anchors, as well as to self-organize into parallel arrays and asters to target specific regions of the cell. Thus, microtubule pivoting constitutes a mechanism by which they locate targets in different cellular contexts. PMID:25136379

  15. Clustering of a kinesin-14 motor enables processive retrograde microtubule-based transport in plants

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Erik; Yamada, Moé; Vale, Ronald D.; Goshima, Gohta

    2015-01-01

    The molecular motors kinesin and dynein drive bidirectional motility along microtubules (MTs) in most eukaryotic cells. Land plants, however, are a notable exception, because they contain a large number of kinesins but lack cytoplasmic dynein, the foremost processive retrograde transporter. It remains unclear how plants achieve retrograde cargo transport without dynein. Here, we have analysed the motility of the six members of minus-end-directed kinesin-14 motors in the moss Physcomitrella patens and found that none are processive as native dimers. However, when artificially clustered into as little as dimer of dimers, the type-VI kinesin-14 (a homologue of Arabidopsis KCBP (kinesin-like calmodulin binding protein)) exhibited highly processive and fast motility (up to 0.6 μm s−1). Multiple kin14-VI dimers attached to liposomes also induced transport of this membrane cargo over several microns. Consistent with these results, in vivo observations of green fluorescent protein-tagged kin14-VI in moss cells revealed fluorescent punctae that moved processively towards the minus-ends of the cytoplasmic MTs. These data suggest that clustering of a kinesin-14 motor serves as a dynein-independent mechanism for retrograde transport in plants. PMID:26322239

  16. Effect of Aluminum, Iron, and Zinc Ions on the Assembly of Microtubules from Brain Microtubule Proteins.

    PubMed

    Shevtsov, P N; Shevtsova, E F; Burbaeva, G Sh

    2016-08-01

    Al(3+), Fe(3+), and Zn(2+) ions can disturb microtubule assembly from tubulin and microtubuleassociated proteins in rat brain. The main structural forms of these microtubules are rings and tangled bundles. These structures are formed only in the presence of Al(3+) and Fe(3+) ions. Therefore, Zn(2+) ions can be excluded from possible causes of structural abnormalities in microtubules during Alzheimer's disease. Al(3+) ions are the most probable etiological cause of Alzheimer's disease. The concentration of Al(3+) ions affecting the structure of microtubules is one order of magnitude lower than that of Fe(3+) ions (10 and 100 μM, respectively), which corresponds to their brain concentration reported in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27591874

  17. Live-cell imaging of microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) play fundamental roles in plant growth and morphogenesis. The ability to observe microtubules and MAPs in living cells using fluorescent protein fusions has propelled plant scientists forward and given them the opportunity to answer longstanding biological questions. In combination with the genetic resources available in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, our mechanistic understanding of how the microtubule cytoskeleton affects plant life has dramatically increased. It is a simple process to construct transgenic A. thaliana plants that express fluorescent protein fusions by using the disarmed plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Several screening steps are necessary to ensure that the fusion protein accurately mimics the native protein because transgenes are inserted randomly into the A. thaliana genome. To image the fluorescent proteins in planta, confocal microscopy is used to alleviate issues caused by specimen thickness and autofluorescence. PMID:23973076

  18. TRIM3 Regulates the Motility of the Kinesin Motor Protein KIF21B

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Dorthe; Thies, Edda; Pechmann, Yvonne; Groffen, Alexander J.; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Kneussel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function. PMID:24086586

  19. TRIM3 regulates the motility of the kinesin motor protein KIF21B.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Dorthe; Thies, Edda; Pechmann, Yvonne; Groffen, Alexander J; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B; van Kesteren, Ronald E; Kneussel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function. PMID:24086586

  20. Effects of α-Tubulin K40 Acetylation and Detyrosination on Kinesin-1 Motility in a Purified System

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Neha; Soppina, Virupakshi; Verhey, Kristen J.

    2014-01-01

    Long-range transport in cells is achieved primarily through motor-based transport along a network of microtubule tracks. Targeted transport by kinesin motors can be correlated with posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of the tubulin subunits in specific microtubules. To directly examine the influence of specific PTMs on kinesin-1 motility, we generated tubulin subunits that were either enriched in or lacking acetylation of α-tubulin lysine 40 (K40) or detyrosination of the α-tubulin C-terminal tail. We show that K40 acetylation does not result in significant changes in kinesin-1’s landing rate or motility parameters (velocity and run length) across experimental conditions. In contrast, detyrosination causes a moderate increase in kinesin-1’s landing rate. The fact that the effects of detyrosination are dampened by prior K40 acetylation indicates that the combination of PTMs may be an important aspect of the functional output of microtubule heterogeneity. Importantly, our results indicate that the moderate influences that single PTMs have on kinesin-1 in vitro do not explain the strong correlation between specific PTMs and kinesin-1 transport in cells. Thus, additional mechanisms for regulating kinesin-1 transport in cells must be explored in future work. PMID:24940781

  1. Spindle microtubule dysfunction and cancer predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Stumpff, Jason; Ghule, Prachi N.; Shimamura, Akiko; Stein, Janet L.; Greenblatt, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome segregation and spindle microtubule dynamics are strictly coordinated during cell division in order to preserve genomic integrity. Alterations in the genome that affect microtubule stability and spindle assembly during mitosis may contribute to genomic instability and cancer predisposition, but directly testing this potential link poses a significant challenge. Germ-line mutations in tumor suppressor genes that predispose patients to cancer and alter spindle microtubule dynamics offer unique opportunities to investigate the relationship between spindle dysfunction and carcinogenesis. Mutations in two such tumor suppressors, adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome (SBDS), affect multifunctional proteins that have been well characterized for their roles in Wnt signaling and interphase ribosome assembly, respectively. Less understood, however, is how their shared involvement in stabilizing the microtubules that comprise the mitotic spindle contributes to cancer predisposition. Here, we briefly discuss the potential for mutations in APC and SBDS as informative tools for studying the impact of mitotic spindle dysfunction on cellular transformation. PMID:24905602

  2. Mutations in Human Tubulin Proximal to the Kinesin-Binding Site Alter Dynamic Instability at Microtubule Plus- and Minus-Ends.

    PubMed

    Ti, Shih-Chieh; Pamula, Melissa C; Howes, Stuart C; Duellberg, Christian; Cade, Nicholas I; Kleiner, Ralph E; Forth, Scott; Surrey, Thomas; Nogales, Eva; Kapoor, Tarun M

    2016-04-01

    The assembly of microtubule-based cellular structures depends on regulated tubulin polymerization and directional transport. Here, we purify and characterize tubulin heterodimers that have human β-tubulin isotype III (TUBB3), as well as heterodimers with one of two β-tubulin mutations (D417H or R262H). Both point mutations are proximal to the kinesin-binding site and have been linked to an ocular motility disorder in humans. Compared to wild-type, microtubules with these mutations have decreased catastrophe frequencies and increased average lifetimes of plus- and minus-end-stabilizing caps. Importantly, the D417H mutation does not alter microtubule lattice structure or Mal3 binding to growing filaments. Instead, this mutation reduces the affinity of tubulin for TOG domains and colchicine, suggesting that the distribution of tubulin heterodimer conformations is changed. Together, our findings reveal how residues on the surface of microtubules, distal from the GTP-hydrolysis site and inter-subunit contacts, can alter polymerization dynamics at the plus- and minus-ends of microtubules. PMID:27046833

  3. Reconstituting the kinetochore-microtubule interface: what, why, and how

    PubMed Central

    Akiyoshi, Bungo; Biggins, Sue

    2012-01-01

    The kinetochore is the proteinaceous complex that governs the movement of duplicated chromosomes by interacting with spindle microtubules during mitosis and meiosis. Faithful chromosome segregation requires that kinetochores form robust load-bearing attachments to the tips of dynamic spindle microtubules, correct microtubule attachment errors, and delay the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes have made proper attachments. To understand how this macromolecular machine operates to segregate duplicated chromosomes with exquisite accuracy, it is critical to reconstitute and study kinetochore-microtubule interactions in vitro using defined components. Here, we review the current status of reconstitution as well as recent progress in understanding the microtubule binding functions of kinetochores in vivo. PMID:22289864

  4. Microtubule Initiation from the Nuclear Surface Controls Cortical Microtubule Growth Polarity and Orientation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Chris; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear envelope in plant cells has long been known to be a microtubule organizing center (MTOC), but its influence on microtubule organization in the cell cortex has been unclear. Here we show that nuclear MTOC activity favors the formation of longitudinal cortical microtubule (CMT) arrays. We used green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged gamma tubulin-complex protein 2 (GCP2) to identify nuclear MTOC activity and GFP-tagged End-Binding Protein 1b (EB1b) to track microtubule growth directions. We found that microtubules initiate from nuclei and enter the cortex in two directions along the long axis of the cell, creating bipolar longitudinal CMT arrays. Such arrays were observed in all cell types showing nuclear MTOC activity, including root hairs, recently divided cells in root tips, and the leaf epidermis. In order to confirm the causal nature of nuclei in bipolar array formation, we displaced nuclei by centrifugation, which generated a corresponding shift in the bipolarity split point. We also found that bipolar CMT arrays were associated with bidirectional trafficking of vesicular components to cell ends. Together, these findings reveal a conserved function of plant nuclear MTOCs and centrosomes/spindle pole bodies in animals and fungi, wherein all structures serve to establish polarities in microtubule growth. PMID:25008974

  5. Elastic mismatch enhances cell motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresler, Yony; Palmieri, Benoit; Grant, Martin

    In recent years, the study of physics phenomena in cancer has drawn considerable attention. In cancer metastasis, a soft cancer cell leaves the tumor, and must pass through the endothelium before reaching the bloodstream. Using a phase-field model we have shown that the elasticity mismatch between cells alone is sufficient to enhance the motility of thesofter cancer cell by means of bursty migration, in agreement with experiment. We will present further characterization of these behaviour, as well as new possible applications for this model.

  6. The Nucleotide-binding State of Microtubules Modulates Kinesin Processivity and the Ability of Tau to Inhibit Kinesin-mediated Transport*

    PubMed Central

    McVicker, Derrick P.; Chrin, Lynn R.; Berger, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Tau to act as a potent inhibitor of kinesin's processive run length in vitro suggests that it may actively participate in the regulation of axonal transport in vivo. However, it remains unclear how kinesin-based transport could then proceed effectively in neurons, where Tau is expressed at high levels. One potential explanation is that Tau, a conformationally dynamic protein, has multiple modes of interaction with the microtubule, not all of which inhibit kinesin's processive run length. Previous studies support the hypothesis that Tau has at least two modes of interaction with microtubules, but the mechanisms by which Tau adopts these different conformations and their functional consequences have not been investigated previously. In the present study, we have used single molecule imaging techniques to demonstrate that Tau inhibits kinesin's processive run length in an isoform-dependent manner on GDP-microtubules stabilized with either paclitaxel or glycerol/DMSO but not guanosine-5′-((α,β)-methyleno)triphosphate (GMPCPP)-stabilized microtubules. Furthermore, the order of Tau addition to microtubules before or after polymerization has no effect on the ability of Tau to modulate kinesin motility regardless of the stabilizing agent used. Finally, the processive run length of kinesin is reduced on GMPCPP-microtubules relative to GDP-microtubules, and kinesin's velocity is enhanced in the presence of 4-repeat long Tau but not the 3-repeat short isoform. These results shed new light on the potential role of Tau in the regulation of axonal transport, which is more complex than previously recognized. PMID:22039058

  7. Loop formation of microtubules during gliding at high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lynn; Tüzel, Erkan; Ross, Jennifer L.

    2011-09-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton, including the associated proteins, forms a complex network essential to multiple cellular processes. Microtubule-associated motor proteins, such as kinesin-1, travel on microtubules to transport membrane bound vesicles across the crowded cell. Other motors, such as cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-5, are used to organize the cytoskeleton during mitosis. In order to understand the self-organization processes of motors on microtubules, we performed filament-gliding assays with kinesin-1 motors bound to the cover glass with a high density of microtubules on the surface. To observe microtubule organization, 3% of the microtubules were fluorescently labeled to serve as tracers. We find that microtubules in these assays are not confined to two dimensions and can cross one other. This causes microtubules to align locally with a relatively short correlation length. At high density, this local alignment is enough to create 'intersections' of perpendicularly oriented groups of microtubules. These intersections create vortices that cause microtubules to form loops. We characterize the radius of curvature and time duration of the loops. These different behaviors give insight into how crowded conditions, such as those in the cell, might affect motor behavior and cytoskeleton organization.

  8. Hook Adaptors Induce Unidirectional Processive Motility by Enhancing the Dynein-Dynactin Interaction.

    PubMed

    Olenick, Mara A; Tokito, Mariko; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Dominguez, Roberto; Holzbaur, Erika L F

    2016-08-26

    Cytoplasmic dynein drives the majority of minus end-directed vesicular and organelle motility in the cell. However, it remains unclear how dynein is spatially and temporally regulated given the variety of cargo that must be properly localized to maintain cellular function. Recent work has suggested that adaptor proteins provide a mechanism for cargo-specific regulation of motors. Of particular interest, studies in fungal systems have implicated Hook proteins in the regulation of microtubule motors. Here we investigate the role of mammalian Hook proteins, Hook1 and Hook3, as potential motor adaptors. We used optogenetic approaches to specifically recruit Hook proteins to organelles and observed rapid transport of peroxisomes to the perinuclear region of the cell. This rapid and efficient translocation of peroxisomes to microtubule minus ends indicates that mammalian Hook proteins activate dynein rather than kinesin motors. Biochemical studies indicate that Hook proteins interact with both dynein and dynactin, stabilizing the formation of a supramolecular complex. Complex formation requires the N-terminal domain of Hook proteins, which resembles the calponin-homology domain of end-binding (EB) proteins but cannot bind directly to microtubules. Single-molecule motility assays using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy indicate that both Hook1 and Hook3 effectively activate cytoplasmic dynein, inducing longer run lengths and higher velocities than the previously characterized dynein activator bicaudal D2 (BICD2). Together, these results suggest that dynein adaptors can differentially regulate dynein to allow for organelle-specific tuning of the motor for precise intracellular trafficking. PMID:27365401

  9. Measuring the Dynamic Parameters of MCF7 Cell Microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winton, Carly; Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra

    2013-03-01

    Microtubules are the key component of the cytoskeleton. They are intrinsically dynamic displaying dynamic instability in which they randomly switch between a phase of growing and shrinking, both in vitro and in vivo. This dynamic is specified by the following parameters: growing rate, shrinking rate, frequency of catastrophe, and frequency of rescue. In this work, we will present our primary results in which we measured the dynamic parameters of a single microtubule polymerized from MCF7 tubulin in vitro. The results are significant since the MCF7 microtubules are non-neural mammalian consisting of different beta tubulin isotypes in their structures as compared to neural mammalian microtubules, such as bovine brain. The unique dynamic parameters of individual MCF7 microtubules in vitro, which are reported for the first time, indicate that non-neural microtubules can be fundamentally different from neural microtubules.

  10. Environmental and Endogenous Control of Cortical Microtubule Orientation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Zengyu; Friml, Jiří

    2016-06-01

    Plant growth requires a tight coordination of cell shape and anisotropic expansion. Owing to their immobility, plant cells determine body architecture through the orientation of cell division and cell expansion. Microtubule cytoskeleton represents a versatile cellular structure essential for coordinating flexible cell morphogenesis. Previous studies have identified a large number of microtubule-associated regulators that control microtubule dynamics; however, the mechanisms by which microtubule reorientation responds to exogenous and environmental stimuli are largely unknown. In this review, we describe the molecular details of microtubule dynamics that are required for cortical microtubule array pattern formation, and recapitulate current knowledge on the mechanisms by which various environmental and endogenous stimuli control cortical microtubule reorientation. PMID:26951762

  11. Organization and energy-dependent growth of microtubules in cells.

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, F R

    1976-01-01

    The organization and growth of microtubules in cultured mouse macrophages and fibroblasts were examined by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to microtubule protein. In macrophages, microtubules converged at a samll region at the cytocenter. During depolymerization, and repolymerization, this region acted as a microtubule organizing center. Microtubule growth was energy-dependent, but unaffected by dibutyryl-adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate, cholera toxin, or dibutyryl-guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate. Fibroblasts, which did not show such a simple microtubule organization as macrophages, contained mainly one or two, but occasionally as many as four, organizing centers during repolymerization. These microtubule organizing centers often appeared as fluorescent rings with a dark center. Images PMID:785472

  12. Motile properties of the bi-directional kinesin-5 Cin8 are affected by phosphorylation in its motor domain

    PubMed Central

    Shapira, Ofer; Gheber, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinesin-5 Cin8 performs essential mitotic functions in spindle assembly and anaphase B spindle elongation. Recent work has shown that Cin8 is a bi-directional motor which moves towards the minus-end of microtubules (MTs) under high ionic strength (IS) conditions and changes directionality in low IS conditions and when bound between anti-parallel microtubules. Previous work from our laboratory has also indicated that Cin8 is differentially phosphorylated during late anaphase at cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)-specific sites located in its motor domain. In vivo, such phosphorylation causes Cin8 detachment from spindles and reduces the spindle elongation rate, while maintaining proper spindle morphology. To study the effect of phosphorylation on Cin8 motor function, we examined in vitro motile properties of wild type Cin8, as well as its phosphorylation using phospho-deficient and phospho-mimic variants, in a single molecule fluorescence motility assay. Analysis was performed on whole cell extracts and on purified Cin8 samples. We found that addition of negative charges in the phospho-mimic mutant weakened the MT-motor interaction, increased motor velocity and promoted minus-end-directed motility. These results indicate that phosphorylation in the catalytic domain of Cin8 regulates its motor function. PMID:27216310

  13. Mechanism of Actin-Based Motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantaloni, Dominique; Le Clainche, Christophe; Carlier, Marie-France

    2001-05-01

    Spatially controlled polymerization of actin is at the origin of cell motility and is responsible for the formation of cellular protrusions like lamellipodia. The pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri, which undergo actin-based propulsion, are acknowledged models of the leading edge of lamellipodia. Actin-based motility of the bacteria or of functionalized microspheres can be reconstituted in vitro from only five pure proteins. Movement results from the regulated site-directed treadmilling of actin filaments, consistent with observations of actin dynamics in living motile cells and with the biochemical properties of the components of the synthetic motility medium.

  14. Role of tau in the spatial organization of axonal microtubules: keeping parallel microtubules evenly distributed despite macromolecular crowding.

    PubMed

    Méphon-Gaspard, Alix; Boca, Mirela; Pioche-Durieu, Catherine; Desforges, Bénédicte; Burgo, Andrea; Hamon, Loic; Piétrement, Olivier; Pastré, David

    2016-10-01

    Opposing views have been proposed regarding the role of tau, the principal microtubule-associated protein in axons. On the one hand, tau forms cross-bridges at the interface between microtubules and induces microtubule bundling in neurons. On the other hand, tau is also considered a polymer brush which efficiently separates microtubules. In mature axons, microtubules are indeed arranged in parallel arrays and are well separated from each other. To reconcile these views, we developed a mechanistic model based on in vitro and cellular approaches combined to analytical and numerical analyses. The results indicate that tau forms long-range cross-bridges between microtubules under macromolecular crowding conditions. Tau cross-bridges prevent the redistribution of tau away from the interface between microtubules, which would have occurred in the polymer brush model. Consequently, the short-range attractive force between microtubules induced by macromolecular crowding is avoided and thus microtubules remain well separated from each other. Interestingly, in this unified model, tau diffusion on microtubules enables to keep microtubules evenly distributed in axonal sections at low tau levels. PMID:27076215

  15. Reversal of axonal growth defects in an extraocular fibrosis model by engineering the kinesin–microtubule interface

    PubMed Central

    Minoura, Itsushi; Takazaki, Hiroko; Ayukawa, Rie; Saruta, Chihiro; Hachikubo, You; Uchimura, Seiichi; Hida, Tomonobu; Kamiguchi, Hiroyuki; Shimogori, Tomomi; Muto, Etsuko

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in human β3-tubulin (TUBB3) cause an ocular motility disorder termed congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3 (CFEOM3). In CFEOM3, the oculomotor nervous system develops abnormally due to impaired axon guidance and maintenance; however, the underlying mechanism linking TUBB3 mutations to axonal growth defects remains unclear. Here, we investigate microtubule (MT)-based motility in vitro using MTs formed with recombinant TUBB3. We find that the disease-associated TUBB3 mutations R262H and R262A impair the motility and ATPase activity of the kinesin motor. Engineering a mutation in the L12 loop of kinesin surprisingly restores a normal level of motility and ATPase activity on MTs carrying the R262A mutation. Moreover, in a CFEOM3 mouse model expressing the same mutation, overexpressing the suppressor mutant kinesin restores axonal growth in vivo. Collectively, these findings establish the critical role of the TUBB3-R262 residue for mediating kinesin interaction, which in turn is required for normal axonal growth and brain development. PMID:26775887

  16. The Microtubule Regulatory Protein Stathmin Is Required to Maintain the Integrity of Axonal Microtubules in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Jason E.; Lytle, Nikki K.; Zuniga, Alfredo; Goldstein, Lawrence S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Axonal transport, a form of long-distance, bi-directional intracellular transport that occurs between the cell body and synaptic terminal, is critical in maintaining the function and viability of neurons. We have identified a requirement for the stathmin (stai) gene in the maintenance of axonal microtubules and regulation of axonal transport in Drosophila. The stai gene encodes a cytosolic phosphoprotein that regulates microtubule dynamics by partitioning tubulin dimers between pools of soluble tubulin and polymerized microtubules, and by directly binding to microtubules and promoting depolymerization. Analysis of stai function in Drosophila, which has a single stai gene, circumvents potential complications with studies performed in vertebrate systems in which mutant phenotypes may be compensated by genetic redundancy of other members of the stai gene family. This has allowed us to identify an essential function for stai in the maintenance of the integrity of axonal microtubules. In addition to the severe disruption in the abundance and architecture of microtubules in the axons of stai mutant Drosophila, we also observe additional neurological phenotypes associated with loss of stai function including a posterior paralysis and tail-flip phenotype in third instar larvae, aberrant accumulation of transported membranous organelles in stai deficient axons, a progressive bang-sensitive response to mechanical stimulation reminiscent of the class of Drosophila mutants used to model human epileptic seizures, and a reduced adult lifespan. Reductions in the levels of Kinesin-1, the primary anterograde motor in axonal transport, enhance these phenotypes. Collectively, our results indicate that stai has an important role in neuronal function, likely through the maintenance of microtubule integrity in the axons of nerves of the peripheral nervous system necessary to support and sustain long-distance axonal transport. PMID:23840848

  17. Nucleation and Dynamics of Golgi-derived Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Anna A. W. M.; Kaverina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Integrity of the Golgi apparatus requires the microtubule (MT) network. A subset of MTs originates at the Golgi itself, which in this case functions as a MT-organizing center (MTOC). Golgi-derived MTs serve important roles in post-Golgi trafficking, maintenance of Golgi integrity, cell polarity and motility, as well as cell type-specific functions, including neurite outgrowth/branching. Here, we discuss possible models describing the formation and dynamics of Golgi-derived MTs. How Golgi-derived MTs are formed is not fully understood. A widely discussed model implicates that the critical step of the process is recruitment of molecular factors, which drive MT nucleation (γ-tubulin ring complex, or γ-TuRC), to the Golgi membrane via specific scaffolding interactions. Based on recent findings, we propose to introduce an additional level of regulation, whereby MT-binding proteins and/or local tubulin dimer concentration at the Golgi helps to overcome kinetic barriers at the initial nucleation step. According to our model, emerging MTs are subsequently stabilized by Golgi-associated MT-stabilizing proteins. We discuss molecular factors potentially involved in all three steps of MT formation. To preserve proper cell functioning, a balance must be maintained between MT subsets at the centrosome and the Golgi. Recent work has shown that certain centrosomal factors are important in maintaining this balance, suggesting a close connection between regulation of centrosomal and Golgi-derived MTs. Finally, we will discuss potential functions of Golgi-derived MTs based on their nucleation site location within a Golgi stack. PMID:26617483

  18. Catch and release: How do kinetochores hook the right microtubules during mitosis?

    PubMed Central

    Sarangapani, Krishna K.; Asbury, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Sport fishermen keep tension on their lines to prevent hooked fish from releasing. A molecular version of this angler’s trick, operating at kinetochores, ensures accuracy during mitosis: The mitotic spindle attaches randomly to chromosomes and then correctly bioriented attachments are stabilized due to the tension exerted on them by opposing microtubules. Incorrect attachments, which lack tension, are unstable and release quickly, allowing another chance for biorientation. Stabilization of molecular interactions by tension also occurs in other physiological contexts such as cell adhesion, motility, hemostasis, and tissue morphogenesis. Here we review models for the stabilization of kinetochore attachments with an eye toward emerging models for other force-activated systems. While attention in the mitosis field has focused mainly on one kinase-based mechanism, multiple mechanisms may act together to stabilize properly bioriented kinetochores and some principles governing other tension-sensitive systems may apply to kinetochores as well. PMID:24631209

  19. Distinct roles of doublecortin modulating the microtubule cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Moores, Carolyn A; Perderiset, Mylène; Kappeler, Caroline; Kain, Susan; Drummond, Douglas; Perkins, Stephen J; Chelly, Jamel; Cross, Rob; Houdusse, Anne; Francis, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    Doublecortin is a neuronal microtubule-stabilising protein, mutations of which cause mental retardation and epilepsy in humans. How doublecortin influences microtubule dynamics, and thereby brain development, is unclear. We show here by video microscopy that purified doublecortin has no effect on the growth rate of microtubules. However, it is a potent anti-catastrophe factor that stabilises microtubules by linking adjacent protofilaments and counteracting their outward bending in depolymerising microtubules. We show that doublecortin-stabilised microtubules are substrates for kinesin translocase motors and for depolymerase kinesins. In addition, doublecortin does not itself oligomerise and does not bind to tubulin heterodimers but does nucleate microtubules. In cells, doublecortin is enriched at the distal ends of neuronal processes and our data raise the possibility that the function of doublecortin in neurons is to drive assembly and stabilisation of non-centrosomal microtubules in these doublecortin-enriched distal zones. These distinct properties combine to give doublecortin a unique function in microtubule regulation, a role that cannot be compensated for by other microtubule-stabilising proteins and nucleating factors. PMID:16957770

  20. Neurodegeneration and microtubule dynamics: death by a thousand cuts

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Jyoti; Ratnakaran, Neena; Koushika, Sandhya P.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules form important cytoskeletal structures that play a role in establishing and maintaining neuronal polarity, regulating neuronal morphology, transporting cargo, and scaffolding signaling molecules to form signaling hubs. Within a neuronal cell, microtubules are found to have variable lengths and can be both stable and dynamic. Microtubule associated proteins, post-translational modifications of tubulin subunits, microtubule severing enzymes, and signaling molecules are all known to influence both stable and dynamic pools of microtubules. Microtubule dynamics, the process of interconversion between stable and dynamic pools, and the proportions of these two pools have the potential to influence a wide variety of cellular processes. Reduced microtubule stability has been observed in several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and tauopathies like Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. Hyperstable microtubules, as seen in Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP), also lead to neurodegeneration. Therefore, the ratio of stable and dynamic microtubules is likely to be important for neuronal function and perturbation in microtubule dynamics might contribute to disease progression. PMID:26441521

  1. An assay to image neuronal microtubule dynamics in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kleele, Tatjana; Marinković, Petar; Williams, Philip R.; Stern, Sina; Weigand, Emily E.; Engerer, Peter; Naumann, Ronald; Hartmann, Jana; Karl, Rosa M.; Bradke, Frank; Bishop, Derron; Herms, Jochen; Konnerth, Arthur; Kerschensteiner, Martin; Godinho, Leanne; Misgeld, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics in neurons play critical roles in physiology, injury and disease and determine microtubule orientation, the cell biological correlate of neurite polarization. Several microtubule binding proteins, including end-binding protein 3 (EB3), specifically bind to the growing plus tip of microtubules. In the past, fluorescently tagged end-binding proteins have revealed microtubule dynamics in vitro and in non-mammalian model organisms. Here, we devise an imaging assay based on transgenic mice expressing yellow fluorescent protein-tagged EB3 to study microtubules in intact mammalian neurites. Our approach allows measurement of microtubule dynamics in vivo and ex vivo in peripheral nervous system and central nervous system neurites under physiological conditions and after exposure to microtubule-modifying drugs. We find an increase in dynamic microtubules after injury and in neurodegenerative disease states, before axons show morphological indications of degeneration or regrowth. Thus increased microtubule dynamics might serve as a general indicator of neurite remodelling in health and disease. PMID:25219969

  2. Resolving bundled microtubules using anti-tubulin nanobodies.

    PubMed

    Mikhaylova, Marina; Cloin, Bas M C; Finan, Kieran; van den Berg, Robert; Teeuw, Jalmar; Kijanka, Marta M; Sokolowski, Mikolaj; Katrukha, Eugene A; Maidorn, Manuel; Opazo, Felipe; Moutel, Sandrine; Vantard, Marylin; Perez, Frank; van Bergen en Henegouwen, Paul M P; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Ewers, Helge; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are hollow biopolymers of 25-nm diameter and are key constituents of the cytoskeleton. In neurons, microtubules are organized differently between axons and dendrites, but their precise organization in different compartments is not completely understood. Super-resolution microscopy techniques can detect specific structures at an increased resolution, but the narrow spacing between neuronal microtubules poses challenges because most existing labelling strategies increase the effective microtubule diameter by 20-40 nm and will thereby blend neighbouring microtubules into one structure. Here we develop single-chain antibody fragments (nanobodies) against tubulin to achieve super-resolution imaging of microtubules with a decreased apparent diameter. To test the resolving power of these novel probes, we generate microtubule bundles with a known spacing of 50-70 nm and successfully resolve individual microtubules. Individual bundled microtubules can also be resolved in different mammalian cells, including hippocampal neurons, allowing novel insights into fundamental mechanisms of microtubule organization in cell- and neurobiology. PMID:26260773

  3. Molecular mechanisms of kinetochore capture by spindle microtubules.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kozo; Mukae, Naomi; Dewar, Hilary; van Breugel, Mark; James, Euan K; Prescott, Alan R; Antony, Claude; Tanaka, Tomoyuki U

    2005-04-21

    For high-fidelity chromosome segregation, kinetochores must be properly captured by spindle microtubules, but the mechanisms underlying initial kinetochore capture have remained elusive. Here we visualized individual kinetochore-microtubule interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by regulating the activity of a centromere. Kinetochores are captured by the side of microtubules extending from spindle poles, and are subsequently transported poleward along them. The microtubule extension from spindle poles requires microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins and the Ran GDP/GTP exchange factor. Distinct kinetochore components are used for kinetochore capture by microtubules and for ensuring subsequent sister kinetochore bi-orientation on the spindle. Kar3, a kinesin-14 family member, is one of the regulators that promote transport of captured kinetochores along microtubules. During such transport, kinetochores ensure that they do not slide off their associated microtubules by facilitating the conversion of microtubule dynamics from shrinkage to growth at the plus ends. This conversion is promoted by the transport of Stu2 from the captured kinetochores to the plus ends of microtubules. PMID:15846338

  4. Targeting, Capture, and Stabilization of Microtubules at Early Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Kaverina, Irina; Rottner, Klemens; Small, J. Victor

    1998-01-01

    By co-injecting fluorescent tubulin and vinculin into fish fibroblasts we have revealed a “cross talk” between microtubules and early sites of substrate contact. This mutuality was first indicated by the targeting of vinculin-rich foci by microtubules during their growth towards the cell periphery. In addition to passing directly over contact sites, the ends of single microtubules could be observed to target several contacts in succession or the same contact repetitively, with intermittent withdrawals. Targeting sometimes involved side-stepping, or the major re-routing of a microtubule, indicative of a guided, rather than a random process. The paths that microtubules followed into contacts were unrelated to the orientation of stress fiber assemblies and targeting occurred also in mouse fibroblasts that lacked a system of intermediate filaments. Further experiments with microtubule inhibitors showed that adhesion foci can: (a) capture microtubules and stabilize them against disassembly by nocodazole; and (b), act as preferred sites of microtubule polymerization, during either early recovery from nocodazole, or brief treatment with taxol. From these and other findings we speculate that microtubules are guided into substrate contact sites and through the motor-dependent delivery of signaling molecules serve to modulate their development. It is further proposed this modulation provides the route whereby microtubules exert their influence on cell shape and polarity. PMID:9660872

  5. Molecular architecture of the Dam1 complex–microtubule interaction

    PubMed Central

    Legal, Thibault; Zou, Juan; Sochaj, Alicja; Rappsilber, Juri

    2016-01-01

    Mitosis is a highly regulated process that allows the equal distribution of the genetic material to the daughter cells. Chromosome segregation requires the formation of a bipolar mitotic spindle and assembly of a multi-protein structure termed the kinetochore to mediate attachments between condensed chromosomes and spindle microtubules. In budding yeast, a single microtubule attaches to each kinetochore, necessitating robustness and processivity of this kinetochore–microtubule attachment. The yeast kinetochore-localized Dam1 complex forms a direct interaction with the spindle microtubule. In vitro, the Dam1 complex assembles as a ring around microtubules and couples microtubule depolymerization with cargo movement. However, the subunit organization within the Dam1 complex, its higher-order oligomerization and how it interacts with microtubules remain under debate. Here, we used chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry to define the architecture and subunit organization of the Dam1 complex. This work reveals that both the C termini of Duo1 and Dam1 subunits interact with the microtubule and are critical for microtubule binding of the Dam1 complex, placing Duo1 and Dam1 on the inside of the ring structure. Integrating this information with available structural data, we provide a coherent model for how the Dam1 complex self-assembles around microtubules. PMID:26962051

  6. Size scaling of microtubule asters in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, James; Field, Christine; Krutkramelis, Kaspars; Fakhri, Nikta; Oakey, John; Gatlin, Jay; Mitchison, Timothy

    Microtubule asters are radial arrays of microtubules (MTs) nucleated around organizing centers (MTOCs). Across a wide range of cell types and sizes, aster positioning influences cellular organization. To investigate aster size and positioning, we reconstituted dynamic asters in Xenopus cytoplasmic extract, confined in fluorous oil microfluidic emulsions. In large droplets, we observed centering of MTOCs. In small droplets, we observed a breakdown in natural positioning, with MTOCs at the droplet edge and buckled or bundled MTs along the interface. In different systems, asters are positioned by different forces, such as pushing due to MT polymerization, or pulling due to bulk or cortical dynein. To estimate different contributions to aster positioning, we biochemically perturbed dynactin function, or MT or actin polymerization. We used carbon nanotubes to measure molecular motions and forces in asters. These experimental results inform quantitative biophysical models of aster size and positioning in confinement. JFP was supported by a Fannie and John Hertz Graduate Fellowship.

  7. Dynamic Concentration of Motors in Microtubule Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nédélec, François; Surrey, Thomas; Maggs, A. C.

    2001-04-01

    We present experimental and theoretical studies of the dynamics of molecular motors in microtubule arrays and asters. By solving a convection-diffusion equation we find that the density profile of motors in a two-dimensional aster is characterized by continuously varying exponents. Simulations are used to verify the assumptions of the continuum model. We observe the concentration profiles of kinesin moving in quasi-two-dimensional artificial asters by fluorescent microscopy and compare with our theoretical results.

  8. Self-organization of microtubules and motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndlec, F. J.; Surrey, T.; Maggs, A. C.; Leibler, S.

    1997-09-01

    Cellular structures are established and maintained through a dynamic interplay between assembly and regulatory processes. Self-organization of molecular components provides a variety of possible spatial structures: the regulatory machinery chooses the most appropriate to express a given cellular function. Here we study the extent and the characteristics of self-organization using microtubules and molecular motors as a model system. These components are known to participate in the formation of many cellular structures, such as the dynamic asters found in mitotic and meiotic spindles. Purified motors and microtubules have previously been observed to form asters in vitro. We have reproduced this result with a simple system consisting solely of multi-headed constructs of the motor protein kinesin and stabilized microtubules. We show that dynamic asters can also be obtained from a homogeneous solution of tubulin and motors. By varying the relative concentrations of the components, we obtain a variety of self-organized structures. Further, by studying this process in a constrained geometry of micro-fabricated glass chambers, we demonstrate that the same final structure can be reached through different assembly `pathways'.

  9. Role of Microtubules in Stress Granule Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Chernov, Konstantin G.; Barbet, Aurélie; Hamon, Loic; Ovchinnikov, Lev P.; Curmi, Patrick A.; Pastré, David

    2009-01-01

    Following exposure to various stresses (arsenite, UV, hyperthermia, and hypoxia), mRNAs are assembled into large cytoplasmic bodies known as “stress granules,” in which mRNAs and associated proteins may be processed by specific enzymes for different purposes like transient storing, sorting, silencing, or other still unknown processes. To limit mRNA damage during stress, the assembly of micrometric granules has to be rapid, and, indeed, it takes only ∼10–20 min in living cells. However, such a rapid assembly breaks the rules of hindered diffusion in the cytoplasm, which states that large cytoplasmic bodies are almost immobile. In the present work, using HeLa cells and YB-1 protein as a stress granule marker, we studied three hypotheses to understand how cells overcome the limitation of hindered diffusion: shuttling of small messenger ribonucleoprotein particles from small to large stress granules, sliding of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles along microtubules, microtubule-mediated stirring of large stress granules. Our data favor the two last hypotheses and underline that microtubule dynamic instability favors the formation of micrometric stress granules. PMID:19843517

  10. High EGFR_1 Inside-Out Activated Inflammation-Induced Motility through SLC2A1-CCNB2-HMMR-KIF11-NUSAP1-PRC1-UBE2C.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huilei; Wang, Lin; Huang, Juxiang; Jiang, Minghu; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Liyuan; Wang, Yangming; Jiang, Zhenfu; Zhang, Zhongjie

    2015-01-01

    48 different Pearson mutual-positive-correlation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR_1)-activatory molecular feedback, up- and down-stream network was constructed from 171 overlapping of 366 GRNInfer and 223 Pearson under EGFR_1 CC ≥0.25 in high lung adenocarcinoma compared with low human normal adjacent tissues. Our identified EGFR_1 inside-out upstream activated molecular network showed SLC2A1 (solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 1), CCNB2 (cyclin B2), HMMR (hyaluronan-mediated motility receptor (RHAMM)), KIF11 (kinesin family member 11), NUSAP1 (nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1), PRC1 (protein regulator of cytokinesis 1), UBE2C (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C) in high lung adenocarcinoma. EGFR_1 inside-out upstream activated terms network includes intracellular, membrane fraction, cytoplasm, plasma membrane, integral to membrane, basolateral plasma membrane, transmembrane transport, nucleus, cytosol, cell surface; T cell homeostasis, inflammation; microtubule cytoskeleton, embryonic development (sensu Mammalia), cell cycle, mitosis, thymus development, cell division, regulation of cell cycle, Contributed--cellular process--Hs cell cycle KEGG, cytokinesis, M phase, M phase of mitotic cell cycle, estrogen-responsive protein Efp controls cell cycle and breast tumors growth, cell motility, locomotion, locomotory behavior, neoplasm metastasis, spindle pole, spindle microtubule, microtubule motor activity, microtubule-based movement, mitotic spindle organization and biogenesis, mitotic centrosome separation, spindle pole body organization and biogenesis, microtubule-based process, microtubule, cytokinesis after mitosis, mitotic chromosome condensation, establishment of mitotic spindle localization, positive regulation of mitosis, mitotic spindle elongation, spindle organization and biogenesis, positive regulation of exit from mitosis, regulation of cell proliferation, positive regulation of cell proliferation based on